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Sample records for repair cross-complementation group

  1. Expression of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 as Predictive Marker for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jong-Mu; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Hui-Young; Ahn, Jin Seok; Lee, Seungkoo; Kang, Gu; Han, Joungho; Son, Young-Ik; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keunchil

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. The expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been reported to be associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We evaluated whether ERCC1 expression could predict the treatment response and survival outcome of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who were treated with cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of ERCC1 in nasopharyngeal tumor tissue. Patients were categorized into either a resistant or sensitive group depending on their treatment response outcome. A total of 77 patients were assessed in the present study. Results: The resistant and sensitive groups included 25 and 52 patients, respectively. ERCC1 expression was positive in the tumor tissue for 39 of the 77 patients (51%). Significantly more ERCC1-negative tumors were in the sensitive group than in the resistant group (p = .035). In terms of survival outcome, univariate analysis determined that patients with ERCC1-negative tumors had longer disease-free survival (p = .076) and overall survival (p = .013) than patients with ERCC1-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis determined that negative ERCC expression in tumors was an independent predictor for prolonged overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.71). Conclusion: These results suggest that ERCC1 expression might be a useful predictive marker in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who are under consideration for cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

  2. Heterogeneity of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 gene expression in non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    SMIRNOV, SERHEY; PASHKEVICH, ANASTASIYA; LIUNDYSHEVA, VALERIYA; BABENKO, ANDREY; SMOLYAKOVA, RAISA

    2015-01-01

    Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) gene expression analysis is currently used widely in the molecular diagnosis of cancer. According to numerous studies, ERCC1 gene expression correlates with overall survival and effectiveness of chemotherapy with platinum agents. However, the degree of this correlation differs among various studies, with certain authors reporting a complete lack of such a correlation. These contradictions may be attributed to a number of factors, including the heterogeneity of the tumor tissue. In this study, we attempted to assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity exhibited by tissue samples obtained from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through the expression of the ERCC1 gene. This study included 25 samples of tumor tissue from patients with a morphologically confirmed NSCLC diagnosis. A total of three randomized sections of each specimen were used. The ERCC1 gene expression was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the TaqMan format. When planning the experiment and analysis of qPCR data, the MIQE guidelines were taken into consideration. We established that the coefficient of variation of the relative level of ERCC1 gene expression in the majority of the samples exceeded 33% (P<0.05), indicating the significant heterogeneity of the sample. We also demonstrated that the degree of heterogeneity of the tumor tissue is largely dependent on disease stage. PMID:25469300

  3. [Influences of excision repair cross complementation group 4 genetic variations on DNA damage in lymphocytes among coke oven workers].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-bo; Zhen, Jin-ping; Bai, Yun; Wang, Hong; Tan, Hao; Tian, Feng-jie; Chen, Wei-hong; Wu, Tang-chun

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between excision repair cross complementation group 4 ERCC4 gene polymorphisms and DNA damage in lymphocytes of coke oven workers and controls. Two hundred and forty-six coke oven workers and one hundred and twenty-seven controls were recruited in the study, and peripheral vein blood was drawn after over night fasting. Comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage, and TaqMan-MGB probes were used to analyze ERCC4 genetic variations including the three Tagged-single nucleotide polymorphisms (Tag SNPs), referred to rs744154, rs3136079 and rs31870 which were picked out from Hapmap database. Then haplotypes were reconstructed by PHASE2.0.2 software. The lymphocytes Olive TM value of coke oven workers was significantly higher than that of controls (1.26+/-1.12 vs 0.52+/-0.97, P<0.01). Among coke oven workers, no significant difference was found between the Olive TM of those with different genotypes or haplotype pairs at ERCC4 gene (P>0.05). However, in the control group, the TG genotype carriers had higher Olive TM than the TT and GG genotype carriers (0.26+/-0.96 vs 0.66+/-0.98 and 0.66+/-0.51, P<0.05), and the CTG/CTG haplotype pairs carriers had the highest Olive TM (0.69+/-1.01), and no CTG haplotype carriers had the lowest Olive TM (0.25+/-0.80), and the difference was borderline (P=0.08). The gene polymorphism at ERCC4 gene has no effects on the DNA damage of lymphocytes in coke oven workers, but the TG genotype carriers has lower DNA damage in the control. DNA damage is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

  4. Cell cycle association and hypoxia regulation of excision repair cross complementation group 1 protein (ERCC1) in tumor cells of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Dudás, József; Schartinger, Volker H; Romani, Angela; Schweigl, Gabriele; Kordsmeyer, Kristian; Marta, Patricia Irina; Url, Christoph; Kral, Florian; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a key component of homologous recombination-based repair of interstrand DNA cross-links (ICLs). As a consequence, ERCC1 mediates resistance to mitomycin C (MMC) and platinum chemotherapeutic agents and may predict treatment failure. Clinical response to MMC or cisplatin (CDDP)-based radiochemotherapy (RCT) was assessed in 106 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and correlated with cell nuclear immunoreactivity of the mouse monoclonal (clone: 8 F1) ERCC1 antibody in tumor tissue samples. BEAS-2B epithelial and Detroit 562 pharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells were treated with CDDP, MMC, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at 50 % growth inhibitory (IC-50) concentrations. ERCC1 protein synthesis was compared with cell cycle distribution using combined immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. ERCC1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was investigated in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in Detroit 562 cells. Clinically, the nonresponder revealed significantly lower HNSCC tissue ERCC1 immunoreactivity than the responder (p = 0.0064) or control normal mucosa, which led to further mechanistic investigations. In vitro, control cells and cells treated with cytotoxic agents showed increasing ERCC1 levels from the G1 through S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. In CDDP-treated cells, ERCC1 mRNA and protein expression increased. Under hypoxic conditions, ERCC1 gene expression significantly decreased. Although ERCC1(+) cells show increased chemoresistance, they might be particularly radiosensitive, representing G2 cell cycle phase and less hypoxic. ERCC1 expression might be indirectly related with some conditions important for RCT treatment, but it is not a clear predictor for its failure in HNSCC patients.

  5. Association between x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) genetic polymorphisms and papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Huo, Meiling; Sun, Yong; Wu, Hongyan; Chen, Hongqiang; Wang, Yulong; Fu, Rongzhan

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a predominant type of thyroid cancer. Ionizing radiation is the only well-established risk factor and may result in double-strand breaks. The x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene plays a vital role in DNA repair through homologous recombination. We aimed at investigating the association between XRCC3 genetic polymorphisms and PTC susceptibility. Eighty-three PTC patients and 367 controls in a Chinese population were enrolled in the study. Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by HaploView 4.2 software. Genomic DNAs were isolated from peripheral blood samples by using TaqMan Blood DNA kits. The genotyping of XRCC3 SNPs was performed by TaqMan SNPs genotyping assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between XRCC3 SNPs and PTC susceptibility. The statistical analyses were conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Four tag-SNPs were initially identified by HaploView 4.2 software. Only one SNP (rs861539) was shown to be significantly associated with increased risk of PTC. There was a significant difference in smoking and drinking status between PTC cases and controls. And the stratified analysis suggested that the polymorphisms of rs861539 in XRCC3 were correlated with PTC risk in the four subgroups of smokers (ex-smokers included), non-smokers, drinkers (ex-drinkers included), and non-drinkers. The meta-analysis showed that only two studies reported a significant association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and PTC risk. In this study, we find a significant association between rs861539 polymorphisms and PTC susceptibility. However, there were inconsistent results in previous published studies. Therefore, further studies in a large population are required to gain insights into the PTC risk conferred by XRCC3 SNPs.

  6. X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) genetic polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk: a huge systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Liu, Fei; Tan, Shi-Qiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Shang-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between X-ray repair cross-complementation group 1(XRCC1) polymorphisms and cervical cancer (CC) risk has provided inconsistent results. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the XRCC1 gene Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp, Arg280His polymorphisms and risk of CC. Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, CNKI, and Chinese Biomedicine Databases for studies published before March 2011.Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for XRCC1 polymorphisms and CC were calculated in a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model when appropriate. Ultimately, 9, 5 and 2 studies were found to be eligible for meta-analyses of Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp and Arg280His, respectively. Our analysis suggested that the variant genotypes of Arg194Trp were associated with a significantly increased CC risk (Trp/Trp vs Arg/Arg, OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.60-3.06; Arg/Trp vs Arg/Arg, OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02-1.49; dominant model, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14-1.63; recessive model, OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.51-2.82). For Arg280His polymorphism, no obvious associations were found for all genetic models. For Arg399Gln polymorphism, also no obvious associations were found for all genetic models. In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity/country, a significantly increased risk was observed among Asian, especially among Chinese. To get more precise evidences, adjusted ORs (95%CI) by potential confounders (such as age, ethnicity or smoking, etc) were also calculated for XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp, however, the estimated pooled adjusted OR still did not change at all. This meta-analysis suggests that Arg194Trp polymorphism may be associated with CC risk, Arg399Gln polymorphism might be a low-penetrent risk factor for CC only in Asians, and there may be no association between Arg280His polymorphism and CC risk.

  7. Association between codon 399 polymorphism in the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene and risk of prostate cancer in Asians: A study of 4,479 cases and 4,281 controls

    PubMed Central

    Yuanyuan, Mi; Xiaoming, You; Lijie, Zhu; Ninghan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The polymorphism in codon 399 of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene may subtly alter structure of DNA repair enzymes and modulate the repair capacity. Impaired DNA repair can lead to the development of cancers such as prostate cancer (PCA). Although the association between the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism and PCA risk has been extensively reported, the results have been ambiguous. Methods: We conducted an updated analysis of 18 case–control studies to determine the association between the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism and PCA risk. We performed a literature search of the PubMed database to identify all eligible articles that reported this association. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were evaluated to assess the association. Results: Significant associations between PCA risk and XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism were found (such as A-allele vs. G-allele: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01–1.23). Moreover, subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed similar significant associations in Asians (such as AA vs. GG: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.19–1.97). Egger’s test did not reveal the presence of a publication bias. Conclusions: Our updated analysis provides evidence for significant association between XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism and PCA risk. Further carefully designed studies should be performed. PMID:26649000

  8. Association of Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln Polymorphisms in X-ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 Gene and Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Fayaz, Shima; Ghanbarzadeh, Bahareh; Saidi, Parinaz; Mohabati, Reyhaneh; Bidoki, Seyed Kazem; Majdi, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Background: X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene is a DNA repair gene and its non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may influence DNA repair capacity which has been considered as a modifying risk factor for cancer development. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to investigate impact of three frequently studied polymorphisms (Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln) on developing differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Results: Increased risks for DTC were shown in homozygous (odds ratio [OR]: 3.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-35.60) and in dominant trait (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.64-2.32) of Arg194Trp genotype. Also, for Arg280His genotype, an increased risk for DTC was shown in dominant trait (OR: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-2.68), while a mildly reduction of risk for DTC (OR: 0.77, 95% [CI]: 0.50-1.17) was estimated in dominant Gln genotype of Arg399Gln. Considering combinatory effects of Arg194Trp and Arg280His genotypes on DTC, the calculated OR and 95% CI for being heterozygous for one of Arg194Trp or Arg280His genotypes were 1.57 and 0.90-2.74, respectively. Conclusion: Genotyping of codons 194, 280 and 399 in XRCC1 gene may use in risk assessment of DTC. PMID:21987112

  9. Association between the Thr241Met polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 gene and glioma risk: evidence from a meta-analysis based on 4,136 cases and 5,233 controls.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Kou, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met has been implicated to alter the risk of glioma, but the results are controversial. Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were independently searched by two investigators up to 13 July 2013. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for Thr241Met polymorphism and prostate cancer were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with the software program Stata 12.0. A total of 10 independent studies, including 4,136 cases and 5,233 controls, were identified. Our analysis suggested that Thr241Met was not associated with glioma risk in overall population. In the subgroup analysis, we detected no significant association between Thr241Met polymorphism and glioma risk in different descent populations. Subgroup analysis was held by source of controls, significant association was found between this polymorphism and glioma risk for population-based studies (homozygote model: OR = 1.747, 95% CI = 1.123-2.717, Ph = 0.059, I(2) = 59.7%; recessive model, OR = 1.455, 95% CI = 1.179-1.795, Ph = 0.111, I(2) = 50.1%; allele model, OR = 1.258, 95% CI = 1.010-1.566, Ph = 0.011, I(2) = 72.9%). This meta-analysis showed the evidence that XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism was associated with a low risk of glioma development.

  10. Relationship between glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (5,10-MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and response to chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mei; Xu, Bin; Jiang, Jing-Ting; Wu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Wei-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Wu, Chang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (5,10-MTHFR) and X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene polymorphisms and the response to chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. 59 cases of advanced gastric cancer were enrolled. All patients were treated with the DCF regimen comprising docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil. All patients' genotypes regarding GSTP1, XRCC1, and 5,10-MTHFR were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR). There were 15 (25.42%) cases of G/G genotype, 21 (35.59%) of G/A genotype, and 23 (38.98%) of A/A genotype for GSTP1, 16 (27.12%) cases of A/A genotype, 18 (30.51%) of G/A genotype, and 25 (42.37%) of G/G genotype for XRCC1, and 21 (35.59%) cases of C/C genotype, 22 (37.29%) of C/T genotype, and 16 (27.12%) of T/T genotype for 5,10-MTHFR. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, there were 4 cases of complete remission, 14 of partial remission, 19 of stable disease, and 22 of advanced disease, with a total effective rate of 30.51%. Better survival was shown for GSTP1 G/G genotype, XRCC1 A/A genotype, and 5,10-MTHFR T/T genotype (p < 0.05). The gene polymorphisms of GSTP1 G/G, XRCC1 A/A, and 5,10-MTHFR T/T have clinical value for predicting the response to the DCF regimen for advanced gastric cancer. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. The prognostic and predictive value of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) protein in 1288 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with platinum-based therapy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bišof, Vesna; Zajc Petranović, Matea; Rakušić, Zoran; Samardžić, Kristina Ruža; Juretić, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) protein has been extensively investigated as a prognostic and predictive factor for platinum-based treatment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) but with inconsistent results. We performed the present meta-analysis to better elucidate this issue in advanced HNSCC. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases. The inclusion criteria were head and neck cancer patients with platinum-based treatment and evaluation of the correlation between ERCC1 expression and clinical outcomes [objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), both unadjusted and adjusted estimates]. In high vs. low pooled analyses, high ERCC1 expression was associated with unfavorable OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18-3.21, p = 0.009], PFS (HR = 2.39, 95 % CI 1.74-3.28, p = 0.000) and ORR (odds ratio = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.23-0.98, p = 0.044). In the subgroup analysis of adjusted OS estimates, ERCC1 was a predictor of shorter survival in Asians (HR = 3.13, 95 % CI 2.09-4.70, p = 0.000) and Caucasians (HR = 2.02, 95 % CI 1.32-3.07, p = 0.001) but of longer survival in South Americans (HR = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.07-0.40, p = 0.000). Immunohistochemistry proved to be of predictive value irrespective of used antibody (p = 0.009). In the stratified analysis according to the tumor site, ERCC1 expression was associated with OS in nasopharyngeal cancer (HR = 2.72, 95 % CI 1.79-4.13, p = 0.000). ERCC1 has a potential to become predictive and prognostic factor enabling treatment tailoring in HNSCC patients.

  12. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  13. Curcumin downregulates p38 MAPK-dependent X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 (XRCC1) expression to enhance cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chen, Wen-Ching; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chang, Po-Yuan; Liao, Kai-Sheng; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Cisplatin is a well-studied and widely used chemotherapeutic agent and is effective in the treatment of the advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Curcumin is a yellow pigment derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has been proved to have antioxidant and antitumor properties. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein involved in base excision repair and plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. In this study, we characterize the role of curcumin in the cytotoxicity, p38 MAPK activation, and XRCC1 expression affected by cisplatin in NSCLC cells. We show that curcumin enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with cisplatin alone increased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through p38 MAPK activation. Moreover, SB2023580 (p38 inhibitor) decreased the XRCC1 mRNA and protein stability upon cisplatin treatment. Knockdown of XRCC1 in NSCLC cells by transfection of XRCC1 siRNA or inactivation of p38 MAPK resulted in enhancing the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition induced by cisplatin. Curcumin inhibited the expression of XRCC1 in cisplatin-exposed NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK6 or HA-p38 MAPK vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level and also the cell survival suppressed by cisplatin and curcumin combination in A549 and H1703 cells. These findings suggested that the downregulation of XRCC1 expression by curcumin can enhance the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells.

  14. X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 and 3 polymorphisms and susceptibility of breast cancer in a Jordanian population

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Mazhar S. Al

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate the contribution of x-ray repair cross-complementing (XRCC) protein 1 399Gln, XRCC3 241M, and XRCC3-5’-UTR polymorphisms to the susceptibility of breast cancer (BC) in a Jordanian population. Methods: Forty-six formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples from BC diagnosed female patients, and 31 samples from the control group were subjected to DNA sequencing. Samples were collected between September 2013 and December 2014. Results: The XRCC1 Arg399Gln genotype did not exhibit any significant correlation with the susceptibility of BC (odds ratio [OR]=1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60-3.51) (p=0.47). Likewise, XRCC3 M241T genotype did not show significant correlation with BC (OR=2.02, 95% CI: 0.50-8.21) (p=0.40). However, distribution of XRCC3-5’UTR (rs1799794 A/G) genotype showed a significant difference between the patient and control group (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.06-8.46) (p=0.02). Conclusion: The XRCC3-5’UTR (rs1799794) G allele frequency was higher in cancer patients while XRCC1 (rs25487) and XRCC3 (rs861539) did not show any significant correlation with susceptibility of BC in the selected Jordanian population. Contribution of other environmental factors should be studied in future works, as well as the response of cancer therapy. PMID:26446325

  15. Clinicopathologic Significance of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation 1 Expression in Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Sharad; Yang Qifeng

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays a rate-limiting role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and is associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in cancers of the head and neck and the lung. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of ERCC1 expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: Paraffin specimens from 504 women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy were constructed into tissue microarrays. The array was stained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and ERCC1. This was then correlated with clinicopathologic factors and outcomes data. Results: ERCC-1 expression was evaluable in 366 cases (72%). In this group, 32% and 38% of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, respectively. Increased ERCC-1 expression was found to be correlated with ER positivity (p < 0.005), lower T stage (p < 0.017), nodal negativity (p < 0.013), age >50 (p < 0.006), reduced use of adjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.02), and increased use of adjuvant hormonal therapy (p < 0.004). ERCC1 expression did not correlate with locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, cause-specific survival, or overall survival. In patients who were both ERCC1-negative and -positive, the use of chemotherapy predicted for worse distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.07, respectively) but not cause-specific survival or overall survival. Conclusions: Although ERCC1 expression did not predict for outcome measures in this dataset, overexpression correlated with favorable prognostic factors such as ER positivity, lower T stage, nodal negativity, and age >50. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating ERCC1 expression in patients receiving adjuvant radiation

  16. Association Between X-Ray Cross-complementing Group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met Polymorphism and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenying; Wu, Guiqi; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-21

    BACKGROUND The X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene encodes a protein that plays an important role in homologous recombination repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand break (DSB). Increasing attention has been drawn to the association of XRCC3 T241M polymorphism with various types of human cancers. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate whether there is an association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and thyroid cancer risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS A comprehensive search was conducted and a total of 8 studies that covered 963 thyroid cancer cases and 1942 controls were included in this analysis. The meta-analysis was performed on both overall database and 2 ethnic subgroups (Caucasian and Asian). The fixed-effects model was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The publication bias was evaluated using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test. RESULTS A positive association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and thyroid cancer risk was found by the analyses of the overall database using both recessive model (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.08-1.81, P=0.012) and homozygote comparison (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.07-1.86, P=0.015), but not by that using the dominant model (OR=1.12, 95% CI=0.95-1.33, P=0.18). However, no significant association of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with the risk of thyroid cancer was found in individual ethnic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in the overall population, while no significant association was observed in individual ethnic subgroups due to limited population size.

  17. The association between four SNPs of X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 and the sensitivity to radiotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YAOHONG; LUO, ZHAOYUN; YANG, LIYE; CHEN, SENMING; CHEN, CHUZHI; LIN, ZHIXIONG

    2016-01-01

    Early stage diagnosis and therapeutic outcomes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma remain poor. In order to evaluate the association between 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and the sensitivity to radiotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the present study identified 4 SNPs of XRCC1 and evaluated the distribution of these genotypes among patients with ESCC. Venous blood samples from 175 patients with ESCC were collected and DNA was extracted. The 4 SNPs of the XRCC1 gene fragment were amplified using three primer pairs, which were sequenced. The mismatches were analyzed and identified using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. The sensitivity to radiotherapy was graded as effective and non-effective, according to the treatment results of the patients. The present study successfully amplified and sequenced 4 SNPs of XRCC1 in 112 out of the 175 patients with ESCC. The effective response rate of radiotherapy was 84.8% among the 112 patients. The effective response rate of patients with no mutation in the SNPs was 74.3%, and the rate increased to 89.6% in patients that had ≥1 mutation out of the 4 SNPs (χ2=4.389; P=0.036). For G28152A and G28152A mutations the effective response rate of patients was 91.2% (χ2=4.014; P=0.045) and 91.5% (χ2=4.451; P=0.035), respectively, which was significantly different compared to patients with no mutation (P=0.045 and P=0.035, respectively). The present results suggest that the 4 SNPs of XRCC1 are associated with the effective response rate of radiotherapy in patients with ESCC. The mutation of SNP G28152A was particularly important and may be a potential genomic predictor for radiotherapy sensitivity in patients with ESCC. PMID:27123143

  18. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) expression in esophageal cancers and response to cisplatin and irinotecan based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bharthuar, Anubha; Black, Jennifer D.; Levea, Charles; Malhotra, Usha; Mashtare, Terry L.; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer patients face a dismal outcome despite tri-modality management and median survival remains 15-18 months. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux protein associated with chemotherapy resistance. The role of BCRP expression in esophageal cancer and normal esophageal cells is not known. Excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) overexpression has been correlated with poorer response to cisplatin based chemotherapy. We examined the expression of BCRP and ERCC1 in patients with esophageal cancer and correlated it with survival in patients receiving irinotecan and cisplatin based chemotherapy. Methods With IRB approval, 40 cases of esophageal cancer diagnosed from 2004-2008, were stained for BCRP and ERCC1 expression by immunohistochemistry and scored by a pathologist blinded to clinical data. Baseline demographics, therapy given and survival data were collected and correlated with BCRP and ERCC1 expression. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine association between BCRP and ERCC1 expression and demographics. Cox proportional hazards model was used for association of BCRP and ERCC1 with survival. Results On immunohistochemistry, 30/40 cancers (75%) expressed BCRP. Interestingly, down-regulation of BCRP expression in tumor compared with normal cells was seen in 40% of patients. ERCC1 positivity was seen in 15/30 cases (50%). Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months with no difference in survival between BCRP positive and negative patients (P=0.13) or ERCC1 positive and negative patients (P=0.85). Estimated hazard ratio (HR) of death for BRCP positive patients was 2.29 (95% CI: 0.79-6.64) and for ERCC1 positive patients was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.46-2.56). There was no association of BCRP and ERCC1 expression with disease stage, age, gender or histology. For patients who received cisplatin and irinotecan as first line chemotherapy, there was no difference in survival based on BCRP or ERCC1 status. Conclusions BCRP

  19. X-Ray Cross-Complementing Group 1 and Thymidylate Synthase Polymorphisms Might Predict Response to Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lamas, Maria J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: 5-Fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy before total mesorectal excision is currently the standard treatment of Stage II and III rectal cancer patients. We used known predictive pharmacogenetic biomarkers to identify the responders to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in our series. Methods and Materials: A total of 93 Stage II-III rectal cancer patients were genotyped using peripheral blood samples. The genes analyzed were X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), ERCC1, MTHFR, EGFR, DPYD, and TYMS. The patients were treated with 225 mg/m{sup 2}/d continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil concomitantly with radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) followed by total mesorectal excision. The outcomes were measured by tumor regression grade (TRG) as a major response (TRG 1 and TRG 2) or as a poor response (TRG3, TRG4, and TRG5). Results: The major histopathologic response rate was 47.3%. XRCC1 G/G carriers had a greater probability of response than G/A carriers (odds ratio, 4.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-10.74, p = .003) Patients with polymorphisms associated with high expression of thymidylate synthase (2R/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G) showed a greater pathologic response rate compared with carriers of low expression (odds ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.39, p = .02) No significant differences were seen in the response according to EGFR, ERCC1, MTHFR{sub C}677 and MTHFR{sub A}1298 expression. Conclusions: XRCC1 G/G and thymidylate synthase (2R/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G) are independent factors of a major response. Germline thymidylate synthase and XRCC1 polymorphisms might be useful as predictive markers of rectal tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil.

  20. Correction of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D mutant cell phenotypes by chromosome and gene transfer: Involvement of the human ERCC2 DNA repair gene

    SciTech Connect

    Flejter, W.L.; McDaniel, L.D.; Johns, D.; Schultz, R.A. ); Friedberg, E.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Cultured cells from individuals afflicted with the genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) exhibit sensitivity to UV radiation and defective nucleotide excision repair. Complementation of these mutant phenotypes after the introduction of single human chromosomes from repair-proficient cells into XP cells has provided a means of mapping the genes involved in this disease. The authors now report the phenotypic correction of XP cells from genetic complementation group D (XP-D) by a single human chromosome designated Tneo. Detailed molecular characterization of Tneo revealed a rearranged structure involving human chromosomes 16 and 19, including the excision repair cross-complementing 2 (ERCC2) gene from the previously described human DNA repair gene cluster at 19q13.2-q13.3. Direct transfer of a cosmid bearing the ERCC2 gene conferred UV resistance to XP-D cells.

  1. Prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Tongshan; Xu, Jun; Chen, WenJiao; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) in patients with gastric cancer undergoing surgery and platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluate XRCC1 protein expression profiles on surgical specimens of 612 gastric cancer patients. The relationship between XRCC1 expression and existing prognostic factors, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results Among 612 patients staged Ⅱ/Ⅲ in our study, 182 (29.74%) were evaluated as XRCC1 IHC positive. XRCC1 expression was not significantly related to OS (P = 0.347) or DFS (P = 0.297). Compared with surgery only, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved the OS (P = 0.031). And the patients with negative XRCC1 expression benefited more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.049). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size, T category, N category, vascular or nerve invasion and platinum-based chemotherapy were good prognostic factors for OS (P < 0.05). Though XRCC1 plays an important role in DNA repair pathways, no significant relationship is found in XRCC1 expression and OS among gastric cancer in our study. Conclusions XRCC1 might be an alternative prognostic marker for the patients of gastric cancer after radical resection. The patients with negative XRCC1 expression can benefit more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27478321

  2. Association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene polymorphisms and glioma risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on 22 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiqiang; Chen, Qianxue; Liu, Baohui; Yang, Jian; Shao, Lingmin; Wu, Tingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Glioma is the most common central nervous system tumor. This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed to systematically assess the association of XRCC1 polymorphisms with the risk of glioma. Methods: Such databases as EMbase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) platforms, VIP and WanFang were searched up to April 2015 to collect case-control studies of association between XRCC1 polymorphisms and glioma. Data were extracted and meta-analysis was conducted by using Stata 12.0 softwares. Results: A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 18503 glioma patients and 24367 controls. The overall data indicated that XRCC1 Arg194Trp (C>T) polymorphism significantly increased glioma risk (allele C versus T: OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55-0.93, CC versus TT: OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.46-0.67; CC versus CT+TT: OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.45-0.91 and CC+CT vs. TT: OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.51-0.74), especially in Asia ethnicity. XRCC1 Arg280His (G>A) polymorphism has no association with glioma (allele G versus A: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.83-1.22; GG versus AA: OR=1.07, 95% CI=0.66-1.75; GA versus AA: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.77-1.32; GG versus GA+AA: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.84-1.22 and GG+GT versus AA: OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.67-1.69). XRCC1 Arg399Gln (G>A) polymorphism will significantly increase glioma risk in Asian (allele G versus A: OR=0.78, 95% CI= 0.72-0.84; GG versus AA: OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.47-0.66; GA versus AA OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.59-0.84; GG versus GA+AA: OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.68-0.84 and GG+GA vs. AA: OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.53-0.73) but not Caucasian ethnicity. XRCC1 Pro161Leu (C>T), Leu387Leu (G>A), Pro602Thr (C>A), Ser593Arg (C>G) and Glu491Lys (G>A) polymorphisms increased glioma risk in different degrees. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested that XRCC1 Arg194Trp and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (G>A) polymorphisms led to susceptibility to glioma in Asian but not Caucasian population. XRCC1 Glu491Lys (G>A), Pro161Leu (C>T), Leu387Leu (G>A), Pro602Thr (C>A), Thr304Ala (A>G) and Ser593Arg (C>G) polymorphisms will increase glioma risk. However, XRCC1 Arg280His (G>A) is irrelevant to the increased or decreased glioma risk. PMID:26550099

  3. Localization of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein and replication protein A on damaged DNA in nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Krasikova, Yuliya S.; Rechkunova, Nadejda I.; Maltseva, Ekaterina A.; Petruseva, Irina O.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) and replication protein A (RPA) with damaged DNA in nucleotide excision repair (NER) was studied using model dsDNA and bubble-DNA structure with 5-{3-[6-(carboxyamido-fluoresceinyl)amidocapromoyl]allyl}-dUMP lesions in one strand and containing photoreactive 5-iodo-dUMP residues in defined positions. Interactions of XPA and RPA with damaged and undamaged DNA strands were investigated by DNA–protein photocrosslinking and gel shift analysis. XPA showed two maximums of crosslinking intensities located on the 5′-side from a lesion. RPA mainly localized on undamaged strand of damaged DNA duplex and damaged bubble-DNA structure. These results presented for the first time the direct evidence for the localization of XPA in the 5′-side of the lesion and suggested the key role of XPA orientation in conjunction with RPA binding to undamaged strand for the positioning of the NER preincision complex. The findings supported the mechanism of loading of the heterodimer consisting of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum group F proteins by XPA on the 5′-side from the lesion before damaged strand incision. Importantly, the proper orientation of XPA and RPA in the stage of preincision was achieved in the absence of TFIIH and XPG. PMID:20693538

  4. Group Task Force on Satellite Rescue and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Group Task Force was chartered by the Administrator of NASA to recommend 'a policy outlining the criteria, the design standards, and the pricing model to guide NASA in assessing the responsibilities for government and nongovernment Satellite Rescue and Repair Missions.' Criteria for accepting such missions, risks, and benefits to all sectors of our economy involved in satellite services, adequacy of planning and training, and the impact on NASA's primary mission were reviewed. The Group began by asking a more fundamental question; is satellite rescue and repair a logical element of NASA's mission? Factors considered were: (1) the probability of rescue or repair opportunities arising; (2) the economic justification for such attempts; (3) the benefits to NASA, both from such ad hoc learning experiences in space operations and the impact on the public perception of NASA; (4) the effect of such unanticipated missions on NASA's scheduled activities; (5) any potential effect on NASA's technical capability to work in space; and (6) any potential effect on U.S. economic competitiveness.

  5. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology of urinary bladder but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy; Wolf, Douglas C; Sen, Banalata; Knapp, Geremy W; Holladay, Steven D; Huckle, William R; Caceci, Thomas; Robertson, John L

    2009-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In F344 rats, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]) increases transitional cell carcinoma. Arsenic-induced inhibition of DNA repair has been reported in cultured cell lines and in lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed humans, but it has not been studied in urinary bladder. Should inhibition of DNA damage repair in transitional epithelium occur, it may contribute to carcinogenesis or cocarcinogenesis. We investigated morphology and expression of DNA repair genes in F344 rat transitional cells following up to 100 ppm DMA(V) in drinking water for four weeks. Mitochondria were very sensitive to DMA(V), and swollen mitochondria appeared to be the main source of vacuoles in the transitional epithelium. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT PCR) showed the mRNA levels of tested DNA repair genes, ataxia telangectasia mutant (ATM), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), excision repair cross-complementing group 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB), and DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta), were not altered by DMA(V). These data suggested that either DMA(V) does not affect DNA repair in the bladder or DMA(V) affects DNA repair without affecting baseline mRNA levels of repair genes. The possibility remains that DMA(V) may lower damage-induced increases in repair gene expression or cause post-translational modification of repair enzymes.

  6. DNA repair in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum group A fibroblasts following treatment with various methanesulfonates and the demonstration of a long-patch repair component

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.D.; Regan, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Excision repair of DNA in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A fibroblasts were examined following treatment with methyl-, ethyl-, and isopropyl methanesulfonate. Studies utilizing repair synthesis methods and inhibition with arabinofuranosyl cytosine revealed two distinct phases of repair; one commencing and terminating within the first 3-5 h after the treatment, and a second much longer phase extending from 9-35 h post-treatment. Both phases of repair have a long-patch component, which establishes for the first time the existence of this mode of repair in response to alkane sulfonate damage. While xeroderma cells display somewhat fewer alkaline labile sites in their DNA following alkylation treatment than do their normal counterparts, researchers are unable to demonstrate a deficiency of these cells in either of the two phases of repair.

  7. Excision repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group C cells is regulated differently in transformed cells and primary fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1988-10-14

    Excision repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group C cells occurs at about 20-30% of normal levels. In confluent fibroblasts a unique characteristic of this low repair is that it is clustered, representing very efficient repair in a small region of the genome. In SV40-transformed fibroblasts and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes of complementation group C, however, excision repair is randomly distributed. This may be a consequence of the high rate of proliferation of both of these cell types, because random repair is also observed in rapidly proliferating group C fibroblasts. The distribution of sites that can be mended in group C cells, therefore, varies according to the transformed and proliferative state of the cells, demonstrating that transformed cells do not always exhibit repair characteristics identical to those of primary fibroblasts.

  8. Excision repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group C but not group D is clustered in a small fraction of the total genome.

    PubMed

    Karentz, D; Cleaver, J E

    1986-05-01

    DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups C and D occurs at a low level. Measurements of pyrimidine dimers remaining in bulk DNA from the whole genome indicated very little excision in either complementation group. The repair sites in group C cells were, however, clustered together in small regions of the genome which appeared to be mended nearly as efficiently as the whole genome is mended in normal cells, while repair in group D cells was randomly distributed. Growth of normal cells in cycloheximide or 3-aminobenzamide neither inhibited repair nor altered the distribution of repair sites. Growth of normal cells in novobiocin or aphidicolin inhibited excision but repair remained randomly distributed. On the basis of these observations, and consideration of other cellular features of group C and D, we suggest that group C may represent a mutation which results in a low level of repair enzymes with normal function. Group D, on the other hand, may represent a mutation resulting in functionally defective repair enzymes.

  9. Correction of the DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum group E by injection of a DNA damage-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, S.; Brody, T.; Linn, S.; Eker, A.P.M.; Vermeulen, W.; Bootsma, D.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.

    1994-04-26

    Cells from a subset of patients with the DNA-repair-defective disease xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) are known to lack a DNA damage-binding (DDB) activity. Purified human DDB protein was injected into XP-E cells to test whether the DNA-repair defect in these cells is caused by a defect in DDB activity. Injected DDB protein stimulated DNA repair to normal levels in those strains that lack the DDB activity but did not stimulate repair in cells from other xeroderma pigmentosum groups or in XP-E cells that contain the activity. These results provide direct evidence that defective DDB activity causes the repair defect in a subset of XP-E patients, which in turn establishes a role for this activity in nucleotide-excision repair in vivo.

  10. Repair of Alkylation Damage: Stability of Methyl Groups in Bacillus subtilis Treated with Methyl Methanesulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Louise; Strauss, Bernard

    1970-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis was not inactivated and was able to replicate even though approximately 3 × 104 methyl groups added by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) were bound to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of each organism. No significant loss of methyl groups from the DNA occurred for several generations upon incubation of methylated wild-type or MMS-sensitive cells. Single-strand breaks were not observed in the DNA from cells treated at this low MMS dose. Higher doses of MMS resulted in significant killing of both wild-type and MMS-sensitive strains, and the DNA extracted from such treated cells sedimented more slowly than control DNA through alkaline sucrose gradients, indicating the presence of breaks or apurinic sites (or both). These breaks were repaired upon incubation of wild-type but not of MMS-sensitive strains. Repair of damage induced by alkylating agents is probably the repair of breaks which occur as a consequence of high levels of alkylation. PMID:4988041

  11. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, medical exposure to ionizing radiation, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Player, Jon S; Decotret, Allan Rene; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Temitope

    2005-10-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to determine whether polymorphisms in DNA repair genes modify the association between breast cancer risk and exposure to ionizing radiation. Self-reported exposure to ionizing radiation from medical sources was evaluated as part of a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer in African-American (894 cases and 788 controls) and White (1,417 cases and 1,234 controls) women. Genotyping was conducted for polymorphisms in four genes involved in repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, the double-strand break repair pathway: X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) codon 241 Thr/Met, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) codon 185 Glu/Gln, X-ray cross-complementing group 2 (XRCC2) codon 188 Arg/His, and breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCH2) codon 372 Asn/His. Allele and genotype frequencies were not significantly different in cases compared with controls for all four genetic polymorphisms, and odds ratios for breast cancer were close to the null. Combining women with two, three, and four variant genotypes, a positive association was observed between breast cancer and number of lifetime mammograms (P(trend) < 0.0001). No association was observed among women with zero or one variant genotype (P = 0.86). Odds ratios for radiation treatments to the chest and number of lifetime chest X-rays were slightly elevated but not statistically significant among women with two to four variant genotypes. The study has several limitations, including inability to distinguish between diagnostic and screening mammograms or reliably classify prediagnostic mammograms and chest X-rays in cases. Prospective studies are needed to address whether common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes modify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure from medical sources.

  12. Clinical characteristics, DNA repair, and complementation groups in xeroderma pigmentosum patients from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hashem, N; Bootsma, D; Keijzer, W; Greene, A; Coriell, L; Thomas, G; Cleaver, J E

    1980-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) has been reported to be unusually frequent among Middle Eastern populations. This report describes the first survey of DNA repair characteristics among Egyptians. Sixteen XP patients were contacted, and biopsies from eight were analyzed for unscheduled DNA synthesis, strand breakage during pyrimidine dimer excision, and complementation groups. The patients were equally distributed between Complementation Groups A and C. Unscheduled synthesis and strand breaks were significantly higher in Group C than in Group A cells. Central nervous system disorders were found in all of the Group A patients and in none of the Group C patients. No clinical symptoms were observed in the heterozygotes. A 2-month-old sib of an XP patient was free of symptoms, but unscheduled synthesis and strand breakage in cultures from this sib were the same as in the related XP homozygote. From the relative frequencies of each complementation group found in various parts of the world, we offer a hypothesis concerning the relative sizes and roles for gene products specified by the alleles or genes corresponding to each complementation group.

  13. Thoracoscopic Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula Repair: The First Iranian Group Report, Passing the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Shojaeian, Reza; Joodi, Marjan; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Sabzevari, Alireza; Yal, Nazila; Eslami, Reza; Mohammadipour, Ahmad; Azadmand, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracoscopic treatment of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA+TEF) is accepted as a superior technique at least in cosmetic point of view but it is considered as an advance endoscopic procedure that needs a learning curve to be performed perfectly. This is the first report of Iranian group pediatric surgeons in thoracoscopic approach to EA. Methods and Materials: Since 2010, twenty four cases with EA+TEF underwent thoracoscopic approach in Sarvar Children Hospital (Mashhad -Iran). During the first 6 months, thoracoscopic approach to 6 cases of EA+TEF was converted to open procedure because of technical and instrumental problems. The first case of successful thoracoscopic EA repair was accomplished in 2010 and since then, 10 cases of EA+ TEF among 18 patients were treated successfully with thoracoscopic approach Results: Overall conversion rate was 58.3% but conversion rate after the primary learning curve period, was 35.7%. The main conversion causes include difficulties in esophageal anastomosis, limited exposure and deteriorating the patient's condition. Anastomotic leak and stenosis were observed in 20% and 40% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 4.2%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia seems feasible and safe with considerable superiorities to the conventional method although acceptable results needs a prolonged learning curve and advanced endoscopic surgical skill. Clear judgment about the best surgical intervention for EA according to all cosmetic and functional outcomes needs further studies. PMID:27471677

  14. SUMOylation of xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein regulates DNA damage recognition during nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Masaki; Tak, Yon-Soo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Syota; Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Nishi, Ryotaro; Saitoh, Hisato; Iwai, Shigenori; Mori, Toshio; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Wataru; Hanaoka, Fumio; Sugasawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein complex is a key factor that detects DNA damage and initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. Although biochemical and structural studies have elucidated the interaction of XPC with damaged DNA, the mechanism of its regulation in vivo remains to be understood in more details. Here, we show that the XPC protein undergoes modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins and the lack of this modification compromises the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions. In the absence of SUMOylation, XPC is normally recruited to the sites with photolesions, but then immobilized profoundly by the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) complex. Since the absence of UV-DDB alleviates the NER defect caused by impaired SUMOylation of XPC, we propose that this modification is critical for functional interactions of XPC with UV-DDB, which facilitate the efficient damage handover between the two damage recognition factors and subsequent initiation of NER. PMID:26042670

  15. Genetic correction of DNA repair-deficient/cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum group C keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Arnaudeau-Bégard, Catherine; Brellier, Florence; Chevallier-Lagente, Odile; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Bernerd, Françoise; Sarasin, Alain; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2003-07-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare photosensitive and cancer-prone syndrome transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Most cancers developed by XP patients are basal and squamous cell carcinoma strikingly restricted to sun-exposed parts of the skin. Cells from patients with classic XP are deficient in nucleotide excision repair, a versatile biochemical mechanism for removal of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions. Among the seven classic XP complementation groups known to date (XP-A to XP-G), XP-C is the most common one in Europe and North Africa and XP-C patients remain free of neurologic problems often seen in other XP complementation groups. This has prompted us to undertake genetic correction of XP-C fibroblasts and particularly keratinocytes, which are the most relevant cells in relation to skin cancer and have proven recently to be capable of reconstructing XP-C skin in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that DNA repair capacity, cell survival properties, and transition from proliferative to abortive keratinocyte colonies toward UVB irradiation can be fully recovered in keratinocytes from patients with XPC transduced with a retroviral vector stably driving the expression of the wild-type XPC protein. In addition, we show that in the absence of UV, XP-C keratinocytes exhibit intrinsic cell cycle abnormalities, and beta(1)-integrin overexpression, defects that are also both fully reversed after genetic correction. Together with full correction of the defects in XP-C corrected keratinocytes, in vitro reconstruction of skin from these cells open a rational perspective to XP tissue therapy.

  16. Contribution of DNA Repair Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Genotypes to Colorectal Cancer Risk in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Shin; Yueh, Te-Cheng; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Ji, Hong-Xue; Wu, Cheng-Nan; Wang, Shou-Cheng; Lai, Yi-Liang; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsieh, Ming-Hao; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Hung, Yi-Wen; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Bau, Da-Tian

    2016-04-01

    It has been previously proposed that genetic variations on DNA repair genes confer susceptibility to cancer and the DNA repair gene Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D (XPD) is thought to play the role of a helicase during excision repair and transcription. We investigated three genotypes of XPD, at promoter -114 (rs3810366), Asp312Asn (rs1799793) and Lys751Gln (rs13181), regarding their association with colorectal cancer susceptibility in a Taiwanese population. In total, 362 patients with colorectal cancer and 362 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and their XPD genotypes' association with colorectal cancer risk was investigated. The genotypes of XPD Asp312Asn (p=0.2493), Lys751Gln (p=0.7547) and promoter -114 (p=0.8702), were not associated with susceptibility for colorectal cancer. The Chi-square test revealed that the variant alleles of XPD Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln and promoter -114 was not associated with susceptibility for colorectal cancer either [p=0.1330, 0.3888 and 0.8740; odds ratio (OR)=1.20, 0.83 and 0.98; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)=0.95-1.52, 0.54-1.27 and 0.80-1.21, respectively]. The risk of A/G and A/A genotypes have no association with cancer risk among non-alcohol drinkers (OR=1.24, 95%, CI=0.90-1.72, p=0.2103) or alcohol drinkers (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.64-3.55, p=0.4648). There exists no obvious contribution of XPD genotypes to tumor size (p=0.3531), location (p=0.3006) and lymph node metastasis (p=0.1061). Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln and promoter -114 of the XPD gene were not found to be adequate predictive markers for colorectal cancer risk in Taiwan. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm presentation, repair, and mortality in the Vascular Study Group of New England

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Bensley, Rodney P.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark; Adams, Julie E.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Prior studies of gender differences in AAA repair suggest there may be differences in presentation, suitability for EVAR, and outcomes between men and women. Methods We used the Vascular Study Group of New England database to identify all patients undergoing EVAR or open AAA repair (OAR). We analyzed demographics, comorbidities, and procedural, and perioperative data. Results were compared using Fisher’s exact test and student’s t-test. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to identify predictors of mortality. Results We identified 4,026 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 54% EVAR). Women were less likely than men to undergo EVAR for intact aneurysms (50% vs. 60% of intact AAA repairs of, P<.001) but not for ruptured aneurysms (26% vs. 20%, P=.23). Women were older (median age 75 vs. 72 years for intact, P<.001; 78 vs. 73 years for rupture, P<.001) with smaller aortic diameters (57 vs. 59mm for elective, P<.001; 71 vs. 79mm for rupture, P<.001). Arterial injury was more common in women (5.4% vs. 2.7%, P=0.013) among patients undergoing EVAR for intact aneurysms and women stayed in the hospital longer (4.3 vs. 2.7 days, P=.018) and had a lower odds of being discharged home, even after adjusting for age.. Among patients undergoing open repair for intact aneurysms, women more frequently experienced leg ischemia/emboli (4% vs. 1%, P=.001) and bowel ischemia (5% vs. 3%, P=.044). Women had higher 30-day mortality after OAR for both intact (4% vs. 2%, P=.03) and rupture (48% vs. 34%, P=.03) repairs. However, 30-day mortality after EVAR was similar for both intact (1% in men vs. 1% in women, P=.57) and rupture (29% in men vs. 27% in women, P=1.00) repairs. Late survival was worse in women than men only for patients undergoing open repair of ruptured aneurysms (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, P=.04). After controlling for age, type of repair, urgency at presentation (i.e. elective/intact vs. ruptured

  18. Somatic mosaicism for DNA repair capacity in fibroblasts derived from a group A xeroderma pigmentosum patient

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.R.; Ishizaki, K.; Sasaki, M.S.; Toguchida, J.; Kato, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Moriguchi, T.; Ikenaga, M. )

    1989-10-01

    A female Japanese xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patient with severe skin lesions and various neurologic abnormalities was assigned to complementation group A by conventional cell fusion studies. Ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin fibroblasts showed a biphasic survival curve, as measured by colony-forming ability. The surviving fraction decreased rapidly up to 2 J/m2 of UV, with a steep slope of D(O) (mean lethal dose) = 0.95 J/m2. At much higher doses it decreased more slowly, with D(O) = 3.5 J/m2. To elucidate the cause of this unique survival response, we isolated a large number of independent clones from single colonies and measured their responses to UV. Of 81 clones analyzed, ten showed a marked resistance to killing by UV, which was only slightly more sensitive than normal cells, and these clones had a rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) that was about 45% of normal cells. By contrast, the remaining 71 clones were extremely sensitive to UV, typical of XP group A strains, and had a UDS level 1%-3% of normals. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism using seven polymorphic DNA probes indicated that the UV-resistant clones were derived from the same individual as the UV-sensitive clones. These results clearly demonstrate that this patient's fibroblast cells consist of two types with differing responses to UV, and provide direct evidence of somatic mosaicism for DNA repair capacity in an XP patient.

  19. Defective repair of ionizing radiation damage in Cockayne`s syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum group G

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.K.; Leadon, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Damage produced by ultraviolet light (UV) or certain chemical carcinogens is repaired more rapidly in transcriptionally active DNA than in the genome as a whole by an evolutionarily conserved process coupled to transcription and involving preferential repair of transcribed strands. The generality of strand-specific repair for damage other than UV has not been well-established, but it has generally been assumed to involve the nucleotide excision repair pathway for bulky lesions. There is little overlap in the spectrum of lesions induced by ionizing radiation and UV; consistent with the idea that to a large extent, the repair processes for these two types of damage are separable, there are very few mammalian cell mutants that are hypersensitive to the lethal effects of both.

  20. Conservation of the nucleotide excision repair pathway: characterization of hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum group F homolog.

    PubMed

    Barve, Apurva; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Hydra, one of the earliest metazoans with tissue grade organization and nervous system, is an animal with a remarkable regeneration capacity and shows no signs of organismal aging. We have for the first time identified genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway from hydra. Here we report cloning and characterization of hydra homolog of xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) gene that encodes a structure-specific 5' endonuclease which is a crucial component of NER. In silico analysis shows that hydra XPF amino acid sequence is very similar to its counterparts from other animals, especially vertebrates, and shows all features essential for its function. By in situ hybridization, we show that hydra XPF is expressed prominently in the multipotent stem cell niche in the central region of the body column. Ectoderm of the diploblastic hydra was shown to express higher levels of XPF as compared to the endoderm by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis also demonstrated that interstitial cells, a multipotent and rapidly cycling stem cell lineage of hydra, express higher levels of XPF mRNA than other cell types. Our data show that XPF and by extension, the NER pathway is highly conserved during evolution. The prominent expression of an NER gene in interstitial cells may have implications for the lack of senescence in hydra.

  1. Conservation of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway: Characterization of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group F Homolog

    PubMed Central

    Barve, Apurva; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Hydra, one of the earliest metazoans with tissue grade organization and nervous system, is an animal with a remarkable regeneration capacity and shows no signs of organismal aging. We have for the first time identified genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway from hydra. Here we report cloning and characterization of hydra homolog of xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) gene that encodes a structure-specific 5′ endonuclease which is a crucial component of NER. In silico analysis shows that hydra XPF amino acid sequence is very similar to its counterparts from other animals, especially vertebrates, and shows all features essential for its function. By in situ hybridization, we show that hydra XPF is expressed prominently in the multipotent stem cell niche in the central region of the body column. Ectoderm of the diploblastic hydra was shown to express higher levels of XPF as compared to the endoderm by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis also demonstrated that interstitial cells, a multipotent and rapidly cycling stem cell lineage of hydra, express higher levels of XPF mRNA than other cell types. Our data show that XPF and by extension, the NER pathway is highly conserved during evolution. The prominent expression of an NER gene in interstitial cells may have implications for the lack of senescence in hydra. PMID:23577191

  2. Studying nucleotide excision repair of mammalian DNA in a cell-free system

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    During nucleotide excision repair, a multiprotein system locates a lesion in DNA and catalyzes enzymatic cleavage of the altered strand. The damaged oligonucleotide and the incision proteins are then displaced, DNA synthesis proceeds to form a short patch using the nonmodified strand as a template, and repair is completed by a DNA ligase. Many gene products participate in these reactions, the best known of which correspond to the seven genetic complementation groups XP-A to XP-G of the disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Cells representing any of these XP groups appear to exhibit, to varying degrees, defects in the first steps of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals affected with XP are hypersensitive to sunlight; most have a predisposition to skin cancer, and some patients show severe neurological abnormalities. In addition to XP, other UV-sensitive mutants of mammalian cells are providing insight into nucleotide excision repair. Of particular interest are mutants isolated from the rodent cells, which have been assigned to 11 different complementation groups. Human genes that can correct the repair defects of rodent mutants in these complementation groups are denoted. ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes are are referred to by number, ERCC1 to ERCC11. Some of these genes are proving to be equivalent to particular XP-complementing genes, while others are distinct. The process of nucleotide excision repair is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes, and functional homologues of many of the ERCC and XP genes have been identified in other organisms; studies in yeast are proving to be particularly informative.

  3. Repair of retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy using perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon). Vitreon Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carroll, B F; Peyman, G A; Mehta, N J; Millsap, C M; Greve, M D; Dunlap, W A; Lee, K J; Ma, P E

    1994-04-01

    A total of 140 consecutive patients underwent repair of retinal detachment associated with grade C2 to D3 proliferative vitreoretinopathy with perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon) as an intraoperative hydrokinetic tool. In seven patients the Vitreon was left in the eye for extended tamponade. Intraoperative reattachment was obtained in 98% of patients. At the final follow-up examination (mean 7 months) 84% of retinas remained attached, and 92% of patients had stable or improved visual acuity. Vitreon was found to be safe and effective in the repair of complicated retinal detachments. No complications were directly related to Vitreon when used intraoperatively or when left in the eye for extended tamponade.

  4. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A protein is driven to nucleotide excision repair sites by the electrostatic potential of distorted DNA.

    PubMed

    Camenisch, Ulrike; Dip, Ramiro; Vitanescu, Mirela; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2007-12-01

    The presumed DNA-binding cleft of xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) protein, a key regulatory subunit of the eukaryotic nucleotide excision repair complex, displays a distinctive array of 6 positively charged amino acid side chains. Here, the molecular function of these closely spaced electropositive residues has been tested by systematic site-directed mutagenesis. After the introduction of single amino acid substitutions, the mutants were probed for protein-DNA interactions in electrophoretic mobility shift and photochemical crosslinking assays. This analysis led to the identification of a critical hot-spot for DNA substrate recognition composed of two neighboring lysines at codons 141 and 179 of the human XPA sequence. The replacement of other basic side chains in the DNA interaction domain conferred more moderate defects of substrate binding. When the function of XPA was tested as a fusion product with either mCherry or green-fluorescent protein, a glutamate substitution of one of the positively charged residues at positions 141 and 179 was sufficient to decrease DNA repair activity in human fibroblasts. Thus, the removal of a single cationic side chain abolished DNA-binding activity and significant excision repair defects could be induced by single charge inversions on the XPA surface, indicating that this molecular sensor participates in substrate recognition by monitoring the electrostatic potential of distorted DNA repair sites.

  5. Complementation of DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group C by the transfer of human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, G.P.; Athwal, R.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Complementation of DNA excision repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group C (XP-C) has been achieved by the transfer of human chromosome 5. Individual human chromosomes tagged with a selectable marker were transferred to XP-C cells by microcell fusion from mouse-human hybrid cell lines each bearing a single different human chromosome. Analysis of the chromosome transfer clones revealed that introduction of chromosome 5 into XP-C cells corrected the DNA repair defect as well as UV-sensitive phenotypes, while chromosomes 2, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 21 failed to complement. The introduced chromosome 5 in complemented UV[sup r] clones was distinguished from the parental XP-C chromosomes by polymorphism for dinucleotide (CA)[sub n] repeats at two loci, D5S117 and D5S209. In addition, an intact marked chromosome 5 was rescued into mouse cells from a complemented UV[sup r] clone by microcell fusion. Five subclones of a complemented clone that had lost the marked chromosome 5 exhibited UV-sensitive and repair-deficient phenotypes identical to parental XP-C cells. Concordant loss of the transferred chromosome and reappearance of XP-C phenotype further confirmed the presence of a DNA repair gene on human chromosome 5. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes (APEX1, XPD, XRCC1 and XRCC3) and Risk of Preeclampsia in a Mexican Mestizo Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M.; Vazquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo; Barraza-Salas, Marcelo; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X.; La Llave-León, Osmel; Salas-Pacheco, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in genes involved in DNA repair systems have been proposed as risk factors for the development of preeclampsia (PE). We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APEX1) Asp148Glu (rs1130409), Xeroderma Pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln (rs13181), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC) Arg399Gln (rs25487) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met (rs861539) polymorphisms with PE in a Mexican population. Samples of 202 cases and 350 controls were genotyped using RTPCR. Association analyses based on a χ2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each polymorphism. The allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed statistical significant differences between preeclamptic and normal women (p = 0.036). Although neither of the polymorphisms proved to be a risk factor for the disease, the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed a tendency of association (OR: 1.74, 95% CI = 0.96–3.14) and a significant trend (p for trend = 0.048). A subgroup analyses revealed differences in the allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism between women with mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia (p = 0.035). In conclusion, our results reveal no association between XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms and the risk of PE in a Mexican mestizo population; however, the results in the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism suggest the need for future studies using a larger sample size. PMID:24619222

  7. Impact of serum high-mobility group box 1 protein elevation on oxygenation impairment after thoracic aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Takashi; Anzai, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Sugano, Yasuo; Yamada, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Yozu, Ryohei; Ogawa, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late mediator of inflammatory responses that can cause acute lung injury. We examined the significance of serum HMGB1 elevation in the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and lung oxygenation impairment (LOI) after thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) repair. Serial measurements of the serum HMGB1 level and SIRS score for 7 days after surgery were determined in 20 patients with TAA who underwent surgical repair. Arterial oxygen tension was measured serially for at least 4 days after surgery, and LOI was defined as the lowest PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio ≤ 200 mmHg. The serum HMGB1 level was markedly increased after surgery, peaking on day 2, and remained significantly elevated on day 7. Peak HMGB1 level positively correlated with SIRS duration and the cumulative SIRS score during postoperative days 1-7 (P = 0.0013 and P = 0.0004, respectively). Peak HMGB1 level and cumulative SIRS score were higher in patients with LOI than in those without (P = 0.01 and P = 0.044, respectively). Peak HMGB1 level was negatively correlated with the lowest PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio (P = 0.0077) and positively correlated with postoperative length of hospitalization (P = 0.042). A greater serum HMGB1 elevation after TAA repair was associated with more severe SIRS and a higher incidence of LOI. HMGB1 might play a key role in the pathogenesis of SIRS and LOI after surgical TAA repair.

  8. Molecular cloning of a mouse DNA repair gene that complements the defect of group-A xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, K; Satokata, I; Ogita, Z; Uchida, T; Okada, Y

    1989-01-01

    For isolation of the gene responsible for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group A, plasmid pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from a mouse embryo were cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells, a group-A XP cell line. Two primary UV-resistant XP transfectants were isolated from about 1.6 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from the primary transfectants were again cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells and a secondary UV-resistant XP transfectant was obtained by screening about 4.8 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. The secondary transfectant retained fewer mouse repetitive sequences. A mouse gene that complements the defect of XP2OSSV cells was cloned into an EMBL3 vector from the genome of a secondary transfectant. Transfections of the cloned DNA also conferred UV resistance on another group-A XP cell line but not on XP cell lines of group C, D, F, or G. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA with a subfragment of cloned mouse DNA repair gene as the probe revealed that an approximately 1.0 kilobase mRNA was transcribed in the donor mouse embryo and secondary transfectant, and approximately 1.0- and approximately 1.3-kilobase mRNAs were transcribed in normal human cells, but none of these mRNAs was detected in three strains of group-A XP cells. These results suggest that the cloned DNA repair gene is specific for group-A XP and may be the mouse homologue of the group-A XP human gene. Images PMID:2748601

  9. Molecular cloning of a mouse DNA repair gene that complements the defect of group-A xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Satokata, I.; Ogita, Z.; Uchida, T.; Okada, Y.

    1989-07-01

    For isolation of the gene responsible for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group A, plasmid pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from a mouse embryo were cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells, a group-A XP cell line. Two primary UV-resistant XP transfectants were isolated from about 1.6 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from the primary transfectants were again cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells and a secondary UV-resistant XP transfectant was obtained by screening about 4.8 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. The secondary transfectant retained fewer mouse repetitive sequences. A mouse gene that complements the defect of XP2OSSV cells was cloned into an EMBL3 vector from the genome of a secondary transfectant. Transfections of the cloned DNA also conferred UV resistance on another group-A XP cell line but not on XP cell lines of group C, D, F, or G. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA with a subfragment of cloned mouse DNA repair gene as the probe revealed that an approximately 1.0 kilobase mRNA was transcribed in the donor mouse embryo and secondary transfectant, and approximately 1.0- and approximately 1.3-kilobase mRNAs were transcribed in normal human cells, but none of these mRNAs was detected in three strains of group-A XP cells. These results suggest that the cloned DNA repair gene is specific for group-A XP and may be the mouse homologue of the group-A XP human gene.

  10. Contribution of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC3 genotypes to oral cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-06-01

    The DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementing protein 3 (XRCC3) is thought to play a major role in double-strand break repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Very possibly, defective double-strand break repair of cells can lead to carcinogenesis. Therefore, a case-control study was performed to reveal the contribution of XRCC3 genotypes to individual oral cancer susceptibility. In this hospital-based research, the association of XRCC3 rs1799794, rs45603942, rs861530, rs3212057, rs1799796, rs861539, rs28903081 genotypes with oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population was investigated. In total, 788 patients with oral cancer and 956 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were genotyped. The results showed that there was significant differential distribution among oral cancer and controls in the genotypic (p=0.001428) and allelic (p=0.0013) frequencies of XRCC3 rs861539. As for the other polymorphisms, there was no difference between case and control groups. In gene-lifestyle interaction analysis, we have provided the first evidence showing that there is an obvious joint effect of XRCC3 rs861539 genotype with individual areca chewing habits on oral cancer risk. In conclusion, the T allele of XRCC3 rs861539, which has an interaction with areca chewing habit in oral carcinogenesis, may be an early marker for oral cancer in Taiwanese.

  11. Low-level laser irradiation alters mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajano, L. A. S. N.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Silva, C. L.; Carvalho, L.; Mencalha, A. L.; Stumbo, A. C.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Low-level lasers are used for the treatment of diseases in soft and bone tissues, but few data are available regarding their effects on genomic stability. In this study, we investigated mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts exposed to low-level infrared laser. C2C12 myoblast cultures in different fetal bovine serum concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35 and 70 J cm-2), and collected for the evaluation of DNA repair gene expression. Laser exposure increased gene expression related to base excision repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), nucleotide excision repair (excision repair cross-complementation group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum C protein) and genomic stabilization (ATM serine/threonine kinase and tumor protein p53) in normal and low fetal bovine serum concentrations. Results suggest that genomic stability could be part of a biostimulation effect of low-level laser therapy in injured muscles.

  12. Expression of domains for protein-protein interaction of nucleotide excision repair proteins modifies cancer cell sensitivity to platinum derivatives and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Matera, Eva-Laure; Bouledrak, Karima; Dumontet, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in the repair of DNA damage caused by platinum derivatives and has been shown to decrease the cytotoxic activity of these drugs. Because protein-protein interactions are essential for NER activity, we transfected human cancer cell lines (A549 and HCT116) with plasmids coding the amino acid sequences corresponding to the interacting domains between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA), as well as ERCC1 and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group F (XPF), all NER proteins. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and annexin V staining, we showed that transfected A549 cells were sensitized 1.2-2.2-fold to carboplatin and that transfected HCT116 cells were sensitized 1.4-5.4-fold to oxaliplatin in vitro. In addition, transfected cells exhibited modified in vivo sensitivity to the same drugs. Finally, in particular cell models of the interaction between ERCC1 and XPF, DNA repair was decreased, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the histone 2AX after exposure to mitomycin C, and genomic instability was increased, as determined by comparative genomic hybridization studies. The results indicate that the interacting peptides act as dominant negatives and decrease NER activity through inhibition of protein-protein interactions.

  13. Polymorphisms in base excision repair genes: Breast cancer risk and individual radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Patrono, Clarice; Sterpone, Silvia; Testa, Antonella; Cozzi, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The aetiology and carcinogenesis of BC are not clearly defined, although genetic, hormonal, lifestyle and environmental risk factors have been established. The most common treatment for BC includes breast-conserving surgery followed by a standard radiotherapy (RT) regimen. However, radiation hypersensitivity and the occurrence of RT-induced toxicity in normal tissue may affect patients’ treatment. The role of DNA repair in cancer has been extensively investigated, and an impaired DNA damage response may increase the risk of BC and individual radiosensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes may alter protein function and modulate DNA repair efficiency, influencing the development of various cancers, including BC. SNPs in DNA repair genes have also been studied as potential predictive factors for the risk of RT-induced side effects. Here, we review the literature on the association between SNPs in base excision repair (BER) genes and BC risk. We focused on X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1), which plays a key role in BER, and on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, which encode three important BER enzymes that interact with XRCC1. Although no association between SNPs and radiation toxicity has been validated thus far, we also report published studies on XRCC1 SNPs and variants in other BER genes and RT-induced side effects in BC patients, emphasising that large well-designed studies are needed to determine the genetic components of individual radiosensitivity. PMID:25493225

  14. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation

    PubMed Central

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. PMID:25820262

  15. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-05-12

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation.

  16. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J.; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D.; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C.; Ambler, Carrie A.

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ+ ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ+ ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ+ ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  17. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p < 0.001) exposed to near-infrared laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p < 0.001). ERCC1 mRNA expression does not alter (p > 0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p < 0.001) and increases in muscle tissue (p < 0.001) exposed to red laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  18. New design of nucleotide excision repair (NER) inhibitors for combination cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Tuszynski, Jack A; Barakat, Khaled H

    2016-04-01

    Many cancer chemotherapy agents act by targeting the DNA of cancer cells, causing substantial damage within their genome and causing them to undergo apoptosis. An effective DNA repair pathway in cancer cells can act in a reverse way by removing these drug-induced DNA lesions, allowing cancer cells to survive, grow and proliferate. In this context, DNA repair inhibitors opened a new avenue in cancer treatment, by blocking the DNA repair mechanisms from removing the chemotherapy-mediated DNA damage. In particular, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) involves more than thirty protein-protein interactions and removes DNA adducts caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1)-xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA) protein (XPA-ERCC1) complex seems to be one of the most promising targets in this pathway. ERCC1 is over expressed in cancer cells and the only known cellular function so far for XPA is to recruit ERCC1 to the damaged point. Here, we build upon our recent advances in identifying inhibitors for this interaction and continue our efforts to rationally design more effective and potent regulators for the NER pathway. We employed in silico drug design techniques to: (1) identify compounds similar to the recently discovered inhibitors, but more effective at inhibiting the XPA-ERCC1 interactions, and (2) identify different scaffolds to develop novel lead compounds. Two known inhibitor structures have been used as starting points for two ligand/structure-hybrid virtual screening approaches. The findings described here form a milestone in discovering novel inhibitors for the NER pathway aiming at improving the efficacy of current platinum-based therapy, by modulating the XPA-ERCC1 interaction.

  19. A human ortholog of archaeal DNA repair protein Hef is defective in Fanconi anemia complementation group M.

    PubMed

    Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Medhurst, Annette L; Ling, Chen; Xue, Yutong; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Bier, Patrick; Steltenpool, Jurgen; Stone, Stacie; Dokal, Inderjeet; Mathew, Christopher G; Hoatlin, Maureen; Joenje, Hans; de Winter, Johan P; Wang, Weidong

    2005-09-01

    Fanconi anemia is a genetic disease characterized by genomic instability and cancer predisposition. Nine genes involved in Fanconi anemia have been identified; their products participate in a DNA damage-response network involving BRCA1 and BRCA2 (refs. 2,3). We previously purified a Fanconi anemia core complex containing the FANCL ubiquitin ligase and six other Fanconi anemia-associated proteins. Each protein in this complex is essential for monoubiquitination of FANCD2, a key reaction in the Fanconi anemia DNA damage-response pathway. Here we show that another component of this complex, FAAP250, is mutant in individuals with Fanconi anemia of a new complementation group (FA-M). FAAP250 or FANCM has sequence similarity to known DNA-repair proteins, including archaeal Hef, yeast MPH1 and human ERCC4 or XPF. FANCM can dissociate DNA triplex, possibly owing to its ability to translocate on duplex DNA. FANCM is essential for monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and becomes hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Our data suggest an evolutionary link between Fanconi anemia-associated proteins and DNA repair; FANCM may act as an engine that translocates the Fanconi anemia core complex along DNA.

  20. Chromosomal localization of three repair genes: The xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene and two human homologs of yeast RAD23

    SciTech Connect

    Spek, P.J. van der; Smit, E.M.E.; Beverloo, H.B.

    1994-10-01

    The nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by sun (UV) sensitivity, predisposition to skin cancer, and extensive genetic heterogeneity. Recently, we reported the cloning and analysis of three human NER genes, XPC, HHR23A, and HHR23B. The previously cloned XPC gene is involved in the common XP complementation group C, which is defective in excision repair of nontranscribed sequences in the genome. The XPC protein was found to be complexed with the product of HHR23B, one of the two human homologs of the Saccharomyes cerevisiae NER gene RAD23. Here we present the chromosomal localization by in situ hybridization using haptenized probes of all three genes. The HHR23A gene was assigned to chromosome 19p13.2. Interestingly, the HHR23B and XPC genes, the product of which forms a tight complex, were found to colocalize on band 3p25.1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the HHR23B and XPC genes possibly share a MluI restriction fragment of about 625 kb. Potential involvement of the HHR23 genes in human genetic disorders is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Difficulties and Problematic Steps in Teaching the Onstep Technique for Inguinal Hernia Repair, Results from a Focus Group Interview

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie

    2016-01-01

    Background. When a new surgical technique is brought into a department, it is often experienced surgeons that learn it first and then pass it on to younger surgeons in training. This study seeks to clarify the problems and positive experiences when teaching and training surgeons in the Onstep technique for inguinal hernia repair, seen from the instructor's point of view. Methods. We designed a qualitative study using a focus group to allow participants to elaborate freely and facilitate a discussion. Participants were surgeons with extensive experience in performing the Onstep technique from Germany, UK, France, Belgium, Italy, Greece, and Sweden. Results. Four main themes were found, with one theme covering three subthemes: instruction of others (experience, patient selection, and tailored teaching), comfort, concerns/fear, and anatomy. Conclusion. Surgeons receiving a one-day training course should preferably have experience with other types of hernia repairs. If trainees are inexperienced, the training setup should be a traditional step-by-step programme. A training setup should consist of an explanation of the technique with emphasis on anatomy and difficult parts of the procedure and then a training day should follow. Surgeons teaching surgery can use these findings to improve their everyday practice. PMID:27144225

  2. Group Therapy for Survivors of Severe Childhood Abuse: Repairing the Social Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Presents a model for conducting time-limited group therapy with adult survivors of severe childhood abuse who were diagnosed with complex post-traumatic and dissociative disorders. Group sessions are organized around verbal promises that encourage the client's active, attentive engagement. Gentle confrontation of dissociative defenses is integral…

  3. Group Therapy for Survivors of Severe Childhood Abuse: Repairing the Social Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Presents a model for conducting time-limited group therapy with adult survivors of severe childhood abuse who were diagnosed with complex post-traumatic and dissociative disorders. Group sessions are organized around verbal promises that encourage the client's active, attentive engagement. Gentle confrontation of dissociative defenses is integral…

  4. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Mechanics and Repairers Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998-2014.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Hagen, Solveig L; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; DeKoven, Joel G; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Mathias, C G Toby; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Storrs, Frances J

    Contact dermatoses are common in mechanic and repair occupations. This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of occupationally related contact dermatitis among mechanics/repairers patch tested from 1998 to 2014 by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, (2) characterize responsible allergens and irritants, and their sources, and (3) compare results among 3 occupational subgroups (mechanics, electrical/electronic, and other). A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1998 and 2014. Of 38,784 patients patch tested, 691 (1.8%) were mechanics/repairers. Male sex (93.5%) and hand involvement (59.5%) were common overall. Occupationally related skin disease was more prevalent among vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics/repairers (52.7%) and other mechanics/repairers (41.4%) than electrical/electronic equipment mechanics/repairers (21.3%). Overall, carba mix, thiuram mix, and methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone were the most common occupation-related clinically relevant allergens. Gloves, automotive vehicles, solvents, oils, lubricants, and fuels were the most common sources of responsible allergens. Common occupationally related allergens included rubber accelerators and the preservative methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone.

  5. Variation in DNA repair gene XRCC3 affects susceptibility to astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Custódio, A C; Almeida, L O; Pinto, G R; Santos, M J; Almeida, J R W; Clara, C A; Rey, J A; Casartelli, C

    2012-02-10

    The gene XRCC3 (X-ray cross complementing group 3) has the task of repairing damage that occurs when there is recombination between homologous chromosomes. Repair of recombination between homologous chromosomes plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity, although it is known that double-strand breaks are the main inducers of chromosomal aberrations. Changes in the XRCC3 protein lead to an increase in errors in chromosome segregation due to defects in centrosomes, resulting in aneuploidy and other chromosomal aberrations, such as small increases in telomeres. We examined XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 80 astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. The individuals of the control group (N = 100) were selected from the general population of the São Paulo State. Odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated using a logistic regression model. Patients who had the allele Met of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism had a significantly increased risk of tumor development (odds ratio = 3.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.50-6.50). There were no significant differences in overall survival of patients. We suggest that XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is involved in susceptibility for developing astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

  6. Effect of Content of Sulfate Groups in Seaweed Polysaccharides on Antioxidant Activity and Repair Effect of Subcellular Organelles in Injured HK-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Yu, Kai; Gui, Qin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the repair effect of subcellular structure injuries of the HK-2 cells of four degraded seaweed polysaccharides (DSPs), namely, the degraded Porphyra yezoensis, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Sargassum fusiform, and Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides. The four DSPs have similar molecular weight, but with different content of sulfate groups (i.e., 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, and 5.5%, resp.). The damaged model was established using 2.8 mmol/L oxalate to injure HK-2 cells, and 60 μg/mL of various DSPs was used to repair the damaged cells. With the increase of sulfate group content in DSPs, the scavenging activity of radicals and their reducing power were all improved. Four kinds of DSPs have repair effect on the subcellular organelles of damaged HK-2 cells. After being repaired by DSPs, the release amount of lactate dehydrogenase was decreased, the integrity of cell membrane and lysosome increased, the Δψm increased, the cell of G1 phase arrest was inhibited, the proportion of S phase increased, and cell apoptotic and necrosis rates were significantly reduced. The greater the content of sulfate group is, the stronger is the repair ability of the polysaccharide. These DSPs, particularly the polysaccharide with higher sulfate group content, may be a potential drug for the prevention and cure of kidney stones. PMID:28785372

  7. ERCC1 function in nuclear excision and interstrand crosslink repair pathways is mediated exclusively by the ERCC1-202 isoform

    PubMed Central

    Friboulet, Luc; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Sourisseau, Tony; Adam, Julien; Stoclin, Annabelle; Ponsonnailles, Florence; Dorvault, Nicolas; Commo, Frédéric; Saulnier, Patrick; Salome-Desmoulez, Sophie; Pottier, Géraldine; André, Fabrice; Kroemer, Guido; Soria, Jean Charles; Olaussen, Ken André

    2013-01-01

    ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) plays essential roles in the removal of DNA intrastrand crosslinks by nucleotide excision repair, and that of DNA interstrand crosslinks by the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway and homology-directed repair processes (HDR). The function of ERCC1 thus impacts on the DNA damage response (DDR), particularly in anticancer therapy when DNA damaging agents are employed. ERCC1 expression has been proposed as a predictive biomarker of the response to platinum-based therapy. However, the assessment of ERCC1 expression in clinical samples is complicated by the existence of 4 functionally distinct protein isoforms, which differently impact on DDR. Here, we explored the functional competence of each ERCC1 protein isoform and obtained evidence that the 202 isoform is the sole one endowed with ERCC1 activity in DNA repair pathways. The ERCC1 isoform 202 interacts with RPA, XPA, and XPF, and XPF stability requires expression of the ERCC1 202 isoform (but none of the 3 others). ERCC1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells show abnormal mitosis, a phenotype reminiscent of the FA phenotype that can be rescued by isoform 202 only. Finally, we could not observe any dominant-negative interaction between ERCC1 isoforms. These data suggest that the selective assessment of the ERCC1 isoform 202 in clinical samples should accurately reflect the DDR-related activity of the gene and hence constitute a useful biomarker for customizing anticancer therapies. PMID:24036546

  8. Expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein predicts cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tan-Chen; Chow, Kuan-Chih; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Cho, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chiang, I-Ping; Ho, Shu-Peng

    2011-05-01

    DNA repair has been suggested to be a major cause of spontaneous drug resistance in patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADC). Among the DNA repair-related proteins, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been shown to be essential for repairing cisplatin-induced interstrand cross-linkage. However, the role of other DNA repair-related proteins in drug resistance has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis to identify the DNA repair-related genes associated with cisplatin resistance. We focused on the association of XPC protein expression, which plays a pivotal role in the earliest response to global genomic repair, with the survival of LADC patients. Using suppression subtractive hybridization and a microarray analysis to identify drug resistance-associated DNA repair-related genes, we found that the mRNA levels of ERCC1, MSH-3, MSH-6 and XPC were significantly increased in LADC patients. Since the results of ERCC1 mRNA expression corresponded well with those in previous reports, in this study we focused on the clinical correlation between XPC expression and patient survival. The level of XPC protein was determined by immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses. We detected the XPC protein in 46 (43%) of 107 pathological LADC samples. XPC protein expression correlated with tumor stage, cigarette smoking and poor survival. In the in vitro experiments with LADC cell lines, increased XPC expression was associated with elevated drug resistance, and silencing of XPC expression reduced cisplatin resistance. Our results suggest that XPC expression predicts drug resistance in LADC.

  9. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F protein binds to Eg5 and is required for proper mitosis: implications for XP-F and XFE.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Jing; Saijo, Masafumi; Kuraoka, Isao; Narita, Takashi; Takahata, Chiaki; Iwai, Shigenori; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-03-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group F-cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency group 1 (XPF-ERCC1) complex is a structure-specific endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair. Patients with XPF mutations may suffer from two forms of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP): XP-F patients show mild photosensitivity and proneness to skin cancer but rarely show any neurological abnormalities, whereas XFE patients display symptoms of severe XP symptoms, growth retardation and accelerated aging. Xpf knockout mice display accelerated aging and die before weaning. These results suggest that the XPF-ERCC1 complex has additional functions besides NER and ICL repair and is essential for development and growth. In this study, we show a partial colocalization of XPF with mitotic spindles and Eg5. XPF knockdown in cells led to an increase in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and mitosis. Similarly, the frequency of abnormal nuclei and mitosis was increased in XP-F and XFE cells. In addition, we showed that Eg5 enhances the action of XPF-ERCC1 nuclease activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction between XPF and Eg5 plays a role in mitosis and DNA repair and offer new insights into the pathogenesis of XP-F and XFE.

  10. Meningocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplasia repair; Spinal dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... If your child has hydrocephalus, a shunt (plastic tube) will be put in the child's brain to ...

  11. DNA repair gene XRCC3 variants are associated with susceptibility to glioma in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Huang, J Y; Yang, J F; Qu, Q; Qu, J; Liu, F; Liu, F E; Xiong, T; Lu, S H

    2015-09-08

    The susceptibility to glioma is not well understood. It has been suggested that the X-ray cross complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene influences the capacity to repair DNA damage, leading to increased glioma susceptibility. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between XRCC3 mutations and glioma risk. Genotypes were assessed in 389 Chinese glioma patients and 358 healthy controls. XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539) and 2 additional polymorphisms, rs3212112 (c.774+19T>G) and rs1799796 (c.562-14A>G), were directly sequenced. The frequency of the rs861539 T allele was significantly lower in the glioma group than in healthy controls [11.1 vs 17.7%, odds ratio = 0.62 (0.48-0.80), P < 0.001]; the frequencies of the CT or CT+TT genotypes differed between groups (18.5 vs 31%, 20.3 vs 33.2%, respectively). The frequency of the rs3212112 G allele was significantly higher in the glioma group than in healthy controls [15.8 vs 5.3%, odds ratio = 2.94 (2.07-4.17), P < 0.001]. The frequencies of the GT or TG+GG genotypes differed between groups (25.4 vs 7.8%, 28.5 vs 9.2%, respectively). This study demonstrates that the rs861539 and rs3212112 polymorphisms in the XRCC3 gene may influence the risk of glioma development in Chinese populations.

  12. Repair of damaged DNA by extracts from a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A revertant and expression of a protein absent in its parental cell line.

    PubMed

    Jones, C J; Cleaver, J E; Wood, R D

    1992-03-11

    Cells derived from individuals with mutations in the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A gene (XP-A gene) are hypersensitive to UV light and have a severe defect in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. UV-resistant revertant cell lines can arise from XP-A cells in culture. Cells of one such revertant, XP129, were previously shown to remove (6-4) photoproducts from irradiated DNA, but to have poor repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. To analyze the biochemical nature of the reversion, whole cell extracts were prepared from the SV40-immortalized fibroblast cell lines XP12RO (an XP-A cell line), the revertant XP129 (derived from XP12RO), and 1BR.3N (from a normal individual). The ability of extracts to carry out repair synthesis in UV-irradiated DNA was examined, and immunoblots were performed using antiserum that recognizes XP-A protein. XP12RO extracts exhibited a very low level of repair and no detectable XP-A protein, but repair activity could be conferred by adding purified XP-A protein to the reaction mixture. XP129 extracts have essentially normal repair synthesis consistent with the observation that most repair of UV-irradiated DNA by extracts appears to occur at (6-4) photoproducts. An XP-A polypeptide of normal size was present in XP129, but in reduced amounts. The results indicate that in XP129 a mutational event has converted the inactive XP12RO XP-A gene into a form which expresses an active XP-A protein.

  13. RAD25 (SSL2), the yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, E.; Prakash, L. ); Guzder, S.N.; Prakash, S. ); Koken, M.H.M.; Jaspers-Dekker, I.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and seven complementation groups, A-G, have been identified. Homologs of human excision repair genes ERCC1, XPDC/ERCC2, and XPAC have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since no homolog of human XPBC/ERCC3 existed among the known yeast genes, we cloned the yeast homolog by using XPBC cDNA as a hybridization probe. The yeast homolog, RAD25 (SSL2), encodes a protein of 843 amino acids (M[sub r] 95,356). The RAD25 (SSL2)- and XPCX-encoded proteins share 55% identical and 72% conserved amino acid residues, and the two proteins resemble one another in containing the conserved DNA helicase sequence motifs. A nonsense mutation at codon 799 that deletes the 45 C-terminal amino acid residues in RAD25 (SSL2) confers UV sensitivity. This mutation shows epistasis with genes in the excision repair group, whereas a synergistic increase in UN sensitivity occurs when it is combined with mutations in genes in other DNA repair pathways, indicating that RAD25 (SSL2) functions in excision repair but not in other repair pathways. We also show that RAD25 (SSL2) is an essential gene. A mutation of the Lys[sup 392] residue to arginine in the conserved Walker type A nucleotide-binding motif is lethal, suggesting an essential role of the putative RAD 25 (SSL2) ATPase/DNA helicase activity in viability. 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  15. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Scott A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (X1RIR) motif. The X1RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol /REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the XRCC1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR–REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair.

  16. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Scott A.; DeRose, Eugene F.; London, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (RIR) motif. The RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol ζ/REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the X1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR – REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair. PMID:24409475

  17. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Mei Jing; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system. PMID:26404324

  18. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara Madduma; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-09-02

    We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  19. Repair of 254 nm ultraviolet-induced (6-4) photoproducts: monoclonal antibody recognition and differential defects in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups A, D, and variant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramoto, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Ichihashi, M.; Nikaido, O.; Fujiwara, Y.; Mishima, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    Repair kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) light-induced (6-4) photoproducts in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A, D, and variant cells were studied by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against (6-4) photoproducts, together with unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and loss of T4 endonuclease V-susceptible sites (ESS). Group AXP35KO cells completely failed to repair both ESS (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and antibody-recognizing (6-4) photoproducts until tested 24 h after irradiation, and had 2% early-time UDS. Group DXP43KO cells showed about 10% removal of both (6-4) photoproducts and ESS in 24 h, despite showing a residually higher level of 40% early-time and cumulative UDS. Thus, the results substantiated the extreme UV hypersensitivity of XP group A and D cells. However, XP52KO variant cells exhibited the normal level of UDS and ESS loss, but a slightly reduced repair of antibody-recognizing (6-4) photoproducts at 6 and 12 h after irradiation, which may account for a small UV hypersensitivity of the XP variant cells.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a mammalian excision repair gene that partially restores UV resistance to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arrand, J.E.; Bone, N.M.; Johnson, R.T. )

    1989-09-01

    A hamster DNA repair gene has been isolated by cosmid rescue after two rounds of transfection of an immortalized xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group D cell line with neomycin-resistance gene (neo)-tagged normal hamster DNA and selection with G418 and ultraviolet irradiation. The functional length of the sequence has been defined as 11.5 kilobase pairs by measurement of the region of overlap between two hamster DNA-containing cosmids, cloned by selection for the integrated neo gene, that are able to confer an increase in resistance to ultraviolet irradiation on two XP-D cell line but not on an XP-A line. Detailed molecular characterization of the hamster repair gene has revealed no obvious similarities to two human excision repair genes (ERCC1 and ERCC2) that correct repair-defective hamster cells but have no effect on XP cells. Hybridization analyses of normal human and XP cell genomic DNAs and mRNAs, using a cosmid-clone probe from which repeated sequences have been removed, show that homologues are present and expressed in all cases.

  1. Agrobacterium may delay plant nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair via XRCC4 to favor T-DNA integration.

    PubMed

    Vaghchhipawala, Zarir E; Vasudevan, Balaji; Lee, Seonghee; Morsy, Mustafa R; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soilborne pathogen that causes crown gall disease in many dicotyledonous plants by transfer of a portion of its tumor-inducing plasmid (T-DNA) into the plant genome. Several plant factors that play a role in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and transport of T-DNA to the nucleus have been identified, but the T-DNA integration step during transformation is poorly understood and has been proposed to occur via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair. Here, we report a negative role of X-ray cross complementation group4 (XRCC4), one of the key proteins required for NHEJ, in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration. Downregulation of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana increased stable transformation due to increased T-DNA integration. Overexpression of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis decreased stable transformation due to decreased T-DNA integration. Interestingly, XRCC4 directly interacted with Agrobacterium protein VirE2 in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta. VirE2-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more susceptible to the DNA damaging chemical bleomycin and showed increased stable transformation. We hypothesize that VirE2 titrates or excludes active XRCC4 protein available for DSB repair, thus delaying the closure of DSBs in the chromosome, providing greater opportunity for T-DNA to integrate.

  2. DNA repair gene XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and susceptibility to glioma: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaofeng; Wang, Maode; Xie, Wanfu; Bai, Xiaobin

    2014-08-01

    The DNA repair gene, X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met polymorphism may be associated with a susceptibility to glioma. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and the potential susceptibility to gliomas. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted, which included a total of 886 patients with glioma and 886 healthy control subjects. Peripheral blood samples were extracted and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was performed to analyze the genotypes. The glioma patients had a significantly higher frequency of the XRCC3 241 MetMet genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-2.41; P=0.02] compared with the control subjects. When stratified by the grade of the glioma, the patients with stage IV glioma (according to the World Health Organization classification) had a significantly higher frequency of the XRCC3 241 MetMet genotype (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.06-2.44; P=0.03). When stratified by the histology of the glioma, there was no significant difference in the distribution of each genotype. The findings of the present study indicate that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is associated with a susceptibility to glioma.

  3. New Paradigms in the Repair of Oxidative Damage in Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arijit; Yang, Chunying; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized bases in the mammalian genome, which are invariably mutagenic due to their mis-pairing property, are continuously induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and more abundantly after oxidative stress. Unlike bulky base adducts induced by UV and other environmental mutagens in the genome that block replicative DNA polymerases, oxidatively damaged bases such as 5-hydoxyuracil (5-OHU), produced by oxidative deamination of cytosine in the template strand, do not block replicative polymerases and thus need to be repaired prior to replication in order to prevent mutation. Following up our earlier studies, which showed that the Nei endonuclease VIII like 1 (NEIL1) DNA glycosylase, one of five base excision repair (BER)-initiating enzymes in mammalian cells, has enhanced expression during the S-phase and higher affinity for replication fork-mimicking single-stranded (ss) DNA substrates, we recently provided direct experimental evidence for NEIL1’s role in replicating template-strand repair. The key requirement for this event, which we named as the ‘cow-catcher’ mechanism of pre-replicative BER, is NEIL1’s non-productive binding (substrate binding without product formation) to the lesion base in ss DNA template to stall DNA synthesis, causing fork regression. Repair of the lesion in re-annealed duplex is then carried out by NEIL1 in association with the DNA replication proteins. NEIL1 (and other BER-initiating enzymes) also interact with several accessory and non-canonical proteins including the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U) and Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) as well as high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), whose precise roles in BER are still obscure. In this review, we have discussed the recent advances in our understanding of oxidative genome damage repair pathways with particular focus on the pre-replicative template strand repair and the role of scaffold factors like X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1

  4. DNA repair gene XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenyang; Zhang, Wanli; Lu, Jiangfeng; Wu, Huawen; Liu, Mengying; Zhu, Wentao

    2013-10-01

    The DNA repair genes have been indicated as candidates in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Published data on the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3), a critical member of the DNA repair genes, and HCC risk were contradictory. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism on HCC risk by pooling available data from published case-control studies. We calculated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) to estimate the effect. Based on the inclusion criteria, six individual studies with 2,288 cases and 3,170 controls were included into our study. Overall, significant association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met variant and HCC risk was observed under the following contrast models (OR Met vs. Thr = 1.68, 95 %CI 1.08-2.62; OR MetMet vs. ThrThr = 5.54, 95 %CI 3.09-9.94; OR MetMet vs. ThrThr + ThrMet = 5.70, 95 % CI 4.24-7.64). Besides, the pooled ORs indicated that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism exerted risk effect on the HCC pathogenesis among Asians. Additionally, when stratifying by the status of smoking and hepatitis B virus infection, the XRCC3 Thr241Met variant was significantly associated with HCC risk among the HBsAg (+) individuals but not the HBsAg (-) individuals, smokers, and non-smokers. The present meta-analysis suggests that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is an independent risk factor for HCC, particularly among Asians and the HBsAg (+) individuals.

  5. The Polycomb Group Protein EZH2 Impairs DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression in Human Uterine Fibroids1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei; Nair, Sangeeta; Laknaur, Archana; Ismail, Nahed; Diamond, Michael P.; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign, smooth muscle tumors that occur in approximately 70%–80% of women by age 50 yr. The cellular and molecular mechanism(s) by which uterine fibroids (UFs) develop are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that several genetic abnormalities, including deletions, rearrangements, translocations, as well as mutations, have been found in UFs. These genetic anomalies suggest that low DNA damage repair capacity may be involved in UF formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether expression levels of DNA damage repair-related genes were altered, and how they were regulated in the pathogenesis of UFs. Expression levels of DNA repair-related genes RAD51 and BRCA1 were deregulated in fibroid tissues as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues. Expression levels of chromatin protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were higher in a subset of fibroids as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Treatment with an inhibitor of EZH2 markedly increased expression levels of RAD51 and BRCA1 in fibroid cells and inhibited cell proliferation paired with cell cycle arrest. Restoring the expression of RAD51 and BRCA1 by treatment with EZH2 inhibitor was dependent on reducing the enrichment of trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 epigenetic mark in their promoter regions. This study reveals the important role of EZH2-regulated DNA damage-repair genes via histone methylation in fibroid biology, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for the medical treatment of women with symptomatic UFs. PMID:26888970

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA recombination and repair functions of the RAD52 epistasis group inhibit Ty1 transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, A J; Shafer, B K; Garfinkel, D J

    2000-01-01

    RNA transcribed from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty1 accumulates to a high level in mitotically growing haploid cells, yet transposition occurs at very low frequencies. The product of reverse transcription is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule that reenters the genome by either Ty1-integrase-mediated insertion or homologous recombination with one of the preexisting genomic Ty1 (or delta) elements. Here we examine the role of the cellular homologous recombination functions on Ty1 transposition. We find that transposition is elevated in cells mutated for genes in the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway, such as RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, or RAD57, or in the DNA ligase I gene CDC9, but is not elevated in cells mutated in the DNA repair functions encoded by the RAD1, RAD2, or MSH2 genes. The increase in Ty1 transposition observed when genes in the RAD52 recombinational pathway are mutated is not associated with a significant increase in Ty1 RNA or proteins. However, unincorporated Ty1 cDNA levels are markedly elevated. These results suggest that members of the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway inhibit Ty1 post-translationally by influencing the fate of Ty1 cDNA. PMID:10655210

  7. The Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal Syndrome Point Mutation F231L in the ERCC1 DNA Repair Protein Causes Dissociation of the ERCC1-XPF Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Faridounnia, Maryam; Wienk, Hans; Kovačič, Lidija; Folkers, Gert E.; Jaspers, Nicolaas G. J.; Kaptein, Robert; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Boelens, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The ERCC1-XPF heterodimer, a structure-specific DNA endonuclease, is best known for its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The ERCC1 point mutation F231L, located at the hydrophobic interaction interface of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F), leads to severe NER pathway deficiencies. Here, we analyze biophysical properties and report the NMR structure of the complex of the C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix domains of ERCC1-XPF that contains this mutation. The structures of wild type and the F231L mutant are very similar. The F231L mutation results in only a small disturbance of the ERCC1-XPF interface, where, in contrast to Phe231, Leu231 lacks interactions stabilizing the ERCC1-XPF complex. One of the two anchor points is severely distorted, and this results in a more dynamic complex, causing reduced stability and an increased dissociation rate of the mutant complex as compared with wild type. These data provide a biophysical explanation for the severe NER deficiencies caused by this mutation. PMID:26085086

  8. The Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal Syndrome Point Mutation F231L in the ERCC1 DNA Repair Protein Causes Dissociation of the ERCC1-XPF Complex.

    PubMed

    Faridounnia, Maryam; Wienk, Hans; Kovačič, Lidija; Folkers, Gert E; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Kaptein, Robert; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Boelens, Rolf

    2015-08-14

    The ERCC1-XPF heterodimer, a structure-specific DNA endonuclease, is best known for its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The ERCC1 point mutation F231L, located at the hydrophobic interaction interface of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F), leads to severe NER pathway deficiencies. Here, we analyze biophysical properties and report the NMR structure of the complex of the C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix domains of ERCC1-XPF that contains this mutation. The structures of wild type and the F231L mutant are very similar. The F231L mutation results in only a small disturbance of the ERCC1-XPF interface, where, in contrast to Phe(231), Leu(231) lacks interactions stabilizing the ERCC1-XPF complex. One of the two anchor points is severely distorted, and this results in a more dynamic complex, causing reduced stability and an increased dissociation rate of the mutant complex as compared with wild type. These data provide a biophysical explanation for the severe NER deficiencies caused by this mutation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer.

  10. Pharmacogenetic Study in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Polymorphisms in Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, GSTP1, and DNA Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, David; Salazar, Juliana; Pare, Laia; Pertriz, Lourdes; Targarona, Eduardo; Rio, Elisabeth del; Barnadas, Agusti; Marcuello, Eugenio; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several studies have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment using oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative biomarkers of outcome are lacking. We studied the polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase, epidermal growth factor receptor, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and several DNA repair genes to evaluate their usefulness as pharmacogenetic markers in a cohort of 128 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood nucleated cells, and the genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and automated sequencing techniques or using a 48.48 dynamic array on the BioMark system. The germline polymorphisms studied were thymidylate synthase, (VNTR/5 Prime UTR, 2R G>C single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], 3R G>C SNP), epidermal growth factor receptor (Arg497Lys), GSTP1 (Ile105val), excision repair cross-complementing 1 (Asn118Asn, 8092C>A, 19716G>C), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (Lys751Gln). The pathologic response, pathologic regression, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated according to each genotype. Results: The Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 thymidylate synthase genotype was associated with a greater response rate (pathologic complete remission and microfoci residual tumor, 59% in Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 vs. 35% in Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 3; p = .013). For the thymidylate synthase genotype, the median progression-free survival was 103 months for the Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 patients and 84 months for the Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk

  11. Identification of Polycomb Group Protein EZH2-Mediated DNA Mismatch Repair Gene MSH2 in Human Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Laknaur, Archana; Elam, Lelyand; Ismail, Nahed; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Lue, John; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-10-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) are benign smooth muscle neoplasms affecting up to 70% of reproductive age women. Treatment of symptomatic UFs places a significant economic burden on the US health-care system. Several specific genetic abnormalities have been described as etiologic factors of UFs, suggesting that a low DNA damage repair capacity may be involved in the formation of UF. In this study, we used human fibroid and adjacent myometrial tissues, as well as an in vitro cell culture model, to evaluate the expression of MutS homolog 2 (MSH2), which encodes a protein belongs to the mismatch repair system. In addition, we deciphered the mechanism by which polycomb repressive complex 2 protein, EZH2, deregulates MSH2 in UFs. The RNA expression analysis demonstrated the deregulation of MSH2 expression in UF tissues in comparison to its adjacent myometrium. Notably, protein levels of MSH2 were upregulated in 90% of fibroid tissues (9 of 10) as compared to matched adjacent myometrial tissues. Human fibroid primary cells treated with 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), chemical inhibitor of EZH2, exhibited a significant increase in MSH2 expression (P < .05). Overexpression of EZH2 using an adenoviral vector approach significantly downregulated the expression of MSH2 (P < .05). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that enrichment of H3K27me3 in promoter regions of MSH2 was significantly decreased in DZNep-treated fibroid cells as compared to vehicle control. These data suggest that EZH2-H3K27me3 regulatory mechanism dynamically changes the expression levels of DNA mismatch repair gene MSH2, through epigenetic mark H3K27me3. MSH2 may be considered as a marker for early detection of UFs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Pellarin, Ilenia; Arnoldo, Laura; Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens.

  13. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens. PMID:27723831

  14. Platinum drugs and DNA repair mechanisms in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Laura; Favaretto, Adolfo; Rosell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The standard first-line treatment for around 80% of newly-diagnosed advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is chemotherapy. Currently, patients are allocated to chemotherapy on the basis of clinical conditions, comorbidities and histology. If feasible, platinum-based chemotherapy is considered as the most efficacious option. Due to the heterogeneity in terms of platinum-sensitivity among patients with NSCLC, great efforts have been made in order to identify molecular predictive markers of platinum resistance. Based on the mechanism of action of platinum, several components of DNA repair pathways have been investigated as potential predictive markers. The main DNA repair pathways involved in the repair of platinum-induced DNA damage are nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination. The most studied potential predictive markers of platinum-sensitivity are Excision Repair Cross Complementing-1 (ERCC1) and Brest Cancer Type-I Susceptibility protein (BRCA1); however, increasing biological knowledge about DNA repair pathways suggests the potential clinical usefulness of integrated analysis of multiple DNA repair components.

  15. Curcumin prevents DNA damage and enhances the repair potential in a chronically arsenic-exposed human population in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Madhumita; Sinha, Dona; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip

    2011-03-01

    Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of DNA repair are possible modes of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. In West Bengal, India, several districts contain high levels of arsenic, which are far above the WHO-recommended standard. Prevention of arsenic-induced oxidative stress and induction of repair enzymes by curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric, may be an effective strategy to combat the adverse effects of arsenic. This study aimed at observing the role of curcumin in reducing 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine formation and enhancing DNA repair capacity in the arsenic-exposed population of West Bengal. Chronically arsenic-exposed volunteers (n= 66), who were asymptomatic, were selected for this study. Our results indicated that curcumin suppressed the 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine level and OGG1 expression, which were increased by arsenic. Curcumin also induced DNA repair enzymes involved in both base excision repair and nonhomologous end-joining pathways. In this study, both the protein expression and genetic profile were observed for poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1, DNA b polymerase, X ray repair cross complement 1, DNA ligase III, DNA protein kinase catalytic sub-unit, X ray repair cross-complement 4, DNA ligase IV, and topoisomerase II b. The results indicated that arsenic-inhibited DNA repair was induced by curcumin, both at protein and genetic levels. Thus, curcumin intervention may be a useful modality for the prevention of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

  16. Prospective repair of Ventral Hernia Working Group type 3 and 4 abdominal wall defects with condensed polytetrafluoroethylene (MotifMESH) mesh.

    PubMed

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E; Liu, Jing; Hsu, Derek; Dumanian, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of clean-contaminated and contaminated ventral hernia defects remains controversial. Newer prosthetic materials may play an important role in these patients. Ten patients with Ventral Hernia Working Group types 3 and 4 were prospectively enrolled and subsequently treated with direct supported repairs with condensed fenestrated polytetrafluoroethylene mesh. The primary outcome was hernia occurrence at 1 year after surgery. Secondary outcomes included surgical site infection, surgical site occurrence, medical complications, pain, and other patient-reported outcomes. There were no immediate postoperative infections and one minor postoperative hematoma treated in the office. One patient required delayed mesh removal 9 months after placement. Importantly, the mesh removal procedure was straightforward because of the material properties of the mesh. Of the 9 patients still with mesh, there were no hernia recurrences at the repair site with one full year of follow-up. Contaminated and clean-contaminated abdominal wall defects can be effectively and durably treated with condensed polytetrafluoroethylene mesh. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  18. Tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area to see if there are any injuries to nerves and blood vessels. When the repair is complete, the wound is closed. If the tendon damage is too severe, the repair and reconstruction ... to repair part of the injury. Another surgery will be done at a later ...

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  20. Role of DNA Repair Factor Xeroderma Pigmentosum Protein Group C in Response to Replication Stress As Revealed by DNA Fragile Site Affinity Chromatography and Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beresova, Lucie; Vesela, Eva; Chamrad, Ivo; Voller, Jiri; Yamada, Masayuki; Furst, Tomas; Lenobel, Rene; Chroma, Katarina; Gursky, Jan; Krizova, Katerina; Mistrik, Martin; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-12-02

    Replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability and cancer development and may contribute to aging, raising the need to identify factors involved in cellular responses to such stress. Here, we present a strategy for identification of factors affecting the maintenance of common fragile sites (CFSs), which are genomic loci that are particularly sensitive to RS and suffer from increased breakage and rearrangements in tumors. A DNA probe designed to match the high flexibility island sequence typical for the commonly expressed CFS (FRA16D) was used as specific DNA affinity bait. Proteins significantly enriched at the FRA16D fragment under normal and replication stress conditions were identified using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative mass spectrometry. The identified proteins interacting with the FRA16D fragment included some known CFS stabilizers, thereby validating this screening approach. Among the hits from our screen so far not implicated in CFS maintenance, we chose Xeroderma pigmentosum protein group C (XPC) for further characterization. XPC is a key factor in the DNA repair pathway known as global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), a mechanism whose several components were enriched at the FRA16D fragment in our screen. Functional experiments revealed defective checkpoint signaling and escape of DNA replication intermediates into mitosis and the next generation of XPC-depleted cells exposed to RS. Overall, our results provide insights into an unexpected biological role of XPC in response to replication stress and document the power of proteomics-based screening strategies to elucidate mechanisms of pathophysiological significance.

  1. Quantitative predictivity of carcinogenicity of the autoradiographic repair test (primary hepatocyte cultures) for a group of 80 chemicals belonging to different chemical classes.

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, C; Taningher, M; Parodi, S; Santi, L

    1986-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the correlation existing between a short-term genotoxicity test (DNA repair in rat liver cells) and carcinogenicity in rodents. The work is in the framework of a line of thinking that considers as a possibility the utilization of the quantitative component of the information obtained from genotoxicity tests. In a preliminary report for 25 compounds belonging to different chemical classes, a correlation coefficient of 0.36 was found between carcinogenic potency in small rodents and potency in autoradiographic repair. This level of correlation is comparable with similar levels found for many other short-term tests: Ames test, alkaline DNA fragmentation in vivo, DNA adducts in vivo, morphological transformation in vitro and SCE induction in vivo. Obviously, since only 25 compounds were examined, assessment was rather uncertain, and the subdivision of the set into subsets for different chemical classes would have generated groups too small for a meaningful statistical analysis. With a much larger set (80 compounds) we hoped to be able to discriminate different predictivities for different chemical classes. This seems important because the test could be much more suitable for one given class than for another. Previous investigations with different short-term tests have shown that these differences can indeed exist and be very great. In this respect it is potentially very encouraging that the test considered here showed a fair correlation with carcinogenic potency for aromatic amines. Many other tests that we have examined so far have shown little or no predictivity for this important class of chemicals. PMID:3830111

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  3. Association of XRCC1 and OGG1 DNA repair gene polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Randa H; El-Shal, Amal S; El-Shahawy, Eman E; Abdel Galil, Sahar M

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease and can lead to deformities and severe disabilities, due to irreversible damage of tendons, joints, and bones. Previous studies indicated that the DNA repair system was involved in the pathology of RA. In this study, we investigated the association of two XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) (rs25487 and rs25489) gene polymorphisms and two OGG1 (8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1) gene polymorphisms (rs159153 and rs3219008) with the susceptibility to RA in 320 Egyptians individuals (160 RA patients and 160 controls). Genotyping was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction. We found an association between variant XRCC1 (rs25487 and rs25489) genotype polymorphisms, OGG1 (rs3219008) genotype polymorphism, and RA disease susceptibility. Moreover, the presence of the Gln/Gln, Arg/His, and His/His genotypes of XRCC1 was significantly more likely to have bone erosion and extra-articular features in RA patients. Further, patient's carrying the OGG1 A/G and G/G genotypes more likely to have bone erosion. However, the AA genotype and A allele were significantly more likely to have extra-articular features. Also, there were no significant associations between C/T OGG1 gene polymorphism and RA susceptibility, bone erosion, and extra-articular features occurrence in RA patients. We concluded that the XRCC1-Arg/Gln, XRCC1-Arg/His, and OGG1 A/G polymorphism have a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis disease. Also, these variant are associated with the severity of RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  5. Clubfoot repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clubfoot release; Talipes equinovarus - repair; Tibialis anterior tendon transfer ... complete blood count and check electrolytes or clotting factors) Always tell your child's provider: What drugs your ...

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  7. Members of the RAD52 Epistasis Group Contribute to Mitochondrial Homologous Recombination and Double-Strand Break Repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Alexis; Kalifa, Lidza; Sia, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria contain an independently maintained genome that encodes several proteins required for cellular respiration. Deletions in the mitochondrial genome have been identified that cause several maternally inherited diseases and are associated with certain cancers and neurological disorders. The majority of these deletions in human cells are flanked by short, repetitive sequences, suggesting that these deletions may result from recombination events. Our current understanding of the maintenance and repair of mtDNA is quite limited compared to our understanding of similar events in the nucleus. Many nuclear DNA repair proteins are now known to also localize to mitochondria, but their function and the mechanism of their action remain largely unknown. This study investigated the contribution of the nuclear double-strand break repair (DSBR) proteins Rad51p, Rad52p and Rad59p in mtDNA repair. We have determined that both Rad51p and Rad59p are localized to the matrix of the mitochondria and that Rad51p binds directly to mitochondrial DNA. In addition, a mitochondrially-targeted restriction endonuclease (mtLS-KpnI) was used to produce a unique double-strand break (DSB) in the mitochondrial genome, which allowed direct analysis of DSB repair in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that loss of these three proteins significantly decreases the rate of spontaneous deletion events and the loss of Rad51p and Rad59p impairs the repair of induced mtDNA DSBs. PMID:26540255

  8. Contribution of DNA Double-strand Break Repair Gene XRCC3 Genotypes to Triple-negative Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Shin; Hu, Pei-Shin; Hsiao, Chieh-Lun; Ji, Hong-Xue; Liao, Cheng-Hsi; Yueh, Te-Cheng; Chuang, Chin-Liang; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Bau, Da-Tian

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-repair gene X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) is important in DNA double-strand break repair and plays a critical part in initiation of carcinogenesis. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most difficult breast cancer subtype with no existing gene-targeting drugs and little knowledge on its genetic etiology. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of the XRCC3 genotype to individual TNBC susceptibility. A total of 2,464 Taiwan citizens consisting of 1,232 breast cancer cases and 1,232 controls were enrolled in this case-control study, and genotyping of XRCC3 rs1799794, rs45603942, rs861530, rs3212057, rs1799796, rs861539 and rs28903081 were performed with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). We also conducted risk-stratified sub-group analyses to determine the association between the genotype and age- and hormone-related characteristics of breast cancer sub-groups. There was no significant difference between breast cancer and control groups in the distributions of the genotypic or allelic frequencies as for the XRCC3 rs1799794 (p=0.5195 and 0.9545), rs45603942 (p=0.3478 and 0.1449), rs861530 (p=0.4567 and 0.5081), rs3212057 (p=1.0000 and 1.0000), rs1799796 (p=0.8487 and 0.7315) and rs28903081 (p=1.0000 and 1.0000), respectively. However, the XRCC3 rs861539 TT genotype was more prevalent in patients with breast cancer [odds ratio (OR)=2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.62-5.55; p=0.0002], and especially among those who were younger than 55 years (OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.82-3.73; p=0.0001), with first menarche earlier than 12.2 years (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.74-3.52; p=0.0001), with menopause at 49.0 years old or later (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.76-3.62; p=0.0001), or with TNBC (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.46-4.28; p=4.63*10(-4)). XRCC3 rs861539 TT is a potential predictive marker for TNBC in Taiwanese women and investigations in other populations are warranted for further universal application in cancer detection

  9. High mobility group A2 protein and its derivatives bind a specific region of the promoter of DNA repair gene ERCC1 and modulate its activity

    PubMed Central

    Borrmann, Lars; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Heyduk, Tomasz; Seebeck, Birte; Rogalla, Piere; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Wiśniewski, Jacek R.

    2003-01-01

    High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) chromosomal non-histone protein and its derivatives play an important role in development and progression of benign and malignant tumors, obesity and arteriosclerosis, although the underlying mechanisms of these conditions are poorly understood. Therefore, we tried to identify target genes for this transcriptional regulator and to provide insights in the mechanism of interaction to its target. Multiple genes have been identified by microarray experiments as being transcriptionally regulated by HMGA2. Among these we chose the ERCC1 gene, encoding a DNA repair protein, for this study. DNA-binding studies were performed using HMGA2 and C-terminally truncated ΔHMGA2, a derivative that is frequently observed in a variety of tumors. A unique high affinity HMGA2 binding site was mapped to a specific AT-rich region located –323 to –298 upstream of the ERCC1 transcription start site, distinguishing it from other potential AT-rich binding sites. The observed 1:1 stoichiometry for the binding of wild-type HMGA2 to this region was altered to 1:2 upon binding of truncated ΔHMGA2, causing DNA bending. Furthermore, the regulatory effect of HMGA2 was confirmed by luciferase promoter assays showing that ERCC1 promoter activity is down-regulated by all investigated HMGA2 forms, with the most striking effect exerted by ΔHMGA2. Our results provide the first insights into how HMGA2 and its aberrant forms bind and regulate the ERCC1 promoter. PMID:14627817

  10. Proximal Hamstring Repair Strength

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Margaret Ann; Singh, Hardeep; Obopilwe, Elifho; Charette, Ryan; Miller, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proximal hamstring repair for complete ruptures has become a common treatment. There is no consensus in the literature about postoperative rehabilitation protocols following proximal hamstring repair. Some protocols describe bracing to prevent hip flexion or knee extension while others describe no immobilization. There are currently no biomechanical studies evaluating proximal hamstring repairs; nor are there any studies evaluating the effect of different hip flexion angles on these repairs. Hypothesis: As hip flexion increases from 0° to 90°, there will be a greater gap with cyclical loading. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Proximal hamstring insertions were detached from the ischial tuberosity in 24 cadavers and were repaired with 3 single-loaded suture anchors in the hamstring footprint with a Krakow suture technique. Cyclic loading from 10 to 125 N at 1 Hz was then performed for 0°, 45°, and 90° of hip flexion for 1500 cycles. Gap formation, stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load were compared between groups using paired t tests. Results: Cyclic loading demonstrated the least amount of gap formation (P < .05) at 0° of hip flexion (2.39 mm) and most at 90° of hip flexion (4.19 mm). There was no significant difference in ultimate load between hip flexion angles (326, 309, and 338 N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively). The most common mode of failure occurred with knot/suture failure (n = 17). Conclusion: Increasing hip flexion from 0° to 90° increases the displacement across proximal hamstring repairs. Postoperative bracing that limits hip flexion should be considered. Clinical Relevance: Repetitive motion involving hip flexion after a proximal hamstring repair may cause compromise of the repair. PMID:26665049

  11. Aneurysm Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms Cardiologists at the Texas Heart Institute were among the first to use ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular cloning of the human gene SUVCC1 associated with the repair of nondimer DNA damage induced by solar UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, B S; Vaslet, C A; Rosenstein, R B

    1995-02-01

    A mutant cell line, DRP 287, sensitive to solar UV radiation and deficient in the repair of solar UV-induced nondimer DNA damage, was derived from ICR 2A frog cells. These cells were transfected with human DNA and a secondary transformant obtained in which normal solar UV sensitivity was restored and the repair defect corrected. The DNA from this secondary transformant was used to construct a genomic DNA library from which a recombinant phage was isolated containing the human gene capable of restoring normal solar UV sensitivity and correcting the repair defect in the DRP 287 cells. This represents the first human gene which has been isolated that is specifically involved in the repair of nondimer DNA damage induced by solar UV radiation. It has been designated SUVCC1 to denote solar UV cross-complementing gene number 1.

  13. External validation of Vascular Study Group of New England risk predictive model of mortality after elective abdominal aorta aneurysm repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative and comparison against established models.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis V; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Farber, Alik

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study is to externally validate a recently reported Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model of postoperative mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to compare its predictive ability across different patients' risk categories and against the established risk predictive models using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) AAA sample. The VQI AAA database (2010-2015) was queried for patients who underwent elective AAA repair. The VSGNE cases were excluded from the VQI sample. The external validation of a recently published VSGNE AAA risk predictive model, which includes only preoperative variables (age, gender, history of coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, creatinine levels, and aneurysm size) and planned type of repair, was performed using the VQI elective AAA repair sample. The predictive value of the model was assessed via the C-statistic. Hosmer-Lemeshow method was used to assess calibration and goodness of fit. This model was then compared with the Medicare, Vascular Governance Northwest model, and Glasgow Aneurysm Score for predicting mortality in VQI sample. The Vuong test was performed to compare the model fit between the models. Model discrimination was assessed in different risk group VQI quintiles. Data from 4431 cases from the VSGNE sample with the overall mortality rate of 1.4% was used to develop the model. The internally validated VSGNE model showed a very high discriminating ability in predicting mortality (C = 0.822) and good model fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .309) among the VSGNE elective AAA repair sample. External validation on 16,989 VQI cases with an overall 0.9% mortality rate showed very robust predictive ability of mortality (C = 0.802). Vuong tests yielded a significant fit difference favoring the VSGNE over then Medicare model (C = 0.780), Vascular Governance Northwest (0.774), and Glasgow Aneurysm Score (0

  14. Susceptibility to Breast Cancer and Intron 3 Ins/Del Genetic Polymorphism of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Gene XRCC4

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa; Saadat, Shekoofeh

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Since genetic variations in X-ray cross-complementing group 4 (XRCC4; OMIM: 194363) repair gene might be associated with a reduction in cellular DNA repair capacity, it is hypothesized that XRCC4 Ins/Del (I/D) polymorphism (in intron 3 of the gene; rs28360071) may be a risk factor for breast cancer. Therefore, the present case-control study was carried out. Methods The present case-control study included 407 females with breast cancer and a total of 394 healthy females from the general population matched with patients according to age. Genotypic analysis for the XRCC4 I/D polymorphism was performed by PCR. In order to investigate the effect of XRCC4 I/D polymorphism on age at diagnosis of breast cancer, the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used. Results Based on the present case-control study, the ID (OR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.69–1.31, P=0.781) and DD (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.84–1.83, P=0.274) genotypes were not associated with breast cancer risk compared with the II genotype. Based on the Cox regression model, there was significant association between genotypes of I/D polymorphism and age at diagnosis of breast cancer (ID+DD vs II; HR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64–0.98, P=0.036). Conclusion Although there was no significant association between XRCC4 I/D polymorphism and risk of breast cancer, patients having the II genotype have lower age at diagnosis in comparison with patients having ID+DD genotypes. PMID:28356849

  15. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  16. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  17. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  18. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  19. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  20. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  1. Replacement of a thiourea with an amidine group in a monofunctional platinum-acridine antitumor agent. Effect on DNA interactions, DNA adduct recognition and repair.

    PubMed

    Kostrhunova, Hana; Malina, Jaroslav; Pickard, Amanda J; Stepankova, Jana; Vojtiskova, Marie; Kasparkova, Jana; Muchova, Tereza; Rohlfing, Matthew L; Bierbach, Ulrich; Brabec, Viktor

    2011-10-03

    A combination of biophysical, biochemical, and computational techniques was used to delineate mechanistic differences between the platinum-acridine hybrid agent [PtCl(en)(L)](NO(3))(2) (complex 1, en = ethane-1,2-diamine, L = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3-dimethylthiourea) and a considerably more potent second-generation analogue containing L' = N-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-N-methylpropionamidine (complex 2). Calculations at the density functional theory level provide a rationale for the binding preference of both complexes for guanine-N7 and the relatively high level of adenine adducts observed for compound 1. A significant rate enhancement is observed for binding of the amidine-based complex 2 with DNA compared with the thiourea-based prototype 1. Studies conducted with chemical probes and on the bending and unwinding of model duplex DNA suggest that adducts of complex 2 perturb B-form DNA more severely than complex 1, however, without denaturing the double strand and significantly less than cisplatin. Circular and linear dichroism spectroscopies and viscosity measurements suggest that subtle differences exist between the intercalation modes and adduct geometries of the two complexes. The adducts formed by complex 2 most efficiently inhibit transcription of the damaged DNA by RNA polymerase II. Not only do complexes 1 and 2 cause less distortion to DNA than cisplatin, they also do not compromise the thermodynamic stability of the modified duplex. This leads to a decreased or negligible affinity of HMG domain proteins for the adducts formed by either Pt-acridine complex. In a DNA repair synthesis assay the lesions formed by complex 2 were repaired less efficiently than those formed by complex 1. These significant differences in DNA adduct formation, structure, and recognition between the two acridine complexes and cisplatin help to elucidate why compound 2 is highly active in cisplatin-resistant, repair proficient cancer cell lines.

  2. Replacement of a Thiourea with an Amidine Group in a Monofunctional Platinum–acridine Antitumor Agent. Effect on DNA Interactions, DNA Adduct Recognition and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kostrhunova, Hana; Malina, Jaroslav; Pickard, Amanda J.; Stepankova, Jana; Vojtiskova, Marie; Kašpárkova, Jana; Muchova, Tereza; Rohlfing, Matthew L.; Bierbach, Ulrich; Brabec, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    A combination of biophysical, biochemical, and computational techniques was used to delineate mechanistic differences between the platinum–acridine hybrid agent [PtCl(en)(L)](NO3)2 (complex 1, en = ethane-1,2-diamine, L = 1-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-1,3- dimethylthiourea) and a considerably more potent second-generation analogue containing L′ = N-[2-(acridin-9-ylamino)ethyl]-Nmethylpropionamidine (complex 2). Calculations at the density functional theory level provide a rationale for the binding preference of both complexes for guanine-N7 and the relatively high level of adenine adducts observed for compound 1. A significant rate enhancement is observed for binding of the amidine-based complex 2 with DNA compared with the thiourea-based prototype 1. Studies conducted with chemical probes and on the bending and unwinding of model duplex DNA suggest that adducts of complex 2 perturb B-form DNA more severely than complex 1, however, without denaturing the double strand and significantly less than cisplatin. Circular and linear dichroism spectroscopies and viscosity measurements suggest that subtle differences exist between the intercalation modes and adduct geometries of the two complexes. The adducts formed by complex 2 most efficiently inhibit transcription of the damaged DNA by RNA polymerase II. Not only do complexes 1 and 2 cause less distortion to DNA than cisplatin, they also do not compromise the thermodynamic stability of the modified duplex. This leads to a decreased or negligible affinity of HMG domain proteins for the adducts formed by either Pt-acridine complex. In a DNA repair synthesis assay the lesions formed by complex 2 were repaired less efficiently than those formed by complex 1. These significant differences in DNA adduct formation, structure, and recognition between the two acridine complexes and cisplatin help to elucidate why compound 2 is highly active in cisplatin-resistant, repair proficient cancer cell lines. PMID:21806015

  3. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  4. Fanconi anemia group J mutation abolishes its DNA repair function by uncoupling DNA translocation from helicase activity or disruption of protein-DNA complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuliang; Sommers, Joshua A.; Suhasini, Avvaru N.; Leonard, Thomas; Deakyne, Julianna S.; Mazin, Alexander V.; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Kitao, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and susceptibility to leukemia and other cancers. FANCJ, one of 13 genes linked to FA, encodes a DNA helicase proposed to operate in homologous recombination repair and replicational stress response. The pathogenic FANCJ-A349P amino acid substitution resides immediately adjacent to a highly conserved cysteine of the iron-sulfur domain. Given the genetic linkage of the FANCJ-A349P allele to FA, we investigated the effect of this particular mutation on the biochemical and cellular functions of the FANCJ protein. Purified recombinant FANCJ-A349P protein had reduced iron and was defective in coupling adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and translocase activity to unwinding forked duplex or G-quadruplex DNA substrates or disrupting protein-DNA complexes. The FANCJ-A349P allele failed to rescue cisplatin or telomestatin sensitivity of a FA-J null cell line as detected by cell survival or γ-H2AX foci formation. Furthermore, expression of FANCJ-A349P in a wild-type background exerted a dominant-negative effect, indicating that the mutant protein interferes with normal DNA metabolism. The ability of FANCJ to use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to produce the force required to unwind DNA or destabilize protein bound to DNA is required for its role in DNA repair. PMID:20639400

  5. DNA repair genes polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms in a Portuguese population: The role of base excision repair genes polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana P; Silva, Susana N; De Lima, João P; Reichert, Alice; Lima, Fernando; Júnior, Esmeraldina; Rueff, José

    2017-06-01

    The role of base excision repair (BER) genes in Philadelphia-negative (PN)-myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) susceptibility was evaluated by genotyping eight polymorphisms [apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1, mutY DNA glycosylase, earlier mutY homolog (E. coli) (MUTYH), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1, PARP4 and X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1)] in a case-control study involving 133 Caucasian Portuguese patients. The results did not reveal a correlation between individual BER polymorphisms and PN-MPNs when considered as a whole. However, stratification for essential thrombocythaemia revealed i) borderline effect/tendency to increased risk when carrying at least one variant allele for XRCC1_399 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); ii) decreased risk for Janus kinase 2-positive patients carrying at least one variant allele for XRCC1_399 SNP; and iii) decreased risk in females carrying at least one variant allele for MUTYH SNP. Combination of alleles demonstrated an increased risk to PN-MPNs for one specific haplogroup. These findings may provide evidence for gene variants in susceptibility to MPNs. Indeed, common variants in DNA repair genes may hamper the capacity to repair DNA, thus increasing cancer susceptibility.

  6. DNA repair genes polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms in a Portuguese population: The role of base excision repair genes polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Ana P.; Silva, Susana N.; De Lima, João P.; Reichert, Alice; Lima, Fernando; Júnior, Esmeraldina; Rueff, José

    2017-01-01

    The role of base excision repair (BER) genes in Philadelphia-negative (PN)-myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) susceptibility was evaluated by genotyping eight polymorphisms [apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1, mutY DNA glycosylase, earlier mutY homolog (E. coli) (MUTYH), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1, PARP4 and X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1)] in a case-control study involving 133 Caucasian Portuguese patients. The results did not reveal a correlation between individual BER polymorphisms and PN-MPNs when considered as a whole. However, stratification for essential thrombocythaemia revealed i) borderline effect/tendency to increased risk when carrying at least one variant allele for XRCC1_399 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); ii) decreased risk for Janus kinase 2-positive patients carrying at least one variant allele for XRCC1_399 SNP; and iii) decreased risk in females carrying at least one variant allele for MUTYH SNP. Combination of alleles demonstrated an increased risk to PN-MPNs for one specific haplogroup. These findings may provide evidence for gene variants in susceptibility to MPNs. Indeed, common variants in DNA repair genes may hamper the capacity to repair DNA, thus increasing cancer susceptibility. PMID:28599464

  7. Comparing Biomechanical Properties, Repair Times, and Value of Common Core Flexor Tendon Repairs.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.

  8. Arthroscopic and open Bankart repairs provide similar outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Abboud, Joseph A; Hasan, Syed A; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R

    2006-05-01

    Recurrent instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair has decreased, largely because of improvements in surgical technique. We wanted to know whether there were differences in functional outcomes (using a validated outcomes measure) in patients who had arthroscopic Bankart repair or open Bankart repair for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. We retrospectively reviewed 106 patients who had a Bankart repair for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability from 1998-2001. Of the 93 patients included, 69 patients had arthroscopic Bankart repair and 24 patients had open Bankart repair. The indications for surgery in the two groups were similar. The average age of the patients was 29.9 years (arthroscopic Bankart repair, 31 years; open Bankart repair, 28 years). The followup ranged from 24-77 months. The average modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (PENN score) for pain, satisfaction, and function were 26.3, 8.5, and 55.1, respectively, in the arthroscopic Bankart repair group and 26.6, 8.8, and 54.2, respectively, in the open Bankart repair group. The total score was 90 in the arthroscopic Bankart repair group and 89.5 in the open Bankart repair group. Recurrent instability occurred in one patient in each group. We found no difference in outcomes between the arthroscopic and open Bankart repair groups using patient-assessed outcomes. Therapeutic Study, Level III (retrospective comparative study). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. DNA single-strand break repair is impaired in aprataxin-related ataxia.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Makito; Yamamoto, Aya; Mori, Toshio; Lan, Li; Iwamoto, Taka-aki; Aoki, Masashi; Shimada, Keiji; Furiya, Yoshiko; Kariya, Shingo; Asai, Hirohide; Yasui, Akira; Nishiwaki, Tomohisa; Imoto, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Kiriyama, Takao; Nagata, Tetsuya; Konishi, Noboru; Itoyama, Yasuto; Ueno, Satoshi

    2007-02-01

    Early-onset ataxia with ocular motor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia (EAOH)/ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is an autosomal recessive form of cerebellar ataxia. The causative protein for EAOH/AOA1, aprataxin (APTX), interacts with X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1), a scaffold DNA repair protein for single-strand breaks (SSBs). The goal of this study was to prove the functional involvement of APTX in SSB repair (SSBR). We visualized the SSBR process with a recently developed laser irradiation system that allows real-time observation of SSBR proteins and with a local ultraviolet-irradiation system using a XPA-UVDE cell line that repairs DNA lesions exclusively via SSBR. APTX was knocked down using small interference RNA in the cells. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and cell death were assessed in EAOH fibroblasts and cerebellum. Our systems showed the XRCC1-dependent recruitment of APTX to SSBs. SSBR was impaired in APTX-knocked-down cells. Oxidative stress in EAOH fibroblasts readily induced SSBs and cell death, which were blocked by antioxidants. Accumulated oxidative DNA damage was confirmed in EAOH cerebellum. This study provides the first direct evidence for the functional involvement of APTX in SSBR and in vivo DNA damage in EAOH/AOA1, and suggests a benefit of antioxidant treatment.

  10. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... leaking or bleeding. You may have an abdominal aortic aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms or problems. ...

  11. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  12. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  13. Cyclosporin A inhibits nucleotide excision repair via downregulation of the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and G proteins, which is mediated by calcineurin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kuschal, Christiane; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Boeckmann, Lars; Laspe, Petra; Apel, Antje; Schön, Michael P; Emmert, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells, a process that contributes to the skin cancer proneness in organ transplant patients. We investigated the mechanisms of CsA-induced NER reduction by assessing all xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes (XPA-XPG). Western blot analyses revealed that XPA and XPG protein expression was reduced in normal human GM00637 fibroblasts exposed to 0.1 and 0.5 μm CsA. Interestingly, the CsA treatment reduced XPG, but not XPA, mRNA expression. Calcineurin knockdown in GM00637 fibroblasts using RNAi led to similar results suggesting that calcineurin-dependent signalling is involved in XPA and XPG protein regulation. CsA-induced reduction in NER could be complemented by the overexpression of either XPA or XPG protein. Likewise, XPA-deficient fibroblasts with stable overexpression of XPA (XP2OS-pCAH19WS) did not show the inhibitory effect of CsA on NER. In contrast, XPC-deficient fibroblasts overexpressing XPC showed CsA-reduced NER. Our data indicate that the CsA-induced inhibition of NER is a result of downregulation of XPA and XPG protein in a calcineurin-dependent manner.

  14. Independent analysis of Olympus flexible ureteroscope repairs.

    PubMed

    Canales, Benjamin K; Gleason, Joseph M; Hicks, Nathan; Monga, Manoj

    2007-07-01

    To conduct a systematic review of repairs of Olympus flexible ureteroscopes using an independent database to compare and contrast with the published data obtained from ureteroscope manufacturers. The repair data from 2000 to 2004 were extracted from a computer database obtained through Precision Endoscopy of America, an independent endoscope repair company. All endoscopes submitted for repair underwent a detailed 16 to 32-point inspection using a set protocol for each endoscope make and model, as determined by the manufacturer. A total of 341 repairs were performed on the Olympus URF-P (4%), URF-P2 (47%), and URF-P3 (47%) flexible ureteroscopes. The distal segment was the most common repair site requiring repair (30%), with 87% of these repairs requiring replacement of the bending rubber. The repairs also included the deflection apparatus (14%) and hand control segment (9%) and image-related repairs (9%). The between-group assessment showed a statistically significant decrease in deflection apparatus repairs for the URF-P2 (20%) compared with the URF-P3 (7%; P <0.001, chi-square = 11.96). The results of our study have shown that the loss of deflection is less common with the newer Olympus ureteroscopes. The distal deflection tip, specifically the outer bending rubber, is the most common site of damage to Olympus flexible ureteroscopes. Improvements in form and function of the distal tip should decrease the maintenance expenses and increase ureteroscope longevity.

  15. Association between polymorphisms in DNA repair gene XRCC1 and non-melanoma skin cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Jia; Duan, Baoxue

    2017-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy with annually rising incidence. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between three coding polymorphisms (Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp, and Arg280His) of the DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and NMSC susceptibility. Online databases were searched to retrieve case-control studies published between January 2000 and November 2016. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to assess the strength of association. Overall, 10 relevant studies were finally included for analysis, including 3,143 NMSC patients and 3,540 controls. For each polymorphism of XRCC1 gene, there were 3,050 cases and 3,463 controls for Arg399Gln, 914 cases and 1,182 controls for Arg194Trp, and 279 cases and 413 controls for Arg280His. Our results showed that these three polymorphisms in the XRCC1 coding region were not associated with increased risk of NMSC in the total studied population. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicities demonstrated that Gln/Arg genotype of Arg399Gln polymorphism was associated with increased risk of NMSC under the heterogeneous model in Asian populations (Gln/Arg vs Arg/Arg: OR =1.39, 95% CI =1.04-1.87, P=0.03); subgroup analysis by tumor types showed that Trp/Trp genotype of Arg194Trp was positively associated with decreased cancer risk in squamous-cell skin cancer (SCC) type under the homogeneous model (Trp/Trp vs Arg/Arg: OR =0.38, 95% CI =0.16-0.92, P=0.03). Our results suggested that Arg399Gln variant of XRCC1 gene might be a risk factor for NMSC in Asian populations, and Arg194Trp variant of XRCC1 gene might be a protective factor for patients with SCC. In addition, future case-control studies are still needed to further evaluate the effect of XRCC1 polymorphisms in NMSC risk.

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  17. Mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Fishel, Richard

    2015-10-30

    Highly conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS) are the fundamental components of mismatch repair (MMR). After decades of debate, it appears clear that the MSH proteins initiate MMR by recognizing a mismatch and forming multiple extremely stable ATP-bound sliding clamps that diffuse without hydrolysis along the adjacent DNA. The function(s) of MLH/PMS proteins is less clear, although they too bind ATP and are targeted to MMR by MSH sliding clamps. Structural analysis combined with recent real-time single molecule and cellular imaging technologies are providing new and detailed insight into the thermal-driven motions that animate the complete MMR mechanism.

  18. A systematic gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analysis of DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC4, and oral cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Da; Yen, Ching-Yui; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a high mortality rate. Biomarkers that anticipate susceptibility, prognosis, or response to treatments are much needed. Oral cancer is a polygenic disease involving complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors, which require multifaceted analyses. Here, we examined in a dataset of 103 oral cancer cases and 98 controls from Taiwan the association between oral cancer risk and the DNA repair genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCCs) 1-4, and the environmental factors of smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel quid (BQ) chewing. We employed logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and hierarchical interaction graphs for analyzing gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions. We identified a significantly elevated risk of the XRCC2 rs2040639 heterozygous variant among smokers [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-12.1] and alcohol drinkers [adjusted OR=5.7, 95% CI=1.4-23.2]. The best two-factor based G×G interaction of oral cancer included the XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 [OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.66-6.13]. For the G×E interaction, the estimated OR of oral cancer for two (drinking-BQ chewing), three (XRCC1-XRCC2-BQ chewing), four (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-BQ chewing), and five factors (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-drinking-BQ chewing) were 32.9 [95% CI=14.1-76.9], 31.0 [95% CI=14.0-64.7], 49.8 [95% CI=21.0-117.7] and 82.9 [95% CI=31.0-221.5], respectively. Taken together, the genotypes of XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 DNA repair genes appear to be significantly associated with oral cancer. These were enhanced by exposure to certain environmental factors. The observations presented here warrant further research in larger study samples to examine their relevance for routine clinical care in oncology.

  19. Molecular and cellular analysis of the DNA repair defect in a patient in Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D who has the clinical features of Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, B.C.; Thompson, A.F.; Harcourt, S.A.; Cole, J.; Arlett, C.F.; Lehmann, A.R.; Vermeulen, W.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; Botta, E.; Stefanini, M.

    1995-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are quite distinct genetic disorders that are associated with defects in excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. A few patients have been described previously with the clinical features of both disorders. In this paper we describe an individual in this category who has unusual cellular responses to UV light. We show that his cultured fibroblasts and lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to irradiation with UV-C, despite a level of nucleotide excision repair that is 30%-40% that of normal cells. The deficiency is assigned to the XP-D complementation group, and we have identified two causative mutations in the XPD gene: a gly{yields}arg change at amino acid 675 in the allele inherited from the patient`s mother and a -1 frameshift at amino acid 669 in the allele inherited from his father. These mutations are in the C-terminal 20% of the 760-amino-acid XPD protein, in a region where we have recently identified several mutations in patients with trichothiodystrophy. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group Cellular Biology of the Heart: cell-based therapies for myocardial repair and regeneration in ischemic heart disease and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Van Laake, Linda W; Davidson, Sean M; Engel, Felix B; Hausenloy, Derek J; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Perrino, Cinzia; Schulz, Rainer; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Landmesser, Ulf; Mummery, Christine L; Janssens, Stefan; Willerson, James; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ferdinandy, Péter; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2016-06-14

    Despite improvements in modern cardiovascular therapy, the morbidity and mortality of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF) remain significant in Europe and worldwide. Patients with IHD may benefit from therapies that would accelerate natural processes of postnatal collateral vessel formation and/or muscle regeneration. Here, we discuss the use of cells in the context of heart repair, and the most relevant results and current limitations from clinical trials using cell-based therapies to treat IHD and HF. We identify and discuss promising potential new therapeutic strategies that include ex vivo cell-mediated gene therapy, the use of biomaterials and cell-free therapies aimed at increasing the success rates of therapy for IHD and HF. The overall aim of this Position Paper of the ESC Working Group Cellular Biology of the Heart is to provide recommendations on how to improve the therapeutic application of cell-based therapies for cardiac regeneration and repair. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of point substitutions within the minimal DNA-binding domain of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein on interaction with DNA intermediates of nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Maltseva, E A; Krasikova, Y S; Naegeli, H; Lavrik, O I; Rechkunova, N I

    2014-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum factor A (XPA) is one of the key proteins in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. The effects of point substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of XPA (positively charged lysine residues replaced by negatively charged glutamate residues: XPA K204E, K179E, K141E, and tandem mutant K141E/K179E) on the interaction of the protein with DNA structures modeling intermediates of the damage recognition and pre-incision stages in NER were analyzed. All these mutations decreased the affinity of the protein to DNA, the effect depending on the substitution and the DNA structure. The mutant as well as wild-type proteins bind with highest efficiency partly open damaged DNA duplex, and the affinity of the mutants to this DNA is reduced in the order: K204E > K179E > K141E = K141/179E. For all the mutants, decrease in DNA binding efficiency was more pronounced in the case of full duplex and single-stranded DNA than with bubble-DNA structure, the difference between protein affinities to different DNA structures increasing as DNA binding activity of the mutant decreased. No effect of the studied XPA mutations on the location of the protein on the partially open DNA duplex was observed using photoinduced crosslinking with 5-I-dUMP in different positions of the damaged DNA strand. These results combined with earlier published data suggest no direct correlation between DNA binding and activity in NER for these XPA mutants.

  2. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    BLADES , *GUIDE VANES , *REPAIR, TURBOFAN ENGINES , DIFFUSION BONDING, COST EFFECTIVENESS Identifiers: (U) * Turbine vanes , TF-39 engines , Activated...REPAIR TECHNIQUES FOR TURBINE AIRFOILS J. A. WEIN W. R. YOUNG GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP CINCINNATI, OHIO 45215 APRIL 1979...Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OH AIRCRAFT ENGINE BUSINESS GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for

  3. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene xeroderma pigmentosum groups A and C and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a population of high incidence region of North China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhou, Rong Miao; Wan, Ling Ling; Wang, Na; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao Juan; Dong, Xiu Juan

    2008-02-01

    Inherited polymorphisms of DNA repair genes may contribute to variations in DNA repair capacity (DRC) and genetic susceptibility to different cancers. The aim of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) and XPC can influence the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this report, one SNP of XPA and three SNPs of XPC were genotyped by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay in 327 ESCC patients and 612 healthy controls in a high incidence region of North China. Family history of upper gastrointestinal cancers (UGIC) may increase the risk of developing ESCC. The overall genotype and allelotype distributions of XPA A23G in ESCC patients were significantly different from that in healthy controls (P < 0.05). The A/G + G/G genotype significantly decreased the risk of developing ESCC compared with A/A genotype. When stratified for family history of UGIC, compared with A/A genotype, A/G + G/G genotype significantly decreased the risk of ESCC in groups with negative history of UGIC. The overall genotype and allelotype distributions of XPC intron 9 PAT(+/-) and exon 15 Lys939Gln and exon 8 Val499Ala in ESCC patients were not significantly different from that in healthy controls (P > 0.05). When stratified for smoking status and UGIC family history, compared with A/A genotype, C/C genotype of exon 15 Lys939Gln significantly increased the risk of developing ESCC in non-smoker group. We concluded that XPA23 polymorphism may be useful markers for identifying individuals at risk of developing ESCC. C/C genotype of XPC exon 15 may be one of the factors that affect the risk of developing ESCC in nonsmoking population in the high incidence region of China.

  4. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  5. Arsenic exposure is associated with decreased DNA repair in vitro and in individuals exposed to drinking water arsenic.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Angeline S; Burgess, Jefferey L; Meza, Maria M; Demidenko, Eugene; Waugh, Mary G; Hamilton, Joshua W; Karagas, Margaret R

    2006-08-01

    The mechanism(s) by which arsenic exposure contributes to human cancer risk is unknown ; however, several indirect cocarcinogenesis mechanisms have been proposed. Many studies support the role of As in altering one or more DNA repair processes. In the present study we used individual-level exposure data and biologic samples to investigate the effects of As exposure on nucleotide excision repair in two study populations, focusing on the excision repair cross-complement 1 (ERCC1) component. We measured drinking water, urinary, or toenail As levels and obtained cryopreserved lymphocytes of a subset of individuals enrolled in epidemiologic studies in New Hampshire (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). Additionally, in corroborative laboratory studies, we examined the effects of As on DNA repair in a cultured human cell model. Arsenic exposure was associated with decreased expression of ERCC1 in isolated lymphocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, lymphocytes from As-exposed individuals showed higher levels of DNA damage, as measured by a comet assay, both at baseline and after a 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2-AAAF) challenge. In support of the in vivo data, As exposure decreased ERCC1 mRNA expression and enhanced levels of DNA damage after a 2-AAAF challenge in cell culture. These data provide further evidence to support the ability of As to inhibit the DNA repair machinery, which is likely to enhance the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of other directly genotoxic compounds, as part of a cocarcinogenic mechanism of action.

  6. Laparoscopic intraperitoneal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) prosthetic patch repair of ventral hernia. Prospective comparison to open prefascial polypropylene mesh repair.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, E J; Moss, J M; Sugerman, H J

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether laparoscopic intraperitoneal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) prosthetic patch (LIPP) repair of a ventral hernia is superior to open prefascial polypropylene mesh (OPPM) repair in a tertiary care university hospital in an urban environment. Data on 39 consecutive patients undergoing either LIPP repair (n = 21) or OPPM repair (n = 18) were compared. Findings showed that LIPP repair is characterized by less painful recovery and shorter hospital stay, with 90% of patients treated successfully as outpatients as compared with 7% in the OPPM group. The total facility costs for the LIPP repair ($8,273+/-$2,950) was significantly lower than for the OPPM repair ($12,461+/-$5,987) (p<0.05). Two serious delayed complications in the LIPP group were treated by reoperation (colocutaneous fistula, mesh infection), but the higher readmission costs in this group did not negate the overall cost advantage for LIPP repair. In the follow-up evaluation, 1 hernia recurrence was found in the LIPP repair group, and none in the OPPM group. Initial experience suggests that LIPP repair has advantages over OPPM repair in terms of decreased hospitalization, postoperative pain, and disability. Refinements in the technique to reduce complications may make LIPP repair the procedure of choice for repair of ventral hernias.

  7. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  8. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  9. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, occupational exposure to arsenic and sunlight, and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a European case-control study.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2014-10-01

    X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3) polymorphisms are relatively frequent in Caucasian populations and may have implications in skin cancer modulation. A few studies have evaluated their association with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but the results are inconsistent. In the current study, we aim to assess the impact of XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms on the risk of NMSC associated with sunlight and arsenic exposure. Study participants consist of 618 new cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls frequency matched on age, sex, and county of residence from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Adjusted effects are estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The results indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC1 R399Q (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.14-5.65) and a protective effect against basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC3 T241M (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.92), compared with the respective homozygous common genotypes. Significant interactions are detected between XRCC3 T241M and sunlight exposure at work, and between XRCC3 T241M and exposure to arsenic in drinking water (p-value for interaction <0.10). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that polymorphisms in XRCC genes may modify the associations between skin cancer risk and exposure to sunlight or arsenic. Given the high prevalence of genetic polymorphisms modifying the association between exposure to environmental carcinogens and NMSC, these results are of substantial relevance to public health.

  10. Photochemical tissue bonding: a promising technique for peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T Shane; O'Neill, Anne C; Motarjem, Pejman M; Amann, Christopher; Nguyen, Tuan; Randolph, Mark A; Winograd, Jonathan M; Kochevar, Irene E; Redmond, Robert W

    2007-12-01

    Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a novel tissue repair technique that uses visible light and a photosensitizing dye to crosslink proteins on tissue surfaces. This technique has been successfully demonstrated in a number of tissue repair models. An ideal nerve repair technique would be atraumatic and avoid placement of foreign bodies at the repair site. The epineurium is suited to photochemical repair as it is thin, translucent and has a relatively high collagen content. This study was designed to determine if PTB could be successfully applied in a peripheral nerve repair model. Forty Sprague Dawley rats underwent transection of the sciatic nerve. Animals were then randomized to four treatment groups; epineurial suture repair, epineurial cuff with PTB, epineurial cuff alone, and no repair. Functional recovery was assessed at 10 day intervals using walking track analysis and sciatic function index calculations. At 90 days postoperatively animals were sacrificed and sciatic nerves harvested for histology and histomorphometry. Functional recovery in the suture repair and epineural cuff with PTB groups were not significantly different (-70.6 +/- 17.8 versus -76.9 +/- 10.3, P = 0.64) at 90 days postrepair. Histology showed good axonal regeneration with all repair techniques. Histomorphometric analysis found no significant difference between the repair groups. This study illustrates that peripheral nerves can be successfully repaired using a photochemical tissue bonding technique with results similar to those achieved with the current gold standard. With further development and refinement PTB may prove a useful tool in peripheral nerve repair.

  11. DNA repair gene XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiliu; Mo, Cuiju; Tang, Weizhong; Chen, Zhiping; Li, Ruolin; Zhai, Limin; Yang, Shi; Wu, Junrong; Sui, Jingzhe; Li, Shan; Qin, Xue

    2014-03-01

    The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) in homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway plays a vital role in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). Variants in the XRCC3 gene might result in altered protein structure or function which may influence DSBR efficiency and lead to cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. However, the results of these previous studies have been inconsistent. To derive a more precise estimation of the association, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies relating XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer. All studies published up to April 2013 on the association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical Literature databases. The association between the XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 16 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria and were selected. With respect to C18067T polymorphism, significant increased bladder cancer risk was found when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.174, 95%CI = 1.033-1.335, P = 0.014 and recessive model TT vs. TC + CC: OR = 1.147, 95%CI = 1.020-1.290, P = 0.022, respectively). The results were still significant after excluding the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium violation studies (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.178, 95%CI = 1.036-1.339, P = 0.013 and recessive model TT vs. TC + CC: OR = 1.144, 95%CI = 1.017-1.287, P = 0.025, respectively). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant elevated risk was found among Asians (dominant model TT + TC vs. CC: OR = 1.285, 95%CI = 1.012-1.631). In the subgroup analyses according to smoking status, no significant association was detected in all

  12. Is percutaneous repair better than open repair in acute Achilles tendon rupture?

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Hugo; Muñoz, Roberto; Carcuro, Giovanni; Bastías, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Open repair of Achilles tendon rupture has been associated with higher levels of wound complications than those associated with percutaneous repair. However, some studies suggest there are higher rerupture rates and sural nerve injuries with percutaneous repair. We compared the two types of repairs in terms of (1) function (muscle strength, ankle ROM, calf and ankle perimeter, single heel rise tests, and work return), (2) cosmesis (length scar, cosmetic appearance), and (3) complications. We retrospectively reviewed 32 surgically treated patients with Achilles rupture: 17 with percutaneous repair and 15 with open repair. All patients followed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. The minimum followup was 6 months (mean, 18 months; range, 6-48 months). We observed similar values of plantar flexor strength, ROM, calf and ankle perimeter, and single heel raising test between the groups. Mean time to return to work was longer for patients who had open versus percutaneous repair (5.6 months versus 2.8 months). Mean scar length was greater in the open repair group (9.5 cm versus 2.9 cm). Cosmetic appearance was better in the percutaneous group. Two wound complications and one rerupture were found in the open repair group. One case of deep venous thrombosis occurred in the percutaneous repair group. All complications occurred before 6 months after surgery. We identified no patients with nerve injury. Percutaneous repair provides function similar to that achieved with open repair, with a better cosmetic appearance, a lower rate of wound complications, and no apparent increase in the risk of rerupture. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  14. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  15. Bio-enhanced repair of the anterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Sieker, Jakob T.; Murray, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Suture repair of the ACL has been widely abandoned in favor of ACL reconstruction, largely due to the high rates of failure and unreliability of the outcomes following suture repair. However, there have been recent basic science studies which suggest that combining a suture repair with a biologic adjunct may improve the results of suture repair of the ACL, with several studies in large animal models showing equivalent strength of an ACL treated with bio-enhanced repaired with that of an ACL graft at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, the groups treated with bio-enhanced repair had significantly less osteoarthritis when compared with the animals undergoing ACL reconstruction. These findings have led to a renewed interest in bio-enhanced primary repair as a way to make repair of the ACL a viable option for a select group of patients in the future. PMID:25595694

  16. The Utility of Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, Excision Repair Cross-Complementing 1 (ERCC1), Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Expression in Small Biopsy in Prognosis of Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma – A Retrograde Single-Center Study from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Burazer, Marina Piljić; Mladinov, Suzana; Ćapkun, Vesna; Kuret, Sendi; Durdov, Merica Glavina

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out in order to evaluate our institutional experience with small biopsy in diagnosis and molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma. Few specific and predictive markers have been evaluated and correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics and survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma who received platinum-based chemotherapy. There have not been such reports from Croatia. Material/Methods A total of 142 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively investigated in small biopsies for the immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, napsin A, ERCC1, ALK, and the EGFR mutation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). Results TTF-1, napsin A, and ERCC1 expression was found in 81%, 78%, and 69% of patients, respectively, and the expressions were not significantly associated with subtype. Expression of ALK was found in 4% and EGFR mutation in 10% of patients. Exon 19 deletions were the most common. Longer survival was significantly associated with TTF-1 positivity (p=0.007) and napsin A positivity (p=0.026). Higher relative risk of death significantly correlated with positive expression of ERCC1 (p=0.041). Conclusions Positive TTF-1 and napsin A expressions in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were useful diagnostic and favorable prognostic parameters. Positive ERCC1 expression was identified as a negative prognostic marker in patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The percentages of EGFR and ALK mutations corresponded to those in previously published reports for Caucasians. PMID:28128193

  17. Sirtuins, Metabolism, and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jee-Eun; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Cells evolve to actively coordinate nutrient availability with cellular activity in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis. In addition, active pathways to repair DNA damage are crucial to avoid deleterious genomic instability. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that availability of intermediate metabolites may play an important role in DNA repair, suggesting that these two seemingly distant cellular activities may be highly coordinated. The sirtuin family of proteins now described as deacylases (they can also remove acyl groups other than acetyl moieties), it appears to have evolved to control both metabolism and DNA repair. In this review, we discuss recent advances that lay the foundation to understanding the role of sirtuins in these two biological processes, and the potential crosstalk to coordinate them. PMID:25005742

  18. Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  19. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some hernia repairs are performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. If your surgeon has ... in the abdominal wall (muscle) using small incisions, telescopes and a patch (mesh). Laparoscopic repair offers a ...

  20. Inguinal hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... This repair can be done with open or laparoscopic surgery. You and your surgeon can discuss which type ... the repair, the cuts are stitched closed. In laparoscopic surgery: The surgeon makes three to five small cuts ...

  1. Pallet repair and salvage

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Frost; Hollis R. Large

    1975-01-01

    Efficient unit-load handling with permanent pallets requires a well-organized pallet repair program. To provide basic infomation on pallet damage that could be used in establishing repair standards, we inspected a total of 1700 damaged pallets at four repair facilities. All damage was recorded by type, severity, and location. This survey determined that missing...

  2. Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Transabdominal preperitoneal floor repair.

    PubMed

    Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach to inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired the indirect, direct, and femoral areas in all patients without tension. In our series, 183 patients had 205 hernia repairs and were followed for more than 6 months. Of this group, 128 hernias were indirect, 55 direct, 22 pantaloon, 26 recurrent, and 22 bilateral. All 12 females and the first 11 males had a single-buttress repair with polypropylene mesh. The other 160 male patients had a double-buttress repair. With median follow-up of 12 months, ranging from 6 to 21 months, no recurrences were found. Patients returned to normal activity in an average of 1 week. Dissection and buttressing of the entire inguinal floor with mesh appeared to solve the problem of early recurrence first seen in laparoscopic herniorrhaphy.

  3. Minilaparoscopy For Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Malcher, Flavio; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti; Araujo, Guilherme D. E.; Silva, José Antônio Da Cunha E.; Rao, Prashanth; Iglesias, Antonio Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Inguinal hernia repair is among the most common procedures performed worldwide and the laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach is a recognized and effective surgical technique. Although technically advantageous because of the option of no mesh fixation and no need for creation of a peritoneal flap resulting, in less postoperative pain and faster recovery, TEP has not achieved the popularity it deserves, mainly because of its complexity and steep learning curve. Minilaparoscopy was first described in the 1990s and has recently gained significantly from better instrumentation that may increase TEP's effectiveness and acceptance. We performed a prospective study, to analyze the outcomes of minilaparoscopy in pain and operative time when compared to the conventional laparoscopic technique in hernia repair. Methods: Fifty-eight laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs were performed: 36 by traditional laparoscopic technique and 22 by minilaparoscopic instruments (mini). A study protocol was applied prospectively for data collection. Variables analyzed were early postoperative pain (at hour 6 after procedure), pain at discharge, use of on-demand analgesics, and operative time. Results: The mini group presented reduced early postoperative pain and operative time. The present study also suggests less postoperative pain at discharge with mini procedures, although this difference was not statistically significant. No difference between the groups regarding on-demand use of analgesics was found. Conclusions: This study corroborates findings in previously published papers that have shown the feasibility of minilaparoscopy in laparoscopic TEP hernia repair and its benefits regarding postoperative pain, operative time, and aesthetic outcomes. PMID:27777499

  4. Bilateral inguinal hernias: simultaneous or sequential repair?

    PubMed Central

    Stott, M. A.; Sutton, R.; Royle, G. T.

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred and forty four patients underwent either simultaneous bilateral inguinal hernia repair (n = 122) or unilateral inguinal hernia (n = 122) repair at a general hospital between January 1971 and December 1981. The two groups of patients were matched for age and sex. Both groups had a similar overall incidence of post-operative complications and in both groups the duration of post-operative stay and duration of operating time were similar. Chest infections developed in 12 patients after bilateral repair and in 3 patients after unilateral repair (P less than 0.02). All patients were assessed prospectively from 4 to 15 years after operation, when no significant difference in the number of recurrent hernias was found. Our results suggest that simultaneous bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy is economical in terms of both operating time and duration of hospital stay, and that this economy is not bought at a cost of increased short term morbidity or long-term recurrence rate. PMID:3200778

  5. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. DNA breaks and chromosomal aberrations arise when replication meets base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Ensminger, Michael; Iloff, Lucie; Ebel, Christian; Nikolova, Teodora; Lӧbrich, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Exposures that methylate DNA potently induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal aberrations, which are thought to arise when damaged bases block DNA replication. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation damage causes DSB formation when replication interferes with base excision repair (BER), the predominant pathway for repairing methylated bases. We show that cells defective in the N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase, which fail to remove N-methylpurines from DNA and do not initiate BER, display strongly reduced levels of methylation-induced DSBs and chromosomal aberrations compared with wild-type cells. Also, cells unable to generate single-strand breaks (SSBs) at apurinic/apyrimidinic sites do not form DSBs immediately after methylation damage. In contrast, cells deficient in x-ray cross-complementing protein 1, DNA polymerase β, or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 activity, all of which fail to seal SSBs induced at apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, exhibit strongly elevated levels of methylation-induced DSBs and chromosomal aberrations. We propose that DSBs and chromosomal aberrations after treatment with N-alkylators arise when replication forks collide with SSBs generated during BER. PMID:24982429

  7. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  8. Assignment of the XRCC2 human DNA repair gene to chromosome 7q36 by complementation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.J.; Thompson, L.H.; Zhao, Y.

    1995-04-10

    The V79 hamster cell line irs1 is a repair-deficient mutant hypersensitive to radiation and DNA-reactive chemical agents. Somatic cell hybrids were formed by fusing irs1 cells with human lymphocytes and selecting for complementation in medium containing concentrations of mitomycin C (MMC) that are toxic to irs1. Thirty-eight MMC-resistant hybrids showed extensive segregation of human chromosomes, with 35 of them retaining human chromosome 7, as indicated by molecular marker and cytogenetic analyses. Inter-Alu-PCR products from the DNA of hybrids, when used as a fluorescence in situ hybridization probe onto normal human metaphases, indicated that one resistant hybrid was monochromosomal for chromosome 7 and that the three resistant hybrids shown to be negative for chromosome 7 markers have retained portions of chromosome 7, with region 7q36 being the smallest common region. MMC-sensitive subclones of a resistant hybrid lost human chromosome 7. Therefore, the gene complementing the repair defect, XRCC2 (X-ray repair cross complementing), is assigned to human chromosome 7q36. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Retinal detachment repair

    MedlinePlus

    Scleral buckling; Vitrectomy; Pneumatic retinopexy; Laser retinopexy; Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair ... it meets the hole in the retina. Scleral buckling can be done using numbing medicine while you ...

  10. Cleft palate repair and variations

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Karoon

    2009-01-01

    Cleft palate affects almost every function of the face except vision. Today a child born with cleft palate with or without cleft lip should not be considered as unfortunate, because surgical repair of cleft palate has reached a highly satisfactory level. However for an average cleft surgeon palatoplasty remains an enigma. The surgery differs from centre to centre and surgeon to surgeon. However there is general agreement that palatoplasty (soft palate at least) should be performed between 6-12 months of age. Basically there are three groups of palatoplasty techniques. One is for hard palate repair, second for soft palate repair and the third based on the surgical schedule. Hard palate repair techniques are Veau-Wardill-Kilner V-Y, von Langenbeck, two-flap, Aleveolar extension palatoplasty, vomer flap, raw area free palatoplasty etc. The soft palate techniques are intravelar veloplasty, double opposing Z-plasty, radical muscle dissection, primary pharyngeal flap etc. And the protocol based techniques are Schweckendiek's, Malek's, whole in one, modified schedule with palatoplasty before lip repair etc. One should also know the effect of each technique on maxillofacial growth and speech. The ideal technique of palatoplasty is the one which gives perfect speech without affecting the maxillofacial growth and hearing. The techniques are still evolving because we are yet to design an ideal one. It is always good to know all the techniques and variations so that one can choose whichever gives the best result in one's hands. A large number of techniques are available in literature, and also every surgeon incorporates his own modification to make it a variation. However there are some basic techniques, which are described in details which are used in various centres. Some of the important variations are also described. PMID:19884664

  11. Proximal Contact Repair of Complex Amalgam Restorations.

    PubMed

    Zguri, M N; Casey, J A; Jessup, J P; Vandewalle, K S

    2017-01-12

    The carving of a complex amalgam restoration may occasionally result in light proximal contact with the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of complex amalgam restorations repaired with a proximal slot amalgam preparation. Extracted human third molars of similar coronal size were sectioned 1 mm apical to the height of the contour using a saw and were randomly distributed into 9 groups of 10 teeth each. One pin was placed at each line angle of the flattened dentinal tooth surface. A metal matrix band was placed and an admixed alloy was condensed and carved to create a full crown contour but with a flat occlusal surface. A proximal slot was prepared with or without a retention groove and repaired using a single-composition spherical amalgam 15 minutes, 24 hours, one week, or six months after the initial crown condensation. The specimens were stored for 24 hours in 37°C water before fracture at the marginal ridge using a round-ended blade in a universal testing machine. The control group was not repaired. The mean maximum force in newtons and standard deviation were determined per group. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance as well as Tukey and Dunnett tests (α=0.05). Significant differences were found between groups based on type of slot preparation (p=0.017) but not on time (p=0.327), with no significant interaction (p=0.152). No significant difference in the strength of the marginal ridge was found between any repair group and the unrepaired control group (p>0.076). The proximal repair strength of a complex amalgam restoration was not significantly different from an unrepaired amalgam crown. Placing a retention groove in the proximal slot preparation resulted in significantly greater fracture strength than a slot with no retention grooves. Time of repair had no significant effect on the strength of the repair.

  12. Satisfaction, function and repair integrity after arthroscopic versus mini-open rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Barnes, L A Fink; Kim, H M; Caldwell, J-M; Buza, J; Ahmad, C S; Bigliani, L U; Levine, W N

    2017-02-01

    Advances in arthroscopic techniques for rotator cuff repair have made the mini-open approach less popular. However, the mini-open approach remains an important technique for repair for many surgeons. The aims of this study were to compare the integrity of the repair, the function of the shoulder and satisfaction post-operatively using these two techniques in patients aged > 50 years. We identified 22 patients treated with mini-open and 128 patients treated with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of July 2007 and June 2011. The mean follow-up was two years (1 to 5). Outcome was assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and satisfaction. The integrity of the repair was assessed using ultrasonography. A power analysis ensured sufficient enrolment. There was no statistically significant difference between the age, function, satisfaction, or pain scores (p > 0.05) of the two groups. The integrity of the repair and the mean SST scores were significantly better in the mini-open group (91% of mini-open repairs were intact versus 60% of arthroscopic repairs, p = 0.023; mean SST score 10.9 (standard deviation (sd) 1.3) in the mini-open group; 8.9 (sd 3.5) in arthroscopic group; p = 0.003). The ASES scores were also higher in the mini-open group (mean ASES score 91.0 (sd 10.5) in mini-open group; mean 82.70 (sd 19.8) in the arthroscopic group; p = 0.048). The integrity of the repair and function of the shoulder were better after a mini-open repair than after arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear in these patients. The functional difference did not translate into a difference in satisfaction. Mini-open rotator cuff repair remains a useful technique despite advances in arthroscopy. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:245-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Cihad; Tüzün, İshak Sefa; Karşıdağ, Tamer; Kızılkaya, Mehmet Celal; Yılmaz, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of non-complicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3), and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4). Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14%) of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78%) had hematomas, four (3.57%) had seromas, and one (0.89%) had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56%) of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69%) had hematomas, one (2.56%) had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection, seroma

  14. Biomechanical comparison of 3 methods to repair pectoralis major ruptures.

    PubMed

    Rabuck, Stephen J; Lynch, Jamie L; Guo, Xin; Zhang, Li-Qun; Edwards, Sara L; Nuber, Gordon W; Saltzman, Matthew D

    2012-07-01

    Pectoralis major ruptures are closely associated with weight lifting and participation in sports. The anatomy of the pectoralis major tendon is unique with an elongated thin footprint requiring multiple points of fixation to restore the native anatomy. Multiple options exist for tendon repairs, but the strongest construct has yet to be identified. The intent of this study was to compare the load to failure of bone trough, cortical button, and suture anchor repairs of the pectoralis major tendon in the extended and abducted position. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were divided equally into 3 groups based on the repair technique to be performed. Bone mineral density of the surgical neck of the proximal humerus was assessed before each repair. Bone trough, suture anchor, and cortical button repairs were performed as dictated by computerized randomization. Each specimen was loaded to failure and mode of failure was noted. The majority of failures occurred through the suture used for tendon repair. One specimen in the bone trough group failed via fracture of the proximal humerus. The suture anchor group failed at the implant in 5 of 9 specimens and through the suture in 4 of 9 specimens. Load to failure was greatest in bone trough repairs at 596 N, followed by cortical button at 494 N, and finally suture anchor repairs with 383 N. Load to failure was significantly greater in the bone trough group when compared with suture anchor repairs (P = .007). No correlation was found between bone mineral density and load to failure. Bone trough repair of the pectoralis major tendon was stronger than suture anchor repair. Identification of the strongest repair may help guide surgical repair.

  15. Repairs of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  16. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.

  17. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  18. Imperforate anus repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002926.htm Imperforate anus repair To use the sharing features on this page, ... done. Why the Procedure is Performed ... blood clots, infection Risks of this procedure include: Damage to the urethra (tube that carries urine out ...

  19. Chain Saw Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Helbling, Wayne

    This curriculum is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Repair guide by covering in detail all aspects of chain saw repair. The publication contains materials for both teacher and student and is written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes six units. Each unit contains some or all of the…

  20. Methods of repairing a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  1. Transcription-coupled DNA repair in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Ann; Spivak, Graciela; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) that acts specifically on lesions in the transcribed strand of expressed genes. First reported in mammalian cells, TCR was then documented in Escherichia coli. In this organism, an RNA polymerase arrested at a lesion is displaced by the transcription repair coupling factor, Mfd. This protein recruits the NER lesion-recognition factor UvrA, and then dissociates from the DNA. UvrA binds UvrB, and the assembled UvrAB* complex initiates repair. In mutants lacking active Mfd, TCR is absent. A gene transcribed by the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase in E. coli also requires Mfd for TCR. The CSB protein (missing or defective in cells of patients with Cockayne syndrome, complementation group B) is essential for TCR in humans. CSB and its homologs in higher eukaryotes are likely functional equivalents of Mfd. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA repair genes in the Megavirales pangenome.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The order 'Megavirales' represents a group of eukaryotic viruses with a large genome encoding a few hundred up to two thousand five hundred genes. Several members of Megavirales possess genes involved in major DNA repair pathways. Some of these genes were likely inherited from an ancient virus world and some others were derived from the genomes of their hosts. Here we examine molecular phylogenies of key DNA repair enzymes in light of recent hypotheses on the origin of Megavirales, and propose that the last common ancestors of the individual families of the order Megavirales already possessed DNA repair functions to achieve and maintain a moderately large genome and that this repair capacity gradually increased, in a family-dependent manner, during their recent evolution.

  3. Sexual function in women after rectocele repair with acellular porcine dermis graft vs site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

    PubMed

    Novi, Joseph M; Bradley, Catherine S; Mahmoud, Najjia N; Morgan, Mark A; Arya, Lily A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare preoperative and postoperative sexual function between women undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft and women undergoing site-specific repair of rectovaginal fascia. A standardized, validated questionnaire (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire [PISQ]) was used to collect preoperative sexual function data from 100 patients with rectocele pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage 2 or greater. Fifty women underwent rectocele repair utilizing porcine dermis graft (group 1) and 50 women underwent a site-specific repair of the rectovaginal fascia (group 2). The same questionnaire was administered to all subjects 6 months after surgery. The two groups were similar in age, race, parity, prior hysterectomy, and postmenopausal hormone use. Preoperative sexual function scores were similar in the two groups (group 1 81.4+/-7.3 and group 2: 83.6+/-8.2, p=1.0). Six months after surgery, PISQ scores in group 1 significantly increased (score increase 19.9+/-2.2, p=0.01). The mean increase in PISQ scores for group 2 was 6.9+/-3.1 (p=0.08). When compared with group 2, subjects undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft scored significantly higher on the PISQ 6 months after surgery (group 1 101.3+/-6.4 and group 2 89.7+/-7.1, p=0.01). We conclude that rectocele repair using porcine dermis graft is associated with improved sexual functioning when compared with site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

  4. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-12-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly.

  5. Repairability of aged resin composites mediated by different restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aa; Mauro, Sílvio J; de Campos, Renata A; Dos Santos, Paulo H; Machado, Lucas S; Fagundes, Ticiane C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of resin composite repairs with and without aging of the surface to be repaired, using different adhesive systems and resin composites. Ninety specimens were prepared: 10 for the Control Group (GC - without repair); 40 for Group I (GI - repairs after 7 days) and 40 for Group II (GII - repairs after 180 days). Groups I and II were divided into 4 subgroups of 10 specimens each, according to the adhesive system and composite resin used: A) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Filtek Z350 XT; B) Adper Single Bond Plus + Filtek Z350 XT; C) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Esthet-X; D) Adper Single Bond Plus + Esthet-X. The specimens were tested for shear strength in a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed by two-factor one-way ANOVA and Fisher's post hoc tests (alpha=0.05). The control group had better performance than the other groups. There was no significant difference when comparing different adhesive systems and composite resins. Repairs performed at 7 days were better than those performed at 180 days. The composite repairs decreased the mechanical strength of the restoration. Aging of the resin substrate may decrease repair bond strength over time, regardless of the type of adhesive systems and resin composites used.

  6. EUVL Mask Blank Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Mirkarimi, P; Stearns, D G; Sweeney, D; Chapman, H N; Clift, M; Hector, S; Yi, M

    2002-05-22

    EUV mask blanks are fabricated by depositing a reflective Mo/Si multilayer film onto super-polished substrates. Small defects in this thin film coating can significantly alter the reflected field and introduce defects in the printed image. Ideally one would want to produce defect-free mask blanks; however, this may be very difficult to achieve in practice. One practical way to increase the yield of mask blanks is to effectively repair multilayer defects, and to this effect they present two complementary defect repair strategies for use on multilayer-coated EUVL mask blanks. A defect is any area on the mask which causes unwanted variations in EUV dose in the aerial image obtained in a printing tool, and defect repair is correspondingly defined as any strategy that renders a defect unprintable during exposure. The term defect mitigation can be adopted to describe any strategy which renders a critical defect non-critical when printed, and in this regard a non-critical defect is one that does not adversely affect device function. Defects in the patterned absorber layer consist of regions where metal, typically chrome, is unintentionally added or removed from the pattern leading to errors in the reflected field. There currently exists a mature technology based on ion beam milling and ion beam assisted deposition for repairing defects in the absorber layer of transmission lithography masks, and it is reasonable to expect that this technology will be extended to the repair of absorber defects in EUVL masks. However, techniques designed for the repair of absorber layers can not be directly applied to the repair of defects in the mask blank, and in particular the multilayer film. In this paper they present for the first time a new technique for the repair of amplitude defects as well as recent results on the repair of phase defects.

  7. Percutaneous repair or surgery for mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ted; Foster, Elyse; Glower, Donald D; Glower, Donald G; Kar, Saibal; Rinaldi, Michael J; Fail, Peter S; Smalling, Richard W; Siegel, Robert; Rose, Geoffrey A; Engeron, Eric; Loghin, Catalin; Trento, Alfredo; Skipper, Eric R; Fudge, Tommy; Letsou, George V; Massaro, Joseph M; Mauri, Laura

    2011-04-14

    Mitral-valve repair can be accomplished with an investigational procedure that involves the percutaneous implantation of a clip that grasps and approximates the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the regurgitant jet. We randomly assigned 279 patients with moderately severe or severe (grade 3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation in a 2:1 ratio to undergo either percutaneous repair or conventional surgery for repair or replacement of the mitral valve. The primary composite end point for efficacy was freedom from death, from surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, and from grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation at 12 months. The primary safety end point was a composite of major adverse events within 30 days. At 12 months, the rates of the primary end point for efficacy were 55% in the percutaneous-repair group and 73% in the surgery group (P=0.007). The respective rates of the components of the primary end point were as follows: death, 6% in each group; surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, 20% versus 2%; and grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation, 21% versus 20%. Major adverse events occurred in 15% of patients in the percutaneous-repair group and 48% of patients in the surgery group at 30 days (P<0.001). At 12 months, both groups had improved left ventricular size, New York Heart Association functional class, and quality-of-life measures, as compared with baseline. Although percutaneous repair was less effective at reducing mitral regurgitation than conventional surgery, the procedure was associated with superior safety and similar improvements in clinical outcomes. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EVEREST II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00209274.).

  8. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  10. Comprehensive assessment of the association between DNA repair gene XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gang; Xu, Weiguo; Hua, Hongwei; Huang, Qian; Liang, Hongxiang; Ni, Yufeng; Ding, Zhaoheng

    2013-10-01

    A few case-control studies were performed to assess the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility, but no consistent finding was reported. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of 14 case-control studies with a total of 7,869 lung cancer cases and 10,778 controls to provide a comprehensive assessment of the association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Overall, there was no significant association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk under all genetic models [OR (95 % CI) for T versus C, 1.00 (0.89-1.13), P = 0.99; OR (95 % CI) for TT versus CC, 1.07 (0.81-1.41), P = 0.62; OR (95 % CI) for TT/CT versus CC, 0.95 (0.84-1.07), P = 0.39; OR (95 % CI) for TT versus CT/CC, 1.10 (0.86-1.39), P = 0.62]. In the subgroup analyses of both Asians and Caucasians, there was still no significant association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk under all genetic models (All P values were more than 0.05). However, there was an obvious association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and decreased risk of lung cancer in the subgroup analysis of the mixed population (All P values were less than 0.05). In addition, there was some risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis, and there was obvious discrepancy in the findings between studies with large sample size and studies with small sample size in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis indicates that the association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk is still uncertain owing to the obvious discrepancy in the findings between studies with large sample size and studies with small sample size. More studies with large sample size are needed to further assess the association.

  11. Comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gottsäter, Anders; Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and standard endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: Consecutive patients treated from 2007 to 2011 with elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 81) and endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 201) were evaluated concerning age, cardiovascular medication, comorbidities, and mid-term mortality. Results: Patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group were younger than the endovascular aneurysm repair group (p = 0.006). In comparison with the endovascular aneurysm repair group, a lower proportion of patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group had diabetes (p = 0.013) and anemia (p = 0.003), and a higher proportion had arterial hypertension (p = 0.009). When entering age, endovascular aneurysm repair or fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair operation, diabetes, anemia, and hypertension in a Cox regression model, only age (hazard ratio: 1.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.11; p < 0.001) was a risk factor for mid-term mortality. Conclusion: Careful patient selection and medical optimization resulted in comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:26770700

  12. Prenatal myelomeningocele repair: Do bladders better?

    PubMed

    Horst, Maya; Mazzone, Luca; Schraner, Thomas; Bodmer, Christine; Möhrlen, Ueli; Meuli, Martin; Gobet, Rita

    2017-08-01

    Prenatal myelomeningocele (MMC) repair has been proven to significantly reduce the need for hydrocephalus shunting and improve lower-extremity motor outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal MMC repair on the urological outcome. All patients who underwent fetal MMC repair at our institution are followed prospectively. Assessments include medical history, renal and bladder ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamic study, need for clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and anticholinergics, and the occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI). Of the 30 patients who underwent prenatal MMC closure from December 2010 to December 2015, eight patients with a postnatal follow-up of at least 2 years were included in this study and compared with eight patients after postnatal MMC repair. The level of the bony spinal defect was similar in both groups. Urological evaluation at 2 years revealed normal bladder function in 50% after prenatal repair. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction requiring CIC and anticholinergic therapy was seen in 50% in the prenatal and in 100% in the postnatal group. Significant bladder wall thickening was found in 37.5% and 87.5%, respectively. Febrile UTIs occurred in 37.5% in the prenatal and 62.5% in the postnatal group during the observation period. Our data suggest a positive effect of prenatal MMC closure on lower urinary tract function. The long-term significance of these results remains unclear. Therefore, continued close monitoring of renal and bladder function are mandatory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Meniscal repair in patients with chronic lesions].

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, José Clemente Ibarra; Sierra Suárez, Luis; Almazán Díaz, Arturo; Cruz López, Francisco; Pérez Jiménez, Francisco Xavier; Encalada Díaz, Iván; León Hernández, Saúl Renán; Angulo Gutiérrez, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the subjective and objective outcome of arthroscopic meniscal repair in patients with chronic meniscal lesions. A group of patients that underwent arthroscopic meniscal repair of chronic tears with a minimum follow-up of six months was retrospectively evaluated. Physical examination oriented at finding persistent meniscal lesions was performed. IKDC, Lysholm and Tegner scores were applied, and a control magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. Twenty seven menisci in 25 patients were repaired. There were 21 male and 4 female patients with a mean age of 29.6 +/- 8.2 years (20-45). Mean time from lesion to surgery was 25.24 +/- 26 months (6-120). 27. There was significant improvement in all parameters evaluated in 21 patients. Four patients were found to have signs and symptoms of persistent meniscal tears. Abnormal increased signal intensity in the repaired menisci was observed by MRI in all patients, not correlating with clinical findings. Short-term success rate of 85% was obtained with arthroscopic repair of chronic meniscal lesions in this study, which supports the fact that a long period of time before surgery does not necessarily lead to failure. It is valid to perform a meniscal repair in patients with chronic tears as long as the proper surgical technique and an adequate rehabilitation protocol are used.

  14. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on ... Overview The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth ...

  15. Ventral hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia. PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:539-545. Nagle AP, Soper NJ. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. In: Khatri ... Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players ...

  16. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... JC, Brock JW. Repair of proximal hypospadias. In: Smith JA, Howards SS, Preminger GM, Dmochowski RR, eds. Hinman's ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  17. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  18. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePlus

    Patent urachal tube repair ... belly. Next, the surgeon will find the urachal tube and remove it. The bladder opening will be ... surgeon uses the tools to remove the urachal tube and close off the bladder and area where ...

  19. Meningocele repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100128.htm Meningocele repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Review provided ...

  20. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  1. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  2. Timpani Repair and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1980-01-01

    Rather than focusing on specific brands of timpani, these guidelines for repair cover mechanical problems of a general nature: pedals, dents, unclear tone, and squeaking. Preventive maintenance is discussed. (Author/SJL)

  3. Femoral hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicine to relax you . Your surgeon makes a cut (incision) in your groin area. The hernia is ... wall. At the end of the repair, the cuts are stitched closed. In laparascopic surgery: The surgeon ...

  4. Pectus excavatum repair

    MedlinePlus

    Gottlieb LJ, Reid RR, Lee JC. Pediatric chest and trunk defects. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 41. Lumpkins KM, Colombani P, Abdullah F. Repair ...

  5. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  6. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000166.htm Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  7. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  8. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100035.htm Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  9. Achilles tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  10. Retinal detachment repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100132.htm Retinal detachment repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The retina is the internal layer of the eye that ...

  11. Transconjunctival epiblepharon repair.

    PubMed

    Wladis, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    To document the use of a transconjunctival approach to lower eyelid epiblepharon repair. Retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent transconjunctival lower eyelid epiblepharon repair. Nine patients underwent repair via this approach. All patients experienced the resolution of their keratitis and cilia-cornea touch by a 3-month postoperative interval, and no patient developed a postoperative complication. Furthermore, no patient developed cutaneous scarring. Conventional approaches to lower eyelid epiblepharon repair have necessitated the creation of a skin and muscle flap, thus risking the development of scarring and a cosmetically unacceptable eyelid crease. This report documents the use of a transconjunctival approach for the management of this condition that avoids external incisions and provides excellent outcomes without scarring of the anterior lamella of the eyelid.

  12. Umbilical hernia repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100105.htm Umbilical hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hernia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  13. Cleft lip repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100010.htm Cleft lip repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  14. Carpal tunnel repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100078.htm Carpal tunnel repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... in the wrist and the wrist bones (carpal tunnel). Review Date 5/9/2015 Updated by: C. ...

  15. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  16. Repair Process Performance Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    CRITICAL HURDLE W/S UNIT REPAIR COST : xx xx x x.xx CURRENT POSITION...NAME u/s MAXO(N ALC SOR INS CRITICAL HURDLE RANK UNIT REPAIR COST axxKXXX xi ilixiX xx xii xiiii xx Xiii iXi.ii *ON...GAIE PLAN GET WELL DATE-JUNE 19I1 NSN XXXX-XX- XXX -XXXx 7OTAL REQUIREENT :RPC: :RPV: - -..... -- ,---,° . I::""C I I ..... .....RPC: C ----: R

  17. Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair.

    PubMed

    Abouali, Jihad Alexander Karim; Hatzantoni, Katerina; Holtby, Richard; Veillette, Christian; Theodoropoulos, John

    2013-09-01

    Failed anterior shoulder stabilization procedures have traditionally been treated with open procedures. Recent advances in arthroscopic techniques have allowed for certain failed stabilization procedures to be treated by arthroscopic surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the outcomes of revision arthroscopic Bankart repair. We searched Medline, Embase, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) for articles on revision arthroscopic Bankart repairs. Key words included shoulder dislocation, anterior shoulder instability, revision surgery, and arthroscopic Bankart repair. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodologic quality, and extracted data. We included 16 studies comprising 349 patients. All studies were retrospective (1 Level II study and 15 Level IV studies). The mean incidence of recurrent instability after revision arthroscopic Bankart repair was 12.7%, and the mean follow-up period was 35.4 months. The most common cause for failure of the primary surgeries was a traumatic injury (62.1%), and 85.1% of patients returned to playing sports. The reasons for failure of revision cases included glenohumeral bone loss, hyperlaxity, and return to contact sports. With proper patient selection, the outcomes of revision arthroscopic Bankart repair appear similar to those of revision open Bankart repair. Prospective, randomized clinical trials are required to confirm these findings. Level IV, systematic review of Level II and Level IV studies. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 30053 - Repair Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...This action would amend the regulations for repair stations by revising the system of ratings, the repair station certification requirements, and the regulations on repair stations providing maintenance for air carriers. This action is necessary because many portions of the existing repair station regulations do not reflect current repair station aircraft maintenance and business practices, or advances in aircraft technology. These changes would modernize the regulations to keep pace with current industry standards and practices.

  19. Is soft tissue repair a right choice to avoid early dislocation after THA in posterior approach?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yiqin; Cao, Shiqi; Li, Lintao; Narava, Manoj; Fu, Qiwei; Qian, Qirong

    2017-05-19

    Dislocation is the second most common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The effectiveness of soft tissue repair to reduce dislocation rate is still debated and thus a meta-analysis was conducted. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted for this meta-analysis. clinical comparative trials on the use of soft tissue repair including rotators and capsule repair in primary THA. The main data outcome were the incidences of early hip dislocation after primary THA. HSS score, incidence of other complications was also included in the outcomes. A total of 4816 cases were included for the analysis from ten studies (3 RCTs/7 Retrospective trials). Overall, the soft tissue repair group showed a significant lower early dislocation rate and higher HSS score compared to the no repair group; but no significant difference was observed between the two groups in regards to the early dislocation rate in RCT studies only. The capsule repair group showed a significant lower early dislocation rate than no capsule repair group while no significant difference was observed between the rotators repair group and no rotators repair group. In all included studies, 4 greater trochanter fractures, 2 sciatic nerve palsies and 1 infection were reported in soft tissue repair group while no cases were observed in the no repair group. The efficacy of soft tissue repair is positive but still not conclusive to reduce the early dislocation rate after primary THA while soft tissue repair may bring more other complications. Capsule repair seems more effective than rotators repair only.

  20. XRCC4 and XLF form long helical protein filaments suitable for DNA end protection and alignment to facilitate DNA double strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Mahaney, Brandi L.; Hammel, Michal; Meek, Katheryn; Tainer, John A.; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and endogenous stress including replication failure, are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage. In human cells, most IR-induced DSBs are repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. One of the most critical steps in NHEJ is ligation of DNA ends by DNA ligase IV (LIG4), which interacts with, and is stabilized by, the scaffolding protein X-ray cross-complementing gene 4 (XRCC4). XRCC4 also interacts with XRCC4-like factor (XLF, also called Cernunnos); yet, XLF has been one of the least mechanistically understood proteins and precisely how XLF functions in NHEJ has been enigmatic. Here, we examine current combined structural and mutational findings that uncover integrated functions of XRCC4 and XLF and reveal their interactions to form long, helical protein filaments suitable to protect and align DSB ends. XLF-XRCC4 provides a global structural scaffold for ligating DSBs without requiring long complementary DNA ends, thus ensuring accurate and efficient ligation and repair. The assembly of these XRCC4-XLF filaments, providing both DNA end protection and alignment, may commit cells to NHEJ with general biological implications for NHEJ and DSB repair processes and their links to cancer predispositions and interventions. PMID:23442139

  1. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Immunoengineering nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Mokarram, Nassir; Dymanus, Kyle; Srinivasan, Akhil; Tipton, John; Chu, Jason; English, Arthur W.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2017-01-01

    Injuries to the peripheral nervous system are major sources of disability and often result in painful neuropathies or the impairment of muscle movement and/or normal sensations. For gaps smaller than 10 mm in rodents, nearly normal functional recovery can be achieved; for longer gaps, however, there are challenges that have remained insurmountable. The current clinical gold standard used to bridge long, nonhealing nerve gaps, the autologous nerve graft (autograft), has several drawbacks. Despite best efforts, engineering an alternative “nerve bridge” for peripheral nerve repair remains elusive; hence, there is a compelling need to design new approaches that match or exceed the performance of autografts across critically sized nerve gaps. Here an immunomodulatory approach to stimulating nerve repair in a nerve-guidance scaffold was used to explore the regenerative effect of reparative monocyte recruitment. Early modulation of the immune environment at the injury site via fractalkine delivery resulted in a dramatic increase in regeneration as evident from histological and electrophysiological analyses. This study suggests that biasing the infiltrating inflammatory/immune cellular milieu after injury toward a proregenerative population creates a permissive environment for repair. This approach is a shift from the current modes of clinical and laboratory methods for nerve repair, which potentially opens an alternative paradigm to stimulate endogenous peripheral nerve repair. PMID:28611218

  3. Nerve Transfer in Delayed Obstetrical Palsy Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sénès, Filippo; Catena, Nunzio; Sénès, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Objective  When root avulsions are detected in children suffering from obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), neurotization procedures of different nerve trunks are commonly applied in primary brachial plexus repair, to connect distally the nerves of the upper limbs using healthy nerve structures. This article aims to outline our experience of neurotization procedures in OBPP, which involves nerve transfers in the event of delayed repair, when a primary repair has not occurred or has failed. In addition, we propose the opportunity for late repair, focusing on extending the time limit for nerve surgery beyond that which is usually recommended. Although, according to different authors, the time limit is still unclear, it is generally estimated that nerve repair should take place within the first months of life. In fact, microsurgical repair of OBPP is the technique of choice for young children with the condition who would otherwise have an unfavorable outcome. However, in certain cases the recovery process is not clearly defined so not all the patients are direct candidates for primary nerve surgery. Methods  In the period spanning January 2005 through January 2011, among a group of 105 patients suffering from OBPP, ranging from 1 month to 7 years of age, the authors have identified a group of 32 partially recovered patients. All these patients underwent selective neurotization surgery, which was performed in a period ranging from 5 months to 6.6 years of age. Results  Late neurotization of muscular groups achieved considerable functional recovery in these patients, who presented with reduced motor function during early childhood. The said patients, with the exception of five, would initially have avoided surgery because they had not met the criteria for nerve surgery. Conclusion  We have concluded that the execution of late nerve surgical procedures can be effective in children affected by OBPP. PMID:27917233

  4. Flexor digitorum superficialis repair outside the A2 pulley after zone II laceration: gliding and bowstringing.

    PubMed

    Geary, Michael B; English, Christopher; Yaseen, Zaneb; Stanbury, Spencer; Awad, Hani; Elfar, John C

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the changes in maximum flexion angle, gliding coefficient, and bowstringing after a combined repair of both flexor tendons with the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) rerouted outside the A2 pulley in cadaveric hands. We performed 4 different repairs on cadaveric hands, with each repair tested on 9 unique digits. In total, 12 cadaveric hands and 36 digits were used. The thumb and little finger were removed from each hand and excluded from testing. Group 1 was sham surgery. Group 2 combined flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and FDS laceration and repair with both slips of the FDS repaired inside the A2 pulley. Group 3 was FDP repair with one slip of the FDS repaired inside A2 and the other slip left unrepaired. Group 4 was FDP repair with both slips of the FDS rerouted and repaired outside the A2 pulley. Maximum flexion angle, gliding coefficient, and bowstringing were measured in simulated active digital motion for each group. Rerouting and repairing the FDS outside the A2 pulley (group 4) significantly lowered gliding coefficient compared with repairs with both slips inside A2, with values similar to sham surgery. We observed no significant differences in maximum flexion angle among the 4 groups. Increased bowstringing was observed with both slips of the FDS repaired and rerouted outside the A2 pulley. In this cadaveric model, repair of both slips of the FDS outside the A2 pulley improved the gliding coefficient relative to repair within the A2 pulley, which suggests decreased resistance to finger flexion. Repair of the FDS outside the A2 pulley led to a slight increase in bowstringing of the FDS tendon. We describe a technique for managing combined laceration of the FDP and FDS tendons that improves gliding function and merits consideration. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors predicting a failed primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injury.

    PubMed

    Kirss, Jaan; Pinta, Tarja; Böckelman, Camilla; Victorzon, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The success of the primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) is paramount in maintaining adequate fecal continence after childbirth. The factors determining the success or failure of primary repair are unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate modifiable factors determining the success or failure of the primary sphincter repair after OASI. Sixty women with OASI were investigated by endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, and with the Wexner incontinence questionnaire. Based on the findings, the women were divided in two groups; successful primary repair group (n = 41) and failed primary repair group (n = 19). The primary repair failed in 31.7% of the tears. These included more tears repaired by less experienced personnel (p < 0.001) and more repairs performed during on-call hours (p = 0.039) than in the successful primary repair group. Significantly more pain medication was used in the failed group (p = 0.003), and the use of antibiotics and laxatives after the repair was more common in the successful group (p < 0.001). Sphincter injuries were repaired using the overlapping suture technique in 95.1% of the repairs in the successful group compared with 47.4% in the failed group (p = 0.03). The mean (SD) Wexner score was significantly higher in the failed group [5.92 (4.1) vs. 1.88 (4.2), p < 0.001], in agreement with the findings on endoanal ultrasound. Postpartum perineal tears should be evaluated by personnel familiar with the diagnosis and repair of OASI. Delaying the primary repair until next morning is recommended if experienced personnel are unavailable during on-call hours. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  7. Percutaneous versus open repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Karabinas, Panagiotis K; Benetos, Ioannis S; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Romoudis, Pavlos; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Vlamis, John

    2014-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Conservative and surgical treatments have been reported with variable results and complications rates. The purpose of this study is to compare the postoperative clinical and functional results of percutaneous versus open repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. We present 34 patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated with open and percutaneous surgical repair. There were 15 patients who had open surgical repair and 19 patients who had percutaneous repair. The mean follow-up was 22 months (range 10-24 months) for the open repair group and 20 months (range 9-24 months) for the percutaneous repair group; no patient was lost to follow-up. Postoperative rehabilitation was the same for both groups. Wound healing, complications, ankle range of motion, and patients' return to work, activity level, weight-bearing, and subjective assessment of their treatment were recorded. No significant difference was observed with respect to any of the examined variables between the open and percutaneous repair groups. Tendon healing was observed in all patients of both groups by 7-9 weeks. The mean time of patients' return to work was 7 weeks for the open repair group and 9 weeks for the percutaneous repair group. All patients were capable of full weight bearing by the 8th postoperative week time; the time to return to previous activities including non-contact sports was 5 months for both groups. All patients expressed satisfaction and graded their treatment as good. As expected, cosmetic appearance was significantly better in the percutaneous repair group. One patient who had open repair experienced skin incision pain and dysesthesia and graded his operation as fair. No patient experienced other complications such as re-rupture, infection, sural neuroma, or Achilles tendinitis within the period of this study. The present study showed similarly successful clinical and functional results

  8. Base Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Krokan, Hans E.; Bjørås, Magnar

    2013-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA damage from oxidation, deamination and alkylation. Such base lesions cause little distortion to the DNA helix structure. BER is initiated by a DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes the damaged base, leaving an abasic site that is further processed by short-patch repair or long-patch repair that largely uses different proteins to complete BER. At least 11 distinct mammalian DNA glycosylases are known, each recognizing a few related lesions, frequently with some overlap in specificities. Impressively, the damaged bases are rapidly identified in a vast excess of normal bases, without a supply of energy. BER protects against cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration and takes place both in nuclei and mitochondria. More recently, an important role of uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 in adaptive immunity was revealed. Furthermore, other DNA glycosylases may have important roles in epigenetics, thus expanding the repertoire of BER proteins. PMID:23545420

  9. Incisional hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Keith W

    2003-10-01

    Incisional ventral hernias are a common problem encountered by surgeons, with over 100,000 repairs being performed annually in the United States. Although many predisposing factors for incisional ventral hernia are patient-related, some factors such as type of primary closure and materials used may reduce the overall incidence of incisional ventral hernia. With the advent of prosthetic meshes being used for incisional ventral hernia repair, the recurrence rate has dropped to approximately 10%. More recently, with the development of prosthetic mesh that is now safe to place intraperitoneally, the recurrence rate has dropped to under 5%. The current controversies that exist for incisional ventral hernia repair are which approach to use (open versus laparoscopic) and what type of fixation (partial- versus full-thickness abdominal muscular/fascial wall) is necessary to stabilize the position of the mesh while tissue ingrowth occurs. During the next decade the answers to these controversies should be available in the surgical literature.

  10. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  11. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, and produce modified schedules quickly. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  12. Transactivation of repair genes by BRCA1.

    PubMed

    El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a link between the BRCA1 tumor suppressor and transcriptional regulation of a group of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair. There is some controversy regarding the precise mechanism of upregulation of XPE DDB2 or XPC by BRCA1, with some evidence suggesting that p53 is involved in their regulation. Some evidence suggests BRCA1 may stabilize p53 and direct regulation of DNA repair genes, although how BRCA1 stabilizes p53 remains unclear and whether BRCA1 can upregulate DNA repair genes in a p53-independent manner remains a possibility. A transcriptional component to the action of BRCA1 and involvement of XP genes brings up new and interesting questions about breast cancer development and therapy.

  13. Successful repair of a 6 meter battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, K.; Gratson, M.; Wash, S.; Sundholm, J.L.; Hippe, W.; Ramani, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Following a two-year construction period, LTV Steel Company commissioned a new six-meter coke oven battery and ancillary facilities in December 1981 at the S. Chicago Works. The battery is a 60-oven Didier grouped flue underjet design capable of firing coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In late 1990, coke side refractory damage in the form of severe spalls and holes in the walls were observed. Numerous repair techniques--welding, guniting, panel patching, end flue repairs using zero expansion brick--were employed as interim measures until a comprehensive repair plan could be implemented. A repair plan (primarily for coke side flues) was developed which envisioned end flue repairs on six walls per year beginning in late 1991, early 1992 depending on refractory delivery. However, in late 1992 it became apparent that the coke side deterioration was occurring faster than expected and that extensive pusher side deterioration was also occurring. Because of these developments, another battery inspection was performed. On the basis of this inspection, it was determined that a major rehabilitation would be required to assure long-term, environmentally acceptable operation of the battery.

  14. Joking Repair and the Organization of Repair in Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrick, Neal R.

    This analysis looks at the humorous use of second-speaker repeats to initiate conversational repair. It is proposed that consideration of joking repeats forces reanalysis of the organization of conversational repair. The preference analysis theory is rejected in favor of a locally governed analysis of conversational repair in which participants…

  15. Vein, silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh: a comparative study in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Lolley, R D; Bose, W J; Bastian, F; Bassam, B; Meyer, F N; Anderson, L D

    1995-09-01

    We investigated three sheathing materials (autogenous vein, silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh) using the rat model. Forty rats were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group A animals underwent transection of the sciatic nerve but had no repair. In Group B, a standard epineural repair was performed. In Groups C, D, and E, the nerve was repaired as in Group B with the addition of autogenous vein, Silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh sheaths, respectively. Nerve regeneration and function were assessed using sciatic functional index, nerve conduction studies, and light microscopy. Sheathing methods showed no statistically significant advantage to standard epineural repair without a sheath.

  16. Bond strength of dental nanocomposites repaired with a bulkfill composite

    PubMed Central

    Kerimova, Leyla; Baltacioglu, İsmail H.; Kiremitçi, Arlin

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the bond strength of aged resin based nanocomposites repaired with the same and bulk fill composites. Material and Methods Seventy-two disc shaped resin composites consisted of three different nanocomposite resins (Filtek Ultimate/FU, Herculite XRV Ultra/HXRV, and Reflectys/R) were produced. After storing the samples for 8 weeks in distilled water, each material was combined with the same material or the bulk-fill composite resin system (Filtek Ultimate+Filtek Ultimate/Group-1; Filtek Ultimate+Tetric BF/Group-2; Herculite XRV+Herculite XRV/Group-3; Herculite XRV+Tetric BF/ Group-4; Reflectys+Reflectys/Group 5; Reflectys+Tetric BF/Group-6), for repair. Then specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing(SBS), and the debonded surfaces were examined. Results There was a significant difference among three materials(repaired with itself+bulk fill) for SBS testing values (p=0.001). FU and R were found to be similar, while HXRV was significantly different from them. A significant difference between group-1 and 2 (p=0.006) was detected, while there were no differences between group 3 and 4 (p= 0.142), and 5 and 6 (p=0.346). Among the six groups, repair SBS testing values with TBF were higher than repair with itself except for FU. Conclusions The bulk-fill repaired materials showed higher bond strength except for FU, which showed the highest SBS value when repaired with itself. An increased incidence of adhesive fracture was observed at low strengths. Key words:Resin-based composites, nanofillers, surface treatment, macro-shear, repair. PMID:28298988

  17. Assays for DNA double-strand break repair by microhomology-based end-joining repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Mermod, Nicolas

    2016-04-07

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions. The main pathways responsible for repairing these breaks in eukaryotic cells are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, a third group of still poorly characterized DSB repair pathways, collectively termed microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), relies on short homologies for the end-joining process. Here, we constructed GFP reporter assays to characterize and distinguish MMEJ variant pathways, namely the simple MMEJ and the DNA synthesis-dependent (SD)-MMEJ mechanisms. Transfection of these assay vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and characterization of the repaired DNA sequences indicated that while simple MMEJ is able to mediate relatively efficient DSB repair if longer microhomologies are present, the majority of DSBs were repaired using the highly error-prone SD-MMEJ pathway. To validate the involvement of DNA synthesis in the repair process, siRNA knock-down of different genes proposed to play a role in MMEJ were performed, revealing that the knock-down of DNA polymerase θ inhibited DNA end resection and repair through simple MMEJ, thus favoring the other repair pathway. Overall, we conclude that this approach provides a convenient assay to study MMEJ-related DNA repair pathways.

  18. Assays for DNA double-strand break repair by microhomology-based end-joining repair mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Mermod, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions. The main pathways responsible for repairing these breaks in eukaryotic cells are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, a third group of still poorly characterized DSB repair pathways, collectively termed microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), relies on short homologies for the end-joining process. Here, we constructed GFP reporter assays to characterize and distinguish MMEJ variant pathways, namely the simple MMEJ and the DNA synthesis-dependent (SD)-MMEJ mechanisms. Transfection of these assay vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and characterization of the repaired DNA sequences indicated that while simple MMEJ is able to mediate relatively efficient DSB repair if longer microhomologies are present, the majority of DSBs were repaired using the highly error-prone SD-MMEJ pathway. To validate the involvement of DNA synthesis in the repair process, siRNA knock-down of different genes proposed to play a role in MMEJ were performed, revealing that the knock-down of DNA polymerase θ inhibited DNA end resection and repair through simple MMEJ, thus favoring the other repair pathway. Overall, we conclude that this approach provides a convenient assay to study MMEJ-related DNA repair pathways. PMID:26657630

  19. Imperforate anus repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for passage of stool. Complete absence of an anal opening requires emergency surgery for the newborn. Surgical ... for several months before attempting the more complex anal repair. The anal repair involves an abdominal incision, ...

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open ... Open surgery to repair an AAA is sometimes done as an emergency procedure when there is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  1. About the Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA developed the Collision Repair Campaign to focus on meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source sector to complement ongoing community air toxics work and attain reductions at a faster rate.

  2. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  3. Quantitative characterization of protein–protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Nina A.; Vasil'eva, Inna A.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Antson, Alfred A.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2015-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein–protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process. PMID:26013813

  4. Monolith Joint Repairs: Case Histories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMR-CS-22 MONOLITH JOINT REPAIRS: CASE HISTORVS.Z by James G ...Washington, DC 20314-1000 32307 S11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Monolith Joint Repairs: Case Histories 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) May. James G ...Research Work Unit 32307, "Tech- niques for Joint Repair and Rehabilitation," for which MAJ James G . May, CE, is the Principal Investigator. This work unit

  5. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  6. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  7. Intestinal obstruction repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100116.htm Intestinal obstruction repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Adhesions Intestinal Obstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  8. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  9. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  10. Krikalev during Elektron repair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-05

    ISS011-E-05509 (5 May 2005) --- Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition 11 commander representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, uses a power tool as he makes repairs to the Elektron oxygen generator in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS).

  11. Krikalev during Elektron repair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-05

    ISS011-E-05513 (5 May 2005) --- Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition 11 commander representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, poses beside the disconnected Liquid Unit #5 (BZh-5) and the O2 end-filter (BD, secondary purification unit) from the BZh5 he removed while making repairs to the Elektron oxygen generator in the Zvezda Service Module of the international space station.

  12. Krikalev during Elektron repair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-05

    ISS011-E-05504 (5 May 2005) --- Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition 11 commander representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, uses a video camera to document repairs to the Elektron oxygen generator in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. Krikalev during Elektron repair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-05

    ISS011-E-05510 (5 May 2005) --- Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition 11 commander representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, uses a power tool as he makes repairs to the Elektron oxygen generator in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Repairing cracked glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, D. D.; Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    Filing procedure consisting of machined lightweight fused-silica tiles coated with thin-layer of borosilicate glass produces homogeneous seal in thin glass. Procedure is useful in repairing glass envelopes, X-ray tub windows, Dewar flasks, and similar thin glass objects.

  15. Eardrum repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100015.htm Eardrum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  16. Automotive Body Repair Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Armond, Jack; And Others

    Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

  17. Auto Repair Gets Technical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiger, Jim; Shoemaker, Byrl

    1989-01-01

    Rapid advances in automotive technology and the growth of the automotive service industry have created opportunities in car repair, parts supply, and body work. Certification is the best way for vocational educators to ensure that their programs prepare students for work in the automotive industry. (JOW)

  18. Getting Ready To Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stryker, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Successful camp repairs require careful planning. Prioritize projects by program needs first, then by cost. Determine the cause of deterioration and address it. Build goodwill with suppliers by knowing what you want and giving them ample time to prepare estimates. Include labor costs, even for staff labor. A cost-estimate table for a sample…

  19. Automotive Body Repair Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Armond, Jack; And Others

    Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

  20. Single cell wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Verboon, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    Cell wounding is a common event in the life of many cell types, and the capacity of the cell to repair day-to-day wear-and-tear injuries, as well as traumatic ones, is fundamental for maintaining tissue integrity. Cell wounding is most frequent in tissues exposed to high levels of stress. Survival of such plasma membrane disruptions requires rapid resealing to prevent the loss of cytosolic components, to block Ca2+ influx and to avoid cell death. In addition to patching the torn membrane, plasma membrane and cortical cytoskeleton remodeling are required to restore cell function. Although a general understanding of the cell wound repair process is in place, the underlying mechanisms of each step of this response are not yet known. We have developed a model to study single cell wound repair using the early Drosophila embryo. Our system combines genetics and live imaging tools, allowing us to dissect in vivo the dynamics of the single cell wound response. We have shown that cell wound repair in Drosophila requires the coordinated activities of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton components. Furthermore, we identified an unexpected role for E-cadherin as a link between the contractile actomyosin ring and the newly formed plasma membrane plug. PMID:21922041

  1. Posterior repair and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy N.; Barber, Matthew D.; Olsen, Ambre L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of posterior repair (PR) on sexual function in patients who have undergone incontinence and/or pelvic reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN A cohort study of women who underwent incontinence and/or prolapse surgery was performed. Participants completed the pelvic organ prolapse urinary incontinence sexual questionnaire (PISQ) before and after the operation. PISQ scores were compared between women who underwent PR and women who did not. RESULTS Of 73 study participants, 30 women underwent PR; 43 women did not (no PR). Although there was no difference in dyspareunia between groups pre-op, dyspareunia prevalence post-op was significantly lower in the no PR group. Preoperative PISQ scores were similar between groups. After the operation, both groups significantly improved their PISQ scores, without a difference between groups. CONCLUSION Although the incidence of dyspareunia differed between PR and no PR groups, overall improvement in sexual function was reflected in improved total PISQ scores that occurred irrespective of PR performance. PMID:17618777

  2. Repairing Holes in Pressure Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, Paul Bruce Y.; Capriloa, Laurie J.; Corocado, Alexander R.; Gibbins, Martin N.; Horne, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    Patches and easy-to-use tools yield pressure-tight seal. Repairer lifts patch from repair kit with hook-and-pile-tipped tool and positions it over puncture hole. With tool, even gloved repairer easily manipulates patch without damaging it.

  3. Automotive Engine Maintenance and Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide students with an understanding of automotive engine maintenance and repair. The course contains six study units covering automotive engine maintenance and repair; design classification; engine malfunction, diagnosis, and repair; engine disassembly; engine…

  4. Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack; And Others

    This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

  5. A laboratory comparison of a new arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair to a double row transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair using suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Frederick J; Hahn, Michael; Day, Michael; Meislin, Robert J; Jazrawi, Laith M

    2013-01-01

    Because current instrumentation makes it possible to perform an arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair, we performed a biomechanical comparison of a double-row transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair using suture anchors to an arthroscopic, transosseous rotator cuff repair to determine if they provided similar fixation stability. Six pairs of shoulders were used. One of each pair had a standard double row, transosseous equivalent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a suture-bridge technique with suture anchors, and the other had an arthroscopic transosseous repair using an Xbox technique. The repairs were cycled at 150 N for 10,000 cycles with movement of the lateral cuff edge recorded and then tested to failure. The total cuff edge displacement at 10,000 cycles in the anchor group (transosseous equivalent repair) was 7.9 mm and 6.3 mm for the bone tunnel group (transosseous repair); these were not significantly different (p=0.19). The anchor group failed at an average of 309 N and the bone tunnel group at an average of 339 N (p=0.22). Biomechanical testing suggests that arthroscopic, transosseous rotator cuff repair using a Xbox suture configuration is similar in strength and stability to an arthroscopic transosseous equivalent suture-bridge repair. Both techniques demonstrated difficulty in maintaining the lateral position of the tendon.

  6. Silanising agents promote resin-composite repair.

    PubMed

    Staxrud, Frode; Dahl, Jon E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silane in the repair of old and new resin-composite restorations. Part 1: repair of old composite was performed on 60 resin-composite substrates that were 6 years old and were made of six different brands of composite. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, the substrates were ground flat and composite was fixed to the surface with bonding agent without silane (i.e. Clearfil Bond SE only, the control). Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested according to ISO/TS 11405 after thermocycling. In the second experiment, the same 60 substrates were ground again and treated with bis-silane a 2-part silane mixed shortly before application before applying bonding agent (Clearfil Bond SE plus silane) and repair composite before SBS testing. In the third experiment, the same substrates were ground again and a one-step bonding product containing silane (Scotchbond Universal bond containing silane) was used for the repair procedure before SBS testing. Part 2: to evaluate the repair of newly made composite restorations, 66 composite substrates were made and stored in water for 2 months. The specimens were divided into three groups and were tested using the same protocols as used to evaluate repair of old composite. Mean SBS (± standard deviation), in MPa, for repair of old composite was 6.2 ± 4.0 (Clearfil Bond SE only, control), 14.8 ± 7.8 (Clearfil Bond SE plus silane) and 15.3 ± 5.6 (Scotchbond Universal bond with silane), whereas for new composite mean SBS was 15.4 ± 8.6 (Clearfil Bond SE only, control), 23.4 ± 8.3 (Clearfil Bond SE with silane) and 23.7 ± 5.8 (Scotchbond Universal containing silane). A significant difference was observed between the control and the test groups with silanising agents, both in Part 1 (P < 0.001) and in Part 2 (P < 0.005). Silanising agents increase the bond strength of the resin composite repair. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Biomechanical Evaluation of Flexor Tendon Graft With Different Repair Techniques and Graft Surface Modification

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingheng; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; An, Kai-Nan; Moran, Steven L.; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of modified repair techniques for flexor tendon reconstruction and the effects of surface modification using carbodiimide-derivatized synovial fluid plus gelatin (cd-SF-G), compared to the traditional repair techniques. The second and fifth digits from 16 canine forepaws were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) traditional graft repairs (TGR group) including distal Bunnell repair and proximal Pulvertaft weave repair; (2) modified graft repairs (MGR group) including distal graft bony attachment repair and proximal step-cut repair; (3) group TGR coated with cd-SF-G (TGR-C group); and (4) group MGR coated with cd-SF-G (MGR-C group). Digit normalized work of flexion (nWOF), ultimate failure strength, and stiffness were measured. The nWOF in MGR group was significantly less than TGR group (p < 0.05). The nWOF in groups treated with cd-SF-G was significantly less than their untreated counterparts (p < 0.05). Ultimate load to failure of the MGR-C group was significantly greater than the TGR-C group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference in stiffness was found between these two groups. The modified techniques cannot only improve tendon gliding abilities but can also improve breaking strength. Additionally, surface modification with cd-SF-G significantly decreased the work of flexion. PMID:25665071

  8. The role of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Emilie; Duan, Kai; Brzezinski, Alex; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to determine whether the use of preoperative antibiotics is effective in reducing postoperative wound infections and urinary tract infections (UTI) in hypospadias repair. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all hypospadias repairs performed at the Montreal Children’s Hospital between March 2009 and September 2012. All types of primary hypospadias repairs and redo cases were included. Patients with no adequate follow-up or with missing records of antibiotics were excluded. Preoperative antibiotics were given in the form of cefazolin (50 mg/kg intravenously) when appropriate. Postoperative oral antibiotics were administered as decided by the pediatric urologist. Primary outcomes included postoperative wound infection and UTI. Secondary outcomes included the need for reoperation of hypospadias due to urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture and wound dehiscence. Results: In total, 157 cases of hypospadias repair were reviewed; of these 7 were excluded due to lack of follow-up. Of the remaining 150 patients, 62 received preoperative antibiotics and 88 did not. The groups were well-matched for age, hypospadias characteristics, type of repair and repair of curvature. The group that received preoperative antibiotics had a significantly higher number of stented cases (82% vs. 52% of the non-preoperative antibiotic group). Two cases of wound infection were reported (1 in the pre-operative antibiotic group and 1 in the non-preoperative antibiotic group). There was no symptomatic UTI or culture-demonstrated UTI in either group. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of primary outcomes. The complication rate was 11% (17/150 repairs) and all patients needed reoperation. This study’s important limitations include the rarity of studied end points combined with the small sample and the retrospective nature of our study. Conclusion: Our findings do not support the routine use of

  9. Blood lead levels in radiator repair workers in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C B; McCammon, J B; Hoffman, R E; Baron, R C

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory-based blood lead surveillance system in Colorado identified radiator repair workers as having the highest blood lead levels of all worker groups reported. A survey of 42 radiator repair shops in ten locales throughout Colorado was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of workers with elevated blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The survey was designed to test the sensitivity of the surveillance system and to assess working conditions and practices in the radiator repair industry in Colorado. Of 63 workers, 39 (62%) had blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The sensitivity of the surveillance system for detecting radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels was estimated at 11%. None of the radiator repair shops had adequate local exhaust ventilation. Work practice and engineering modifications are needed to reduce lead exposure in this industry.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of arthroscopic electrothermal capsulorrhaphy with Bankart repair and isolated arthroscopic Bankart repair.

    PubMed

    McRae, Sheila; Leiter, Jeff; Subramanian, Kanthalu; Litchfield, Robert; MacDonald, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Electrothermal arthroscopic capsulorrhaphy (ETAC) was introduced as an adjunct to shoulder stabilization surgery to address capsular laxity in the treatment of traumatic anterior dislocation. No previous RCT has compared arthroscopic Bankart repair with ETAC of the medial glenohumeral ligament and anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament versus undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair alone. Our hypothesis was that there would be no difference in quality of life between these two groups. Complication/failure rates were also compared. Eighty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive arthroscopic Bankart repair with (n = 44) or without ETAC (n = 44). Post-operative visits occurred at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months with WOSI, ASES, and Constant scores completed, and rates of dislocation/subluxation were determined. Data on 74 patients were analysed, with the rest lost to follow-up. There were no differences between groups at any post-surgery time points for WOSI, ASES, or Constant scores (n.s.). Eight patients in the no-ETAC group and 7 in the ETAC group were considered failures (n.s.). No benefits in patient-reported outcome or recurrence rates using ETAC were found. Mean WOSI scores 2 years post-surgery were virtually identical for the two groups. ETAC could not be shown to provide benefit or detriment when combined with arthroscopic labral repair for traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder. II.

  11. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, especially the differences to laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia are discussed in this article. PMID:27826574

  12. Risk Factors for Pelvic Floor Repair After Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Roberta E.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Melton, L. Joseph; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Gebhart, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Having demonstrated that prior history of prolapse was a risk factor for pelvic floor repair procedures after hysterectomy, the objective of this study was to assess medical risk factors for pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy. Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project database of 8,220 Olmsted County, Minnesota women who had hysterectomy for benign indications in 1965-2002, we conducted a nested case-control study in 144 pairs, comparing women who underwent pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy (cases) to controls matched for known risk factors (ie, age, pelvic floor disorders at baseline, year and type of hysterectomy, and pelvic floor repair during hysterectomy). Results The median duration between hysterectomy and pelvic floor repair was 13 years. Chronic pulmonary disease (odds ratio [OR] 14.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 178) but not obstetric history, obesity, indication for hysterectomy, or chronic constipation was associated with an increased risk of pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy. Between the hysterectomy and subsequent pelvic floor repair, overall pelvic organ prolapse severity changed by 1 grade or less in 54 cases (38%, Group A) but increased by 2 or more grades in 72 cases (50%, Group B). In Group A, but not Group B, uterine prolapse (OR 25; 95% CI 2.1 to 300) and chronic pulmonary disease (OR 22; 95% CI 1.5 to 328) at baseline remained risk factors for pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy. Conclusion In this matched case-control study, chronic pulmonary disease was the only risk factor for pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy for benign indications, underscoring the need to address pulmonary status prior to surgery. PMID:19300323

  13. Outcomes of hypospadias repair in older children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ziada, Ali; Hamza, Amgad; Abdel-Rassoul, Mohammed; Habib, Enmar; Mohamed, Ahmad; Daw, Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation is to perform hypospadias repair at age 6 to 12 months. However, our patient population included a significant proportion of patients in adolescence and beyond undergoing primary repair. We report a comparison of outcomes in patients in different age groups. We prospectively report on patients with distal hypospadias who underwent primary repair at our institution during 7 months. Study parameters included age, degree of hypospadias, surgical technique and the complications rate. A total of 61 patients were included in analysis. All cases underwent repair using the tubularized incised plate technique. More proximal hypospadias and different repair techniques were excluded from study. Patients were classified by age, including group 1-25 (40%) 6 months to 2 years old, group 2-17 (28%) 2.2 to 3.7 years old and group 3-19 (32%) 4 years old or older. Only 6 patients (9.8%) had postoperative complications and all were in groups 2 and 3. In group 2 there were 3 complications (17.6%), including loss of repair, meatal stenosis and hematoma in 1 case each. In group 3 there were 3 cases (15.8%) of postoperative fistula. The fistula incidence was higher in group 3 (p = 0.032). Despite previous reports suggesting a much higher incidence of complications in older children the complication rate is within the acceptable range for infant hypospadias repair in some series. However, these complications were statistically significantly different between the older groups when compared with the recommended age group under American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  15. Long-term comparison of endovascular and open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lederle, Frank A; Freischlag, Julie A; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Matsumura, Jon S; Padberg, Frank T; Kohler, Ted R; Kougias, Panagiotis; Jean-Claude, Jessie M; Cikrit, Dolores F; Swanson, Kathleen M

    2012-11-22

    Whether elective endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm reduces long-term morbidity and mortality, as compared with traditional open repair, remains uncertain. We randomly assigned 881 patients with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms who were candidates for both procedures to either endovascular repair (444) or open repair (437) and followed them for up to 9 years (mean, 5.2). Patients were selected from 42 Veterans Affairs medical centers and were 49 years of age or older at the time of registration. More than 95% of the patients underwent the assigned repair. For the primary outcome of all-cause mortality, 146 deaths occurred in each group (hazard ratio with endovascular repair versus open repair, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.22; P=0.81). The previously reported reduction in perioperative mortality with endovascular repair was sustained at 2 years (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.98; P=0.04) and at 3 years (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.00; P=0.05) but not thereafter. There were 10 aneurysm-related deaths in the endovascular-repair group (2.3%) versus 16 in the open-repair group (3.7%) (P=0.22). Six aneurysm ruptures were confirmed in the endovascular-repair group versus none in the open-repair group (P=0.03). A significant interaction was observed between age and type of treatment (P=0.006); survival was increased among patients under 70 years of age in the endovascular-repair group but tended to be better among those 70 years of age or older in the open-repair group. Endovascular repair and open repair resulted in similar long-term survival. The perioperative survival advantage with endovascular repair was sustained for several years, but rupture after repair remained a concern. Endovascular repair led to increased long-term survival among younger patients but not among older patients, for whom a greater benefit from the endovascular approach had been expected. (Funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of

  16. Prokaryotic Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation. PMID:23457260

  17. Prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Kisker, Caroline; Kuper, Jochen; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-03-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) has allowed bacteria to flourish in many different niches around the globe that inflict harsh environmental damage to their genetic material. NER is remarkable because of its diverse substrate repertoire, which differs greatly in chemical composition and structure. Recent advances in structural biology and single-molecule studies have given great insight into the structure and function of NER components. This ensemble of proteins orchestrates faithful removal of toxic DNA lesions through a multistep process. The damaged nucleotide is recognized by dynamic probing of the DNA structure that is then verified and marked for dual incisions followed by excision of the damage and surrounding nucleotides. The opposite DNA strand serves as a template for repair, which is completed after resynthesis and ligation.

  18. Laceration repair in children.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Benjamin; Hadj, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Issues faced in the management of lacerations in children include control of pain and distress, wound cleaning and closure, referral decisions, awareness of potential associated injuries and strategies to prevent complications and optimise cosmetic outcome. The possibility of non-accidental injury may also require exploration. This update will attempt to offer a current, evidence-informed approach to management of the most commonly seen lacerations, and discuss when specialist referral is appropriate. Successful laceration repair in children is a procedure that blends the arts of anaesthesia, distraction and reassurance with the mechanics of tissue repair itself. Although each laceration and each child deserves an individualised approach, certain principles remain consistent and provide the backbone of a decision-making structure in this therapeutic area.

  19. Porcelain repair - Influence of different systems and surface treatments on resin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Young; Yoon, Hyung-In; Park, Ji-Man

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of composite resin on the fracture surface of metal-ceramic depending on the repair systems and surface roughening methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 30 disk specimens were fabricated, 15 of each were made from feldspathic porcelain and nickel-chromium base metal alloy. Each substrate was divided into three groups according to the repair method: a) application of repair system I (Intraoral Repair Kit) with diamond bur roughening (Group DP and DM), b) application of repair system I with airborne-particle abrasion (Group SP and SM), and c) application of repair system II (CoJet Intraoral Repair System, Group CP and CM). All specimens were thermocycled, and the shear bond strength was measured. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and the Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS For the porcelain specimens, group SP showed the highest shear bond strength (25.85 ± 3.51 MPa) and group DP and CP were not significantly different. In metal specimens, group CM showed superior values of bond strength (13.81 ± 3.45 MPa) compared to groups DM or SM. CONCLUSION Airborne-particle abrasion and application of repair system I can be recommended in the case of a fracture localized to the porcelain. If the fracture extends to metal surface, the repair system II is worthy of consideration. PMID:26576249

  20. Rapid Runway Repair Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report describes a series of tests to evaluate a system for rapidly repairing airfield pavement using polymer concrete (synthetic polymer plus...aggregate), thermally cured by microwave power. The technique, developed by the Syracuse University Research Corporation (SURC) for highway...maintenance, uses a truck-mounted 50-kilowatt microwave generator to irradiate areas patched with polymer concrete . Test results indicate that the polymer

  1. Repair of Auricular Defects.

    PubMed

    Watson, Deborah; Hecht, Avram

    2017-08-01

    Repairing defects of the auricle requires an appreciation of the underlying 3-dimensional framework, the flexible properties of the cartilages, and the healing contractile tendencies of the surrounding soft tissue. In the analysis of auricular defects and planning of their reconstruction, it is helpful to divide the auricle into subunits for which different techniques may offer better functional and aesthetic outcomes. This article reviews many of the reconstructive options for defects of the various auricular subunits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Comparison of implant cost and surgical time in arthroscopic transosseous and transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Black, Eric M; Austin, Luke S; Narzikul, Alexa; Seidl, Adam J; Martens, Kelly; Lazarus, Mark D

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the cost savings associated with arthroscopic transosseous (anchorless) double-row rotator cuff repair compared with double-row anchored (transosseous-equivalent [TOE]) repair. All patients undergoing double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from 2009 to 2012 by a single surgeon were eligible for inclusion. The study included 2 consecutive series of patients undergoing anchorless or TOE repair. Excluded from the study were revision repairs, subscapularis repairs, patients with poor tendon quality or excursion requiring medialized repair, and partial repairs. Rotator cuff implant costs (paid by the institution) and surgical times were compared between the 2 groups, controlling for rotator cuff tear size and additional procedures performed. The study included 344 patients, 178 with TOE repairs and 166 with anchorless repairs. Average implant cost for TOE repairs was $1014.10 ($813.00 for small, $946.67 for medium, $1104.56 for large, and $1507.29 for massive tears). This was significantly more expensive compared with anchorless repairs, which averaged $678.05 ($659.75 for small, $671.39 for medium, $695.55 for large, and $716.00 for massive tears). Average total operative time in TOE and anchorless groups was not significantly different (99 vs. 98 minutes). There was larger (although not statistically significant) case time variation in the TOE group. Compared with TOE repair, anchorless rotator cuff repair provides substantial implant-related cost savings, with no significant differences in surgical time for medium and large rotator cuff tears. Case time for TOE repair varied more with extremes in tear size. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long term recovery of median nerve repair using laser-activated chitosan adhesive films.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Stoodley, Marcus A; Shaikh, Sumaiya; Mahns, David A; Lauto, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Sutures remain the standard peripheral nerve repair technique, whether applied directly or indirectly to nerve tissue. Unfortunately, significant postoperative complications can result, such as inflammation, neuroma formation and foreign body reactions. Photochemical-tissue-bonding (PTB) using rose Bengal (RB) integrated into a chitosan bioadhesive is an alternative nerve repair device that removes the need for sutures. Rats were arranged into three groups: RB-chitosan adhesives-repair, end-to-end epineural suture-repair (surgical standard) and sham laser-irradiated control. Groups were compared through histological assessment, electrophysiological recordings and grip motor strength. RB-chitosan adhesive repaired nerves displayed comparable results when compared to the standard suture-repair based on histological and electrophysiological findings. Functionally, RB-chitosan adhesive was associated with a quicker and more pronounced recovery of grip force when compared to the suture-repair. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Chronic Degeneration Leads to Poor Healing of Repaired Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Killian, Megan L.; Cavinatto, Leonardo M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic rotator cuff tears present a clinical challenge, often with poor outcomes after surgical repair. Degenerative changes to the muscle, tendon, and bone are thought to hinder healing after surgical repair; additionally, the ability to overcome degenerative changes after surgical repair remains unclear. Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing outcomes of muscle, tendon, and bone after tendon repair in a model of chronic rotator cuff disease and to compare these outcomes to those of acute rotator cuff injuries and repair. The hypothesis was that degenerative rotator cuff changes associated with chronic multitendon tears and muscle unloading would lead to poor structural and mechanical outcomes after repair compared with acute injuries and repair. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Chronic rotator cuff injuries, induced via detachment of the supraspinatus (SS) and infraspinatus (IS) tendons and injection of botulinum toxin A into the SS and IS muscle bellies, were created in the shoulders of rats. After 8 weeks of injury, tendons were surgically reattached to the humeral head, and an acute, dual-tendon injury and repair was performed on the contralateral side. After 8 weeks of healing, muscles were examined histologically, and tendon-to-bone samples were examined microscopically, histologically, and biomechanically and via micro–computed tomography. Results All repairs were intact at the time of dissection, with no evidence of gapping or ruptures. Tendon-to-bone healing after repair in our chronic injury model led to reduced bone quality and morphological disorganization at the repair site compared with acute injuries and repair. SS and IS muscles were atrophic at 8 weeks after repair of chronic injuries, indicating incomplete recovery after repair, whereas SS and IS muscles exhibited less atrophy and degeneration in the acute injury group at 8 weeks after repair. After chronic injuries and repair, humeral

  5. Chronic Degeneration Leads to Poor Healing of Repaired Massive Rotator Cuff Tears in Rats.

    PubMed

    Killian, Megan L; Cavinatto, Leonardo M; Ward, Samuel R; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Galatz, Leesa M

    2015-10-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tears present a clinical challenge, often with poor outcomes after surgical repair. Degenerative changes to the muscle, tendon, and bone are thought to hinder healing after surgical repair; additionally, the ability to overcome degenerative changes after surgical repair remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate healing outcomes of muscle, tendon, and bone after tendon repair in a model of chronic rotator cuff disease and to compare these outcomes to those of acute rotator cuff injuries and repair. The hypothesis was that degenerative rotator cuff changes associated with chronic multitendon tears and muscle unloading would lead to poor structural and mechanical outcomes after repair compared with acute injuries and repair. Controlled laboratory study. Chronic rotator cuff injuries, induced via detachment of the supraspinatus (SS) and infraspinatus (IS) tendons and injection of botulinum toxin A into the SS and IS muscle bellies, were created in the shoulders of rats. After 8 weeks of injury, tendons were surgically reattached to the humeral head, and an acute, dual-tendon injury and repair was performed on the contralateral side. After 8 weeks of healing, muscles were examined histologically, and tendon-to-bone samples were examined microscopically, histologically, and biomechanically and via micro-computed tomography. All repairs were intact at the time of dissection, with no evidence of gapping or ruptures. Tendon-to-bone healing after repair in our chronic injury model led to reduced bone quality and morphological disorganization at the repair site compared with acute injuries and repair. SS and IS muscles were atrophic at 8 weeks after repair of chronic injuries, indicating incomplete recovery after repair, whereas SS and IS muscles exhibited less atrophy and degeneration in the acute injury group at 8 weeks after repair. After chronic injuries and repair, humeral heads had decreased total mineral density and an altered

  6. DNA repair genes of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Fuscoe, J.C.; Weber, C.A.

    1985-09-27

    In the CHO cell line various mutations affecting DNA repair have been obtained. Mutants that belong to five genetic complementation groups for UV sensitivity and resemble the cells from individuals having the cancer-prone genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum were previously identified. Each mutant is defective in the incision step of nucleotide excision repair and hypersensitive to bulky DNA lesions. A sixth genetic complementation group for UV sensitivity has now been identified with UV27-1. These UV mutants can be divided into two subgroups; only Groups 2 and 4 are extremely sensitive to mitomycin C and other DNA cross-linking agents. The clear-cut phenotypes of the CHO mutants have allowed us to construct hybrid cells by fusion with human lymphocytes and thereby identify which human chromosomes carry genes that correct the CHO mutations. The first two mutants analyzed, UV20 (excision-repair deficient; UV Group 2) and EM9, which has very high SCE, are both corrected by chromosome 19. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strengths of acrylic resin repairs

    PubMed Central

    ELHADIRY, Safa Salim; YUNUS, Norsiah; ARIFFIN, Yusnidar Tajul

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strength of heat-curing denture resin when repaired with an auto-curing resin. Material and methods Ninety-six rectangular specimens (64x10x2.5 mm) prepared from heat-curing denture base resin (Meliodent) were randomly divided into four groups before repair. One group was left intact as control. Each repair specimen was sectioned into two; one group was repaired using the conventional repair method (Group 1). Two groups had an additional transverse cavity (2x3.5x21.5 mm) prepared prior to the repair; one repaired with (Group 2) and one without glass-fiber reinforcement (Group 3). A three-point flexural bending test according to the ISO 1567:1999 specification8 for denture base polymers was carried out on all groups after 1, 7 and 30 days of water immersion. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and post-hoc Mann Whitney tests. Results The highest flexural strength was observed in the control group. Control and conventional repairs group (Group 1) showed reduction in the flexural strength 30 days after water immersion. No significant change in the strength was observed for Groups 2 and 3 where the repair joints were similarly prepared with additional transverse cavity. Conclusion Repaired specimens showed lower flexural strength values than intact heat-curing resin. Cavity preparation had no significant effect on the flexural strength of repair with water immersion. PMID:21308283

  8. Complications of Distal Biceps Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nirav H.; Volpi, Alex; Lynch, T. Sean; Patel, Ronak M.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Schickendantz, Mark S.; Jones, Morgan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anatomic reinsertion of the distal biceps is critical for restoring flexion and supination strength. Single- and double-incision surgical techniques have been reported, analyzing complications and outcomes measures. Which technique results in superior clinical outcomes and the lowest associated complications remains unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that rerupture rates would be similar between the 2 techniques, while nerve complications would be higher for the single-incision technique and heterotopic ossification would be more frequent with the double-incision technique. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTSDiscus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify articles reporting distal biceps ruptures up to August 2013. We included English-language articles on adult patients with a minimum of 3 cases reporting single- and double-incision techniques. Frequencies of each complication as a percentage of total cases were calculated. Fisher exact tests were used to test the association between frequencies for each repair method, with P < .05 considered statistically significant. Odds ratios with 95% CIs were also computed. Results: A total of 87 articles met the inclusion criteria. Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve neurapraxia was the most common complication in the single-incision group, occurring in 77 of 785 cases (9.8%). Heterotopic ossification was the most common complication in the double-incision group, occurring in 36 of 498 cases (7.2%). Conclusion: The overall frequency of reported complications is higher for single-incision distal biceps repair than for double-incision repair. The frequencies of rerupture and nerve complications are both higher for single-incision repairs while the frequency of heterotopic ossification is higher for

  9. Extensor retinaculum augmentation reinforces anterior talofibular ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Umur; Glisson, Richard R; Nunley, James A

    2006-01-01

    Repair of the anterior talofibular ligament often is augmented with the inferior extensor retinaculum because it is thought to reinforce the primary ligament repair. The additional dissection and suturing extend the duration of surgery, and not all surgeons routinely include inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation in anterior talofibular ligament repairs. To determine whether there is a reasonable basis for this surgery, we ascertained the degree to which inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation reinforced the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair. Matched pairs of cadaveric ankles had controlled inversion while monitoring resistance to inversion, first with the anterior talofibular ligament sectioned, then with primary anterior talofibular ligament repair alone or with inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation. The resistance to ankle inversion was greater at 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees rotation in ankles that had inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation. Anterior talofibular ligament failure occurred at similar inversion angles in both treatment groups, but the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair required more torque to fail in the augmented group. With these ankle loading conditions, inferior extensor retinaculum augmentation provided protection to the primary anterior talofibular ligament repair, indicating that broader clinical use of augmentation may be warranted.

  10. Effect of Finishing Time on Microleakage at the Composite-Repair Interface

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Berahman, Nazanin; Niazi, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repair is a conservative treatment of defective composite restoration. Sealing the repair interface is a critical factor to achieve successful repaired restorations. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of three finishing times on the microleakage at the composite-repair interface. Method: Eighty composite specimens (Z250) were made and aged for eight weeks in water. They were randomly divided into four groups. In the control group, repairing was done with no surface treatment and using bonding agent. In groups 2 to 4, the specimens were repaired following roughening, etching and use of Adper Single Bond, and finished immediately, after 20 minutes and after 24 hours, respectively. After thermocycling, the microleakage at the repair interface was assessed using dye-penetration technique. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results: There was a significant difference among the four groups (P<0.001). The control group with the highest leakage showed a significant difference with the other groups (P<0.05). Immediate finishing showed a significantly higher leakage compared to 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing time (P<0.001). The two latter groups had no difference. Conclusion: Immediate finishing of the repaired restorations negatively affect the sealing at the repair interface, while 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing had no adverse effect on the interface sealing. PMID:27733876

  11. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base.

    PubMed

    Gad, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers.

  12. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    PubMed Central

    ArRejaie, Aws S.; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  13. Effect of Finishing Time on Microleakage at the Composite-Repair Interface.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Berahman, Nazanin; Niazi, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Repair is a conservative treatment of defective composite restoration. Sealing the repair interface is a critical factor to achieve successful repaired restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of three finishing times on the microleakage at the composite-repair interface. Eighty composite specimens (Z250) were made and aged for eight weeks in water. They were randomly divided into four groups. In the control group, repairing was done with no surface treatment and using bonding agent. In groups 2 to 4, the specimens were repaired following roughening, etching and use of Adper Single Bond, and finished immediately, after 20 minutes and after 24 hours, respectively. After thermocycling, the microleakage at the repair interface was assessed using dye-penetration technique. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). There was a significant difference among the four groups (P<0.001). The control group with the highest leakage showed a significant difference with the other groups (P<0.05). Immediate finishing showed a significantly higher leakage compared to 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing time (P<0.001). The two latter groups had no difference. Immediate finishing of the repaired restorations negatively affect the sealing at the repair interface, while 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing had no adverse effect on the interface sealing.

  14. Augmentation techniques for rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Zampogna, Biagio; D'Adamio, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    There is a high rate of recurrence of tear and failed healing after rotator cuff repair. Several strategies have proposed to augment rotator cuff repairs to improve postoperative outcome and shoulder performance. We systematically review the literature on clinical outcome following rotator cuff augmentation. We performed a comprehensive search of Medline, CINAHL, Embase and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, from inception of the database to 20 June 2012, using various combinations of keywords. The reference lists of the previously selected articles were then examined by hand. Only studies focusing on clinical outcomes of human patients who had undergone augmented rotator cuff repair were selected. We then evaluated the methodological quality of each article using the Coleman methodology score (CMS), a 10 criteria scoring list assessing the methodological quality of the selected studies (CMS). Thirty-two articles were included in the present review. Two were retrospective studies, and 30 were prospective. Biologic, synthetic and cellular devices were used in 24, 7 and 1 studies, respectively. The mean modified Coleman methodology score was 64.0. Heterogeneity of the clinical outcome scores makes it difficult to compare different studies. None of the augmentation devices available is without problems, and each one presents intrinsic weaknesses. There is no dramatic increase in clinical and functional assessment after augmented procedures, especially if compared with control groups. More and better scientific evidence is necessary to use augmentation of rotator cuff repairs in routine clinical practice.

  15. Clinical Outcomes Comparing Capsular Repair vs. No Repair Following Hip Arthroscopy: A Prospective, Randomized, Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Etan P.; Birns, Michael E.; Fishman, Matthew; Patel, Deepan N.; Goldsmith, Laura; Greene, Renee Shirley; Banffy, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: As hip arthroscopy procedures become more common there is increasing concern of iatrogenic instability from excessive capsulotomy during surgery. As a result, greater attention is being focused preserving hip capsule integrity following surgery. To date, there are no large scale prospective blinded studies that address whether capsular closure has any detrimental effect on outcomes. Our goal is to evaluate outcomes in patients undergoing interportal capsulotomy repair compared to outcomes when not repairing the capsule. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a clinical/functional difference at 1 & 2 year follow up between patients who undergo capsular repair vs no repair following hip arthroscopy. Our hypothesis is that restoration of normal capsular anatomy with interportal repair will achieve similar clinical outcomes as the “no repair” group without functional deficits from over-constraint. Methods: Adult patients were recruited from November 2013 to July 2015 who were scheduled to undergo hip arthroscopy for femoral acetabular. Subjects were randomized into either the capsular repair (CR) or no repair (NR) groups. Standard AP/Dunn view radiographs were evaluated and alpha angle (AA) /center-edge (CEA) angle measurements were performed for all patients preoperatively. All patients underwent standard hip arthroscopy with labral repair +/- CAM/pincer lesion resection. Primary clinical outcomes were measured via the Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sport-Specific (HOS-SS) subscales at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. Secondary outcome measures included the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), visual analog scale (VAS), the international hip outcome tool (iHOT-12), and the Veterans RAND 12 Item Health Survey (VR-12) scores. Results: A total of 56 patients were included in this study (30 male, 26 females) with a mean age of 33 years. Follow up was available for 49 patients at 6 months, 41 patients at 1 year and 26 patients at

  16. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  17. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Tissucol application in dermolipectomy and incisional hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Fernández Lobato, R; García Septiem, J; Ortega Deballon, P; Martín Lucas, F J; Ruíz de Adana, J C; Limones Esteban, M

    2001-01-01

    Biological adhesives have a lot of applications in surgical procedures. Here we present a prospective study with the aim of analyzing results of the application of Tissucol between the muscle layers and subcutaneous tissue after incisional hernia repair with polypropylene mesh and associated dermolipectomy. We assess clinical and technical parameters, local morbidity, and hospital stay. Fifty-six patients were divided into two groups. Patients with whom we used fibrin glue were older, with more obesity (P < 0.005) with associated diseases, and their incisional hernias were larger and more complicated to repair. Patients in the Tissucol group developed less local morbidity (hematomas or abscesses; P < 0.01), had a shorter mean hospital stay (P < 0.01), and required less wound care. The use of Tissucol improves the results of surgical repair of large abdominal incisional hernias repaired by mesh placement and dermolipectomy, and it decreases global morbidity and hospital stay are reduced.

  19. Cartilage repair with autogenic perichondrium cell and polylactic acid grafts.

    PubMed

    Dounchis, J S; Bae, W C; Chen, A C; Sah, R L; Coutts, R D; Amiel, D

    2000-08-01

    The repair of articular cartilage injuries remains a challenge, with many of the current therapeutic strategies based on the grafting or recruitment of chondrogenic tissues or cells. This 1-year study compared the repair of a 3.7-mm diameter by 3-mm deep osteochondral defect in the medial femoral condyle of 24 New Zealand White rabbits; the defect was obtained using an autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid composite graft with a contralateral control in which the osteochondral defect remained empty. To elucidate the effect of host immune responses on the repair process after perichondrium cell transplantation, the results of the autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid graft group were compared with those obtained in the authors' previous 1-year study of allogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid composite grafts implanted in a similar model. One year after surgery, the repair site underwent gross inspection and histologic, histomorphometric, biochemical, and biomechanical analyses. The autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid graft group (92%) and the control group in which the osteochondral defect remained empty (88%) resulted in a high percentage of grossly acceptable repairs. The autogenic grafts appeared to augment the intrinsic healing capacity of the animals (as compared with the animals in the No Implant Group). The autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic and grafts improved the histologic appearance and percentage of Type II collagen of the cartilaginous repair tissue. Compared with allogenic grafts, the autogenic grafts had better reconstitution of the subchondral bone. However, the results of this experimental model suggest a suboptimal concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the neocartilage matrix, a depressed surface of the repair tissue, a histologic appearance that was not equivalent to that of normal articular cartilage, and reduced biomechanical properties for the repair tissue. The future application of growth factors to this

  20. Effect of surface roughness on amalgam repair using adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Marcelo; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments and two adhesive systems on the shear bond strength of old and freshly placed amalgam. The results suggested that the intact amalgam showed a significantly higher strength than repaired groups and the strongest repaired specimens were made when the amalgam surfaces were roughened with a diamond bur or microetcher. The adhesive systems showed no significant differences on bond strength with the same superficial texture.

  1. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-05-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m{sup 2} UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m{sup 2} and 350 J/m{sup 2} were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Two-Tunnel Transtibial Repair of Radial Meniscus Tears Produces Comparable Results to Inside-Out Repair of Vertical Meniscus Tears.

    PubMed

    Cinque, Mark E; Geeslin, Andrew G; Chahla, Jorge; Dornan, Grant J; LaPrade, Robert F

    2017-08-01

    Radial meniscus tears disrupt the circumferential fibers and thereby compromise meniscus integrity. Historically, radial tears were often treated with meniscectomy because of an incomplete understanding of the biomechanical consequences of these tears, limited information regarding the biomechanical performance of repair, and the technical difficulty associated with repair. There is a paucity of studies on the outcomes of the repair of radial meniscus tears. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to determine the outcomes of 2-tunnel transtibial repair of radial meniscus tears and compare these results to the outcomes of patients who underwent the repair of vertical meniscus tears with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The hypothesis was that radial and vertical meniscus tear repair outcomes were comparable. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients who underwent 2-tunnel transtibial pullout repair for a radial meniscus tear were included in this study and compared with patients who underwent inside-out repair for a vertical meniscus tear. Subjective questionnaires were administered preoperatively and at a minimum of 2-year follow-up, including the Lysholm score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS), the Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction. Analysis of covariance was used to compare postoperative outcome scores between the meniscus repair groups while accounting for baseline scores. Adjusted mean effects relative to the radial repair group were reported with 95% CIs. Twenty-seven patients who underwent 2-tunnel transtibial pullout repair for radial meniscus tears and 33 patients who underwent inside-out repair for vertical meniscus tears were available for follow-up at a mean of 3.5 years (range, 2.0-5.4 years). No preoperative outcome score significantly differed between the groups. There were no significant group differences for any of the 2-year

  3. Evaluation of the NIOSH draft method 5525 for determination of the total reactive isocyanate group (TRIG) for aliphatic isocyanates in autobody repair shops. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    PubMed

    Bello, D; Streicher, R P; Woskie, S R

    2002-06-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of the NIOSH draft method 5525 for analysis of monomeric and TRIG aliphatic isocyanates in autobody repair shops. It was found that an optimized pH gradient enhanced noticeably the resolution and, therefore, identification of aliphatic isocyanates. Samples proved to be very stable for at least a year when stored at -13 degrees C in the freezer, and no major stability problems were found for the MAP reagent. The detector response factor RSD for selected MAP ureas was 40% in the fluorescence (FLD), 3% in the UV at 254 nm (UV254), and 1% in the UV at 370 nm (UV370). The mean FLD/UV254 and UV254/UV370 detector response ratios of standards were 31.7 (RSD = 37.8) and 17.1 (RSD = 5.4), respectively. The FLD/UV254 ratio in bulks varied from 0.41 to 1.97 times the HDI monomer ratio. The mean UV254/UV370 ratio in bulks was 16.1 (range 14.1 to 19.2, N = 38). Mean (range) recovery of 92 (91.2-93.2)% was found for the N3300 (isocyanurate) spiked on 25 mm quartz fiber filters in the range 0.07 to 2.2 microg NCO ml(-1). Mean (range) recovery for impingers was 100.7 (91.7-106.0)% for N3300 in the concentration range of 0.018 to 2.5 microg NCO ml(-1) and 81.0 (76.1-89.1)% for IPDI in the concentration range of 0.016 to 1.87 microg NCO ml(-1). Analytical method precision was 3.4% and mean bias 7.4% (range = 0-25%). The NIOSH draft method 5525 provides flexibility, enhanced sensitivity and specificity, powerful resolution, and very small compound-to-compound variability in the UV254, resulting in a more reliable identification and quantification of aliphatic isocyanates.

  4. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  5. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  6. DNA excision repair at telomeres.

    PubMed

    Jia, Pingping; Her, Chengtao; Chai, Weihang

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage is caused by either endogenous cellular metabolic processes such as hydrolysis, oxidation, alkylation, and DNA base mismatches, or exogenous sources including ultraviolet (UV) light, ionizing radiation, and chemical agents. Damaged DNA that is not properly repaired can lead to genomic instability, driving tumorigenesis. To protect genomic stability, mammalian cells have evolved highly conserved DNA repair mechanisms to remove and repair DNA lesions. Telomeres are composed of long tandem TTAGGG repeats located at the ends of chromosomes. Maintenance of functional telomeres is critical for preventing genome instability. The telomeric sequence possesses unique features that predispose telomeres to a variety of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxins. This review briefly describes the relevance of excision repair pathways in telomere maintenance, with the focus on base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR). By summarizing current knowledge on excision repair of telomere damage and outlining many unanswered questions, it is our hope to stimulate further interest in a better understanding of excision repair processes at telomeres and in how these processes contribute to telomere maintenance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  8. Electric motor model repair specifications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    These Model Repair Specifications list the minimum requirements for the repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squirrel cage motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered, although not all repair situations are covered. Requirements are given for electric motor repair procedures, quality control, documentation, and repair shop evaluation. The document includes references to relevant industry standards.

  9. Concomitant SLAP repair does not influence the surgical outcome for arthroscopic Bankart repair of traumatic shoulder dislocations.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Nuri; Unal, Mehmet Bekir; Asansu, Mustafa; Tok, Okan

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies revealed the presence of superior labrum anterior-to-posterior (SLAP) injury together with Bankart lesions in some patients. The purpose of the study is to compare the clinical results of isolated Bankart repairs with the clinical results of Bankart repairs when performed with concomitant SLAP repairs. The patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability were evaluated retrospectively. Group 1 consisted of 19 patients who had arthroscopic SLAP repair together with Bankart repair. The mean age of the patients was 23. Group 2 consisted of 38 patients who underwent isolated Bankart repair. The mean age was 24. Knotless anchors were used in both groups. The mean follow-up was 34 months (range: 26-72). In group 1, the mean preoperative Constant score was 84 (range: 74-90, standard deviation (SD): 5.91) and Rowe score was 64.1 (range: 40-70, SD: 8.14). In group 2, the preoperative Constant score was 84.4 (range: 70-96, SD: 5.88) and Rowe score was 60 (range: 45-70, SD: 7.95). In group 1, the postoperative mean Constant score raised to 96.8 (range: 88-100, SD: 2.91) and the mean Rowe score raised to 92.3 (range: 85-100, SD: 5.17). In group 2, the postoperative mean Constant score was 94.9 (range: 88-100, SD: 3.70) and the mean Rowe score was 94.2 (range: 80-100, SD: 4.71). The difference between the scores of two groups was insignificant ( p > 0.05). When the numbers of redislocations and range of motion were compared, no significant difference was found ( p > 0.05). Accompanying SLAP repair in surgical treatment with Bankart repair for shoulder instability does not affect the results negatively. Properly repaired labral tears extending from anterior inferior to the posterior superior of the glenoid in instability treatment have the same outcome in overall results as repaired isolated Bankart lesions.

  10. Cartilage repair in the degenerative ageing knee

    PubMed Central

    Brittberg, Mats; Gomoll, Andreas H; Canseco, José A; Far, Jack; Lind, Martin; Hui, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cartilage damage can develop due to trauma, resulting in focal chondral or osteochondral defects, or as more diffuse loss of cartilage in a generalized organ disease such as osteoarthritis. A loss of cartilage function and quality is also seen with increasing age. There is a spectrum of diseases ranging from focal cartilage defects with healthy surrounding cartilage to focal lesions in degenerative cartilage, to multiple and diffuse lesions in osteoarthritic cartilage. At the recent Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015, regenerative challenges in an ageing population were discussed by clinicians and basic scientists. A group of clinicians was given the task of discussing the role of tissue engineering in the treatment of degenerative cartilage lesions in ageing patients. We present the outcomes of our discussions on current treatment options for such lesions, with particular emphasis on different biological repair techniques and their supporting level of evidence. Results and interpretation Based on the studies on treatment of degenerative lesions and early OA, there is low-level evidence to suggest that cartilage repair is a possible treatment for such lesions, but there are conflicting results regarding the effect of advanced age on the outcome. We concluded that further improvements are needed for direct repair of focal, purely traumatic defects before we can routinely use such repair techniques for the more challenging degenerative lesions. Furthermore, we need to identify trigger mechanisms that start generalized loss of cartilage matrix, and induce subchondral bone changes and concomitant synovial pathology, to maximize our treatment methods for biological repair in degenerative ageing joints. PMID:27910738

  11. Repair of dental resin-based composites.

    PubMed

    Baur, Veronika; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-03-01

    The study analyzed the reparability and compatibility of light-curing resin-based composites (RBCs) of the categories "microhybrid," "nanohybrid," and "packable." Six RBCs with different matrix and filler formulation--purely methacrylate-based composites (MBCs), ormocer-based composites (OBCs), and silorane-based composites (SBCs)--were used for the specimens. Every material was combined with itself and with the other five RBCs, resulting in a total of 36 combination groups (n = 20). The specimens were polymerized, aged for 8 weeks in distilled water at 37 °C, and then repaired by means of a repair kit. Shear bond strength and fracture mode were measured after aging of the specimens, undergoing storage for 24 h in distilled water at 37 °C followed by thermocycling (5,000 cycles, 5-55 °C) and an additional 4-week storage in distilled water at 37 °C. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA with TUKEY HSD post hoc test (α = 0.05). On average, the OBC Admira reached the highest value as a substrate material (30.41 MPa), and the SBC Filtek Silorane reached the lowest value (8.14 MPa). Filtek Silorane was identified as the repair material with the highest bond strength value (28.70 MPa), while a packable composite reached the lowest bond strength value (15.55 MPa). The analysis of the break modes showed that adhesive breaks are typical when strength is at its lowest (6.27 MPa). A large number of cohesive fractures are conspicuous when identical materials are used for repair, except Filtek Silorane (2 % cohesive fractures). The study demonstrated that the effect of the different materials on bond strength varies strongly, depending on whether the material is used as filling or as repair material. It is generally advisable but not compulsory to combine identical RBCs.

  12. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with primary fascial closure versus bridged repair: a risk-adjusted comparative study.

    PubMed

    Wennergren, John Emil; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Holihan, Julie; Keith, Jerrod; Liang, Mike K; Martindale, Robert G; Trott, Skylar; Plymale, Margaret; Roth, John Scott

    2016-08-01

    Laparoscopy, specifically the bridged mesh technique, is a popular means used for ventral hernia repair. While laparoscopy has decreased the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), hernia recurrence rates remain unchanged. Some surgeons advocate laparoscopic primary fascial closure (PFC) with placement of intraperitoneal mesh to decrease recurrence rates. We hypothesize that in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR), PFC compared to a bridged mesh repair decreases hernia recurrence rates. A multicenter, retrospective database of all ventral hernia repairs performed from 2010-2012 was accessed. Patients who underwent LVHR with mesh were reviewed. Patients who had PFC were compared to bridged repair. Primary outcome was hernia recurrence determined by clinical examination or CT scan. Secondary outcomes included SSI and seroma formation. A total of 1594 patients were identified. Following exclusion, a total of 196 patients were left who underwent LVHR with a mean follow-up period of 17.5 months. Ninety-seven patients underwent PFC, while 99 underwent bridged repairs. Initial comparisons between both groups was negative for any significant statistical difference in terms of recurrence, seroma formation, SSI, deep/organ space SSI, reoperation, and readmission. The same initial findings held true during subgroup analysis. Propensity score analysis was then performed for recurrence, seroma, and SSI controlling for age, gender, immune status, ASA class, BMI, smoking status, and acute repair. No statistically significant differences were identified in either group. Primary fascial closure during laparoscopic hernia repairs did not result in reduced recurrence, seroma, and SSI as compared to bridge repairs in a retrospective, multi-institutional study. However, additional research is needed to further evaluate benefits to the patient in terms of pain, function, cosmesis, and overall satisfaction. Randomized, blinded, control trials should focus on

  13. Stem cell repair of physeal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae I; Terry Canale, S; Butler, Stephanie D; Hasty, Karen A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to repair physeal defects, MSC-matrix constructs with 5% gelatin (group A), 10% gelatin/Gelfoam (Pharmacia, Peapack, NJ) (group B), and MSC grown in the presence of TGF-beta3 with Gelfoam (group C) were implanted in proximal tibial physeal defects created in 20 immature rabbits. Control groups (untreated partial defect and partial defect treated with Gelfoam) showed bony bar formation with varus deformities of 30 degrees and 28 degrees, respectively. Group A had an average 23 degrees varus deformity with bony bridge formation, and group B had mild varus angulation (average 14 degrees) of the proximal tibia. In group C, there was no significant varus deformity (average 9 degrees), and histologic examination showed that some of the columnation areas interspersed with chondrocytes were irregularly arranged in the matrix. These findings suggest that repair of physeal defects can be enhanced by the implantation of MSC cultured with TGF-beta3.

  14. Gynecologic anatomic abnormalities following anorectal malformations repair.

    PubMed

    Vilanova-Sanchez, Alejandra; Reck, Carlos A; McCracken, Kate A; Lane, Victoria A; Gasior, Alessandra C; Wood, Richard J; Levitt, Marc A; Hewitt, Geri D

    2017-07-24

    perineoplasty due to: anterior mislocation of the anus (n=11, 73.3%), prior perineal wound dehiscence with perineal body breakdown (n=2, 13.4%), acquired rectovaginal fistula (n=1, 6.6%), and posterior mislocated introitus with invasion of the perineal body (n=1, 6.6%). During the preoperative evaluation, additional gynecologic abnormalities were identified that required concomitant surgical intervention including: introital stenosis (n=4, 26.6%), retained vaginal septum (n=3, 20%) and remnant recto vestibular fistula (n=2, 13.3%). Patients with a previously repaired ARM may present with gynecologic concerns that require subsequent surgical intervention. The most common finding was an inadequate perineal body, but other findings included introital stenosis, retained vaginal septum and remnant recto vestibular fistula. Multidisciplinary evaluation to assess and identify abnormalities and coordinate timing and surgical approach is crucial to assure optimal patient outcomes. Case series with no comparison group. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Issues in the repair of x-ray masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Diane K.; Doherty, John A.

    1991-03-01

    Although full implementation of x-ray lithography as a production technology remains a few years in the future, there are now many world wide efforts to accelerate this introduction. Unlike other more common lithographic techniques, such as image projection, x-rya lithography requires the fabrication of a mask with a thick absorber to efficiently block the X-rays. This important distinction from the reticles used in wafer steppers requires a completely new approach to many of the techniques of mask making, including inspection and repairs. Focused ion beam systems have been suggested as a possible repair strategy, and a number of groups have utilized the inherent advantages of FIB methods to repair X-ray masks in the laboratory. Although FIB systems have achieve substantial acceptance in the photomask making community for repair of chrome masks and reticles, a simple reapplication of these systems to repair of X-ray masks will not produce the quality levels required in X- ray lithography. The purpose of this paper will be to review the primary technical problems in the repair of X-ray masks and to discuss the implications of these requirements on the design of an FIB system. The current state-of-the-art in X-ray mask repair will be reviewed and some unique results will be presented.

  16. Regulation of DNA repair in serum-stimulated xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, P.K.; Sirover, M.A.

    1984-10-01

    The regulation of DNA repair during serum stimulation of quiescent cells was examined in normal human cells, in fibroblasts from three xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups (A, C, and D), in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, and in ataxia telangiectasia cells. The regulation of nucleotide excision repair was examined by exposing cells to ultraviolet irradiation at discrete intervals after cell stimulation. Similarly, base excision repair was quantitated after exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. WI-38 normal human diploid fibroblasts, xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, as well as ataxia telangiectasia cells enhanced their capacity for both nucleotide excision repair and for base excision repair prior to their enhancement of DNA synthesis. Further, in each cell strain, the base excision repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase was increased prior to the induction of DNA polymerase using the identical cells to quantitate each activity. In contrast, each of the three xeroderma complementation groups that were examined failed to increase their capacity for nucleotide excision repair above basal levels at any interval examined. This result was observed using either unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of 10 mM hydroxyurea or using repair replication in the absence of hydroxyurea to quantitate DNA repair. However, each of the three complementation groups normally regulated the enhancement of base excision repair after methylmethane sulfonate exposure and each induced the uracil DNA glycosylase prior to DNA synthesis. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Immersion Study Abroad in Mexico: Using Repair Behaviors to Assess Proficiency Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smartt, Jerry T.; Scudder, Rosalind R.

    2004-01-01

    Repair behavior in university-level students was investigated to determine if students who study abroad use repair behavior differently from students who do not. The Mexico group (N =24) studied Conversational Spanish at La Salle University, Cancun. The U.S. group (N = 9) completed the same course at Friends University, Wichita, Kansas. Pretest…

  18. Rotator Cuff Repair: Is there any role for acromioplasty?

    PubMed

    Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ali; Keyhani, Sohrab; Hashemi-Motlagh, Keyvan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar

    2016-09-01

    Acromioplasty has been one of the most common techniques amongst orthopedic surgeries in the past decade. However, its efficacy in arthroscopic surgeries of rotator cuff repair is still debatable. The purpose of this study is to compare the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with or without acromioplasty in patients with complete rotator cuff tear. In this prospective cohort study, patients with complete rotator cuff tear (acromion type II or III Bigliani) and a history of failure to the conservative treatment for at least 6 months were evaluated for eligibility. Patients, based on the time interval, were placed in one of two groups: arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with (RCR-A group) and without acromioplasty (RCR group). Patients were assessed for two years in term of pain intensity by VAS criteria and shoulder functional status by Quick-DASH, Constant score and simple shoulder test criteria. In the baseline assessment, RCR-A group (34 patients) and RCR group (33 patients) were similar. Comparing patients in two groups in relation to SST, Quick-DASH and VAS scores preoperatively showed there is no significant difference between the two groups. The SST, Quick-DASH and VAS scores improved significantly in both groups at both the 6-month and 2-year follow-ups (all P < 0.001). The extent of progress in the functional scores was similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair without acromioplasty may be as reliable and useful as conventional rotator cuff repair with acromioplasty. Thus, acromioplasty cannot be recommended as a routine technique in every rotator cuff repair.

  19. Risk Factors for Infection After Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Vopat, Bryan G; Lee, Bea J; DeStefano, Sherilyn; Waryasz, Gregory R; Kane, Patrick M; Gallacher, Stacey E; Fava, Joseph; Green, Andrew G

    2016-03-01

    To identify risk factors for infection after rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that patient characteristics and surgical technique would affect the rate of infection. The records of 1,824 rotator cuff repairs performed by a single surgeon from 1995 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Fourteen patients had an early deep postoperative wound infection that was treated with surgical irrigation and debridement. One hundred eighty-five control patients who were treated with rotator cuff repair and did not develop an infection were selected randomly for comparison and statistical analysis. Data regarding preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for infection were recorded, and a multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate predictors of infection. The infection rate was 0.77% (14/1,822). On average 2.1 (range 1 to 4) surgical debridements were performed in addition to treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Patients who had open or miniopen rotator cuff repair had a significantly greater risk of acute postoperative infection (odds ratio [OR] = 8.63, P = .002). Seventy-nine percent of the patients in the infection group had an open or miniopen repair, whereas only 28% of the control group had an open or miniopen repair. Male patients also had a significantly greater risk of acute postoperative infection (OR = 9.52, P = .042). A total of 92% of the infection patients were male compared with 58% of the control group. In addition, as body mass index increased there was a reduction in the odds of infection (OR = 0.81, P = .023). The results of this case control study demonstrate that open or miniopen surgical technique and male sex are significant risk factors for infection after rotator cuff repair. In our study, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reduced the risk of infection compared with open techniques. Level IV. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Doxycycline administration improves fascial interface in hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Tharappel, Job C; Bower, Curtis E; Whittington Harris, Jennifer; Ramineni, Sandeep K; Puleo, David A; Roth, J Scott

    2014-08-01

    Despite improvements in ventral hernia repair techniques, their recurrence rates are unacceptably high. Increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reduced collagen-1 to -3 ratios are implicated in incisional hernia formation. We have recently shown doxycycline treatment for 4 wk after hernia repair reduced MMP levels, significantly increased collagen-1 to -3 ratios, and increased tensile strength of repaired interface fascia. However, this increase was not statistically significant. In this study, we extended treatment duration to determine whether this would impact the tensile strength of the repaired interface fascia. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent incision hernia creation and subsequent repair with polypropylene mesh. The animals received either saline (n = 16) or doxycycline (n = 16) beginning from 1 day before hernia repair until the end of survival time of 6 wk (n = 16) or 12 wk (n = 16). Tissue samples were investigated for MMPs and collagen subtypes using Western blot procedures, and tensiometric analysis was performed. At both 6 and 12 wk after hernia repair, the tensiometric strength of doxycycline-treated mesh to fascia interface (MFI) tissue showed a statistically significant increase when compared with untreated control MFI. In both groups, collagen-1, -2, and -3 ratios were remarkably increased in doxycycline-treated MFI. At 6 wk, the doxycycline-treated MFI group showed a significant decrease in MMP-2, an increase in MMP-3, and no change in MMP-9. At 12 wk, MMP-9 showed a remarkable reduction, whereas MMP-2 and -3 protein levels increased in the doxycycline-treated MFI group. Doxycycline administration results in significantly improved strength of repaired fascial interface tissue along with a remarkable increase in collagen-1, -2, and -3 ratios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vascularized dorsal digital fascial flap improves flexor tendon repairs.

    PubMed

    Sun, L-Q; Zhao, G; Gao, S-H; Chen, C

    2014-09-01

    We report a new method of flexor tendon repair in zone II using a standard modified Kessler technique combined with a vascularized dorsal fascial flap from the finger pedicled on a dorsal cutaneous branch of the proper digital artery, which is placed as a mechanical barrier between the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons. The functional outcomes of 14 patients (Group A) with flexor tendon repairs in zone II by this new technique were compared with those of 32 patients (Group B) with flexor tendon repairs in zone II using a standard modified Kessler technique only. Patients in Group A had a higher proportion of excellent results (on the modified Strickland system) and more movement in the distal interphalangeal joint than the patients in Group B.

  2. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in patients older than 60 years.

    PubMed

    Rebuzzi, Enrico; Coletti, Nicolò; Schiavetti, Stefano; Giusto, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze results by age, tear size, and type of suture repair (margin convergence by side-to-side suture, direct tendon-to-bone repair with suture anchor, or side-to-side plus suture anchor) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in patients older than 60 years (average, 67.7 years). Retrospective case series. From January 1999 to January 2001, 64 patients (64 shoulders) older than 60 years had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair performed by the same surgical team. Fifty-four patients (84.3%) were available for follow-up (average, 27 months); 54 shoulders were evaluated using the UCLA rating scale (0-35 points). Tears were categorized according to size. The pattern of tears determined the repair technique: crescent-shaped tears were repaired in a direct tendon-to-bone fashion and U-shaped tears by margin convergence with or without suture anchor. The mean of postoperative UCLA score improved from 10.4 (range, 8.2-20 points) to 30.5 (range, 21-35 points) (P < .0001). Sixteen patients (29.6%) had excellent results (34-35 points), 28 (51.8%) had good results (28-33 points), 10 (18.5%) had fair results (21-27 points), and none had poor results. There were no statistical differences between postoperative UCLA score and groups by age (P = .53), suture technique (P = .06), and tear size (P = .5). The correlation between technique of repair, age, and postoperative score has not shown statistical differences between margin convergence with or without suture anchor and direct tendon-to-bone repair with suture anchor in the 61- to 65-year-old patients. Patients older than 65 years achieved the best results with margin convergence by side-to-side suture. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the elderly achieves satisfactory results in a large percentage of cases regardless of the patient's age, tear size, and type of suture repair. These results are comparable to those of traditional open repair. We believe that arthroscopic evaluation allows an

  3. Mitral valve repair for degenerative disease: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Mani A; Milano, Carmelo A; Rankin, J Scott; Honeycutt, Emily F; Swaminathan, Madhav; Shaw, Linda K; Smith, Peter K; Glower, Donald D

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in surgical technique allow repair of most mitral valves with degenerative disease. However, few long-term data exist to support the superiority of repair versus prosthetic valve replacement, and repair could be limited by late durability or other problems. This study was designed to compare survival characteristics of mitral valve repair versus prosthetic replacement for degenerative disorders during a 20-year period. From 1986 to 2006, 2,580 patients underwent isolated mitral valve procedures (with or without coronary artery bypass grafting), with 989 classified as having degenerative origin. Of these, 705 received valve repair, and 284 had prosthetic valve replacement. Differences in baseline characteristics between groups were assessed, and unadjusted survival estimates were generated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Survival curves were examined after adjustment for differences in baseline profiles using a Cox model, and average adjusted survival differences were quantified by area under the curve methodology. Survival differences during 15 years of follow-up also were assessed with propensity matching. Baseline characteristics were similar, except for (variable: repair, replacement) age: 62 years, 68 years; concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting: 24%, 32%; ejection fraction: 0.51, 0.55; congestive heart failure: 68%, 43%; and preoperative arrhythmia: 11%, 7% (all p < 0.05). Long-term survival was significantly better in the repair group, both for unadjusted data (p < 0.001) and for risk-adjusted results (p = 0.040). Patient survival in the course of 15 years averaged 7.3% better with repair, and increased with time of follow-up: 0.7% better for 0 to 5 years, 4.9% better for 5 to 10 years, and 21.3% better for 10 to 15 years. Treatment interaction between repair or replacement and age was negative (p = 0.66). In the propensity analysis, survival advantages of repair versus replacement were similar in magnitude with a p value of 0.046. As

  4. Analysis of a knotless flexor tendon repair using a multifilament stainless steel cable-crimp system.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Leonard; Matsui, Jun; McDonald, Erik; Gordon, Joshua A; Neimkin, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    To compare the biomechanical and technical properties of flexor tendon repairs using a 4-strand cruciate FiberWire (FW) repair and a 2-strand multifilament stainless steel (MFSS) single cross-lock cable-crimp system. Eight tests were conducted for each type of repair using cadaver hand flexor digitorum profundus tendons. We measured the required surgical exposure, repair time, and force of flexion (friction) with a custom motor system with an inline load cell and measured ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 2-mm gap force on a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Repair time averaged less than 7 minutes for the 2-strand MFSS cable crimp repairs and 12 minutes for the FW repairs. The FW repair was performed with 2 cm of exposure and removal of the C-1 and A-3 pulleys. The C-1 and A-3 pulleys were retained in each of the MFSS cable crimp repairs with less than 1 cm of exposure. Following the FW repair, the average increase in friction was 89% compared with an average of 53% for the MFSS repairs. Six of the 8 MFSS specimens achieved the UTS before any gap had occurred, whereas all of the FW repairs had more than 2 mm of gap before the UTS, indicating that the MFSS was a stiffer repair. The average UTS appeared similar for both groups. We describe a 2-strand multifilament stainless steel single cross-lock cable crimp flexor repair system. In our studies of this cable crimp system, we found that surgical exposure, average repair times, and friction were reduced compared to the traditional 4-strand cruciate FW repair. While demonstrating these benefits, the crimp repair also produced a stiff construct and high UTS and 2-mm gap force. A cable crimp flexor tendon repair may offer an attractive alternative to current repair methods. The benefits may be important especially for flexor tendon repair in zone 2 or for the repair of multiple tendons. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purged material resulting from immediate repair would be greater than the fugitive emissions likely to result from delay of repair, and (ii) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material...

  6. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  7. The Biomechanical and Histologic Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Rat Rotator Cuff Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jennifer; Evans, Douglas; Tonino, Pietro M.; Yong, Sherri; Callaci, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are common injuries that are often treated with surgical repair. Because of the high concentration of growth factors within platelets, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has the potential to enhance healing in rotator cuff repairs. Hypothesis Platelet-rich plasma would alter the biomechanical and histologic properties of rotator cuff repair during an acute injury response. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Platelet-rich plasma was produced from inbred donor rats. A tendon-from-bone supraspinatus tear was created surgically and an immediate transosseous repair performed. The control group underwent repair only. The PRP group underwent a repair with PRP augmentation. Rats in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 21 days. The surgically repaired tendons underwent biomechanical testing, including failure load, stiffness, failure strain, and stress relaxation characteristics. Histological analysis evaluated the cellular characteristics of the repair tissue. Results At 7- and 21-day periods, augmentation with PRP showed statistically significant effects on the biomechanical properties of the repaired rat supraspinatus tear, but failure load was not increased at the 7-, 14-, or 21-day periods (P = .688, .209, and .477, respectively). The control group had significantly higher stiffness at 21 days (P = .006). The control group had higher failure strain at 7 days (P = .02), whereas the PRP group had higher failure strain at 21 days (P = .008). Histologically, the PRP group showed increased fibroblastic response and vascular proliferation at each time point. At 21 days, the collagen fibers in the PRP group were oriented in a more linear fashion toward the tendon footprint. Conclusion In this controlled, rat model study, PRP altered the tissue properties of the supraspinatus tendon without affecting the construct’s failure load. Clinical Relevance The decreased tendon tissue stiffness acutely and failure to enhance tendon

  8. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  9. Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

  10. Membrane Repair: Mechanisms and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sandra T.; McNeil, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have been confronted throughout their evolution with potentially lethal plasma membrane injuries, including those caused by osmotic stress, by infection from bacterial toxins and parasites, and by mechanical and ischemic stress. The wounded cell can survive if a rapid repair response is mounted that restores boundary integrity. Calcium has been identified as the key trigger to activate an effective membrane repair response that utilizes exocytosis and endocytosis to repair a membrane tear, or remove a membrane pore. We here review what is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of membrane repair, with particular emphasis on the relevance of repair as it relates to disease pathologies. Collective evidence reveals membrane repair employs primitive yet robust molecular machinery, such as vesicle fusion and contractile rings, processes evolutionarily honed for simplicity and success. Yet to be fully understood is whether core membrane repair machinery exists in all cells, or whether evolutionary adaptation has resulted in multiple compensatory repair pathways that specialize in different tissues and cells within our body. PMID:26336031

  11. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  12. Small Crater Expedient Repair Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Crater 4, the timed polymer-concrete repair, failed due to material quality. An estimated 20 of the 464 bags of SilikalO lacked the benzoyl ... peroxide catalyst required for polymerization. As a result of this omission, several areas of the repair failed to harden, causing the unpolymerized mateiial

  13. Cobbler's Technique for Iridodialysis Repair

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, Surinder Singh; Gupta, Parul Chawla; Singh, Rishi Raj; Das, Kalpita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Raj, Srishti; Ram, Jagat

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis. PMID:26957855

  14. A complexity scoring system for degenerative mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Itagaki, Shinobu; Chikwe, Joanna; El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Adams, David H

    2016-06-01

    To develop a score to allow stratification of complexity in degenerative mitral valve repair. Retrospective modeling of data from 668 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for mitral valve prolapse. A complexity scoring scale was developed using a consensus approach, assigning a score to each valve, based on the following: prolapsing segments (weight 1 for each posterior segment; weight 2 for each anterior or commissural segment); presence of valve restriction (weight 2); presence of calcification (weight 3 if annulus involved, otherwise weight 2); and prior mitral valve repair (weight 3). Valve repairs were categorized into 3 groups based on the complexity score: 1: Simple (n = 244); 2-4: Intermediate (n = 260); ≥5: Complex (n = 164). Mitral valve repair was successfully performed in 667 patients (repair rate: 99.9%). The complexity score was directly correlated with surrogates of technical complexity. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time increased with lesion complexity ([in minutes] simple: 152; intermediate: 167; complex 195; P < .001). The median number of repair techniques utilized was related to lesion complexity (simple: 3; intermediate: 4; complex: 5; P < .001). Barlow's type etiology was more prevalent in complex cases (63%), compared with simple (9%) and intermediate (35%) cases (P < .001). Advanced repair techniques were required to complete repair in 51% of complex cases, compared with 14% of intermediate and 0% of simple cases (P < .001). Early and late outcomes were similar. Our scoring system may allow effective stratification of complexity of mitral valve repair. Future studies are required to evaluate the use of our score in a prospective setting. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Laparoscopic repair of recurrent hernias.

    PubMed

    Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic approach to recurrent inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired all potential areas of recurrence without producing tension. Both a transabdominal preperitoneal and a totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach were utilized. Ninety recurrent hernias were repaired in 81 patients. The patients had 26 indirect, 36 direct, and 26 pantaloon recurrent hernias of which eight had a femoral component. In all but one patient the primary operations were open anterior repairs. The median follow-up was 14 months, ranging from 1 to 28 months. Patients returned to normal activities in an average of 1 week. The only recurrence observed was in the one patient whose primary repair was laparoscopic. When the entire inguinal floor of the recurrent hernia was redissected and buttressed with mesh, early recurrence was eliminated and recovery was shortened.

  16. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Materials for the Repair of Polyimide Electrical Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Two viable polyimide backbone materials have been identified that will allow the repair of polyimide electrical wire insulation found on the Space Shuttle and other aging aircraft. This identification is the outcome of ongoing efforts to assess the viability of using such polyimides and polyimide precursors (polyamic acids [PAAs]) as repair materials for aging polyimide electrical wire insulation. These repair materials were selected because they match the chemical makeup of the underlying wire insulation as closely as possible. This similarity allows for maximum compatibility, coupled with the outstanding physical properties of polyimides. The two polyimide backbone materials allow the polymer to be extremely flexible and to melt at low temperatures. A polymer chain end capping group that allows the polymer to crosslink into a nonflowable repair upon curing at around 200 C was also identified.

  18. Comparison of shear bond strength of two porcelain repair systems after different surface treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ashish; Mohan, Murali S.; Gowda, E. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoral chair side porcelain repair system is a quick, painless and highly patient acceptable procedure, without removal of restoration or fabrication of new restoration. There are very limited studies conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of repair systems after different surface treatment. Objectives of Research: The objective of research was to evaluate the shear bond strength of two intraoral porcelain repair systems Clearfil repair system (Kuraray) and Ceramic repair system (Ivoclar) to repair metal-ceramic restoration after three different surface treatment. Materials and Methods: Totally, 120 discs of base metal alloy were fabricated. The opaque, dentine and enamel of ceramic were applied to achieve the uniform thickness. Defect was created, and repair was done using two repair systems after different surface treatment. Shear bond strength was measured. Results: Analysis of variance was utilized. Ceramic repair system after 40% phosphoric acid surface treatment showed the highest mean value and Clearfil repair system after surface treatment with 37% phosphoric acid showed the lowest. The statistical difference was found to be significant between the groups. Conclusion: The shear bond strength of Ceramic repair system with 40% phosphoric acid etching showed highest shear bond strength as compared to other system and surface treatment used in the study. PMID:26097354

  19. The effect of muscle repair on postoperative facial skeletal growth in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Nagase, T; Januszkiewicz, J S; Keall, H J; de Geus, J J

    1998-12-01

    The effect of orbicularis muscle repair on postoperative facial skeletal growth in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients was studied by analysis of cephalometric radiographs and dental casts. Sixty-two patients operated on between 1961-1989 were selected for the study. They were divided into three groups, group 1a (muscle repair; n = 12), group 1b (failed attempt at muscle repair; n = 5), and group 2 (no attempt at muscle repair; n = 45). Comparison of the morphological measurements among these three groups showed that there was a trend towards crossbite in the muscle repair group, but this difference was not significant. Mechanisms by which muscle repair might influence maxillofacial skeletal growth include the possibility that the area around the nasal septum might be the growth centre. The choice of operative technique in bilateral cleft lip and palate should be important.

  20. Patients' expectations of shoulder instability repair.

    PubMed

    Plath, Johannes E; Saier, Tim; Feucht, Matthias J; Minzlaff, Philipp; Seppel, Gernot; Braun, Sepp; Hatch, Daniel; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2017-03-13

    To analyze and compare patient expectations of primary and revision shoulder stabilization and to assess the factors associated with patients' expectations. Pre-operative patient expectations after shoulder instability repair were prospectively assessed using a self-designed questionnaire. The survey included questions on the expected level and type of return to sports, instability, pain, risk of osteoarthritis, and overall shoulder condition. One-hundred and forty-five patients (99 primary; 46 revision repair) were included. A return to sport at the same level with slight to no restrictions was expected in 95%, a return to high-risk activities in 34%, to moderate in 58%, and to low-risk activities in 9%. No pain [instability] independent of the activity level was expected by 71% [79%] and occasional pain [instability] during contact and overhead activities by 25% [19%]. 61% expected to have no risk of glenohumeral osteoarthritis, 37% a slight, and 2% a significant risk. The overall expectation for the post-operative shoulder was indicated to be normal or nearly normal in 99% of patients. The revision group did not differ from the primary repair group in any variable. High pre-operative sport performance was positively correlated with post-operative sport expectations. The number of dislocations, the duration of instability, and the subjective instability level were negatively correlated with return to sport expectations. Patient expectations for primary and revision shoulder instability repair are high. Realistic patient expectations regarding the surgical procedure are necessary to avoid low patient satisfaction, especially in pre-operatively highly active and demanding athletes. The surgeon must not solely base the treatment on the pathology and possible risk factors for failure but should also take the individual expectation of the patient into account. III.

  1. Long-term Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Suture Versus Mesh Repair of Incisional Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Jacobus W.A.; Luijendijk, Roland W.; Hop, Wim C.J.; Halm, Jens A.; Verdaasdonk, Emiel G.G.; Jeekel, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the best treatment of incisional hernia, taking into account recurrence, complications, discomfort, cosmetic result, and patient satisfaction. Background: Long-term results of incisional hernia repair are lacking. Retrospective studies and the midterm results of this study indicate that mesh repair is superior to suture repair. However, many surgeons are still performing suture repair. Methods: Between 1992 and 1998, a multicenter trial was performed, in which 181 eligible patients with a primary or first-time recurrent midline incisional hernia were randomly assigned to suture or mesh repair. In 2003, follow-up was updated. Results: Median follow-up was 75 months for suture repair and 81 months for mesh repair patients. The 10-year cumulative rate of recurrence was 63% for suture repair and 32% for mesh repair (P < 0.001). Abdominal aneurysm (P = 0.01) and wound infection (P = 0.02) were identified as independent risk factors for recurrence. In patients with small incisional hernias, the recurrence rates were 67% after suture repair and 17% after mesh repair (P = 0.003). One hundred twenty-six patients completed long-term follow-up (median follow-up 98 months). In the mesh repair group, 17% suffered a complication, compared with 8% in the suture repair group (P = 0.17). Abdominal pain was more frequent in suture repair patients (P = 0.01), but there was no difference in scar pain, cosmetic result, and patient satisfaction. Conclusions: Mesh repair results in a lower recurrence rate and less abdominal pain and does not result in more complications than suture repair. Suture repair of incisional hernia should be abandoned. PMID:15383785

  2. A new nucleotide-excision-repair gene associated with the disorder trichothiodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanini, M.; Giliani, S. ); Vermuelen, W.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Harper, J.I.; Arlett, C.F.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1993-10-01

    The sun-sensitive, cancer-prone genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is associated in most cases with a defect in the ability to carry out excision repair of UV damage. Seven genetically distinct complementation groups (i.e., A-G) have been identified. A large proportion of patients with the unrelated disorder trichothiodystrophy (TTD), which is characterized by hair-shaft abnormalities, as well as by physical and mental retardation, are also deficient in excision repair of UV damage. In most of these cases the repair deficiency is in the same complementation group as is XP group D. The authors report here on cells from a patient, TTD1BR, in which the repair defect complements all known XP groups (including XP-D). Furthermore, microinjection of various cloned human repair genes fails to correct the repair defect in this cell strain. The defect in TTD1BR cells is therefore in a new gene involved in excision repair in human cells. The finding of a second DNA repair gene that is associated with the clinical features of TTD argues strongly for an involvement of repair proteins in hair-shaft development. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Mitral Repair Is Superior to Replacement When Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reece, T Brett; Tribble, Curtis G.; Ellman, Peter I.; Maxey, Thomas S.; Woodford, Randall L.; Dimeling, George M.; Wellons, Harry A.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of mitral repair and replacement in revascularized patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Summary Background Data: Combined coronary bypass (CABG) and mitral procedures have been associated with the highest mortality (>10%) in cardiac surgery. Recent studies have suggested that mitral valve replacement (MVR) with sparing of the subvalvular apparatus had comparable results to mitral repair when associated with CABG. Methods: Over the past 7 years, 54 patients had CABG/mitral repair versus 56 who had CABG/MVR with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. The groups were similar in age at 69.2 years in the replacement group versus 67.0 in the repair group. We compared these 2 groups based on hospital mortality, incidence of complications including nosocomial infection, neurologic decompensation (stroke), pulmonary complication (pneumonia, atelectasis, and prolonged ventilation), and renal complications (acute renal failure or insufficiency). Results: The mitral repair group had a hospital mortality of 1.9% versus 10.7% in the replacement group (P = 0.05). Infection occurred in 9% of repairs compared with 13% of replacements (P = 0.59). The incidence of stroke was no different between groups (2 of 54 repairs vs. 2 of 56 replacements, P = 1.00). Pulmonary complication rate was 39% in repairs versus 32% in replacements (P = 0.59). Worsening renal function occurred in 15% of repairs versus 18% of replacements (P = 0.67). Conclusions: Mitral repair is superior to mitral replacement when associated with coronary artery disease in terms of perioperative morbidity and hospital mortality. Although preservation of the subvalvular apparatus with MVR has a theoretical advantage in terms of ventricular function, mitral repair clearly adds a survival benefit in patients with concomitant ischemic cardiac disease. PMID:15082971

  4. TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

  5. Wound repair in Pocillopora.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  6. Coal bunker repairs

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, M.H.; Hoffman, M.G. )

    1992-01-01

    Detroit Edison's St. Clair Power Plant (STCPP) Units 1 through 4 are 1950's vintage fossil fueled units with an average capacity of 163 megawatt per unit. Each unit had identical 2190 ton bunkers. The Unit No. 1 bunker had been experiencing noticeable exterior deterioration at the lower level internal support system. An internal bunker inspection revealed large deflections in the network of beams supporting the bunker side walls. A complete collapse of the internal support beams was imminent. Failure of these beams would have transferred the coal pressure loads to the bunker skin and external stiffeners which were not capable of sustaining the load and were also showing signs of distress. This paper presents the temporary repair installed immediately after inspection, the redesign of the lower internal support system and construction procedures involved in bringing the bunker back into operating condition.

  7. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  8. TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

  9. Biomechanical Study of Two Peripheral Suture Methods on Repaired Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Flexor digitorum tendon injuries are challenging conditions to manage to ensure optimal patient outcomes. While several surgical approaches with high success rates have been developed, there remains no gold standard for suture technique for the repair of flexor tendon injuries. In this study, we compared two distinct peripheral suture methods on the strength of repaired tendons. Pig flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used in biomechanical studies and the biomechanical influence on tendon repair of continuous running peripheral suture (CRPS) and continuous locking peripheral suture (CLPS), were compared, using stitch length ranging from 1mm to 5mm. In CRPS, the 1mm stitch length group displayed the highest maximum load and breaking power, which was 1.57 fold higher than the 2mm stitch length group. Pairwise comparison revealed that the 1 and 2mm groups were statistically different from the 3, 4, and 5mm stitch length groups while comparison among the latter groups was not statistically significant. For CLPS, the 1mm group exhibited consistently the highest maximum load strength and breaking power, which was twice the strength displayed by the 2mm group. Pairwise comparisons between groups showed statistical significance. For future repairs of flexor tendon injuries, 1mm stitch length is highly recommended for simple peripheral suture.

  10. Network repair based on community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqian; Wandelt, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    Real-world complex systems are often fragile under disruptions. Accordingly, research on network repair has been studied intensively. Recently proposed efficient strategies for network disruption, based on collective influence, call for more research on efficient network repair strategies. Existing strategies are often designed to repair networks with local information only. However, the absence of global information impedes the creation of efficient repairs. Motivated by this limitation, we propose a concept of community-level repair, which leverages the community structure of the network during the repair process. Moreover, we devise a general framework of network repair, with in total six instances. Evaluations on real-world and random networks show the effectiveness and efficiency of the community-level repair approaches, compared to local and random repairs. Our study contributes to a better understanding of repair processes, and reveals that exploitation of the community structure improves the repair process on a disrupted network significantly.

  11. DNA repair in human fibroblasts treated with a combination of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, F.E.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-07-01

    Excision repair of DNA damage was measured by the photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated during repair in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum group C fibroblasts (XP C) treated with a combination of the carcinogens N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino fluorene (AAAF), and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). Repair was additive in normal and XP C cells treated with AAAF plus 4NQO, indicating that there are different rate limiting steps for removal of 4NQO and AAAF lesions.

  12. How to repair an episiotomy.

    PubMed

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio .

  13. Repairing pipes on the fly

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    When piping develops leaks, the natural instinct is to shut the process down, purge the lines and call in maintenance crews to make the repairs. There is, however, an alternative: on-the-fly repairs. Through the use of specialized tools, equipment and technicians, shut-off valves can be installed and leaks repaired without interrupting production. The split sleeve offers one of the simpler approaches to on-the-fly repairs. Two half cylinders with inside diameter slightly larger than the outside diameter slightly larger than the outside diameter of the pipe to be repaired are slipped over the latter some distance form the leak and loosely bolted together. The cylinder is then slid over the leaking area and the bolts tightened. Gaskets inside the half cylinders provide the needed seal between the pipe and the cylinder. Installing a shut-off valve in an operating pipeline requires much more specialized equipment and skills than does repairing a leak with a split sleeve. A device available from International Piping Services Co. allows a trained crew to isolate a section of pipe, drill out the isolated portion, install a blocking valve and then remove the isolation system--all while continuing to operate the pipeline at temperatures to 700 F and pressures to 700 psi. But Herb Porter, CEO of Ipsco, cautions that unlike the repairing leaks with a split sleeve, installing a blocking valve on-the-fly always demands the services of a highly trained crew.

  14. Frequency of intrachromosomal homologous recombination induced by UV radiation in normally repairing and excision repair-deficient human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimura, T.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. ); Godwin, A.R.; Liskay, R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    To investigate the role of DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair in intrachromosomal homologous recombination, a plasmid containing duplicated copies of the gene coding for hygromycin resistance was introduced into the genome of a repair-proficient human cell line, KMST-6, and two repair-deficient lines, XP2OS(SV) from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and XP2YO(SV) from complementation group F. Neither hygromycin-resistance gene codes for a functional enzyme because each contains an insertion/deletion mutation at a unique site, but recombination between the two defective genes can yield hygromycin-resistant cells. The rates of spontaneous recombination in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cell strains containing the recombination substrate were found to be similar. The frequency of UV-induced recombination was determined for three of these cell strains. At low doses, the group A cell strain and the group F cell strain showed a significant increase in frequency of recombinants. The repair-proficient cell strain required 10-to 20-fold higher doses of UV to exhibit comparable increases in frequency of recombinants. These results suggest that unexcised DNA damage, rather than the excision repair process per se, stimulates such recombination.

  15. DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

  16. Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Ciuluvica, R; Dinu, I; Careba, I; Gradinaru, S

    2015-01-01

    The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from the total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life. The majority of cases required reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this was that the bony walls were comminuted and/ or bone fragments were missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of the missing bone was important rather than reducing the bone fragments. This could be accomplished by using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: non resorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/ allogeneic/ xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of the material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:25914737

  17. Titanium Mesh Nasal Repair without Nasal Lining.

    PubMed

    Zenga, Joseph; Kao, Katherine; Chen, Collin; Gross, Jennifer; Hahn, Samuel; Chi, John J; Branham, Gregory H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe outcomes for patients who underwent titanium mesh reconstruction of full-thickness nasal defects without internal lining repair. This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with through-and-through nasal defects were identified at a single academic institution between 2008 and 2016. Nasal reconstruction was performed with either titanium mesh and external skin reconstruction without repair of the intranasal lining or traditional three-layer closure. Five patients underwent titanium mesh reconstruction and 11 underwent traditional three-layer repair. Median follow-up was 11 months (range, 2-66 months). The only significant difference between groups was older age in patients undergoing titanium reconstruction (mean, 81 vs. 63 years; difference of 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4-32 years). Defect extent including overall size and structures removed was similar between groups (p > 0.05). Paramedian forehead flap was the most common external reconstruction in both groups (100% for titanium mesh and 73% for three-layer closure). Time under anesthesia was significantly shorter for titanium mesh reconstruction (median, 119 vs. 314 minutes; difference of 195; 95% CI, 45-237). Estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Complication rates were substantial although not significantly different, 40 and 36% in titanium and three-layer reconstruction, respectively (p > 0.05). All patients with complications after titanium reconstruction had prior or postoperative radiotherapy. Titanium mesh reconstruction of through-and-through nasal defects can successfully be performed without reconstruction of the intranasal lining, significantly decreasing operative times. This reconstructive technique may not be suitable for patients who undergo radiotherapy.

  18. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  19. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  20. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  1. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  2. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  3. Bone repair and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  4. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    acceptable only if at least one undamaged flange remains in the existing internal structure. Sandwich repairs using extrusions or formed parts are better...easily be affected by bridging the damage with two L-angle extrusions fastened together through undamaged portions of the existing rod to form a ‘splint...Cell Repairs Rubber fuel bladders with damage less than 3 inches/7.6 cm can be repaired in a manner similar to patching tire inner-tubes using Buna-N

  5. Rotator Cuff Repair in Patients over 75 Years of Age: Clinical Outcome and Repair Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Gwan; Cho, Nam Su; Song, Jong Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun; Jeong, Ho Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown significant functional improvement after rotator cuff (RC) repair in elderly patients. However, few studies have reported the healing potential of RC tears in elderly patients. Methods Twenty-five patients aged ≥ 75 years who underwent RC repair were enrolled. The mean age at the time of surgery was 78.3 years (range, 75 to 88 years) while the mean follow-up was 36.3 months (range, 18 to 114 months). We evaluated clinical and structural outcomes after RC repair in the retear and healed groups. Results Of 25 patients, 16 (64%) had healed RC lesions and 9 (36%) had retorn cuff lesions. The retear rate increased significantly with increasing initial tear size (small to medium, 13%; large, 60%; massive, 80%; p = 0.024) but not with increasing age (p = 0.072). The mean visual analog scale (VAS), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), and Constant scores significantly improved from 5.2, 15.8, and 49.3 preoperatively to 1.4, 31.1, and 71.9 in the healed group and from 6.0, 14.4, and 39.5 preoperatively to 2.4, 28.3, and 63.6 in the retear group at the final follow-up (p < 0.05, respectively). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the 2 groups at the final follow-up. Retear was significantly correlated with initial tear size (p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 2.771; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.394 to 5.509 for large to massive tears) (p = 0.001; OR, 0.183; 95% CI, 0.048 to 0.692 for small to medium tears). Conclusions There were significant improvements in clinical outcomes after RC repair in patients ≥ 75 years. Structural integrity after cuff repair did not affect the final clinical outcome. Even in elderly patients aged ≥ 75 years, healing of repaired RC can be expected in cases of small to medium tears. Although the retear rate was relatively high for large to massive tears, clinical outcomes still showed significant improvement. PMID:27904725

  6. Same day discharge, surgical training and early complications after open and laparoscopic repair of primary paraumbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, I; Willder, J M; Kumar, S

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to compare same day discharges and early complications after open and laparoscopic primary paraumbilical hernia (PUH) repair, including the procedures performed by surgical trainees (STs). All patients who had open (suture or mesh) and laparoscopic repair of primary PUH in the Day Surgery Unit (DSU) between January 2007 and June 2009 were identified from the hospital database. The database was questioned regarding the grade of operating surgeon, type of surgical repair, day of admission and discharge from the DSU, and a patient's return to surgical services. Data were stored in Microsoft Excel(®) (TM 2007). Statistical significance was determined using Fisher's exact test. PUH was repaired in 337 patients: 252/337 (74.8 %) had open and 85/337 (25.2 %) had laparoscopic repair. Significantly, more patients were discharged home on the day of surgery after an open repair compared to the laparoscopic repair: open repair 187/252 (74.2 %), laparoscopic repair 35/85 (41.17 %), P = 0.0001. Overall early complications such as wound complications and hospital re-visits were similar in both groups: open repair 6.3 % (16/252), laparoscopic repair 11.7 % (10/85), P = 0.1554. STs performed 142/337 (42.1 %) of the PUH repairs with similar same day discharges from the DSU: STs 64.7 % (92/142), consultant surgeons 66.7 % (130/195), P = 0.7285. The difference in hernia recurrence between open repair 7/252 (2.78 %) and laparoscopic group 0/85 was not significant (P = 0.1985). Patients with PUH repair were more likely to go home on the day of surgery after open than after laparoscopic repair. This was not affected by the grade of the operating surgeon. Early complications were similar following open and laparoscopic repair of primary PUH.

  7. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline M; Tanaka, Denise M; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valeria MC; Mazzer, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis) and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis) during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05). A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32). Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary. PMID:26770674

  8. Online patient resources for hernia repair: analysis of readability.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2014-07-01

    The limited functional health literacy of a significant portion of the adult US population negatively affects their access to appropriate online health information about hernia repair surgery. The National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend that patient-directed content should be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study aims to evaluate readability of the most frequently used Internet resources for patient information about hernia repair relative to average American literacy. A web search for "hernia repair surgery" was performed, and the top 12 Web sites were identified. Relevant articles (n=102) with patient-directed content immediately available from the main sites were downloaded. The 12 most popular consumer magazines in circulation were also identified, and using the same method, the first 10 articles were downloaded from each magazine's Web site for comparison. Readability was assessed using 10 established analyses. A t-test was used to compare the average grade level of hernia repair and magazine articles for each readability test. Web-based information about hernia repair had an overall average reading grade level of 13.6. All 102 articles were above the recommended sixth-grade reading level; these were significantly more difficult to read than the comparison group of articles from popular magazines. Online patient-directed information about hernia repair uniformly exceeds the recommended reading level and may be too difficult to be understood by a large portion of the US population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Augmented Versus Nonaugmented Repair of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Quan; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Although simple end-to-end repair of the Achilles tendon is common, many augmented repair protocols have been implemented for acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, whether augmented repair is better than nonaugmented repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture is still unknown. To conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether augmented surgical repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture improved subjective patient satisfaction without an increase in rerupture rates. Secondary outcomes assessed included infections, ankle range of motion, calf muscle strength, and minor complications. Meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing augmented repair and nonaugmented repair for acute Achilles tendon rupture from January 1980 to August 2016 in the electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science (SCI-E/SSCI/A&HCI), and EMBASE. The keywords (Achilles tendon rupture) AND (surg* OR operat* OR repair* OR augment* OR non-augment* OR end-to-end OR sutur*) were combined, and results were limited to human RCTs and controlled clinical trials published in the English language. Four RCTs involving 169 participants were eligible for inclusion; 83 participants were treated with augmented repair and 86 were treated with nonaugmented repair. Augmented repair led to similar responses when compared with nonaugmented repair for acute Achilles tendon rupture (93% vs 90%, respectively; P = .53). The rerupture rates showed no significant difference for augmented versus nonaugmented repair (7.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; P = .69). No differences in superficial and deep infections occurred in augmented (7 infections) and nonaugmented (8 infections) repair groups during postoperative follow-up ( P = .89). The average incisional infection rate was 8.4% with augmented repair and 9.3% with nonaugmented repair. No significant differences in other complications were found between augmented (7.2%) and

  10. Risk factors for surgical complications in rotator cuff repair in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brett D; Williams, Allison E; Wolf, Jennifer M

    2015-11-01

    Technical advances have allowed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to supplant open repairs with similar outcomes. However, few data exist to support the theoretical decrease in complications with the arthroscopic technique. We used the Veterans Administration Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from the entire U.S. Veterans Administration system. We obtained perioperative data of all patients undergoing rotator cuff repair between 2003 and 2008. Single and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for perioperative complications associated with rotator cuff surgery. There were 6975 open rotator cuff repairs and 2918 arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs performed with similar patient age, gender breakdown, body mass index, and comorbidities. Complications occurred in the early postoperative period in 2.1% of the open repair group and 0.9% of the arthroscopic repair group (P < .0001). The prevalence of both superficial and deep wound infection was higher in the open group compared with the arthroscopic group (1% vs. 0.1% superficial, P < .0001; 0.3% vs. 0.1% deep, P = .11). Return to the operating room within the 30-day surveillance period occurred in 1.1% of the open repair patients compared with 0.5% of patients undergoing arthroscopic repairs (P < .0001). -Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the arthroscopic group had a significantly lower risk of complications (P = .0001), a lower rate of superficial infection (P = .0002), a lower incidence of return to the operating room within 30 days (P = .007), and a lower risk of hospital readmission (P < .0001). Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the veteran population resulted in a lower incidence of perioperative complications compared with open repair. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s Repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein Mesh Repair of Direct Inguinal Hernias in Rural Population – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh M; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuthadi Sravan; Mithun, Gorre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lichtenstein’s tension free mesh hernioplasty is the commonly done open technique for inguinal hernias. As our hospital is in rural area, majority of patients are labourers, open hernias are commonly done. The present study was done by comparing Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein mesh repair (LMR) of direct Inguinal Hernias to compare the technique of both surgeries and its outcome like postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods A comparative randomized study was conducted on patients reporting to MNR hospital, sangareddy with direct inguinal hernias. A total of fifty consecutive patients were included in this study of which, 25 patients were operated by LMR and 25 patients were operated by MBR+LMR and followed up for a period of two years. The outcomes of the both techniques were compared. Results Study involved 25 each of Lichtenstein’s mesh repair (LMR) and modified bassini’s repair (MBR) + LMR, over a period of 2 years. The duration of surgery for lichtenstein mesh repair is around 34.56 min compared to LMR+MBR, which is 47.56 min which was statistically significant (p-value is <0.0001). In this study the most common complication for both the groups was seroma. The pain was relatively higher in LMR+MBR group in POD 1, but not statistically significant (p-value is 0.0949) and from POD 7 the pain was almost similar in both groups. The recurrence rate is 2% for LMR and 0% for MBR+LMR. Conclusion LMR+MBR was comparatively better than only LMR in all direct inguinal hernias because of low recurrence rate (0%) and low postoperative complications, which showed in our present study. PMID:27042517

  12. Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini's Repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein Mesh Repair of Direct Inguinal Hernias in Rural Population - A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Santosh M; Gurujala, Avinash; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuthadi Sravan; Mithun, Gorre

    2016-02-01

    Lichtenstein's tension free mesh hernioplasty is the commonly done open technique for inguinal hernias. As our hospital is in rural area, majority of patients are labourers, open hernias are commonly done. The present study was done by comparing Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini's repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein mesh repair (LMR) of direct Inguinal Hernias to compare the technique of both surgeries and its outcome like postoperative complications and recurrence rate. A comparative randomized study was conducted on patients reporting to MNR hospital, sangareddy with direct inguinal hernias. A total of fifty consecutive patients were included in this study of which, 25 patients were operated by LMR and 25 patients were operated by MBR+LMR and followed up for a period of two years. The outcomes of the both techniques were compared. Study involved 25 each of Lichtenstein's mesh repair (LMR) and modified bassini's repair (MBR) + LMR, over a period of 2 years. The duration of surgery for lichtenstein mesh repair is around 34.56 min compared to LMR+MBR, which is 47.56 min which was statistically significant (p-value is <0.0001). In this study the most common complication for both the groups was seroma. The pain was relatively higher in LMR+MBR group in POD 1, but not statistically significant (p-value is 0.0949) and from POD 7 the pain was almost similar in both groups. The recurrence rate is 2% for LMR and 0% for MBR+LMR. LMR+MBR was comparatively better than only LMR in all direct inguinal hernias because of low recurrence rate (0%) and low postoperative complications, which showed in our present study.

  13. Emergency repair of inguinal hernia in the premature infant is associated with high direct medical costs.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, J; de Goede, B; van Kempen, B J H; Langeveld, H R; Poley, M J; Kazemier, G; Jeekel, J; Wijnen, R M H; Lange, J F

    2016-08-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is frequently performed in premature infants. Evidence on optimal management and timing of repair, as well as related medical costs is still lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the direct medical costs of inguinal hernia, distinguishing between premature infants who had to undergo an emergency procedure and those who underwent elective inguinal hernia repair. This cohort study based on medical records concerned premature infants with inguinal hernia who underwent surgical repair within 3 months after birth in a tertiary academic children's hospital between January 2010 and December 2013. Two groups were distinguished: patients with incarcerated inguinal hernia requiring emergency repair and patients who underwent elective repair. Real medical costs were calculated by multiplying the volumes of healthcare use with corresponding unit prices. Nonparametric bootstrap techniques were used to derive a 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the difference in mean costs. A total of 132 premature infants were included in the analysis. Emergency surgery was performed in 29 %. Costs of hospitalization comprised 65 % of all costs. The total direct medical costs amounted to €7418 per premature infant in the emergency repair group versus €4693 in the elective repair group. Multivariate analysis showed a difference in costs of €1183 (95 % CI -1196; 3044) in favor of elective repair after correction for potential risk factors. Emergency repair of inguinal hernia in premature infants is more expensive than elective repair, even after correction for multiple confounders. This deserves to be taken into account in the debate on timing of inguinal hernia repair in premature infants.

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must be...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must be...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must be...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must be...

  18. Structure of retracted tendons after staged repair following continuous traction.

    PubMed

    Farshad, Mazda; Gerber, Christian; Snedeker, Jess G; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Meyer, Dominik C

    2011-12-01

    The effect of staged repair involving continuous re-lengthening of the retracted musculotendinous unit after rotator cuff tear is not known. We quantified changes in chronically retracted tendons undergoing no repair or a staged repair involving an initial re-lengthening of the musculotendinous unit by traction in a sheep model of massive rotator cuff tear. Infraspinatus tendons of 12 sheep were released and allowed to retract for 4 months. Repair was performed after the retracted musculotendinous unit had been progressively returned to its original length through continuous traction in 8 sheep (group I). In the other 4 sheep (group II) traction was not successful and the tendons remained retracted. Tendon structure was assessed macroscopically, by MRI, histology, and TEM. Normalized to their contralateral controls, at sacrifice, tendon thickness was unchanged in group I (116%, n.s) and increased in group II (129%, P < 0.05), however with substantial shortening. Increased collagen fiber crimping and disorganization was found in group II, whereas in group I the differences from normal tendon were less pronounced. Retracted musculotendinous units have deteriorated tendons, characterized by increased collagen fiber crimp, and ultrastructural collagen fibril atrophy and disorganization. Continuous traction may arrest and partially restore degenerative changes in retracted tendon. The findings of this study might contribute to new approaches for the treatment of chronic "irreparable" rotator cuff tears.

  19. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  20. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  1. Mismatch repair in heteroduplex DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wildenberg, J; Meselson, M

    1975-01-01

    DNA with base pair mismatches was prepared by annealing mixtures of genetically marked DNA from bacteriophage lambda. This heteroduplex DNA was used to transfect bacteria under conditions minimizing recombination. Genetic analysis of the progeny phages indicates that: (i) Mismatch repair occurs, usually giving rise to a DNA molecule with one chain with the genotype arising from repair and one parental chain. (ii) The frequency of repair of a given mismatch to wild type depends on the marker, ranging from 3 to 20%. (iii) Excision tracts may extend several hundred nucleotides but are usually shorter than about 2000 nucleotides. (iv) In Rec-mediated bacteriophage crosses, recombination of markers closer than about 10-3 nucleotide pairs frequently occurs by mismatch repair within heteroduplex DNA. (V) The average amount of heteroduplex DNA formed in a Rec-mediated recombination event is a few thousand nucleotide pairs. PMID:1094458

  2. Biologic scaffold for CNS repair.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanwei; Modo, Michel; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-05-01

    Injury to the CNS typically results in significant morbidity and endogenous repair mechanisms are limited in their ability to restore fully functional CNS tissue. Biologic scaffolds composed of individual purified components have been shown to facilitate functional tissue reconstruction following CNS injury. Extracellular matrix scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues retain a number of bioactive molecules and their ability for CNS repair has recently been recognized. In addition, novel biomaterials for dural mater repairs are of clinical interest as the dura provides barrier function and maintains homeostasis to CNS. The present article describes the application of regenerative medicine principles to the CNS tissues and dural mater repair. While many approaches have been exploring the use of cells and/or therapeutic molecules, the strategies described herein focus upon the use of extracellular matrix scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues that are free of cells and exogenous factors.

  3. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scan Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular Aortic angiography Hardening of ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla ...

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  5. Hypospadias repair: the seagull meatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A H; Dickinson, J C

    1987-01-01

    An operation is described which has been used in six cases to produce a single stream of urine in patients who were spraying following hypospadias repair. It has also been used in four patients to advance the meatus terminally.

  6. Bladder and urethral repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... 100002.htm Bladder and urethral repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  7. Nucleotide excision repair in humans

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process. PMID:26388429

  8. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    PubMed

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  9. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. Methods: A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. Conclusion: The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process. PMID:28400883

  10. Kaumalapau Harbor, Hawaii, Breakwater Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    state includes a global wave model, Hawaii wave model, and separate nearshore domains for Kauai , Oahu, Maui, and the Big Island (The Maui domain...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -7 Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects Program Kaumalapau Harbor, Hawaii , Breakwater Repair C oa st al a n d...Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects Program ERDC/CHL TR-12-7 May 2012 Kaumalapau Harbor, Hawaii , Breakwater Repair Jessica H. Podoski and

  11. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  12. Shotcrete for Expedient Structural Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    AD-A260 788 ESL-TR-90-14 SHOTCRETE FOR EXPEDIENT STRUCTURAL REPAIR 4t ’Pit at MARK ANDERSON APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. P.O. BOX 40128...SUBTITrrLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Shotcrete for Expedient Structural Repair 4. AUTHOR(S) F08635-88-C-0067 Anderson, Mark 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release. Distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Shotcrete , or

  13. Durability of Expedient Repair Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    by the Flofida Department of Transportation. I&. SUWIUET" TERMS 󈧓. NUMBER OF 1A1ES Expedient Repair Materials 21PAGE Shotcrete Air Force Base...produced by CTS Cemem Company. A dry process shotcrete standard, MicrosilR, and a State of Florida corrosion - resistant concrete system, referred to as...34 durability of the rapid repair materials tested by conventional methods for determining durability. E. CONCLUSIONS The blended Rapid-SetR shotcrete system

  14. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  15. Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula in very low-birth-weight neonates: improved outcomes with staged repair.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Mikael; Estrada, Joaquin; Hunter, Catherine; Woo, Russell; Stein, James; Ford, Henri R; Anselmo, Dean M

    2009-12-01

    The surgical management of esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) involves early division of the TEF and primary esophageal anastomosis. However, in premature infants, the morbidity associated with primary repair remains high, and the optimal surgical approach has not been well defined. Medical records of very low-birth-weight infants (<1500 g) with EA/TEF from June 1987 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into 2 groups: (1) primary repair and (2) ligation and division of TEF followed by delayed repair of EA. Demographics, anastomotic, and postoperative complications were compared. Twenty-five premature infants with EA/TEF were identified. Sixteen patients (64%) underwent primary repair, and 9 (36%) were repaired in a staged manner. The leak rate confirmed by esophagram was significantly higher after primary repair (50%) compared to staged repair (0%) (P = .034). Strictures occurred significantly more often in the primary repair (81%) vs the staged repair (33%) group (P = .036). Postoperative pneumonia and sepsis were significantly higher in patients treated with primary repair (P = .028). Staged repair of EA/TEF in very low-birth-weight premature infants results in a significantly lower rate of anastomotic complications and overall morbidity and should be considered the preferred surgical approach in this group of patients.

  16. Biological significance of domain-oriented DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, G.J.; Elking, C.F.

    1988-02-15

    The patterns (domain oriented versus a random location) and amounts of DNA excision repair, determined by standard density gradient techniques and sedimentation properties of partially repaired and UV-endonuclease-digested DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients, are reported for UV (254 nm)-irradiated nondividing xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C or A (XP-C, XP-A) and normal cells. Repair synthesis in relatively UV-resistant XP-C (XP4RO) cells is domain oriented and limited (10% of normal values) while it is randomly located and not as limited in more sensitive XP-A (XP8LO) cells. Thus, greater UV resistance is associated with a very limited but domain-oriented pattern of repair. In XP-C cells, both total and domain-oriented repair syntheses, while limited, increase with UV dose and plateau at about 15-20 J/m2, as observed for normal cells. We suggest that repair in XP-C is limited at the lower UV doses (less than 15-20 J/m2) by substrate levels in specific chromatin domains and not by availability of essential enzymes for domain-oriented repair. In contrast, the XP-A strain XP8LO exhibits normal repair activities for doses up to 5 J/m2 and limited repair at higher doses, indicating that repair occurs through normal pathways that are limited by reduced availability of an essential enzyme.

  17. Single-stranded oligonucleotide-mediated gene repair in mammalian cells has a mechanism distinct from homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zai; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Liu, De-Pei; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2006-11-24

    Single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide (SSO)-mediated gene repair has great potentials for gene therapy and functional genomic studies. However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies from other groups have suggested that DNA damage response via the ATM/ATR pathway may be involved in this process. In this study, we measured the effect of two ATM/ATR inhibitors caffeine and pentoxifylline on the correction efficiency in SSO-mediated gene repair. We also checked their effect on double-stranded break (DSB)-induced homologous recombination repair (HRR) as a control, which is well known to be dependent on the ATM/ATR pathway. We found these inhibitors could completely inhibit DSB-induced HRR, but could only partially inhibit SSO-mediated process, indicating SSO-mediated gene repair is not dependent on the ATM/ATR pathway. Furthermore, we found that thymidine treatment promotes SSO-mediated gene repair, but inhibits DSB-induced HRR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SSO-mediated and DSB-induced gene repairs have distinct mechanisms.

  18. Repair-Resistant DNA Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) pathway is the major mechanism that removes most bulky and some nonbulky lesions from cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that certain DNA lesions are repaired slowly or are entirely resistant to repair in cells, tissues, and in cell extract model assay systems. It is well established that the eukaryotic DNA lesion-sensing proteins do not detect the damaged nucleotide, but recognize the distortions/destabilizations in the native DNA structure caused by the damaged nucleotides. In this article, the nature of the structural features of certain bulky DNA lesions that render them resistant to NER, or cause them to be repaired slowly, is compared to that of those that are good-to-excellent NER substrates. Understanding the structural features that distinguish NER-resistant DNA lesions from good NER substrates may be useful for interpreting the biological significance of biomarkers of exposure of human populations to genotoxic environmental chemicals. NER-resistant lesions can survive to replication and cause mutations that can initiate cancer and other diseases. Furthermore, NER diminishes the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic drugs, and the design of more potent pharmaceuticals that resist repair can be advanced through a better understanding of the structural properties of DNA lesions that engender repair-resistance. PMID:28750166

  19. Parastomal hernia repair. An update.

    PubMed

    Wara, P

    2011-04-01

    Repair of parastomal hernia remains controversial. Open suture repair of the fascial defect or stoma resiting are both associated with high morbidity and unacceptably high recurrence rates and are no longer recommended for routine use. Mesh repair appears to provide the best results. Following the first anectodal reports there are accumulating evidence that laparoscopic mesh repair is feasible and has a promising potential in the management of parastomal hernia. Two laparoscopic techniques have emerged, the use of a mesh with a slit and a central keyhole and a mesh without a slit, the latter often termed as a modified Sugarbaker. Published series, however, are observational and often with a short length of follow-up. Most series suffer from small sample size and controlled trials are lacking. The limited data, therefore, make it difficult to draw conclusions. At present none of the methods of open or laparoscopic mesh repair has proved superior. In spite of this laparoscopic repair has gained increasing acceptance. A polypropylene based mesh with an anti-adhesive layer covering the visceral side seems to be applicable using the keyhole technique with a slit as well as the modified Sugarbaker technique. A PTFE mesh should preferably be used with the modified Sugarbaker technique. If a PTFE mesh is used with the keyhole technique parastomal hernia is likely to recur.

  20. Arthroscopic revision of Bankart repair.

    PubMed

    Neri, Brian R; Tuckman, David V; Bravman, Jonathan T; Yim, Duke; Sahajpal, Deenesh T; Rokito, Andrew S

    2007-01-01

    The success of revision surgery for failed Bankart repair is not well known. This purpose of this study was to report the success rates achieved using arthroscopic techniques to revise failed Bankart repairs. Twelve arthroscopic revision Bankart repairs were performed on patients with recurrent unidirectional shoulder instability after open or arthroscopic Bankart repair. Follow-up was available on 11 of the 12 patients at a mean of 34.4 months (range, 25-56 months). The surgical findings, possible modes of failure, shoulder scores (Rowe score, University of California Los Angeles [UCLA], Simple Shoulder Test), and clinical outcome were evaluated. Various modes of failure were recognized during revision arthroscopic Bankart repairs. Good-to-excellent results were obtained in 8 patients (73%) undergoing revision stabilization according to Rowe and UCLA scoring. A subluxation or dislocation event occurred in 3 (27%) of the 11 patients at a mean of 8.7 months (range, 6-12 months) postoperatively. Arthroscopic revision Bankart repairs are technically challenging procedures but can be used to achieve stable, pain-free, functional shoulders with return to prior sport. Owing to limited follow-up and the small number of patients in this study, we were unable to conclude any pattern of failure or selection criteria for this procedure.

  1. Immediate vs delayed repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    El-Askary, Farid S; El-Banna, Ahmed H; van Noort, Richard

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate both the immediate and water-stored repair tensile bond strength (TBS) of a nanohybrid resin composite using different bonding protocols. One hundred sixty half hourglass-shaped slabs were prepared. Eighty half-slabs were wet ground immediately after light curing using high-speed abrasive burs, while the other half-slabs were stored in water for one month (delayed) and then wet ground for repair. Each set of the 80 repaired slabs was split into two groups to be tested for TBS after 24 h or 1 month of water storage. For all repaired slabs, either immediate or delayed, four bonding procedures were used involving wet and dry bonding with a 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive with or without silane pretreatment. TBS tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. To determine the cohesive strength of the resin composite itself, which served as the reference, additional whole slabs were prepared and tested in tension after a 24-h (n = 10) and a 1-month storage period (n = 10). Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope at 40X magnification. Three-way ANOVA was run to test the effect of water storage, testing time, bonding protocols, and their interactions on the repair TBS, which was given as a percentage of the reference values. For the immediate repair groups, the repair TBS ranged from 40% to 61.9% after 24-h storage and from 26% to 53.1% after 1-month water storage compared to the TBS of the whole slabs. For the delayed repair group, the repaired TBS ranged from 47.2% to 63.6% for the 24-h repairs and from 32.2% to 44.2% for the test groups stored in water for 1 month. Three-way ANOVA revealed that water storage had no significant effect on the repair TBS (p = 0.619). Both testing time and bonding protocols had a significant effect on the repair TBS (p = 0.001). The interactions between the independent variables (water storage, testing time, and bonding protocols) had no significant effect (p = 0.067). The repair bond strength was

  2. Laparoscopic-assisted Ventral Hernia Repair: Primary Fascial Repair with Polyester Mesh versus Polyester Mesh Alone.

    PubMed

    Karipineni, Farah; Joshi, Priya; Parsikia, Afshin; Dhir, Teena; Joshi, Amit R T

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic-assisted ventral hernia repair (LAVHR) with mesh is well established as the preferred technique for hernia repair. We sought to determine whether primary fascial closure and/or overlap of the mesh reduced recurrence and/or complications. We conducted a retrospective review on 57 LAVHR patients using polyester composite mesh between August 2010 and July 2013. They were divided into mesh-only (nonclosure) and primary fascial closure with mesh (closure) groups. Patient demographics, prior surgical history, mesh overlap, complications, and recurrence rates were compared. Thirty-nine (68%) of 57 patients were in the closure group and 18 (32%) in the nonclosure group. Mean defect sizes were 15.5 and 22.5 cm(2), respectively. Participants were followed for a mean of 1.3 years [standard deviation (SD) = 0.7]. Recurrence rates were 2/39 (5.1%) in the closure group and 1/18 (5.6%) in the nonclosure group (P = 0.947). There were no major postoperative complications in the nonclosure group. The closure group experienced four (10.3%) complications. This was not a statistically significant difference (P = 0.159). The median mesh-to-hernia ratio for all repairs was 15.2 (surface area) and 3.9 (diameter). Median length of stay was 14.5 hours (1.7-99.3) for patients with nonclosure and 11.9 hours (6.9-90.3 hours) for patients with closure (P = 0.625). In conclusion, this is one of the largest series of LAVHR exclusively using polyester dual-sided mesh. Our recurrence rate was about 5 per cent. Significant mesh overlap is needed to achieve such low recurrence rates. Primary closure of hernias seems less important than adequate mesh overlap in preventing recurrence after LAVHR.

  3. Economic evaluation of open versus laparoscopic hernia repair: some pragmatic considerations for the measurement of costs.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, E; Donaldson, C; Grant, A

    1998-12-01

    Laparoscopic hernia repair costs more than open repair. This increase in cost largely is because of the use of disposables. Indirect cost benefits of laparoscopic procedure because of a more rapid return to normal activity are different to calculate but may be present for select groups of patients.

  4. Introduction of a New Suture Method in Repair of Peripheral Nerves Injured with a Sharp Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Saied, Alireza; Shekaari, Majid Asadi; Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Karbalaeikhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The standard method for repair of an injured peripheal nerve is epineural repair with separate sutures. Herein we describe a method in which the nerve is sutured with continous sutures. In fact this method has not been utilized for nerve repair previously and our purpose was to compare it to the standard method. If it proved to be successful it would replace the standard method in certain circumstances. Methods: The proposal of the clinical trial was given a reference number form the ethics comitee. 25 dogs in which the scaitic nerve was cut by a sharp blade under genaeral anesthesia were divided randomly into three groups: control (5 dogs), repair of sciatic nerve with simple sutures (10) and repair with continous sutures (10). In the control group the nerve was not repaired at all. After 6 weeks the dogs were killed and the nerve was studied by light and electronic microscopes. The amount of consumed suture material, time of repair, myelin thickness and axon diiameter were examined. Ultrastructural studies were performed to assess degeneration and regeneration findings. Results: Time of repair and the amount of consumed suture material were significantly lower in the continous group (P<0.001). No difference was found with regard to light microscopy findings and regeneration was confirmed by electron microscopy in the continous group. Conclusion: The method described in the present study, provided a result similar to the standard method. Though undobtfully it has some limitations, can replace the standard method in many circumstances. PMID:26550589

  5. Regulation of DNA repair in serum-stimulated xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The regulation of DNA repair during serum stimulation of quiescent cells was examined in normal human cells, in fibroblasts from three xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups (A, C, and D), in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, and in ataxia telangiectasia cells. The regulation of nucleotide excision repair was examined by exposing cells to ultraviolet irradiation at discrete intervals after cell stimulation. Similarly, base excision repair was quantitated after exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. WI-38 normal human diploid fibroblasts, xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, as well as ataxia telangiectasia cells enhanced their capacity for both nucleotide excision repair and for base excision repair prior to their enhancement of DNA synthesis. Further, in each cell strain, the base excision repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase was increased prior to the induction of DNA polymerase using the identical cells to quantitate each activity. In contrast, each of the three xeroderma complementation groups that were examined failed to increase their capacity for nucleotide excision repair above basal levels at any interval examined. This result was observed using either unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of 10 mM hydroxyurea or using repair replication in the absence of hydroxyurea to quantitate DNA repair. However, each of the three complementation groups normally regulated the enhancement of base excision repair after methylmethane sulfonate exposure and each induced the uracil DNA glycosylase prior to DNA synthesis. These results suggest that there may be a relationship between the sensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum cells from each complementation group to specific DNA damaging agents and their inability to regulate nucleotide excision repair during cell stimulation. PMID:6480691

  6. Bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis can be repaired through reduction in disease activity with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Haruko; Ohno, Shigeru; Hattori, Hideaki; Senuma, Akiko; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    We conducted the present study to determine whether repair of erosions occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and to compare clinical characteristics between patients exhibiting and not exhibiting erosion repair. We included in the study a total of 122 RA patients who fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA; all patients had paired sequential radiographs of both hands and wrists showing erosive changes at baseline. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence of repair of erosions at follow up, namely the 'repair observed' and 'repair not observed' groups. Clinical characteristics, disease activity, radiographic scores and treatment in the two groups were compared. Forty-four repairs were observed in 13 patients (10.7%). Compared with the repair not observed group, the functional class of the patients in the repair observed group was lower at baseline (P < 0.01) and the mean disease activity was lower at follow up (P < 0.005). The changes in radiographic scores per year (total radiographic score and erosion score) were lower (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in the repair observed group. No difference in treatment was observed. Repair of erosions was detected in 10.7% of RA patients treated with conventional DMARDs. Repairs were associated with low functional class at baseline and low disease activity at follow up. These observations support the importance of reduction in disease activity in RA patients. Because repair of erosions was detected in a substantial number of patients, assessment of erosion repair should be incorporated into the radiographic evaluation and scoring of RA.

  7. Results of arthroscopic meniscal repair

    PubMed Central

    Orlowski, María Belén; Arroquy, Damián; Chahla, Jorge; Guiñazú, Jorge; Bisso, Martín Carboni; Vilaseca, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Currently the arthroscopic treatment of meniscal pathology has become one of the most common procedures in orthopedic practice and although in most cases meniscectomy is done, meniscal sutures are the treatment of choice when a reparable lesion is diagnosed, especially in young patients. It has been reported that the meniscal repair leads to a lower incidence of developing degenerative changes in the long-term when compared with meniscectomy and nonsurgical treatment of meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of meniscal repair achieved in our sports medicine practice. Methods: Between 2006 and 2015, 62 meniscal tears in 58 patients with a mean age of 31 years (range 15-58) were repaired. Mean follow-up was 52 months (range 6-120 months). In 16 patients (28%) was associated with arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The repair techniques used included outside-in sutures, inside-out sutures, all-inside sutures and a combination of techniques. Failure of the repair was defined by the requirement for repeat knee arthroscopy and partial or subtotal meniscectomy. The indication of arthroscopic revision was based on the presence of mechanical symptoms, after the suture. Results: Failure of meniscus repair occurred in four patients (failure rate: 6.45%), one case was associated with ACL reconstruction (failure rate: 6.25%) and 3 had undergone isolated meniscal suture (failure rate: 8%). The average time for the reoperation was 15 months (4-24). We had no intraoperative complications. Conclusion: The reported failure rate of meniscal repair in stable knees varies between 12% and 43%, with reports that demonstrate a clinical success rate of 100%. In this study, we obtained a success rate of 93.5%. These results are slightly higher than those in the literature, which can be attributed to careful selection of patients and the fact that clinical success tends to be better than the assessed arthroscopically. In summary, we consider the

  8. Evaluation of a novel biomaterial for intrasubstance muscle laceration repair.

    PubMed

    Crow, Bradley D; Haltom, J Douglas; Carson, William L; Greene, Walter B; Cook, James L

    2007-03-01

    The authors compare the effects of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) treatment to suture repair with respect to histologic and functional outcomes for complete muscle lacerations in a rabbit model. The authors hypothesized that SIS treatment of full-thickness muscle belly lacerations would significantly improve muscle function, strength, and regeneration compared to the current standard-of-care treatment. Muscle belly lacerations were created in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of both hind limbs of each rabbit. After randomization, lacerations were left unrepaired (n = 48) or repaired using a 4-0 Prolene modified Kessler stitch (n = 48). A flap of SIS graft was sutured into half (n = 24 each) of the repaired and unrepaired muscles forming four study groups. Suture repair with SIS augmentation of complete muscle lacerations resulted in healed tissue that most closely resembled normal muscle in terms of morphology and function when compared to current standard-of-care treatments. Active force production in this group reached 79% of uninjured controls 12 weeks after surgery. SIS may have important clinical advantages over suture repair alone and warrants further clinical study. (c) 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Factors affecting the long-term results of hypospadias repairs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guochang; Yuan, Jiyan; Feng, Jiexiong; Geng, Jinmei; Zhang, Wen; Zhou, Xuefeng; Wang, Tao

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between the short- and long-term results of hypospadias repair and identify the factors that could affect the long-term results of hypospadias repair. Between 1982 and 1988, 142 patients were operated for hypospadias and completed their treatment at Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China). Their records were analyzed retrospectively, and a detailed questionnaire was mailed to them. One hundred two patients returned the questionnaire. Patients in the proximal hypospadias group, those using Denis-Browne technique, and those with early complications were markedly dissatisfied with the overall results of hypospadias repair and penile appearance. Moreover, their dissatisfaction grew with the number of operations they had. Thirty-nine (95.1%) of 41 patients using the Denis-Browne technique had voiding problems. Forty-nine (48%) of 102 patients felt inhibited in seeking girlfriends or sexual contacts. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the level of sexual inhibition and operation times. A highly positive correlation was found between the age at the time hypospadias surgery was completed and the extent of being sexually inhibited. The patients in proximal hypospadias group had more erection and ejaculation problems. The short-term results of hypospadias repair could affect the long-term results significantly, and good short-term results also predict long-term ones. The types of hypospadias, procedures, and complications have significant influences on predicting the long-term results of hypospadias repairs.

  10. Correction of chromosomal instability and sensitivity to diverse mutagens by a cloned cDNA of the XRCC3 DNA repair gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbs, R.S.; Tucker, J.D.; Hwang, M.

    1995-07-03

    The mutagen-sensitive CHO line irs1SF was previously isolated on the basis of hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and was found to be chromosomally unstable as well as cross-sensitive to diverse kinds of DNA-damaging agents. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids formed between irs1SF and human lymphocytes implicated a human gene (defined as XRCC3; x-ray repair cross-complementing), which partially restored mitomycin C resistance to the mutant. A functional cDNA that confers mitomycin C resistance was transferred to irs1SF cells by transforming them with an expression cDNA library and obtaining primary and secondary transformants. Functional cDNA clones were recovered from a cosmid library prepared from a secondary transformant. Transformants also showed partial correction of sensitivity to displatin and {gamma}-rays, efficient correction of chromosomal instability, and substantially improved plating efficiency and growth rate. The XRCC3 cDNA insert is {approx} 2.5 kb and detects an {approx} 3.0-kb mRNA on Northern blots. The cDNA was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 14q32.3, which was consistent with the chromosome concordance data of two independent hybrid clone panels. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Algorithms for treating redundancy in repairable and non-repairable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.E.; Longsine, D.E.; Atkins, J.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents equations and computational algorithms for analyzing reliability of several forms of redundancy in repairable and non-repairable systems. For repairable systems, active, standby, and R of N redundancy with and without repair are treated. For non-repairable systems, active, standby, and R of N redundancy are addressed. These equations can be used to calculate mean time between failures, mean time to repair, and reliability for complex systems involving redundancy.

  12. Photoengineering of bone repair processes.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B; Gerbi, Marleny Elizabeth M M

    2006-04-01

    This paper aims to report the state of the art with respect to photoengineering of bone repair using laser therapy. Laser therapy has been reported as an important tool to positively stimulate bone both in vivo and in vitro. These results indicate that photophysical and photochemical properties of some wavelengths are primarily responsible for the tissue responses. The use of correct and appropriate parameters has been shown to be effective in the promotion of a positive biomodulative effect in healing bone. A series of papers reporting the effects of laser therapy on bone cells and tissue are presented, and new and promising protocols developed by our group are presented. The results of our studies and others indicate that bone irradiated mostly with infrared (IR) wavelengths shows increased osteoblastic proliferation, collagen deposition, and bone neorformation when compared to nonirradiated bone. Further, the effect of laser therapy is more effective if the treatment is carried out at early stages when high cellular proliferation occurs. Vascular responses to laser therapy were also suggested as one of the possible mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical results observed following laser therapy. It still remains uncertain if bone stimulation by laser light is a general effect or if the isolate stimulation of osteoblasts is possible. It is possible that the laser therapy effect on bone regeneration depends not only on the total dose of irradiation, but also on the irradiation time and the irradiation mode. The threshold parameter energy density and intensity are biologically independent of one another. This independence accounts for the success and the failure of laser therapy achieved at low-energy density levels.

  13. The design of repairable advanced composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the repair of advanced composite structures by mechanical fasteners or by adhesive bonding. It is shown that many of today's composite designs are unreasonably difficult to repair. Conversely, the knowledge to design repairable structures is already available, if only it is applied during the initial design stage. Bolted or riveted repairs require only the avoidance of extremely orthotropic composite fiber patterns; those near the quasi-isotropic layup are the most suitable. Mildly orthotropic fiber patterns are appropriate for structures in which there is a dominant load direction. Thick composite structures are shown to require bolted or riveted repairs while thin structures favor adhesively bonded permanent repairs, although provisions can be easily made for temporary mechanical repairs. The reasons why integrally stiffened cocured composite designs are usually impractical to repair are explained and alternative repairable design concepts are presented.

  14. Effect of matrix placement on furcation perforation repair.

    PubMed

    Jantarat, J; Dashper, S G; Messer, H H

    1999-03-01

    Furcation perforations are a serious complication during endodontic treatment, and a matrix to aid placement of repair material has been recommended. This study tested the sealing ability of amalgam and Ketac silver placed with and without plaster of Paris as a matrix. A bacterial penetration technique was used to test the seal. Perforations created in the pulpal floor of extracted human mandibular molars were repaired as follows: group 1, amalgam; group 2, amalgam plus plaster as a matrix; group 3, Ketac silver; and group 4, Ketac silver plus plaster (17 teeth/group). Leakage was measured by placing bacteria (Streptococcus sobrinus) in the pulp chamber, and recording the time taken for bacterial growth in a medium bathing the root surface. A plaster of Paris matrix improved the seal with amalgam, but not with Ketac silver. Ketac silver provided the best seal, but all materials showed complete leakage within 22 days.

  15. Comparative analysis of outcome between laparoscopic versus open surgical repair for vesico-vaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bastab; Wats, Varun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) causes detrimental psychosomatic effects on a woman. It is repaired using open abdominal as well as laparoscopic approach. Here we compare a series of open versus laparoscopic VVF repairs done at a single centre. Methods Retrospectively data of patients undergoing VVF repair in our department between January 2011 to December 2014 was analyzed. Patients who had a single, primary, simple VVF following a gynaecological surgery were included in the study. 26 patients met all the criteria. Out of these, thirteen patients had undergone a laparoscopic VVF repair (group 1) while thirteen had undergone an open transabdominal VVF repair (group 2). Results Mean fistula size was 2.14±0.23 cm in group 1 and 2.18±0.30 cm in group 2, which was comparable. Mean blood loss was 58.69±6.48 mL in group 1 and 147.30±19.24 mL in group 2, which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). Mean hospital stay was 4 days in group 1 and 13 days in group 2 which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). The analgesic requirement (diclofenac) was 261.53±29.95 mg in group 1 and 617.30±34.43 mg in group 2, which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). Fistula repair was successful in all the patients in both the groups. Conclusion The present study shows that laparoscopic VVF repair results in reduced patient morbidity and shorter hospital stay without compromising the results. So laparoscopic repair may be a more attractive treatment option for patients with post gynecology surgery VVF. PMID:27896256

  16. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    an unambiguous technique for: 1) applying currents across the hemisected spinal cord of the mammal; 2) analyzing axonal regeneration within the cord ...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP spinal cord ; regeneration; bone; bioelectricity 06 01. 06 05 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...modify it, and central nervous system regeneration- especially spinal cord regeneration In bone have provided the first measurements of a natural

  17. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    stimulation (B). 17 Anatomical Analysis of the Lesion and of Nerve Fibers The extent of the original injury is determined in histological sections of...number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Spinal cord regeneration nerve recovery 0 cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTM) behavioral 0 6 05RA II 19. ABSTRACT...S Applied electrical fields are known to be able to strikingly modify the - development and elongation of nerve processes in culture conditions and

  18. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration after an acute rotator cuff repair in a sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Tammy; Liu, Xuhui; Easley, Jeremiah T.; Ravishankar, Bharat; Puttlitz, Christian; Feeley, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are the most common tendon injury seen in orthopedic patients. Muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration of the muscle are crucial factors that dictate the outcome following rotator cuff surgery. Though less studied in humans, rotator cuff muscle fibrosis has been seen in animal models as well and may influence outcomes as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if the rotator cuff would develop muscle changes even in the setting of an acute repair in a sheep model. We hypothesized that fatty infiltration and fibrosis would be present even after an acute repair six months after initial surgery. Methods twelve female adult sheep underwent an acute rotator cuff tear and immediate repair on the right shoulder. The left shoulder served as a control and did not undergo a tear or a repair. Six months following acute rotator cuff repairs, sheep muscles were harvested to study atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis by histological analysis, western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results the repair group demonstrated an increase expression of muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and fibrosis related genes. Significantly increased adipocytes, muscle fatty infiltration, and collagen deposition was observed in rotator cuff muscles in the tendon repair group compared to the control group. Conclusions rotator cuff muscle undergoes degradation changes including fatty infiltration and fibrosis even after the tendons are repair immediately after rupture. Level of Evidence Basic Science Study. PMID:26261789

  19. Essentials of skin laceration repair.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Randall T

    2008-10-15

    Skin laceration repair is an important skill in family medicine. Sutures, tissue adhesives, staples, and skin-closure tapes are options in the outpatient setting. Physicians should be familiar with various suturing techniques, including simple, running, and half-buried mattress (corner) sutures. Although suturing is the preferred method for laceration repair, tissue adhesives are similar in patient satisfaction, infection rates, and scarring risk in low skin-tension areas and may be more cost-effective. The tissue adhesive hair apposition technique also is effective in repairing scalp lacerations. The sting of local anesthesia injections can be lessened by using smaller gauge needles, administering the injection slowly, and warming or buffering the solution. Studies have shown that tap water is safe to use for irrigation, that white petrolatum ointment is as effective as antibiotic ointment in postprocedure care, and that wetting the wound as early as 12 hours after repair does not increase the risk of infection. Patient education and appropriate procedural coding are important after the repair.

  20. DNA repair in mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Jaroudi, Souraya; SenGupta, Sioban

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian cells have developed complex mechanisms to identify DNA damage and activate the required response to maintain genome integrity. Those mechanisms include DNA damage detection, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which operate together to protect the conceptus from DNA damage originating either in parental gametes or in the embryo's somatic cells. DNA repair in the newly fertilized preimplantation embryo is believed to rely entirely on the oocyte's machinery (mRNAs and proteins deposited and stored prior to ovulation). DNA repair genes have been shown to be expressed in the early stages of mammalian development. The survival of the embryo necessitates that the oocyte be sufficiently equipped with maternal stored products and that embryonic gene expression commences at the correct time. A Medline based literature search was performed using the keywords 'DNA repair' and 'embryo development' or 'gametogenesis' (publication dates between 1995 and 2006). Mammalian studies which investigated gene expression were selected. Further articles were acquired from the citations in the articles obtained from the preliminary Medline search. This paper reviews mammalian DNA repair from gametogenesis to preimplantation embryos to late gestational stages.

  1. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/crUreWGQdGo.

  2. Evaluation of different rotary devices on bone repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Junior, Paulo Domingos; Barleto, Christiane Vespasiano; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2007-01-01

    In oral surgery, the quality of bone repair may be influenced by several factors that can increase the morbidity of the procedure. The type of equipment used for ostectomy can directly affect bone healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone repair of mandible bone defects prepared in rabbits using three different rotary devices. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=5) according to type of rotary device used to create bone defects: I--pneumatic low-speed rotation engine, II--pneumatic high-speed rotation engine, and III--electric low-speed rotation engine. The anatomic pieces were surgically obtained after 2, 7 and 30 days and submitted to histological and morphometric analysis. The morphometric results were expressed as the total area of bone remodeling matrix using an image analysis system. Increases in the bone remodeling matrix were noticed with time along the course of the experiment. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were observed among the groups at the three sacrificing time points considering the total area of bone mineralized matrix, although the histological analysis showed a slightly advanced bone repair in group III compared to the other two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the type of rotary device used in oral and maxillofacial surgery does not interfere with the bone repair process.

  3. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    Turbine blades and vanes in current engines are subjected to the most hostile environment...payoff potential in turbine vanes / blades . The criteria used included: • Incidence of damage - Scrapped or damaged turbine airfoils at the ALC centers...Corporate Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OHIO AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine

  4. Self-repairable polymeric networks: Synthesis and network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit

    This dissertation describes the design, synthesis and development of a new class of polymeric networks that exhibit self-repairing properties under UV exposure. It consists of two parts: (a) modification and synthesis of oxetane (OXE), and oxolane (OXO) substituted chitosan (CHI) macromonomer, and (b) design, and synthesis of self-repairing polyurethane (PUR) networks consisting of modified chitosan. Unmodified CHI consisting of acetamide (-NHCOCH3), primary hydroxyl (-OH), and amine (-NH2) functional groups were reacted with OXE or OXO compounds under basic conditions in order to substitute the 1° --OH groups, and at the same time, convert -NHCOCH 3 functionalities into -NH2 groups, while maintaining their un-reacted form to generate OXE/OXO-substituted CHI macromonomer. These substituted CHI macromonomers were incorporated within the PUR backbone by reacting with trifunctional isocyanate in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dibutyl tin dilaurate catalyst (DBTDL). Utilizing spectroscopic analysis combined with optical microscopy, these studies showed that the kinetics of self-repair depends on the stoichiometry of the individual entities as well as the time required for self-repairing to occur decrease with increasing OXE quantity within the network. Internal reflection infrared imaging (IRIRI) of OXE/OXO-CHI-PUR networks as well as Raman and Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) studies of OXE/OXO-CHI macromonomers revealed that cationic OXE/OXO ring opening, free radical polyurea (PUA)-to-PUR conversion, along with chair-to-boat conformational changes of CHI backbone are responsible for repairing the damaged network. The network remodeling process, investigated by utilizing micro-thermal analyzer (muTA), revealed that mechanical damage generates small fragments or oligomers within the scratch, therefore glass transition temperature (Tg) decreases, and under UV exposure cross-linking reactions propagate from the bottom of the scratch to the top resulting in

  5. Bonded composite repair of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Mary A.

    Repair and maintenance cost drives a large percentage of the lifetime cost of aircraft structures. Understanding repair issues can lead to a structure that significantly lowers the lifetime cost. Advanced composite materials, while offering the potential to increase aircraft capabilities with minimum weight, are more susceptible to repairable damage than conventional aircraft materials. Improved inspection and repair methods are required to ensure structural integrity and aircraft readiness in the existing operational environment. Many of today's innovative composite designs may result in aircraft structures that are unreasonably difficult to repair. As a first step, technical issues associated with bonded composite repair of composite structures were investigated. An extensive literature review identified many areas where real world composite repairs are being used successfully. An electronic database was developed summarizing the publications found during the literature review. The database includes publication, experimental test results and analytical results of advanced composite bonded repairs. The current analysis of repair does not account for the variations that exist in repair. To facilitate the analysis, a finite element interface was developed to provide analysts with a tool that would create complete finite element models of repaired structures efficiently and in a 3-dimensional view. The finite element models created by the developed interface were successfully correlated to test data for accuracy of the results. Parametric studies were performed using the interface to evaluate effects of repair variables. Thermal impact of repair on the repair panel is one area lacking attention in the repair literature. To understand the impact of heat and thermal gradients of the repair, an analytical investigation was performed to evaluate. the parameters affected by heat. For a solid laminate, the temperature at the adhesive bondline was investigated. The primary

  6. In vitro comparison of two different materials for the repair of urethan dimethacrylate denture bases

    PubMed Central

    Cilingir, Altug; Bilhan, Hakan; Sulun, Tonguc; Bozdag, Ergun; Sunbuloglu, Emin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the flexural properties of a recently introduced urethane dimethacrylate denture base material (Eclipse) after being repaired with two different materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two repair groups and a control group consisting of 10 specimens each were generated. The ES group was repaired with auto-polymerizing polymer. The EE group was repaired with the Eclipse. The E group was left intact as a control group. A 3-point bending test device which was set to travel at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min was used. Specimens were loaded until fracture occurred and the mean displacement, maximum load, flexural modulus and flexural strength values and standard deviations were calculated for each group and the data were statistically analyzed. The results were assessed at a significance level of P<.05. RESULTS The mean "displacement", "maximum load before fracture", "flexural strength" and "flexural modulus" rates of Group E were statistically significant higher than those of Groups ES and EE, but no significant difference (P>.05) was found between the mean values of Group ES and EE. There was a statistically significant positive relation (P<.01) between the displacement and maximum load of Group ES (99.5%), Group EE (94.3%) and Group E (84.4%). CONCLUSION The more economic and commonly used self-curing acrylic resin can be recommended as an alternative repair material for Eclipse denture bases. PMID:24353876

  7. A Canine Non-Weight-Bearing Model with Radial Neurectomy for Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Bao, Nirong; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB) canine model for rotator cuff repair research. Methods First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1) Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2) Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2) polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3) Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks. Results In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05). In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure. Conclusions Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair. PMID:26107616

  8. A Canine Non-Weight-Bearing Model with Radial Neurectomy for Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Bao, Nirong; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The major concern of using a large animal model to study rotator cuff repair is the high rate of repair retears. The purpose of this study was to test a non-weight-bearing (NWB) canine model for rotator cuff repair research. First, in the in vitro study, 18 shoulders were randomized to 3 groups. 1) Full-width transections repaired with modified Mason-Allen sutures using 3-0 polyglactin suture, 2) Group 1 repaired using number 2 (#2) polyester braid and long-chain polyethylene suture, and 3) Partial-width transections leaving the superior 2 mm infraspinatus tendon intact without repair. In the in vivo study of 6 dogs, the infraspinatus tendon was partially transected as the same as the in vitro group 3. A radial neurectomy was performed to prevent weight bearing. The operated limb was slung in a custom-made jacket for 6 weeks. In the in vitro study, mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 1 and 3 (p<0.05). In the in vivo study, gross inspection and histology showed that the preserved superior 2-mm portion of the infraspinatus tendon remained intact with normal structure. Based on the biomechanical and histological findings, this canine NWB model may be an appropriate and useful model for studies of rotator cuff repair.

  9. Local and General Anesthesia in the Laparoscopic Preperitoneal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ferzli, George

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach (EXTRA) has been shown to be an effective and safe repair for primary (PIH), recurrent (RIH) and bilateral hernia (BIH). There is very little data examining the merits of laparoscopic repair for hernias under local anesthesia. In this paper, we compare EXTRA performed under both general and local anesthesia. Methods: This nonrandomized prospective study was performed selectively on a male population only. Patients with associated pulmonary disease and high risk for general surgery were selected. Patients with recurrence and previous abdominal operations were excluded to decrease confounding variables in the study. A Prolene mesh was used in all patients. Results: Between May 1997 and September 1998, 92 male patients underwent the repair of 107 groin hernias using the EXTRA technique. The procedure was explained to them, and different anesthesia options were given. Fourteen of these repairs were performed under local anesthesia and 93 under general anesthesia. Of the 10 patients who underwent a repair under local anesthesia, there were 8 indirect, 5 direct and 1 pantaloon. The mean age was 53 years. In the group of general anesthesia, the types of hernias repaired were 45 indirect, 30 direct and 11 pantaloon. The mean age was 45 years. The mean follow-up was 15 months. Each patient was sent home the same day. Two peritoneal tears were recorded in the first group. The operative time was longer in the local group (47 ± 11 vs 18 ± 3). None of the patients required conversion to an open technique or change of anesthesia. No recurrences were found in either group. The average time of return to work and regular activity was 3.5 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 days, respectively. Conclusion: There appears to be no significant difference in recurrence and complication rates when the EXTRA is performed under local anesthesia as compared to general. Blunt dissection of the preperitoneal space does not trigger pain and does not require

  10. Nuclear Dynamics of Heterochromatin Repair.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Nuno; Ryu, Taehyun; Li, Xiao; Chiolo, Irene

    2017-02-01

    Repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) is particularly challenging in pericentromeric heterochromatin, where the abundance of repeated sequences exacerbates the risk of ectopic recombination and chromosome rearrangements. Recent studies in Drosophila cells revealed that faithful homologous recombination (HR) repair of heterochromatic DSBs relies on the relocalization of DSBs to the nuclear periphery before Rad51 recruitment. We summarize here the exciting progress in understanding this pathway, including conserved responses in mammalian cells and surprising similarities with mechanisms in yeast that deal with DSBs in distinct sites that are difficult to repair, including other repeated sequences. We will also point out some of the most important open questions in the field and emerging evidence suggesting that deregulating these pathways might have dramatic consequences for human health.

  11. Difference in vascular patterns between transosseous-equivalent and transosseous rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Urita, Atsushi; Funakoshi, Tadanao; Horie, Tatsunori; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2017-01-01

    Vascularity is the important factor of biologic healing of the repaired tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify sequential vascular patterns of repaired rotator cuff by suture techniques. We randomized 21 shoulders in 20 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair into 2 groups: transosseous-equivalent repair (TOE group, n = 10) and transosseous repair (TO group, n = 11). Blood flow in 4 regions inside the cuff (lateral articular, lateral bursal, medial articular, and medial bursal), in the knotless suture anchor in the TOE group, and in the bone tunnel in the TO group was measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. The sequential vascular pattern inside the repaired rotator cuff was different between groups. The blood flow in the lateral articular area at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months (P = .002, .005, and .025) and that in the lateral bursal area at 2 months (P = .031) in the TO group were significantly greater than those in the TOE group postoperatively. Blood flow was significantly greater for the bone tunnels in the TO group than for the knotless suture anchor in the TOE group at 1 month and 2 months postoperatively (P = .041 and .009). This study clarified that the sequential vascular pattern inside the repaired rotator cuff depends on the suture technique used. Bone tunnels through the footprint may contribute to biologic healing by increasing blood flow in the repaired rotator cuff. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthroscopic biceps tenodesis compared with repair of isolated type II SLAP lesions in patients older than 35 years.

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J; Lädermann, Alexandre; Parsley, B K; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2014-03-01

    This study compared arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with biceps repair for isolated type II superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions in patients older than 35 years. The authors identified isolated type II SLAP lesions that were surgically managed over a 5-year period. Minimum 2-year follow-up data were available for 22 patients who underwent biceps repair (repair group) and for 15 patients who underwent a primary biceps tenodesis (tenodesis group). Mean age at surgery was 45.2±5.5 years in the repair group and 52.0±8.0 years in the tenodesis group. In the repair group, functional outcome improved from baseline to final follow-up using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) (47.5 to 87.4, respectively; P<.0001) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) scores (18.5 to 31.2, respectively; P<.0001). In the tenodesis group, similar findings were observed for the ASES (43.4 to 89.9, respectively; P<.0001) and UCLA scores (19.0 to 32.7, respectively; P<.0001). No difference was found in functional outcome between the groups. Full range of motion recovery was delayed by approximately 3 months in the repair group compared with the tenodesis group (P=.0631). Two patients in the repair group required a secondary capsular release. Seventy-seven percent of patients in the repair group and 100% of patients in the tenodesis group were satisfied and returned to normal activity (P=.0673). In the current study, individuals older than 35 years with an isolated type II SLAP lesion had a shorter postoperative recovery, a more predictable functional outcome, and a higher rate of satisfaction and return to activity with a biceps tenodesis compared with a biceps repair. Based on these observations, biceps tenodesis is preferable to biceps repair for isolated type II SLAP lesions in nonoverhead athletes older than 35 years. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Recommendations for Enabling Manual Component Level Electronic Repair for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Easton, John W.; Funk, Gregory P.; Latta, Gary S.; Ganster, Andrew W.; Estes, Brett E.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration missions to the Moon and Mars pose a number of challenges to mission designers, controllers, and the crews. Among these challenges are planning for corrective maintenance actions which often require a repair. Current repair strategies on the International Space Station (ISS) rely primarily on the use of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), where a faulty unit is replaced with a spare, and the faulty unit typically returns to Earth for analysis and possible repair. The strategy of replace to repair has posed challenges even for the ISS program. Repairing faulty hardware at lower levels such as the component level can help maintain system availability in situations where no spares exist and potentially reduce logistic resupply mass.This report provides recommendations to help enable manual replacement of electronics at the component-level for future manned space missions. The recommendations include hardware, tools, containment options, and crew training. The recommendations are based on the work of the Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task of the Exploration Technology Development Program from 2006 to 2009. The recommendations are derived based on the experience of two experiments conducted by the CLEAR team aboard the International Space Station as well as a group of experienced Miniature/Microminiature (2M) electronics repair technicians and instructors from the U.S. Navy 2M Project Office. The emphasis of the recommendations is the physical repair. Fault diagnostics and post-repair functional test are discussed in other CLEAR reports.

  14. Vein grafts to augment flexor tendon repairs: a biomechanical study on strength and gap resistance.

    PubMed

    Rodger, M P; Theobald, P; Giddins, G

    2015-09-01

    The ultimate tensile repair strength and gap formation of the pig extensor tendons repaired with a standard 4-strand Savage with epitendinous suture repair, was compared with a new technique of adding a vein sleeve. Force and displacement data were recorded, and video images during linear cyclic loading up to failure. At 35 N, video-graphic observation detected significantly smaller gap lengths in the standard and vein repair specimens compared with standard repair specimens (p = 0.047). The incidence of 3 mm gaps between the repaired tendon ends in the standard repair group was 20 %, but no 3 mm gaps were seen in the standard and vein specimens. The addition of a vein sleeve increased the ultimate tensile strength of the standard repair from 50.4 N (4.5) to 55.4 N (4.5); this was statistically significant (p = 0.03). This study demonstrated that the addition of a vein graft prevented gap formation and increased ultimate tensile strength of tendon repair.

  15. Outcomes of robot-assisted versus laparoscopic repair of small-sized ventral hernias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Julia; Huynh, Desmond; Nguyen, Scott; Chin, Edward; Divino, Celia; Zhang, Linda

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the outcomes of the da Vinci robot-assisted laparoscopic hernia repair of small-sized ventral hernias with circumferential suturing of the mesh compared to the traditional laparoscopic repair with trans-fascial suturing. A retrospective review was conducted of all robot-assisted umbilical, epigastric and incisional hernia repairs performed at our institution between 2013 and 2015 compared to laparoscopic umbilical or epigastric hernia repairs. Patient characteristics, operative details and postoperative complications were collected and analyzed using univariate analysis. Three primary minimally invasive fellowship trained surgeons performed all of the procedures included in the analysis. 72 patients were identified during the study period. 39 patients underwent robot- assisted repair (21 umbilical, 14 epigastric, 4 incisional), and 33 patients laparoscopic repair (27 umbilical, 6 epigastric). Seven had recurrent hernias (robot: 4, laparoscopic: 3). There were no significant differences in preoperative characteristics between the two groups. Average operative time was 156 min for robot-assisted repair and 65 min for laparoscopic repair (p < 0.0001). The average defect size was significantly larger for the robot group [3.07 cm (1-9 cm)] than that for the laparoscopic group [2.02 cm (0.5-5 cm)] (p < 0.0001), although there was no significant difference in the average size of mesh used (13 vs. 13 cm). There was no difference in patients requiring postoperative admission or length of stay between the two groups. The mean duration of follow-up was 47 days. There was no difference in complication rate during this time, and no recurrences were reported. There are no significant differences in terms of safety and early efficacy when comparing small-sized ventral hernias repaired using the robot-assisted technique versus the standard laparoscopic repair.

  16. Combined SLAP repair and biceps tenodesis for superior labral anterior-posterior tears.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Peter N; Monson, Brett; Frank, Rachel M; Mascarenhas, Randy; Nicholson, Gregory P; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-12-01

    Long-head biceps tenodesis has been suggested as an alternative to superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) repair. However, an unrepaired superior labral tear may increase glenohumeral translation, and thus, labral repair may be considered in the setting of biceps tenodesis. Patients who underwent tenodesis, SLAP repair, or combined tenodesis and labral repair for SLAP tears were included. The indication for combined tenodesis and labral repair was biceps tendonitis in the setting of a SLAP lesion with labral instability. Demographics, range of motion, return to work, return to sport, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and visual analogue pain scale (VAS) scores were recorded. Eighty-six patients were included: 18 underwent combined tenodesis and labral repair, 45 underwent SLAP repair alone, and 23 underwent tenodesis alone. There were no significant differences in rates of return to pre-operative level of play (n.s.) or return to full duties at work (n.s.). These groups differed significantly in ASES scores (p = 0.015) and VAS scores (p = 0.019) with combined tenodesis and labral repair patients having lower scores than patients undergoing either tenodesis or SLAP repair alone. A subgroup analysis of patients who did not have Worker's Compensation claims demonstrated similar results with significant differences in ASES scores, which were lowest among the combined tenodesis and labral repair cohort (p = 0.045). High-demand patients with biceps tendonitis in the setting of a SLAP lesion with labral instability who undergo combined tenodesis and SLAP repair have significantly worse outcomes than patients who undergo either isolated labral repair for type II SLAP tears or isolated biceps tenodesis for a SLAP tear and biceps tendonitis. Treatment, Level III.

  17. Thoracoscopic Versus Open Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Repair: Single Tertiary Center Review.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Anna F; Sola, Richard; Arnold, Michael R; Cosper, Graham H; Schulman, Andrew M

    2017-10-04

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can be repaired open or through thoracoscopy. Thoracoscopic CDH repair could improve cosmesis and avoid the complications of laparotomy, but may have higher recurrence rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of thoracoscopic versus open CDH repair, with regard to recurrence, perioperative parameters, and postoperative complications. We performed a retrospective review of open versus thoracoscopic CDH repairs over an 8.5-year period. The primary outcome was hernia recurrence. Secondary outcomes included intraoperative partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) levels, length of stay, and postoperative complications. All statistical analyses were performed using standard statistical methods. A total of 54 infants underwent CDH repair during the study period, of whom 25 underwent successful thoracoscopic repair. Two patients who had undergone open repair developed recurrent diaphragmatic hernias (recurrence rate 3.7%). Operative time and intraoperative pCO2 levels did not differ between groups. Length of stay was shorter in the thoracoscopic cohort. Four patients in the open cohort developed ventral hernias and five developed bowel obstructions during follow-up. No long-term complications were identified in the thoracoscopic cohort. The median follow-up was 27 months. In our experience, thoracoscopic CDH repair was performed safely and with similar outcomes compared to open repair. In addition to improved cosmesis, thoracoscopic repair may avoid some of the long-term complications of laparotomy. In our series, none of the thoracoscopic CDH repairs recurred. We conclude that thoracoscopic CDH repair is a safe and appropriate technique for select neonates.

  18. Early postoperative fluoroquinolone use is associated with an increased revision rate after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Young, Chris; Werner, Brian C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use following arthroscopic primary rotator cuff repair with failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. An insurance database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair from 2007 to 2015. These patients were divided into three groups: (1) patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months postoperatively (divided into 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 months), (2) a matched negative control cohort of patients not prescribed fluoroquinolones, and (3) a matched positive control cohort of patients prescribed fluoroquinolones between 6 and 18 months following rotator cuff repair. Rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair were compared within 2 years. A total of 1292 patients were prescribed fluoroquinolones within 6 months after rotator cuff repair, including 442 within 2 months, 433 within 2 to 4 months, and 417 within 4 to 6 months, and were compared to 5225 matched negative controls and 1597 matched positive controls. The rate of revision rotator cuff repair was significantly higher in patients prescribed fluoroquinolones within 2 months (6.1 %) compared to matched negative (2.2 %, P = 0.0009) and positive controls (2.4 %, P = 0.0026). There were no significant differences in the rate of revision rotator cuff repair when fluoroquinolones were prescribed >2 months after rotator cuff repair. Early use of fluoroquinolones following rotator cuff repair was independently associated with significantly increased rates of failure requiring revision rotator cuff repair. This is the first clinical study examining the association of postoperative fluoroquinolone use with failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. III.

  19. Cognitive impairments after surgical repair of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, A.; Anderson, N.; Sampath, P.; Rigamonti, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the frequency and severity of neuropsychological impairments associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and associated with repair of intracerebral aneurysms.
METHODS—Two groups of patients who underwent repair of intracerebral aneurysms were studied: patients with unruptured aneurysms (n=20) and patients with ruptured aneurysms (n=27). All patients were administered a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests about 3 months after surgery. A subset of 12 patients with unruptured aneurysms were administered the battery both before and after elective repair of the aneurysm(s). A subset of six patients with ruptured aneurysms were given the test at both 3 months and 1year after surgery.
RESULTS—As previously reported for patients with ruptured aneurysms, patients with both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms performed, as a group, significantly below published norms on many of the neuropsychological tests after surgery. However, there were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative performance in the unruptured aneurysm group only on a few tests: measures of word fluency, verbal recall, and frontal lobe function. Performance of patients with ruptured aneurysms was significantly below that of patients with unruptured aneurysms only on a few tests of verbal and visual memory. In addition, group differences compared with published norms reflected severely impaired performance by a minority of patients, rather than moderately impaired performance in a majority of patients.
CONCLUSIONS—Although patients who undergo repair of ruptured aneursyms perform, as a group, below published norms on many neuropsychological tests, significant impairments are seen in a minority of patients. Some of the impairments are associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, whereas others (found in patients who underwent repair of unruptured aneurysms) are due to general effects of neurosurgery and perioperative management

  20. Clopidogrel enhances periodontal repair in rats through decreased inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Coimbra, Leila S; Steffens, Joao Paulo; Rossa, Carlos; Graves, Dana T; Spolidorio, Luis C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We hypothesized that platelet inactivation induced by drugs might interfere with periodontal repair in experimental periodontitis by suppressing the release of biological mediators from platelets at the site of injury. Material and Methods 60 rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=10) and ligatures were placed around lower first molars of three groups. The other three groups were used as negative controls. Ligatures were removed after 10 days of periodontitis induction and all groups were submitted to treatment with aspirin (Asp) (30 mg/kg), clopidogrel (Clop) (75 mg/kg) or NaCl 0.9% intragastrically once daily for 3 days. Periodontal tissue was assessed by the measurement of CXCL12, CXCL4, CCL5 and PDGF by ELISA; histomorphometric analysis of PMN infiltration, attachment loss, bone loss and osteoclast numbers and quantification of blood vessels by imunnohistochemistry. Results During periodontal repair and treatment with NaCl 0.9%, CCL5 was decreased and CXCL12 increased when compared to negative control groups. Asp and Clop did not affect CCL5 expression, decreased CXCL12 but only Clop decreased CXCL4 and PDGF content compared to saline-treated animals. Clop increased blood vessel number, reduced PMN count, and decreased attachment and bone loss, also decreased osteoclast number in animals submitted or not to periodontal repair. Conclusion Systemic administration of Clop during 3 days improved the repair process associated with experimental periodontal disease, suggesting that it may have therapeutic value under situations where tissues undergo a transition from inflammation to repair. PMID:24433307

  1. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  2. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroğlu, Mehmet; Salinger, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Over the last decade, several technologies have been developed for percutaneous repair of the mitral valve for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and at high-risk for the traditional open-heart mitral valve repair or replacement. Among them, MitraClip has emerged as the only clinically safe and effective method for percutaneous mitral valve repair. It is adapted from the surgical technique that was initially described by Dr. Alfieri and his group by placement of a suture approximating the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the MR jet, leading to creation of so-called bow-tie or double orifice with significant reduction in the MR jet. Here, we review the details of the technology, its procedural perspective as well as currently available data for its safety and effectiveness on a case-based report.

  3. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

  4. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option.

  5. Factors associated with early recurrence after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Luke R; Gupta, Vikas; Tsao, Kuojen; Davis, Carl F; Lally, Pamela A; Lally, Kevin P; Harting, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patient and treatment characteristics associated with early (in hospital) hernia recurrence after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) repair. Data from the Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Study Group registry were queried from 2007 to 2015. Recurrence of the diaphragmatic hernia after initial repair and prior to death or discharge was determined at the time of reoperation. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approaches included laparoscopy or thoracoscopy, and open approaches consisted of laparotomy or thoracotomy. Multivariate regression analysis was performed. Of 3984 patients, 3332 (84%) underwent CDH repair. 76 (2.3%) patients had an early recurrence. The rate of recurrence was less variable over time for patients undergoing laparotomy vs thoracoscopy (range: 1.1-3.7% vs 1.7-8.9% annually). Timing of repair, whether performed after, during, or before ECMO did not significantly alter recurrence rates (0% vs 4.2% vs 3.0%, p=0.116). Larger defect size (C: OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-15.4; D: OR 7.1, 95% CI 1.7-29.1) and an MIS approach (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0) were the only independent predictors of recurrence. Larger defect size and an MIS approach were associated with higher rates of early recurrence, while ECMO use and timing of repair with ECMO were not. Treatment study. II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complications of groin hernia repair: their prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Gaines, R D

    1978-03-01

    An estimated overall complication rate of approximately ten percent is found in the half million patients who annually undergo groin hernia repair in the United States. Certain features in the operative technique are emphasized which should prevent many of these complications.Intraoperative complications during the groin hernia repair are primarily hemorrhage and injury to the vas deferens, the three nerves in the area, the vascular supply of the testis, and the abdominal and pelvic viscera. Miscellaneous intraoperative complications relate to problems associated with the repair of massive hernias, missed hernia, and the loss of strangulated bowel into the abdominal cavity.Early postoperative complications may be either systemic or local with cardiac and respiratory conditions comprising the former group. The early local complications are primarily wound problems of infection, hematoma formation, and scrotal swelling involving the skin and testis. High ligation in excision of the sac in all hernias, repair of the defect in the plane of its occurrence, and suture of fascia to fascia in the same plane without tension are the basic tenets of inguinal hernia repair which should result in a low incidence of recurrence.The most effective prophylactic measures necessary for the prevention of complications considered are a thorough knowledge of inguinofemoral anatomy, mature surgical judgment, and meticulous surgical technique.

  7. Functional Outcomes and Return to Sports After Acute Repair, Chronic Repair, and Allograft Reconstruction for Proximal Hamstring Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Rust, David A; Giveans, M Russell; Stone, Rebecca M; Samuelson, Kathryn M; Larson, Christopher M

    2014-06-01

    There are limited data regarding outcomes and return to sports after surgery for acute versus chronic proximal hamstring ruptures. Surgery for chronic proximal hamstring ruptures leads to improved outcomes and return to sports but at a lower level than with acute repair. Proximal hamstring reconstruction with an Achilles allograft for chronic ruptures is successful when direct repair is not possible. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 72 patients with a traumatic proximal hamstring rupture (51 acute, 21 chronic) underwent either direct tendon repair with suture anchors (n = 58) or Achilles allograft tendon reconstruction (n = 14). Results from the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) for activities of daily living (ADL) and sports-related activities, Short Form-12 (SF-12), visual analog scale (VAS), and a patient satisfaction questionnaire were obtained. The mean time to surgery in the chronic group was 441.4 days versus 17.8 days in the acute group. At a mean follow-up of 45 months, patients with chronic tears had inferior sports activity scores (70.2% vs 80.3%, respectively; P = .026) and a trend for decreased ADL scores (86.5% vs 93.3%, respectively; P = .085) compared with those with acute tears. Patients with chronic tears, however, reported significant improvements postoperatively for both sports activity scores (30.3% to 70.2%; P < .01) and ADL scores (56.1% to 86.5%; P < .01). Greater than 5 to 6 cm of retraction in the chronic group was predictive of the need for allograft reconstruction (P = .015) and resulted in ADL and sports activity scores equal to those of chronic repair (P = .507 and P = .904, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups in SF-12, VAS, or patient satisfaction outcomes (mean, 85.2% satisfaction overall). Acute repair was superior to chronic surgery with regard to return to sports. Acute and chronic proximal hamstring repair and allograft reconstruction had favorable

  8. Comparative long-term results of mitral valve repair in adults with chronic rheumatic disease and degenerative disease: is repair for "burnt-out" rheumatic disease still inferior to repair for degenerative disease in the current era?

    PubMed

    Dillon, Jeswant; Yakub, Mohd Azhari; Kong, Pau Kiew; Ramli, Mohd Faizal; Jaffar, Norfazlina; Gaffar, Intan Fariza

    2015-03-01

    Mitral valve repair is perceived to be of limited durability for advanced rheumatic disease in adults. We aim to examine the long-term outcomes of repair for rheumatic disease, identify predictors of durability, and compare with repair for degenerative disease. Rheumatic and degenerative mitral valve repairs in patients aged 40 years or more were prospectively analyzed. The primary outcomes investigated were mortality, freedom from reoperation, and valve failure. Logistic regression analysis was performed to define predictors of poor outcome. Between 1997 and 2011, 253 rheumatic and 148 degenerative mitral valves were repaired. The age of patients in both groups was similar, with a mean of 54.1 ± 8.4 years versus 55.6 ± 7.3 years (P = .49). Freedom from reoperation for rheumatic valves at 5 and 10 years was 98.4%, comparable to 95.3% (P = .12) for degenerative valves. Freedom from valve failure at 5 and 10 years was 91.4% and 81.5% for rheumatic repairs and 82.5% and 75.4% for degenerative repairs, respectively (P = .15). The presence of residual mitral regurgitation greater than 2+ before discharge was the only significant independent predictor of reoperation, whereas residual mitral regurgitation greater than 2+ and leaflet procedures were significant risk factors for valve failure. The durability of rheumatic mitral valve repair in the current era has improved and is comparable to the outstanding durability of repairs for degenerative disease, even in the adult rheumatic population. Modifications of standard repair techniques, adherence to the importance of good leaflet coaptation, and strict quality control with stringent use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography have all contributed to the improved long-term results. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength between Ceramic Repair Systems and Ceramic Materials and Evaluation of the Wettability.

    PubMed

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan; Manav, Taha; Albayrak, Haydar

    2017-04-01

    When fracture of an all-ceramic restoration occurs, it can be necessary to repair without removing the restoration. Although there are many studies about the repair of metal-ceramic restorations, there are few about all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between ceramic repair systems and esthetic core materials and to evaluate the wettability of all-ceramic core materials. Disk-like specimens (N = 90) made of three dental ceramic infrastructure materials (zirconia ceramic, alumina ceramic, glass ceramic) were polished with silicon carbide paper, prepared for bonding (abrasion with 30 μm diamond rotary cutting instrument). Thirty specimens of each infrastructure were obtained. Each infrastructure group was divided into three subgroups; they were bonded using 3 repair systems: Bisco Intraoral Repair Kit, Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System, and Clearfil Repair System. After 1200 thermocycles, shear bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. In addition, the contact angle values of the infrastructures after surface treatments were examined for wettability. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Although there were no significant differences among the repair systems (p > 0.05) in the glass ceramic and zirconia groups, a significant difference was found among the repair systems in alumina infrastructure (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences among the infrastructures (p > 0.05); however, a statistically significant difference was found among the repair systems (p < 0.05). No difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems in terms of contact angle values. Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System had higher bond strength values than the other repair systems. Although no difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems, contact wettability angle was decreased by surface treatments compared with

  10. Lightweight polypropylene mesh fixation in laparoscopic incisional hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Rizzello, Mario; Greco, Francesco; Iorio, Olga; Iossa, Angelo; Silecchia, Gianfranco

    2013-09-01

    The choice of the mesh and fixation methods in laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is a crucial issue in preventing complications and recurrence. The authors report a series of 40 consecutive laparoscopic incisional hernia repairs, focusing on the use of lightweight polypropylene mesh and on the way of mesh fixation. Forty laparoscopic incisional hernia repairs performed consecutively in 38 patients (16 males, 22 females) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups depending on tacks used: Titanium tacks vs absorbable tacks. All patients received totally laparoscopic incisional hernia repair by the use of lightweight polypropylene mesh. No major post-operative complications were reported. Post-operative pain (evaluated by VNS) was higher in Group A (titanium tacks, p < 0.05). No differences in follow-up as well as in recurrence incidence (one case in both groups, <6 months time interval) were reported. Securestrap™ absorbable tacks are safe and effective and easy to use and did not increase the risk of mesh dislocation compared with non-absorbable tacks. The specific design well fits the lightweight polypropylene mesh Physiomesh™. Further evaluations in larger randomized studies are needed to confirm these preliminary data.

  11. Retraction pattern of delaminated rotator cuff tears: dual-layer rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sang-Won; Lee, Choon-Key; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Kim, Taegyun; Lee, Su-Chan

    2016-07-06

    There has been no report to date regarding retraction patterns of delaminated rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and tearing patterns of delamination and repair integrity after the dual-layer repair of delaminated cuff tears. A consecutive series of 64 patients with posterosuperior rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from August 2011 to September 2012. Among the patients, 53 who received either dual-layer double-row (DLDR) repair or dual-layer suture bridge (DLSB) repair and 11 who received a single-layer repair were evaluated. The mean follow-up period after surgery was 26.5 months. The retraction direction of the deep and superficial layers was analyzed, and the integrity of the repaired constructs was determined in 37 patients through magnetic resonance imaging at a mean of 12.1 months after surgery. The incidence of delamination was 82.8 %. Posteromedial retraction of the deep and superficial layers was observed in 98.1 and 88.5 % of cases, respectively. The Constant score and UCLA score increased preoperatively to postoperatively, showing no significant differences between the dual-layer repair group and single-layer repair group. Retear was found in two (7.6 %) patients in the dual-layer repair group and three (27.2 %) patients in the single-layer repair group (p = 0.016). Differential rotator cuff repair strategies are needed to address rotator cuff tears, since recent studies have changed our concept of rotator cuff tears. We have focused on three areas: incidence, retraction patterns, and clinical outcomes. The incidence of delamination was extremely high. Both the superficial layer and deep layer were mainly retracted posteromedially. The retraction of the deep layer and superficial layer may be affected by the infraspinatus. Dual-layer rotator cuff repair based on the retraction pattern of delamination is recommended for improvement of repair integrity and of clinical outcomes.

  12. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  13. Outreach Materials for the Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign offers outreach materials to help collision repair shops reduce toxic air exposure. Materials include a DVD, poster, training video, and materials in Spanish (materiales del outreach en español).

  14. Inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Yong; Kim, Jung Chul; Kim, Shin Kon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes after inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 636 adult patients who underwent mesh plug inguinal hernia repair performed by one surgeon from November 2001 to January 2009.The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients were analyzed. According to the body mass index, patients higher than 23 were defined as overweight and obese patient group (O group) and patients between 18.5 and 23 were defined as normal weight patient group (N group). Seventeen underweight patients were excluded in this study. Results Of 619 cases, the number for O group was 344 (55.6%) and for N group was 275 (44.4%). The mean age was significantly higher in N group (62.2 ± 12.6 vs. 64.4 ± 14.8, P = 0.048). Underlying diseases were present in 226 (65.7%) of the O group and 191 (69.5%) of the N group (P = 0.322). Anesthesia method, operative time and postoperative hospital stay had no significant difference between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 41 (11.9%) of the O group and in 28 (10.2%) of the N group, respectively, and no major complications developed in either group. Conclusion Adult inguinal hernias developed at a relatively younger age in overweight and obese patients than in normal weight patients. There were no specific differences in other clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two groups. Therefore inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients is a safe procedure as in normal weight patients. PMID:22066122

  15. Repair of rotator cuff injuries using different composites.

    PubMed

    Lopiz, Y; Arvinius, C; García-Fernández, C; Rodriguez-Bobada, M C; González-López, P; Civantos, A; Marco, F

    Rotator cuff repairs have shown a high level of re-ruptures. It is hypothesised that the use of rhBMP-2 in a carrier could improve the biomechanical and histological properties of the repair. Controlled experimental study conducted on 40 rats with section and repair of the supraspinatus tendon and randomisation to one of five groups: Group 1 (control) only suture; Group 2 (double control), suture and alginate-chitin carrier; Group 3 (alginate-control), the rhBMP-2 was added to the alginate; Group 4 (chitin-control) application of the rhBMP-2 to the chitin, and Group 5 (double sample): The two components of the carrier (alginate and chitin) have rhBMP-2. A biomechanical and histological analysis was performed at 4 weeks. A gap was observed in all cases 4 weeks after supraspinatus detachment. The re-rupture rate was 7.5%, with 20% of them in the control-alginate Group. Histologically the best results were obtained in the double sample group: 4.5 (3.3-5.0). Double sample were also able to support higher loads to failure: 62.9N (59.8 to 69.4) with lower rigidity 12.7 (9.7 to 15.9). The use of alginate-chitin carrier with rhBMP-2 improves the biomechanical and histological properties of the repair site in a chronic rotator cuff tear. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Alterations of the Deltoid Muscle After Open Versus Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam Su; Cha, Sang Won; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2015-12-01

    Open repair can be more useful than arthroscopic repair for immobile and severely retracted, large to massive rotator cuff tears. However, it is not known whether the deltoid muscle is altered after open repair or to what extent the deltoid origin remains detached after surgery. To compare postoperative alterations of the deltoid muscle in open versus arthroscopic repair for severely retracted, large to massive rotator cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Enrolled in this study were 135 patients who underwent surgical repair for severely retracted, large to massive rotator cuff tears and who had routine follow-up MRIs at least 6 months after surgery. Open repairs were performed in 56 cases and arthroscopic repairs in 79 cases. The detachment and thickness of the deltoid muscle at its proximal origin were recorded in 5 zones on MRI. The alterations of the deltoid muscle and postoperative integrity of the repaired rotator cuff were evaluated. Partial detachment of the deltoid occurred in 1 patient (1.8%) in the open group and in 2 patients (2.5%) in the arthroscopic group (P = .80). All the partial detachments occurred in zones 2 and 3. Attenuation of the proximal origin of the deltoid was found in 3 patients (5.4%) in the open group and in 4 patients (5.1%) in the arthroscopic group (P = .87). Atrophy of the deltoid muscle was shown in 3 patients (5.4%) in the open group and 4 patients (5.1%) in the arthroscopic group (P = .61). The retear rate of the repaired cuff was 30.4% (17/56) in the open group and 38.0% (30/79) in the arthroscopic group (P = .74). Between open and arthroscopic repair for severely retracted, large to massive rotator cuff tears, there was no significant difference in detachment of the deltoid origin and alterations of the deltoid muscle after repair. Postoperative alterations of the deltoid occurred in arthroscopic surgery as well as in open surgery. For immobile massive rotator cuff tear, open repair is an acceptable technique

  17. Ultraviolet light-resistant primary transfectants of xeroderma pigmentosum cells are also DNA repair-proficient

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.; Naiman, T.; Canaani, D. )

    1989-08-15

    In a previous work, an immortal xeroderma pigmentosum cell line belonging to complementation group C was complemented to a UV-resistant phenotype by transfection with a human cDNA clone library. We now report that the primary transformants selected for UV-resistance also acquired normal levels of DNA repair. This was assessed both by measurement of UV-induced ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation and by equilibrium sedimentation analysis of repair-DNA synthesis. Therefore, the transduced DNA element which confers normal UV-resistance also corrects the excision repair defect of the xeroderma pigmentosum group C cell line.

  18. [A Nobel Prize for DNA repair].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize for chemistry recognizes the seminal contributions of three researchers who discovered the existence and the basic mechanisms of DNA repair: base excision repair, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision repair. They have since been joined by many scientists elucidating diverse aspects of these complex mechanisms that now constitute a thriving research field with many applications, notably for understanding oncogenesis and devising more effective therapies.

  19. Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. The procedures include intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair, transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair and total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair. These procedures have totally different anatomic point of view, process and technical key points from open operations. The technical details of these operations are discussed in this article, also the strategies of treatment for some special conditions. PMID:27867954

  20. Computer Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in a course to train students to repair computer equipment and perform related administrative and customer service tasks. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics (with selected subtopics in brackets): performing administrative functions (preparing service bills, maintaining accounts and labor…

  1. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  2. Anodization As A Repair Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groff, Roy E.; Maloney, Robert D.; Reeser, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Thin, hard oxide layer added to aluminum part. Surfaces on aluminum part worn out of tolerance by no more than 0.004 in. often repaired by anodizing to build up aluminum oxide layers. Oxide layers very hard and grounded to desired final dimensions.

  3. Repair Plate Research Results Released

    Treesearch

    Tom McLain

    1993-01-01

    The Pallet and Container Research Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with NWPCA and the Southern Research Station (USDA Forest Service), embarked on a research project two years ago to evaluate the use of metal connector plates (MCP) for the repair and reinforcement of stringer-class pallets. This article discusses the...

  4. Laceration Repair: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Randall T; Little, Sahoko H; Williams, Christa

    2017-05-15

    The goals of laceration repair are to achieve hemostasis and optimal cosmetic results without increasing the risk of infection. Many aspects of laceration repair have not changed over the years, but there is evidence to support some updates to standard management. Studies have been unable to define a "golden period" for which a wound can safely be repaired without increasing risk of infection. Depending on the type of wound, it may be reasonable to close even 18 or more hours after injury. The use of nonsterile gloves during laceration repair does not increase the risk of wound infection compared with sterile gloves. Irrigation with potable tap water rather than sterile saline also does not increase the risk of wound infection. Good evidence suggests that local anesthetic with epinephrine in a concentration of up to 1:100,000 is safe for use on digits. Local anesthetic with epinephrine in a concentration of 1:200,000 is safe for use on the nose and ears. Tissue adhesives and wound adhesive strips can be used effectively in low-tension skin areas. Wounds heal faster in a moist environment and therefore occlusive and semiocclusive dressings should be considered when available. Tetanus prophylaxis should be provided if indicated. Timing of suture removal depends on location and is based on expert opinion and experience.

  5. Delayed Next Turn Repair Initiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jean

    A study examined a form of other-initiated repair which occurs later than next turn, a form which is produced by nonnative speakers of English whose native language is Mandarin. Data consists of transcriptions of naturally occurring conversations from 12 native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) dyads, friends who ordinarily chat. Conversational…

  6. Spall Repair Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-15

    Service life predictions for concrete pavements are typically determined by fatigue analysis. The most common fatigue models estimate the number of...service life of the pavement . Performance curves were based upon observations from the fatigue tests, strength development of the materials, and...exacerbate fatigue failure under repeated loading. Spall repairs at expeditionary locations have failed sooner than expected based upon load test

  7. Personal Achievement Reading: Auto Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in auto repair programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from the vocabulary of auto mechanics to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability…

  8. Airframe Repair Specialist (AFSC 53153).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This airframe repairman course comprises the self-study portion of an on-the-job training program. It deals with the job-related knowledge requirements for airframe repairs that are required to progress from the 3 to 5 skill level of the career field. It contains five volumes. Volume 1 (27 hours) covers the general subjects related to the…

  9. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  10. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  11. Nucleotide excision repair in humans.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing Gray and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as a Repair Material for Furcation Perforation: An in Vitro Dye Extraction Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kiran; Baba, Suheel Manzoor; Jaiswal, Shikha; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Jani, Mehul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Furcation perforation can have a negative impact on the prognosis of the affected tooth by compromising the attached apparatus. Hence these perforations require immediate repair. A variety of materials have been suggested for repair, of that MTA is the most promising material. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of Gray and White MTA to seal furcation perforations using a dye extraction method under spectrophotometer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 permanent mandibular molars were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 samples each as follows: Group A: Perforation repaired with White MTA. Group B: Perforation repaired with Gray MTA. Group C: Perforation left unsealed (positive). Group D: without perforation (negative). Dye extraction was performed using full concentration nitric acid. Dye absorbance was measured at 550 nm using spectrophotometer. The data analyzed using one-way-Anova Ratio and Unpaired t-test showing statistically significance difference among the groups. Result: It was seen that Group D samples without perforation showed least absorbance followed by Group A (perforation repaired with White MTA) and Group B (perforation repaired with Gray MTA). Group C (perforation left unsealed) showed highest absorbance. Conclusion: The White and Gray Mineral Trioxide Aggregate performed similarly as a furcation perforation repair material. There was no significant difference between the Gray MTA and White MTA. PMID:25478452

  13. Repair of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears: a biomechanical analysis of footprint contact pressure and strength in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Peters, Karin S; Lam, Patrick H; Murrell, George A C

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether transtendon repair by use of a novel small-diameter knotless anchor showed enhanced mechanical properties compared with tear completion and repair. Articular-sided partial-thickness tears were created ex vivo in the infraspinatus of 24 ovine shoulders. The specimens were randomized into 4 groups of 6 each: (1) no repair, (2) transtendon repair, (3) completion of tear with tension-band single-row repair, and (4) completion of tear with double-row repair. Footprint contact pressure and ultimate load to failure were measured in each specimen. Technical failure of the transtendon anchors occurred in 3 of 15 shoulders. Transtendon repair (mean +/- SEM, 0.8 +/- 0.1 MPa) and double-row repair (1 +/- 0.09 MPa) showed 3-fold (P < .001) greater footprint contact pressures than tension-band single-row repair (0.3 +/- 0.03 MPa) and no repair (0.3 +/- 0.02 MPa). The ultimate load to failure for transtendon repair (544 +/- 22 N) was more than 3 times greater than that for the double-row repair (157 +/- 23 N) (P < .001) and the single-row repair (116 +/- 11 N) (P < .001). Transtendon repair of partial-thickness tears by use of specifically designed anchors biomechanically outperformed tear completion and repair in an ovine model. Transtendon repair showed the best combination of high footprint contact pressure and high ultimate failure load. However, the high insertion failure rate of these transtendon anchors is of concern. On the basis of the biomechanical data, transtendon repair of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears may be used as an alternative to tear completion and repair, but the specific transtendon anchors used in this study need further evaluation before their clinical use can be recommended. Copyright (c) 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Randomized Trial of Prenatal versus Postnatal Repair of Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Adzick, N. Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Brock, John W.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Johnson, Mark P.; Howell, Lori J.; Farrell, Jody A.; Dabrowiak, Mary E.; Sutton, Leslie N.; Gupta, Nalin; Tulipan, Noel B.; D'Alton, Mary E.; Farmer, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal repair of myelomeningocele, the most common form of spina bifida, may result in better neurologic function than repair deferred until after delivery. We compared outcomes of in utero repair with standard postnatal repair. Methods We randomly assigned eligible women to undergo either prenatal surgery before 26 weeks of gestation or standard postnatal repair. One primary outcome was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or the need for placement of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt by the age of 12 months. Another primary outcome at 30 months was a composite of mental development and motor function. Results The trial was stopped for efficacy of prenatal surgery after the recruitment of 183 of a planned 200 patients. This report is based on results in 158 patients whose children were evaluated at 12 months. The first primary outcome occurred in 68% of the infants in the prenatal-surgery group and in 98% of those in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.70; 97.7% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.84; P<0.001). Actual rates of shunt placement were 40% in the prenatal-surgery group and 82% in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.48; 97.7% CI, 0.36 to 0.64; P<0.001). Prenatal surgery also resulted in improvement in the composite score for mental development and motor function at 30 months (P = 0.007) and in improvement in several secondary outcomes, including hindbrain herniation by 12 months and ambulation by 30 months. However, prenatal surgery was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and uterine dehiscence at delivery. Conclusions Prenatal surgery for myelomeningocele reduced the need for shunting and improved motor outcomes at 30 months but was associated with maternal and fetal risks. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00060606.) PMID:21306277

  15. Effect of an Extra Hydrophobic Resin Layer on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rahbani Nobar, Behnam

    2015-12-01

    Composite repair is a minimally invasive and conservative approach. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an additional hydrophobic resin layer on the repair shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite repaired with silorane or methacrylate-based composite. Sixty bar-shaped composite blocks were fabricated and stored in saline for 72 hours. The surface of the samples were roughened by diamond burs and etched with phosphoric acid; then, they were randomly divided into three groups according to the repairing process: Group 1: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-silorane composite; group 2: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin-silorane composite, and group 3: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin methacrylate-based composite. Repairing composite blocks measured 2.5×2.5×5mm. After repairing, the samples were stored in saline for 24 hours and thermocycled for 1500 cycles. The repair bond strength was measured at a strain rate of 1mm/min. Twenty additional cylindrical composite blocks (diameter: 2.5mm, height: 6mm) were also fabricated for measuring the cohesive strength of silorane-based composite. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). Cohesive bond strength of silorane composite was significantly higher than the repair bond strengths in other groups (P<0.001). The repair bond strength of group 3 was significantly higher than that of group 1 (P=0.001). Application of an additional hydrophobic resin layer for repair of silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite enhanced the repair shear bond strength.

  16. Effect of an Extra Hydrophobic Resin Layer on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rahbani Nobar, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Composite repair is a minimally invasive and conservative approach. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an additional hydrophobic resin layer on the repair shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite repaired with silorane or methacrylate-based composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty bar-shaped composite blocks were fabricated and stored in saline for 72 hours. The surface of the samples were roughened by diamond burs and etched with phosphoric acid; then, they were randomly divided into three groups according to the repairing process: Group 1: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-silorane composite; group 2: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin-silorane composite, and group 3: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin methacrylate-based composite. Repairing composite blocks measured 2.5×2.5×5mm. After repairing, the samples were stored in saline for 24 hours and thermocycled for 1500 cycles. The repair bond strength was measured at a strain rate of 1mm/min. Twenty additional cylindrical composite blocks (diameter: 2.5mm, height: 6mm) were also fabricated for measuring the cohesive strength of silorane-based composite. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: Cohesive bond strength of silorane composite was significantly higher than the repair bond strengths in other groups (P<0.001). The repair bond strength of group 3 was significantly higher than that of group 1 (P=0.001). Conclusion: Application of an additional hydrophobic resin layer for repair of silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite enhanced the repair shear bond strength. PMID:27559348

  17. Bringing mask repair to the next level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Auth, N.; Spies, P.; Oster, J.; Schneider, H.; Budach, M.; Hofmann, T.; Waiblinger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. These challenges require sophisticated technologies to bring mask repair to the next level. For high end masks ion-beam based and e-based repair technologies are the obvious choice when it comes to the repair of small features. Both technologies have their pro and cons. The scope of this paper is to review and compare the performance of ion-beam based mask repair to e-beam based mask repair. We will analyze the limits of both technologies theoretically and experimentally and show mask repair related performance data. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair tools.

  18. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  19. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  20. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  1. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  2. 33 CFR 115.40 - Bridge repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridge repairs. 115.40 Section 115.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.40 Bridge repairs. Repairs to a bridge which do...

  3. Standardized Curriculum for Shoe and Boot Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for shoe and boot repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all shoe and boot repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for shoe and boot repair I and II courses. Units in…

  4. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2010-01-01

    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair…

  5. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

  6. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  10. Standardized Curriculum for Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for small engine repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all small engine repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for small engine repair I and II courses. Units in course I…

  11. Standardized Curriculum for Shoe and Boot Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for shoe and boot repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all shoe and boot repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for shoe and boot repair I and II courses. Units in…

  12. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  16. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  17. The Influence of Arthroscopic Remplissage for Engaging Hill-Sachs Lesions Combined with Bankart Repair on Redislocation and Shoulder Function Compared with Bankart Repair Alone

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sang-Hun; Cha, Jae-Ryong; Hwang, Il-Yeong; Choe, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be associated with a large osseous defect in the posterosuperior part of the humeral head. Our hypothesis is that remplissage is more effective to prevent recurrence of glenohumeral instability without a severe motion deficit. Methods Engaging Hill-Sachs lesions were observed in 48 of 737 patients (6.5%). Twenty-four patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with remplissage (group I) and the other 24 patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair alone (group II). Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated by assessing the range of motion. Complications, recurrence rates, and functional results were assessed utilizing the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Rowe score, and the Korean Shoulder Score for Instability (KSSI) score. Capsulotenodesis healing after remplissage was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. Results The average ASES, Rowe, and KSSI scores were statistically significantly higher in group I than group II. The frequency of recurrence was statistically significantly higher in group II. The average loss in external rotation measured with the arm positioned at the side of the trunk was greater in group II and that in abduction was also higher in group II. Conclusions Compared to single arthroscopic Bankart repair, the remplissage procedure combined with arthroscopic Bankart repair was more effective to prevent the recurrence of anterior shoulder instability without significant impact on shoulder mobility in patients who had huge Hill-Sachs lesions. PMID:27904726

  18. The Influence of Arthroscopic Remplissage for Engaging Hill-Sachs Lesions Combined with Bankart Repair on Redislocation and Shoulder Function Compared with Bankart Repair Alone.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sang-Hun; Cha, Jae-Ryong; Lee, Chae-Chil; Hwang, Il-Yeong; Choe, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Seok

    2016-12-01

    Recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be associated with a large osseous defect in the posterosuperior part of the humeral head. Our hypothesis is that remplissage is more effective to prevent recurrence of glenohumeral instability without a severe motion deficit. Engaging Hill-Sachs lesions were observed in 48 of 737 patients (6.5%). Twenty-four patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with remplissage (group I) and the other 24 patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair alone (group II). Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated by assessing the range of motion. Complications, recurrence rates, and functional results were assessed utilizing the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Rowe score, and the Korean Shoulder Score for Instability (KSSI) score. Capsulotenodesis healing after remplissage was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. The average ASES, Rowe, and KSSI scores were statistically significantly higher in group I than group II. The frequency of recurrence was statistically significantly higher in group II. The average loss in external rotation measured with the arm positioned at the side of the trunk was greater in group II and that in abduction was also higher in group II. Compared to single arthroscopic Bankart repair, the remplissage procedure combined with arthroscopic Bankart repair was more effective to prevent the recurrence of anterior shoulder instability without significant impact on shoulder mobility in patients who had huge Hill-Sachs lesions.

  19. Long-Term Outcome of Patients With Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect Combined With the Tetralogy of Fallot: Staged Repair Is Not Inferior to Primary Repair.

    PubMed

    Vitanova, Keti; Cleuziou, Julie; Schreiber, Christian; Günther, Thomas; Pabst von Ohain, Jelena; Hörer, Jürgen; Lange, Rüdiger

    2017-03-01

    Primary repair is the preferred strategy for surgical treatment of complete atrioventricular septal defect combined with the tetralogy of Fallot. However, a staged approach may be preferable for very small or cyanotic infants. The long-term outcomes of infants undergoing staged vs primary repair were compared. Data from 47 patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect combined with the tetralogy of Fallot who were operated on at our institution between 1974 and 2013 were reviewed. The study end points were all-cause death and reoperation. The patients were classified into two groups: staged repair (SR) and primary repair (PR). The indications for staged repair were cyanosis and young age. There were 22 SR and 25 PR patients. The SR patients were younger at the time of the initial operation (p = 0.001), and were more frequently cyanotic (21 SR vs 5 PR patients, p = 0.003). The 10-year survival after repair of the SR and PR patients was 78% ± 11% and 83% ± 8%, respectively (p = 0.8). No risk factors for death were identified. The 10-year freedom from reoperation for atrioventricular valve regurgitation of SR and PR patients after repair was 73% ± 12% and 71% ± 10%, respectively (p = 0.5). At least moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation before repair was the only risk factor for reoperation (p = 0.01). Cyanotic and very young children with complete atrioventricular septal defect combined with the tetralogy of Fallot who require urgent treatment have long-term outcomes after staged repair similar to those of patients who undergo primary repair. Preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation is associated with increased risk for reoperation over the long-term. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA-templated DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Storici, Francesca; Bebenek, Katarzyna; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Gordenin, Dmitry A.; Resnick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    RNA can act as a template for DNA synthesis in the reverse transcription of retroviruses and retrotransposons1 and in the elongation of telomeres2. Despite its abundance in the nucleus, there has been no evidence for a direct role of RNA as a template in the repair of any chromosomal DNA lesions, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are repaired in most organisms by homologous recombination or by non-homologous end joining3. An indirect role for RNA in DNA repair, following reverse transcription and formation of a complementary DNA, has been observed in the non-homologous joining of DSB ends4,5. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which homologous recombination is efficient3, RNA was shown to mediate recombination, but only indirectly through a cDNA intermediate6,7 generated by the reverse transcriptase function of Ty retrotransposons in Ty particles in the cytoplasm8. Although pairing between duplex DNA and single-strand (ss)RNA can occur in vitro9,10 and in vivo11, direct homologous exchange of genetic information between RNA and DNA molecules has not been observed. We show here that RNA can serve as a template for DNA synthesis during repair of a chromosomal DSB in yeast. The repair was accomplished with RNA oligonucleotides complementary to the broken ends. This and the observation that even yeast replicative DNA polymerases such as α and δ can copy short RNA template tracts in vitro demonstrate that RNA can transfer genetic information in vivo through direct homologous interaction with chromosomal DNA. PMID:17429354