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Sample records for repair cross-complementation group

  1. Expression of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 as Predictive Marker for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jong-Mu; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Hui-Young; Ahn, Jin Seok; Lee, Seungkoo; Kang, Gu; Han, Joungho; Son, Young-Ik; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keunchil

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. The expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been reported to be associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We evaluated whether ERCC1 expression could predict the treatment response and survival outcome of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who were treated with cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of ERCC1 in nasopharyngeal tumor tissue. Patients were categorized into either a resistant or sensitive group depending on their treatment response outcome. A total of 77 patients were assessed in the present study. Results: The resistant and sensitive groups included 25 and 52 patients, respectively. ERCC1 expression was positive in the tumor tissue for 39 of the 77 patients (51%). Significantly more ERCC1-negative tumors were in the sensitive group than in the resistant group (p = .035). In terms of survival outcome, univariate analysis determined that patients with ERCC1-negative tumors had longer disease-free survival (p = .076) and overall survival (p = .013) than patients with ERCC1-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis determined that negative ERCC expression in tumors was an independent predictor for prolonged overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.71). Conclusion: These results suggest that ERCC1 expression might be a useful predictive marker in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who are under consideration for cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

  2. Heterogeneity of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 gene expression in non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    SMIRNOV, SERHEY; PASHKEVICH, ANASTASIYA; LIUNDYSHEVA, VALERIYA; BABENKO, ANDREY; SMOLYAKOVA, RAISA

    2015-01-01

    Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) gene expression analysis is currently used widely in the molecular diagnosis of cancer. According to numerous studies, ERCC1 gene expression correlates with overall survival and effectiveness of chemotherapy with platinum agents. However, the degree of this correlation differs among various studies, with certain authors reporting a complete lack of such a correlation. These contradictions may be attributed to a number of factors, including the heterogeneity of the tumor tissue. In this study, we attempted to assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity exhibited by tissue samples obtained from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through the expression of the ERCC1 gene. This study included 25 samples of tumor tissue from patients with a morphologically confirmed NSCLC diagnosis. A total of three randomized sections of each specimen were used. The ERCC1 gene expression was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the TaqMan format. When planning the experiment and analysis of qPCR data, the MIQE guidelines were taken into consideration. We established that the coefficient of variation of the relative level of ERCC1 gene expression in the majority of the samples exceeded 33% (P<0.05), indicating the significant heterogeneity of the sample. We also demonstrated that the degree of heterogeneity of the tumor tissue is largely dependent on disease stage. PMID:25469300

  3. Association between x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) genetic polymorphisms and papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Huo, Meiling; Sun, Yong; Wu, Hongyan; Chen, Hongqiang; Wang, Yulong; Fu, Rongzhan

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a predominant type of thyroid cancer. Ionizing radiation is the only well-established risk factor and may result in double-strand breaks. The x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene plays a vital role in DNA repair through homologous recombination. We aimed at investigating the association between XRCC3 genetic polymorphisms and PTC susceptibility. Eighty-three PTC patients and 367 controls in a Chinese population were enrolled in the study. Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by HaploView 4.2 software. Genomic DNAs were isolated from peripheral blood samples by using TaqMan Blood DNA kits. The genotyping of XRCC3 SNPs was performed by TaqMan SNPs genotyping assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between XRCC3 SNPs and PTC susceptibility. The statistical analyses were conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Four tag-SNPs were initially identified by HaploView 4.2 software. Only one SNP (rs861539) was shown to be significantly associated with increased risk of PTC. There was a significant difference in smoking and drinking status between PTC cases and controls. And the stratified analysis suggested that the polymorphisms of rs861539 in XRCC3 were correlated with PTC risk in the four subgroups of smokers (ex-smokers included), non-smokers, drinkers (ex-drinkers included), and non-drinkers. The meta-analysis showed that only two studies reported a significant association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and PTC risk. In this study, we find a significant association between rs861539 polymorphisms and PTC susceptibility. However, there were inconsistent results in previous published studies. Therefore, further studies in a large population are required to gain insights into the PTC risk conferred by XRCC3 SNPs. PMID:26264616

  4. Expression of the excision repair gene, ERCC3 (excision repair cross-complementing), during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Hubank, M; Mayne, L

    1994-08-12

    Expression of the human ERCC3 (excision repair cross-complementing) gene in cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group B (XP-B) corrects the defect in repair of UV light-induced DNA damage. XP-B is one of three groups of XP which exhibit the clinical symptoms of both XP and Cockayne's Syndrome (CS). CS and XP-B/CS patients develop severe neurological dysfunction during development. In order to explore the link between the defective gene and the neurological deficits in XP/CS, we have studied the expression of ERCC3 mRNA in developing mice by in situ hybridisation. ERCC3 was found to be ubiquitously expressed in cells from all regions and all developmental stages, from 9 day post-coitum embryo, to 15 day post-natal brain. In post-natal brain, regional differences in expression correlated with cell density and there was no evidence of cell specific or developmental alterations in levels of expression. These results indicate that the constitutively expressed gene does not perform a discrete developmental function. The neurological defects apparent in XP-B are likely to arise pleiotypically from the participation of ERCC3 in interactions with other elements involved in particular aspects of neurodevelopmental control. These results emphasise the developmental importance of genes whose primary functions are apparently unconnected with development. PMID:7805288

  5. Predictive and Prognostic Value of Ribonucleotide Reductase Regulatory Subunit M1 and Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) Treated with First-Line Gemcitabine Plus Platinum Combination Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miso; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Lee, Eunsik; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Se-Hoon; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that expression of ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M1 (RRM1) and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is associated with resistance to gemcitabine and cisplatin, respectively. We evaluated the significance of RRM1 and ERCC1 expression to predict tumor response to gemcitabine plus platinum chemotherapy (GP) and survival in advanced UC. We retrospectively collected tumor samples and reviewed clinical data of 53 patients with unresectable or metastatic UC, who were treated with first-line GP. RRM1 and ERCC1 expression were measured by immunohistochemistry. Among 53 patients, 12 (22.6%) and 26 (49.1%) patients had tumors that demonstrated a high expression for RRM1 and ERCC1, respectively. Twenty-nine (70.7%) of 41 patients with low RRM1 expression achieved a clinical response (complete + partial responses), but only 3 (25.0%) of 12 patients with high RRM1 expression achieved a clinical response after GP (P=0.007). Nineteen (70.4%) of 27 patients with low ERCC1 expression achieved a clinical response, while 13 (50.0%) of 26 patients with high ERCC1 expression achieved a clinical response (P=0.130). High RRM1 expression was associated with shorter progression free survival and overall survival (PFS P=0.006, OS P=0.006). Multivariate analysis confirmed that patients with high RRM1 expression had a significantly greater risk of progression and death than those with low RRM1 expression. ERCC1 status was not a significant predictor for PFS and OS. RRM1 expression was predictive and prognostic of clinical outcome in advanced UC treated with gemcitabine plus platinum combination chemotherapy.

  6. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa(R), ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. PMID:25662161

  7. Curcumin downregulates p38 MAPK-dependent X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 (XRCC1) expression to enhance cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chen, Wen-Ching; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chang, Po-Yuan; Liao, Kai-Sheng; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Cisplatin is a well-studied and widely used chemotherapeutic agent and is effective in the treatment of the advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Curcumin is a yellow pigment derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has been proved to have antioxidant and antitumor properties. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein involved in base excision repair and plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. In this study, we characterize the role of curcumin in the cytotoxicity, p38 MAPK activation, and XRCC1 expression affected by cisplatin in NSCLC cells. We show that curcumin enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with cisplatin alone increased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through p38 MAPK activation. Moreover, SB2023580 (p38 inhibitor) decreased the XRCC1 mRNA and protein stability upon cisplatin treatment. Knockdown of XRCC1 in NSCLC cells by transfection of XRCC1 siRNA or inactivation of p38 MAPK resulted in enhancing the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition induced by cisplatin. Curcumin inhibited the expression of XRCC1 in cisplatin-exposed NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK6 or HA-p38 MAPK vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level and also the cell survival suppressed by cisplatin and curcumin combination in A549 and H1703 cells. These findings suggested that the downregulation of XRCC1 expression by curcumin can enhance the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells. PMID:27026405

  8. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  9. Clinicopathologic Significance of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation 1 Expression in Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Sharad; Yang Qifeng

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays a rate-limiting role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and is associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in cancers of the head and neck and the lung. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of ERCC1 expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: Paraffin specimens from 504 women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy were constructed into tissue microarrays. The array was stained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and ERCC1. This was then correlated with clinicopathologic factors and outcomes data. Results: ERCC-1 expression was evaluable in 366 cases (72%). In this group, 32% and 38% of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, respectively. Increased ERCC-1 expression was found to be correlated with ER positivity (p < 0.005), lower T stage (p < 0.017), nodal negativity (p < 0.013), age >50 (p < 0.006), reduced use of adjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.02), and increased use of adjuvant hormonal therapy (p < 0.004). ERCC1 expression did not correlate with locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, cause-specific survival, or overall survival. In patients who were both ERCC1-negative and -positive, the use of chemotherapy predicted for worse distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.07, respectively) but not cause-specific survival or overall survival. Conclusions: Although ERCC1 expression did not predict for outcome measures in this dataset, overexpression correlated with favorable prognostic factors such as ER positivity, lower T stage, nodal negativity, and age >50. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating ERCC1 expression in patients receiving adjuvant radiation

  10. In silico study of effects of polymorphisms on biophysical chemical properties of oxidized N-terminal domain of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Mehrzad, J; Monajjemi, M; Hashemi, M

    2014-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway involved in removal of endogenous and mutagen-induced DNA damage. The X-ray cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), which participates in BER, is a scaffolding protein. The oxidized XRCC1 N-terminal domain (NTD) forms additional interactions with DNA polymerase β (Pol β). Any change in the residues of a protein (XRCC1, XRCC4, etc.) may alter its stability and function. Many coding regions of genes have single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change the conformation of their products, and they are probably involved in some diseases. The R7L and R107H mutations are located in the XRCC1-NTD. In the present study, biophysical chemical properties of oxidized XRCC1-NTD (wild type or mutants) were investigated at different temperatures (290, 295, 298, 301, 304, 309, 310, 311, and 312 K) in water using in silico molecular mechanic computational methods. Comparison of the average calculated potential energies of oxidized XRCC1-NTD reveals that the R7L mutation increases stability, but the R107H and R7L&R107H mutations are destabilizing. Therefore, mutant types of this protein (R107H or R7L&R107H) may not function correctly. Furthermore, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of oxidized XRCC1-NTD and docking assay showed that the R7L mutation is advantageous but the R107H and R7L&R107H mutations are disadvantageous for XRCC1-NTD, and in the latter cases it cannot interact with Pol β as well as the wild type does. Hence, DNA repair may be defective. Also, using the equation dE = ∂Ε/(∂Τ)V·dT + ∂Ε/(∂V)T·dV, it was determined that the best temperature for normal activity of oxidized XRCC1-NTD is exactly the natural body temperature (310 K).

  11. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) expression in esophageal cancers and response to cisplatin and irinotecan based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bharthuar, Anubha; Black, Jennifer D.; Levea, Charles; Malhotra, Usha; Mashtare, Terry L.; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer patients face a dismal outcome despite tri-modality management and median survival remains 15-18 months. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux protein associated with chemotherapy resistance. The role of BCRP expression in esophageal cancer and normal esophageal cells is not known. Excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) overexpression has been correlated with poorer response to cisplatin based chemotherapy. We examined the expression of BCRP and ERCC1 in patients with esophageal cancer and correlated it with survival in patients receiving irinotecan and cisplatin based chemotherapy. Methods With IRB approval, 40 cases of esophageal cancer diagnosed from 2004-2008, were stained for BCRP and ERCC1 expression by immunohistochemistry and scored by a pathologist blinded to clinical data. Baseline demographics, therapy given and survival data were collected and correlated with BCRP and ERCC1 expression. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine association between BCRP and ERCC1 expression and demographics. Cox proportional hazards model was used for association of BCRP and ERCC1 with survival. Results On immunohistochemistry, 30/40 cancers (75%) expressed BCRP. Interestingly, down-regulation of BCRP expression in tumor compared with normal cells was seen in 40% of patients. ERCC1 positivity was seen in 15/30 cases (50%). Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months with no difference in survival between BCRP positive and negative patients (P=0.13) or ERCC1 positive and negative patients (P=0.85). Estimated hazard ratio (HR) of death for BRCP positive patients was 2.29 (95% CI: 0.79-6.64) and for ERCC1 positive patients was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.46-2.56). There was no association of BCRP and ERCC1 expression with disease stage, age, gender or histology. For patients who received cisplatin and irinotecan as first line chemotherapy, there was no difference in survival based on BCRP or ERCC1 status. Conclusions BCRP

  12. Prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Tongshan; Xu, Jun; Chen, WenJiao; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) in patients with gastric cancer undergoing surgery and platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluate XRCC1 protein expression profiles on surgical specimens of 612 gastric cancer patients. The relationship between XRCC1 expression and existing prognostic factors, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results Among 612 patients staged Ⅱ/Ⅲ in our study, 182 (29.74%) were evaluated as XRCC1 IHC positive. XRCC1 expression was not significantly related to OS (P = 0.347) or DFS (P = 0.297). Compared with surgery only, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved the OS (P = 0.031). And the patients with negative XRCC1 expression benefited more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.049). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size, T category, N category, vascular or nerve invasion and platinum-based chemotherapy were good prognostic factors for OS (P < 0.05). Though XRCC1 plays an important role in DNA repair pathways, no significant relationship is found in XRCC1 expression and OS among gastric cancer in our study. Conclusions XRCC1 might be an alternative prognostic marker for the patients of gastric cancer after radical resection. The patients with negative XRCC1 expression can benefit more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27478321

  13. Association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene polymorphisms and glioma risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on 22 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiqiang; Chen, Qianxue; Liu, Baohui; Yang, Jian; Shao, Lingmin; Wu, Tingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Glioma is the most common central nervous system tumor. This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed to systematically assess the association of XRCC1 polymorphisms with the risk of glioma. Methods: Such databases as EMbase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) platforms, VIP and WanFang were searched up to April 2015 to collect case-control studies of association between XRCC1 polymorphisms and glioma. Data were extracted and meta-analysis was conducted by using Stata 12.0 softwares. Results: A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 18503 glioma patients and 24367 controls. The overall data indicated that XRCC1 Arg194Trp (C>T) polymorphism significantly increased glioma risk (allele C versus T: OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55-0.93, CC versus TT: OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.46-0.67; CC versus CT+TT: OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.45-0.91 and CC+CT vs. TT: OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.51-0.74), especially in Asia ethnicity. XRCC1 Arg280His (G>A) polymorphism has no association with glioma (allele G versus A: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.83-1.22; GG versus AA: OR=1.07, 95% CI=0.66-1.75; GA versus AA: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.77-1.32; GG versus GA+AA: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.84-1.22 and GG+GT versus AA: OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.67-1.69). XRCC1 Arg399Gln (G>A) polymorphism will significantly increase glioma risk in Asian (allele G versus A: OR=0.78, 95% CI= 0.72-0.84; GG versus AA: OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.47-0.66; GA versus AA OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.59-0.84; GG versus GA+AA: OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.68-0.84 and GG+GA vs. AA: OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.53-0.73) but not Caucasian ethnicity. XRCC1 Pro161Leu (C>T), Leu387Leu (G>A), Pro602Thr (C>A), Ser593Arg (C>G) and Glu491Lys (G>A) polymorphisms increased glioma risk in different degrees. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested that XRCC1 Arg194Trp and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (G>A) polymorphisms led to susceptibility to glioma in Asian but not Caucasian population. XRCC1 Glu491Lys (G>A), Pro161Leu (C>T), Leu387Leu (G>A), Pro602Thr (C>A), Thr304Ala (A>G) and Ser593Arg (C>G) polymorphisms will increase glioma risk. However, XRCC1 Arg280His (G>A) is irrelevant to the increased or decreased glioma risk. PMID:26550099

  14. Group Task Force on Satellite Rescue and Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The Group Task Force was chartered by the Administrator of NASA to recommend 'a policy outlining the criteria, the design standards, and the pricing model to guide NASA in assessing the responsibilities for government and nongovernment Satellite Rescue and Repair Missions.' Criteria for accepting such missions, risks, and benefits to all sectors of our economy involved in satellite services, adequacy of planning and training, and the impact on NASA's primary mission were reviewed. The Group began by asking a more fundamental question; is satellite rescue and repair a logical element of NASA's mission? Factors considered were: (1) the probability of rescue or repair opportunities arising; (2) the economic justification for such attempts; (3) the benefits to NASA, both from such ad hoc learning experiences in space operations and the impact on the public perception of NASA; (4) the effect of such unanticipated missions on NASA's scheduled activities; (5) any potential effect on NASA's technical capability to work in space; and (6) any potential effect on U.S. economic competitiveness.

  15. Group Task Force on Satellite Rescue and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Group Task Force was chartered by the Administrator of NASA to recommend 'a policy outlining the criteria, the design standards, and the pricing model to guide NASA in assessing the responsibilities for government and nongovernment Satellite Rescue and Repair Missions.' Criteria for accepting such missions, risks, and benefits to all sectors of our economy involved in satellite services, adequacy of planning and training, and the impact on NASA's primary mission were reviewed. The Group began by asking a more fundamental question; is satellite rescue and repair a logical element of NASA's mission? Factors considered were: (1) the probability of rescue or repair opportunities arising; (2) the economic justification for such attempts; (3) the benefits to NASA, both from such ad hoc learning experiences in space operations and the impact on the public perception of NASA; (4) the effect of such unanticipated missions on NASA's scheduled activities; (5) any potential effect on NASA's technical capability to work in space; and (6) any potential effect on U.S. economic competitiveness.

  16. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology of urinary bladder but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy; Wolf, Douglas C; Sen, Banalata; Knapp, Geremy W; Holladay, Steven D; Huckle, William R; Caceci, Thomas; Robertson, John L

    2009-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In F344 rats, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]) increases transitional cell carcinoma. Arsenic-induced inhibition of DNA repair has been reported in cultured cell lines and in lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed humans, but it has not been studied in urinary bladder. Should inhibition of DNA damage repair in transitional epithelium occur, it may contribute to carcinogenesis or cocarcinogenesis. We investigated morphology and expression of DNA repair genes in F344 rat transitional cells following up to 100 ppm DMA(V) in drinking water for four weeks. Mitochondria were very sensitive to DMA(V), and swollen mitochondria appeared to be the main source of vacuoles in the transitional epithelium. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT PCR) showed the mRNA levels of tested DNA repair genes, ataxia telangectasia mutant (ATM), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), excision repair cross-complementing group 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB), and DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta), were not altered by DMA(V). These data suggested that either DMA(V) does not affect DNA repair in the bladder or DMA(V) affects DNA repair without affecting baseline mRNA levels of repair genes. The possibility remains that DMA(V) may lower damage-induced increases in repair gene expression or cause post-translational modification of repair enzymes.

  17. Repair synthesis step involving ERCC1-XPF participates in DNA repair of the Top1-DNA damage complex.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Chiaki; Masuda, Yuji; Takedachi, Arato; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2015-08-01

    Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) is the intercellular target of camptothecins (CPTs). CPT blocks DNA religation in the Top1-DNA complex and induces Top1-attached nick DNA lesions. In this study, we demonstrate that excision repair cross complementing 1 protein-xeroderma pigmentosum group F (ERCC1-XPF) endonuclease and replication protein A (RPA) participate in the repair of Top1-attached nick DNA lesions together with other nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors. ERCC1-XPF shows nuclease activity in the presence of RPA on a 3'-phosphotyrosyl bond nick-containing DNA (Tyr-nick DNA) substrate, which mimics a Top1-attached nick DNA lesion. In addition, ERCC1-XPF and RPA form a DNA/protein complex on the nick DNA substrate in vitro, and co-localize in CPT-treated cells in vivo. Moreover, the DNA repair synthesis of Tyr-nick DNA lesions occurred in the presence of NER factors, including ERCC1-XPF, RPA, DNA polymerase delta, flap endonuclease 1 and DNA ligase 1. Therefore, some of the NER repair machinery might be an alternative repair pathway for Top1-attached nick DNA lesions. Clinically, these data provide insights into the potential of ERCC1 as a biomarker during CPT regimens.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a randomized comparison with conventional herniorrhaphy. Coala trial group.

    PubMed Central

    Liem, M S; Halsema, J A; van der Graaf, Y; Schrijvers, A J; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair seems superior to open techniques with respect to short-term results. An issue yet to be studied in depth remains the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. As part of a multicenter randomized study in which >1000 patients were included, a cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal point of view was performed. METHODS: After informed consent, all resource costs, both in and outside the hospital, for patients between August 1994 and July 1995 were recorded prospectively. Actual costs were calculated in a standardized fashion according to international guidelines. The main measures used for the evaluation of inguinal hernia repair were the number of averted recurrences and quality of life measured with the Short Form 36 questionnaire. RESULTS: Resource costs were recorded for 273 patients, 139 in the open and 134 in the laparoscopic group. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Average total hospital costs were Dfl 1384.91 (standard deviation: Dfl 440.15) for the open repair group and Dfl 2417.24 (standard deviation: Dfl 577.10) for laparoscopic repair, including a disposable kit of Dfl 676. Societal costs, including costs for days of sick leave, were lower for the laparoscopic repair and offset the hospital costs by Dfl 780.83 (75.6%), leaving the laparoscopic repair Dfl 251.50 more expensive (Dfl 4665 versus Dfl 4916.50). At present, the recurrence rate is 2.6% lower after laparoscopic repair. Thus, 38 laparoscopic repairs, costing an additional Dfl 9,557, prevent the occurrence of one recurrent hernia. Quality of life was better after laparoscopic repair. CONCLUSION: A better quality of life in the recovery period and the possibility of replacing parts of the disposable kit with reusable instruments may result in the laparoscopic repair becoming dominantly better--that is, less expensive and more effective from a

  19. Repair in ribosomal RNA genes is deficient in xeroderma pigmentosum group C and in Cockayne's syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Christians, F C; Hanawalt, P C

    1994-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated transcription-coupled DNA repair in mammalian genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II but not in ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA), which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. The removal of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) from rDNA in repair-proficient human cells has been shown to be slow but detectable and apparently not coupled to transcription. We studied the induction and removal of CPD from rDNA in cultured cells from two repair-deficient human disorders. Primary xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells, whether proliferating or nondividing, removed no CPD from either rDNA strand in 24 h post-UV, a result which supports earlier conclusions that XP-C cells lack the general, transcription-independent pathway of nucleotide excision repair. We also observed lower than normal repair of rDNA in Cockayne's syndrome (CS) cells from complementation groups A and B. In agreement with previous findings, the repair of both strands of the RNA polymerase II-transcribed dihydrofolate reductase gene was also deficient relative to that of normal cells. This strongly suggests that the defect in CS cells is not limited to a deficiency in a transcription-repair coupling factor. Rather, the defect may interfere with the ability of repair proteins to gain access to all expressed genes. PMID:7512688

  20. Mutant Cockayne syndrome group B protein inhibits repair of DNA topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Saijo, Masafumi; Bay, Mui N; Lan, Li; Kuraoka, Isao; Brooks, Philip J; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Yasui, Akira; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2011-01-01

    Two UV-sensitive syndrome patients who have mild photosensitivity without detectable somatic abnormalities lack detectable Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein because of a homozygous null mutation in the CSB gene. In contrast, mutant CSB proteins are produced in CS-B patients with the severe somatic abnormalities of Cockayne syndrome and photosensitivity. It is known that the piggyBac transposable element derived 3 is integrated within the CSB intron 5, and that CSB-piggyBac transposable element derived 3 fusion (CPFP) mRNA is produced by alternative splicing. We found that CPFP or truncated CSB protein derived from CPFP mRNA was stably produced in CS-B patients, and that wild-type CSB, CPFP, and truncated CSB protein interacted with DNA topoisomerase I. We also found that CPFP inhibited repair of a camptothecin-induced topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex. The inhibition was suppressed by the presence of wild-type CSB, consistent with the autosomal recessive inheritance of Cockayne syndrome. These results suggested that reduced repair of a DNA topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex because of truncated CSB proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of CS-B. PMID:21143350

  1. Thoracoscopic Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula Repair: The First Iranian Group Report, Passing the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Shojaeian, Reza; Joodi, Marjan; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Sabzevari, Alireza; Yal, Nazila; Eslami, Reza; Mohammadipour, Ahmad; Azadmand, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracoscopic treatment of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA+TEF) is accepted as a superior technique at least in cosmetic point of view but it is considered as an advance endoscopic procedure that needs a learning curve to be performed perfectly. This is the first report of Iranian group pediatric surgeons in thoracoscopic approach to EA. Methods and Materials: Since 2010, twenty four cases with EA+TEF underwent thoracoscopic approach in Sarvar Children Hospital (Mashhad -Iran). During the first 6 months, thoracoscopic approach to 6 cases of EA+TEF was converted to open procedure because of technical and instrumental problems. The first case of successful thoracoscopic EA repair was accomplished in 2010 and since then, 10 cases of EA+ TEF among 18 patients were treated successfully with thoracoscopic approach Results: Overall conversion rate was 58.3% but conversion rate after the primary learning curve period, was 35.7%. The main conversion causes include difficulties in esophageal anastomosis, limited exposure and deteriorating the patient's condition. Anastomotic leak and stenosis were observed in 20% and 40% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 4.2%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia seems feasible and safe with considerable superiorities to the conventional method although acceptable results needs a prolonged learning curve and advanced endoscopic surgical skill. Clear judgment about the best surgical intervention for EA according to all cosmetic and functional outcomes needs further studies. PMID:27471677

  2. The Cockayne syndrome group B DNA repair protein as an anti-cancer target.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Mani, S; Kandimalla, E R; Yu, D; Agrawal, S; States, J C; Bregman, D B

    2001-12-01

    Cells from individuals with Cockayne syndrome (CS) have a defect in transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR), which rapidly corrects certain DNA lesions located on the transcribed strand of active genes. Despite this DNA repair defect, individuals with CS (of which there are two complementation groups, CSA and CSB) do not demonstrate an elevated incidence of cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that disruption of the CSB gene reduces the spontaneous tumor rate in cancer predisposed Ink4a/ARF-/- mice as well as causing their embryo fibroblasts to proliferate more slowly and be more sensitive to UV-induced apoptosis. In the present study we characterized phosphorothioate backbone antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AOs) that reduced the levels of CSB mRNA in A2780/CP70 ovarian carcinoma cells. The AOs caused the cells to proliferate more slowly and made them more sensitive to either cisplatin or oxaliplatin. The AOs also enhanced the cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide and gamma-radiation, both of which can induce oxidative DNA lesions, which are subject to TCR. The AOs did not potentiate the cytotoxicity of topotecan, which induces DNA strand breaks. Chemically modified () AOs (MBOs) targeting CSB were able to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin against A2780/CP70 tumor xenografts formed in nude mice. The MBOs enabled a non-toxic (3 mg/kg) dose of cisplatin to have the same degree of anti-tumor efficacy as a more toxic (5 mg/kg) cisplatin dose. Collectively, these results suggest that the CSB gene product may be viewed as an anti-cancer target. PMID:11713576

  3. Mutational analysis of ERCC3, which is involved in DNA repair and transcription initiation: identification of domains essential for the DNA repair function.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Westbroek, A; Jochemsen, A G; Weeda, G; Bosch, A; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H; van der Eb, A J

    1994-06-01

    The human ERCC3 gene, which corrects specifically the nucleotide excision repair defect in human xeroderma pigmentosum group B and cross-complements the repair deficiency in rodent UV-sensitive mutants of group 3, encodes a presumed DNA helicase that is identical to the p89 subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIH/BTF2. To examine the significance of the postulated functional domains in ERCC3, we have introduced mutations in the ERCC3 cDNA by means of site-specific mutagenesis and have determined the repair capacity of each mutant to complement the UV-sensitive phenotype of rodent group 3 cells. A conservative substitution of arginine for the invariant lysine residue in the ATPase motif (helicase domain I), six deletion mutations in the other helicase domains, and a deletion in the potential helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif fail to complement the ERCC3 excision repair defect of rodent group 3 mutants, which implies that the helicase domains as well as the potential DNA-binding motif are required for the repair function of ERCC3. Analysis of carboxy-terminal deletions suggests that the carboxy-terminal exon may comprise a distinct determinant for the DNA repair function. In addition, we show that a functional epitope-tagged version of ERCC3 accumulates in the nucleus. Deletion of the putative nuclear location signal impairs neither the nuclear location nor the repair function, indicating that other sequences may (also) be involved in translocation of ERCC3 to the nucleus. PMID:8196650

  4. Repair of retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy using perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon). Vitreon Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carroll, B F; Peyman, G A; Mehta, N J; Millsap, C M; Greve, M D; Dunlap, W A; Lee, K J; Ma, P E

    1994-04-01

    A total of 140 consecutive patients underwent repair of retinal detachment associated with grade C2 to D3 proliferative vitreoretinopathy with perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon) as an intraoperative hydrokinetic tool. In seven patients the Vitreon was left in the eye for extended tamponade. Intraoperative reattachment was obtained in 98% of patients. At the final follow-up examination (mean 7 months) 84% of retinas remained attached, and 92% of patients had stable or improved visual acuity. Vitreon was found to be safe and effective in the repair of complicated retinal detachments. No complications were directly related to Vitreon when used intraoperatively or when left in the eye for extended tamponade.

  5. Repair of retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy using perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon). Vitreon Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carroll, B F; Peyman, G A; Mehta, N J; Millsap, C M; Greve, M D; Dunlap, W A; Lee, K J; Ma, P E

    1994-04-01

    A total of 140 consecutive patients underwent repair of retinal detachment associated with grade C2 to D3 proliferative vitreoretinopathy with perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon) as an intraoperative hydrokinetic tool. In seven patients the Vitreon was left in the eye for extended tamponade. Intraoperative reattachment was obtained in 98% of patients. At the final follow-up examination (mean 7 months) 84% of retinas remained attached, and 92% of patients had stable or improved visual acuity. Vitreon was found to be safe and effective in the repair of complicated retinal detachments. No complications were directly related to Vitreon when used intraoperatively or when left in the eye for extended tamponade. PMID:8069756

  6. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer corrects DNA repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation groups A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Quilliet, X; Chevallier-Lagente, O; Eveno, E; Sarasin, A; Mezzina, M

    1997-10-01

    With the aim to devise a long-term gene therapy protocol for skin cancers in individuals affected by the inherited autosomal recessive xeroderma pigmentosum we transferred the human DNA repair XPA, XPB/ERCC3 and XPC cDNAs, by using the recombinant retroviral vector LXSN, into primary and immortalized fibroblasts obtained from two XP-A, one XP-B (associated with Cockayne's syndrome) and two XP-C patients. After transduction, the complete correction of DNA repair deficiency and functional expression of the transgenes were monitored by UV survival, unscheduled DNA synthesis and recovery of RNA synthesis, and Western blots. The results show that the recombinant retroviruses are highly efficient vectors to transfer and stably express the human DNA repair genes in XP cells and correct the defect of DNA repair of group A, B and C. With our previous results with XPD/ERCC2, the present work extends further promising issues for the gene therapy strategy for most patients suffering from this cancer-prone syndrome. PMID:9415314

  7. New paradigms in the repair of oxidative damage in human genome: mechanisms ensuring repair of mutagenic base lesions during replication and involvement of accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arijit; Yang, Chunying; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-05-01

    Oxidized bases in the mammalian genome, which are invariably mutagenic due to their mispairing property, are continuously induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species and more abundantly after oxidative stress. Unlike bulky base adducts induced by UV and other environmental mutagens in the genome that block replicative DNA polymerases, oxidatively damaged bases such as 5-hydroxyuracil, produced by oxidative deamination of cytosine in the template strand, do not block replicative polymerases and thus need to be repaired prior to replication to prevent mutation. Following up our earlier studies, which showed that the Nei endonuclease VIII like 1 (NEIL1) DNA glycosylase, one of the five base excision repair (BER)-initiating enzymes in mammalian cells, has enhanced expression during the S-phase and higher affinity for replication fork-mimicking single-stranded (ss) DNA substrates, we recently provided direct experimental evidence for NEIL1's role in replicating template strand repair. The key requirement for this event, which we named as the 'cow-catcher' mechanism of pre-replicative BER, is NEIL1's non-productive binding (substrate binding without product formation) to the lesion base in ss DNA template to stall DNA synthesis, causing fork regression. Repair of the lesion in reannealed duplex is then carried out by NEIL1 in association with the DNA replication proteins. NEIL1 (and other BER-initiating enzymes) also interact with several accessory and non-canonical proteins including the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U and Y-box-binding protein 1 as well as high mobility group box 1 protein, whose precise roles in BER are still obscure. In this review, we have discussed the recent advances in our understanding of oxidative genome damage repair pathways with particular focus on the pre-replicative template strand repair and the role of scaffold factors like X-ray repairs cross-complementing protein 1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and other accessory

  8. The Polycomb Group Protein EZH2 Impairs DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression in Human Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Nair, Sangeeta; Laknaur, Archana; Ismail, Nahed; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign, smooth muscle tumors that occur in approximately 70%-80% of women by age 50 yr. The cellular and molecular mechanism(s) by which uterine fibroids (UFs) develop are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that several genetic abnormalities, including deletions, rearrangements, translocations, as well as mutations, have been found in UFs. These genetic anomalies suggest that low DNA damage repair capacity may be involved in UF formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether expression levels of DNA damage repair-related genes were altered, and how they were regulated in the pathogenesis of UFs. Expression levels of DNA repair-related genes RAD51 and BRCA1 were deregulated in fibroid tissues as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues. Expression levels of chromatin protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were higher in a subset of fibroids as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Treatment with an inhibitor of EZH2 markedly increased expression levels of RAD51 and BRCA1 in fibroid cells and inhibited cell proliferation paired with cell cycle arrest. Restoring the expression of RAD51 and BRCA1 by treatment with EZH2 inhibitor was dependent on reducing the enrichment of trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 epigenetic mark in their promoter regions. This study reveals the important role of EZH2-regulated DNA damage-repair genes via histone methylation in fibroid biology, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for the medical treatment of women with symptomatic UFs. PMID:26888970

  9. Phloroglucinol enhances the repair of UVB radiation-induced DNA damage via promotion of the nucleotide excision repair system in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Ahn, Mee Jung; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Ki Cheon; Cha, Ji Won; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to solar UVB radiation can lead to the formation of DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is critical for the repair of CPDs induced by UV radiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of phloroglucinol to protect against the formation of UVB-induced CPDs in vitro and in vivo. Exposure to UVB radiation increased the number of CPDs in both HaCaT keratinocytes and mouse skin; however, these increases were reduced by treatment with phloroglucinol. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1), which are essential components of the NER pathway, were reduced following UVB exposure, although phloroglucinol treatment recovered these levels in both HaCaT keratinocytes and mouse skin. Phloroglucinol also inhibited UVB-induced reductions in binding of the transcription factors specificity protein 1 to the XPC promoter. These results demonstrate that phloroglucinol can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing NER. PMID:25766644

  10. Early postnatal ataxia and abnormal cerebellar development in mice lacking Xeroderma pigmentosum Group A and Cockayne syndrome Group B DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Murai, M; Enokido, Y; Inamura, N; Yoshino, M; Nakatsu, Y; van der Horst, G T; Hoeijmakers, J H; Tanaka, K; Hatanaka, H

    2001-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are rare autosomal recessive disorders associated with a defect in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway required for the removal of DNA damage induced by UV light and distorting chemical adducts. Although progressive neurological dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of CS and of some groups of XP patients, the causative mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that mice lacking both the XPA (XP-group A) and CSB (CS-group B) genes in contrast to the single mutants display severe growth retardation, ataxia, and motor dysfunction during early postnatal development. Their cerebella are hypoplastic and showed impaired foliation and stunted Purkinje cell dendrites. Reduced neurogenesis and increased apoptotic cell death occur in the cerebellar external granular layer. These findings suggest that XPA and CSB have additive roles in the mouse nervous system and support a crucial role for these genes in normal brain development. PMID:11687625

  11. Contribution of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC3 genotypes to oral cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-06-01

    The DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementing protein 3 (XRCC3) is thought to play a major role in double-strand break repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Very possibly, defective double-strand break repair of cells can lead to carcinogenesis. Therefore, a case-control study was performed to reveal the contribution of XRCC3 genotypes to individual oral cancer susceptibility. In this hospital-based research, the association of XRCC3 rs1799794, rs45603942, rs861530, rs3212057, rs1799796, rs861539, rs28903081 genotypes with oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population was investigated. In total, 788 patients with oral cancer and 956 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were genotyped. The results showed that there was significant differential distribution among oral cancer and controls in the genotypic (p=0.001428) and allelic (p=0.0013) frequencies of XRCC3 rs861539. As for the other polymorphisms, there was no difference between case and control groups. In gene-lifestyle interaction analysis, we have provided the first evidence showing that there is an obvious joint effect of XRCC3 rs861539 genotype with individual areca chewing habits on oral cancer risk. In conclusion, the T allele of XRCC3 rs861539, which has an interaction with areca chewing habit in oral carcinogenesis, may be an early marker for oral cancer in Taiwanese.

  12. Low-level laser irradiation alters mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajano, L. A. S. N.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Silva, C. L.; Carvalho, L.; Mencalha, A. L.; Stumbo, A. C.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Low-level lasers are used for the treatment of diseases in soft and bone tissues, but few data are available regarding their effects on genomic stability. In this study, we investigated mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts exposed to low-level infrared laser. C2C12 myoblast cultures in different fetal bovine serum concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35 and 70 J cm‑2), and collected for the evaluation of DNA repair gene expression. Laser exposure increased gene expression related to base excision repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), nucleotide excision repair (excision repair cross-complementation group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum C protein) and genomic stabilization (ATM serine/threonine kinase and tumor protein p53) in normal and low fetal bovine serum concentrations. Results suggest that genomic stability could be part of a biostimulation effect of low-level laser therapy in injured muscles.

  13. Low-level laser irradiation alters mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajano, L. A. S. N.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Silva, C. L.; Carvalho, L.; Mencalha, A. L.; Stumbo, A. C.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Low-level lasers are used for the treatment of diseases in soft and bone tissues, but few data are available regarding their effects on genomic stability. In this study, we investigated mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts exposed to low-level infrared laser. C2C12 myoblast cultures in different fetal bovine serum concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35 and 70 J cm-2), and collected for the evaluation of DNA repair gene expression. Laser exposure increased gene expression related to base excision repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), nucleotide excision repair (excision repair cross-complementation group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum C protein) and genomic stabilization (ATM serine/threonine kinase and tumor protein p53) in normal and low fetal bovine serum concentrations. Results suggest that genomic stability could be part of a biostimulation effect of low-level laser therapy in injured muscles.

  14. Expression of domains for protein-protein interaction of nucleotide excision repair proteins modifies cancer cell sensitivity to platinum derivatives and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Matera, Eva-Laure; Bouledrak, Karima; Dumontet, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in the repair of DNA damage caused by platinum derivatives and has been shown to decrease the cytotoxic activity of these drugs. Because protein-protein interactions are essential for NER activity, we transfected human cancer cell lines (A549 and HCT116) with plasmids coding the amino acid sequences corresponding to the interacting domains between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA), as well as ERCC1 and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group F (XPF), all NER proteins. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and annexin V staining, we showed that transfected A549 cells were sensitized 1.2-2.2-fold to carboplatin and that transfected HCT116 cells were sensitized 1.4-5.4-fold to oxaliplatin in vitro. In addition, transfected cells exhibited modified in vivo sensitivity to the same drugs. Finally, in particular cell models of the interaction between ERCC1 and XPF, DNA repair was decreased, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the histone 2AX after exposure to mitomycin C, and genomic instability was increased, as determined by comparative genomic hybridization studies. The results indicate that the interacting peptides act as dominant negatives and decrease NER activity through inhibition of protein-protein interactions.

  15. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p < 0.001) exposed to near-infrared laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p < 0.001). ERCC1 mRNA expression does not alter (p > 0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p < 0.001) and increases in muscle tissue (p < 0.001) exposed to red laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  16. Relationship of the xeroderma pigmentosum group E DNA repair defect to the chromatin and DNA binding proteins UV-DDB and replication protein A.

    PubMed

    Rapić Otrin, V; Kuraoka, I; Nardo, T; McLenigan, M; Eker, A P; Stefanini, M; Levine, A S; Wood, R D

    1998-06-01

    Cells from complementation groups A through G of the heritable sun-sensitive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) show defects in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. Proteins representing groups A, B, C, D, F, and G are subunits of the core recognition and incision machinery of repair. XP group E (XP-E) is the mildest form of the disorder, and cells generally show about 50% of the normal repair level. We investigated two protein factors previously implicated in the XP-E defect, UV-damaged DNA binding protein (UV-DDB) and replication protein A (RPA). Three newly identified XP-E cell lines (XP23PV, XP25PV, and a line formerly classified as an XP variant) were defective in UV-DDB binding activity but had levels of RPA in the normal range. The XP-E cell extracts did not display a significant nucleotide excision repair defect in vitro, with either UV-irradiated DNA or a uniquely placed cisplatin lesion used as a substrate. Purified UV-DDB protein did not stimulate repair of naked DNA by DDB- XP-E cell extracts, but microinjection of the protein into DDB- XP-E cells could partially correct the repair defect. RPA stimulated repair in normal, XP-E, or complemented extracts from other XP groups, and so the effect of RPA was not specific for XP-E cell extracts. These data strengthen the connection between XP-E and UV-DDB. Coupled with previous results, the findings suggest that UV-DDB has a role in the repair of DNA in chromatin. PMID:9584159

  17. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation

    PubMed Central

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. PMID:25820262

  18. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J.; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D.; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C.; Ambler, Carrie A.

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ+ ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ+ ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ+ ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  19. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ(+) group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C; Ambler, Carrie A

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ(+) ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ(+) ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ(+) ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  20. Mating-type suppression of the DNA-repair defect of the yeast rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of genes in the RAD52 epistasis group.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y X; Schiestl, R H; Prakash, L

    1995-06-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for post-replication repair of UV-damaged DNA, UV mutagenesis, and sporulation. Here, we show that the radiation sensitivity of a MATa rad6 delta strain can be suppressed by the MAT alpha 2 gene carried on a multicopy plasmid. The a1-alpha 2 suppression is specific to the RAD6 pathway, as mutations in genes required for nucleotide excision repair or for recombinational repair do not show such mating-type suppression. The a1-alpha 2 suppression of the rad6 delta mutation requires the activity of the RAD52 group of genes, suggesting that suppression occurs by channelling of post-replication gaps present in the rad6 delta mutant into the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway. The a1-alpha 2 repressor could mediate this suppression via an enhancement in the expression, or the activity, of recombination genes.

  1. Might there be a link between intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 DNA repair gene and the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Sacide; Balci, Sibel Oguzkan; Aydeniz, Ali; Pehlivan, Mustafa; Sever, Tugce; Gursoy, Savas

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair genes are involved in several diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies indicated that a DNA repair system was involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we aimed to examine whether four polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D [XPD], X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 [XRCC1], and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 [XRCC4]) were associated with RA. Sixty-five patients with RA and 70 healthy controls (HCs) were examined for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T) polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR and/or PCR-RFLP. The association between the polymorphisms and RA was analyzed using the chi-square test and de Finetti program. The intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene showed an association with RA patients. The DI genotype was found lower in RA patients (χ(2)=8.227; p=0.0021), while the II genotype was higher in RA patients (χ(2)=5.285; p=0.010). There were deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in both intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T polymorphisms in the XRCC4 gene and in the polymorphism in the XRCC1 gene, and the observed genotype counts deviated from those expected according to the HWE (p=0.027, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively); however, there was no deviation in the other gene polymorphisms. There is no statistical difference between the RA patients and HCs for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms (p>0.05). Although XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of RA in Turkish patients. In conclusion, we suggested that the intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of RA as a marker of immune aging.

  2. Might there be a link between intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 DNA repair gene and the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Sacide; Balci, Sibel Oguzkan; Aydeniz, Ali; Pehlivan, Mustafa; Sever, Tugce; Gursoy, Savas

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair genes are involved in several diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies indicated that a DNA repair system was involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we aimed to examine whether four polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D [XPD], X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 [XRCC1], and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 [XRCC4]) were associated with RA. Sixty-five patients with RA and 70 healthy controls (HCs) were examined for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T) polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR and/or PCR-RFLP. The association between the polymorphisms and RA was analyzed using the chi-square test and de Finetti program. The intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene showed an association with RA patients. The DI genotype was found lower in RA patients (χ(2)=8.227; p=0.0021), while the II genotype was higher in RA patients (χ(2)=5.285; p=0.010). There were deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in both intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T polymorphisms in the XRCC4 gene and in the polymorphism in the XRCC1 gene, and the observed genotype counts deviated from those expected according to the HWE (p=0.027, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively); however, there was no deviation in the other gene polymorphisms. There is no statistical difference between the RA patients and HCs for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms (p>0.05). Although XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of RA in Turkish patients. In conclusion, we suggested that the intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of RA as a marker of immune aging. PMID:25494482

  3. Checkpoint Kinase ATR Promotes Nucleotide Excision Repair of UV-induced DNA Damage via Physical Interaction with Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A*

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Steven M.; Li, Zhengke; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Brosey, Chris; Serrano, Moises A.; Chazin, Walter J.; Musich, Phillip R.; Zou, Yue

    2009-01-01

    In response to DNA damage, eukaryotic cells activate a series of DNA damage-dependent pathways that serve to arrest cell cycle progression and remove DNA damage. Coordination of cell cycle arrest and damage repair is critical for maintenance of genomic stability. However, this process is still poorly understood. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the ATR-dependent cell cycle checkpoint are the major pathways responsible for repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Here we show that ATR physically interacts with the NER factor Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). Using a mass spectrometry-based protein footprinting method, we found that ATR interacts with a helix-turn-helix motif in the minimal DNA-binding domain of XPA where an ATR phosphorylation site (serine 196) is located. XPA-deficient cells complemented with XPA containing a point mutation of S196A displayed a reduced repair efficiency of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers as compared with cells complemented with wild-type XPA, although no effect was observed for repair of (6-4) photoproducts. This suggests that the ATR-dependent phosphorylation of XPA may promote NER repair of persistent DNA damage. In addition, a K188A point mutation of XPA that disrupts the ATR-XPA interaction inhibits the nuclear import of XPA after UV irradiation and, thus, significantly reduced DNA repair efficiency. By contrast, the S196A mutation has no effect on XPA nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results suggest that the ATR-XPA interaction mediated by the helix-turn-helix motif of XPA plays an important role in DNA-damage responses to promote cell survival and genomic stability after UV irradiation. PMID:19586908

  4. Intermittent hair loss in a child with PIBI(D)S syndrome and trichothiodystrophy with defective DNA repair-xeroderma pigmentosum group D.

    PubMed

    Kleijer, W J; Beemer, F A; Boom, B W

    1994-08-15

    We describe a girl with photosensitivity (P), ichthyosis (I), brittle hair (B), impaired intelligence (I), possibly decreased fertility (D), and short stature (S). The clinical findings fit into the PIBI(D)S syndrome and trichothiodystrophy. A remarkable and probably unique observation for this disorder was the intermittent character of the scalp hair loss during infectious periods in this patient. Easy suntanning suggested photosensitivity and prompted DNA repair studies which demonstrated reduced UV-induced DNA repair synthesis. Subsequent studies have assigned this patient to xeroderma pigmentosum group D and suggested a specific deficiency of 6-4 photoproduct repair. An unaffected child was diagnosed in the next pregnancy of the mother. PMID:7802014

  5. RAD25 (SSL2), the yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability.

    PubMed

    Park, E; Guzder, S N; Koken, M H; Jaspers-Dekker, I; Weeda, G; Hoeijmakers, J H; Prakash, S; Prakash, L

    1992-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and seven complementation groups, A-G, have been identified. Homologs of human excision repair genes ERCC1, XPDC/ERCC2, and XPAC have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since no homolog of human XPBC/ERCC3 existed among the known yeast genes, we cloned the yeast homolog by using XPBC cDNA as a hybridization probe. The yeast homolog, RAD25 (SSL2), encodes a protein of 843 amino acids (M(r) 95,356). The RAD25 (SSL2)- and XPBC-encoded proteins share 55% identical and 72% conserved amino acid residues, and the two proteins resemble one another in containing the conserved DNA helicase sequence motifs. A nonsense mutation at codon 799 that deletes the 45 C-terminal amino acid residues in RAD25 (SSL2) confers UV sensitivity. This mutation shows epistasis with genes in the excision repair group, whereas a synergistic increase in UV sensitivity occurs when it is combined with mutations in genes in other DNA repair pathways, indicating that RAD25 (SSL2) functions in excision repair but not in other repair pathways. We also show that RAD25 (SSL2) is an essential gene. A mutation of the Lys392 residue to arginine in the conserved Walker type A nucleotide-binding motif is lethal, suggesting an essential role of the putative RAD25 (SSL2) ATPase/DNA helicase activity in viability. PMID:1333609

  6. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  7. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Scott A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (X1RIR) motif. The X1RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol /REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the XRCC1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR–REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair.

  8. Reduction of the DNA base excision repair protein, XRCC1, may contribute to DNA fragmentation after cold injury-induced brain trauma in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, M; Morita-Fujimura, Y; Noshita, N; Yoshimoto, T; Chan, P H

    2000-06-30

    The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) protein plays a central role in the DNA base excision repair pathway by interacting with DNA ligase III and DNA polymerase beta. The present study examined the protein expression of XRCC1 and DNA fragmentation before and after cold injury-induced brain trauma (CIBT) in mice, in which apoptosis is assumed to participate. Immunohistochemistry showed the nuclear expression of XRCC1 in the entire region of the control brains. Fifteen minutes after CIBT, nuclear immunoreactivity was predominantly decreased in the inner boundary of the lesion, followed by a significant reduction of XRCC1 in the entire lesion 4 h after CIBT. A characteristic 70-kDa band was detected in the non-traumatic area, and was markedly decreased after CIBT as shown by Western blot analysis. DNA fragmentation was also observed after CIBT, and double staining with XRCC1 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling showed a spatial relationship between XRCC1 loss and DNA fragmentation 24 h after CIBT. These data indicate that early decrease of XRCC1 and failure of the DNA repair mechanism may contribute to DNA-damaged neuronal cell death after CIBT.

  9. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara Madduma; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-09-02

    We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  10. The ATPase domain but not the acidic region of Cockayne syndrome group B gene product is essential for DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Brosh, R M; Balajee, A S; Selzer, R R; Sunesen, M; Proietti De Santis, L; Bohr, V A

    1999-11-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human genetic disorder characterized by UV sensitivity, developmental abnormalities, and premature aging. Two of the genes involved, CSA and CSB, are required for transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair that removes certain lesions rapidly and efficiently from the transcribed strand of active genes. CS proteins have also been implicated in the recovery of transcription after certain types of DNA damage such as those lesions induced by UV light. In this study, site-directed mutations have been introduced to the human CSB gene to investigate the functional significance of the conserved ATPase domain and of a highly acidic region of the protein. The CSB mutant alleles were tested for genetic complementation of UV-sensitive phenotypes in the human CS-B homologue of hamster UV61. In addition, the CSB mutant alleles were tested for their ability to complement the sensitivity of UV61 cells to the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), which introduces bulky DNA adducts repaired by global genome repair. Point mutation of a highly conserved glutamic acid residue in ATPase motif II abolished the ability of CSB protein to complement the UV-sensitive phenotypes of survival, RNA synthesis recovery, and gene-specific repair. These data indicate that the integrity of the ATPase domain is critical for CSB function in vivo. Likewise, the CSB ATPase point mutant failed to confer cellular resistance to 4-NQO, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis is required for CSB function in a TCR-independent pathway. On the contrary, a large deletion of the acidic region of CSB protein did not impair the genetic function in the processing of either UV- or 4-NQO-induced DNA damage. Thus the acidic region of CSB is likely to be dispensable for DNA repair, whereas the ATPase domain is essential for CSB function in both TCR-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:10564257

  11. Agrobacterium may delay plant nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair via XRCC4 to favor T-DNA integration.

    PubMed

    Vaghchhipawala, Zarir E; Vasudevan, Balaji; Lee, Seonghee; Morsy, Mustafa R; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soilborne pathogen that causes crown gall disease in many dicotyledonous plants by transfer of a portion of its tumor-inducing plasmid (T-DNA) into the plant genome. Several plant factors that play a role in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and transport of T-DNA to the nucleus have been identified, but the T-DNA integration step during transformation is poorly understood and has been proposed to occur via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair. Here, we report a negative role of X-ray cross complementation group4 (XRCC4), one of the key proteins required for NHEJ, in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration. Downregulation of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana increased stable transformation due to increased T-DNA integration. Overexpression of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis decreased stable transformation due to decreased T-DNA integration. Interestingly, XRCC4 directly interacted with Agrobacterium protein VirE2 in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta. VirE2-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more susceptible to the DNA damaging chemical bleomycin and showed increased stable transformation. We hypothesize that VirE2 titrates or excludes active XRCC4 protein available for DSB repair, thus delaying the closure of DSBs in the chromosome, providing greater opportunity for T-DNA to integrate. PMID:23064322

  12. XRCC1 and base excision repair balance in response to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Mutamba, James T; Svilar, David; Prasongtanakij, Somsak; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Ying-Chih; Dedon, Peter C; Sobol, Robert W; Engelward, Bevin P

    2011-12-10

    Inflammation associated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONs), including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitric oxide (NO), create base lesions that potentially play a role in the toxicity and large genomic rearrangements associated with many malignancies. Little is known about the role of base excision repair (BER) in removing these endogenous DNA lesions. Here, we explore the role of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) in attenuating RONs-induced genotoxicity. XRCC1 is a scaffold protein critical for BER for which polymorphisms modulate the risk of cancer. We exploited CHO and human glioblastoma cell lines engineered to express varied levels of BER proteins to study XRCC1. Cytotoxicity and the levels of DNA repair intermediates (single-strand breaks; SSB) were evaluated following exposure of the cells to the ONOO(-) donor, SIN-1, and to gaseous NO. XRCC1 null cells were slightly more sensitive to SIN-1 than wild-type cells. We used small-scale bioreactors to expose cells to NO and found that XRCC1-deficient CHO cells were not sensitive. However, using a molecular beacon assay to test lesion removal in vitro, we found that XRCC1 facilitates AAG-initiated excision of two key NO-induced DNA lesions: 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine and hypoxanthine. Furthermore, overexpression of AAG rendered XRCC1-deficient cells sensitive to NO-induced DNA damage. These results show that AAG is a key glycosylase for BER of NO-induced DNA damage and that XRCC1's role in modulating sensitivity to RONs is dependent upon the cellular level of AAG. This demonstrates the importance of considering the expression of other components of the BER pathway when evaluating the impact of XRCC1 polymorphisms on cancer risk.

  13. The Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal Syndrome Point Mutation F231L in the ERCC1 DNA Repair Protein Causes Dissociation of the ERCC1-XPF Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Faridounnia, Maryam; Wienk, Hans; Kovačič, Lidija; Folkers, Gert E.; Jaspers, Nicolaas G. J.; Kaptein, Robert; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Boelens, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The ERCC1-XPF heterodimer, a structure-specific DNA endonuclease, is best known for its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The ERCC1 point mutation F231L, located at the hydrophobic interaction interface of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F), leads to severe NER pathway deficiencies. Here, we analyze biophysical properties and report the NMR structure of the complex of the C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix domains of ERCC1-XPF that contains this mutation. The structures of wild type and the F231L mutant are very similar. The F231L mutation results in only a small disturbance of the ERCC1-XPF interface, where, in contrast to Phe231, Leu231 lacks interactions stabilizing the ERCC1-XPF complex. One of the two anchor points is severely distorted, and this results in a more dynamic complex, causing reduced stability and an increased dissociation rate of the mutant complex as compared with wild type. These data provide a biophysical explanation for the severe NER deficiencies caused by this mutation. PMID:26085086

  14. The Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal Syndrome Point Mutation F231L in the ERCC1 DNA Repair Protein Causes Dissociation of the ERCC1-XPF Complex.

    PubMed

    Faridounnia, Maryam; Wienk, Hans; Kovačič, Lidija; Folkers, Gert E; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Kaptein, Robert; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Boelens, Rolf

    2015-08-14

    The ERCC1-XPF heterodimer, a structure-specific DNA endonuclease, is best known for its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The ERCC1 point mutation F231L, located at the hydrophobic interaction interface of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F), leads to severe NER pathway deficiencies. Here, we analyze biophysical properties and report the NMR structure of the complex of the C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix domains of ERCC1-XPF that contains this mutation. The structures of wild type and the F231L mutant are very similar. The F231L mutation results in only a small disturbance of the ERCC1-XPF interface, where, in contrast to Phe(231), Leu(231) lacks interactions stabilizing the ERCC1-XPF complex. One of the two anchor points is severely distorted, and this results in a more dynamic complex, causing reduced stability and an increased dissociation rate of the mutant complex as compared with wild type. These data provide a biophysical explanation for the severe NER deficiencies caused by this mutation.

  15. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer.

  16. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26826460

  17. Pharmacogenetic Study in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Polymorphisms in Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, GSTP1, and DNA Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, David; Salazar, Juliana; Pare, Laia; Pertriz, Lourdes; Targarona, Eduardo; Rio, Elisabeth del; Barnadas, Agusti; Marcuello, Eugenio; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several studies have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment using oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative biomarkers of outcome are lacking. We studied the polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase, epidermal growth factor receptor, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and several DNA repair genes to evaluate their usefulness as pharmacogenetic markers in a cohort of 128 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood nucleated cells, and the genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and automated sequencing techniques or using a 48.48 dynamic array on the BioMark system. The germline polymorphisms studied were thymidylate synthase, (VNTR/5 Prime UTR, 2R G>C single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], 3R G>C SNP), epidermal growth factor receptor (Arg497Lys), GSTP1 (Ile105val), excision repair cross-complementing 1 (Asn118Asn, 8092C>A, 19716G>C), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (Lys751Gln). The pathologic response, pathologic regression, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated according to each genotype. Results: The Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 thymidylate synthase genotype was associated with a greater response rate (pathologic complete remission and microfoci residual tumor, 59% in Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 vs. 35% in Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 3; p = .013). For the thymidylate synthase genotype, the median progression-free survival was 103 months for the Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 patients and 84 months for the Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk

  18. UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) gene-knockout mice with nucleotide excision repair-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Kamiuchi, S; Ren, Y; Yonemasu, R; Ichikawa, M; Murai, H; Yoshino, M; Takeuchi, S; Saijo, M; Nakatsu, Y; Miyauchi-Hashimoto, H; Horio, T

    2001-06-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes a wide variety of lesions from the genome and is deficient in the genetic disorder, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). In this paper, an in vitro analysis of the XP group A gene product (XPA protein) is reported. Results of an analysis on the pathogenesis of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced skin cancer in the XPA gene-knockout mouse are also described: (1) contrary to wild type mice, significant bias of p53 mutations to the transcribed strand and no evident p53 mutational hot spots were detected in the skin tumors of XPA-knockout mice. (2) Skin cancer cell lines from UVB-irradiated XPA-knockout mice had a decreased mismatch repair activity and an abnormal cell cycle checkpoint, suggesting that the downregulation of mismatch repair helps cells escape killing by UVB and that mismatch repair-deficient clones are selected for during the tumorigenic transformation of XPA (-/-) cells. (3) The XPA-knockout mice showed a higher frequency of UVB-induced mutation in the rpsL transgene at a low dose of UVB-irradiation than the wild type mice. CC-->TT tandem transition, a hallmark of UV-induced mutation, was detected at higher frequency in the rpsL transgene in the XPA-knockout mice than the wild type mice. This rpsL/XPA mouse system will be useful for further analysing the role of NER in the mutagenesis induced by various carcinogens. (4) The UVB-induced immunosuppression was greatly enhanced in the XPA-knockout mice. It is possible that an enhanced impairment of the immune system by UVB irradiation is involved in the high incidence of skin cancer in XP. PMID:11376684

  19. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens. PMID:27723831

  20. Agrobacterium May Delay Plant Nonhomologous End-Joining DNA Repair via XRCC4 to Favor T-DNA Integration[W

    PubMed Central

    Vaghchhipawala, Zarir E.; Vasudevan, Balaji; Lee, Seonghee; Morsy, Mustafa R.; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soilborne pathogen that causes crown gall disease in many dicotyledonous plants by transfer of a portion of its tumor-inducing plasmid (T-DNA) into the plant genome. Several plant factors that play a role in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and transport of T-DNA to the nucleus have been identified, but the T-DNA integration step during transformation is poorly understood and has been proposed to occur via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)–mediated double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair. Here, we report a negative role of X-RAY CROSS COMPLEMENTATION GROUP4 (XRCC4), one of the key proteins required for NHEJ, in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration. Downregulation of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana increased stable transformation due to increased T-DNA integration. Overexpression of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis decreased stable transformation due to decreased T-DNA integration. Interestingly, XRCC4 directly interacted with Agrobacterium protein VirE2 in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta. VirE2-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more susceptible to the DNA damaging chemical bleomycin and showed increased stable transformation. We hypothesize that VirE2 titrates or excludes active XRCC4 protein available for DSB repair, thus delaying the closure of DSBs in the chromosome, providing greater opportunity for T-DNA to integrate. PMID:23064322

  1. Curcumin prevents DNA damage and enhances the repair potential in a chronically arsenic-exposed human population in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Madhumita; Sinha, Dona; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip

    2011-03-01

    Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of DNA repair are possible modes of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. In West Bengal, India, several districts contain high levels of arsenic, which are far above the WHO-recommended standard. Prevention of arsenic-induced oxidative stress and induction of repair enzymes by curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, may be an effective strategy to combat the adverse effects of arsenic. This study aimed at observing the role of curcumin in reducing 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine formation and enhancing DNA repair capacity in the arsenic-exposed population of West Bengal. Chronically arsenic-exposed volunteers (n= 66), who were asymptomatic, were selected for this study. Our results indicated that curcumin suppressed the 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine level and OGG1 expression, which were increased by arsenic. Curcumin also induced DNA repair enzymes involved in both base excision repair and nonhomologous end-joining pathways. In this study, both the protein expression and genetic profile were observed for poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1, DNA b polymerase, X ray repair cross complement 1, DNA ligase III, DNA protein kinase catalytic sub-unit, X ray repair cross-complement 4, DNA ligase IV, and topoisomerase II b. The results indicated that arsenic-inhibited DNA repair was induced by curcumin, both at protein and genetic levels. Thus, curcumin intervention may be a useful modality for the prevention of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:21332098

  2. Curcumin prevents DNA damage and enhances the repair potential in a chronically arsenic-exposed human population in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Madhumita; Sinha, Dona; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip

    2011-03-01

    Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of DNA repair are possible modes of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. In West Bengal, India, several districts contain high levels of arsenic, which are far above the WHO-recommended standard. Prevention of arsenic-induced oxidative stress and induction of repair enzymes by curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, may be an effective strategy to combat the adverse effects of arsenic. This study aimed at observing the role of curcumin in reducing 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine formation and enhancing DNA repair capacity in the arsenic-exposed population of West Bengal. Chronically arsenic-exposed volunteers (n= 66), who were asymptomatic, were selected for this study. Our results indicated that curcumin suppressed the 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine level and OGG1 expression, which were increased by arsenic. Curcumin also induced DNA repair enzymes involved in both base excision repair and nonhomologous end-joining pathways. In this study, both the protein expression and genetic profile were observed for poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1, DNA b polymerase, X ray repair cross complement 1, DNA ligase III, DNA protein kinase catalytic sub-unit, X ray repair cross-complement 4, DNA ligase IV, and topoisomerase II b. The results indicated that arsenic-inhibited DNA repair was induced by curcumin, both at protein and genetic levels. Thus, curcumin intervention may be a useful modality for the prevention of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

  3. DNA repair gene ERCC1 polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of glioma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guanqian; Gao, Dandan; Ding, Shaofeng; Tan, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Polymorphisms in excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group 1 (ERCC1) gene have been shown to affect individual susceptibility to glioma, though studies have yielded conflicting results. This meta-analysis aims to derive a more precise estimation of the association between ERCC1 C8092A and C118T polymorphisms and glioma risk. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases was conducted to identify all eligible studies published before August 5, 2013. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of this association. A meta-analysis was performed by reviewing seven studies on the C8092A polymorphism (2,978 cases and 4,051 controls) and four studies on the C118T polymorphism (1,390 Asian cases and 1,546 Asian controls). Pooled analysis yielded a significant association between the C8092A variant genotype and increased risk of glioma. As for ethnicity, the A allele was associated with increased risk of glioma in Asians, while no similar finding was observed in Caucasians. Stratified analyses by histological subtype indicated that the C8092A polymorphism showed a significant association with the risk of non-glioblastoma multiforme. For the C118T polymorphism, increased glioma susceptibility was also observed among Asians. Taken together, results from our meta-analysis support the view that common variants in ERCC1 may contribute to susceptibility to glioma, especially in Asians. However, further studies investigating the significance of these two polymorphisms as markers of susceptibility to and disease progression of glioma are still needed. PMID:24453030

  4. KIAA1530 protein is recruited by Cockayne syndrome complementation group protein A (CSA) to participate in transcription-coupled repair (TCR).

    PubMed

    Fei, Jia; Chen, Junjie

    2012-10-12

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is the major pathway involved in the removal of UV-induced photolesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. Two Cockayne syndrome (CS) complementation group proteins, CSA and CSB, are important for TCR repair. The molecular mechanisms by which CS proteins regulate TCR remain elusive. Here, we report the characterization of KIAA1530, an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in this pathway through its interaction with CSA and the TFIIH complex. We found that UV irradiation led to the recruitment of KIAA1530 onto chromatin in a CSA-dependent manner. Cells lacking KIAA1530 were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and displayed deficiency in TCR. In addition, KIAA1530 depletion abrogated stability of the CSB protein following UV irradiation. More excitingly, we found that a unique CSA mutant (W361C), which was previously identified in a patient with UV(s)S syndrome, showed defective KIAA1530 binding and resulted in a failure of recruiting KIAA1530 and stabilizing CSB after UV treatment. Together, our data not only reveal that KIAA1530 is an important player in TCR but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying UV(s)S syndrome. PMID:22902626

  5. KIAA1530 Protein Is Recruited by Cockayne Syndrome Complementation Group Protein A (CSA) to Participate in Transcription-coupled Repair (TCR)

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Jia; Chen, Junjie

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is the major pathway involved in the removal of UV-induced photolesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. Two Cockayne syndrome (CS) complementation group proteins, CSA and CSB, are important for TCR repair. The molecular mechanisms by which CS proteins regulate TCR remain elusive. Here, we report the characterization of KIAA1530, an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in this pathway through its interaction with CSA and the TFIIH complex. We found that UV irradiation led to the recruitment of KIAA1530 onto chromatin in a CSA-dependent manner. Cells lacking KIAA1530 were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and displayed deficiency in TCR. In addition, KIAA1530 depletion abrogated stability of the CSB protein following UV irradiation. More excitingly, we found that a unique CSA mutant (W361C), which was previously identified in a patient with UVsS syndrome, showed defective KIAA1530 binding and resulted in a failure of recruiting KIAA1530 and stabilizing CSB after UV treatment. Together, our data not only reveal that KIAA1530 is an important player in TCR but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying UVsS syndrome. PMID:22902626

  6. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  7. Defend or repair? Explaining responses to in-group moral failure by disentangling feelings of shame, rejection, and inferiority.

    PubMed

    Gausel, Nicolay; Leach, Colin Wayne; Vignoles, Vivian L; Brown, Rupert

    2012-05-01

    Research on shame about in-group moral failure has yielded paradoxical results. In some studies, shame predicts self-defensive motivations to withdraw. In other studies, shame predicts pro-social motivations, such as restitution. We think that this paradox can be explained by disentangling the numerous appraisals and feelings subsumed under the label "shame." In 2 studies, we asked community samples of Norwegians about their in-group's discrimination against the Tater minority. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the measures of the appraisals and feelings used in Study 1 (N = 206) and Study 2 (N = 173). In both studies, an appraisal of the in-group as suffering a moral defect best predicted felt shame, whereas an appraisal of concern for condemnation of the in-group best predicted felt rejection. In both studies, felt rejection best predicted self-defensive motivation, whereas felt shame best predicted pro-social motivation. Implications for conceptualizing and studying shame are discussed. PMID:22352324

  8. Defend or repair? Explaining responses to in-group moral failure by disentangling feelings of shame, rejection, and inferiority.

    PubMed

    Gausel, Nicolay; Leach, Colin Wayne; Vignoles, Vivian L; Brown, Rupert

    2012-05-01

    Research on shame about in-group moral failure has yielded paradoxical results. In some studies, shame predicts self-defensive motivations to withdraw. In other studies, shame predicts pro-social motivations, such as restitution. We think that this paradox can be explained by disentangling the numerous appraisals and feelings subsumed under the label "shame." In 2 studies, we asked community samples of Norwegians about their in-group's discrimination against the Tater minority. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the measures of the appraisals and feelings used in Study 1 (N = 206) and Study 2 (N = 173). In both studies, an appraisal of the in-group as suffering a moral defect best predicted felt shame, whereas an appraisal of concern for condemnation of the in-group best predicted felt rejection. In both studies, felt rejection best predicted self-defensive motivation, whereas felt shame best predicted pro-social motivation. Implications for conceptualizing and studying shame are discussed.

  9. Clubfoot repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... release; Talipes equinovarus - repair; Tibialis anterior tendon transfer Images Clubfoot repair - series References Kelly DM. Congenital Anomalies ... provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  10. Tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  14. Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Gene ERCC2/XPD and Breast Cancer Risk: A HapMap-Based Case–Control Study Among Han Women in a Chinese Less-Developed Area

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Haitao; Guo, Hongyun; Yang, Suisheng; Zhu, Gongjian; Guo, Huan; Wang, Lan; Li, Yonghui; Yang, Kai; Li, Haining; Min, Jianping; Li, Xueping; Hu, Qingrong; Wang, Yumei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Binming; Chen, Xuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Genetic variations in DNA repair genes may impact repair functions, DNA damage, and breast cancer risk. This study is aimed to assess the associations of genetic polymorphisms in excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) with the risk of developing breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In total, 101 histopathologically confirmed breast cancer cases and 101 age/region-matched healthy controls were genotyped for rs3916840, rs1799793, and rs238416 in ERCC2 by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The rs238416 heterozygous GA genotype combined with the rs238416 genotypes (GA+AA) showed a significant association with breast cancer susceptibility (corrected p<0.01, odds ratio [OR]=0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.15–0.54; corrected p<0.01, OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.17–0.56, respectively). The rs238416 GA genotype carriers had a decreased risk of breast cancer. However, we observed no significant association between the rs3916840 and rs1799793 polymorphisms in ERCC2 and breast cancer risk. Moreover, haplotype analysis showed that the ACG haplotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of breast cancer, whereas the GCG haplotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (corrected p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis demonstrated that the interactions between rs3916840 and rs238416 were significantly synergistic. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that the rs238416 heterozygous genotype likely has a higher DNA repair capacity and, thus, can be protective against breast cancer in Chinese Han women. PMID:25117088

  15. Six years' experience with prostaglandin I2 infusion in elective open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a parallel group observational study in a tertiary referral vascular center.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Chris; Hynes, Niamh; Sultan, Sherif

    2008-11-01

    The prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) analogue iloprost, a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet activation, has traditionally been utilized in pulmonary hypertension and off-label use for revascularization of chronic critical lower limb ischemia. This study was designed to assess the effect of 72 hr iloprost infusion on systemic ischemia post-open elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (EAAA) surgery. Between January 2000 and 2007, 104 patients undergoing open EAAA were identified: 36 had juxtarenal, 15 had suprarenal, and 53 had infrarenal aneurysms, with a mean maximal diameter of 6.9 cm. The male-to-female ratio was 2.5:1, with a mean age of 71.9 years. No statistically significant difference was seen between the study groups with regard to age, sex, risk factors, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, or diameter of aneurysm repaired. All emergency, urgent, and endovascular procedures for aneurysms were excluded. Fifty-seven patients received iloprost infusion for 72 hr in the immediate postoperative period compared with 47 patients who did not. Patients were monitored for signs of pulmonary, renal, cardiac, systemic ischemia, and postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) morbidity. Statistically significantly increased ventilation rates (p=0.0048), pulmonary complication rates (p=0.0019), and myocardial ischemia (p=0.0446) were noted in those patients not receiving iloprost. These patients also had significantly higher renal indices including estimate glomerular filtration rate changes (p=0.041) and postoperative urea level rises (p=0.0286). Peripheral limb trashing was noted in five patients (11.6%) in the non-iloprost group compared with no patients who received iloprost. Increased rates of transfusion requirements and bowel complications were noted in those who did not receive iloprost, with their ICU stay greater than twice that of iloprost patients. All-cause morbidity affected 67% of patients not receiving iloprost compared to 40% who did

  16. Genetic variation in DNA-repair pathways and response to radiochemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent data in esophageal cancer suggests the variant allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC1 may be associated with resistance to radiochemotherapy. However, this SNP has not been assessed in a histologically homogeneous clinical trial cohort that has been treated with a uniform approach. In addition, whether germline DNA may serve as a surrogate for tumor genotype at this locus is unknown in this disease. Our objective was to assess this SNP in relation to the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy in a multicenter clinical trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1201). As a secondary aim, we investigated the rate of allelic imbalance between germline and tumor DNA. Methods Eighty-one eligible treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received radiotherapy (45 Gy) concurrent with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was pCR, defined as complete absence of tumor in the surgical specimen after radiochemotherapy. Using germline DNA from 60 subjects, we examined the base-excision repair SNP, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and 4 other SNPs in nucleotide excision (XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, ERCC1 3' flank) and double-stranded break (XRCC2 5' flank) repair pathways, and correlated genotype with pCR rate. Paired tumor tissue was used to estimate the frequency of allelic imbalance at the XRCC1 SNP. Results The variant allele of the XRCC1 SNP (399Gln) was detected in 52% of subjects. Only 6% of subjects with the variant allele experienced a pCR, compared to 28% of subjects without the variant allele (odds ratio 5.37 for failing to achieve pCR, p = 0.062). Allelic imbalance at this locus was found in only 10% of informative subjects, suggesting that germline genotype may reflect tumor genotype at this locus. No significant association with pCR was noted

  17. DNA-repair measurements by use of the modified comet assay: an inter-laboratory comparison within the European Comet Assay Validation Group (ECVAG).

    PubMed

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa; Langie, Sabine A S; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Azqueta, Amaya; Collins, Andrew R; Jones, George D D; Kwok, Rachel W L; Phillips, David H; Sozeri, Osman; Allione, Alessandra; Matullo, Giuseppe; Möller, Lennart; Forchhammer, Lykke; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2013-09-18

    The measurement of DNA-repair activity by extracts from cells or tissues by means of the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has a high potential to become widely used in biomonitoring studies. We assessed the inter-laboratory variation in reported values of DNA-repair activity on substrate cells that had been incubated with Ro19-8022 plus light to generate oxidatively damaged DNA. Eight laboratories assessed the DNA-repair activity of three cell lines (i.e. one epithelial and two fibroblast cell lines), starting with cell pellets or with cell extracts provided by the coordinating laboratory. There was a large inter-laboratory variation, as evidenced by the range in the mean level of repair incisions between the laboratory with the lowest (0.002incisions/10(6)bp) and highest (0.988incisions/10(6)bp) incision activity. Nevertheless, six out of eight laboratories reported the same cell line as having the highest level of DNA-repair activity. The two laboratories that reported discordant results (with another cell line having the highest level of DNA-repair activity) were those that reported to have little experience with the modified comet assay to assess DNA repair. The laboratories were also less consistent in ordering the repair activity of the other two cell lines, probably because the DNA-repair activity by extracts from these cell lines were very similar (on average approximately 60-65% of the cell line with the highest repair capacity). A significant correlation was observed between the repair activity found in the provided and the self-made cell extracts (r=0.71, P<0.001), which indicates that the predominant source for inter-laboratory variation is derived from the incubation of the extract with substrate cells embedded in the gel. Overall, we conclude that the incubation step of cell extracts with the substrate cells can be identified as a major source of inter-laboratory variation in the modified comet assay for base-excision repair.

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  19. DNA repair gene ERCC1 polymorphisms and glioma susceptibility among Chinese population: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunming; Shen, Fang; Du, Jianmin; Wang, Xiaohua; Su, Jin; Liu, Zhanli; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been shown to be involved in the progression of glioma susceptibility. However, the results remain conflict. The aim of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the role of ERCC1 C118T and C8092A polymorphisms in glioma risk among Chinese population. Methods: Related case-control studies were searched in online electronic databases. Odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to calculate the extracted data. Results: Total seven articles were retrieved, including 4426 subjects (1926 were glioma patients and 2500 were matched controls). No significant heterogeneity was found between studies (I2=0%, P>0.01). Our results demonstrated that A allele and AA genotype of ERCC1 C8092A polymorphism have a positive association with increasing the risk of glioma in the fixed-effect model (A vs. C: OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.02-1.25, P=0.02; AA vs. CC: OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.04-1.61, P=0.02; AA vs. CA+CC: OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.01-1.55, P=0.04). However, no significant relationship was found between C118T variant and glioma susceptibility. Conclusions: Our results indicated that ERCC1 C8092A, not C118T polymorphism might be a biomarker for patients with glioma among Chinese population. Future studies with more ethnicities are needed to explore the precise association. PMID:26379816

  20. Members of the RAD52 Epistasis Group Contribute to Mitochondrial Homologous Recombination and Double-Strand Break Repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stein, Alexis; Kalifa, Lidza; Sia, Elaine A

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondria contain an independently maintained genome that encodes several proteins required for cellular respiration. Deletions in the mitochondrial genome have been identified that cause several maternally inherited diseases and are associated with certain cancers and neurological disorders. The majority of these deletions in human cells are flanked by short, repetitive sequences, suggesting that these deletions may result from recombination events. Our current understanding of the maintenance and repair of mtDNA is quite limited compared to our understanding of similar events in the nucleus. Many nuclear DNA repair proteins are now known to also localize to mitochondria, but their function and the mechanism of their action remain largely unknown. This study investigated the contribution of the nuclear double-strand break repair (DSBR) proteins Rad51p, Rad52p and Rad59p in mtDNA repair. We have determined that both Rad51p and Rad59p are localized to the matrix of the mitochondria and that Rad51p binds directly to mitochondrial DNA. In addition, a mitochondrially-targeted restriction endonuclease (mtLS-KpnI) was used to produce a unique double-strand break (DSB) in the mitochondrial genome, which allowed direct analysis of DSB repair in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that loss of these three proteins significantly decreases the rate of spontaneous deletion events and the loss of Rad51p and Rad59p impairs the repair of induced mtDNA DSBs.

  1. Craniosynostosis repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be asleep and will not feel pain. Traditional surgery is called open repair. It includes these ... helps keep the swelling down. Talking, singing, playing music, and telling stories may help soothe your child. ...

  2. Repair of parastomal hernias using polypropylene mesh.

    PubMed

    Byers, J M; Steinberg, J B; Postier, R G

    1992-10-01

    Parastomal hernias are a common complication of ostomy construction. We have developed a method of repair that uses two strips of polypropylene prosthetic mesh through a midline incision. The medical records of 19 patients who underwent parastomal hernia repair were retrospectively reviewed. All nine patients operated on for this condition by the senior author (R.G.P.) (group 1) underwent repairs with this technique. All ten patients operated on by other surgeons in our center (group 2) underwent repairs in which the stoma was moved, the fascia was directly repaired through a parastomal incision, or the fascia was repaired via a midline incision. No patients in group 1 had recurrences while five patients in group 2 had recurrences. Neither group developed strictures or stomal prolapse. Our method of repair is technically easy and has excellent results. It is especially suitable in very large hernias in which incisional hernia is likely in the original stoma site if the stoma is moved. PMID:1417494

  3. Pectus excavatum repair

    MedlinePlus

    Funnel chest repair; Chest deformity repair; Sunken chest repair; Cobbler's chest repair; Nuss repair; Ravitch repair ... There are two types of surgery to repair this condition -- open surgery ... surgery is done while the child is in a deep sleep and pain- ...

  4. Femoral hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  5. Undescended testicle repair

    MedlinePlus

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  6. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  7. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential. PMID:26325656

  8. Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group Cellular Biology of the Heart: cell-based therapies for myocardial repair and regeneration in ischemic heart disease and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Van Laake, Linda W; Davidson, Sean M; Engel, Felix B; Hausenloy, Derek J; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Perrino, Cinzia; Schulz, Rainer; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Landmesser, Ulf; Mummery, Christine L; Janssens, Stefan; Willerson, James; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ferdinandy, Péter; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2016-06-14

    Despite improvements in modern cardiovascular therapy, the morbidity and mortality of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) remain significant in Europe and worldwide. Patients with IHD may benefit from therapies that would accelerate natural processes of postnatal collateral vessel formation and/or muscle regeneration. Here, we discuss the use of cells in the context of heart repair, and the most relevant results and current limitations from clinical trials using cell-based therapies to treat IHD and HF. We identify and discuss promising potential new therapeutic strategies that include ex vivo cell-mediated gene therapy, the use of biomaterials and cell-free therapies aimed at increasing the success rates of therapy for IHD and HF. The overall aim of this Position Paper of the ESC Working Group Cellular Biology of the Heart is to provide recommendations on how to improve the therapeutic application of cell-based therapies for cardiac regeneration and repair.

  9. Intestinal obstruction repair

    MedlinePlus

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  10. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  11. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  12. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  13. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  14. [Repair of the traumata caused by partial laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Guo, Z; Fu, X; Wang, J

    1994-01-01

    At present, the wound caused by partial laryngectomy are repaired by using many kinds of tissues in order to avoid infection, granuloma and laryngeal stenosis. It is unclear whether the traumata has to be repaired by transplant tissues or non-repaired traumata will lead to laryngeal dysfunction. This article analyzed 162 patients who received partial laryngectomy from April 1980 to March 1992. These patients had been divided into two groups: repaired group (78 cases) and non-repaired group (84 cases). Repair material used included sternohyoideus fascia (57 cases), thyro-hyoideus fascia (9 cases), throat musculus flap (6 cases), stemocleido-mastoideus fascia (3 cases) and throat flap (3 cases). The result indicated that there were no significant differences in respiration swallow recovery time and so on. So we concluded that non-repaired group has similar curative effect to repaired group and repairing the traumata (especially minor traumata) with the fascia around the traumata is an effective method.

  15. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E protein (XPE/DDB2): purification of various complexes of XPE and analyses of their damaged DNA binding and putative DNA repair properties.

    PubMed

    Kulaksiz, Gülnihal; Reardon, Joyce T; Sancar, Aziz

    2005-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is characterized by increased sensitivity of the affected individuals to sunlight and light-induced skin cancers and, in some cases, to neurological abnormalities. The disease is caused by a mutation in genes XPA through XPG and the XP variant (XPV) gene. The proteins encoded by the XPA, -B, -C, -D, -F, and -G genes are required for nucleotide excision repair, and the XPV gene encodes DNA polymerase eta, which carries out translesion DNA synthesis. In contrast, the mechanism by which the XPE gene product prevents sunlight-induced cancers is not known. The gene (XPE/DDB2) encodes the small subunit of a heterodimeric DNA binding protein with high affinity to UV-damaged DNA (UV-damaged DNA binding protein [UV-DDB]). The DDB2 protein exists in at least four forms in the cell: monomeric DDB2, DDB1-DDB2 heterodimer (UV-DDB), and as a protein associated with both the Cullin 4A (CUL4A) complex and the COP9 signalosome. To better define the role of DDB2 in the cellular response to DNA damage, we purified all four forms of DDB2 and analyzed their DNA binding properties and their effects on mammalian nucleotide excision repair. We find that DDB2 has an intrinsic damaged DNA binding activity and that under our assay conditions neither DDB2 nor complexes that contain DDB2 (UV-DDB, CUL4A, and COP9) participate in nucleotide excision repair carried out by the six-factor human excision nuclease. PMID:16260596

  16. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  17. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  18. A systematic gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analysis of DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC4, and oral cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Da; Yen, Ching-Yui; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a high mortality rate. Biomarkers that anticipate susceptibility, prognosis, or response to treatments are much needed. Oral cancer is a polygenic disease involving complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors, which require multifaceted analyses. Here, we examined in a dataset of 103 oral cancer cases and 98 controls from Taiwan the association between oral cancer risk and the DNA repair genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCCs) 1-4, and the environmental factors of smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel quid (BQ) chewing. We employed logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and hierarchical interaction graphs for analyzing gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions. We identified a significantly elevated risk of the XRCC2 rs2040639 heterozygous variant among smokers [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-12.1] and alcohol drinkers [adjusted OR=5.7, 95% CI=1.4-23.2]. The best two-factor based G×G interaction of oral cancer included the XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 [OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.66-6.13]. For the G×E interaction, the estimated OR of oral cancer for two (drinking-BQ chewing), three (XRCC1-XRCC2-BQ chewing), four (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-BQ chewing), and five factors (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-drinking-BQ chewing) were 32.9 [95% CI=14.1-76.9], 31.0 [95% CI=14.0-64.7], 49.8 [95% CI=21.0-117.7] and 82.9 [95% CI=31.0-221.5], respectively. Taken together, the genotypes of XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 DNA repair genes appear to be significantly associated with oral cancer. These were enhanced by exposure to certain environmental factors. The observations presented here warrant further research in larger study samples to examine their relevance for routine clinical care in oncology.

  19. Repair Integrity and Clinical Outcomes Following Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ariel A.; Mark, P.; DiVenere, Jessica Megan; Klinge, Stephen Austin; Arciero, Robert A.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the effect of early versus delayed motion on repair integrity on 6-month postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans following rotator cuff repair, and to correlate repair integrity with clinical and functional outcomes. We hypothesized that repair integrity would differ between the early and delayed groups and that patients with repair failures would have worse clinical and functional outcomes. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, single blinded clinical trial comparing an early motion (post-op day 2-3) to a delayed motion (post-op day 28) rehabilitation protocol following arthroscopic repair of isolated supraspinatus tears. All patients underwent MRI at 6 months post-operatively as part of the study protocol. A blinded board-certified and fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon (not part of the surgical team) reviewed operative photos and video to confirm the presence of a full thickness supraspinatus tear and to ensure an adequate and consistent repair. The same surgeon along with a blinded sports medicine fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist independently reviewed all MRIs to determine whether the repair was intact at 6 months. Outcome measures were collected by independent evaluators who were also blinded to group assignment. These included the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) ratings, pain scores, sling use, and physical exam data. Enrolled patients were followed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Results: From October 2008 to April 2012, 73 patients met all inclusion criteria and were willing to participate. 36 patients were randomized to delayed motion and 37 were randomized to early motion. The final study group at 6 months consisted of 58 study participants. Postoperative MRIs were obtained on all of these patients at 6 months regardless of whether or not they were progressing as expected. These MRIs demonstrated an overall failure rate of

  20. Molecular and Cellular Analysis of the DNA Repair Defect in a Patient in Xeroderma Pigmentosum Complementation Group D Who Has the Clinical Features of Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, B. C.; Thompson, A. F.; Harcourt, S. A.; Vermeulen, W.; Hoeijmakers, J. H. J.; Botta, E.; Stefanini, M.; King, M. D.; Weber, C. A.; Cole, J.; Arlett, C. F.; Lehmann, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are quite distinct genetic disorders that are associated with defects in excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. A few patients have been described previously with the clinical features of both disorders. In this paper we describe an individual in this category who has unusual cellular responses to UV light. We show that his cultured fibroblasts and lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to irradiation with UV-C, despite a level of nucleotide excision repair that is 30%–40% that of normal cells. The deficiency is assigned to the XP-D complementation group, and we have identified two causative mutations in the XPD gene: a gly→arg change at amino acid 675 in the allele inherited from the patient's mother and a −1 frameshift at amino acid 669 in the allele inherited from his father. These mutations are in the C-terminal 20% of the 760-amino-acid XPD protein, in a region where we have recently identified several mutations in patients with trichothiodystrophy. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5 PMID:7825573

  1. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  2. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  3. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, occupational exposure to arsenic and sunlight, and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a European case-control study.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2014-10-01

    X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3) polymorphisms are relatively frequent in Caucasian populations and may have implications in skin cancer modulation. A few studies have evaluated their association with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but the results are inconsistent. In the current study, we aim to assess the impact of XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms on the risk of NMSC associated with sunlight and arsenic exposure. Study participants consist of 618 new cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls frequency matched on age, sex, and county of residence from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Adjusted effects are estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The results indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC1 R399Q (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.14-5.65) and a protective effect against basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC3 T241M (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.92), compared with the respective homozygous common genotypes. Significant interactions are detected between XRCC3 T241M and sunlight exposure at work, and between XRCC3 T241M and exposure to arsenic in drinking water (p-value for interaction <0.10). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that polymorphisms in XRCC genes may modify the associations between skin cancer risk and exposure to sunlight or arsenic. Given the high prevalence of genetic polymorphisms modifying the association between exposure to environmental carcinogens and NMSC, these results are of substantial relevance to public health.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  6. Bio-enhanced repair of the anterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Sieker, Jakob T.; Murray, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Suture repair of the ACL has been widely abandoned in favor of ACL reconstruction, largely due to the high rates of failure and unreliability of the outcomes following suture repair. However, there have been recent basic science studies which suggest that combining a suture repair with a biologic adjunct may improve the results of suture repair of the ACL, with several studies in large animal models showing equivalent strength of an ACL treated with bio-enhanced repaired with that of an ACL graft at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, the groups treated with bio-enhanced repair had significantly less osteoarthritis when compared with the animals undergoing ACL reconstruction. These findings have led to a renewed interest in bio-enhanced primary repair as a way to make repair of the ACL a viable option for a select group of patients in the future. PMID:25595694

  7. DNA Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    MARINUS, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair functions to correct replication errors in newly synthesized DNA and to prevent recombination between related, but not identical (homeologous), DNA sequences. The mechanism of mismatch repair is best understood in Escherichia coli and is the main focus of this review. The early genetic studies of mismatch repair are described as a basis for the subsequent biochemical characterization of the system. The effects of mismatch repair on homologous and homeologous recombination are described. The relationship of mismatch repair to cell toxicity induced by various drugs is included. The VSP (Very Short Patch) repair system is described in detail. PMID:26442827

  8. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some hernia repairs are performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. If your surgeon has ... in the abdominal wall (muscle) using small incisions, telescopes and a patch (mesh). Laparoscopic repair offers a ...

  9. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  10. Hydrocele repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaginalis into the scrotum. This is called an inguinal hernia. If a hydrocele persists past the first six ... months of life, it should be surgically repaired. Inguinal hernia in infants is usually repaired within the first ...

  11. Minilaparoscopy For Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Malcher, Flavio; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti; Araujo, Guilherme D. E.; Silva, José Antônio Da Cunha E.; Rao, Prashanth; Iglesias, Antonio Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Inguinal hernia repair is among the most common procedures performed worldwide and the laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach is a recognized and effective surgical technique. Although technically advantageous because of the option of no mesh fixation and no need for creation of a peritoneal flap resulting, in less postoperative pain and faster recovery, TEP has not achieved the popularity it deserves, mainly because of its complexity and steep learning curve. Minilaparoscopy was first described in the 1990s and has recently gained significantly from better instrumentation that may increase TEP's effectiveness and acceptance. We performed a prospective study, to analyze the outcomes of minilaparoscopy in pain and operative time when compared to the conventional laparoscopic technique in hernia repair. Methods: Fifty-eight laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs were performed: 36 by traditional laparoscopic technique and 22 by minilaparoscopic instruments (mini). A study protocol was applied prospectively for data collection. Variables analyzed were early postoperative pain (at hour 6 after procedure), pain at discharge, use of on-demand analgesics, and operative time. Results: The mini group presented reduced early postoperative pain and operative time. The present study also suggests less postoperative pain at discharge with mini procedures, although this difference was not statistically significant. No difference between the groups regarding on-demand use of analgesics was found. Conclusions: This study corroborates findings in previously published papers that have shown the feasibility of minilaparoscopy in laparoscopic TEP hernia repair and its benefits regarding postoperative pain, operative time, and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:27777499

  12. Does Method of Placental Removal or Site of Uterine Incision Repair Alter Endometritis After Cesarean Delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Mark K.; Harris, Robert L.; Floyd, Randall C.; Martin, James N.; Morrison, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Objective: his investigation was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between postcesarean endometritis and (1) method of placental removal and (2) site for uterine repair. Methods: This prospective, randomized study included 120 patients who underwent primary or repeat abdominal delivery for arrest of progress in labor, fetal distress, or breech presentation. Parturients were divided into four groups: I—spontaneous placental detachment, in situ uterine repair; II—spontaneous placental detachment, exteriorized uterine repair; III—manual placental removal, in situ uterine repair; and IV—manual placental removal, exteriorized uterine repair. Prophylactic antibiotics were not used. Results: Endometritis was significantly increased in the manual removal/exteriorized uterine repair group versus all the other groups including the spontaneous removal in situ (group I, P = 0.012), the spontaneous removal/exteriorized repair group (group II, P = 0.034), and the manual removal/in situ repair group (group III, P = 0.043). Comparison of group IV (manual removal/ exteriorized repair) with the combined groups I, II, and III (spontaneous removal/in situ repair, spontaneous removal/exteriorized repair, and manual removal/in situ repair) was significantly different (P = 0.005). Prior to delivery, use of an internal monitoring system, skill of the operating surgeon, and type of anesthesia were similar among groups. Conclusions: The findings of this investigation suggest that; when other known causes of infectious morbidity are constant, manual placental remvol in association with exteriorization for uterine repair significantly increases postcesarean endometritis. PMID:18476211

  13. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Extracranial repair of cerebrospinal fluid otorhinorrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Persky, M.S.; Rothstein, S.G.; Breda, S.D.; Cohen, N.L.; Cooper, P.; Ransohoff, J. )

    1991-02-01

    Forty-eight patients with cerebrospinal fluid leaks comprise this retrospective study. There were 39 traumatic and 9 spontaneous leaks. Nine patients were initially managed with bed rest and spinal drainage, but 3 patients in this group ultimately required surgical intervention for repair of their persistent leaks. Thirty-nine patients had surgery as initial therapy, with 33 extracranial repairs, 2 intracranial repairs, and 4 combined approaches. The extracranial approach was used in 36 of 42 patients, with an initial success rate of 86%.

  15. Shear Bond Strength of Repaired Composites Using Surface Treatments and Repair Materials: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, M; Saritha, G; Rajasekhar, V; Pachlag, K Amit; Purushotham, R; Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhancement of bond strength between new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness of old composite to promote mechanical interlocking and subsequent coating with bonding agents to improve surface wetting and chemical bonding. So this study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and repair materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite repairs The mode of failure of repaired composites whether cohesive or adhesive was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The substrates for 60 composite specimens were fabricated and aged with water treatment and subjected to various surface treatments. The surface treatment regimens used in the study were: No surface treatment, abraded with diamond bur, air abraded (sandblasted) with 50 µ aluminum oxide particles. Specimens were then repaired with fresh composite using either Clearfil™ repair or all-bond two adhesive systems. Specimens were water stored, thermocycled and tested for SBS using universal testing machine. Fractured specimens were then examined under stereomicroscope to determine the mode of failure. Results: It was clearly showed that surface roughening of the aged composite substrate with air abrasion, followed by the application of Clearfil™ repair adhesive system (Group IIIa) yielded the highest repair bond strength (32.3 ± 2.2 MPa). Conclusion: Surface treatment with air abrasion followed by bonding with Clearfil™ repair adhesive system can be attempted clinically for the repair of composite restorations. PMID:25628478

  16. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  17. Optimality in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge. PMID:21945337

  18. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D D; Lockey, J E; Petajan, J; Gunter, B J; Rom, W N

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differences were noted between groups for the ulnar (motor and sensory), median (motor and sensory), peroneal, sural, or tibial nerve conduction velocities. Refrigeration repair workers reported palpitations and lightheadedness significantly more often than workers in the reference group. No clinical neurological or electroneurophysiological abnormalities were detected in eight refrigeration repair workers followed up for three years during continuous employment. PMID:3004555

  19. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Cihad; Tüzün, İshak Sefa; Karşıdağ, Tamer; Kızılkaya, Mehmet Celal; Yılmaz, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of non-complicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3), and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4). Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14%) of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78%) had hematomas, four (3.57%) had seromas, and one (0.89%) had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56%) of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69%) had hematomas, one (2.56%) had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection, seroma

  20. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Cihad; Tüzün, İshak Sefa; Karşıdağ, Tamer; Kızılkaya, Mehmet Celal; Yılmaz, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of non-complicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3), and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4). Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14%) of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78%) had hematomas, four (3.57%) had seromas, and one (0.89%) had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56%) of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69%) had hematomas, one (2.56%) had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection, seroma

  1. Arthroscopic Repair of Posterior Meniscal Root Tears

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Lauren; Moulton, Samuel G.; Dean, Chase S.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare subjective clinical outcomes in patients requiring arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair for posterior meniscus root tears of the medial and lateral menisci. We hypothesized that improvement in function and activity level would be similar among patients undergoing lateral and medial meniscal root repairs. Methods: This study was IRB approved. All patients who underwent posterior meniscal root repair by a single orthopaedic surgeon were included in this study. Detailed operative data were documented at surgery. Patients completed a subjective questionnaire, including Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, WOMAC, SF-12 and patient satisfaction with outcome, which were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of two years postoperatively. Failure was defined as any patient who underwent revision meniscal root repair or partial meniscectomy following the index surgery. Results: There were 50 patients (16 females, 34 males) with a mean age of 37.8 years (range, 16.6-65.7) and a mean BMI of 27.3 (range, 20.5-49.2) included in this study. Fifteen patients underwent lateral meniscus root repair and 35 patients underwent medial meniscus root repair. Three patients who underwent lateral meniscus root repair required revision meniscus root repair surgery, while no patients who underwent medial meniscus root repair required revision surgery (p=0.26). There was a significant difference in preoperative and postoperative Lysholm score (53 vs. 78) (p<0.001), Tegner activity scale (2.0 vs. 4.0) (p=0.03), SF-12 physical component subscale (38 vs. 50) (p=0.001) and WOMAC (36 vs. 8) (p<0.001) for the total population. Median patient satisfaction with outcome was 9 (range, 1-10). There was no significant difference in mean age between lateral and medial root repair groups (32 vs. 40) (p=0.12) or gender (p=0.19). There was no significant difference in gender between lateral and medial root repair groups (p=0.95). There was a

  2. Methods of repairing a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  3. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  4. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  5. DNA repair genes in the Megavirales pangenome.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The order 'Megavirales' represents a group of eukaryotic viruses with a large genome encoding a few hundred up to two thousand five hundred genes. Several members of Megavirales possess genes involved in major DNA repair pathways. Some of these genes were likely inherited from an ancient virus world and some others were derived from the genomes of their hosts. Here we examine molecular phylogenies of key DNA repair enzymes in light of recent hypotheses on the origin of Megavirales, and propose that the last common ancestors of the individual families of the order Megavirales already possessed DNA repair functions to achieve and maintain a moderately large genome and that this repair capacity gradually increased, in a family-dependent manner, during their recent evolution.

  6. EUVL Mask Blank Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Mirkarimi, P; Stearns, D G; Sweeney, D; Chapman, H N; Clift, M; Hector, S; Yi, M

    2002-05-22

    EUV mask blanks are fabricated by depositing a reflective Mo/Si multilayer film onto super-polished substrates. Small defects in this thin film coating can significantly alter the reflected field and introduce defects in the printed image. Ideally one would want to produce defect-free mask blanks; however, this may be very difficult to achieve in practice. One practical way to increase the yield of mask blanks is to effectively repair multilayer defects, and to this effect they present two complementary defect repair strategies for use on multilayer-coated EUVL mask blanks. A defect is any area on the mask which causes unwanted variations in EUV dose in the aerial image obtained in a printing tool, and defect repair is correspondingly defined as any strategy that renders a defect unprintable during exposure. The term defect mitigation can be adopted to describe any strategy which renders a critical defect non-critical when printed, and in this regard a non-critical defect is one that does not adversely affect device function. Defects in the patterned absorber layer consist of regions where metal, typically chrome, is unintentionally added or removed from the pattern leading to errors in the reflected field. There currently exists a mature technology based on ion beam milling and ion beam assisted deposition for repairing defects in the absorber layer of transmission lithography masks, and it is reasonable to expect that this technology will be extended to the repair of absorber defects in EUVL masks. However, techniques designed for the repair of absorber layers can not be directly applied to the repair of defects in the mask blank, and in particular the multilayer film. In this paper they present for the first time a new technique for the repair of amplitude defects as well as recent results on the repair of phase defects.

  7. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  8. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  9. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  10. Repairing Thermal Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, C. R., Jr.; Feiler, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Small chips and depression in surfaces of surface insulation tiles repaired using Ludox colloidal silica solution and silica powder. No waiting time necessary between mixing filler and using it. Patch cures quickly without heat being applied.

  11. Easily repairable networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a simple class of distribution networks which withstand damage by being repairable instead of redundant. Instead of asking how hard it is to disconnect nodes through damage, we ask how easy it is to reconnect nodes after damage. We prove that optimal networks on regular lattices have an expected cost of reconnection proportional to the lattice length, and that such networks have exactly three levels of structural hierarchy. We extend our results to networks subject to repeated attacks, in which the repairs themselves must be repairable. We find that, in exchange for a modest increase in repair cost, such networks are able to withstand any number of attacks. We acknowledge support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, BCG and EU FP7 (Growthcom).

  12. Imperforate anus repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100030.htm Imperforate anus repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... of 4 Overview In individuals with a normal anatomy, the large intestine (colon) empties into a pouch- ...

  13. Timpani Repair and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1980-01-01

    Rather than focusing on specific brands of timpani, these guidelines for repair cover mechanical problems of a general nature: pedals, dents, unclear tone, and squeaking. Preventive maintenance is discussed. (Author/SJL)

  14. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  15. Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... the likelihood of a hernia including persistent coughing, difficulty with bowel movements or urination, or frequent need for straining. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair? Keep reading... Page 1 of 2 1 2 » Brought to ...

  16. Human DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Wood, R D; Mitchell, M; Sgouros, J; Lindahl, T

    2001-02-16

    Cellular DNA is subjected to continual attack, both by reactive species inside cells and by environmental agents. Toxic and mutagenic consequences are minimized by distinct pathways of repair, and 130 known human DNA repair genes are described here. Notable features presently include four enzymes that can remove uracil from DNA, seven recombination genes related to RAD51, and many recently discovered DNA polymerases that bypass damage, but only one system to remove the main DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light. More human DNA repair genes will be found by comparison with model organisms and as common folds in three-dimensional protein structures are determined. Modulation of DNA repair should lead to clinical applications including improvement of radiotherapy and treatment with anticancer drugs and an advanced understanding of the cellular aging process. PMID:11181991

  17. Planning Maintenance and Repairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of school facility design as an aid to efficiently repairing and maintaining facility systems. Also presents details on facility design's influence in properly maintaining mechanical and electrical systems. (GR)

  18. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePlus

    Patent urachal tube repair ... belly. Next, the surgeon will find the urachal tube and remove it. The bladder opening will be ... surgeon uses the tools to remove the urachal tube and close off the bladder and area where ...

  19. Achilles tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  20. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  1. Repairing Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbin, J.; Buras, D.

    1986-01-01

    Large holes in polyurethane foam insulation repaired reliably by simple method. Little skill needed to apply method, used for overhead repairs as well as for those in other orientations. Plug positioned in hole to be filled and held in place with mounting fixture. Fresh liquid foam injected through plug to bond it in place. As foam cures and expands, it displaces plug outward. Protrusion later removed.

  2. Robotic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Escobar Dominguez, Jose E; Gonzalez, Anthony; Donkor, Charan

    2015-09-01

    Inguinal hernias have been described throughout the history of medicine with many efforts to achieve the cure. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what is going to be the best approach for inguinal hernia repair? Is there a real benefit with the robotic approach? Should minimally invasive hernia surgery be the standard of care? In this report we address these questions by describing our experience with robotic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:26153353

  3. A biomechanical study of pediatric flexor profundus tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thunayan, Turki A.; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed T.; Hakeem, Ahmad A.; Al-Zahrani, Fahad M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the tensile strength of repaired flexor profundus tendons in young lambs, which would be equivalent to repairs in children older than 2 years of age. Methods: A comparative in-vitro experimental study conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2014 to December 2015. We utilized 30 flexor profundus tendons of young lambs with a width of 4 mm. All tendons were repaired with a 4-strand repair technique using 4/0 polypropylene core sutures. In group I (n=10 tendons), 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures were applied. In group II (n=10 tendons), simple locking sutures were added to the corners of 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures. In group III (n=10 tendons), the locked cruciate repair was used. All tendon repairs were tested to single-cycle tensile failure. Results: There was no significant difference between groups II and III with regards to gap and breaking forces; and all forces of these 2 groups were significantly higher than the forces in group I. Conclusion: It was concluded that 4 mm-wide pediatric flexor tendons allow a 4-strand repair and the use of 4/0 sutures. The use of locking sutures increases the tensile strength to values that may allow protective mobilization in children. PMID:27570850

  4. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery.

  5. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery. PMID:25971543

  6. XRCC4 and XLF form long helical protein filaments suitable for DNA end protection and alignment to facilitate DNA double strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Mahaney, Brandi L.; Hammel, Michal; Meek, Katheryn; Tainer, John A.; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and endogenous stress including replication failure, are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage. In human cells, most IR-induced DSBs are repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. One of the most critical steps in NHEJ is ligation of DNA ends by DNA ligase IV (LIG4), which interacts with, and is stabilized by, the scaffolding protein X-ray cross-complementing gene 4 (XRCC4). XRCC4 also interacts with XRCC4-like factor (XLF, also called Cernunnos); yet, XLF has been one of the least mechanistically understood proteins and precisely how XLF functions in NHEJ has been enigmatic. Here, we examine current combined structural and mutational findings that uncover integrated functions of XRCC4 and XLF and reveal their interactions to form long, helical protein filaments suitable to protect and align DSB ends. XLF-XRCC4 provides a global structural scaffold for ligating DSBs without requiring long complementary DNA ends, thus ensuring accurate and efficient ligation and repair. The assembly of these XRCC4-XLF filaments, providing both DNA end protection and alignment, may commit cells to NHEJ with general biological implications for NHEJ and DSB repair processes and their links to cancer predispositions and interventions. PMID:23442139

  7. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  8. Inguinal hernia repair: toward Asian guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lomanto, Davide; Cheah, Wei-Keat; Faylona, Jose Macario; Huang, Ching Shui; Lohsiriwat, Darin; Maleachi, Andy; Yang, George Pei Cheung; Li, Michael Ka-Wai; Tumtavitikul, Sathien; Sharma, Anil; Hartung, Rolf Ulrich; Choi, Young Bai; Sutedja, Barlian

    2015-02-01

    Groin hernias are very common, and surgical treatment is usually recommended. In fact, hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed worldwide. In countries such as the USA, China, and India, there may easily be over 1 million repairs every year. The need for this surgery has become an important socioeconomic problem and may affect health-care providers, especially in aging societies. Surgical repair using mesh is recommended and widely employed in Western countries, but in many developing countries, tissue-to-tissue repair is still the preferred surgical procedure due to economic constraints. For these reason, the development and implementation of guidelines, consensus, or recommendations may aim to clarify issues related to best practices in inguinal hernia repair in Asia. A group of Asian experts in hernia repair gathered together to debate inguinal hernia treatments in Asia in an attempt to reach some consensus or develop recommendations on best practices in the region. The need for recommendations or guidelines was unanimously confirmed to help overcome the discrepancy in clinical practice between countries; the experts decided to focus mainly on the technical aspects of open repair, which is the most common surgery for hernia in our region. After the identification of 12 main topics for discussion (indication, age, and sex; symptomatic and asymptomatic hernia: type of hernia; type of treatment; hospital admission; preoperative care; anesthesia; surgical technique; perioperative care; postoperative care; early complications; and long-term complications), a search of the literature was carried out according to the five levels of the Oxford Classification of Evidence and the four grades of recommendation.

  9. SLAP Repairs With Combined Procedures Have Lower Failure Rate Than Isolated Repairs in a Military Population

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Brian R.; Arroyo, William; Heida, Kenneth; Burks, Robert; Pallis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: Injuries to the superior glenoid labrum represent a significant cause of shoulder pain among active patients. The physical requirements of military service may contribute to an increased risk of injury. Limited data are available regarding the success of superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) repairs in an active military population. Purpose: To quantify the rate of clinical failure and surgical revision after isolated and combined SLAP repair. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All consecutive active-duty servicemembers undergoing arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions at a single institution between 2006 and 2012 were identified. Patients with less than 2-year clinical follow-up and nonmilitary status were excluded. Demographic variables, surgical variables, and occupational outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records and confirmed with the US Army Physical Disability Agency database. Failure was defined as subsequent revision surgery or medical discharge with persistent shoulder complaints. Results: A total of 192 patients with SLAP repair were identified with a mean follow-up of 50.0 months (SD, 17.0 months). Isolated SLAP repair occurred in 31.3% (n = 60) versus 68.8% (n = 132) with concomitant procedures. At final follow-up, 37.0% (n = 71) of patients reported some subjective activity-related shoulder pain. Postoperative return to duty occurred in 79.6% (n = 153), and only 20.3% (n = 39) were discharged with continuing shoulder disability. The combined rotator cuff repair (96%; P = .023) and anteroinferior labral repair group (88%; P = .056) had a higher rate of functional return than isolated SLAP repair (70%). Thirty-one (16.1%) patients were classified as surgical failure and required revision. Of these, the majority of patients undergoing biceps tenodesis (76%) returned to active duty, as compared with revision SLAP repair (17%). Lower demand occupation and the presence of combined shoulder injuries

  10. Characteristics of UV-induced repair patches relative to the nuclear skeleton in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, P; Natarajan, A T

    2000-03-01

    We have tried to characterize the nucleotide excision repair (NER) events associated with the nuclear skeleton in both repair-proficient and repair-deficient human cell lines following UV irradiation. The repair patches were labelled with biotin-16-dUTP and the repair sites were visualized by fluorescence microscopy using fluorescence-conjugated antibodies to biotin. The intensities of repair labelling measured for the three human cell lines of normal, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XP-C) and Cockayne syndrome group B (CS-B) are in good agreement with their known repair capabilities. Digestion of nuclei with DNase I markedly solubilized the repair patches in normal (3-fold reduction after 1 h post-UV incubation) and transcription-coupled repair (TCR)-defective Cockayne syndrome cells (6-fold reduction after 1 h post-UV incubation). The intensity of repair labelling remained the same in TCR-proficient XP-C cells after DNase I digestion, indicating that the repair events mediated by the TCR pathway are tightly associated with the nuclear skeleton. Treatment with ammonium sulphate after DNase I digestion further reduced the intensity of repair patches in both normal and Cockayne syndrome cells, but not in XP-C cells. The tight association of repair patches generated by the TCR pathway with the nucleoskeleton in XP-C cells reinforces the concept of functional compartmentalization of the nucleus, where NER is highly heterogeneous. PMID:10719035

  11. Successful repair of a 6 meter battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, K.; Gratson, M.; Wash, S.; Sundholm, J.L.; Hippe, W.; Ramani, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Following a two-year construction period, LTV Steel Company commissioned a new six-meter coke oven battery and ancillary facilities in December 1981 at the S. Chicago Works. The battery is a 60-oven Didier grouped flue underjet design capable of firing coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In late 1990, coke side refractory damage in the form of severe spalls and holes in the walls were observed. Numerous repair techniques--welding, guniting, panel patching, end flue repairs using zero expansion brick--were employed as interim measures until a comprehensive repair plan could be implemented. A repair plan (primarily for coke side flues) was developed which envisioned end flue repairs on six walls per year beginning in late 1991, early 1992 depending on refractory delivery. However, in late 1992 it became apparent that the coke side deterioration was occurring faster than expected and that extensive pusher side deterioration was also occurring. Because of these developments, another battery inspection was performed. On the basis of this inspection, it was determined that a major rehabilitation would be required to assure long-term, environmentally acceptable operation of the battery.

  12. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  13. Assays for DNA double-strand break repair by microhomology-based end-joining repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Mermod, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions. The main pathways responsible for repairing these breaks in eukaryotic cells are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, a third group of still poorly characterized DSB repair pathways, collectively termed microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), relies on short homologies for the end-joining process. Here, we constructed GFP reporter assays to characterize and distinguish MMEJ variant pathways, namely the simple MMEJ and the DNA synthesis-dependent (SD)-MMEJ mechanisms. Transfection of these assay vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and characterization of the repaired DNA sequences indicated that while simple MMEJ is able to mediate relatively efficient DSB repair if longer microhomologies are present, the majority of DSBs were repaired using the highly error-prone SD-MMEJ pathway. To validate the involvement of DNA synthesis in the repair process, siRNA knock-down of different genes proposed to play a role in MMEJ were performed, revealing that the knock-down of DNA polymerase θ inhibited DNA end resection and repair through simple MMEJ, thus favoring the other repair pathway. Overall, we conclude that this approach provides a convenient assay to study MMEJ-related DNA repair pathways.

  14. A modified host-cell reactivation assay to quantify DNA repair capacity in cryopreserved peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Pedro; Taron, Miquel; Moran, Teresa; Fernandez, Marco A; Requena, Gerard; Rosell, Rafael

    2011-06-10

    The host-cell reactivation assay (HCRA) is a functional assay that allows the identification of the genes responsible for DNA repair-deficient syndromes, such as Xeroderma pigmentosum, by cross-complementation experiments. It has also been used in molecular epidemiology studies to correlate the low nucleotide excision repair pathway function in peripheral blood lymphocytes with an increased risk of bladder, head and neck, skin and lung cancers. Herein, we present the technical validation of a newly modified HCRA, where nucleofection is used for the transfection of the pmaxGFP plasmid into cryopreserved peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) or lymphoblastoid cell lines. In each sample, 20-24h after transfection, the relative DNA repair capacity (DRC) was quantified by flow cytometry, comparing the transfection efficiency of nucleoporated cells with undamaged plasmid to those transfected with UV-light damaged plasmid in the seven cell lines that were characterized by different DNA repair phenotypes. Dead cells were excluded from the analysis. We observed a high reproducibility of the relative DRC, transfection efficiency and cell viability. The inter-experimental normalization of the flow cytometry resulted in an increased data accuracy and reproducibility. The amount of cells required for each transfection reaction was reduced fourfold, without affecting the final relative DRC. Furthermore, our HCRA demonstrated strong discrimination power in the UV-light dose-response, both in lymphoblastoid cell lines and cryopreserved PBLs. We also observed a strong correlation of the relative DRC data, when samples were measured against two independent batches of both damaged and undamaged plasmid DNA. The relative DRC variable shows a normal distribution when analyzed in the cryopreserved PBLs from a cohort of 35 lung cancer patients and a 5.59-fold variation in the relative DRC is identified among our patients. The mitotic dynamic was discarded as a confounding factor for the

  15. A Barbed Suture Repair For Flexor Tendons: A Novel Technique With No Exposed Barbs

    PubMed Central

    Sugrue, Conor; Chan, Jeffrey C.; Delgado, Luis; Zeugolis, Dimitrios; Carroll, Seam M.; Kelly, Jack L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Barbed suture technology has shown promise in flexor tendon repairs, as there is an even distribution of load and the need for a knot is eliminated. We propose that a quick and simple, novel, barbed technique without any exposed barbs on the tendon surface has comparable strength and a smaller cross-sectional area at the repair site than traditional methods of repair. Methods: Forty porcine flexor tendons were randomized to polybutester 4-strand barbed repair or to 4-strand Adelaide monofilament repair. The cross-sectional area was measured before and after repair. Biomechanical testing was carried out and 2-mm gap formation force, ultimate strength of repair, and method of failure were recorded. Results: The mean ultimate strength of the barbed repairs was 54.51 ± 17.9 while that of the Adelaide repairs was 53.17 ± 16.35. The mean 2-mm gap formation force for the barbed group was 44.71 ± 17.86 whereas that of the Adelaide group was 20.25 ± 4.99. The postrepair percentage change in cross-sectional area at the repair site for the Adelaide group and barbed group was 12.0 ± 2.3 and 4.6 ± 2.8, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that a 4-strand knotless, barbed method attained comparable strength to that of the traditional Adelaide repair technique. The barbed method had a significantly reduced cross-sectional area at the repair site compared with the Adelaide group. The 2-mm gap formation force was less in the barbed group than the Adelaide group. Barbed repairs show promise for tendon repairs; this simple method warrants further study in an animal model. PMID:25426354

  16. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The three main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a surgery to repair the fracture-frequently, metal rods, screws or plates are used to repair the ...

  17. Cleft lip and palate repair

    MedlinePlus

    Orofacial cleft; Craniofacial birth defect repair; Cheiloplasty; Cleft rhinoplasty; Palatoplasty; Tip rhinoplasty ... these conditions at birth. Most times, cleft lip repair is done when the child is 6 to ...

  18. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  19. Repair of proboscis lateralis.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Kemal; Karşidag, Semra; Ozçelik, Derya; Sadikoğlu, Buğra; Baş, Lütfü

    2005-01-01

    We report an 8-year-old girl presented with a proboscis on the right nasal nostril, right heminasal hypoplasia, hypertelorism, and cleft lip and palate on the other side. After repair of the cleft lip and palate and the hypertelorism, we successfully reconstructed the heminose with a V-Y advancement flap containing the proboscis tube. PMID:16019753

  20. Repairing cracked glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    Filing procedure consisting of machined lightweight fused-silica tiles coated with thin-layer of borosilicate glass produces homogeneous seal in thin glass. Procedure is useful in repairing glass envelopes, X-ray tub windows, Dewar flasks, and similar thin glass objects.

  1. Automotive Body Repair Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Armond, Jack; And Others

    Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

  2. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  3. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  4. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  5. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  6. Targeting Nuclear Envelope Repair.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Migrating cancer cells undergo repeated rupture of the protective nuclear envelope as they squeeze through small spaces in the surrounding tissue, compromising genomic integrity. Inhibiting both general DNA repair and the mechanism that seals these tears may enhance cell death and curb metastasis. PMID:27130435

  7. Quantitative characterization of protein–protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Nina A.; Vasil'eva, Inna A.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Antson, Alfred A.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2015-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein–protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process. PMID:26013813

  8. Quantitative characterization of protein-protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Moor, Nina A; Vasil'eva, Inna A; Anarbaev, Rashid O; Antson, Alfred A; Lavrik, Olga I

    2015-07-13

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein-protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process.

  9. Repairing Holes in Pressure Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, Paul Bruce Y.; Capriloa, Laurie J.; Corocado, Alexander R.; Gibbins, Martin N.; Horne, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    Patches and easy-to-use tools yield pressure-tight seal. Repairer lifts patch from repair kit with hook-and-pile-tipped tool and positions it over puncture hole. With tool, even gloved repairer easily manipulates patch without damaging it.

  10. Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack; And Others

    This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

  11. Cleft lip repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of the mouth (palate). ... Cleft lip repair and cleft palate repair are indicated for: Repair of physical deformity Nursing, feeding, or speech problems resulting from cleft lip or palate

  12. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  13. Comparison of Costs of Endovascular Repair versus Open Surgical Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang Il; Min, Seung-Kee; Ahn, Sanghyun; Kim, Suh Min; Park, Daedo; Park, Taejin; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the hospital-related costs of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) treatment and cost structure between endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR) in Korean health care system. One hundred five primary elective AAA repairs (79 OSRs and 26 EVARs) performed in the Seoul National University Hospital from 2005 to 2009 were included. Patient characteristics were similar between two groups except for older age (P = 0.004) and more frequent history of malignancy (P = 0.031) in EVAR group. Thirty-day mortality rate was similar between two groups and there was no AAA-related mortality in both groups for 5 yr after repair. The total in-hospital costs for the index admission were significantly higher in EVAR patients (mean, KRW19,857,119) than OSR patients (mean KRW12,395,507) (P < 0.001). The reimbursement was also significantly higher in EVAR patients than OSR patients (mean, KRW14,071,081 vs KRW6,238,895, P < 0.001) while patients payments was comparable between two groups. EVAR patients showed higher follow-up cost up to 2 yr due to more frequent imaging studies and reinterventions for type II endoleaks (15.4%). In the perspective of cost-effectiveness, this study suggests that the determination of which method to be used in AAA treatment be more finely trimmed and be individualized. PMID:22468106

  14. Symptomatic and quality of life outcomes after site-specific fascial reattachment for pelvic organ prolapse repair.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Abdalla M; Redhead, Emma; Awan, Noveen; Kyrgiou, Maria; Prashar, Sanjeev; Hill, Simon R

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess symptomatic and quality of life outcome scores following site specific fascial reattachment surgery for pelvic organ prolapse using the validated Prolapse Quality of Life (P-QOL) questionnaires. One hundred and ninety two women underwent surgery for pelvic organ prolapse; ninety four underwent anterior repair (thirty four of them had vaginal hysterectomy), and ninety eight had posterior repair. Patients filled P-QOL questionnaires 24 hours prior to surgery and a postal P-QOL questionnaire six months post operatively. Pre and post operative questionnaires were paired. Quality of life and symptoms scores were calculated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. One hundred and one women returned their questionnaires and were suitable to include in the study. Forty nine underwent anterior repair (fifteen had vaginal hysterectomy) and 52 underwent posterior repair. Quality of life scores showed significant improvement in the anterior and posterior repair groups with the exception of general health in the anterior repair group and general health and prolapse impact in the posterior repair group. Anterior repair significantly improved urinary voiding and storage symptoms. Posterior repair group showed significant improvement in defecatory symptoms. Both groups showed improvement in sexual function and general prolapse symptoms. Prolapse repair with site specific fascial reattachment results in significant improvement in quality of life scores six months after surgery. Anterior repair improves urinary voiding and storage symptoms and posterior repair improves defecatory dysfunction and urinary voiding. Sexual function improves following prolapse repair with site specific fascial reattachment.

  15. Blood lead levels in radiator repair workers in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C B; McCammon, J B; Hoffman, R E; Baron, R C

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory-based blood lead surveillance system in Colorado identified radiator repair workers as having the highest blood lead levels of all worker groups reported. A survey of 42 radiator repair shops in ten locales throughout Colorado was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of workers with elevated blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The survey was designed to test the sensitivity of the surveillance system and to assess working conditions and practices in the radiator repair industry in Colorado. Of 63 workers, 39 (62%) had blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The sensitivity of the surveillance system for detecting radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels was estimated at 11%. None of the radiator repair shops had adequate local exhaust ventilation. Work practice and engineering modifications are needed to reduce lead exposure in this industry.

  16. Base Excision Repair and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Susan S.; Murphy, Drew L.; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2012-01-01

    Base excision repair is the system used from bacteria to man to remove the tens of thousands of endogenous DNA damages produced daily in each human cell. Base excision repair is required for normal mammalian development and defects have been associated with neurological disorders and cancer. In this paper we provide an overview of short patch base excision repair in humans and summarize current knowledge of defects in base excision repair in mouse models and functional studies on short patch base excision repair germ line polymorphisms and their relationship to cancer. The biallelic germ line mutations that result in MUTYH-associated colon cancer are also discussed. PMID:22252118

  17. Porcelain repair - Influence of different systems and surface treatments on resin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Young; Yoon, Hyung-In; Park, Ji-Man

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of composite resin on the fracture surface of metal-ceramic depending on the repair systems and surface roughening methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 30 disk specimens were fabricated, 15 of each were made from feldspathic porcelain and nickel-chromium base metal alloy. Each substrate was divided into three groups according to the repair method: a) application of repair system I (Intraoral Repair Kit) with diamond bur roughening (Group DP and DM), b) application of repair system I with airborne-particle abrasion (Group SP and SM), and c) application of repair system II (CoJet Intraoral Repair System, Group CP and CM). All specimens were thermocycled, and the shear bond strength was measured. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and the Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS For the porcelain specimens, group SP showed the highest shear bond strength (25.85 ± 3.51 MPa) and group DP and CP were not significantly different. In metal specimens, group CM showed superior values of bond strength (13.81 ± 3.45 MPa) compared to groups DM or SM. CONCLUSION Airborne-particle abrasion and application of repair system I can be recommended in the case of a fracture localized to the porcelain. If the fracture extends to metal surface, the repair system II is worthy of consideration. PMID:26576249

  18. The Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Episiotomy Repair on Pain Severity and Rate of Perineal Repair: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor, Shirin; Bani, Soheila; Shahgole, Rudabe; Gojazadeh, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Perineal pain is the most common complaint after episiotomy. It imposes extra pressure on mothers who attempt to adapt to their new conditions. Therefore, the present study was performed to compare pain severity and perineal repair in two episiotomy repair methods. Methods: In this clinical trial, 100 primiparous women who referred to hospitals of Tabriz (Iran) for delivery were randomly allocated into two groups of 50 to undergo either continuous or interrupted episiotomy repair. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain severity 12-18 hours after episiotomy repair and also 10 days after delivery. Perineal repair rate was also assessed using the REEDA (redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge, and approximation) scoring scale. The obtained data was analyzed in SPSS15. Results: Statistical tests did not show significant differences between the 2 groups in pain severity variations or REEDA scores at 12-18 hours and the 10th day after delivery. However, the mean required time for repair and the number of used threads were significantly lower in the continuous repair group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pain severity and episiotomy repair rate were similar in the two methods. Nevertheless, shorter time of repair and fewer threads were required using the continuous repair method. Therefore, this method would provide better services for mothers and reduce the required time, energy, and costs. PMID:25276692

  19. Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using gene transfer strategies for cartilage repair originates from the idea of transferring genes encoding therapeutic factors into the repair tissue, resulting in a temporarily and spatially defined delivery of therapeutic molecules to sites of cartilage damage. This review focuses on the potential benefits of using gene therapy approaches for the repair of articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage, including articular cartilage defects resulting from acute trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Possible applications for meniscal repair comprise meniscal lesions, meniscal sutures, and meniscal transplantation. Recent studies in both small and large animal models have demonstrated the applicability of gene-based approaches for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic pathways were stimulated in the repair tissue and in osteoarthritic cartilage using genes for polypeptide growth factors and transcription factors. Although encouraging data have been generated, a successful translation of gene therapy for cartilage repair will require an ongoing combined effort of orthopedic surgeons and of basic scientists. PMID:26069580

  20. [ENDOVASCULAR ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM REPAIR].

    PubMed

    Maĭstrenko, D N; Generalov, M I; Tarazov, P G; Zherebtsov, F K; Osovskikh, V V; Ivanov, A S; Oleshchuk, A N; Granov, D A

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the single-center experience of treatment of 72 patients with abdominal aortic aneurisms and severe accompanied pathology. The aneurisms were repaired by stent-grafts. All the patients had abdominal aortic aneurisms with the diameters from 41 to 84 mm against the background of severe somatic pathology. It was a contraindication to planned open surgery. An installation of stent-graft was successful in all 72 follow-ups. It wasn't necessary to use a conversion to open surgery. The follow-up period consisted of 44,6?2,1 months. Control ultrasound and computer tomography studies hadn't revealed an increase of aneurism sack sizes or "eakages". A reduction of abdominal aortic aneurism sizes was noted in 37 patients on 4-5% during first year after operation. The stent-graft implantation extends the possibilities of abdominal aortic aneurism treatment for patients from a high surgical risk group. PMID:26234059

  1. Aortocaval Fistula: Is Endovascular Repair the Preferred Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Orion, Kristine Clodfelter; Beaulieu, Robert J.; Black, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare outcomes of open and endovascular repair of aortocaval fistulas (ACFs) in the setting of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods A literature review was undertaken on Pubmed from 1999 to 2014 to identify reported cases of both endovascular and open repair of ACF, including the index case, presented here. Primary outcomes for endovascular repair were: complications, presence of endoleak, and death. Primary outcomes for open repair were: complications and death. Results Forty articles were reviewed with a total of 67 patients, including the index case. Endovascular approach was used in 26 patients (39%). Endoleaks were present in 50%, whereas similarly 46% of patients had a reported complication. Five deaths (19%) occurred in the endovascular group. Open repair was performed in 41 cases (61%). The rate of complication and the death in open repair were 36% and 12%, respectively (P = 0.327 and P = 0.910, respectively) compared with endovascular. Mean follow-up was 7.7 months for the endovascular group and 8.5 months in the open group. Conclusions Previous demonstrations of high morbidity and mortality with open repair of ACF in the setting of AAA have motivated endovascular approaches. However, endoleaks are a significant problem and were present in 50% of ACF cases. The continued presence of an endoleak in the setting of an ACF may result in persistence of the ACF, unlikely thrombosis of the endoleak, and continued sac enlargement. Endovascular repair presents theoretical benefit, yet is not associated with a reduced rate of complication or death versus open repair in this contemporary review. PMID:26597238

  2. In vitro repair of fractured fiber-reinforced cusp-replacing composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Fennis, Willem M M; Kreulen, Cees M; Tezvergil, Arzu; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K; Creugers, Nico H J

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess fracture resistance and failure mode of repaired fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) cusp-replacing restorations. Methods. Sixteen extracted human premolars with fractured cusp-replacing woven (Group (A)) or unidirectional (Group (B)) FRC restorations from a previous loading experiment were repaired with resin composite and loaded to fracture. Results. Differences in fracture loads between groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Fracture loads of repaired specimens were significantly lower than those of original specimens (P = 0.02 for Group (A) and P < 0.001 for Group (B)). Majority of specimens showed failure along the repaired surface. In Group (B) 89% of specimens showed intact tooth substrate after restoration fracture, while this was 28% in Group (A) (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Fractured cusp-replacing FRC restorations that are repaired with resin composite show about half of fracture resistance of original restorations. Mode of failure with a base of unidirectional fibers is predominantly adhesive.

  3. Effect of Finishing Time on Microleakage at the Composite-Repair Interface

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Berahman, Nazanin; Niazi, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repair is a conservative treatment of defective composite restoration. Sealing the repair interface is a critical factor to achieve successful repaired restorations. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of three finishing times on the microleakage at the composite-repair interface. Method: Eighty composite specimens (Z250) were made and aged for eight weeks in water. They were randomly divided into four groups. In the control group, repairing was done with no surface treatment and using bonding agent. In groups 2 to 4, the specimens were repaired following roughening, etching and use of Adper Single Bond, and finished immediately, after 20 minutes and after 24 hours, respectively. After thermocycling, the microleakage at the repair interface was assessed using dye-penetration technique. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results: There was a significant difference among the four groups (P<0.001). The control group with the highest leakage showed a significant difference with the other groups (P<0.05). Immediate finishing showed a significantly higher leakage compared to 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing time (P<0.001). The two latter groups had no difference. Conclusion: Immediate finishing of the repaired restorations negatively affect the sealing at the repair interface, while 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing had no adverse effect on the interface sealing. PMID:27733876

  4. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base.

    PubMed

    Gad, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers.

  5. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    PubMed Central

    ArRejaie, Aws S.; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  6. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base.

    PubMed

    Gad, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  7. Complications of Distal Biceps Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nirav H.; Volpi, Alex; Lynch, T. Sean; Patel, Ronak M.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Schickendantz, Mark S.; Jones, Morgan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anatomic reinsertion of the distal biceps is critical for restoring flexion and supination strength. Single- and double-incision surgical techniques have been reported, analyzing complications and outcomes measures. Which technique results in superior clinical outcomes and the lowest associated complications remains unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that rerupture rates would be similar between the 2 techniques, while nerve complications would be higher for the single-incision technique and heterotopic ossification would be more frequent with the double-incision technique. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTSDiscus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify articles reporting distal biceps ruptures up to August 2013. We included English-language articles on adult patients with a minimum of 3 cases reporting single- and double-incision techniques. Frequencies of each complication as a percentage of total cases were calculated. Fisher exact tests were used to test the association between frequencies for each repair method, with P < .05 considered statistically significant. Odds ratios with 95% CIs were also computed. Results: A total of 87 articles met the inclusion criteria. Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve neurapraxia was the most common complication in the single-incision group, occurring in 77 of 785 cases (9.8%). Heterotopic ossification was the most common complication in the double-incision group, occurring in 36 of 498 cases (7.2%). Conclusion: The overall frequency of reported complications is higher for single-incision distal biceps repair than for double-incision repair. The frequencies of rerupture and nerve complications are both higher for single-incision repairs while the frequency of heterotopic ossification is higher for

  8. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.].

  9. A Biomechanical Comparison of All-Inside Meniscus Repair Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jen-Huei; Shen, Hsain-Chung; Huang, Guo-Shu; Pan, Ru-Yu; Wu, Chi-Fang; Lee, Chian-Her; Chen, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the biomechanical characteristics of six all-inside meniscal single suture repair techniques using a porcine model. Materials and Methods Peripheral longitudinal tears were created in freshly isolated porcine menisci. Tears were repaired using the single vertical technique with six different repair complexes including those involving sutures (#2 FiberWire, #2 Ethibone, flexible anchors (Fast-Fix, RapidLoc), and rigid anchors (Meniscal-Dart, BioStinger). Displacement, ultimate failure strength, stiffness, and site of failure were measured using a Materials Testing System machine. An initial 2 N preload was applied, followed by loading between 5 and 20 N for 300 cycles. Failure strength was determined lastly by increasing tension at a rate of 5 mm/min until failure. Results Failure strength was highest in the #2 FiberWire group (175.6 N). This was significantly higher than in all other groups (P <0.05). The second highest failure load was evident in the #2 Ethibone group (113.8 N). This was significantly higher than in all other groups bar the #2 FiberWire group (P <0.05). Stiffness was also significantly higher in the #2 FiberWire group compared with all other groups (8.5 N/mm, P < 0.05). There were no between-group differences in displacement. When grouped by repair technique, failure load was significantly higher, and displacement was significantly lower, in suture compared with both flexible and rigid anchor repaired menisci (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). Although stiffness was also higher in the suture group, there were no significant between-group differences detected. Conclusions Suture techniques exhibited biomechanical superiority over biodegradable flexible and rigid anchor devices for meniscus repair. PMID:19328497

  10. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  11. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, S C; Parsons, S; Hanawalt, P C

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. We have examined the relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, we have assessed the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation. The methods of Liu and Karasek were used to grow pure keratinocytes on collagen gels following their isolation from abdominal skin of newborns and adults at autopsy. Density labeling with 5-bromodeoxyuridine was used to resolve repair replication from the semiconservative mode. We found similar repair characteristics in human epidermal keratinocytes to those previously reported for cultured fibroblasts. However, the DNA repair response in basal cells was much greater than that in differentiated cells from the same skin preparation. Our comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  12. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  13. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  14. Immersion Study Abroad in Mexico: Using Repair Behaviors to Assess Proficiency Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smartt, Jerry T.; Scudder, Rosalind R.

    2004-01-01

    Repair behavior in university-level students was investigated to determine if students who study abroad use repair behavior differently from students who do not. The Mexico group (N =24) studied Conversational Spanish at La Salle University, Cancun. The U.S. group (N = 9) completed the same course at Friends University, Wichita, Kansas. Pretest…

  15. 49 CFR 193.2617 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs. 193.2617 Section 193.2617 Transportation...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2617 Repairs. (a) Repair work on components must be performed... repaired. (b) For repairs made while a component is operating, each operator shall include in...

  16. Color stability of repaired composite submitted to accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Beatriz Silva; Silame, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Alandia-Roman, Carla Cecilia; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability (ΔE) of nanoparticulate composite, with consideration for the type of surface treatment performed before repair. A Teflon matrix was used to fabricate 50 test specimens from composite. After initial color readout, the specimens were submitted to 100 hours of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). The samples were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the surface treatment performed: sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 1); sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and a flowable composite (Group 2); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 3); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and a nanoparticulate composite (Group 4); and a control group (Group 5). After repair, a new color readout was taken, the test specimens were submitted to a new AAA cycle (300 hours), and the final color readout was taken. Comparison of the ΔE means (one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, p < 0.05) demonstrated no statistically significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05) after 100 hours of AAA. After repair, Group 1 (4.61 ± 2.03) presented the highest color alteration with a statistically significant difference compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). After 300 hours, Group 4 specimens (13.84 ± 0.71) presented the lowest color alteration in comparison with the other groups, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). It was concluded that the repair performed in Group 4 provided greater esthetic recovery, made possible by the regression in the ΔE values of the restorations after repair, and less color alteration of the restorations over the course of time. PMID:23032241

  17. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  18. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  19. Membrane Repair: Mechanisms and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sandra T.; McNeil, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have been confronted throughout their evolution with potentially lethal plasma membrane injuries, including those caused by osmotic stress, by infection from bacterial toxins and parasites, and by mechanical and ischemic stress. The wounded cell can survive if a rapid repair response is mounted that restores boundary integrity. Calcium has been identified as the key trigger to activate an effective membrane repair response that utilizes exocytosis and endocytosis to repair a membrane tear, or remove a membrane pore. We here review what is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of membrane repair, with particular emphasis on the relevance of repair as it relates to disease pathologies. Collective evidence reveals membrane repair employs primitive yet robust molecular machinery, such as vesicle fusion and contractile rings, processes evolutionarily honed for simplicity and success. Yet to be fully understood is whether core membrane repair machinery exists in all cells, or whether evolutionary adaptation has resulted in multiple compensatory repair pathways that specialize in different tissues and cells within our body. PMID:26336031

  20. Cobbler's Technique for Iridodialysis Repair

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Surinder Singh; Gupta, Parul Chawla; Singh, Rishi Raj; Das, Kalpita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Raj, Srishti; Ram, Jagat

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis. PMID:26957855

  1. Cobbler's Technique for Iridodialysis Repair.

    PubMed

    Pandav, Surinder Singh; Gupta, Parul Chawla; Singh, Rishi Raj; Das, Kalpita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Raj, Srishti; Ram, Jagat

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel "Cobbler's technique" for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The "Cobbler's technique" allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis. PMID:26957855

  2. Laparoscopic paracolostomy hernia mesh repair.

    PubMed

    Virzí, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Virzí; Scaravilli, Francesco; Francesco, Scaravilli; Ragazzi, Salvatore; Salvatore, Ragazzi; Piazza, Diego; Diego, Piazza

    2007-12-01

    Paracolostomy hernia is a common occurrence, representing a late complication of stoma surgery. Different surgical techniques have been proposed to repair the wall defect, but the lowest recurrence rates are associated with the use of mesh. We present the case report of a patient in which laparoscopic paracolostomy hernia mesh repair has been successfully performed. PMID:18097321

  3. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  4. Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

  5. Communication Repair and Response Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W.

    2004-01-01

    A communicative repair has been defined as the ability to persist in communication and to modify, repeat, or revise a signal when the initial communication attempt failed. From an operant perspective, initial communicative acts and communicative repairs can be considered members of a response class in which each response produces the same outcome.…

  6. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  7. New Materials for the Repair of Polyimide Electrical Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Two viable polyimide backbone materials have been identified that will allow the repair of polyimide electrical wire insulation found on the Space Shuttle and other aging aircraft. This identification is the outcome of ongoing efforts to assess the viability of using such polyimides and polyimide precursors (polyamic acids [PAAs]) as repair materials for aging polyimide electrical wire insulation. These repair materials were selected because they match the chemical makeup of the underlying wire insulation as closely as possible. This similarity allows for maximum compatibility, coupled with the outstanding physical properties of polyimides. The two polyimide backbone materials allow the polymer to be extremely flexible and to melt at low temperatures. A polymer chain end capping group that allows the polymer to crosslink into a nonflowable repair upon curing at around 200 C was also identified.

  8. A new nucleotide-excision-repair gene associated with the disorder trichothiodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanini, M.; Giliani, S. ); Vermuelen, W.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Harper, J.I.; Arlett, C.F.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1993-10-01

    The sun-sensitive, cancer-prone genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is associated in most cases with a defect in the ability to carry out excision repair of UV damage. Seven genetically distinct complementation groups (i.e., A-G) have been identified. A large proportion of patients with the unrelated disorder trichothiodystrophy (TTD), which is characterized by hair-shaft abnormalities, as well as by physical and mental retardation, are also deficient in excision repair of UV damage. In most of these cases the repair deficiency is in the same complementation group as is XP group D. The authors report here on cells from a patient, TTD1BR, in which the repair defect complements all known XP groups (including XP-D). Furthermore, microinjection of various cloned human repair genes fails to correct the repair defect in this cell strain. The defect in TTD1BR cells is therefore in a new gene involved in excision repair in human cells. The finding of a second DNA repair gene that is associated with the clinical features of TTD argues strongly for an involvement of repair proteins in hair-shaft development. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparison of shear bond strength of two porcelain repair systems after different surface treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ashish; Mohan, Murali S.; Gowda, E. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoral chair side porcelain repair system is a quick, painless and highly patient acceptable procedure, without removal of restoration or fabrication of new restoration. There are very limited studies conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of repair systems after different surface treatment. Objectives of Research: The objective of research was to evaluate the shear bond strength of two intraoral porcelain repair systems Clearfil repair system (Kuraray) and Ceramic repair system (Ivoclar) to repair metal-ceramic restoration after three different surface treatment. Materials and Methods: Totally, 120 discs of base metal alloy were fabricated. The opaque, dentine and enamel of ceramic were applied to achieve the uniform thickness. Defect was created, and repair was done using two repair systems after different surface treatment. Shear bond strength was measured. Results: Analysis of variance was utilized. Ceramic repair system after 40% phosphoric acid surface treatment showed the highest mean value and Clearfil repair system after surface treatment with 37% phosphoric acid showed the lowest. The statistical difference was found to be significant between the groups. Conclusion: The shear bond strength of Ceramic repair system with 40% phosphoric acid etching showed highest shear bond strength as compared to other system and surface treatment used in the study. PMID:26097354

  10. Wound repair in Pocillopora.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals. PMID:27397755

  11. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  12. Wound repair in Pocillopora.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  13. Coal bunker repairs

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, M.H.; Hoffman, M.G. )

    1992-01-01

    Detroit Edison's St. Clair Power Plant (STCPP) Units 1 through 4 are 1950's vintage fossil fueled units with an average capacity of 163 megawatt per unit. Each unit had identical 2190 ton bunkers. The Unit No. 1 bunker had been experiencing noticeable exterior deterioration at the lower level internal support system. An internal bunker inspection revealed large deflections in the network of beams supporting the bunker side walls. A complete collapse of the internal support beams was imminent. Failure of these beams would have transferred the coal pressure loads to the bunker skin and external stiffeners which were not capable of sustaining the load and were also showing signs of distress. This paper presents the temporary repair installed immediately after inspection, the redesign of the lower internal support system and construction procedures involved in bringing the bunker back into operating condition.

  14. TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

  15. Comparison of Coskun and Lichteinstein hernia repair methods for groin hernia

    PubMed Central

    Cete, Hayri Mükerrem; Saylam, Barış; Özer, Mehmet Vasfi; Düzgün, Arife Polat; Coşkun, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Coskun hernia repair technique has been reported to be an effective new fascia transversalis repair with its short-term follow-up results. Our aim is to determine the results of Coskun hernia repair technique and to compare it with Lichtenstein technique. Methods At this comparative retrospective study a total of 493 patients, who had groin hernia repair procedure using Coskun or Lichtenstein technique, between January 1999 and March 2010 were enrolled into the study. Patients were reached by telephone and invited to get a physical examination. Results Out of 493 groin hernia repairs, 436 (88.5%) were carried out by residents and 57 (11.5%) by attending surgeons. Lichtenstein technique was the choice in 241 patients and 252 patients underwent Coskun hernia repair technique. Groin hernia recurrence was detected in 8 patients (3.1%) in Coskun hernia repair group and 7 patients (2.9%) in Lichtenstein group. Comparison of early complication rates in Coskun group (3.9%) and Lichtenstein group (4.5%) showed no significant difference. Late complication rates were significantly higher in Lichtenstein group (1.2% vs. 4.9%). The operation time was shorter in Coskun group (44 minutes) than in Lichtenstein group (60 minutes). Subgroup of patients, whose hernia repair operations were carried out by attending surgeons, had a recurrence rate of 0% and 3.8%, in Coskun group and Lichtenstein group, respectively. Conclusion This study showed that Coskun hernia repair technique has a similar efficacy with Lichtenstein repair, on follow-up. PMID:26366383

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 18 - Group classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Group classification. Sec. 18 Section 18 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  17. DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase. PMID:24148612

  18. Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s Repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein Mesh Repair of Direct Inguinal Hernias in Rural Population – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh M; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuthadi Sravan; Mithun, Gorre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lichtenstein’s tension free mesh hernioplasty is the commonly done open technique for inguinal hernias. As our hospital is in rural area, majority of patients are labourers, open hernias are commonly done. The present study was done by comparing Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein mesh repair (LMR) of direct Inguinal Hernias to compare the technique of both surgeries and its outcome like postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods A comparative randomized study was conducted on patients reporting to MNR hospital, sangareddy with direct inguinal hernias. A total of fifty consecutive patients were included in this study of which, 25 patients were operated by LMR and 25 patients were operated by MBR+LMR and followed up for a period of two years. The outcomes of the both techniques were compared. Results Study involved 25 each of Lichtenstein’s mesh repair (LMR) and modified bassini’s repair (MBR) + LMR, over a period of 2 years. The duration of surgery for lichtenstein mesh repair is around 34.56 min compared to LMR+MBR, which is 47.56 min which was statistically significant (p-value is <0.0001). In this study the most common complication for both the groups was seroma. The pain was relatively higher in LMR+MBR group in POD 1, but not statistically significant (p-value is 0.0949) and from POD 7 the pain was almost similar in both groups. The recurrence rate is 2% for LMR and 0% for MBR+LMR. Conclusion LMR+MBR was comparatively better than only LMR in all direct inguinal hernias because of low recurrence rate (0%) and low postoperative complications, which showed in our present study. PMID:27042517

  19. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline M; Tanaka, Denise M; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valeria MC; Mazzer, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis) and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis) during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05). A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32). Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary. PMID:26770674

  20. A Comparative Study between Modified Bassini’s Repair and Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) of Inguinal Hernias in Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    N., Naveen; R., Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bassini’s repair and the Lichtenstein’s tension free mesh hernioplasty are commonly used hernia repair techniques and yet there is no unison as to which is the best technique. Our hospital being in a rural setup and catering to majority of poor patients who are daily wagers, open hernia repairs are commonly done. This study was undertaken to compare the technique and post-operative course so as to determine the best suitable of the two procedures for them. Materials and Methods: A comparative randomized study was conducted on a total of 70 patients with inguinal hernia and were operated upon by either of technique and followed up. Outcome of both the techniques were analyzed and compared with other similar studies. Results: Study involved 35 each of Modified Bassini’s Repair (MBR) and Lichtenstein’s Mesh Repair (LMR), over a period of 18 months. MBR took more operating time than LMR. Commonest complication in both the groups was seroma formation. There were two recurrences in the MBR group and none in LMR group. Conclusion: LMR was comparatively better than MBR due to its simplicity, less dissection and early ambulation in the post-operative period and with no recurrence, in our study. PMID:24701491

  1. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule....

  3. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule....

  4. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  5. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  6. Wnt Signaling During Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Secreto, Frank J.; Hoeppner, Luke H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    Bone is one of the few tissues in the body with the capacity to regenerate and repair itself. In most cases, fractures are completely repaired in a relatively short period of time; however, in a small percentage of cases, healing never occurs and non-union is the result. Fracture repair and bone regeneration require the localized re-activation of signaling cascades that are crucial for skeletal development. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one such developmental pathway whose role in bone formation and regeneration has been recently appreciated. During the last decade, much has learned about how Wnt pathways regulate bone mass. Small molecules and biologics aimed at this pathway are now being tested as potential new anabolic agents. Here we review recent data demonstrating that Wnt pathways are active during fracture repair and that increasing the activities of Wnt pathway components accelerates bone regeneration. PMID:19631031

  7. Nucleotide excision repair in humans.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process. PMID:26388429

  8. Nuclear compartmentalization of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kalousi, Alkmini; Soutoglou, Evi

    2016-04-01

    The continuous threats on genome integrity by endogenous and exogenous sources have rendered cells competent to overcome these challenges by activating DNA repair pathways. A complex network of proteins and their modifications participate in orchestrated signaling cascades, which are induced in response to DNA damage and may determine the choice of repair pathway. In this review, we summarize recent findings in the field of DNA Double Strand Break repair with regard to the positioning of the break in the highly compartmentalized nucleus. We aim to highlight the importance of chromatin state along with the nuclear position of the DNA lesions on the choice of DNA repair pathway and maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:27266837

  9. Rotator cuff repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... shoulder and arm bones. The tendons can be torn from overuse or injury. ... Surgery to repair a torn rotator cuff is usually very successful at relieving pain in the shoulder. The procedure is less predictable at returning strength ...

  10. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  11. How the brain repairs stuttering.

    PubMed

    Kell, Christian A; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-10-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of developmental plasticity. Here we explore what distinguishes this type of recovery from less optimal repair modes, i.e. therapy-induced assisted recovery and attempted compensation in subjects who are still affected. We show that persistent stuttering is associated with mobilization of brain regions contralateral to the structural anomalies for compensation attempt. In contrast, the only neural landmark of optimal repair is activation of the left BA 47/12 in the orbitofrontal cortex, adjacent to a region where a white matter anomaly is observed in persistent stutterers, but normalized in recovered subjects. These findings show that late repair of neurodevelopmental stuttering follows the principles of contralateral and perianomalous reorganization.

  12. Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Using the Undersurface Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rubenis, Imants; Lam, Patrick H.; Murrell, George A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has traditionally been performed in the subacromial space from the bursal side of the tendon. The undersurface rotator cuff repair technique involves the arthroscope remaining in the glenohumeral joint, thus viewing the tendon from its undersurface during repair without a bursectomy or acromioplasty. Purpose: To compare the clinical and structural outcomes of undersurface rotator cuff repair with bursal-side repair. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted on 2 cohorts of patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with knotless suture anchors configured in a single-row formation using inverted mattress–style sutures from either the bursal side (n = 100) or undersurface (n = 165) of the supraspinatus tendon. Data were collected preoperatively, intraoperatively, and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 2 years postoperatively. At each time point, patients completed a modified L’Insalata questionnaire to assess patient-ranked pain scores and were clinically examined using standardized tests. Ultrasound examination was performed at 6 months and 2 years to assess the integrity of the repair. Results: At 2 years postoperatively, patients in both cohorts had significantly less pain and less difficulty with overhead activities compared with preoperative levels (P < .001). The type of repair performed (bursal or undersurface) did not affect the ability to perform overhead activities at 2 years. At 2 years, both groups also had similar retear rates (21% for bursal side, 23% for undersurface). The mean operative time for the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was 32 minutes when performed from the bursal side and 20 minutes when performed from the undersurface (P < .001). Conclusion: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, whether performed from the subacromial space or glenohumeral joint, resulted in decreased levels of

  13. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  14. Chronic ethanol consumption results in deficient bone repair in rats.

    PubMed

    Chakkalakal, Dennis A; Novak, Jerzy R; Fritz, Edward D; Mollner, Teresa J; McVicker, Daniel L; Lybarger, Denise L; McGuire, Michael H; Donohue, Terrence M

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence that ethanol inhibits osteoblast function and that chronic ethanol consumption induces systemic bone loss and increases the risk of fracture in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic ethanol consumption also compromises the healing of injured bone. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 8-10 weeks old, were placed into four feeding groups: group A received ethanol (36% of calories) as part of a liquid diet; group B was pair-fed to group A and received an isocaloric control diet containing maltodextrin; group C was fed the AIN-93M standard semi-purified liquid diet ad libitum; group D was fed the same ethanol diet as group A before bone injury, but after surgery (see below) these rats were given isocaloric control diet ad libitum. After 6 weeks on their respective diets, a bone repair model was surgically created at the midshaft in both fibulae of each rat. Seven weeks after injury the animals were euthanized and bone healing was evaluated by determining rigidity of the fibula by three-point bending, flexural modulus of the repair tissue and mineral content of the repair tissue. Rigidity of fibula in ethanol-fed rats and their pair-fed controls (groups A and B) were respectively 48 and 47% lower than in group C. Flexural modulus of the repair tissue in ethanol-fed rats had a 55% (P = 0.046) deficiency compared with their pair-fed controls. The mineral contents in groups A and B were respectively 16 and 13% lower than in group C. There were no significant differences in the results between groups C and D. Thus, the outcome of bone repair in ethanol-fed rats was deficient compared with rats receiving a standard maintenance diet. The repair tissue in ethanol-fed rats was mechanically inferior to that in pair-fed controls. This deficiency could not be attributed to the reduced food consumption of these animals. On the other hand, the restoration of normal bone healing in group D cannot be attributed solely to the cessation of

  15. Characterization of Postreplication Repair in Mutagen-Sensitive Strains of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, J. B.; Setlow, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, with suspected repair deficiencies, were analyzed for their capacity to repair damage induced by X-rays and UV radiation. Analysis was performed on cell cultures derived from embryos of homozygous mutant stocks. Postreplication repair following UV radiation has been analyzed in mutant stocks derived from a total of ten complementation groups. Cultures were irradiated, pulse-labeled, and incubated in the dark prior to analysis by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. Kinetics of the molecular weight increase in newly synthesized DNA were assayed after cells had been incubated in the presence or absence of caffeine. Two separate pathways of postreplication repair have been tentatively identified by mutants derived from four complementation groups. The proposed caffeine sensitive pathway (CAS) is defined by mutants which also disrupt meiosis. The second pathway (CIS) is caffeine insensitive and is not yet associated with meiotic functions. All mutants deficient in postreplication repair are also sensitive to nitrogen mustard. The mutants investigated display a normal capacity to repair single-strand breaks induced in DNA by X-rays, although two may possess a reduced capacity to repair damage caused by localized incorporation of high specific activity thymidine-3H. The data have been employed to construct a model for repair of UV-induced damage in Drosophila DNA. Implications of the model for DNA repair in mammals are discussed. PMID:826451

  16. In vitro comparison of two different materials for the repair of urethan dimethacrylate denture bases

    PubMed Central

    Cilingir, Altug; Bilhan, Hakan; Sulun, Tonguc; Bozdag, Ergun; Sunbuloglu, Emin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the flexural properties of a recently introduced urethane dimethacrylate denture base material (Eclipse) after being repaired with two different materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two repair groups and a control group consisting of 10 specimens each were generated. The ES group was repaired with auto-polymerizing polymer. The EE group was repaired with the Eclipse. The E group was left intact as a control group. A 3-point bending test device which was set to travel at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min was used. Specimens were loaded until fracture occurred and the mean displacement, maximum load, flexural modulus and flexural strength values and standard deviations were calculated for each group and the data were statistically analyzed. The results were assessed at a significance level of P<.05. RESULTS The mean "displacement", "maximum load before fracture", "flexural strength" and "flexural modulus" rates of Group E were statistically significant higher than those of Groups ES and EE, but no significant difference (P>.05) was found between the mean values of Group ES and EE. There was a statistically significant positive relation (P<.01) between the displacement and maximum load of Group ES (99.5%), Group EE (94.3%) and Group E (84.4%). CONCLUSION The more economic and commonly used self-curing acrylic resin can be recommended as an alternative repair material for Eclipse denture bases. PMID:24353876

  17. Self-repairable polymeric networks: Synthesis and network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit

    This dissertation describes the design, synthesis and development of a new class of polymeric networks that exhibit self-repairing properties under UV exposure. It consists of two parts: (a) modification and synthesis of oxetane (OXE), and oxolane (OXO) substituted chitosan (CHI) macromonomer, and (b) design, and synthesis of self-repairing polyurethane (PUR) networks consisting of modified chitosan. Unmodified CHI consisting of acetamide (-NHCOCH3), primary hydroxyl (-OH), and amine (-NH2) functional groups were reacted with OXE or OXO compounds under basic conditions in order to substitute the 1° --OH groups, and at the same time, convert -NHCOCH 3 functionalities into -NH2 groups, while maintaining their un-reacted form to generate OXE/OXO-substituted CHI macromonomer. These substituted CHI macromonomers were incorporated within the PUR backbone by reacting with trifunctional isocyanate in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dibutyl tin dilaurate catalyst (DBTDL). Utilizing spectroscopic analysis combined with optical microscopy, these studies showed that the kinetics of self-repair depends on the stoichiometry of the individual entities as well as the time required for self-repairing to occur decrease with increasing OXE quantity within the network. Internal reflection infrared imaging (IRIRI) of OXE/OXO-CHI-PUR networks as well as Raman and Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) studies of OXE/OXO-CHI macromonomers revealed that cationic OXE/OXO ring opening, free radical polyurea (PUA)-to-PUR conversion, along with chair-to-boat conformational changes of CHI backbone are responsible for repairing the damaged network. The network remodeling process, investigated by utilizing micro-thermal analyzer (muTA), revealed that mechanical damage generates small fragments or oligomers within the scratch, therefore glass transition temperature (Tg) decreases, and under UV exposure cross-linking reactions propagate from the bottom of the scratch to the top resulting in

  18. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis compared with repair of isolated type II SLAP lesions in patients older than 35 years.

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J; Lädermann, Alexandre; Parsley, B K; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2014-03-01

    This study compared arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with biceps repair for isolated type II superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions in patients older than 35 years. The authors identified isolated type II SLAP lesions that were surgically managed over a 5-year period. Minimum 2-year follow-up data were available for 22 patients who underwent biceps repair (repair group) and for 15 patients who underwent a primary biceps tenodesis (tenodesis group). Mean age at surgery was 45.2±5.5 years in the repair group and 52.0±8.0 years in the tenodesis group. In the repair group, functional outcome improved from baseline to final follow-up using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) (47.5 to 87.4, respectively; P<.0001) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) scores (18.5 to 31.2, respectively; P<.0001). In the tenodesis group, similar findings were observed for the ASES (43.4 to 89.9, respectively; P<.0001) and UCLA scores (19.0 to 32.7, respectively; P<.0001). No difference was found in functional outcome between the groups. Full range of motion recovery was delayed by approximately 3 months in the repair group compared with the tenodesis group (P=.0631). Two patients in the repair group required a secondary capsular release. Seventy-seven percent of patients in the repair group and 100% of patients in the tenodesis group were satisfied and returned to normal activity (P=.0673). In the current study, individuals older than 35 years with an isolated type II SLAP lesion had a shorter postoperative recovery, a more predictable functional outcome, and a higher rate of satisfaction and return to activity with a biceps tenodesis compared with a biceps repair. Based on these observations, biceps tenodesis is preferable to biceps repair for isolated type II SLAP lesions in nonoverhead athletes older than 35 years.

  19. A Canine Non-Weight-Bearing Model with Radial Neurectomy for Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Bao, Nirong; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB) canine model for rotator cuff repair research. Methods First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1) Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2) Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2) polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3) Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks. Results In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05). In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure. Conclusions Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair. PMID:26107616

  20. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/crUreWGQdGo.

  1. Reprogramming Cells for Brain Repair

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Alyx T.; McKinnon, Randall D.

    2013-01-01

    At present there are no clinical therapies that can repair traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury or degenerative brain disease. While redundancy and rewiring of surviving circuits can recover some lost function, the brain and spinal column lack sufficient endogenous stem cells to replace lost neurons or their supporting glia. In contrast, pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that exogenous transplants can have remarkable efficacy for brain repair in animal models. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can provide paracrine factors that repair damage caused by ischemic injury, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) grafts give dramatic functional recovery from spinal cord injury. These studies have progressed to clinical trials, including human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived OPCs for spinal cord repair. However, ESC-derived allografts are less than optimal, and we need to identify a more appropriate donor graft population. The cell reprogramming field has developed the ability to trans-differentiate somatic cells into distinct cell types, a technology that has the potential to generate autologous neurons and glia which address the histocompatibility concerns of allografts and the tumorigenicity concerns of ESC-derived grafts. Further clarifying how cell reprogramming works may lead to more efficient direct reprogram approaches, and possibly in vivo reprogramming, in order to promote brain and spinal cord repair. PMID:24961526

  2. Essentials of skin laceration repair.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Randall T

    2008-10-15

    Skin laceration repair is an important skill in family medicine. Sutures, tissue adhesives, staples, and skin-closure tapes are options in the outpatient setting. Physicians should be familiar with various suturing techniques, including simple, running, and half-buried mattress (corner) sutures. Although suturing is the preferred method for laceration repair, tissue adhesives are similar in patient satisfaction, infection rates, and scarring risk in low skin-tension areas and may be more cost-effective. The tissue adhesive hair apposition technique also is effective in repairing scalp lacerations. The sting of local anesthesia injections can be lessened by using smaller gauge needles, administering the injection slowly, and warming or buffering the solution. Studies have shown that tap water is safe to use for irrigation, that white petrolatum ointment is as effective as antibiotic ointment in postprocedure care, and that wetting the wound as early as 12 hours after repair does not increase the risk of infection. Patient education and appropriate procedural coding are important after the repair. PMID:18953970

  3. Articular capsule repair in initial artificial hip replacement via anterolateral approach to the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B L; Wang, F; Tian, M B; Yin, W L; You, X Y; Li, D; Ma, L G; Xing, L Q

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore articular capsule repair in first artificial hip replacement (AHR) via anterolateral approach and its influence on postoperative dislocation. A total of 292 patients who received AHR via anterolateral approach and had the articular capsule repaired in People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou (Henan, China) from February 2008 to February 2014 were selected and divided into total hip replacement (THR) group (group A1) and artificial femoral head replacement (AFHR) group (group A2). Five hundred and five cases in the control group treated using the same approach but receiving no articular capsule repair were divided into THR group (group B1) and AFHR group (group B2). Condition of postoperative dislocation was compared between the two groups. All cases were followed up for 6 months to 5 years (average: 3.75 years); it was noted that the difference in average age, gender, disease constitution and follow-up time in the two groups was not significant (P>0.05). Moreover, groups A1 and B1 were found with 1 case of early hip joint dislocation (0.73%) and 13 cases of hip joint dislocation (5.24%) respectively post-operatively, and the comparison between the two groups was statistically significant (P less than 0.05). One case of hip joint dislocation (0.65%) was found in group A2 and 5 cases (1.95%) in group B2 in early post operation and the difference between two groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). Neither the repair group nor the control group developed late-onset dislocation after the operation. Thus, we can state that articular capsule repair is feasible during the first AHR via anterolateral approach, which decreases the occurrence of early hip joint dislocation after operation and proves that repairing articular capsule during AFHR via anterolateral approach is unnecessary. PMID:27358130

  4. Practical aspects of coating repair

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, C.G.

    1980-02-01

    Detailed information is given concerning the types of coatings failures that are amenable to repair and materials and methods effective in making them. Coatings failure types are analyzed, and recommended surface preparation for several types of failure are described in detail. Consequences of improper surface preparation are emphasized. Precautions necessary for selection of materials and for application methods effective in applying coatings over old coatings are presented in detail. Characteristics and causes are given for pinpoint rusting, delamination, chalking, and undercutting by rust. Characteristics and causes of gas and liquid blisters are described and methods of repairing coating underneath them are detailed. Special attention is given to repairs on galvanizing and inorganic zinc-loaded coatings and the correct procedures of surface preparation and overcoating. Importance of time after start of failure to begin recoating is emphasized.

  5. Recommendations for Enabling Manual Component Level Electronic Repair for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Easton, John W.; Funk, Gregory P.; Latta, Gary S.; Ganster, Andrew W.; Estes, Brett E.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration missions to the Moon and Mars pose a number of challenges to mission designers, controllers, and the crews. Among these challenges are planning for corrective maintenance actions which often require a repair. Current repair strategies on the International Space Station (ISS) rely primarily on the use of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), where a faulty unit is replaced with a spare, and the faulty unit typically returns to Earth for analysis and possible repair. The strategy of replace to repair has posed challenges even for the ISS program. Repairing faulty hardware at lower levels such as the component level can help maintain system availability in situations where no spares exist and potentially reduce logistic resupply mass.This report provides recommendations to help enable manual replacement of electronics at the component-level for future manned space missions. The recommendations include hardware, tools, containment options, and crew training. The recommendations are based on the work of the Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task of the Exploration Technology Development Program from 2006 to 2009. The recommendations are derived based on the experience of two experiments conducted by the CLEAR team aboard the International Space Station as well as a group of experienced Miniature/Microminiature (2M) electronics repair technicians and instructors from the U.S. Navy 2M Project Office. The emphasis of the recommendations is the physical repair. Fault diagnostics and post-repair functional test are discussed in other CLEAR reports.

  6. DNA repair: front and center and not going away!

    PubMed

    Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the book: DNA repair protocols: third edition, edited by Bjergbaek, discusses the history and more recent developments in the field of DNA repair. This research field started in the 1950 and developed from a small group of researchers interested in the damage caused to DNA by ultraviolet irradiation from the sun to become a large field of research today. DNA damage and its repair are now thought to play an important role in the etiologies of cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration and there is a great deal of interest in this venture. Thus, understanding of DNA processing is now a central field in molecular and cellular biology, and the field is still growing.

  7. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Chaikof, Elliot L.; Lin, Peter H.; Brinkman, William T.; Dodson, Thomas F.; Weiss, Victor J.; Lumsden, Alan B.; Terramani, Thomas T.; Najibi, Sasan; Bush, Ruth L.; Salam, Atef A.; Smith, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Objective The impact of co-morbid conditions on early and late clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was assessed in concurrent cohorts of patients stratified with respect to risk for intervention. Summary Background Data As a minimally invasive strategy for the treatment of AAA, endovascular repair has been embraced with enthusiasm for all prospective patients who are suitable anatomical candidates because of the promise of achieving a durable result with a reduced risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Methods From April 1994 to March 2001, endovascular AAA repair was performed in 236 patients using commercially available systems. A subset of patients considered at increased risk for intervention (n = 123) were categorized, as such, based on a preexisting history of ischemic coronary artery disease, with documentation of myocardial infarction (60%) or congestive heart failure (35%), or due to the presence of chronic obstructive disease (21%), liver disease, or malignancy. Results Perioperative mortality (30-day) was 6.5% in the increased-risk patients as compared to 1.8% among those classified as low risk (P = NS). There was no difference between groups in age (74 ± 9 years vs. 72 ± 6 years; mean ± SD), surgical time (235 ± 95 minutes vs. 219 ± 84 minutes), blood loss (457 ± 432 mL vs. 351 ± 273 mL), postoperative hospital stay (4.8 ± 3.4 days vs. 4.0 ± 3.9 days), or days in the ICU (1.3 ± 1.8 days vs. 0.5 ± 1.6 days). Patients at increased risk of intervention had larger aneurysms than low-risk patients (59 ± 13 mm vs. 51 ± 14 mm;P < .05). Stent grafts were successfully implanted in 116 (95%) increased-risk versus 107 (95%) low-risk patients (P = NS). Conversion rates to open operative repair were similar in increased-risk and low-risk groups at 3% and 5%, respectively. The initial endoleak rate was 22% versus 20%, based on the first CT performed (either at discharge or 1 month;P = NS). To date

  8. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option. PMID:25098825

  9. Sciatic nerve repair using adhesive bonding and a modified conduit

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiangdang; Cai, Hongfei; Hao, Yongyu; Sun, Geng; Song, Yaoyao; Chen, Wen

    2014-01-01

    When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not fix the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and repaired it using a modified 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modified conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the average operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No significant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modified conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect. PMID:25206861

  10. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  11. Proximal Rectus Femoris Avulsion Repair.

    PubMed

    Dean, Chase S; Arbeloa-Gutierrez, Lucas; Chahla, Jorge; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Proximal rectus femoris tendon avulsions are rare and occur mostly in male athletes. Currently, the standard of care for complete tendinous avulsions of the direct arm of the rectus femoris is nonoperative treatment. However, surgical repair may be considered in high-level athletes who have a high demand for repetitive hip flexion performed in an explosive manner or in patients in whom nonoperative treatment has failed. The purpose of this technical note is to describe the method for surgical repair of the proximal direct arm of the rectus femoris to its origin at the anterior inferior iliac spine using suture anchors. PMID:27656376

  12. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

  13. Comparing Gray and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as a Repair Material for Furcation Perforation: An in Vitro Dye Extraction Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kiran; Baba, Suheel Manzoor; Jaiswal, Shikha; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Jani, Mehul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Furcation perforation can have a negative impact on the prognosis of the affected tooth by compromising the attached apparatus. Hence these perforations require immediate repair. A variety of materials have been suggested for repair, of that MTA is the most promising material. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of Gray and White MTA to seal furcation perforations using a dye extraction method under spectrophotometer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 permanent mandibular molars were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 samples each as follows: Group A: Perforation repaired with White MTA. Group B: Perforation repaired with Gray MTA. Group C: Perforation left unsealed (positive). Group D: without perforation (negative). Dye extraction was performed using full concentration nitric acid. Dye absorbance was measured at 550 nm using spectrophotometer. The data analyzed using one-way-Anova Ratio and Unpaired t-test showing statistically significance difference among the groups. Result: It was seen that Group D samples without perforation showed least absorbance followed by Group A (perforation repaired with White MTA) and Group B (perforation repaired with Gray MTA). Group C (perforation left unsealed) showed highest absorbance. Conclusion: The White and Gray Mineral Trioxide Aggregate performed similarly as a furcation perforation repair material. There was no significant difference between the Gray MTA and White MTA. PMID:25478452

  14. Enhanced Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair through a New Half Hitch Loop Suture Configuration

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, Stavros; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a new half hitch loop suture configuration on flexor tendon repair mechanics. Cadaver canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were repaired with 4- or 8-strands, 4–0 or 3–0 suture, with and without half hitch loops. An additional group underwent repair with half hitch loops but without the terminal knot. Half hitch loops improved the strength of 8-strand repairs by 21% when 4–0, and 33% when 3–0 suture was used, and caused a shift in failure mode from suture pullout to suture breakage. 8-strand repairs with half hitch loops but without a terminal knot produced equivalent mechanical properties to those without half hitch loops but with a terminal knot. 4-strand repairs were limited by the strength of the suture in all groups and, as a result, the presence of half hitch loops did not alter the mechanical properties. Overall, half hitch loops improved repair mechanics, allowing failure strength to reach the full capability of suture strength. Improving the mechanical properties of flexor tendon repair with half hitch loops has the potential to reduce the postoperative risk of gap formation and catastrophic rupture in the early postoperative period. PMID:27101409

  15. Effect of an Extra Hydrophobic Resin Layer on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rahbani Nobar, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Composite repair is a minimally invasive and conservative approach. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an additional hydrophobic resin layer on the repair shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite repaired with silorane or methacrylate-based composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty bar-shaped composite blocks were fabricated and stored in saline for 72 hours. The surface of the samples were roughened by diamond burs and etched with phosphoric acid; then, they were randomly divided into three groups according to the repairing process: Group 1: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-silorane composite; group 2: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin-silorane composite, and group 3: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin methacrylate-based composite. Repairing composite blocks measured 2.5×2.5×5mm. After repairing, the samples were stored in saline for 24 hours and thermocycled for 1500 cycles. The repair bond strength was measured at a strain rate of 1mm/min. Twenty additional cylindrical composite blocks (diameter: 2.5mm, height: 6mm) were also fabricated for measuring the cohesive strength of silorane-based composite. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: Cohesive bond strength of silorane composite was significantly higher than the repair bond strengths in other groups (P<0.001). The repair bond strength of group 3 was significantly higher than that of group 1 (P=0.001). Conclusion: Application of an additional hydrophobic resin layer for repair of silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite enhanced the repair shear bond strength. PMID:27559348

  16. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  17. 24 CFR 206.47 - Property standards; repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... be repaired in order to ensure that the repaired property will serve as adequate security for the insured mortgage. (b) Assurance that repairs are made. The mortgage may be closed before the repair...

  18. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies. PMID:26850617

  19. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies.

  20. Outcome of quadriceps tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Gururaj S; Faraj, Adnan

    2006-04-01

    Complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a well-described injury. There is a scarcity of literature relating to the outcome of patients with this injury after surgery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had surgical repair of their quadriceps tendon at our institution over a 13-year period, totalling 21 patients. Males were more commonly affected, with a male/female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade of life. Assessment consisted of the completion of a functional knee questionnaire and a clinical examination. Symptomatic outcome following surgical repair was good with a mean symptom score generated of 19.16 out of a maximum of 25 using the Rougraff et al scoring system. Most of the patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity. Five degrees deficit and extension lag was present in three patients; these patients had the quadriceps repaired using transosseous sutures. Patients who had direct repair of the tendon using the Bunnell technique had lower Rougraff scores than the rest.

  1. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  2. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  3. Computer Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in a course to train students to repair computer equipment and perform related administrative and customer service tasks. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics (with selected subtopics in brackets): performing administrative functions (preparing service bills, maintaining accounts and labor…

  4. Repair to the Huygens probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers examine the Huygens probe after removal from the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) at KSC. The spacecraft was returned to the PHSF after damage to the thermal insulation was discovered inside Huygens from an abnormally high flow of conditioned air. The damage required technicians to inspect the inside of the probe, repair the insulation, and clean the instruments. After returning from the PHSF to Launch Pad 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Cassini/Huygens launched successfully in October 1997, and reached Saturn in July of 2004. Scientific instruments carried aboard the Cassini orbiter will study Saturn's atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and several moons, while the Huygens probe will separate and land on the surface of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. The Cassini-Huygens mission owes its name to the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens and Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Both had spectacular careers as observers of the heavens, which included important discoveries about Saturn and its satellites. Huygens (1629-1695) discovered Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in 1655 and in 1656 described the shape and phase changes of Saturn's rings. Cassini (1625-1712) was the first to observe four of Saturn's moons, Iapetus, Rhea, Tethys, and Dione, in the 1670s and 1680s. He also, in 1675, discovered the gap in Saturn's rings, now called the Cassini Division, and proposed that the rings were formed from many tiny particles. Cassini-Huygens is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). JPL is managing the Cassini project for NASA. The mission was proposed in November 1982 by a group of European and American scientists from the European Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences. The Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council endorsed the idea in April 1983, and NASA and ESA began a

  5. Cellular Encapsulation Enhances Cardiac Repair

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Rebecca D.; Landázuri, Natalia; Phelps, Edward A.; Brown, Milton E.; García, Andrés J.; Davis, Michael E.; Joseph, Giji; Long, Robert; Safley, Susan A.; Suever, Jonathan D.; Lyle, Alicia N.; Weber, Collin J.; Taylor, W. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Stem cells for cardiac repair have shown promise in preclinical trials, but lower than expected retention, viability, and efficacy. Encapsulation is one potential strategy to increase viable cell retention while facilitating paracrine effects. Methods and Results Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were encapsulated in alginate and attached to the heart with a hydrogel patch in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model. Cells were tracked using bioluminescence (BLI) and cardiac function measured by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Microvasculature was quantified using von Willebrand factor staining and scar measured by Masson's Trichrome. Post‐MI ejection fraction by CMR was greatly improved in encapsulated hMSC‐treated animals (MI: 34±3%, MI+Gel: 35±3%, MI+Gel+hMSC: 39±2%, MI+Gel+encapsulated hMSC: 56±1%; n=4 per group; P<0.01). Data represent mean±SEM. By TTE, encapsulated hMSC‐treated animals had improved fractional shortening. Longitudinal BLI showed greatest hMSC retention when the cells were encapsulated (P<0.05). Scar size at 28 days was significantly reduced in encapsulated hMSC‐treated animals (MI: 12±1%, n=8; MI+Gel: 14±2%, n=7; MI+Gel+hMSC: 14±1%, n=7; MI+Gel+encapsulated hMSC: 7±1%, n=6; P<0.05). There was a large increase in microvascular density in the peri‐infarct area (MI: 121±10, n=7; MI+Gel: 153±26, n=5; MI+Gel+hMSC: 198±18, n=7; MI+Gel+encapsulated hMSC: 828±56 vessels/mm2, n=6; P<0.01). Conclusions Alginate encapsulation improved retention of hMSCs and facilitated paracrine effects such as increased peri‐infarct microvasculature and decreased scar. Encapsulation of MSCs improved cardiac function post‐MI and represents a new, translatable strategy for optimization of regenerative therapies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24113327

  6. Standardized Curriculum for Shoe and Boot Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for shoe and boot repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all shoe and boot repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for shoe and boot repair I and II courses. Units in…

  7. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  8. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  9. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  10. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  11. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which...

  12. Standardized Curriculum for Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for small engine repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all small engine repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for small engine repair I and II courses. Units in course I…

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PROCEDURE FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR...

  18. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2010-01-01

    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair…

  19. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 at the time... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or...

  20. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  1. Auto Body Repair and Repainting: Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Edward F.; Penner, Wayman R.

    The guide contains 11 sections, each consisting of one or more units of instruction designed to provide students with entry-level skills in auto body repair. The sections deal with: introductory and related information; body and frame construction; tools; welding; basic metal repair; hardware, glass, and trim; major metal repair; refinishing;…

  2. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs. 127.405 Section 127.405... Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Equipment repairs are made so that— (1) The equipment continues to meet the applicable requirements in...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  5. 26 CFR 1.162-4 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Repairs. 1.162-4 Section 1.162-4 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-4 Repairs. The cost of incidental repairs which neither materially add to the value of the property nor appreciably prolong its...

  6. Bringing mask repair to the next level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Auth, N.; Spies, P.; Oster, J.; Schneider, H.; Budach, M.; Hofmann, T.; Waiblinger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. These challenges require sophisticated technologies to bring mask repair to the next level. For high end masks ion-beam based and e-based repair technologies are the obvious choice when it comes to the repair of small features. Both technologies have their pro and cons. The scope of this paper is to review and compare the performance of ion-beam based mask repair to e-beam based mask repair. We will analyze the limits of both technologies theoretically and experimentally and show mask repair related performance data. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair tools.

  7. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

  8. Does the addition of a nerve wrap to a motor nerve repair affect motor outcomes?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Yup; Parisi, Thomas J; Friedrich, Patricia F; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wrapping bioabsorbable nerve conduit around primary suture repair on motor nerve regeneration in a rat model. Forty rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups according to the type of repair of the rat sciatic nerve: group I had primary suture repair; group II had primary suture repair and bioabsorbable collagen nerve conduit (NeuraGen® 1.5 mm, Integra LifeSciences Corp., Plainsboro, NJ) wrapped around the repair. At 12 weeks, no significant differences in the percentage of recovery between the two groups were observed with respect to compound muscle action potentials, isometric muscle force, and muscle weight (P = 0.816, P = 0.698, P = 0.861, respectively). Histomorphometric analysis as compared to the non-operative sites was also not significantly different between the two groups in terms of number of myelinated axons, myelinated fiber area, and nerve fiber density (P = 0.368, P = 0.968, P = 0.071, respectively). Perineural scar tissue formation was greater in primary suture repair group (0.36 ± 0.15) than in primary repair plus conduit wrapping group (0.17 ± 0.08). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Wrapping bioabsorbable nerve conduit around primary nerve repair can decrease perineural scar tissue formation. Although the scar-decreasing effect of bioabsorbable nerve wrap does not translate into better motor nerve recovery in this study, it might have an effect on the functional outcome in humans where scar formation is much more evident than in rats.

  9. Flexural strength of acrylic resin repairs processed by different methods: water bath, microwave energy and chemical polymerization

    PubMed Central

    ARIOLI FILHO, João Neudenir; BUTIGNON, Luís Eduardo; PEREIRA, Rodrigo de Paula; LUCAS, Matheus Guilherme; MOLLO JUNIOR, Francisco de Assis

    2011-01-01

    Denture fractures are common in daily practice, causing inconvenience to the patient and to the dentists. Denture repairs should have adequate strength, dimensional stability and color match, and should be easily and quickly performed as well as relatively inexpensive. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin repairs processed by different methods: warm water-bath, microwave energy, and chemical polymerization. Material and methods Sixty rectangular specimens (31x10x2.5 mm) were made with warm water-bath acrylic resin (Lucitone 550) and grouped (15 specimens per group) according to the resin type used to make repair procedure: 1) specimens of warm water-bath resin (Lucitone 550) without repair (control group); 2) specimens of warm water-bath resin repaired with warm water-bath; 3) specimens of warm water-bath resin repaired with microwave resin (Acron MC); 4) specimens of warm water-bath resin repaired with autopolymerized acrylic resin (Simplex). Flexural strength was measured with the three-point bending in a universal testing machine (MTS 810 Material Test System) with load cell of 100 kgf under constant speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results The control group showed the best result (156.04±1.82 MPa). Significant differences were found among repaired specimens and the results were decreasing as follows: group 3 (43.02±2.25 MPa), group 2 (36.21±1.20 MPa) and group 4 (6.74±0.85 MPa). Conclusion All repaired specimens demonstrated lower flexural strength than the control group. Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin showed the lowest flexural strength. PMID:21625742

  10. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and pre-planned for the Skylab Mission, was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs include the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The Skylab experience proves conclusively that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools.

  11. Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Findeiss, Laura K.; Cody, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence; open repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Repair of isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using stent grafts was introduced in 1995, and in an anatomically suitable subgroup of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, repair with endovascular stent graft provides favorable outcomes, with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality relative to open repair. The cornerstones of successful thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair are appropriate patient selection, thorough preprocedural planning, and cautious procedural execution, the elements of which are discussed here. PMID:22379281

  12. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; Orner, Caitlin A; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A; Hammert, Warren C; O'Keefe, Regis J; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  13. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; Orner, Caitlin A; Bawany, Fatima; Awad, Hani A; Hammert, Warren C; O'Keefe, Regis J; Loiselle, Alayna E

    2015-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1) expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1). Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism would improve the

  14. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  15. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  16. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  17. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information should be... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.”...

  18. Shuttle orbiter TPS flight repair kit development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of a TPS repair kit is presented. The repair kit is designed for on orbit use by a crew member working in the manned maneuvering unit (MMU). The kit includes the necessary equipment and materials to accomplish the repair tasks which include the following: HRSI emittance coating repair, damaged tile repair, missing tile repair, and multiple tile repair. Two types of repair materials required to do the small area repair and the large area repair are described. The materials area cure in place, silicone base ablator for small damaged areas and precured ablator tile for repair of larger damaged areas is examined. The cure in place ablator is also used as an adhesive to bond the precured tiles in place. An applicator for the cure in place ablator, designed to contain a two-part silicon compound, mix the two components at correct ratio, and dispense the materials at rates compatible with mission timelines established for the EVA is described.

  19. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p < 0.0001) and a specificity of 67% (p < 0.0001). The strongest predictors of rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.004). Sonographic assessments of tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  20. Repair of base damage and genome maintenance in the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, María L

    2014-01-22

    Among the DNA viruses, the so-called nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) constitute a monophyletic group that currently consists of seven families of viruses infecting a very broad variety of eukaryotes, from unicellular marine protists to humans. Many recent papers have analyzed the sequence and structure of NCLDV genomes and their phylogeny, providing detailed analysis about their genomic structure and evolutionary history and proposing their inclusion in a new viral order named Megavirales that, according to some authors, should be considered as a fourth domain of life, aside from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. The maintenance of genetic information protected from environmental attacks and mutations is essential not only for the survival of cellular organisms but also viruses. In cellular organisms, damaged DNA bases are removed in two major repair pathways: base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide incision repair (NIR) that constitute the major pathways responsible for repairing most endogenous base lesions and abnormal bases in the genome by precise repair procedures. Like cells, many NCLDV encode proteins that might constitute viral DNA repair pathways that would remove damages through BER/NIR pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and, specially, the biological roles of those viral repair pathways have not been deeply addressed in the literature so far. In this paper, we review viral-encoded BER proteins and the genetic and biochemical data available about them. We propose and discuss probable viral-encoded DNA repair mechanisms and pathways, as compared with the functional and molecular features of known homologs proteins.

  1. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  2. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal

  3. Repairable, nanostructured biomimetic hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Brombosz, S.; Grubjesic, S.

    2013-03-01

    Proteins facilitate many key cellular processes, including signal recognition and energy transduction. The ability to harness this evolutionarily-optimized functionality could lead to the development of protein-based systems useful for advancing alternative energy storage and conversion. The future of protein-based, however, requires the development of materials that will stabilize, order and control the activity of the proteins. Recently we have developed a synthetic approach for the preparation of a durable biomimetic chemical hydrogel that can be reversibly swollen in water. The matrix has proven ideal for the stable encapsulation of both water- and membrane-soluble proteins. The material is composed of an aqueous dispersion of a diacrylate end-derivatized PEO-PPO-PEO macromer, a saturated phospholipid and a zwitterionic co-surfactant that self-assembles into a nanostructured physical gel at room temperature as determined by X-ray scattering. The addition of a water soluble PEGDA co-monomer and photoinitator does not alter the self-assembled structure and UV irradiation serves to crosslink the acrylate end groups on the macromer with the PEGDA forming a network within the aqueous domains as determined by FT-IR. More recently we have begun to incorporate reversible crosslinks employing Diels-Alder chemistry, allowing for the extraction and replacement of inactive proteins. The ability to replenish the materials with active, non-denatured forms of protein is an important step in advancing these materials for use in nanostructured devices This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences, USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Primary unilateral cleft lip repair

    PubMed Central

    Adenwalla, H. S.; Narayanan, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    The unilateral cleft lip is a complex deformity. Surgical correction has evolved from a straight repair through triangular and quadrilateral repairs to the Rotation Advancement Technique of Millard. The latter is the technique followed at our centre for all unilateral cleft lip patients. We operate on these at five to six months of age, do not use pre-surgical orthodontics, and follow a protocol to produce a notch-free vermillion. This is easy to follow even for trainees. We also perform closed alar dissection and extensive primary septoplasty in all these patients. This has improved the overall result and has no long-term deleterious effect on the growth of the nose or of the maxilla. Other refinements have been used for prevention of a high-riding nostril, and correction of the vestibular web. PMID:19884683

  5. Endovascular vs. Open Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Patelis, Nikolaos; Moris, Demetrios; Karaolanis, Georgios; Georgopoulos, Sotiris

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are most often treated with open repair despite the fact that endovascular aneurysm repair is a less invasive and widely accepted method with clear benefits for elective aortic aneurysm patients. A debate exists regarding the definitive benefit in endovascular repair for patients with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aim of this literature review was to determine if any trends exist in favor of either open or endovascular repair. Material/Methods A literature search was performed using PUBMED, OVID, and Google Scholar databases. The search yielded 64 publications. Results Out of 64 publications, 25 were retrospective studies, 12 were population-based, 21 were prospective, 5 were the results of RCTs, and 1 was a case-series. Sixty-one studies reported on early mortality and provided data comparing endovascular repair (rEVAR) and open repair (rOR) for ruptured abdominal aneurysm groups. Twenty-nine of these studies reported that rEVAR has a lower early mortality rate. Late mortality after rEVAR compared to that of rOR was reported in 21 studies for a period of 3 to 60 months. Results of 61.9% of the studies found no difference in late mortality rates between these 2 groups. Thirty-nine publications reported on the incidence of complications. Approximately half of these publications support that the rEVAR group has a lower complication rate and the other half found no difference between the groups. Length of hospital stay has been reported to be shorter for rEVAR in most studies. Blood loss and need for transfusion of either red cells or fresh frozen plasma was consistently lower in the rEVAR group. Conclusions Differences between the included publications affect the outcomes. Randomized control trials have not been able to provide clear conclusions. rEVAR can now be considered a safe method of treating rAAA, and is at least equal to the well-established rOR method. PMID:27090791

  6. Pectoralis major tendon repairs in the active-duty population.

    PubMed

    Antosh, Ivan J; Grassbaugh, Jason A; Parada, Stephen A; Arrington, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is an uncommon injury that typically occurs in young, active people. Of this injury population, active-duty military personnel represent a unique, athletic subset that is commonly treated with operative repair. For the retrospective case series reported here, we hypothesized that active-duty soldiers with acute and chronic pectoralis major tendon ruptures treated with operative repair would have high levels of patient satisfaction, quick return to work and sports, and few long-term complications. We retrospectively reviewed all pectoralis major tendon rupture repairs performed at our institution between 2000 and 2007. Charts were thoroughly reviewed, and patients were asked to complete DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) and supplemental questionnaires. Paired Student's t test was performed, and Ps were calculated to analyze statistical differences between immediate- and delayed-treatment groups. Fourteen patients were identified. The most common mechanism of injury was bench-pressing weights. Overall DASH, Work Module, and Sports Module scores were good to excellent. There was a statistically significant difference between outcomes for the immediate- and delayed- treatment groups, with the immediate-treatment group having better overall DASH and Work Module scores. Patients had a 30% to 40% objective loss of strength after surgery. Active-duty soldiers reported acceptable overall outcomes after both immediate and delayed treatment for pectoralis major tendon ruptures, but a statistically significant difference was found in overall DASH and Work Module scores between the treatment groups.

  7. Are valve repairs associated with better outcomes than replacements in patients with native active valve endocarditis?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Zhang, Benqing

    2014-12-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether valve replacement was associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than valve repair in patients with native active valve endocarditis. Altogether 662 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Traditionally, valve replacement has been the standard therapy for valve endocarditis when surgical treatment is indicated. But now valve repair is increasingly used as an alternative, which may avoid disadvantages of anticoagulation, lower the risk of prosthetic infection and improve postoperative survival. To compare outcomes of these two treatments between studies can be difficult because most of related papers contain raw data on prosthetic valve endocarditis or healed endocarditis, which were excluded from our manuscript. Studies only analysing the outcomes of either of these treatments without the comparison of valve repair and replacement were also excluded. Finally, seven papers were identified. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology 2006 valvular guidelines recommended that mitral valve repair should be performed instead of replacement when at all possible. In three of the seven studies, there were significant differences between valve repair and replacement in long-term survival. One study found that aortic valve repair offered better outcomes in freedom from reoperation at 5 years (P = 0.021) and in survival at 4 years (repair vs replacement 88 vs 65%; P = 0.047). One study reported that there was improved event-free survival at 10 years in the mitral valve repair group (P = 0.015), although there was more previous septic embolization in this group. In one study, early and late mortality

  8. Which mesh for hernia repair?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, CN; Finch, JG

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The concept of using a mesh to repair hernias was introduced over 50 years ago. Mesh repair is now standard in most countries and widely accepted as superior to primary suture repair. As a result, there has been a rapid growth in the variety of meshes available and choosing the appropriate one can be difficult. This article outlines the general properties of meshes and factors to be considered when selecting one. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a search of the medical literature from 1950 to 1 May 2009, as indexed by Medline, using the PubMed search engine (). To capture all potentially relevant articles with the highest degree of sensitivity, the search terms were intentionally broad. We used the following terms: ‘mesh, pore size, strength, recurrence, complications, lightweight, properties’. We also hand-searched the bibliographies of relevant articles and product literature to identify additional pertinent reports. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The most important properties of meshes were found to be the type of filament, tensile strength and porosity. These determine the weight of the mesh and its biocompatibility. The tensile strength required is much less than originally presumed and light-weight meshes are thought to be superior due to their increased flexibility and reduction in discomfort. Large pores are also associated with a reduced risk of infection and shrinkage. For meshes placed in the peritoneal cavity, consideration should also be given to the risk of adhesion formation. A variety of composite meshes have been promoted to address this, but none appears superior to the others. Finally, biomaterials such as acellular dermis have a place for use in infected fields but have yet to prove their worth in routine hernia repair. PMID:20501011

  9. Cell therapy for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Rosset, P; Deschaseaux, F; Layrolle, P

    2014-02-01

    When natural bone repair mechanisms fail, autologous bone grafting is the current standard of care. The osteogenic cells and bone matrix in the graft provide the osteo-inductive and osteo-conductive properties required for successful bone repair. Bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into osteogenic cells. MSC-based cell therapy holds promise for promoting bone repair. The amount of MSCs available from iliac-crest aspirates is too small to be clinically useful, and either concentration or culture must therefore be used to expand the MSC population. MSCs can be administered alone via percutaneous injection or implanted during open surgery with a biomaterial, usually biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-calcium-triphosphate granules. Encouraging preliminary results have been obtained in patients with delayed healing of long bone fractures or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Bone tissue engineering involves in vitro MSC culturing on biomaterials to obtain colonisation of the biomaterial and differentiation of the cells. The biomaterial-cell construct is then implanted into the zone to be treated. Few published data are available on bone tissue engineering. Much work remains to be done before determining whether this method is suitable for the routine filling of bone tissue defects. Increasing cell survival and promoting implant vascularisation are major challenges. Improved expertise with culturing techniques, together with the incorporation of regulatory requirements, will open the way to high-quality clinical trials investigating the usefulness of cell therapy as a method for achieving bone repair. Cell therapy avoids the drawbacks of autologous bone grafting, preserving the bone stock and diminishing treatment invasiveness.

  10. Wnt Signaling and Injury Repair

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Jemima L.; Smith, Andrew A.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling is activated by wounding and participates in every subsequent stage of the healing process from the control of inflammation and programmed cell death, to the mobilization of stem cell reservoirs within the wound site. In this review we summarize recent data elucidating the roles that the Wnt pathway plays in the injury repair process. These data provide a foundation for potential Wnt-based therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating tissue regeneration. PMID:22723493

  11. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    PubMed

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2-5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  12. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    PubMed Central

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  13. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    PubMed

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2-5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  14. Developing an in silico model of the modulation of base excision repair using methoxyamine for more targeted cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gurkan-Cavusoglu, Evren; Avadhani, Sriya; Liu, Lili; Kinsella, Timothy J; Loparo, Kenneth A

    2013-04-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is a major DNA repair pathway involved in the processing of exogenous non-bulky base damages from certain classes of cancer chemotherapy drugs as well as ionising radiation (IR). Methoxyamine (MX) is a small molecule chemical inhibitor of BER that is shown to enhance chemotherapy and/or IR cytotoxicity in human cancers. In this study, the authors have analysed the inhibitory effect of MX on the BER pathway kinetics using a computational model of the repair pathway. The inhibitory effect of MX depends on the BER efficiency. The authors have generated variable efficiency groups using different sets of protein concentrations generated by Latin hypercube sampling, and they have clustered simulation results into high, medium and low efficiency repair groups. From analysis of the inhibitory effect of MX on each of the three groups, it is found that the inhibition is most effective for high efficiency BER, and least effective for low efficiency repair. PMID:23847811

  15. Animal models of cartilage repair

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. L.; Hung, C. T.; Kuroki, K.; Stoker, A. M.; Cook, C. R.; Pfeiffer, F. M.; Sherman, S. L.; Stannard, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage repair in terms of replacement, or regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage with functional tissue, is the ‘holy grail’ of joint surgery. A wide spectrum of strategies for cartilage repair currently exists and several of these techniques have been reported to be associated with successful clinical outcomes for appropriately selected indications. However, based on respective advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, no single strategy, or even combination of strategies, provides surgeons with viable options for attaining successful long-term outcomes in the majority of patients. As such, development of novel techniques and optimisation of current techniques need to be, and are, the focus of a great deal of research from the basic science level to clinical trials. Translational research that bridges scientific discoveries to clinical application involves the use of animal models in order to assess safety and efficacy for regulatory approval for human use. This review article provides an overview of animal models for cartilage repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;4:89–94. PMID:24695750

  16. Calcium signaling in membrane repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lu; Xu, Haoxing

    2015-01-01

    Resealing allows cells to mend damaged membranes rapidly when plasma membrane (PM) disruptions occur. Models of PM repair mechanisms include the “lipid-patch”, “endocytic removal”, and “macro-vesicle shedding” models, all of which postulate a dependence on local increases in intracellular Ca2+ at injury sites. Multiple calcium sensors, including synaptotagmin (Syt) VII, dysferlin, and apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), are involved in PM resealing, suggesting that Ca2+ may regulate multiple steps of the repair process. Although earlier studies focused exclusively on external Ca2+, recent studies suggest that Ca2+ release from intracellular stores may also be important for PM resealing. Hence, depending on injury size and the type of injury, multiple sources of Ca2+ may be recruited to trigger and orchestrate repair processes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which the resealing process is promoted by vesicular Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ sensors that accumulate at damage sites. PMID:26519113

  17. The major DNA repair pathway after both proton and carbon-ion radiation is NHEJ, but the HR pathway is more relevant in carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Gerelchuluun, Ariungerel; Manabe, Eri; Ishikawa, Takaaki; Sun, Lue; Itoh, Kazuya; Sakae, Takeji; Suzuki, Kenshi; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J; Tsuboi, Koji

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the roles of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by exposure to high-energy protons and carbon ions (C ions) versus gamma rays in Chinese hamster cells. Two Chinese hamster cell lines, ovary AA8 and lung fibroblast V79, as well as various mutant sublines lacking DNA-PKcs (V3), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein-4 [XRCC4 (XR1), XRCC3 (irs1SF) and XRCC2 (irs1)] were exposed to gamma rays ((137)Cs), protons (200 MeV; 2.2 keV/μm) and C ions (290 MeV; 50 keV/μm). V3 and XR1 cells lack the NHEJ pathway, whereas irs1 and irs1SF cells lack the HR pathway. After each exposure, survival was measured using a clonogenic survival assay, in situ DSB induction was evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation at serine 139 (γ-H2AX foci) and chromosome aberrations were examined using solid staining. The findings from this study showed that clonogenic survival clearly depended on the NHEJ and HR pathway statuses, and that the DNA-PKcs(-/-) cells (V3) were the most sensitive to all radiation types. While protons and γ rays yielded almost the same biological effects, C-ion exposure greatly enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type and HR-deficient cells. However, no significant enhancement of sensitivity in cell killing was seen after C-ion irradiation of NHEJ deficient cells. Decreases in the number of γ-H2AX foci after irradiation occurred more slowly in the NHEJ deficient cells. In particular, V3 cells had the highest number of residual γ-H2AX foci at 24 h after C-ion irradiation. Chromosomal aberrations were significantly higher in both the NHEJ- and HR-deficient cell lines than in wild-type cell lines in response to all radiation types. Protons and gamma rays induced the same aberration levels in each cell line, whereas C ions introduced higher but not significantly different aberration levels. Our results

  18. Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    undergoing endovascular repair is aortic rupture, and the most common causes of late death are cardiac events and aortoesophageal or aortobronchial fistula. Technical Success Rate Technical success rates reported by case series are 55% to 100% (100% and 94.4% in 2 studies with all elective cases, 89% in a study with 5% emergent cases, and 55% in a study with 42% emergent cases). Surgical Reintervention In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients in the ESG group and 14 (26.5%) patients in the surgery group required surgical reintervention. In the ESG group, the reasons for surgical intervention were postoperative bleeding at the access site, paraplegia, and type 1 endoleak. In the surgical group, the reasons for surgery were duodenal perforation, persistent thoracic duct leakage, false aneurysm, and 11 cases of postoperative bleeding. Pooled data from case series show that 9 (2.6%) patients required surgical intervention. The reasons for surgical intervention were endoleak (3 cases), aneurysm enlargement and suspected infection (1 case), aortic dissection (1 case), pseudoaneurysm of common femoral artery (1 case), evacuation of hematoma (1 case), graft migration (1 case), and injury to the access site (1 case). Endovascular Revision In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak. Pooled data from case series show that 19 (5.3%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak. Graft Migration Two case series reported graft migration. In one study, 3 proximal and 4 component migrations were noted at 2-year follow-up (total of 5%). Another study reported 1 (3.7%) case of graft migration. Overall, the incidence of graft migration was 2.6%. Aortic Rupture In the comparative study, aortic rupture due to bare stent occurred in 1 case (2%). The pooled incidence of aortic rupture or dissection reported by case series was 1.4%. Postprocedural Complications In the comparative study, there were no statistically

  19. A Case of Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia after Myxoma Excision and Mitral Valve Repair Presenting as Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Joo; Kim, Sang Pil; Shin, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia occurs in a diverse group of disorders, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and prosthetic cardiac valves. Hemolytic anemia also occurs as a rare complication after mitral valve repair. In this report, we describe a case of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia following myxoma excision and mitral valve repair, which was presented as hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:27081450

  20. A Case of Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia after Myxoma Excision and Mitral Valve Repair Presenting as Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Joo; Kim, Sang Pil; Shin, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia occurs in a diverse group of disorders, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and prosthetic cardiac valves. Hemolytic anemia also occurs as a rare complication after mitral valve repair. In this report, we describe a case of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia following myxoma excision and mitral valve repair, which was presented as hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:27081450

  1. Does Abdominoplasty Add Morbidity to Incisional Hernia Repair? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Egea, Alfredo; Campillo-Soto, Álvaro; Morales-Cuenca, German

    2016-10-01

    Background Abdominoplasty is considered an operation linked to a considerable rate of morbidity. The convenience of simultaneously performing an incisional hernia repair and an abdominoplasty remains controversial. Methods A total of 111 patients were randomized prospectively to compare isolated incisional hernia repair and hernia repair when combined with abdominoplasty. Primary end points were in-hospital stay and early morbidity. Secondary end points were late morbidity, recurrences, and quality of life. Patients were followed-up for 24 months. Results Duration of the surgical procedure differed significantly between both groups (39 vs 85 minutes, P < .001) and postoperative hospital stay (2.5 vs 3.5 days; P < .001). No statistically significant differences in early or late morbidity between both groups were detected. The perceived quality of life for patients was higher in the combined surgery group (P < .001) that in the isolated hernia repair group. Conclusions Postoperative in-hospital stay and early and late morbidity do not differ significantly between isolated incisional hernia repair and simultaneous hernia repair with abdominoplasty, but associated abdominoplasty provides a higher quality of life when indicated. PMID:27130646

  2. Tissue Engineering for Rotator Cuff Repair: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to address the treatment of rotator cuff tears by applying tissue engineering approaches to improve tendon healing, specifically platelet rich plasma (PRP) augmentation, stem cells, and scaffolds. Our systematic search was performed using the combination of the following terms: “rotator cuff”, “shoulder”, “PRP”, “platelet rich plasma”, “stemcells”, “scaffold”, “growth factors”, and “tissue engineering”. No level I or II studies were found on the use of scaffolds and stem cells for rotator cuff repair. Three studies compared rotator cuff repair with or without PRP augmentation. All authors performed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with different techniques of suture anchor fixation and different PRP augmentation. The three studies found no difference in clinical rating scales and functional outcomes between PRP and control groups. Only one study showed clinical statistically significant difference between the two groups at the 3-month follow up. Any statistically significant difference in the rates of tendon rerupture between the control group and the PRP group was found using the magnetic resonance imaging. The current literature on tissue engineering application for rotator cuff repair is scanty. Comparative studies included in this review suggest that PRP augmented repair of a rotator cuff does not yield improved functional and clinical outcome compared with non-augmented repair at a medium and long-term followup. PMID:25098365

  3. Quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical comparison of transosseous equivalent double-row suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel repair.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan D; Wallace, Matthew K; Scovell, J Field; Krupp, Ryan J; Cook, Chad; Wyland, Douglas J

    2012-09-01

    Quadriceps rupture off the patella is traditionally repaired by a transosseous tunnel technique, although a single-row suture anchor repair has recently been described. This study biomechanically tested a new transosseous equivalent (TE) double-row suture anchor technique compared with the transosseous repair for quadriceps repair. After simulated quadriceps-patella avulsion in 10 matched cadaveric knees, repairs were completed by either a three tunnel transosseous (TT = 5) or a TE suture anchor (TE = 5) technique. Double-row repairs were done using two 5.5 Bio-Corkscrew FT (fully threaded) (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) and two 3.5 Bio-PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) with all 10 repairs done with #2 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL). Cyclic testing from 50 to 250 N for 250 cycles and pull to failure load (1 mm/s) were undertaken. Gap formation and ultimate tensile load (N) were recorded and stiffness data (N/mm) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney U test and survival characteristics examined with Kaplan-Meier test. No significant difference was found between the TE and TT groups in stiffness (TE = 134 +/- 15 N/mm, TT = 132 +/- 26 N/mm, p = 0.28). The TE group had significantly less ultimate tensile load (N) compared with the TT group (TE = 447 +/- 86 N, TT = 591 +/- 84 N, p = 0.04), with all failures occurring at the suture eyelets. Although both quadriceps repairs were sufficiently strong, the transosseous repairs were stronger than the TE suture anchor repairs. The repair stiffness and gap formation were similar between the groups.

  4. Postoperative programmed muscle tension augmented osteotendinous junction repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Chen, H H; Yang, X H; Xu, G; Chan, K M; Qin, L

    2007-08-01

    The postoperative programmed muscle tension induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES) was evaluated for its potential efficacy on acceleration of osteotendinous junction healing using an established partial patellectomy model in rabbits. After immobilization of the operated knee for 6 weeks, daily FES was applied to quadriceps muscles for 30 minutes per day and 5 days per week for 6 weeks in the treatment group and compared with the non-treatment control group at postoperative week 12 and 18, radiologically, histologically and biomechanically. Results showed that FES-induced muscle tension significantly increased new bone formation, bone mineral density, and fibrocartilage zone restoration in the osteotendinous healing interface. The failure load and ultimate strength of the repairing osteotendinous complex were also improved significantly with healing over time. In conclusion, the postoperative programmed FES-induced muscle tension was favorable for acceleration of osteotendinous junction repair and therefore recommended for clinical trails in orthopedic sports medicine and rehabilitation.

  5. Repair of an acute blunt popliteal artery trauma via endovascular approach.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Sciarretta, Jason D; Salsamendi, Jason; Karmacharya, Jagajan; Romano, Andrea; Namias, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    Popliteal vascular trauma remains a challenging entity and carries the greatest risk of limb loss among the lower extremity vascular injuries. Operative management of patients presenting with traumatic popliteal vascular injuries continues to evolve. We present a case of successful endovascular repair with stent grafting of an acute blunt popliteal artery injury. Endovascular repair of traumatic popliteal vascular injuries appears as an attractive alternative to surgical repair in a very selective group of patients. Further investigation is still needed to define the safety and feasibility of endovascular approach in the management of traumatic popliteal vascular injuries.

  6. [Mechanisms of repair after renal injury].

    PubMed

    Menè, P; Polci, R; Festuccia, F

    2003-01-01

    Recovery from kidney injury through repair mechanisms often linked to inflammation is conditioned by nature and severity of the insult. In the assessment of kidney repair, functional recovery should be kept distinct from structural repair: compensatory hypertrophy/function of intact nephrons often masks the inability of the kidney to heal or replace damaged structures. The mechanisms of repair reflect three degrees of injury, differently handled by the kidney. First, repair of DNA damage is accomplished through proofreading DNA polymerases, along with other controls for sequence misalignment / nucleotide replacement. If DNA cannot be repaired, cells carrying mutation(s) are disposed of through apoptosis, which is also critical to clearing damaged kidney cells and infiltrating leukocytes in acute and chronic ischemic, immunological, or chemical damage. A second mechanism of repair is linked to proliferation of surviving cells. At least 5 types of reparative proliferation are known to occur, some of which implicate stem cell immigration from distant reservoirs, followed by in situ differentiation. A third mode of repair could be referred to as structural repair, indeed limited in the human kidney by the absence of postnatal nephrogenesis. Recovery from acute tubular necrosis involves remodelling of the proximal tubule, with a strict requirement for integrity of the basement membrane. Contrary to the current dogma that only acute injury can be repaired, whereas chronic damage leads to irreversible loss of nephrons, evidence is emerging that some degree of renal remodelling occurs even in chronic renal disease, despite the occurrence of stabilized structural changes.

  7. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Vein Conduit on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Foroutan, Kamal; Khodarahmi, Ali; Alavi, Hootan; Pedram, Sepehr; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamad Reza; Bordbar, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve repair with sufficient functional recovery is an important issue in reconstructive surgery. Stem cells have attracted extensive research interest in recent years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the vein conduit technique, with and without the addition of mesenchymal stem cells in gap-less nerve injury repair in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three groups: In the first group, nerve repair was performed with simple neurorrhaphy (control group), in the second group, nerve repair was done with vein conduit over site (vein conduit group) and in the third group, bone marrow stem cells were instilled into the vein conduit (stem cell group) after nerve repair with vein conduit over site. Six weeks after the intervention, the sciatic function index, electrophysiological study and histological examination were performed. Results: All animals tolerated the surgical procedures and survived well. The sciatic function index and latency were significantly improved in the vein conduit (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and stem cell group (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in sciatic function and latency between the vein conduit and stem-cell groups. Moreover, histological analysis showed no significant difference in regenerative density between these two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the meticulous microsurgical nerve repair, which was performed using the vein tubulization induced significantly better sciatic nerve regeneration. However, the addition of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to vein conduit failed to promote any significant changes in regeneration outcome. PMID:25825699

  8. Articular cartilage repair with autologous bone marrow mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomiya; Okabe, Takahiro; Ikawa, Tesshu; Iida, Takahiro; Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

    2010-11-01

    Articular cartilage defects that do not repair spontaneously induce osteoarthritic changes in joints over a long period of observation. In this study, we examined the usefulness of transplanting culture-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cells into osteochondral defects of joints with cartilage defects. First, we performed experiments on rabbits and up on obtaining good results proceeded to perform the experiments on humans. Macroscopic and histological repair with this method was good, and good clinical results were obtained although there was no significant difference with the control group. Recent reports have indicated that this procedure is comparable to autologous chondrocyte implantation, and concluded that it was a good procedure because it required one step less than that required by surgery, reduced costs for patients, and minimized donor site morbidity. Although some reports have previously shown that progenitor cells formed a tumor when implanted into immune-deficient mice after long term in vitro culture, the safety of the cell transplantation was confirmed by our clinical experience. Thus, this procedure is useful, effective, and safe, but the repaired tissues were not always hyaline cartilage. To obtain better repair with this procedure, treatment approaches using some growth factors during in vitro culture or gene transfection are being explored.

  9. Effect of various surface treatments on the bond strength of porcelain repair.

    PubMed

    Saraç, Duygu; Saraç, Yakup Sinasi; Külünk, Safak; Erkoçak, Ayca

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of surface treatments on the repair strength of composite resin on a feldspathic ceramic. Ninety ceramic specimens were divided into six groups. In the experimental groups, 4% hydrofluoric acid etching, Er:YAG laser irradiation, CO2 laser irradiation, airborne-particle abrasion, and silica coating were used as surface treatments. After the application of a porcelain repair kit, composite resin was placed on the treated surfaces. After a shear bond strength test, data were statistically analyzed (α = .05). Surface treatments increased the repair bond strength values (P < .05). Airborne particle abrasion and silica coating were found to be the most effective. CO2 laser showed higher repair strength values than Er:YAG laser.

  10. Effect of various surface treatments on the bond strength of porcelain repair.

    PubMed

    Saraç, Duygu; Saraç, Yakup Sinasi; Külünk, Safak; Erkoçak, Ayca

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of surface treatments on the repair strength of composite resin on a feldspathic ceramic. Ninety ceramic specimens were divided into six groups. In the experimental groups, 4% hydrofluoric acid etching, Er:YAG laser irradiation, CO2 laser irradiation, airborne-particle abrasion, and silica coating were used as surface treatments. After the application of a porcelain repair kit, composite resin was placed on the treated surfaces. After a shear bond strength test, data were statistically analyzed (α = .05). Surface treatments increased the repair bond strength values (P < .05). Airborne particle abrasion and silica coating were found to be the most effective. CO2 laser showed higher repair strength values than Er:YAG laser. PMID:23820715

  11. Effect of Scapular Dyskinesis on Supraspinatus Repair Healing in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Katherine E.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Vafa, Rameen P.; Liu, Stephen S.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Caro, Adam C.; Yannascoli, Sarah M.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that often require surgical repair to improve function and relieve pain. Unfortunately, repair failure remains a common problem following rotator cuff repair surgery. Several factors may contribute to repair failure including age, tear size, and time from injury. However, the mechanical mechanisms resulting in repair failure are not well understood making clinical management difficult. Specifically, altered scapular motion (termed scapular dyskinesis) may be one important and modifiable factor contributing to the risk of repair failure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of scapular dyskinesis on supraspinatus tendon healing following repair. Methods A rat model of scapular dyskinesis was used. 70 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-450 grams) were randomized into two groups: nerve transection of the accessory and long-thoracic nerves (SD) or sham nerve transection (Sham Control). Following this procedure, all rats underwent unilateral detachment and repair of the supraspinatus tendon. All rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Shoulder function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties (mechanical, histological, organizational, and compositional) were evaluated. Results Scapular dyskinesis alters joint function and may lead to compromised supraspinatus tendon properties. Specifically, diminished mechanical properties, altered histology, and decreased tendon organization was observed for some parameters. Conclusion This study identifies scapular dyskinesis as one underlying mechanism leading to compromise of supraspinatus healing following repair. Identifying modifiable factors that lead to compromised tendon healing will help improve clinical outcomes following repair. Level of evidence Basic Science, in-vivo Animal Study. PMID:25745826

  12. Repair or replacement of defective restorations by dentists in The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L.; Geraldeli, Saulo; Rindal, D. Brad; Qvist, Vibeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Kellum, H. Paul; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To (1) determine whether dentists in Dental Practice-based Research Network practices are more likely to repair versus replace a restoration that they diagnose as defective; (2) quantify the specific reasons for repairing or replacing; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist, patient, and restoration-related variables are associated with the decision to repair versus replace. Methods This cross-sectional study used a consecutive patient/restoration recruitment design. Practitioner-investigators recorded data on consecutive restorations in permanent teeth that needed repair or replacement. DPBRN is a consortium of participating practices and dental organizations in the United States and Scandinavia. Data included the primary reason for repair or replacement, tooth surface(s) involved, restoration materials used, and patient demographics. Results Data for 9,484 restorations were collected from 7,502 patients in 197 practices. 75% (7,073) of restorations were replaced and 25% (2,411) repaired. Secondary caries was the main reason (43%, n=4,124) for treatment. Factors associated with greater likelihood of repair versus replace (p<.05) included: fewer years since dental school graduation, practicing in a solo or small group practice, being the dentist who placed the original restoration, older patient age, original restorative material was not amalgam, restoration of a molar, and fewer surfaces in the old restoration. Conclusion DPBRN dentists were more likely to replace than repair. Secondary caries was the most common reason for repairing or replacing existing restorations. Certain dentist, patient, and restoration-related variables were associated with the repair versus replace decision. PMID:22653939

  13. Circadian Modulation of 8-Oxoguanine DNA Damage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Manzella, Nicola; Bracci, Massimo; Strafella, Elisabetta; Staffolani, Sara; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Tomasetti, Marco; Stevens, Richard G.; Santarelli, Lory

    2015-01-01

    The DNA base excision repair pathway is the main system involved in the removal of oxidative damage to DNA such as 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) primarily via the 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1). Our goal was to investigate whether the repair of 8-oxoG DNA damage follow a circadian rhythm. In a group of 15 healthy volunteers, we found a daily variation of Ogg1 expression and activity with higher levels in the morning compared to the evening hours. Consistent with this, we also found lower levels of 8-oxoG in morning hours compared to those in the evening hours. Lymphocytes exposed to oxidative damage to DNA at 8:00 AM display lower accumulation of 8-oxoG than lymphocytes exposed at 8:00 PM. Furthermore, altered levels of Ogg1 expression were also observed in a group of shift workers experiencing a deregulation of circadian clock genes compared to a control group. Moreover, BMAL1 knockdown fibroblasts with a deregulated molecular clock showed an abolishment of circadian variation of Ogg1 expression and an increase of OGG1 activity. Our results suggest that the circadian modulation of 8-oxoG DNA damage repair, according to a variation of Ogg1 expression, could render humans less susceptible to accumulate 8-oxoG DNA damage in the morning hours. PMID:26337123

  14. Fate of venous repair after shock and trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Barkun, J.S.; Terazza, O.; Daignault, P.; Chiu, R.C.; Mulder, D.S.

    1988-09-01

    To assess the role of shock and trauma in the subsequent thrombosis of a venous repair, the following experiments were performed. Two groups of unsplenectomized dogs were studied: control dogs (Gr.C) underwent replacement of a segment of superficial femoral vein by an autogenous vein graft. Trauma group (Gr.T) dogs were subjected to hypovolemic shock using a modified Wiggers' technique and received standardized hindleg trauma. After resuscitation, venous repairs identical to Gr.C dogs were performed. Gr.T dogs exhibited a 78% thrombosis rate as opposed to 12% in Gr.C animals. To elucidate possible mechanisms, platelets were drawn from another ten animals, divided into similar groups, and labelled with Indium-111-oxine. In Gr.T animals, graft activity increased over time and platelet distribution along the graft was homogeneous. These results contrasted markedly with those of Gr.C animals. We conclude that shock and trauma predispose venous repairs to failure and that altered platelet-endothelium interactions may be implicated.

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 18 - Group classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group classification. Sec. 18 Section 18 Shipping... Sec. 18 Group classification. In the preparation of specifications, Job Orders, Supplemental Job... inserted thereon: Number Classification 41 Maintenance Repairs (deck, engine and stewards...

  16. Proliferation during early phases of bronchiolar repair in neonatal rabbits following lung injury by 4-ipomeanol.

    PubMed

    Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; Plopper, Charles G

    2003-10-01

    Nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara cells) are progenitor cells during development. During differentiation, they are more susceptible to injury by environmental toxicants metabolized by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, and injury results in altered bronchiolar repair and development. Squamous cells and abnormal cuboidal epithelium persist into early adulthood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the failure of bronchiolar epithelium to repair normally in neonates following injury is due to an inhibition of proliferation. A model of differential repair in rabbit kits was used. Proliferation was followed for 1 week post injury in rabbit kits treated with a single dose of the P450-mediated cytotoxicant 4-ipomeanol (IPO) at 7 days old (repair abnormal) and compared to rabbits treated with a single dose of IPO at 21 days old (repair normal). Proliferation was measured by the nuclear incorporation of 5-chloro-2'-deoxyuridine (CldU) within epithelium at the target site (terminal bronchiole). The repair pattern between the two age groups was histologically defined. There was no difference in the CldU labeling index during the week of repair between the two age groups, even though the bronchiolar epithelium did not return to normal in the animals treated at 7 days old. In summary, proliferation (through S-phase) is not inhibited during repair in neonatal rabbits treated with IPO at 7 days old compared to animals treated at 21 days old, and we conclude that other factors may be responsible for the altered repair in the young neonates injured by a P450-mediated cytotoxicant. PMID:14554104

  17. The effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anasane, Nayana; Ahirrao, Yogesh; Chitnis, Deepa; Meshram, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Denture fracture is an unresolved problem in complete denture prosthodontics. However, the repaired denture often experiences a refracture at the repaired site due to poor transverse strength. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 specimens of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin of dimensions 64 × 10 × 2.5 mm were fabricated. Fifteen intact specimens served as the control and 120 test specimens were divided into four groups (30 specimens each), depending upon the joint surface contour (butt, bevel, rabbet and round), with two subgroups based on type of the repair. Half of the specimens were repaired with plain repair resin and the other half with glass fibers reinforced repair resin. Transverse strength of the specimens was determined using three-point bending test. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α= 0.05). Results: Transverse strength values for all repaired groups were significantly lower than those for the control group (P < 0.001) (88.77 MPa), with exception of round surface design repaired with glass fiber reinforced repair resin (89.92 MPa) which was significantly superior to the other joint surface contours (P < 0.001). Glass fiber reinforced resin significantly improved the repaired denture base resins as compared to the plain repair resin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Specimens repaired with glass fiber reinforced resin and round surface design exhibited highest transverse strength; hence, it can be advocated for repair of denture base resins. PMID:23946739

  18. Thermal protection system repair kit program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility and conceptual design aspects of repair materials and procedures for in orbit repair of the space shuttle orbiter TPS tiles are investigated. Material studies to investigate cure in place materials are described including catalyst and cure studies, ablation tests and evaluations, and support mixing and applicator design. The feasibility of the repair procedures, the storage of the TPS, dispensing, and cure problems are addressed.

  19. Cellular repair/misrepair track model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1991-01-01

    A repair/misrepair cell kinetics model is superimposed onto the track structure model of Katz to provide for a repair mechanism. The model is tested on the repair-dependent data of Yang et al. and provides an adequate description of that data. The misrepair rate determines the maximum relative biological effectiveness (RBE), but similar results could arise from indirect X-ray lethality not include in the present model.

  20. Laparoscopic repair for vesicouterine fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Maioli, Rafael A.; Macedo, André R. S.; Garcia, André R. L.; de Almeida, Silvio H. M.; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Freitas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this video is to present the laparoscopic repair of a VUF in a 42-year-old woman, with gross hematuria, in the immediate postoperative phase following a cesarean delivery. The obstetric team implemented conservative management, including Foley catheter insertion, for 2 weeks. She subsequently developed intermittent hematuria and cystitis. The urology team was consulted 15 days after cesarean delivery. Cystoscopy indicated an ulcerated lesion in the bladder dome of approximately 1.0cm in size. Hysterosalpingography and a pelvic computed tomography scan indicated a fistula. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic repair was performed 30 days after the cesarean delivery. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position while also in an extreme Trendelenburg position. Pneumoperitoneum was established using a Veress needle in the midline infra-umbilical region, and a primary 11-mm port was inserted. Another 11-mm port was inserted exactly between the left superior iliac spine and the umbilicus. Two other 5-mm ports were established under laparoscopic guidance in the iliac fossa on both sides. The omental adhesions in the pelvis were carefully released and the peritoneum between the bladder and uterus was incised via cautery. Limited cystotomy was performed, and the specific sites of the fistula and the ureteral meatus were identified; thereafter, the posterior bladder wall was adequately mobilized away from the uterus. The uterine rent was then closed using single 3/0Vicryl sutures and two-layer watertight closure of the urinary bladder was achieved by using 3/0Vicryl sutures. An omental flap was mobilized and inserted between the uterus and the urinary bladder, and was fixed using two 3/0Vicryl sutures, followed by tube drain insertion. Results: The operative time was 140 min, whereas the blood loss was 100ml. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery, and the catheter was removed 12 days after surgery. Discussion: Laparoscopy has

  1. Hiatal hernia repair with biologic mesh reinforcement reduces recurrence rate in small hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E; Shaligram, A; Reynoso, J F; Kothari, V; Oleynikov, D

    2014-01-01

    The utility of mesh reinforcement for small hiatal hernia found especially during antireflux surgery is unknown. Initial reports for the use of biological mesh for crural reinforcement during repair for defects greater than 5 cm have been shown to decrease recurrence rates. This study compares patients with small hiatal hernias who underwent onlay biologic mesh buttress repair versus those with suture cruroplasty alone. This is a single-institution retrospective review of all patients undergoing repair of hiatal hernia measuring 1-5 cm between 2002 and 2009. The patients were evaluated based on surgical repair: one group undergoing crural reinforcement with onlay biologic mesh and other group with suture cruroplasty only. Seventy patients with hiatal hernia measuring 1-5 cm were identified. Thirty-eight patients had hernia repair with biologic mesh, and 32 patients had repair with suture cruroplasty only. Recurrence rate at 1 year was 16% (5/32) in patients who had suture cruroplasty only and 0% (0/38) in the group with crural reinforcement with absorbable mesh (statistically significant, P = 0.017). Suture cruroplasty alone appears to be inadequate for hiatal hernias measuring 1-5 cm with significant recurrence rate and failure of antireflux surgery. Crural reinforcement with absorbable mesh may reduce hiatal hernia recurrence rate in small hiatal hernias.

  2. Mutagenic DNA repair in enterobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, S G; Ho, C; Woodgate, R

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen species of enterobacteria have been screened for mutagenic DNA repair activity. In Escherichia coli, mutagenic DNA repair is encoded by the umuDC operon. Synthesis of UmuD and UmuC proteins is induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage, and after induction, the UmuD protein undergoes an autocatalytic cleavage to produce the carboxy-terminal UmuD' fragment needed for induced mutagenesis. The presence of a similar system in other species was examined by using a combined approach of inducible-mutagenesis assays, cross-reactivity to E. coli UmuD and UmuD' antibodies to test for induction and cleavage of UmuD-like proteins, and hybridization with E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium umu DNA probes to map umu-like genes. The results indicate a more widespread distribution of mutagenic DNA repair in other species than was previously thought. They also show that umu loci can be more complex in other species than in E. coli. Differences in UV-induced mutability of more than 200-fold were seen between different species of enteric bacteria and even between multiple natural isolates of E. coli, and yet some of the species which display a poorly mutable phenotype still have umu-like genes and proteins. It is suggested that umDC genes can be curtailed in their mutagenic activities but that they may still participate in some other, unknown process which provides the continued stimulus for their retention. Images PMID:1885540

  3. Current Trends in Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Patapis, Paul; Zavras, Nick; Tzanetis, Panagiotis; Machairas, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical technique, postoperative complications, and possible recurrence after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) in comparison with open ventral hernia repair (OVHR), based on the international literature. Database: A Medline search of the current English literature was performed using the terms laparoscopic ventral hernia repair and incisional hernia repair. Conclusions: LVHR is a safe alternative to the open method, with the main advantages being minimal postoperative pain, shorter recovery, and decreased wound and mesh infections. Incidental enterotomy can be avoided by using a meticulous technique and sharp dissection to avoid thermal injury. PMID:26273186

  4. Repair and rehabilitation with polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    As a result of their fast setting characteristics and excellent mechanical and physical properties, polymer concretes (PC) are finding ever increasing useage for the repair of deteriorated portland cement concrete structures. Applications include the repair of highway pavements and bridge decks, airport runways, hydrotechnical structures, tunnels, and industrial flooring. The most commonly used resins and monomer systems for these applications are epoxies, polyesters and methylmethacrylate. Furfuryl alcohol has been used experimentally, and shows promise for use in making emergency repairs under adverse moisture or extreme temperature conditions. In the paper, repair procedures will be discussed and several case histories given. 6 refs.

  5. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  6. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  7. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  8. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  9. Scaffold devices for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Ricchetti, Eric T; Aurora, Amit; Iannotti, Joseph P; Derwin, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Rotator cuff tears affect 40% or more of those aged older than 60 years, and repair failure rates of 20% to 70% remain a significant clinical challenge. Hence, there is a need for repair strategies that can augment the repair by mechanically reinforcing it, while at the same time biologically enhancing the intrinsic healing potential of the tendon. Tissue engineering strategies to improve rotator cuff repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, and cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Currently, scaffolds derived from mammalian extracellular matrix, synthetic polymers, and a combination thereof, have been cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are marketed as medical devices for rotator cuff repair in humans. Despite the growing clinical use of scaffold devices for rotator cuff repair, there are numerous questions related to their indication, surgical application, safety, mechanism of action, and efficacy that remain to be clarified or addressed. This article reviews the current basic science and clinical understanding of commercially available synthetic and extracellular matrix scaffolds for rotator cuff repair. Our review will emphasize the host response and scaffold remodeling, mechanical and suture-retention properties, and preclinical and clinical studies on the use of these scaffolds for rotator cuff repair. We will discuss the implications of these data on the future directions for use of these scaffolds in tendon repair procedures.

  10. Photomask repair using low-energetic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Spies, P.; Luchs, T.; Schneider, H.; Auth, N.; Hermanns, Ch. F.; Waiblinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. We will demonstrate in this paper that low energetic electron-beam (e-beam)-based mask repair is a commercially viable solution. Therefore we developed a new repair platform called MeRiT® neXT to address the technical challenges of this new technology. We will analyze the limits of the existing as well as lower energetic electron induced repair technologies theoretically and experimentally and show performance data on photomask reticles. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair technology.

  11. Bladder and urethral repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... urethral repair is usually performed to prevent urine leakage associated with stress incontinence. Stress incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine when laughing, coughing, sneezing, or lifting, ...

  12. Scheduling and rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the GERRY scheduling and rescheduling system being applied to coordinate Space Shuttle Ground Processing. The system uses constraint-based iterative repair, a technique that starts with a complete but possibly flawed schedule and iteratively improves it by using constraint knowledge within repair heuristics. In this paper we explore the tradeoff between the informedness and the computational cost of several repair heuristics. We show empirically that some knowledge can greatly improve the convergence speed of a repair-based system, but that too much knowledge, such as the knowledge embodied within the MIN-CONFLICTS lookahead heuristic, can overwhelm a system and result in degraded performance.

  13. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  14. National results after ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Helgstrand, Frederik

    2016-07-01

    Ventral hernia repairs are among the most frequently performed surgical procedures. The variations of repair techniques are multiple and outcome has been unacceptable. Despite the high volume, it has been difficult to obtain sufficient data to provide evidence for best practice. In order to monitor national surgical quality and provide the warranted high volume data, the first national ventral hernia register (The Danish Ventral Hernia Database) was established in 2007 in Denmark. The present study series show that data from a well-established database supported by clinical examinations, patient files, questionnaires, and administrative data makes it possible to obtain nationwide high volume data and to achieve evidence for better outcome in a complex surgical condition as ventral hernia. Due to the high volume and included variables on surgical technique, it is now possible to make analyses adjusting for a variety of surgical techniques and different hernia specifications. We documented high 30-day complications and recurrence rates for both primary and secondary ventral hernias in a nationwide cohort. Furthermore, recurrence found by clinical examination was shown to exceed the number of patients undergoing reoperation for recurrence by a factor 4-5. The nationwide adjusted analyses proved that open mesh and laparoscopic repair for umbilical and epigastric hernias does not differ in 30-day outcome or in risk of recurrence. There is a minor risk reduction in early complications after open sutured repairs. However, the risk for a later recurrence repair is significantly higher after sutured repairs compared with mesh repairs. The study series showed that large hernia defects and open re-pairs were independent predictors for 30-day complications after an incisional hernia repair. Open procedures and large hernia defects were independent risk factors for a later recurrence re-pair. However, patients with large defects (> 15 cm) seemed to benefit from an open mesh

  15. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  16. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  17. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  18. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  19. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  20. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  1. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 60.482-9... Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown. Repair of...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870... repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the... effect the repair or replacement. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  3. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  4. 24 CFR 206.47 - Property standards; repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property standards; repair work... Property standards; repair work. (a) Need for repairs. Properties must meet the applicable property... insured mortgage. (b) Assurance that repairs are made. The mortgage may be closed before the repair...

  5. 24 CFR 206.47 - Property standards; repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Property standards; repair work... Property standards; repair work. (a) Need for repairs. Properties must meet the applicable property... insured mortgage. (b) Assurance that repairs are made. The mortgage may be closed before the repair...

  6. A history of the DNA repair and mutagenesis field: The discovery of base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the early history of the discovery of an DNA repair pathway designated as base excision repair (BER), since in contrast to the enzyme-catalyzed removal of damaged bases from DNA as nucleotides [called nucleotide excision repair (NER)], BER involves the removal of damaged or inappropriate bases, such as the presence of uracil instead of thymine, from DNA as free bases.

  7. Initiating Repair and Beyond: The Use of Two Repeat-Formatted Repair Initiations in Mandarin Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ruey-Jiuan Regina

    2006-01-01

    As part of a growing effort to understand the organization of repair across languages, this study examines 2 repeat-formatted other-initiated repair practices in Mandarin conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis as a central framework, this study shows that the 2 Mandarin repair initiations under examination, like…

  8. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others... PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.42 Administration, repair...

  9. Decreased DNA repair gene expression among individuals exposed to arsenic in United States drinking water.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Angeline S; Karagas, Margaret R; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2003-04-10

    Arsenic is well established as a human carcinogen, but its precise mechanism of action remains unknown. Arsenic does not directly damage DNA, but may act as a carcinogen through inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms, leading indirectly to increased mutations from other DNA damaging agents. The molecular mechanism underlying arsenic inhibition of nucleotide excision repair after UV irradiation (Hartwig et al., Carcinogenesis 1997;18:399-405) is unknown, but could be due to decreased expression of critical genes involved in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing expression of repair genes and arsenic exposure in a subset of 16 individuals enrolled in a population based case-control study investigating arsenic exposure and cancer risk in New Hampshire. Toenail arsenic levels were inversely correlated with expression of critical members of the nucleotide excision repair complex, ERCC1 (r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.0001), XPF (r(2) = 0.56, p < 0.002), and XPB (r(2) = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The internal dose marker, toenail arsenic level, was more strongly associated with changes in expression of these genes than drinking water arsenic concentration. Our findings, based on human exposure to arsenic in a US population, show an association between biomarkers of arsenic exposure and expression of DNA repair genes. Although our findings need verification in a larger study group, they are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of DNA repair capacity is a potential mechanism for the co-carcinogenic activity of arsenic.

  10. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells. PMID:26183436

  11. Laser-activated solder weld repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Nigel J.; Lauto, Antonio; Trickett, Rodney I.; Owen, Earl R.; Walker, D. M.

    1997-05-01

    A new laser activated solder weld technique is described for the microsurgical repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats. The laser weld technique used an albumin based solder, containing indocyanine cardiogreen, plus an infrared diode laser. Seven animals had inferior alveolar nerve repairs performed using the laser weld technique and these were compared against corresponding unoperated controls plus three cases of nerve section without repair. Histochemical analysis was performed utilizing neuron counts and horseradish peroxidase tracer (HRP) uptake in the trigeminal ganglion following sacrifice and staining of frozen sections with cresyl violet and diaminobenzidene. The results of this analysis showed comparable mean neuron counts and mean HRP uptake by neurons for the unoperated control and laser weld groups with considerable reduction of mean values in cases of nerve section with no repair. Sections of the repaired inferior alveolar nerves, stained with Masson's trichrome, showed no adverse reactions by axons or epineurium to the coagulative repair with the solder and demonstrated regeneration of myelinated axons at the time of sacrifice. In summary a new technique of laser weld repair of the inferior alveolar nerve is described which, on initial analysis, appears to be a reliable alternative to traditional techniques.

  12. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells.

  13. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Karen L; Dashner, Erica J; Tsosie, Ranalda; Cho, Young Mi; Lewis, Johnnye; Hudson, Laurie G

    2016-01-15

    Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; <10 μM) is not cytotoxic to human embryonic kidney cells or normal human keratinocytes; however, uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations.

  14. Repair synthesis by human cell extracts in DNA damaged by cis- and trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II).

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, J; Wood, R D

    1989-01-01

    DNA damage was induced in closed circular plasmid DNA by treatment with cis- or trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). These plasmids were used as substrates in reactions to give quantitative measurements of DNA repair synthesis mediated by cell free extracts from human lymphoid cell lines. Adducts induced by both drugs stimulated repair synthesis in a dose dependent manner by an ATP-requiring process. Measurements by an isopycnic gradient sedimentation method gave an upper limit for the average patch sizes in this in vitro system of around 140 nucleotides. It was estimated that up to 3% of the drug adducts induce the synthesis of a repair patch. The repair synthesis is due to repair of a small fraction of frequent drug adducts, rather than extensive repair of a rare subclass of lesions. Nonspecific DNA synthesis in undamaged plasmids, caused by exonucleolytic degradation and resynthesis, was reduced by repeated purification of intact circular forms. An extract made from cells belonging to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A was deficient in repair synthesis in response to the presence of cis- or trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adducts in DNA. Images PMID:2554251

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of a novel suturing scheme for grafting load-bearing collagen scaffolds for rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Anowarul; Bohl, Michael S.; Tsai, Andrew G; Younesi, Mousa; Gillespie, Robert; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, there are no well-established suture protocols to attach fully load-bearing scaffolds which span tendon defects between bone and muscle for repair of critical sized tendon tears. Methods to attach load-bearing tissue repair scaffolds could enable functional repair of tendon injuries. Methods Sixteen rabbit shoulders were dissected (New Zealand white rabbits, 1 yr. old, female) to isolate the humeral-infraspinatus muscle complex. A unique suture technique was developed to allow for a 5 mm segmental defect in infraspinatus tendon to be replaced with a mechanically strong bioscaffold woven from pure collagen threads. The suturing pattern resulted in a fully load-bearing scaffold. The tensile stiffness and strength of scaffold repair was compared with intact infraspinatus and regular direct repair. Findings The failure load and displacement at failure of the scaffold repair group were 59.9 N (Standard Deviation, SD = 10.7) and 10.3 mm (SD = 2.9), respectively and matched those obtained by direct repair group which were 57.5 N (SD = 15.3) and 8.6 mm (SD = 1.5), (p > 0.05). Failure load, displacement at failure and stiffness of both of the repair groups were half of the intact infraspinatus shoulder group. Interpretation With the developed suture technique, scaffolds repair showed similar failure load, displacement at failure and stiffness to the direct repair. This novel suturing pattern and the mechanical robustness of the scaffold at time zero indicates that the proposed model is mechanically viable for future in vivo studies which has a higher potential to translate into clinical uses. PMID:26009492

  16. Sciatic nerve regeneration through alginate with tubulation or nontubulation repair in cat.

    PubMed

    Sufan, W; Suzuki, Y; Tanihara, M; Ohnishi, K; Suzuki, K; Endo, K; Nishimura, Y

    2001-03-01

    A novel material for nerve regeneration, alginate, was employed in both tubulation and nontubulation repair of a long peripheral nerve defect injury. Twelve cats underwent severing of the right sciatic nerve to generate a 50-mm gap, which was treated by tubulation repair (n = 6) or nontubulation repair (n = 6). In the tubulation group, a nerve conduit consisting of polyglycolic acid mesh tube filled with alginate sponge was implanted into the gap and the tube was sutured to both nerve stumps. In the nontubulation group, the nerve defect was repaired by a simple interpolation of two pieces of alginate sponge without any suture. The animals in both groups exhibited similar recovery of locomotor function. Three months postoperatively, successful axonal elongation and reinnervation in both the afferent and efferent systems were detected by electrophysiological examinations. Intracellular electrical activity was also recorded, which is directly indicative of continuity of the regenerated nerve and restoration of the spinal reflex circuit. Eight months after operation, many regenerated myelinated axons with fascicular organization by perineurial cells were observed within the gap, peroneal and tibial branches were found in both groups, while no alginate residue was found within the regenerated nerves. In morphometric analysis of the axon density and diameter, there were no significant differences between the two groups. These results suggest that alginate is a potent material for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. It can also be concluded that the nontubulation method is a possible repair approach for peripheral nerve defect injury.

  17. Different surface preparation techniques of porcelain repaired with composite resin and fracture resistance

    PubMed Central

    Abd Wahab, Mohd Helmy Khalid; Bakar, Wan Zaripah Wan; Husein, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Porcelain from prosthesis such as crown or bridge can be fractured if exposed to trauma; and, can be repaired at chairside using composite resin. Aim: To investigate the fracture resistance of few techniques of surface preparation in repairing fractured porcelain using composite resin. Materials and Methods: Eighty samples of porcelain blocks were divided into 4 groups for different surface preparations, such as, Cimara repairing kit; porcelain etch kit containing hydrofluoric acid; Panavia F resin cement; and, sandblasting using aluminium oxide, before composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) was bonded to the prepared porcelain blocks. Twenty others samples in the control group comprised of pure porcelain blocks. The fracture resistance of each sample was tested using Instron machine (UK). Results: With the exception of the group repaired using hydrofluoric acid (3.04±1.04 Mpa), all the other groups showed significant difference in the fracture resistance values when compared to the control group (3.05 ± 1.42 MPa) at P<0.05. Conclusions: Etching of the porcelain blocks with hydrofluoric acid holds promise in the repair of fractured porcelain with composite resin at chairside. PMID:22144809

  18. Targeting Microtubules for Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Charafeddine, Rabab A.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Sharp, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Fast and seamless healing is essential for both deep and chronic wounds to restore the skin and protect the body from harmful pathogens. Thus, finding new targets that can both expedite and enhance the repair process without altering the upstream signaling milieu and causing serious side effects can improve the way we treat wounds. Since cell migration is key during the different stages of wound healing, it presents an ideal process and intracellular structural machineries to target. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is rising as an important structural and functional regulator of wound healing. MTs have been reported to play different roles in the migration of the various cell types involved in wound healing. Specific microtubule regulatory proteins (MRPs) can be targeted to alter a section or subtype of the MT cytoskeleton and boost or hinder cell motility. However, inhibiting intracellular components can be challenging in vivo, especially using unstable molecules, such as small interfering RNA. Nanoparticles can be used to protect these unstable molecules and topically deliver them to the wound. Utilizing this approach, we recently showed that fidgetin-like 2, an uncharacterized MRP, can be targeted to enhance cell migration and wound healing. Future Directions: To harness the full potential of the current MRP therapeutic targets, studies should test them with different delivery platforms, dosages, and skin models. Screening for new MT effectors that boost cell migration in vivo would also help find new targets for skin repair. PMID:27785378

  19. Repair of overheating linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

  20. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Recommended Guidelines for Histological Endpoints for Cartilage Repair Studies in Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577

  1. Fibrin glue repair leads to enhanced axonal elongation during early peripheral nerve regeneration in an in vivo mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Koulaxouzidis, Georgios; Reim, Gernot; Witzel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgical suturing is the gold standard of nerve coaptation. Although literature on the usefulness of fibrin glue as an alternative is becoming increasingly available, it remains contradictory. Furthermore, no data exist on how both repair methods might influence the morphological aspects (arborization; branching) of early peripheral nerve regeneration. We used the sciatic nerve transplantation model in thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice (YFP; n = 10). Pieces of nerve (1cm) were grafted from YFP-negative mice (n = 10) into those expressing YFP. We performed microsuture coaptations on one side and used fibrin glue for repair on the contralateral side. Seven days after grafting, the regeneration distance, the percentage of regenerating and arborizing axons, the number of branches per axon, the coaptation failure rate, the gap size at the repair site and the time needed for surgical repair were all investigated. Fibrin glue repair resulted in regenerating axons travelling further into the distal nerve. It also increased the percentage of arborizing axons. No coaptation failure was detected. Gap sizes were comparable in both groups. Fibrin glue significantly reduced surgical repair time. The increase in regeneration distance, even after the short period of time, is in line with the results of others that showed faster axonal regeneration after fibrin glue repair. The increase in arborizing axons could be another explanation for better functional and electrophysiological results after fibrin glue repair. Fibrin glue nerve coaptation seems to be a promising alternative to microsuture repair. PMID:26330844

  2. RNA interference against transcription elongation factor SII does not support its role in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon-Roy, Christine; Stubbert, Lawton J; McKay, Bruce C

    2011-01-10

    RNA polymerase II is unable to bypass bulky DNA lesions induced by agents like ultraviolet light (UV light) and cisplatin that are located in the template strand of active genes. Arrested polymerases form a stable ternary complex at the site of DNA damage that is thought to pose an impediment to the repair of these lesions. Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) preferentially repairs these DNA lesions through an incompletely defined mechanism. Based on elegant in vitro experiments, it was hypothesized that the transcription elongation factor IIS (TFIIS) may be required to couple transcription to repair by catalyzing the reverse translocation of the arrested polymerase, allowing access of repair proteins to the site of DNA damage. However the role of TFIIS in this repair process has not been tested in vivo. Here, silencing TFIIS using an RNA interference strategy did not affect the ability of cells to recover nascent RNA synthesis following UV exposure or the ability of cells to repair a UV-damaged reporter gene while a similar strategy to decrease the expression Cockayne syndrome group B protein (CSB) resulted in the expected repair defect. Furthermore, RNA interference against TFIIS did not increase the sensitivity of cells to UV light or cisplatin while decreased expression of CSB did. Taken together, these results indicate that TFIIS is not limiting for the repair of transcription-blocking DNA lesions and thus the present work does not support a role for TFIIS in TC-NER.

  3. DNA Damage and Repair in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Painter, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Damage in DNA after irradiation can be classified into five kinds: base damage, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, DNA–DNA cross-linking, and DNA-protein cross-linking. Of these, repair of base damage is the best understood. In eukaryotes, at least three repair systems are known that can deal with base damage: photoreactivation, excision repair, and post-replication repair. Photoreactivation is specific for UV-induced damage and occurs widely throughout the biosphere, although it seems to be absent from placental mammals. Excision repair is present in prokaryotes and in animals but does not seem to be present in plants. Post-replication repair is poorly understood. Recent reports indicate that growing points in mammalian DNA simply skip past UV-induced lesions, leaving gaps in newly made DNA that are subsequently filled in by de novo synthesis. Evidence that this concept is oversimplified or incorrect is presented.—Single-strand breaks are induced by ionizing radiation but most cells can rapidly repair most or all of them, even after supralethal doses. The chemistry of the fragments formed when breaks are induced by ionizing radiation is complex and poorly understood. Therefore, the intermediate steps in the repair of single-strand breaks are unknown. Double-strand breaks and the two kinds of cross-linking have been studied very little and almost nothing is known about their mechanisms for repair.—The role of mammalian DNA repair in mutations is not known. Although there is evidence that defective repair can lead to cancer and/or premature aging in humans, the relationship between the molecular defects and the diseased state remains obscure. PMID:4442699

  4. Effect of repair surface design, repair material, and processing method on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic denture resin.

    PubMed

    Ward, J E; Moon, P C; Levine, R A; Behrendt, C L

    1992-06-01

    The transverse strengths of blocks of denture base acrylic resin repaired with autopolymerizing monomer and polymer and autopolymerizing monomer and heat-cured polymer were measured with a three-point bending test. Three repair joints were studied: butt, round, and 45-degree bevel. Three processing methods were used: bench cure, hydroflask with hot water for 10 minutes, and hydroflask with hot water for 30 minutes. The strengths of repairs made with round and 45-degree bevel joint designs were similar and significantly greater than those with a butt joint design. The strengths of repairs processed in a hydroflask for 10 minutes and 30 minutes were similar and significantly greater than those cured on the bench top. There was no difference in the strength of repairs made with autopolymerizing monomer and polymer and autopolymerizing monomer and heat-cured polymer.

  5. Training Groups, Encounter Groups, Sensitivity Groups and Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Louis A.; Pattison, E. Mansell; Schafer, Donald W.

    1971-01-01

    Descriptions and comparison of group therapies and the new group procedures (training groups and sensitivity groups—an outgrowth of the so-called Laboratory Movement methods of the mid-1930's) have been provided for the better understanding of non-psychiatric physicians. A group leader must have proper training and must help his group in its search for its avowed goals, whether he is a group therapist, a sensitivity trainer, or anyone else interested in utilizing group processes. Those goals are either the therapeutic benefit of the individual, as defined in group psychotherapy, or a better understanding of how one functions in groups, as in T-groups or the other group processes in the area of sensitive living. All group situations contain powerful tools which must be handled with proper respect. When so handled by experienced leaders, the individuals involved can achieve their goals in these group experiences. PMID:18730582

  6. The effect of aging on the DNA damage and repair capacity in 2BS cells undergoing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Pei-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with a reduction in the DNA repair capacity under oxidative stress. However, whether the DNA damage and repair capacity can be a biomarker of aging remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated two cause-and-effect relationships, the one is between the DNA damage and repair capacity and the cellular age, another is between DNA damage and repair capacity and the level of oxidative stress in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (2BS) exposed to different doses of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). To clarify the mechanisms of the age-related reduction in DNA damage and repair capacity, we preliminarily evaluated the expressions of six kinds of pivotal enzymes involved in the two classical DNA repair pathways. The DNA repair capacity was observed in human fibroblasts cells using the comet assay; the age-related DNA repair enzymes were selected by RT-PCR and then verified by Western blot in vitro. Results showed that the DNA repair capacity was negatively and linearly correlated with (i) cumulative population doubling (PD) levels only in the group of low concentration of hydrogen peroxide treatment, (ii) with the level of oxidative stress only in the group of young PD cells. The mRNA expression of DNA polymerase δ1 decreased substantially in senescent cells and showed negative linear-correlation with PD levels; the protein expression level was well consistent with the mRNA level. Taken together, DNA damage and repair capacity can be a biomarker of aging. Reduced expression of DNA polymerase δ1 may be responsible for the decrease of DNA repair capacity in senescent cells.

  7. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  8. [Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Caceres, Alfredo; Palacio, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain. Brain injury is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality, a considerable group of these children will develop long term neurological sequels. Despite the great clinical and social significance and the advances in neonatal medicine, no therapy yet does exist that prevent or decrease detrimental effects in cases of neonatal brain injury. Our objective was to review recent research in relation to the hypothesis for repair mechanism in the developing brain, based in animal models that show developmental compensatory mechanisms that promote neural and functional plasticity. A better understanding of these adaptive mechanisms will help clinicians to apply knowledge derived from animals to human clinical situations.

  9. Verapamil inhibits scar formation after peripheral nerve repair in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Han, A-chao; Deng, Jing-xiu; Huang, Qi-shun; Zheng, Huai-yuan; Zhou, Pan; Liu, Zhi-wei; Chen, Zhen-bing

    2016-01-01

    The calcium channel blocker, verapamil, has been shown to reduce scar formation by inhibiting fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in vitro. It was not clear whether topical application of verapamil after surgical repair of the nerve in vivo could inhibit the formation of excessive scar tissue. In this study, the right sciatic nerve of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was transected and sutured with No. 10-0 suture. The stoma was wrapped with gelfoam soaked with verapamil solution for 4 weeks. Compared with the control group (stoma wrapped with gelfoam soaked with physiological saline), the verapamil application inhibited the secretion of extracellular matrix from fibroblasts in vivo, suppressed type I and III collagen secretion and increased the total number of axons and the number of myelinated axons. These findings suggest that verapamil could reduce the formation of scar tissue and promote axon growth after peripheral nerve repair. PMID:27127494

  10. Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Repair in the Endovascular Era

    PubMed Central

    Ronchey, Sonia; Pecoraro, Felice; Alberti, Vittorio; Serrao, Eugenia; Orrico, Matteo; Lachat, Mario; Mangialardi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare outcomes of popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) repair by endovascular treatment, great saphenous vein (GSV) bypass, and prosthetic bypass. Single center retrospective analysis of patients presenting PAA from 2000 to 2013. Patients were divided into endovascular treatment (group A); GSV bypass (group B); and prosthetic graft bypass (group C). Outcomes were technical success, perioperative mortality, and morbidity. Survival, primary and secondary patency, and freedom from reintervention rate were estimated. Differences in ankle-brachial index (ABI), in-hospital length of stay (InH-Los), red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and limb loss were reported. Mean follow-up was 49 (median: 35; 1–145; SD 42) months. Sixty-seven patients were included; 25 in group A, 28 in group B, and 14 in group C. PAA was symptomatic in 23 (34%) cases. Technical success was 100%. No perioperative death occurred. Three (4.5%) perioperative complications were reported with no significant difference between groups (P = 0.866). Five-years estimated survival was 78%. Estimated 5-years primary patency for groups A, B, and C was 71%, 81%, and 69%, respectively (P = 0.19). Estimated 5-years secondary patency for groups A, B, and C was 88%, 85%, and 84% (P = 0.85). Estimated 5-years freedom from reintervention for groups A, B, and C was 62%, 84%, and 70%, respectively (P = 0.16). A significant difference between preoperative ABI versus postoperative ABI was observed (P = 0.001). InH-LoS was significantly shorter in group A (P < 0.001). RBC transfusions were required significantly less in group A when compared to group C (P = 0.045). Overall limb salvage was achieved in all but 1 patient. PAA repair has good early and long-term outcomes with different treatment options. Endovascular treatment was not inferior to surgical repair with a reduced InH-LoS and RBC transfusion. It can be successfully employed even in nonelective setting. A randomized controlled

  11. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  12. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  13. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  14. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  15. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  16. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  17. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  18. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  20. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  2. Railroad track repairs are complete at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Railroad track repairs have been completed at Kennedy Space Center. This section of track is located on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area. The repairs were required following the minor derailment of two solid rocket booster segment cars on July 18.

  3. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and preplanned for the Skylab mission was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Tools and spares were provided accordingly. However, failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs included the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment, and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The repairs were conducted both inside the spacecraft and during extravehicular activities. Some of the repair tasks required team effort on the part of the crewmen including close procedural coordination between internal and extravehicular crewmen. The Skylab experience indicates that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools. Design of future spacecraft systems should acknowledge this capability and provide for more extensive in-flight repair and maintenance.

  4. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature.

  5. Appliance Repair. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, James F.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary appliance repair education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in appliance repair in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first…

  6. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... detected. First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland... the bonnet bolts, and/or tightening the packing gland nuts, and/or injecting lubricant into...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... detected. First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland... the bonnet bolts, and/or tightening the packing gland nuts, and/or injecting lubricant into...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A at the time the leak is successfully repaired... detected. First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland... the bonnet bolts, and/or tightening the packing gland nuts, and/or injecting lubricant into...

  9. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  10. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers...

  14. Novel EUV Mask Blank Defect Repair Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, S; Barty, A; Mirkarimi, P

    2003-03-31

    The development of defect-free reticle blanks is an important challenge facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). The basis of EUVL reticles are mask blanks consisting of a substrate and a reflective Mo/Si multilayer. Defects on the substrate or defects introduced during multilayer deposition can result in critical phase and amplitude defects. Amplitude- or phase-defect repair techniques are being developed with the goal to repair many of these defects. In this report, we discuss progress in two areas of defect repair: (1) We discuss the effect of the residual reflectance variation over the repair zone after amplitude-defect repair on the process window. This allows the determination of the maximum tolerable residual damage induced by amplitude defect repair. (2) We further performed a quantitative assessment of the yield improvement due to defect repair. We found that amplitude- and phase-defect repair have the potential to significantly improve mask blank yield. Our calculations further show that yield can be maximized by increasing the number of Mo/Si bilayers.

  15. 33 CFR 127.1405 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs. 127.1405 Section 127.1405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Maintenance § 127.1405 Repairs. Each operator of...

  16. Self repairing composites for drone air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of impact-initiated delivery of repair chemicals through hollow fiber architectures embedded within graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, representative of advanced drone aircraft component material systems. Self-repairing structures through coupon and elements were demonstrated, and evaluated.

  17. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.33 Repairs allowed. Owners and operators of UST systems must ensure... operating properly. (f) UST system owners and operators must maintain records of each repair for...

  18. 40 CFR 280.33 - Repairs allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.33 Repairs allowed. Owners and operators of UST systems must ensure... operating properly. (f) UST system owners and operators must maintain records of each repair for...

  19. Self-repairing composites for airplane components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2008-03-01

    Durability and damage tolerance criteria drives the design of most composite structures. Those criteria could be altered by developing structure that repairs itself from impact damage. This is a technology for increasing damage tolerance for impact damage. Repaired damage would enable continued function and prevent further degradation to catastrophic failure in the case of an aircraft application. Further, repaired damage would enable applications to be utilized without reduction in performance due to impacts. Self repairing structures are designed to incorporate hollow fibers, which will release a repairing agent when the structure is impacted, so that the repairing agent will fill delaminations, voids and cracks in les than one minute, thus healing matrix voids. The intent is to modify the durability and damage tolerance criteria by incorporation of self-healing technologies to reduce overall weight: The structure will actually remain lighter than current conventional design procedures allow. Research objective(s) were: Prove that damage can be repaired to within 80-90% of original flexural strength in less than one minute, in laminates that are processed at 300-350F typical for aircraft composites. These were successfully met. The main focus was on testing of elements in compression after impact and a larger component in shear at Natural Process Design, Inc. Based on these results the advantages purposes are assessed. The results show potential; with self repairing composites, compressive strength is maintained sufficiently so that less material can be used as per durability and damage tolerance, yielding a lighter structure.

  20. Repairers must relabel instruments, court rules.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    A federal appeals court decided that repair companies must be sure that endoscopic instruments they have worked on, especially those they have drastically altered, must be clearly identified as such. In some cases, that could mean that the original manufacturer's name must be removed, or the repairer's name added to the device's label. PMID:12232895

  1. Comparative Analysis of Surgical Options for Medial Collateral Ligament Repair in Terrible Triad Injury of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Taku; Nobuta, Shingo; Aizawa, Toshitake; Sasajima, Koichi; Nakajima, Soichi; Honda, Masahito; Oki, Gosuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes in patients with terrible triad injury, who underwent surgical treatment with or without the medial collateral ligament (MCL) repair. Fourteen patients who underwent surgery with a minimum of 12-month follow-up (mean, 17 months) were reviewed. Based on the systematic treatment protocol, radial head fracture, lateral collateral ligament, and coracoid fracture were treated. Subsequently, torn MCL was repaired in 7 patients, whereas in the remaining 7 patients, the MCL was not treated. Range of motion, elbow function, and radiographs regarding the arthrosis and heterotopic ossification were assessed. At final follow-up, no significant differences were found in elbow motion or function between the groups with and without MCL repair; except the pronation and supination which had superior range in repair group. In contrast, radiologic findings such as the arthrosis were seen more frequently in patients without MCL repair than those with repair. Our results indicate the effect of MCL repair on elbow motion and function might be small, whereas osteoarthritic changes occurred more frequently in elbows without MCL repair. PMID:27761222

  2. Guidelines for the Design and Conduct of Clinical Studies in Knee Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mithoefer, Kai; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Farr, Jack; Kon, Elizaveta; Zaslav, Kenneth; Cole, Brian J.; Ranstam, Jonas; Yao, Jian; Shive, Matthew; Levine, David; Dalemans, Wilfried; Brittberg, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize current clinical research practice and develop methodological standards for objective scientific evaluation of knee cartilage repair procedures and products. Design: A comprehensive literature review was performed of high-level original studies providing information relevant for the design of clinical studies on articular cartilage repair in the knee. Analysis of cartilage repair publications and synopses of ongoing trials were used to identify important criteria for the design, reporting, and interpretation of studies in this field. Results: Current literature reflects the methodological limitations of the scientific evidence available for articular cartilage repair. However, clinical trial databases of ongoing trials document a trend suggesting improved study designs and clinical evaluation methodology. Based on the current scientific information and standards of clinical care, detailed methodological recommendations were developed for the statistical study design, patient recruitment, control group considerations, study endpoint definition, documentation of results, use of validated patient-reported outcome instruments, and inclusion and exclusion criteria for the design and conduct of scientifically sound cartilage repair study protocols. A consensus statement among the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) and contributing authors experienced in clinical trial design and implementation was achieved. Conclusions: High-quality clinical research methodology is critical for the optimal evaluation of current and new cartilage repair technologies. In addition to generally applicable principles for orthopedic study design, specific criteria and considerations apply to cartilage repair studies. Systematic application of these criteria and considerations can facilitate study designs that are scientifically rigorous, ethical, practical, and appropriate for the question(s) being addressed in any given cartilage repair research project

  3. Stem cells in cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    in cardiac repair including identifying the optimal stem cell(s) that permit transplantation without requirements for host immune suppression; timing of stem cell transplantation that maximizes chemoattraction of stem cells to infarcts; and determining the optimal technique for injecting stem cells for cardiac repair. Techniques must be developed to enhance survival and propagation of stem cells in the myocardium. These studies will require close cooperation and interaction of scientists and clinicians. Cell-based cardiac repair in the 21st century will offer new hope for millions of patients worldwide with myocardial infarctions who, otherwise, would suffer from the relentless progression of heart disease to heart failure and death. PMID:21174514

  4. Repair Development for a Composite Cryotank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Danley, Susan E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Cheshire, Brian C.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project is working to advance the technologies for composite cryogenic propellant tanks at diameters suitable for future heavy lift vehicles and other in-space applications. The main goals of the project are to reduce weight and cost. One aspect of this project has focused on damage evaluation and repair development. Test panels have been impacted, repaired, and tested. Several repair methods were used to compare their effectiveness at restoring the integrity of the composite. Panels were evaluated by nondestructive evaluations at several points during the process to assess the damage and repair. The testing performed and the results and conclusions from the nondestructive evaluations and the destructive testing will be discussed. These results will lead to further development of inspection techniques and repair methods.

  5. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  6. Repairing native defects on EUV mask blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawliss, Mark; Gallagher, Emily; Hibbs, Michael; Seki, Kazunori; Isogawa, Takeshi; Robinson, Tod; LeClaire, Jeff

    2014-10-01

    Mask defectivity is a serious problem for all lithographic masks, but especially for EUV masks. Defects in the EUV blank are particularly challenging because their elimination is beyond control of the mask fab. If defects have been identified on a mask blank, patterns can be shifted to place as many blank defects as possible in regions where printing impact will be eliminated or become unimportant. For those defects that cannot be mitigated through pattern shift, repair strategies must be developed. Repairing defects that occur naturally in the EUV blank is challenging because the printability of these defects varies widely. This paper describes some types of native defects commonly found and begins to outline a triage strategy for defects that are identified on the blank. Sample defects best suited to nanomachining repair are treated in detail: repairs are attempted, characterized using mask metrology and then tested for printability. Based on the initial results, the viability of repairing EUV blank native defects is discussed.

  7. Protein oxidation, UVA and human DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Karran, Peter; Brem, Reto

    2016-08-01

    Solar UVB is carcinogenic. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) counteracts the carcinogenicity of UVB by excising potentially mutagenic UVB-induced DNA lesions. Despite this capacity for DNA repair, non-melanoma skin cancers and apparently normal sun-exposed skin contain huge numbers of mutations that are mostly attributable to unrepaired UVB-induced DNA lesions. UVA is about 20-times more abundant than UVB in incident sunlight. It does cause some DNA damage but this does not fully account for its biological impact. The effects of solar UVA are mediated by its interactions with cellular photosensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce oxidative stress. The proteome is a significant target for damage by UVA-induced ROS. In cultured human cells, UVA-induced oxidation of DNA repair proteins inhibits DNA repair. This article addresses the possible role of oxidative stress and protein oxidation in determining DNA repair efficiency - with particular reference to NER and skin cancer risk.

  8. Phenotypic Transitions of Macrophages Orchestrate Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Margaret L.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are essential for the efficient healing of numerous tissues, and they contribute to impaired healing and fibrosis. Tissue repair proceeds through overlapping phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, and macrophages are present throughout this progression. Macrophages exhibit transitions in phenotype and function as tissue repair progresses, although the precise factors regulating these transitions remain poorly defined. In efficiently healing injuries, macrophages present during a given stage of repair appear to orchestrate transition into the next phase and, in turn, can promote debridement of the injury site, cell proliferation and angiogenesis, collagen deposition, and matrix remodeling. However, dysregulated macrophage function can contribute to failure to heal or fibrosis in several pathological situations. This review will address current knowledge of the origins and functions of macrophages during the progression of tissue repair, with emphasis on skin and skeletal muscle. Dysregulation of macrophages in disease states and therapies targeting macrophage activation to promote tissue repair are also discussed. PMID:24091222

  9. The role of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Bas, Gurhan; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Alimoglu, Orhan; Eryilmaz, Ramazan; Sahin, Mustafa; Okan, Ismail; Cevikbas, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragmatic injuries either by blunt or penetrating trauma require prompt surgical intervention and are often exigent to repair. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (n-butyl-2-CA) is a tissue adhesive which has gained wide application in many areas of surgery including emergency. To repair the extensive injuries of the diaphragm it may be necessary the use of synthetic mesh by fixing it with sutures or staples. The use of tissue adhesives may circumvent the potential problems associated with mesh fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tissue adhesives usage for mesh fixation in diaphragmatic injury repair. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups each of them containing 8 rats. A 1- cm diaphragmatic defect was created in all rats. The defect was repaired by polypropylene suture in Group I, by mesh fixed with sutures in group II and by mesh fixed with n-butyl-2-CA in group III. The rats were sacrificed after 1 month. The episode of hernia and the adhesions were assessed by adhesion density score. Also, the abscess and inflammation in the repaired tissue were evaluated microscopically. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for the histopathological analysis. No diaphragmatic hernia was detected in any group. While Group III had higher adhesion density scores than group I (P: 0.027), there were no differences between group III and II (P: 0.317) and group II and I (P = 0.095) regarding adhesion density scores. The inflammation grade was higher in group III than group I and II (P < 0.001) and was higher in group II than group I (P < 0.05). There was no differences between each groups, concerning microabcsess formation (P > 0.05). Repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injury in penetrating wound, with polypropylene mesh fixed by n-butyl-2-CA in rats appears to be as efficacious and safe as conventional methods in early period. However, further experimental and clinical study are needed to compare the long-term results of adhesive mesh repair with those of

  10. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

  11. A mutation in the XPB/ERCC3 DNA repair transcription gene, associated with trichothiodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Weeda, G.; Donker, I.; Vermeulen, W.

    1997-02-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sulfur-deficient brittle hair and nails, mental retardation, impaired sexual development, and ichthyosis. Photosensitivity has been reported in {approximately}50% of the cases, but no skin cancer is associated with TTD. Virtually all photosensitive TTD patients have a deficiency in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UV-induced DNA damage that is indistinguishable from that of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group D (XP-D) patients. DNA repair defects in XP-D are associated with two additional, quite different diseases; XP, a sun-sensitive and cancer-prone repair disorder, and Cockayne syndrome (CS), a photosensitive condition characterized by physical and mental retardation and wizened facial appearance. One photosensitive TTD case constitutes a new repair-deficient complementation group, TTD-A. Remarkably, both TTD-A and XP-D defects are associated with subunits of TFIIH, a basal transcription factor with a second function in DNA repair. Thus, mutations in TFIIH components may, on top of a repair defect, also cause transcriptional insufficiency, which may explain part of the non-XP clinical features of TTD. To date, three patients with the remarkable conjunction of XP and CS but not TM have been assigned to XP complementation group B (XP-B). Here we present the characterization of the NER defect in two mild TTD patients (TTD6VI and TTD4VI) and confirm the assignment to X-PB. The causative mutation was found to be a single base substitution resulting in a missense mutation (T119P) in a region of the XPB protein. These findings define a third TTD complementation group, extend the clinical heterogeneity associated with XP-B, stress the exclusive relationship between TTD and mutations in subunits of repair/transcription factor TFIIH, and strongly support the concept of {open_quotes}transcription syndromes.{close_quotes} 46 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  13. Cardiac regeneration: epicardial mediated repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of lower vertebrates such as fish and salamanders display scarless regeneration following injury, although this feature is lost in adult mammals. The remarkable capacity of the neonatal mammalian heart to regenerate suggests that the underlying machinery required for the regenerative process is evolutionarily retained. Recent studies highlight the epicardial covering of the heart as an important source of the signalling factors required for the repair process. The developing epicardium is also a major source of cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle, endothelial cells and stem cells. Here, we examine animal models that are capable of scarless regeneration, the role of the epicardium as a source of cells, signalling mechanisms implicated in the regenerative process and how these mechanisms influence cardiomyocyte proliferation. We also discuss recent advances in cardiac stem cell research and potential therapeutic targets arising from these studies. PMID:26702046

  14. Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Erminia; Pulsatelli, Lia; Facchini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In adult healthy cartilage, chondrocytes are in a quiescent phase characterized by a fine balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. In ageing, degenerative joint diseases and traumatic injuries of cartilage, a loss of homeostatic conditions and an up-regulation of catabolic pathways occur. Since cartilage differentiation and maintenance of homeostasis are finely tuned by a complex network of signaling molecules and biophysical factors, shedding light on these mechanisms appears to be extremely relevant for both the identification of pathogenic key factors, as specific therapeutic targets, and the development of biological approaches for cartilage regeneration. This review will focus on the main signaling pathways that can activate cellular and molecular processes, regulating the functional behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological conditions. These networks may be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and increased knowledge in this field may lead to the development of more effective strategies for inducing cartilage repair. PMID:24837833

  15. [SOS-repair--60 years].

    PubMed

    Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2013-01-01

    This review integrates 60 years of research on SOS-repair and SOS-mutagenesis in procaryotes and eucaryotes, from Jean Weigle experiment in 1953 year (mutagenesis of lambda bacteriophage in UV-irradiated bacteria) to the latest achievements in studying SOS-mutagenesis on all living organisms--Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. A key role in establishing of a biochemical basis for SOS-mutagenesis belonges to the finding in 1998-1999 years that specific error-prone DNA polymerases (PolV and others) catalysed translesion synthesis on damaged DNA. This review focuses on recent studies addressing the new models for SOS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and Home sapiens cells.

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF GAS PIPLINES SURVEY OF OPERATOR EXPERIENCE AND INDUSTRY NEEDS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Ian D. Harris

    2003-09-01

    A repair method that can be applied from the inside of a gas transmission pipeline (i.e., a trenchless repair) is an attractive alternative to conventional repair methods since the need to excavate the pipeline is precluded. This is particularly true for pipelines in environmentally sensitive and highly populated areas. The objectives of the project are to evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and validate internal repair methods for pipelines; develop a functional specification for an internal pipeline repair system; and prepare a recommended practice for internal repair of pipelines. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. A total of fifty-six surveys were sent to pipeline operators. A total of twenty completed surveys were returned, representing a 36% response rate, which is considered very good given the fact that tailored surveys are known in the marketing industry to seldom attract more than a 10% response rate. The twenty survey responses produced the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water (e.g., lakes and swamps) in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. All these areas tend to be very difficult and very costly if, and where, conventional excavated repairs may be currently used. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem in a water/river crossing. (3) The typical travel distances required can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). In concept, these groups require pig-based systems; despooled umbilical systems could be considered for the first two groups

  17. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  18. Articular cartilage repair with recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold in a preliminary porcine study.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, Virpi; Salonius, Eve; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Järvinen, Elina; Paatela, Teemu; Meller, Anna; Hannula, Markus; Björkman, Mimmi; Pyhältö, Tuomo; Ellä, Ville; Vasara, Anna; Töyräs, Juha; Kellomäki, Minna; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a novel recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold (rhCo-PLA) in the repair of full-thickness cartilage lesions with autologous chondrocyte implantation technique (ACI). The forming repair tissue was compared to spontaneous healing (spontaneous) and repair with a commercial porcine type I/III collagen membrane (pCo). Domestic pigs (4-month-old, n = 20) were randomized into three study groups and a circular full-thickness chondral lesion with a diameter of 8 mm was created in the right medial femoral condyle. After 3 weeks, the chondral lesions were repaired with either rhCo-PLA or pCo together with autologous chondrocytes, or the lesion was only debrided and left untreated for spontaneous repair. The repair tissue was evaluated 4 months after the second operation. Hyaline cartilage formed most frequently in the rhCo-PLA treatment group. Biomechanically, there was a trend that both treatment groups resulted in better repair tissue than spontaneous healing. Adverse subchondral bone reactions developed less frequently in the spontaneous group (40%) and the rhCo-PLA treated group (50%) than in the pCo control group (100%). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups. The novel rhCo-PLA biomaterial showed promising results in this proof-of-concept study, but further studies will be needed in order to determine its effectiveness in articular cartilage repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:745-753, 2016. PMID:26573959

  19. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yue-Min; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG) after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4–45 years). Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1), and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2). The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4–13 cm). The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10–58 months), and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2) and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2). The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient's age. PMID:26228042

  20. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yue-Min; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG) after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4-45 years). Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1), and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2). The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4-13 cm). The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10-58 months), and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2) and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2). The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient's age.

  1. Arthroscopic quadriceps tendon repair: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  3. Repair material properties for effective structural application

    SciTech Connect

    Mangat, P.S.; Limbachiya, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    Strength and engineering properties of three generic repair materials which are likely to influence long-term performance of repaired concrete structures were studied. Measured properties include strength, stiffness, shrinkage and creep deformations, together with the complete compressive stress-strain characteristics including post-cracking behavior. The repair materials considered in this investigation are commercially available and widely used. These included a high performance non-shrinkable concrete, a mineral based cementitious material with no additives or coarse aggregate size particles, and a cementitious mortar containing styrene acrylic copolymer with fiber additives. Performance comparisons are also made between these materials and plain concrete mixes of similar strength and stiffness, suitable for repair applications. The results show that shrinkage of the repair materials was significantly greater than the shrinkage of normal concrete. Moreover, the shrinkage of those modified with a polymer admixture was found to be very sensitive to the relative humidity of the exposure compared to normal concrete. The post-peak strain capacity of the material modified with a polymer admixture was markedly improved leading to a more pronounced falling branch of stress-strain curve. The ultimate stress level (at a maximum load) of specially formulated repair materials varies significantly, the lowest ultimate stress being recorded for the porous mineral-based material. The inclusion of aggregates improves the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of repair materials.

  4. Initial experience of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Razman, J; Shaharin, S; Lukman, M R; Sukumar, N; Jasmi, A Y

    2006-06-01

    Laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernia has become increasingly popular as compared to open repair. The procedure has the advantages of minimal access surgery, reduction of post operative pain and the recurrence rate. A prospective study of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair was performed in our center from August 2002 to April 2004. Eighteen cases (n: 18) were performed during the study period. Fifteen cases (n: 15) had open hernia repair previously. Sixteen patients (n: 16) had successful repair of the hernia with the laparoscopic approach and two cases were converted to open repair. The mean hernia defect size was 156cm2. There was no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complication. The mean operating time was 100 +/- 34 minutes (75 - 180 minutes). The postoperative pain was graded as mild to moderate according to visual analogue score. The mean day of discharge after surgery was two days (1 - 3 days). During follow up, three patients (16.7%) developed seroma at the hernia sac which was resolved with conservative management after three weeks. One (5.6%) patient developed recurrence six months after surgery. In conclusion, laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia particularly recurrent hernia has been shown to be safe and effective in our centre. However, careful patient selection and acquiring the necessary advanced laparoscopic surgical skills coupled with the proper use of equipment are mandatory before embarking on this procedure.

  5. Failure of distal biceps repair by gapping

    PubMed Central

    Copas, David; Watts, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe the clinical, radiological and surgical findings of failed distal biceps repair by gapping and report the functional outcomes following revision repair. Methods A retrospective review of five consecutive patients was conducted. Patients presented with radial-sided forearm pain after their distal biceps fixation. All patients had less than 5 cm of retraction of the biceps muscle belly, a palpable tendon although the manoeuvre was painful with weakness on resisted supination. Flexed abducted supinated magnetic resonance imaging (FABS MRI) showed a gap between the distal end of the tendon and the footprint on the radial tuberosity. Results Mean FEA score at presentation was 44/100 (35 to 49). Mean time to re-operation was 18 months (range 4 months to 36 months). At revision, the distal end of the tendon was retracted and not making contact with the bone. All cases were revised to an in-bone endobutton repair. Mean postoperative Functional Elbow Assessment (FEA) scores undertaken at a mean of 14 months (range 5 months to 22 months) after revision improved to 95/100 (90 to 100). Conclusions Patients presenting with persistent radial sided forearm pain and weakness on provocative testing after distal biceps repair with a seemingly intact repair should be investigated with FABS MRI to look for evidence of failure of repair by gapping. Revision repair with an anatomic in-bone technique can lead to good results. PMID:27583018

  6. Dental materials for cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Faiza; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham; Muhammad, Nawshad; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    Numerous bone and soft tissue grafting techniques are followed to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP) defects. In addition to the gold standard surgical interventions involving the use of autogenous grafts, various allogenic and xenogenic graft materials are available for bone regeneration. In an attempt to discover minimally invasive and cost effective treatments for cleft repair, an exceptional growth in synthetic biomedical graft materials have occurred. This study gives an overview of the use of dental materials to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP). The eligibility criteria for this review were case studies, clinical trials and retrospective studies on the use of various types of dental materials in surgical repair of cleft palate defects. Any data available on the surgical interventions to repair alveolar or palatal cleft, with natural or synthetic graft materials was included in this review. Those datasets with long term clinical follow-up results were referred to as particularly relevant. The results provide encouraging evidence in favor of dental and other related biomedical materials to fill the gaps in clefts of lip and palate. The review presents the various bones and soft tissue replacement strategies currently used, tested or explored for the repair of cleft defects. There was little available data on the use of synthetic materials in cleft repair which was a limitation of this study. In conclusion although clinical trials on the use of synthetic materials are currently underway the uses of autologous implants are the preferred treatment methods to date.

  7. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery. PMID:18264850

  8. Arthroscopic Quadriceps Tendon Repair: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury. PMID:25815224

  9. Juxtarenal aortic aneurysm: endoluminal transfemoral repair?

    PubMed

    Ferko, A; Krajina, A; Jon, B; Lesko, M; Voboril, Z; Zizka, J; Eliás, P

    1997-01-01

    Endoluminal transfemoral repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by a stent graft placement requires a segment of the nondilated infrarenal aorta of at least 15 mm long for safe stent graft attachment. The possibility of endoluminal treatment of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with partially covered spiral Z stent was assessed in experiment and in three clinical cases. In the experiment, the noncovered spiral Z stent was placed into the abdominal aorta, across the origins of renal arteries and mesenteric arteries, in six dogs. In the clinical cases, a partially covered stent graft was attached in 3 patients with the juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (of the group of 12 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm). The stent grafts were attached with proximal uncovered parts across the origins of the renal arteries. In experiment, the renal artery occlusions or stenoses were not observed 36 months after stent placement, and in clinic, 3 patients with the juxtarenal aortic aneurysm were successfully treated by stent graft placement. There were no signs of flow impairment into the renal arteries 14 months after stent graft implantation. This approach can possibly expand the indications for endoluminal grafting in the treatment of juxtarenal aortic aneurysms in patients who are at high risk for surgery.

  10. Main factors providing specificity of repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nevinsky, G A

    2011-01-01

    Specific and nonspecific DNA complex formation with human uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and apurine/apyrimidine endonuclease, as well as with E. coli 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase and RecA protein was analyzed using the method of stepwise increase in DNA-ligand complexity. It is shown that high affinity of these enzymes to any DNA (10(-4)-10(-8) M) is provided by a large number of weak additive contacts mainly with DNA internucleoside phosphate groups and in a less degree with bases of nucleotide links "covered" by protein globules. Enzyme interactions with specific DNA links are comparable in efficiency with weak unspecific contacts and provide only for one-two orders of affinity (10(-1)-10(-2) M), but these contacts are extremely important at stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation and catalysis proper. Only in the case of specific DNA individual for each enzyme alterations in DNA structure provide for efficient adjustment of reacting enzyme atoms and DNA orbitals with accuracy up to 10-15° and, as a result, for high reaction rate. Upon transition from nonspecific to specific DNA, reaction rate (k(cat)) increases by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Thus, stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation as well as catalysis proper are the basis of specificity of repair enzymes. PMID:21568843

  11. Oxidative DNA Damage and Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Luijten, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative DNA damage is repaired by multiple, overlapping DNA repair pathways. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that nucleotide excision repair (NER), besides base excision repair (BER), is also involved in neutralizing oxidative DNA damage. Recent Advances: NER includes two distinct sub-pathways: transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and global genome repair (GG-NER). The CSA and CSB proteins initiate the onset of TC-NER. Recent findings show that not only CSB, but also CSA is involved in the repair of oxidative DNA lesions, in the nucleus as well as in mitochondria. The XPG protein is also of importance for the removal of oxidative DNA lesions, as it may enhance the initial step of BER. Substantial evidence exists that support a role for XPC in NER and BER. XPC deficiency not only results in decreased repair of oxidative lesions, but has also been linked to disturbed redox homeostasis. Critical Issues: The role of NER proteins in the regulation of the cellular response to oxidative (mitochondrial and nuclear) DNA damage may be the underlying mechanism of the pathology of accelerated aging in Cockayne syndrome patients, a driving force for internal cancer development in XP-A and XP-C patients, and a contributor to the mixed exhibited phenotypes of XP-G patients. Future Directions: Accumulating evidence indicates that DNA repair factors can be involved in multiple DNA repair pathways. However, the distinct detailed mechanism and consequences of these additional functions remain to be elucidated and can possibly shine a light on clinically related issues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2409–2419. PMID:23216312

  12. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  13. Dynamics of orthodontic root resorption and repair in human premolars: a light microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Winter, Björn U; Stenvik, Arild; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between root resorption and repair in human premolars that had been orthodontically intruded. The objective was to examine these processes related to time and root development. Seventy-six premolars were divided into subgroups: 33 teeth were intruded and then extracted (G1); 25 teeth were intruded and then left in situ for varying periods before extraction (G2); 18 teeth served as the controls (G3). All teeth were examined by light microscopy. Using non-parametric statistical analysis, differences between the groups were examined with the Pearson chi-square test. Teeth in G1 and G2 had significantly more resorptive lesions, 55 and 64 per cent, respectively, than the controls of 11 per cent. Resorption was observed over the whole root surface and increased with time. The occurrence increased to 100 per cent in both experimental groups after 36 days of intrusion. The appearance of lesions in relation to root development showed no differences between G1 and G2. In the apical part of the root, total resorption of the dentine was sometimes observed, but no resorptions extended into the predentine. Resorptive lesions undergoing repair were seen in both groups, with significantly more repair in G2 (58 per cent) than in G1 (32 per cent). Active resorption and repair were sometimes seen at the same resorption site. Deposition of cellular and acellular cementum was found to the same extent over the whole root when repair took place. With time, resorption appeared over the whole root surface. In some teeth, resorptive activity continued up to 10 days after removal of forces but on the other hand, repair of the resorbed area sometimes started during active movement. The individual variation in repair was much wider compared with resorption. The predentine layer in the apical area appeared not to be affected by the resorptive process. PMID:19465737

  14. Dimensional stability of denture bases following repair with microwave resin.

    PubMed

    Dyer, R A; Howlett, J A

    1994-08-01

    The dimensional stability of a commercially available acrylic resin, designed specifically for polymerization by microwave irradiation, was compared with that of a conventional water-bath-cured resin. Resin bases were processed on duplicate stone casts prepared from a cobalt chromium master die. Twenty bases were polymerized, using acrylic resin modified for rapid heat curing, in a water-bath at 100 degrees C for 22 min. A further 20 bases were polymerized using a microwave curing acrylic resin, in a conventional microwave oven at 500 W power output for 3 min. Ten bases from each group were sectioned in a parasagittal direction and repaired using the microwave curing resin. Following each curing cycle the fit of the posterior border of each base was evaluated via a silicone index formed between the base and the master die. The index was invested in stone and sectioned through the posterior palatal region to allow measurement of its thickness by means of an eyepiece micrometer. One-way analysis of variance and unpaired Student's t tests were employed to compare the differences in distortion at the initial cure and following repair. No significant differences were found in the distortion of the acrylic resin bases produced from the heat-cured or microwave-cured materials. All bases exhibited significant further distortion on repair with the microwave-cured acrylic resin.

  15. Aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty: repair with an extracellular patch

    PubMed Central

    Pawlak, Szymon; Śliwka, Joanna; Urlik, Maciej; Maruszewski, Marcin; Kukulski, Tomasz; Nożyński, Jerzy; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The proportion of valve repair procedures is increasing in experienced centers. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes after aortic valve reconstruction with a novel surgical technique. Material and methods The study group consisted of 30 patients (23 male and 7 female) at a mean age of 35 ± 14 years. In patients with aortic root aneurysm the reimplantation or Florida sleeve technique was used. A sub-commissural annuloplasty, plication of the free edge of the cusp, shaving, and commissurotomy were performed. At this stage of surgery aortic repair was then attempted by cusp extension. Since 2013 the strips have been tailored from extracellular matrix. Results The mean aortic cross-clamp time was 90 ± 32 min. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 126 ± 38 min. There was no in-hospital death. Re-exploration for bleeding was required in 1 patient. During follow-up, 1 patient needed reoperation at 1 year due to endocarditis. All patients remained alive in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I. The echocardiographic findings remained unchanged in all cases during follow-up. Conclusions Our modification of aortic valve repair results in a good outcome. PMID:26855646

  16. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  17. Colocutaneous Fistula after Open Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kallis, Panayiotis; Koronakis, Nikolaos; Hadjicostas, Panayiotis

    2016-01-01

    The plug-and-patch technique is frequently used for the open repair of inguinal hernias; however, serious complications may arise on rare occasions. We present the case of a 69-year-old patient who presented with a colocutaneous fistula with the sigmoid colon 9 years after the repair of a left sliding inguinal hernia with the plug-and-patch technique. The patient underwent sigmoidectomy and excision of the fistulous track. He was discharged on postoperative day 5 and had an uneventful recovery. Although such complications are reported rarely, the surgeon must be aware of them when deciding upon the method of hernia repair. PMID:27738544

  18. Method of repairing discontinuity in fiberglass structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, L. L.; Helbert, W. B., Jr.; Enie, R. B.; Mulliken, R. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Damaged fiberglass structures are repaired by substantially filling the irregular surfaced damaged area with a liquid, self-curing resin, preferably an epoxy resin mixed with chopped fiberglass, and then applying to the resin surface the first of several woven fiberglass swatches which has stitching in a zig-zag pattern parallel to each of its edges and a fringe of warp and fill glass fibers about the edges outward of the stitching. The method is especially applicable to repair of fiberglass rocket engine casings and is particularly advantageous since it restores the repaired fiberglass structure to substantially its original strength without any significant changes in the geometry or mass of the structure.

  19. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  20. Evaluation of Internet Information About Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Kevin A; Codella, Stephen; Ciccotti, Michael G; Kane, Patrick W; Duncan, Ian C; Cohen, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    The content and quality of Internet websites are not governed or regulated. Therefore, patients who consult the Internet may receive outdated or incorrect medical information. Researchers have analyzed the quality of web information about various orthopedic surgeries, but no such analysis has been performed on websites covering rotator cuff repair. We conducted a study to evaluate and analyze rotator cuff repair information available to the general public through the Internet; to assess changes in the quality of information over time; to determine if sites sponsored by academic institutions offered higher-quality information; and to assess whether the readability of the material varied according to DISCERN scores. Two Internet searches were conducted, in 2011 and 2014. The 3 most commonly used search engines were used to search for rotator cuff repair. The first 50 websites from each search engine were evaluated for authorship and content. The DISCERN instrument was used to analyze the quality of each website's health information. The 2011 search revealed 21% of websites were associated with an academic institution, 38% were authored by a hospital or physician group, and 11.5% were industry-sponsored. The 2014 search revealed a similar distribution of contributors. The highest DISCERN scores were given to academic institution websites (51.6) and public education websites (49). There was no correlation between readability and DISCERN scores. Websites associated with academic institutions produced the highest-quality medical information. Over the past few years, authorship and content have changed little with respect to Internet information about rotator cuff repair.

  1. The role of aging and DNA repair in chronic disease. Final progress report, December 1, 1985--September 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.

    1993-11-01

    We carried out a molecular epidemiological study of the DNA repair of photochemical damage as a risk factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In that clinic-based control study of 88 cases and 135 cancer-free control it was found that DNA repair in the controls declined linearly at a rate of 0.61% per year over a 30-60 year age group. However, repair in younger BCC cases, significantly less than their age-matched controls, did not decline at the same rate so that the repair differences between the cases and the controls disappeared as the cases grew older. Besides this age effect, the odds are high (5:1) that an individual with low repair overexposed to sunlight will have basal cell carcinoma. That these odds increase to 10:1 for females compared to male subjects led to the observation that repair may be sensitive to hormonal control. Because of the ease of BCC diagnosis it is possible to demonstrate significantly that the level of DNA repair directly influences the multiplicity of tumors. Further, both those cases and controls with a family history of BCC invariably have reduced levels of DNA repair (p<0-05).

  2. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  3. Effect of Intermediate Agents and Preheated Composites on Repair Bond Strength of Silorane-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Daryadar, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Repairing composite restorations is a challenging procedure especially when two different types of composites are used. This study aimed to compare the repair strength of silorane-based composite (SC) (Filtek P90) with that of preheated SC, methacrylate composite (MC)(Z250), flowable MC (Filtek Supreme Plus) and different adhesive/composite combinations. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SC specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (G). In the control group (G7), SC was bonded immediately to SC. The other specimens were water-aged for two months and were then roughened, etched and repaired with the following materials: G1) Silorane Adhesive Bond (SAB)/SC; G2) Preheated SC; G3) SAB/MC; G4) Adper Single Bond (SB)/MC; G5) Flowable MC/MC; G6) Preheated MC. After water storage and thermocycling, the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Preheated SC and MC, flowable MC and SAB/SC resulted in bond strength comparable to that of the control group. Preheated SC showed significantly higher bond strength when compared to SAB/MC (P=0.04) and SB/MC (P<0.001). Bond strength of SB/MC was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05), except for SAB/SC and SAB/MC. Conclusion: All repairing materials except for SB/MC resulted in bond strength values comparable to that of the control group. Repair with preheated SC yielded the highest bond strength. PMID:27148378

  4. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection Repair (EVAR) in Iran: Descriptive Midterm Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Haji Zeinali, Ali Mohammad; Marzban, Mehrab; Zafarghandi, Mohammadreza; Shirzad, Mahmood; Shirani, Shapour; Mahmoodian, Roshanak; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Lotfi-Tokaldany, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endovascular repair of aorta in comparison to open surgery has a low early operative mortality rate, but its long-term results are uncertain. Objectives: The current study describes for the first time our initial four-year experience of elective endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) at Tehran heart center, the first and a major referral heart center in Iran, as a pioneer of EVAR in Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 51 patients (46 men) who had the diagnosis of either an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n = 36), thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) (n = 7), or thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) (n = 8) who had undergone EVAR by Medtronic stent grafts by our team between December 2006 and June 2009 were reviewed. Results: The rate of in-hospital aneurysm-related deaths in the group with AAA stood at 2.8% (one case), while there was no in-hospital mortality in the other groups. All patients were followed up for 13-18 months. The cumulative death rate in follow-up was nine cases from the total 51 cases (18%), out of which six cases were in the AAA group (four patients due to non-cardiac causes and two patients due to aneurysm-related causes), one case in the TAA group (following a severe hemoptysis), and two cases in the TAD group (following an expansion of dissection from re-entrance). The major event-free survival rate was 80.7% for endovascular repair of AAA, 85.7% for endovascular repair of TAA, and 65.6% for endovascular repair of TAD. Conclusion: The endovascular stent-graft repair of the abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection had high technical success rates in tandem with low-rate early mortality and morbidity, short hospital stay, and acceptable mid-term free symptom survival among Iranian patients. PMID:27110330

  5. Outcomes of pediatric inguinal hernia repair with or without opening the external oblique muscle fascia

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Masoud; Dastgerdi, Mohamad Masoud Heydari; Sirousfard, Motaherh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering that complications and outcome of each method of pediatric inguinal hernia repair are one of the determinants for pediatric surgeons for selection of the appropriate surgical technique, we compared the early and late complications of two inguinal repair techniques, with and without opening the external oblique muscle fascia. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, boy children aged 1-month to 6 years with diagnosed inguinal hernia were included and randomly allocated into two groups for undergoing two types of hernia repair techniques, with and without opening the external oblique muscle fascia. Surgical complications such as fever, scrotal edema and hematoma, and wound infections classified as early complication and recurrence, testis atrophy and sensory impairment of inguinal area classified as late complications. The rates of mentioned early and late complications were compared in the two interventional groups. Results: In this study, 66 patients were selected and allocated to the two interventional groups. The prevalence of early and late complications in two studied groups were not different significantly in two interventional groups (P > 0.05). Operation time was significantly shorter in inguinal repair techniques without opening the external oblique muscle fascia than the other studied technique (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of our study indicated that though early and late complications of the two repair methods were similar, but the time of procedure was shorter in herniotomy without opening the external oblique muscle, which considered the superiority of this method than inguinal hernia repair with opening the external oblique muscle. PMID:26958052

  6. FEN1 participates in repair of the 5'-phosphotyrosyl terminus of DNA single-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yukiko; Takahata, Chiaki; Narita, Takashi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Etoposide is a widely used anticancer drug and a DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) inhibitor. Etoposide produces Top2-attached single-strand breaks (Top2-SSB complex) and double-strand breaks (Top2-DSB complex) that are thought to induce cell death in tumor cells. The Top2-SSB complex is more abundant than the Top2-DSB complex. Human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is required for efficient repair of Top2-DSB complexes. However, the identities of the proteins involved in the repair of Top2-SSB complexes are unknown, although yeast genetic data indicate that 5' to 3' structure-specific DNA endonuclease activity is required for alternative repair of Top2 DNA damage. In this study, we purified a flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) in the 5' to 3' structure-specific DNA endonuclease family and synthesized single-strand break DNA substrates containing a 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond, mimicking the Top2-SSB complex. We found that FEN1 and XPG did not remove the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing DSB substrates but removed the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing SSB substrates. Under DNA repair conditions, FEN1 efficiently repaired the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing SSB substrates in the presence of DNA ligase and DNA polymerase. Therefore, FEN1 may play an important role in the repair of Top2-SSB complexes in etoposide-treated cells.

  7. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen profiles on the bond strength of repaired composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Hossam; ElKhatat, Essam; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Baroudi, Kusai; Beshr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the bond strength of repaired three types of composite resins under various hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) profiles with various session numbers. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens of three types of composite resin (nanofilled composite, nanohybrid composite and microfilled composite) each type of composite was divided into four group according to various profiles of HBO treatment (control, 2bar, 3 bar and 5 bar). Then, the specimens were repaired; thermocycled, the tensile bond strength were measured. Then the data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for the repaired nanofilled composite resin specimens while; the lowest bond strength was obtained for the repaired microfilled composite resin specimens. The highest tensile bond strength was recorded for the specimens who treated with the highest pressure of HBO. Conclusion: The bond strength of repaired nanofilled composite resins is better than the other types of composite resin. The highest pressure of HBO, the highest bond strength of repaired composite resins. PMID:27195232

  8. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  9. Growth retardation, early death, and DNA repair defects in mice deficient for the nucleotide excision repair enzyme XPF.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming; Shinkura, Reiko; Shinkura, Nobuhiko; Alt, Frederick W

    2004-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a human genetic disease which is caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair. Since this repair pathway is responsible for removing UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA, XP patients are hypersensitive to sunlight and are prone to develop skin cancer. Based on the underlying genetic defect, the disease can be divided into the seven complementation groups XPA through XPG. XPF, in association with ERCC1, constitutes a structure-specific endonuclease that makes an incision 5' to the photodamage. XPF-ERCC1 has also been implicated in both removal of interstrand DNA cross-links and homology-mediated recombination and in immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). To study the function of XPF in vivo, we inactivated the XPF gene in mice. XPF-deficient mice showed a severe postnatal growth defect and died approximately 3 weeks after birth. Histological examination revealed that the liver of mutant animals contained abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. Furthermore, embryonic fibroblasts defective in XPF are hypersensitive to UV irradiation and mitomycin C treatment. No defect in CSR was detected, suggesting that the nuclease is dispensable for this recombination process. These phenotypes are identical to those exhibited by the ERCC1-deficient mice, consistent with the functional association of the two proteins. The complex phenotype suggests that XPF-ERCC1 is involved in multiple DNA repair processes.

  10. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  11. Quantifying the emission benefits of opacity testing and repair of heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Robert L; Graboski, Michael S; Alleman, Teresa L; Alvarez, Javier R; Duleep, K G

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to begin to quantify the benefits of a smoke opacity-based (SAE J1667 test) inspection and maintenance program. Twenty-six vehicles exhibiting visible smoke emissions were recruited: 14 pre-1991 vehicles and 12 1991 and later model year vehicles. Smoke opacity and regulated pollutant emissions via chassis dynamometer were measured, with testing conducted at 1609 m above sea level. Twenty of the vehicles were then repaired with the goal of lowering visible smoke emission, and the smoke opacity testing and pollutant emissions measurements were repeated. For the pre-1991 vehicles actually repaired, pre-repair smoke opacity averaged 39% and PM averaged 5.6 g/mi. NOx emissions averaged 22.1 g/mi. After repair, the average smoke opacity had declined to 26% and PM declined to 3.3 g/mi, while NOx emissions increased to 30.9 g/mi. For the 1991 and newer vehicles repaired, pre-repair smoke opacity averaged 59% and PM averaged 2.2 g/mi. NOx emissions averaged 12.1 g/mi. After repair, the average opacity had declined to 30% and PM declined to 1.3 g/mi, while NOx increased slightly to 14.4 g/mi. For vehicles failing the California opacity test at >55% for pre-1991 and >40% for 1991 and later model years, the changes in emissions exhibited a high degree of statistical significance. The average cost of repairs was 1088 dollars, and the average is very similar for both the pre-1991 and 1991+ model year groups. Smoke opacity was shown to be a relatively poor predictor of driving cycle PM emissions. Peak CO or peak CO and THC as measured during a snap-acceleration were much better predictors of driving cycle PM emissions. PMID:12630482

  12. Quantifying the emission benefits of opacity testing and repair of heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Robert L; Graboski, Michael S; Alleman, Teresa L; Alvarez, Javier R; Duleep, K G

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to begin to quantify the benefits of a smoke opacity-based (SAE J1667 test) inspection and maintenance program. Twenty-six vehicles exhibiting visible smoke emissions were recruited: 14 pre-1991 vehicles and 12 1991 and later model year vehicles. Smoke opacity and regulated pollutant emissions via chassis dynamometer were measured, with testing conducted at 1609 m above sea level. Twenty of the vehicles were then repaired with the goal of lowering visible smoke emission, and the smoke opacity testing and pollutant emissions measurements were repeated. For the pre-1991 vehicles actually repaired, pre-repair smoke opacity averaged 39% and PM averaged 5.6 g/mi. NOx emissions averaged 22.1 g/mi. After repair, the average smoke opacity had declined to 26% and PM declined to 3.3 g/mi, while NOx emissions increased to 30.9 g/mi. For the 1991 and newer vehicles repaired, pre-repair smoke opacity averaged 59% and PM averaged 2.2 g/mi. NOx emissions averaged 12.1 g/mi. After repair, the average opacity had declined to 30% and PM declined to 1.3 g/mi, while NOx increased slightly to 14.4 g/mi. For vehicles failing the California opacity test at >55% for pre-1991 and >40% for 1991 and later model years, the changes in emissions exhibited a high degree of statistical significance. The average cost of repairs was 1088 dollars, and the average is very similar for both the pre-1991 and 1991+ model year groups. Smoke opacity was shown to be a relatively poor predictor of driving cycle PM emissions. Peak CO or peak CO and THC as measured during a snap-acceleration were much better predictors of driving cycle PM emissions.

  13. Surgical Repair of Retrograde Type A Aortic Dissection after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Young; Kim, Yeon Soo; Ryoo, Ji Yoon

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that the stent graft will become an alternative method for treating aortic diseases or reducing the extent of surgery; therefore, thoracic endovascular aortic repair has widened its indications. However, it can have rare but serious complications such as paraplegia and retrograde type A aortic dissection. Here, we report a surgical repair of retrograde type A aortic dissection that was performed after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. PMID:24570865

  14. Influence of surface preparation on fracture load of resin composite-based repairs

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Palacios, Rocío; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the fracture load of composite-based repairs to fractured zirconium oxide (Z) crowns and to ceramic-fused-to-metal (CM) crowns, comparing different mechanical surface preparation methods. A total of 75 crowns were repaired; samples then underwent dynamic loading and thermocycling. Final fracture load values for failure of the repaired crowns were measured and the type of fracture registered. Group I: CM: Surface preparation with a diamond bur + 9.5% Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) etching; Group II): CM: air-particle (Al2O3) + 9.5% HF; Group III: CM: Silica coating (SiO2); Group IV): Z: air-particle (Al2O3) + HF 9.5%; Group V) Z: Silica coating (SiO2). Of the three CM groups, Group I (CM-diamond bur) showed the highest mean failure value, with significant difference in comparison with Group III (CM-silica coating). For the zirconia groups, the highest value was obtained by Group V (silica coating). Key words:Crown, ceramic-fused-to-metal, zirconia, resin-composite, ceramic covering. PMID:25810848

  15. Influence of surface preparation on fracture load of resin composite-based repairs.

    PubMed

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Mateos-Palacios, Rocío; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the fracture load of composite-based repairs to fractured zirconium oxide (Z) crowns and to ceramic-fused-to-metal (CM) crowns, comparing different mechanical surface preparation methods. A total of 75 crowns were repaired; samples then underwent dynamic loading and thermocycling. Final fracture load values for failure of the repaired crowns were measured and the type of fracture registered. Group I: CM: Surface preparation with a diamond bur + 9.5% Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) etching; Group II): CM: air-particle (Al2O3) + 9.5% HF; Group III: CM: Silica coating (SiO2); Group IV): Z: air-particle (Al2O3) + HF 9.5%; Group V) Z: Silica coating (SiO2). Of the three CM groups, Group I (CM-diamond bur) showed the highest mean failure value, with significant difference in comparison with Group III (CM-silica coating). For the zirconia groups, the highest value was obtained by Group V (silica coating). Key words:Crown, ceramic-fused-to-metal, zirconia, resin-composite, ceramic covering.

  16. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  17. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  18. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  19. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  20. Small Engines Care, Operation, Maintenance and Repair. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard

    Developed by teacher educators and agricultural engineers, this teacher and student reference is for use in a course in small engine operation and maintenance. Content includes: (1) Principles of Good Workmanship, (2) Repairing Starters, (3) Maintaining and Repairing Ignition Systems, (4) Repairing Fuel Systems, (5) Repairing Governors, (6)…

  1. 46 CFR 2.01-15 - Vessel repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel repairs. 2.01-15 Section 2.01-15 Shipping COAST... and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-15 Vessel repairs. (a) No repairs or alterations affecting the... met. The procedures to be followed in notifying the Coast Guard about vessel repairs vary according...

  2. 46 CFR 196.30-10 - Notice required before repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice required before repair. 196.30-10 Section 196.30... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-10 Notice required before repair. (a) No repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, shall be made to any lifesaving or fire...

  3. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...

  4. 77 FR 49740 - Repair Stations; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ...-03, entitled ``Repair Stations'' (77 FR 30054). Comments to that document were to be received on or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 43, 91, and 145 RIN 2120-AJ61 Repair Stations; Extension of... for repair stations. This extension is a result of formal requests from repair stations and...

  5. 46 CFR 50.05-10 - Alterations or repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alterations or repairs. 50.05-10 Section 50.05-10... Application § 50.05-10 Alterations or repairs. (a) When alteration or repair of boilers, pressure vessels... accordance with the regulations in effect for new construction. (b) When alterations or repairs are made to...

  6. 40 CFR 63.171 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 63.171... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment Leaks § 63.171 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected is allowed if repair within 15 days...

  7. 40 CFR 61.242-10 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 61.242-10... Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-10 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is...

  8. 49 CFR 237.133 - Supervision of repairs and modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of repairs and modifications. 237.133... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Repair and Modification of Bridges § 237.133 Supervision of repairs and modifications. Each repair or modification pursuant to this part shall be...

  9. 46 CFR 97.30-10 - Notice required before repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice required before repair. 97.30-10 Section 97.30-10... OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-10 Notice required before repair. (a) No repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, shall be made to any lifesaving or fire...

  10. 46 CFR 126.150 - Repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs and alterations. 126.150 Section 126.150... CERTIFICATION General § 126.150 Repairs and alterations. (a) Except in an emergency, no repairs or alterations... notice to the cognizant OCMI in the inspection zone where the repairs or alterations are to be made....

  11. 14 CFR 145.209 - Repair station manual contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual contents. 145.209... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.209 Repair station manual contents. A certificated repair station's manual must include the following: (a) An...

  12. 46 CFR 78.33-10 - Notice required before repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice required before repairs. 78.33-10 Section 78.33... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-10 Notice required before repairs. (a) No repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, shall be made to any lifesaving or fire detecting...

  13. 46 CFR 169.509 - Approval for repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval for repairs and alterations. 169.509 Section... repairs and alterations. No extensive repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, may be made to any.... Repairs and alterations must be made to the original standard of construction and tested in the...

  14. 49 CFR 180.513 - Repairs, alterations, conversions, and modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs, alterations, conversions, and... Repairs, alterations, conversions, and modifications. (a) In order to repair tank cars, the tank car... protective coating, after a repair that requires the complete removal of the tank car jacket, the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allowed if repair within 15 days is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown. Repair of this equipment shall occur before the end of the next process unit shutdown. Monitoring to verify repair must occur within 15 days after startup of the process unit. (b) Delay of repair of equipment will be...

  16. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... allowed if repair within 15 days is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown. Repair of this equipment shall occur before the end of the next process unit shutdown. Monitoring to verify repair must occur within 15 days after startup of the process unit. (b) Delay of repair of equipment will be...

  17. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allowed if repair within 15 days is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown. Repair of this equipment shall occur before the end of the next process unit shutdown. Monitoring to verify repair must occur within 15 days after startup of the process unit. (b) Delay of repair of equipment will be...

  18. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...

  19. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...

  20. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...