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Sample records for repair cross-complementation group

  1. Expression of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 as Predictive Marker for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jong-Mu; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Min Jae; Lee, Hui-Young; Ahn, Jin Seok; Lee, Seungkoo; Kang, Gu; Han, Joungho; Son, Young-Ik; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Keunchil

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. The expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been reported to be associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We evaluated whether ERCC1 expression could predict the treatment response and survival outcome of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who were treated with cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of ERCC1 in nasopharyngeal tumor tissue. Patients were categorized into either a resistant or sensitive group depending on their treatment response outcome. A total of 77 patients were assessed in the present study. Results: The resistant and sensitive groups included 25 and 52 patients, respectively. ERCC1 expression was positive in the tumor tissue for 39 of the 77 patients (51%). Significantly more ERCC1-negative tumors were in the sensitive group than in the resistant group (p = .035). In terms of survival outcome, univariate analysis determined that patients with ERCC1-negative tumors had longer disease-free survival (p = .076) and overall survival (p = .013) than patients with ERCC1-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis determined that negative ERCC expression in tumors was an independent predictor for prolonged overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.71). Conclusion: These results suggest that ERCC1 expression might be a useful predictive marker in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who are under consideration for cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

  2. Heterogeneity of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 gene expression in non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    SMIRNOV, SERHEY; PASHKEVICH, ANASTASIYA; LIUNDYSHEVA, VALERIYA; BABENKO, ANDREY; SMOLYAKOVA, RAISA

    2015-01-01

    Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) gene expression analysis is currently used widely in the molecular diagnosis of cancer. According to numerous studies, ERCC1 gene expression correlates with overall survival and effectiveness of chemotherapy with platinum agents. However, the degree of this correlation differs among various studies, with certain authors reporting a complete lack of such a correlation. These contradictions may be attributed to a number of factors, including the heterogeneity of the tumor tissue. In this study, we attempted to assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity exhibited by tissue samples obtained from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through the expression of the ERCC1 gene. This study included 25 samples of tumor tissue from patients with a morphologically confirmed NSCLC diagnosis. A total of three randomized sections of each specimen were used. The ERCC1 gene expression was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the TaqMan format. When planning the experiment and analysis of qPCR data, the MIQE guidelines were taken into consideration. We established that the coefficient of variation of the relative level of ERCC1 gene expression in the majority of the samples exceeded 33% (P<0.05), indicating the significant heterogeneity of the sample. We also demonstrated that the degree of heterogeneity of the tumor tissue is largely dependent on disease stage. PMID:25469300

  3. Cell cycle association and hypoxia regulation of excision repair cross complementation group 1 protein (ERCC1) in tumor cells of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Dudás, József; Schartinger, Volker H; Romani, Angela; Schweigl, Gabriele; Kordsmeyer, Kristian; Marta, Patricia Irina; Url, Christoph; Kral, Florian; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a key component of homologous recombination-based repair of interstrand DNA cross-links (ICLs). As a consequence, ERCC1 mediates resistance to mitomycin C (MMC) and platinum chemotherapeutic agents and may predict treatment failure. Clinical response to MMC or cisplatin (CDDP)-based radiochemotherapy (RCT) was assessed in 106 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and correlated with cell nuclear immunoreactivity of the mouse monoclonal (clone: 8 F1) ERCC1 antibody in tumor tissue samples. BEAS-2B epithelial and Detroit 562 pharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells were treated with CDDP, MMC, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at 50 % growth inhibitory (IC-50) concentrations. ERCC1 protein synthesis was compared with cell cycle distribution using combined immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. ERCC1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was investigated in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in Detroit 562 cells. Clinically, the nonresponder revealed significantly lower HNSCC tissue ERCC1 immunoreactivity than the responder (p = 0.0064) or control normal mucosa, which led to further mechanistic investigations. In vitro, control cells and cells treated with cytotoxic agents showed increasing ERCC1 levels from the G1 through S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. In CDDP-treated cells, ERCC1 mRNA and protein expression increased. Under hypoxic conditions, ERCC1 gene expression significantly decreased. Although ERCC1(+) cells show increased chemoresistance, they might be particularly radiosensitive, representing G2 cell cycle phase and less hypoxic. ERCC1 expression might be indirectly related with some conditions important for RCT treatment, but it is not a clear predictor for its failure in HNSCC patients.

  4. Association between x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) genetic polymorphisms and papillary thyroid cancer susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Huo, Meiling; Sun, Yong; Wu, Hongyan; Chen, Hongqiang; Wang, Yulong; Fu, Rongzhan

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a predominant type of thyroid cancer. Ionizing radiation is the only well-established risk factor and may result in double-strand breaks. The x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene plays a vital role in DNA repair through homologous recombination. We aimed at investigating the association between XRCC3 genetic polymorphisms and PTC susceptibility. Eighty-three PTC patients and 367 controls in a Chinese population were enrolled in the study. Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by HaploView 4.2 software. Genomic DNAs were isolated from peripheral blood samples by using TaqMan Blood DNA kits. The genotyping of XRCC3 SNPs was performed by TaqMan SNPs genotyping assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between XRCC3 SNPs and PTC susceptibility. The statistical analyses were conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Four tag-SNPs were initially identified by HaploView 4.2 software. Only one SNP (rs861539) was shown to be significantly associated with increased risk of PTC. There was a significant difference in smoking and drinking status between PTC cases and controls. And the stratified analysis suggested that the polymorphisms of rs861539 in XRCC3 were correlated with PTC risk in the four subgroups of smokers (ex-smokers included), non-smokers, drinkers (ex-drinkers included), and non-drinkers. The meta-analysis showed that only two studies reported a significant association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and PTC risk. In this study, we find a significant association between rs861539 polymorphisms and PTC susceptibility. However, there were inconsistent results in previous published studies. Therefore, further studies in a large population are required to gain insights into the PTC risk conferred by XRCC3 SNPs.

  5. Association between codon 399 polymorphism in the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene and risk of prostate cancer in Asians: A study of 4,479 cases and 4,281 controls

    PubMed Central

    Yuanyuan, Mi; Xiaoming, You; Lijie, Zhu; Ninghan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The polymorphism in codon 399 of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene may subtly alter structure of DNA repair enzymes and modulate the repair capacity. Impaired DNA repair can lead to the development of cancers such as prostate cancer (PCA). Although the association between the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism and PCA risk has been extensively reported, the results have been ambiguous. Methods: We conducted an updated analysis of 18 case–control studies to determine the association between the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism and PCA risk. We performed a literature search of the PubMed database to identify all eligible articles that reported this association. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were evaluated to assess the association. Results: Significant associations between PCA risk and XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism were found (such as A-allele vs. G-allele: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01–1.23). Moreover, subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed similar significant associations in Asians (such as AA vs. GG: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.19–1.97). Egger’s test did not reveal the presence of a publication bias. Conclusions: Our updated analysis provides evidence for significant association between XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism and PCA risk. Further carefully designed studies should be performed. PMID:26649000

  6. Association between the Thr241Met polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 gene and glioma risk: evidence from a meta-analysis based on 4,136 cases and 5,233 controls.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Kou, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met has been implicated to alter the risk of glioma, but the results are controversial. Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were independently searched by two investigators up to 13 July 2013. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for Thr241Met polymorphism and prostate cancer were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with the software program Stata 12.0. A total of 10 independent studies, including 4,136 cases and 5,233 controls, were identified. Our analysis suggested that Thr241Met was not associated with glioma risk in overall population. In the subgroup analysis, we detected no significant association between Thr241Met polymorphism and glioma risk in different descent populations. Subgroup analysis was held by source of controls, significant association was found between this polymorphism and glioma risk for population-based studies (homozygote model: OR = 1.747, 95% CI = 1.123-2.717, Ph = 0.059, I(2) = 59.7%; recessive model, OR = 1.455, 95% CI = 1.179-1.795, Ph = 0.111, I(2) = 50.1%; allele model, OR = 1.258, 95% CI = 1.010-1.566, Ph = 0.011, I(2) = 72.9%). This meta-analysis showed the evidence that XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism was associated with a low risk of glioma development.

  7. The prognostic and predictive value of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) protein in 1288 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with platinum-based therapy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bišof, Vesna; Zajc Petranović, Matea; Rakušić, Zoran; Samardžić, Kristina Ruža; Juretić, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) protein has been extensively investigated as a prognostic and predictive factor for platinum-based treatment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) but with inconsistent results. We performed the present meta-analysis to better elucidate this issue in advanced HNSCC. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases. The inclusion criteria were head and neck cancer patients with platinum-based treatment and evaluation of the correlation between ERCC1 expression and clinical outcomes [objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), both unadjusted and adjusted estimates]. In high vs. low pooled analyses, high ERCC1 expression was associated with unfavorable OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18-3.21, p = 0.009], PFS (HR = 2.39, 95 % CI 1.74-3.28, p = 0.000) and ORR (odds ratio = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.23-0.98, p = 0.044). In the subgroup analysis of adjusted OS estimates, ERCC1 was a predictor of shorter survival in Asians (HR = 3.13, 95 % CI 2.09-4.70, p = 0.000) and Caucasians (HR = 2.02, 95 % CI 1.32-3.07, p = 0.001) but of longer survival in South Americans (HR = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.07-0.40, p = 0.000). Immunohistochemistry proved to be of predictive value irrespective of used antibody (p = 0.009). In the stratified analysis according to the tumor site, ERCC1 expression was associated with OS in nasopharyngeal cancer (HR = 2.72, 95 % CI 1.79-4.13, p = 0.000). ERCC1 has a potential to become predictive and prognostic factor enabling treatment tailoring in HNSCC patients.

  8. Curcumin downregulates p38 MAPK-dependent X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 (XRCC1) expression to enhance cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chen, Wen-Ching; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chang, Po-Yuan; Liao, Kai-Sheng; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Cisplatin is a well-studied and widely used chemotherapeutic agent and is effective in the treatment of the advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Curcumin is a yellow pigment derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has been proved to have antioxidant and antitumor properties. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein involved in base excision repair and plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. In this study, we characterize the role of curcumin in the cytotoxicity, p38 MAPK activation, and XRCC1 expression affected by cisplatin in NSCLC cells. We show that curcumin enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with cisplatin alone increased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through p38 MAPK activation. Moreover, SB2023580 (p38 inhibitor) decreased the XRCC1 mRNA and protein stability upon cisplatin treatment. Knockdown of XRCC1 in NSCLC cells by transfection of XRCC1 siRNA or inactivation of p38 MAPK resulted in enhancing the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition induced by cisplatin. Curcumin inhibited the expression of XRCC1 in cisplatin-exposed NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK6 or HA-p38 MAPK vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level and also the cell survival suppressed by cisplatin and curcumin combination in A549 and H1703 cells. These findings suggested that the downregulation of XRCC1 expression by curcumin can enhance the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells.

  9. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  10. X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 and 3 polymorphisms and susceptibility of breast cancer in a Jordanian population

    PubMed Central

    Zoubi, Mazhar S. Al

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate the contribution of x-ray repair cross-complementing (XRCC) protein 1 399Gln, XRCC3 241M, and XRCC3-5’-UTR polymorphisms to the susceptibility of breast cancer (BC) in a Jordanian population. Methods: Forty-six formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples from BC diagnosed female patients, and 31 samples from the control group were subjected to DNA sequencing. Samples were collected between September 2013 and December 2014. Results: The XRCC1 Arg399Gln genotype did not exhibit any significant correlation with the susceptibility of BC (odds ratio [OR]=1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60-3.51) (p=0.47). Likewise, XRCC3 M241T genotype did not show significant correlation with BC (OR=2.02, 95% CI: 0.50-8.21) (p=0.40). However, distribution of XRCC3-5’UTR (rs1799794 A/G) genotype showed a significant difference between the patient and control group (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.06-8.46) (p=0.02). Conclusion: The XRCC3-5’UTR (rs1799794) G allele frequency was higher in cancer patients while XRCC1 (rs25487) and XRCC3 (rs861539) did not show any significant correlation with susceptibility of BC in the selected Jordanian population. Contribution of other environmental factors should be studied in future works, as well as the response of cancer therapy. PMID:26446325

  11. Clinicopathologic Significance of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation 1 Expression in Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Sharad; Yang Qifeng

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays a rate-limiting role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and is associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in cancers of the head and neck and the lung. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of ERCC1 expression in a cohort of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: Paraffin specimens from 504 women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy were constructed into tissue microarrays. The array was stained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and ERCC1. This was then correlated with clinicopathologic factors and outcomes data. Results: ERCC-1 expression was evaluable in 366 cases (72%). In this group, 32% and 38% of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, respectively. Increased ERCC-1 expression was found to be correlated with ER positivity (p < 0.005), lower T stage (p < 0.017), nodal negativity (p < 0.013), age >50 (p < 0.006), reduced use of adjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.02), and increased use of adjuvant hormonal therapy (p < 0.004). ERCC1 expression did not correlate with locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, cause-specific survival, or overall survival. In patients who were both ERCC1-negative and -positive, the use of chemotherapy predicted for worse distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.05 and p = 0.07, respectively) but not cause-specific survival or overall survival. Conclusions: Although ERCC1 expression did not predict for outcome measures in this dataset, overexpression correlated with favorable prognostic factors such as ER positivity, lower T stage, nodal negativity, and age >50. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating ERCC1 expression in patients receiving adjuvant radiation

  12. Association Between X-Ray Cross-complementing Group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met Polymorphism and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenying; Wu, Guiqi; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-21

    BACKGROUND The X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene encodes a protein that plays an important role in homologous recombination repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand break (DSB). Increasing attention has been drawn to the association of XRCC3 T241M polymorphism with various types of human cancers. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate whether there is an association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and thyroid cancer risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS A comprehensive search was conducted and a total of 8 studies that covered 963 thyroid cancer cases and 1942 controls were included in this analysis. The meta-analysis was performed on both overall database and 2 ethnic subgroups (Caucasian and Asian). The fixed-effects model was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The publication bias was evaluated using Begg's funnel plots and Egger's test. RESULTS A positive association between XRCC3 T241M polymorphism and thyroid cancer risk was found by the analyses of the overall database using both recessive model (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.08-1.81, P=0.012) and homozygote comparison (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.07-1.86, P=0.015), but not by that using the dominant model (OR=1.12, 95% CI=0.95-1.33, P=0.18). However, no significant association of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with the risk of thyroid cancer was found in individual ethnic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in the overall population, while no significant association was observed in individual ethnic subgroups due to limited population size.

  13. The association between four SNPs of X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 and the sensitivity to radiotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YAOHONG; LUO, ZHAOYUN; YANG, LIYE; CHEN, SENMING; CHEN, CHUZHI; LIN, ZHIXIONG

    2016-01-01

    Early stage diagnosis and therapeutic outcomes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma remain poor. In order to evaluate the association between 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and the sensitivity to radiotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the present study identified 4 SNPs of XRCC1 and evaluated the distribution of these genotypes among patients with ESCC. Venous blood samples from 175 patients with ESCC were collected and DNA was extracted. The 4 SNPs of the XRCC1 gene fragment were amplified using three primer pairs, which were sequenced. The mismatches were analyzed and identified using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. The sensitivity to radiotherapy was graded as effective and non-effective, according to the treatment results of the patients. The present study successfully amplified and sequenced 4 SNPs of XRCC1 in 112 out of the 175 patients with ESCC. The effective response rate of radiotherapy was 84.8% among the 112 patients. The effective response rate of patients with no mutation in the SNPs was 74.3%, and the rate increased to 89.6% in patients that had ≥1 mutation out of the 4 SNPs (χ2=4.389; P=0.036). For G28152A and G28152A mutations the effective response rate of patients was 91.2% (χ2=4.014; P=0.045) and 91.5% (χ2=4.451; P=0.035), respectively, which was significantly different compared to patients with no mutation (P=0.045 and P=0.035, respectively). The present results suggest that the 4 SNPs of XRCC1 are associated with the effective response rate of radiotherapy in patients with ESCC. The mutation of SNP G28152A was particularly important and may be a potential genomic predictor for radiotherapy sensitivity in patients with ESCC. PMID:27123143

  14. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) expression in esophageal cancers and response to cisplatin and irinotecan based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bharthuar, Anubha; Black, Jennifer D.; Levea, Charles; Malhotra, Usha; Mashtare, Terry L.; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer patients face a dismal outcome despite tri-modality management and median survival remains 15-18 months. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux protein associated with chemotherapy resistance. The role of BCRP expression in esophageal cancer and normal esophageal cells is not known. Excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) overexpression has been correlated with poorer response to cisplatin based chemotherapy. We examined the expression of BCRP and ERCC1 in patients with esophageal cancer and correlated it with survival in patients receiving irinotecan and cisplatin based chemotherapy. Methods With IRB approval, 40 cases of esophageal cancer diagnosed from 2004-2008, were stained for BCRP and ERCC1 expression by immunohistochemistry and scored by a pathologist blinded to clinical data. Baseline demographics, therapy given and survival data were collected and correlated with BCRP and ERCC1 expression. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine association between BCRP and ERCC1 expression and demographics. Cox proportional hazards model was used for association of BCRP and ERCC1 with survival. Results On immunohistochemistry, 30/40 cancers (75%) expressed BCRP. Interestingly, down-regulation of BCRP expression in tumor compared with normal cells was seen in 40% of patients. ERCC1 positivity was seen in 15/30 cases (50%). Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months with no difference in survival between BCRP positive and negative patients (P=0.13) or ERCC1 positive and negative patients (P=0.85). Estimated hazard ratio (HR) of death for BRCP positive patients was 2.29 (95% CI: 0.79-6.64) and for ERCC1 positive patients was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.46-2.56). There was no association of BCRP and ERCC1 expression with disease stage, age, gender or histology. For patients who received cisplatin and irinotecan as first line chemotherapy, there was no difference in survival based on BCRP or ERCC1 status. Conclusions BCRP

  15. X-Ray Cross-Complementing Group 1 and Thymidylate Synthase Polymorphisms Might Predict Response to Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lamas, Maria J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: 5-Fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy before total mesorectal excision is currently the standard treatment of Stage II and III rectal cancer patients. We used known predictive pharmacogenetic biomarkers to identify the responders to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in our series. Methods and Materials: A total of 93 Stage II-III rectal cancer patients were genotyped using peripheral blood samples. The genes analyzed were X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), ERCC1, MTHFR, EGFR, DPYD, and TYMS. The patients were treated with 225 mg/m{sup 2}/d continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil concomitantly with radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) followed by total mesorectal excision. The outcomes were measured by tumor regression grade (TRG) as a major response (TRG 1 and TRG 2) or as a poor response (TRG3, TRG4, and TRG5). Results: The major histopathologic response rate was 47.3%. XRCC1 G/G carriers had a greater probability of response than G/A carriers (odds ratio, 4.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-10.74, p = .003) Patients with polymorphisms associated with high expression of thymidylate synthase (2R/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G) showed a greater pathologic response rate compared with carriers of low expression (odds ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-6.39, p = .02) No significant differences were seen in the response according to EGFR, ERCC1, MTHFR{sub C}677 and MTHFR{sub A}1298 expression. Conclusions: XRCC1 G/G and thymidylate synthase (2R/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G) are independent factors of a major response. Germline thymidylate synthase and XRCC1 polymorphisms might be useful as predictive markers of rectal tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil.

  16. Correction of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D mutant cell phenotypes by chromosome and gene transfer: Involvement of the human ERCC2 DNA repair gene

    SciTech Connect

    Flejter, W.L.; McDaniel, L.D.; Johns, D.; Schultz, R.A. ); Friedberg, E.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Cultured cells from individuals afflicted with the genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) exhibit sensitivity to UV radiation and defective nucleotide excision repair. Complementation of these mutant phenotypes after the introduction of single human chromosomes from repair-proficient cells into XP cells has provided a means of mapping the genes involved in this disease. The authors now report the phenotypic correction of XP cells from genetic complementation group D (XP-D) by a single human chromosome designated Tneo. Detailed molecular characterization of Tneo revealed a rearranged structure involving human chromosomes 16 and 19, including the excision repair cross-complementing 2 (ERCC2) gene from the previously described human DNA repair gene cluster at 19q13.2-q13.3. Direct transfer of a cosmid bearing the ERCC2 gene conferred UV resistance to XP-D cells.

  17. Prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Tongshan; Xu, Jun; Chen, WenJiao; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) in patients with gastric cancer undergoing surgery and platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluate XRCC1 protein expression profiles on surgical specimens of 612 gastric cancer patients. The relationship between XRCC1 expression and existing prognostic factors, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results Among 612 patients staged Ⅱ/Ⅲ in our study, 182 (29.74%) were evaluated as XRCC1 IHC positive. XRCC1 expression was not significantly related to OS (P = 0.347) or DFS (P = 0.297). Compared with surgery only, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved the OS (P = 0.031). And the patients with negative XRCC1 expression benefited more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.049). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size, T category, N category, vascular or nerve invasion and platinum-based chemotherapy were good prognostic factors for OS (P < 0.05). Though XRCC1 plays an important role in DNA repair pathways, no significant relationship is found in XRCC1 expression and OS among gastric cancer in our study. Conclusions XRCC1 might be an alternative prognostic marker for the patients of gastric cancer after radical resection. The patients with negative XRCC1 expression can benefit more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27478321

  18. Localization of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein and replication protein A on damaged DNA in nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Krasikova, Yuliya S.; Rechkunova, Nadejda I.; Maltseva, Ekaterina A.; Petruseva, Irina O.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) and replication protein A (RPA) with damaged DNA in nucleotide excision repair (NER) was studied using model dsDNA and bubble-DNA structure with 5-{3-[6-(carboxyamido-fluoresceinyl)amidocapromoyl]allyl}-dUMP lesions in one strand and containing photoreactive 5-iodo-dUMP residues in defined positions. Interactions of XPA and RPA with damaged and undamaged DNA strands were investigated by DNA–protein photocrosslinking and gel shift analysis. XPA showed two maximums of crosslinking intensities located on the 5′-side from a lesion. RPA mainly localized on undamaged strand of damaged DNA duplex and damaged bubble-DNA structure. These results presented for the first time the direct evidence for the localization of XPA in the 5′-side of the lesion and suggested the key role of XPA orientation in conjunction with RPA binding to undamaged strand for the positioning of the NER preincision complex. The findings supported the mechanism of loading of the heterodimer consisting of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum group F proteins by XPA on the 5′-side from the lesion before damaged strand incision. Importantly, the proper orientation of XPA and RPA in the stage of preincision was achieved in the absence of TFIIH and XPG. PMID:20693538

  19. Association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene polymorphisms and glioma risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on 22 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiqiang; Chen, Qianxue; Liu, Baohui; Yang, Jian; Shao, Lingmin; Wu, Tingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Glioma is the most common central nervous system tumor. This systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed to systematically assess the association of XRCC1 polymorphisms with the risk of glioma. Methods: Such databases as EMbase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) platforms, VIP and WanFang were searched up to April 2015 to collect case-control studies of association between XRCC1 polymorphisms and glioma. Data were extracted and meta-analysis was conducted by using Stata 12.0 softwares. Results: A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 18503 glioma patients and 24367 controls. The overall data indicated that XRCC1 Arg194Trp (C>T) polymorphism significantly increased glioma risk (allele C versus T: OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55-0.93, CC versus TT: OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.46-0.67; CC versus CT+TT: OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.45-0.91 and CC+CT vs. TT: OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.51-0.74), especially in Asia ethnicity. XRCC1 Arg280His (G>A) polymorphism has no association with glioma (allele G versus A: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.83-1.22; GG versus AA: OR=1.07, 95% CI=0.66-1.75; GA versus AA: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.77-1.32; GG versus GA+AA: OR=1.01, 95% CI=0.84-1.22 and GG+GT versus AA: OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.67-1.69). XRCC1 Arg399Gln (G>A) polymorphism will significantly increase glioma risk in Asian (allele G versus A: OR=0.78, 95% CI= 0.72-0.84; GG versus AA: OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.47-0.66; GA versus AA OR=0.71, 95% CI=0.59-0.84; GG versus GA+AA: OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.68-0.84 and GG+GA vs. AA: OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.53-0.73) but not Caucasian ethnicity. XRCC1 Pro161Leu (C>T), Leu387Leu (G>A), Pro602Thr (C>A), Ser593Arg (C>G) and Glu491Lys (G>A) polymorphisms increased glioma risk in different degrees. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested that XRCC1 Arg194Trp and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (G>A) polymorphisms led to susceptibility to glioma in Asian but not Caucasian population. XRCC1 Glu491Lys (G>A), Pro161Leu (C>T), Leu387Leu (G>A), Pro602Thr (C>A), Thr304Ala (A>G) and Ser593Arg (C>G) polymorphisms will increase glioma risk. However, XRCC1 Arg280His (G>A) is irrelevant to the increased or decreased glioma risk. PMID:26550099

  20. Group Task Force on Satellite Rescue and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Group Task Force was chartered by the Administrator of NASA to recommend 'a policy outlining the criteria, the design standards, and the pricing model to guide NASA in assessing the responsibilities for government and nongovernment Satellite Rescue and Repair Missions.' Criteria for accepting such missions, risks, and benefits to all sectors of our economy involved in satellite services, adequacy of planning and training, and the impact on NASA's primary mission were reviewed. The Group began by asking a more fundamental question; is satellite rescue and repair a logical element of NASA's mission? Factors considered were: (1) the probability of rescue or repair opportunities arising; (2) the economic justification for such attempts; (3) the benefits to NASA, both from such ad hoc learning experiences in space operations and the impact on the public perception of NASA; (4) the effect of such unanticipated missions on NASA's scheduled activities; (5) any potential effect on NASA's technical capability to work in space; and (6) any potential effect on U.S. economic competitiveness.

  1. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology of urinary bladder but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy; Wolf, Douglas C; Sen, Banalata; Knapp, Geremy W; Holladay, Steven D; Huckle, William R; Caceci, Thomas; Robertson, John L

    2009-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In F344 rats, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]) increases transitional cell carcinoma. Arsenic-induced inhibition of DNA repair has been reported in cultured cell lines and in lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed humans, but it has not been studied in urinary bladder. Should inhibition of DNA damage repair in transitional epithelium occur, it may contribute to carcinogenesis or cocarcinogenesis. We investigated morphology and expression of DNA repair genes in F344 rat transitional cells following up to 100 ppm DMA(V) in drinking water for four weeks. Mitochondria were very sensitive to DMA(V), and swollen mitochondria appeared to be the main source of vacuoles in the transitional epithelium. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT PCR) showed the mRNA levels of tested DNA repair genes, ataxia telangectasia mutant (ATM), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), excision repair cross-complementing group 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB), and DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta), were not altered by DMA(V). These data suggested that either DMA(V) does not affect DNA repair in the bladder or DMA(V) affects DNA repair without affecting baseline mRNA levels of repair genes. The possibility remains that DMA(V) may lower damage-induced increases in repair gene expression or cause post-translational modification of repair enzymes.

  2. DNA repair in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum group A fibroblasts following treatment with various methanesulfonates and the demonstration of a long-patch repair component

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.D.; Regan, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Excision repair of DNA in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A fibroblasts were examined following treatment with methyl-, ethyl-, and isopropyl methanesulfonate. Studies utilizing repair synthesis methods and inhibition with arabinofuranosyl cytosine revealed two distinct phases of repair; one commencing and terminating within the first 3-5 h after the treatment, and a second much longer phase extending from 9-35 h post-treatment. Both phases of repair have a long-patch component, which establishes for the first time the existence of this mode of repair in response to alkane sulfonate damage. While xeroderma cells display somewhat fewer alkaline labile sites in their DNA following alkylation treatment than do their normal counterparts, researchers are unable to demonstrate a deficiency of these cells in either of the two phases of repair.

  3. Excision repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group C cells is regulated differently in transformed cells and primary fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1988-10-14

    Excision repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group C cells occurs at about 20-30% of normal levels. In confluent fibroblasts a unique characteristic of this low repair is that it is clustered, representing very efficient repair in a small region of the genome. In SV40-transformed fibroblasts and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes of complementation group C, however, excision repair is randomly distributed. This may be a consequence of the high rate of proliferation of both of these cell types, because random repair is also observed in rapidly proliferating group C fibroblasts. The distribution of sites that can be mended in group C cells, therefore, varies according to the transformed and proliferative state of the cells, demonstrating that transformed cells do not always exhibit repair characteristics identical to those of primary fibroblasts.

  4. Excision repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group C but not group D is clustered in a small fraction of the total genome.

    PubMed

    Karentz, D; Cleaver, J E

    1986-05-01

    DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups C and D occurs at a low level. Measurements of pyrimidine dimers remaining in bulk DNA from the whole genome indicated very little excision in either complementation group. The repair sites in group C cells were, however, clustered together in small regions of the genome which appeared to be mended nearly as efficiently as the whole genome is mended in normal cells, while repair in group D cells was randomly distributed. Growth of normal cells in cycloheximide or 3-aminobenzamide neither inhibited repair nor altered the distribution of repair sites. Growth of normal cells in novobiocin or aphidicolin inhibited excision but repair remained randomly distributed. On the basis of these observations, and consideration of other cellular features of group C and D, we suggest that group C may represent a mutation which results in a low level of repair enzymes with normal function. Group D, on the other hand, may represent a mutation resulting in functionally defective repair enzymes.

  5. Correction of the DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum group E by injection of a DNA damage-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, S.; Brody, T.; Linn, S.; Eker, A.P.M.; Vermeulen, W.; Bootsma, D.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.

    1994-04-26

    Cells from a subset of patients with the DNA-repair-defective disease xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) are known to lack a DNA damage-binding (DDB) activity. Purified human DDB protein was injected into XP-E cells to test whether the DNA-repair defect in these cells is caused by a defect in DDB activity. Injected DDB protein stimulated DNA repair to normal levels in those strains that lack the DDB activity but did not stimulate repair in cells from other xeroderma pigmentosum groups or in XP-E cells that contain the activity. These results provide direct evidence that defective DDB activity causes the repair defect in a subset of XP-E patients, which in turn establishes a role for this activity in nucleotide-excision repair in vivo.

  6. Repair of Alkylation Damage: Stability of Methyl Groups in Bacillus subtilis Treated with Methyl Methanesulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Louise; Strauss, Bernard

    1970-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis was not inactivated and was able to replicate even though approximately 3 × 104 methyl groups added by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) were bound to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of each organism. No significant loss of methyl groups from the DNA occurred for several generations upon incubation of methylated wild-type or MMS-sensitive cells. Single-strand breaks were not observed in the DNA from cells treated at this low MMS dose. Higher doses of MMS resulted in significant killing of both wild-type and MMS-sensitive strains, and the DNA extracted from such treated cells sedimented more slowly than control DNA through alkaline sucrose gradients, indicating the presence of breaks or apurinic sites (or both). These breaks were repaired upon incubation of wild-type but not of MMS-sensitive strains. Repair of damage induced by alkylating agents is probably the repair of breaks which occur as a consequence of high levels of alkylation. PMID:4988041

  7. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, medical exposure to ionizing radiation, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Player, Jon S; Decotret, Allan Rene; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Keku, Temitope

    2005-10-01

    An epidemiologic study was conducted to determine whether polymorphisms in DNA repair genes modify the association between breast cancer risk and exposure to ionizing radiation. Self-reported exposure to ionizing radiation from medical sources was evaluated as part of a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer in African-American (894 cases and 788 controls) and White (1,417 cases and 1,234 controls) women. Genotyping was conducted for polymorphisms in four genes involved in repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, the double-strand break repair pathway: X-ray cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) codon 241 Thr/Met, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) codon 185 Glu/Gln, X-ray cross-complementing group 2 (XRCC2) codon 188 Arg/His, and breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCH2) codon 372 Asn/His. Allele and genotype frequencies were not significantly different in cases compared with controls for all four genetic polymorphisms, and odds ratios for breast cancer were close to the null. Combining women with two, three, and four variant genotypes, a positive association was observed between breast cancer and number of lifetime mammograms (P(trend) < 0.0001). No association was observed among women with zero or one variant genotype (P = 0.86). Odds ratios for radiation treatments to the chest and number of lifetime chest X-rays were slightly elevated but not statistically significant among women with two to four variant genotypes. The study has several limitations, including inability to distinguish between diagnostic and screening mammograms or reliably classify prediagnostic mammograms and chest X-rays in cases. Prospective studies are needed to address whether common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes modify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure from medical sources.

  8. Clinical characteristics, DNA repair, and complementation groups in xeroderma pigmentosum patients from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hashem, N; Bootsma, D; Keijzer, W; Greene, A; Coriell, L; Thomas, G; Cleaver, J E

    1980-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) has been reported to be unusually frequent among Middle Eastern populations. This report describes the first survey of DNA repair characteristics among Egyptians. Sixteen XP patients were contacted, and biopsies from eight were analyzed for unscheduled DNA synthesis, strand breakage during pyrimidine dimer excision, and complementation groups. The patients were equally distributed between Complementation Groups A and C. Unscheduled synthesis and strand breaks were significantly higher in Group C than in Group A cells. Central nervous system disorders were found in all of the Group A patients and in none of the Group C patients. No clinical symptoms were observed in the heterozygotes. A 2-month-old sib of an XP patient was free of symptoms, but unscheduled synthesis and strand breakage in cultures from this sib were the same as in the related XP homozygote. From the relative frequencies of each complementation group found in various parts of the world, we offer a hypothesis concerning the relative sizes and roles for gene products specified by the alleles or genes corresponding to each complementation group.

  9. SUMOylation of xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein regulates DNA damage recognition during nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Masaki; Tak, Yon-Soo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Syota; Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Nishi, Ryotaro; Saitoh, Hisato; Iwai, Shigenori; Mori, Toshio; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Wataru; Hanaoka, Fumio; Sugasawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein complex is a key factor that detects DNA damage and initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. Although biochemical and structural studies have elucidated the interaction of XPC with damaged DNA, the mechanism of its regulation in vivo remains to be understood in more details. Here, we show that the XPC protein undergoes modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins and the lack of this modification compromises the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions. In the absence of SUMOylation, XPC is normally recruited to the sites with photolesions, but then immobilized profoundly by the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) complex. Since the absence of UV-DDB alleviates the NER defect caused by impaired SUMOylation of XPC, we propose that this modification is critical for functional interactions of XPC with UV-DDB, which facilitate the efficient damage handover between the two damage recognition factors and subsequent initiation of NER. PMID:26042670

  10. Thoracoscopic Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula Repair: The First Iranian Group Report, Passing the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Shojaeian, Reza; Joodi, Marjan; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Sabzevari, Alireza; Yal, Nazila; Eslami, Reza; Mohammadipour, Ahmad; Azadmand, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracoscopic treatment of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA+TEF) is accepted as a superior technique at least in cosmetic point of view but it is considered as an advance endoscopic procedure that needs a learning curve to be performed perfectly. This is the first report of Iranian group pediatric surgeons in thoracoscopic approach to EA. Methods and Materials: Since 2010, twenty four cases with EA+TEF underwent thoracoscopic approach in Sarvar Children Hospital (Mashhad -Iran). During the first 6 months, thoracoscopic approach to 6 cases of EA+TEF was converted to open procedure because of technical and instrumental problems. The first case of successful thoracoscopic EA repair was accomplished in 2010 and since then, 10 cases of EA+ TEF among 18 patients were treated successfully with thoracoscopic approach Results: Overall conversion rate was 58.3% but conversion rate after the primary learning curve period, was 35.7%. The main conversion causes include difficulties in esophageal anastomosis, limited exposure and deteriorating the patient's condition. Anastomotic leak and stenosis were observed in 20% and 40% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 4.2%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia seems feasible and safe with considerable superiorities to the conventional method although acceptable results needs a prolonged learning curve and advanced endoscopic surgical skill. Clear judgment about the best surgical intervention for EA according to all cosmetic and functional outcomes needs further studies. PMID:27471677

  11. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm presentation, repair, and mortality in the Vascular Study Group of New England

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Bensley, Rodney P.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Wyers, Mark; Adams, Julie E.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Prior studies of gender differences in AAA repair suggest there may be differences in presentation, suitability for EVAR, and outcomes between men and women. Methods We used the Vascular Study Group of New England database to identify all patients undergoing EVAR or open AAA repair (OAR). We analyzed demographics, comorbidities, and procedural, and perioperative data. Results were compared using Fisher’s exact test and student’s t-test. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to identify predictors of mortality. Results We identified 4,026 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 54% EVAR). Women were less likely than men to undergo EVAR for intact aneurysms (50% vs. 60% of intact AAA repairs of, P<.001) but not for ruptured aneurysms (26% vs. 20%, P=.23). Women were older (median age 75 vs. 72 years for intact, P<.001; 78 vs. 73 years for rupture, P<.001) with smaller aortic diameters (57 vs. 59mm for elective, P<.001; 71 vs. 79mm for rupture, P<.001). Arterial injury was more common in women (5.4% vs. 2.7%, P=0.013) among patients undergoing EVAR for intact aneurysms and women stayed in the hospital longer (4.3 vs. 2.7 days, P=.018) and had a lower odds of being discharged home, even after adjusting for age.. Among patients undergoing open repair for intact aneurysms, women more frequently experienced leg ischemia/emboli (4% vs. 1%, P=.001) and bowel ischemia (5% vs. 3%, P=.044). Women had higher 30-day mortality after OAR for both intact (4% vs. 2%, P=.03) and rupture (48% vs. 34%, P=.03) repairs. However, 30-day mortality after EVAR was similar for both intact (1% in men vs. 1% in women, P=.57) and rupture (29% in men vs. 27% in women, P=1.00) repairs. Late survival was worse in women than men only for patients undergoing open repair of ruptured aneurysms (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, P=.04). After controlling for age, type of repair, urgency at presentation (i.e. elective/intact vs. ruptured

  12. Somatic mosaicism for DNA repair capacity in fibroblasts derived from a group A xeroderma pigmentosum patient

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.R.; Ishizaki, K.; Sasaki, M.S.; Toguchida, J.; Kato, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Moriguchi, T.; Ikenaga, M. )

    1989-10-01

    A female Japanese xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patient with severe skin lesions and various neurologic abnormalities was assigned to complementation group A by conventional cell fusion studies. Ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin fibroblasts showed a biphasic survival curve, as measured by colony-forming ability. The surviving fraction decreased rapidly up to 2 J/m2 of UV, with a steep slope of D(O) (mean lethal dose) = 0.95 J/m2. At much higher doses it decreased more slowly, with D(O) = 3.5 J/m2. To elucidate the cause of this unique survival response, we isolated a large number of independent clones from single colonies and measured their responses to UV. Of 81 clones analyzed, ten showed a marked resistance to killing by UV, which was only slightly more sensitive than normal cells, and these clones had a rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) that was about 45% of normal cells. By contrast, the remaining 71 clones were extremely sensitive to UV, typical of XP group A strains, and had a UDS level 1%-3% of normals. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism using seven polymorphic DNA probes indicated that the UV-resistant clones were derived from the same individual as the UV-sensitive clones. These results clearly demonstrate that this patient's fibroblast cells consist of two types with differing responses to UV, and provide direct evidence of somatic mosaicism for DNA repair capacity in an XP patient.

  13. Defective repair of ionizing radiation damage in Cockayne`s syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum group G

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.K.; Leadon, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Damage produced by ultraviolet light (UV) or certain chemical carcinogens is repaired more rapidly in transcriptionally active DNA than in the genome as a whole by an evolutionarily conserved process coupled to transcription and involving preferential repair of transcribed strands. The generality of strand-specific repair for damage other than UV has not been well-established, but it has generally been assumed to involve the nucleotide excision repair pathway for bulky lesions. There is little overlap in the spectrum of lesions induced by ionizing radiation and UV; consistent with the idea that to a large extent, the repair processes for these two types of damage are separable, there are very few mammalian cell mutants that are hypersensitive to the lethal effects of both.

  14. Studying nucleotide excision repair of mammalian DNA in a cell-free system

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    During nucleotide excision repair, a multiprotein system locates a lesion in DNA and catalyzes enzymatic cleavage of the altered strand. The damaged oligonucleotide and the incision proteins are then displaced, DNA synthesis proceeds to form a short patch using the nonmodified strand as a template, and repair is completed by a DNA ligase. Many gene products participate in these reactions, the best known of which correspond to the seven genetic complementation groups XP-A to XP-G of the disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Cells representing any of these XP groups appear to exhibit, to varying degrees, defects in the first steps of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals affected with XP are hypersensitive to sunlight; most have a predisposition to skin cancer, and some patients show severe neurological abnormalities. In addition to XP, other UV-sensitive mutants of mammalian cells are providing insight into nucleotide excision repair. Of particular interest are mutants isolated from the rodent cells, which have been assigned to 11 different complementation groups. Human genes that can correct the repair defects of rodent mutants in these complementation groups are denoted. ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes are are referred to by number, ERCC1 to ERCC11. Some of these genes are proving to be equivalent to particular XP-complementing genes, while others are distinct. The process of nucleotide excision repair is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes, and functional homologues of many of the ERCC and XP genes have been identified in other organisms; studies in yeast are proving to be particularly informative.

  15. Repair of retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy using perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon). Vitreon Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carroll, B F; Peyman, G A; Mehta, N J; Millsap, C M; Greve, M D; Dunlap, W A; Lee, K J; Ma, P E

    1994-04-01

    A total of 140 consecutive patients underwent repair of retinal detachment associated with grade C2 to D3 proliferative vitreoretinopathy with perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (Vitreon) as an intraoperative hydrokinetic tool. In seven patients the Vitreon was left in the eye for extended tamponade. Intraoperative reattachment was obtained in 98% of patients. At the final follow-up examination (mean 7 months) 84% of retinas remained attached, and 92% of patients had stable or improved visual acuity. Vitreon was found to be safe and effective in the repair of complicated retinal detachments. No complications were directly related to Vitreon when used intraoperatively or when left in the eye for extended tamponade.

  16. Complementation of DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group C by the transfer of human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, G.P.; Athwal, R.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Complementation of DNA excision repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group C (XP-C) has been achieved by the transfer of human chromosome 5. Individual human chromosomes tagged with a selectable marker were transferred to XP-C cells by microcell fusion from mouse-human hybrid cell lines each bearing a single different human chromosome. Analysis of the chromosome transfer clones revealed that introduction of chromosome 5 into XP-C cells corrected the DNA repair defect as well as UV-sensitive phenotypes, while chromosomes 2, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 21 failed to complement. The introduced chromosome 5 in complemented UV[sup r] clones was distinguished from the parental XP-C chromosomes by polymorphism for dinucleotide (CA)[sub n] repeats at two loci, D5S117 and D5S209. In addition, an intact marked chromosome 5 was rescued into mouse cells from a complemented UV[sup r] clone by microcell fusion. Five subclones of a complemented clone that had lost the marked chromosome 5 exhibited UV-sensitive and repair-deficient phenotypes identical to parental XP-C cells. Concordant loss of the transferred chromosome and reappearance of XP-C phenotype further confirmed the presence of a DNA repair gene on human chromosome 5. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A protein is driven to nucleotide excision repair sites by the electrostatic potential of distorted DNA.

    PubMed

    Camenisch, Ulrike; Dip, Ramiro; Vitanescu, Mirela; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2007-12-01

    The presumed DNA-binding cleft of xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) protein, a key regulatory subunit of the eukaryotic nucleotide excision repair complex, displays a distinctive array of 6 positively charged amino acid side chains. Here, the molecular function of these closely spaced electropositive residues has been tested by systematic site-directed mutagenesis. After the introduction of single amino acid substitutions, the mutants were probed for protein-DNA interactions in electrophoretic mobility shift and photochemical crosslinking assays. This analysis led to the identification of a critical hot-spot for DNA substrate recognition composed of two neighboring lysines at codons 141 and 179 of the human XPA sequence. The replacement of other basic side chains in the DNA interaction domain conferred more moderate defects of substrate binding. When the function of XPA was tested as a fusion product with either mCherry or green-fluorescent protein, a glutamate substitution of one of the positively charged residues at positions 141 and 179 was sufficient to decrease DNA repair activity in human fibroblasts. Thus, the removal of a single cationic side chain abolished DNA-binding activity and significant excision repair defects could be induced by single charge inversions on the XPA surface, indicating that this molecular sensor participates in substrate recognition by monitoring the electrostatic potential of distorted DNA repair sites.

  18. Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes (APEX1, XPD, XRCC1 and XRCC3) and Risk of Preeclampsia in a Mexican Mestizo Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada; Méndez-Hernández, Edna M.; Vazquez-Alaniz, Fernando; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Téllez-Valencia, Alfredo; Barraza-Salas, Marcelo; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco X.; La Llave-León, Osmel; Salas-Pacheco, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in genes involved in DNA repair systems have been proposed as risk factors for the development of preeclampsia (PE). We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APEX1) Asp148Glu (rs1130409), Xeroderma Pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln (rs13181), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC) Arg399Gln (rs25487) and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met (rs861539) polymorphisms with PE in a Mexican population. Samples of 202 cases and 350 controls were genotyped using RTPCR. Association analyses based on a χ2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each polymorphism. The allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed statistical significant differences between preeclamptic and normal women (p = 0.036). Although neither of the polymorphisms proved to be a risk factor for the disease, the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism showed a tendency of association (OR: 1.74, 95% CI = 0.96–3.14) and a significant trend (p for trend = 0.048). A subgroup analyses revealed differences in the allelic frequencies of APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism between women with mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia (p = 0.035). In conclusion, our results reveal no association between XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms and the risk of PE in a Mexican mestizo population; however, the results in the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism suggest the need for future studies using a larger sample size. PMID:24619222

  19. Impact of serum high-mobility group box 1 protein elevation on oxygenation impairment after thoracic aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Takashi; Anzai, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Sugano, Yasuo; Yamada, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Yozu, Ryohei; Ogawa, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late mediator of inflammatory responses that can cause acute lung injury. We examined the significance of serum HMGB1 elevation in the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and lung oxygenation impairment (LOI) after thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) repair. Serial measurements of the serum HMGB1 level and SIRS score for 7 days after surgery were determined in 20 patients with TAA who underwent surgical repair. Arterial oxygen tension was measured serially for at least 4 days after surgery, and LOI was defined as the lowest PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio ≤ 200 mmHg. The serum HMGB1 level was markedly increased after surgery, peaking on day 2, and remained significantly elevated on day 7. Peak HMGB1 level positively correlated with SIRS duration and the cumulative SIRS score during postoperative days 1-7 (P = 0.0013 and P = 0.0004, respectively). Peak HMGB1 level and cumulative SIRS score were higher in patients with LOI than in those without (P = 0.01 and P = 0.044, respectively). Peak HMGB1 level was negatively correlated with the lowest PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio (P = 0.0077) and positively correlated with postoperative length of hospitalization (P = 0.042). A greater serum HMGB1 elevation after TAA repair was associated with more severe SIRS and a higher incidence of LOI. HMGB1 might play a key role in the pathogenesis of SIRS and LOI after surgical TAA repair.

  20. Molecular cloning of a mouse DNA repair gene that complements the defect of group-A xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Satokata, I.; Ogita, Z.; Uchida, T.; Okada, Y.

    1989-07-01

    For isolation of the gene responsible for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group A, plasmid pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from a mouse embryo were cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells, a group-A XP cell line. Two primary UV-resistant XP transfectants were isolated from about 1.6 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from the primary transfectants were again cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells and a secondary UV-resistant XP transfectant was obtained by screening about 4.8 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. The secondary transfectant retained fewer mouse repetitive sequences. A mouse gene that complements the defect of XP2OSSV cells was cloned into an EMBL3 vector from the genome of a secondary transfectant. Transfections of the cloned DNA also conferred UV resistance on another group-A XP cell line but not on XP cell lines of group C, D, F, or G. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA with a subfragment of cloned mouse DNA repair gene as the probe revealed that an approximately 1.0 kilobase mRNA was transcribed in the donor mouse embryo and secondary transfectant, and approximately 1.0- and approximately 1.3-kilobase mRNAs were transcribed in normal human cells, but none of these mRNAs was detected in three strains of group-A XP cells. These results suggest that the cloned DNA repair gene is specific for group-A XP and may be the mouse homologue of the group-A XP human gene.

  1. Molecular cloning of a mouse DNA repair gene that complements the defect of group-A xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, K; Satokata, I; Ogita, Z; Uchida, T; Okada, Y

    1989-01-01

    For isolation of the gene responsible for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group A, plasmid pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from a mouse embryo were cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells, a group-A XP cell line. Two primary UV-resistant XP transfectants were isolated from about 1.6 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. pSV2gpt and genomic DNA from the primary transfectants were again cotransfected into XP2OSSV cells and a secondary UV-resistant XP transfectant was obtained by screening about 4.8 X 10(5) pSV2gpt-transformed XP colonies. The secondary transfectant retained fewer mouse repetitive sequences. A mouse gene that complements the defect of XP2OSSV cells was cloned into an EMBL3 vector from the genome of a secondary transfectant. Transfections of the cloned DNA also conferred UV resistance on another group-A XP cell line but not on XP cell lines of group C, D, F, or G. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA with a subfragment of cloned mouse DNA repair gene as the probe revealed that an approximately 1.0 kilobase mRNA was transcribed in the donor mouse embryo and secondary transfectant, and approximately 1.0- and approximately 1.3-kilobase mRNAs were transcribed in normal human cells, but none of these mRNAs was detected in three strains of group-A XP cells. These results suggest that the cloned DNA repair gene is specific for group-A XP and may be the mouse homologue of the group-A XP human gene. Images PMID:2748601

  2. Contribution of DNA double-strand break repair gene XRCC3 genotypes to oral cancer susceptibility in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Liu, Juhn-Cherng; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-06-01

    The DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross complementing protein 3 (XRCC3) is thought to play a major role in double-strand break repair and in maintaining genomic stability. Very possibly, defective double-strand break repair of cells can lead to carcinogenesis. Therefore, a case-control study was performed to reveal the contribution of XRCC3 genotypes to individual oral cancer susceptibility. In this hospital-based research, the association of XRCC3 rs1799794, rs45603942, rs861530, rs3212057, rs1799796, rs861539, rs28903081 genotypes with oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population was investigated. In total, 788 patients with oral cancer and 956 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were genotyped. The results showed that there was significant differential distribution among oral cancer and controls in the genotypic (p=0.001428) and allelic (p=0.0013) frequencies of XRCC3 rs861539. As for the other polymorphisms, there was no difference between case and control groups. In gene-lifestyle interaction analysis, we have provided the first evidence showing that there is an obvious joint effect of XRCC3 rs861539 genotype with individual areca chewing habits on oral cancer risk. In conclusion, the T allele of XRCC3 rs861539, which has an interaction with areca chewing habit in oral carcinogenesis, may be an early marker for oral cancer in Taiwanese.

  3. Low-level laser irradiation alters mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajano, L. A. S. N.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Silva, C. L.; Carvalho, L.; Mencalha, A. L.; Stumbo, A. C.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Low-level lasers are used for the treatment of diseases in soft and bone tissues, but few data are available regarding their effects on genomic stability. In this study, we investigated mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts exposed to low-level infrared laser. C2C12 myoblast cultures in different fetal bovine serum concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35 and 70 J cm-2), and collected for the evaluation of DNA repair gene expression. Laser exposure increased gene expression related to base excision repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), nucleotide excision repair (excision repair cross-complementation group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum C protein) and genomic stabilization (ATM serine/threonine kinase and tumor protein p53) in normal and low fetal bovine serum concentrations. Results suggest that genomic stability could be part of a biostimulation effect of low-level laser therapy in injured muscles.

  4. Expression of domains for protein-protein interaction of nucleotide excision repair proteins modifies cancer cell sensitivity to platinum derivatives and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Matera, Eva-Laure; Bouledrak, Karima; Dumontet, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in the repair of DNA damage caused by platinum derivatives and has been shown to decrease the cytotoxic activity of these drugs. Because protein-protein interactions are essential for NER activity, we transfected human cancer cell lines (A549 and HCT116) with plasmids coding the amino acid sequences corresponding to the interacting domains between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA), as well as ERCC1 and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group F (XPF), all NER proteins. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and annexin V staining, we showed that transfected A549 cells were sensitized 1.2-2.2-fold to carboplatin and that transfected HCT116 cells were sensitized 1.4-5.4-fold to oxaliplatin in vitro. In addition, transfected cells exhibited modified in vivo sensitivity to the same drugs. Finally, in particular cell models of the interaction between ERCC1 and XPF, DNA repair was decreased, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the histone 2AX after exposure to mitomycin C, and genomic instability was increased, as determined by comparative genomic hybridization studies. The results indicate that the interacting peptides act as dominant negatives and decrease NER activity through inhibition of protein-protein interactions.

  5. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers affect mRNA expression of DNA nucleotide excision repair in skin and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Luiz Philippe S; Campos, Vera Maria A; Vicentini, Solange C; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; de Paoli, Flavia; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-04-01

    Lasers emit light beams with specific characteristics, in which wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode properties determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses. Low-intensity lasers could induce free radical generation in biological tissues and cause alterations in macromolecules, such as DNA. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity lasers. Wistar rat (n = 28, 4 for each group) skin and muscle were exposed to low-intensity red (660 nm) and near-infrared (880 nm) lasers at different fluences (25, 50, and 100 J/cm(2)), and samples of these tissues were withdrawn for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression evaluation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Laser exposure was in continuous wave and power of 100 mW. Data show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expressions decrease in skin (p < 0.001) exposed to near-infrared laser, but increase in muscle tissue (p < 0.001). ERCC1 mRNA expression does not alter (p > 0.05), but ERCC2 mRNA expression decreases in skin (p < 0.001) and increases in muscle tissue (p < 0.001) exposed to red laser. Our results show that ERCC1 and ERCC2 mRNA expression is differently altered in skin and muscle tissue exposed to low-intensity lasers depending on wavelengths and fluences used in therapeutic protocols.

  6. New design of nucleotide excision repair (NER) inhibitors for combination cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Tuszynski, Jack A; Barakat, Khaled H

    2016-04-01

    Many cancer chemotherapy agents act by targeting the DNA of cancer cells, causing substantial damage within their genome and causing them to undergo apoptosis. An effective DNA repair pathway in cancer cells can act in a reverse way by removing these drug-induced DNA lesions, allowing cancer cells to survive, grow and proliferate. In this context, DNA repair inhibitors opened a new avenue in cancer treatment, by blocking the DNA repair mechanisms from removing the chemotherapy-mediated DNA damage. In particular, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) involves more than thirty protein-protein interactions and removes DNA adducts caused by platinum-based chemotherapy. The excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1)-xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA) protein (XPA-ERCC1) complex seems to be one of the most promising targets in this pathway. ERCC1 is over expressed in cancer cells and the only known cellular function so far for XPA is to recruit ERCC1 to the damaged point. Here, we build upon our recent advances in identifying inhibitors for this interaction and continue our efforts to rationally design more effective and potent regulators for the NER pathway. We employed in silico drug design techniques to: (1) identify compounds similar to the recently discovered inhibitors, but more effective at inhibiting the XPA-ERCC1 interactions, and (2) identify different scaffolds to develop novel lead compounds. Two known inhibitor structures have been used as starting points for two ligand/structure-hybrid virtual screening approaches. The findings described here form a milestone in discovering novel inhibitors for the NER pathway aiming at improving the efficacy of current platinum-based therapy, by modulating the XPA-ERCC1 interaction.

  7. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-05-12

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation.

  8. Epidermal Notch1 recruits RORγ+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells to orchestrate normal skin repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Hodgkinson, Tom; Gothard, Elizabeth J.; Boroumand, Soulmaz; Lamb, Rebecca; Cummins, Ian; Narang, Priyanka; Sawtell, Amy; Coles, Jenny; Leonov, German; Reboldi, Andrea; Buckley, Christopher D.; Cupedo, Tom; Siebel, Christian; Bayat, Ardeshir; Coles, Mark C.; Ambler, Carrie A.

    2016-01-01

    Notch has a well-defined role in controlling cell fate decisions in the embryo and the adult epidermis and immune systems, yet emerging evidence suggests Notch also directs non-cell-autonomous signalling in adult tissues. Here, we show that Notch1 works as a damage response signal. Epidermal Notch induces recruitment of immune cell subsets including RORγ+ ILC3s into wounded dermis; RORγ+ ILC3s are potent sources of IL17F in wounds and control immunological and epidermal cell responses. Mice deficient for RORγ+ ILC3s heal wounds poorly resulting from delayed epidermal proliferation and macrophage recruitment in a CCL3-dependent process. Notch1 upregulates TNFα and the ILC3 recruitment chemokines CCL20 and CXCL13. TNFα, as a Notch1 effector, directs ILC3 localization and rates of wound healing. Altogether these findings suggest that Notch is a key stress/injury signal in skin epithelium driving innate immune cell recruitment and normal skin tissue repair. PMID:27099134

  9. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation

    PubMed Central

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. PMID:25820262

  10. A human ortholog of archaeal DNA repair protein Hef is defective in Fanconi anemia complementation group M.

    PubMed

    Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Medhurst, Annette L; Ling, Chen; Xue, Yutong; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Bier, Patrick; Steltenpool, Jurgen; Stone, Stacie; Dokal, Inderjeet; Mathew, Christopher G; Hoatlin, Maureen; Joenje, Hans; de Winter, Johan P; Wang, Weidong

    2005-09-01

    Fanconi anemia is a genetic disease characterized by genomic instability and cancer predisposition. Nine genes involved in Fanconi anemia have been identified; their products participate in a DNA damage-response network involving BRCA1 and BRCA2 (refs. 2,3). We previously purified a Fanconi anemia core complex containing the FANCL ubiquitin ligase and six other Fanconi anemia-associated proteins. Each protein in this complex is essential for monoubiquitination of FANCD2, a key reaction in the Fanconi anemia DNA damage-response pathway. Here we show that another component of this complex, FAAP250, is mutant in individuals with Fanconi anemia of a new complementation group (FA-M). FAAP250 or FANCM has sequence similarity to known DNA-repair proteins, including archaeal Hef, yeast MPH1 and human ERCC4 or XPF. FANCM can dissociate DNA triplex, possibly owing to its ability to translocate on duplex DNA. FANCM is essential for monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and becomes hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Our data suggest an evolutionary link between Fanconi anemia-associated proteins and DNA repair; FANCM may act as an engine that translocates the Fanconi anemia core complex along DNA.

  11. Difficulties and Problematic Steps in Teaching the Onstep Technique for Inguinal Hernia Repair, Results from a Focus Group Interview

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie

    2016-01-01

    Background. When a new surgical technique is brought into a department, it is often experienced surgeons that learn it first and then pass it on to younger surgeons in training. This study seeks to clarify the problems and positive experiences when teaching and training surgeons in the Onstep technique for inguinal hernia repair, seen from the instructor's point of view. Methods. We designed a qualitative study using a focus group to allow participants to elaborate freely and facilitate a discussion. Participants were surgeons with extensive experience in performing the Onstep technique from Germany, UK, France, Belgium, Italy, Greece, and Sweden. Results. Four main themes were found, with one theme covering three subthemes: instruction of others (experience, patient selection, and tailored teaching), comfort, concerns/fear, and anatomy. Conclusion. Surgeons receiving a one-day training course should preferably have experience with other types of hernia repairs. If trainees are inexperienced, the training setup should be a traditional step-by-step programme. A training setup should consist of an explanation of the technique with emphasis on anatomy and difficult parts of the procedure and then a training day should follow. Surgeons teaching surgery can use these findings to improve their everyday practice. PMID:27144225

  12. Chromosomal localization of three repair genes: The xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene and two human homologs of yeast RAD23

    SciTech Connect

    Spek, P.J. van der; Smit, E.M.E.; Beverloo, H.B.

    1994-10-01

    The nucleotide excision repair (NER) disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by sun (UV) sensitivity, predisposition to skin cancer, and extensive genetic heterogeneity. Recently, we reported the cloning and analysis of three human NER genes, XPC, HHR23A, and HHR23B. The previously cloned XPC gene is involved in the common XP complementation group C, which is defective in excision repair of nontranscribed sequences in the genome. The XPC protein was found to be complexed with the product of HHR23B, one of the two human homologs of the Saccharomyes cerevisiae NER gene RAD23. Here we present the chromosomal localization by in situ hybridization using haptenized probes of all three genes. The HHR23A gene was assigned to chromosome 19p13.2. Interestingly, the HHR23B and XPC genes, the product of which forms a tight complex, were found to colocalize on band 3p25.1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the HHR23B and XPC genes possibly share a MluI restriction fragment of about 625 kb. Potential involvement of the HHR23 genes in human genetic disorders is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Group Therapy for Survivors of Severe Childhood Abuse: Repairing the Social Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Presents a model for conducting time-limited group therapy with adult survivors of severe childhood abuse who were diagnosed with complex post-traumatic and dissociative disorders. Group sessions are organized around verbal promises that encourage the client's active, attentive engagement. Gentle confrontation of dissociative defenses is integral…

  14. Variation in DNA repair gene XRCC3 affects susceptibility to astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Custódio, A C; Almeida, L O; Pinto, G R; Santos, M J; Almeida, J R W; Clara, C A; Rey, J A; Casartelli, C

    2012-02-10

    The gene XRCC3 (X-ray cross complementing group 3) has the task of repairing damage that occurs when there is recombination between homologous chromosomes. Repair of recombination between homologous chromosomes plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity, although it is known that double-strand breaks are the main inducers of chromosomal aberrations. Changes in the XRCC3 protein lead to an increase in errors in chromosome segregation due to defects in centrosomes, resulting in aneuploidy and other chromosomal aberrations, such as small increases in telomeres. We examined XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism using PCR-RFLP in 80 astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. The individuals of the control group (N = 100) were selected from the general population of the São Paulo State. Odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated using a logistic regression model. Patients who had the allele Met of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism had a significantly increased risk of tumor development (odds ratio = 3.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.50-6.50). There were no significant differences in overall survival of patients. We suggest that XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is involved in susceptibility for developing astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

  15. ERCC1 function in nuclear excision and interstrand crosslink repair pathways is mediated exclusively by the ERCC1-202 isoform

    PubMed Central

    Friboulet, Luc; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Sourisseau, Tony; Adam, Julien; Stoclin, Annabelle; Ponsonnailles, Florence; Dorvault, Nicolas; Commo, Frédéric; Saulnier, Patrick; Salome-Desmoulez, Sophie; Pottier, Géraldine; André, Fabrice; Kroemer, Guido; Soria, Jean Charles; Olaussen, Ken André

    2013-01-01

    ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) plays essential roles in the removal of DNA intrastrand crosslinks by nucleotide excision repair, and that of DNA interstrand crosslinks by the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway and homology-directed repair processes (HDR). The function of ERCC1 thus impacts on the DNA damage response (DDR), particularly in anticancer therapy when DNA damaging agents are employed. ERCC1 expression has been proposed as a predictive biomarker of the response to platinum-based therapy. However, the assessment of ERCC1 expression in clinical samples is complicated by the existence of 4 functionally distinct protein isoforms, which differently impact on DDR. Here, we explored the functional competence of each ERCC1 protein isoform and obtained evidence that the 202 isoform is the sole one endowed with ERCC1 activity in DNA repair pathways. The ERCC1 isoform 202 interacts with RPA, XPA, and XPF, and XPF stability requires expression of the ERCC1 202 isoform (but none of the 3 others). ERCC1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells show abnormal mitosis, a phenotype reminiscent of the FA phenotype that can be rescued by isoform 202 only. Finally, we could not observe any dominant-negative interaction between ERCC1 isoforms. These data suggest that the selective assessment of the ERCC1 isoform 202 in clinical samples should accurately reflect the DDR-related activity of the gene and hence constitute a useful biomarker for customizing anticancer therapies. PMID:24036546

  16. Expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein predicts cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tan-Chen; Chow, Kuan-Chih; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Cho, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chiang, I-Ping; Ho, Shu-Peng

    2011-05-01

    DNA repair has been suggested to be a major cause of spontaneous drug resistance in patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADC). Among the DNA repair-related proteins, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been shown to be essential for repairing cisplatin-induced interstrand cross-linkage. However, the role of other DNA repair-related proteins in drug resistance has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis to identify the DNA repair-related genes associated with cisplatin resistance. We focused on the association of XPC protein expression, which plays a pivotal role in the earliest response to global genomic repair, with the survival of LADC patients. Using suppression subtractive hybridization and a microarray analysis to identify drug resistance-associated DNA repair-related genes, we found that the mRNA levels of ERCC1, MSH-3, MSH-6 and XPC were significantly increased in LADC patients. Since the results of ERCC1 mRNA expression corresponded well with those in previous reports, in this study we focused on the clinical correlation between XPC expression and patient survival. The level of XPC protein was determined by immunohistochemical and immunoblotting analyses. We detected the XPC protein in 46 (43%) of 107 pathological LADC samples. XPC protein expression correlated with tumor stage, cigarette smoking and poor survival. In the in vitro experiments with LADC cell lines, increased XPC expression was associated with elevated drug resistance, and silencing of XPC expression reduced cisplatin resistance. Our results suggest that XPC expression predicts drug resistance in LADC.

  17. Xeroderma pigmentosum group F protein binds to Eg5 and is required for proper mitosis: implications for XP-F and XFE.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Jing; Saijo, Masafumi; Kuraoka, Isao; Narita, Takashi; Takahata, Chiaki; Iwai, Shigenori; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2012-03-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group F-cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency group 1 (XPF-ERCC1) complex is a structure-specific endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair. Patients with XPF mutations may suffer from two forms of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP): XP-F patients show mild photosensitivity and proneness to skin cancer but rarely show any neurological abnormalities, whereas XFE patients display symptoms of severe XP symptoms, growth retardation and accelerated aging. Xpf knockout mice display accelerated aging and die before weaning. These results suggest that the XPF-ERCC1 complex has additional functions besides NER and ICL repair and is essential for development and growth. In this study, we show a partial colocalization of XPF with mitotic spindles and Eg5. XPF knockdown in cells led to an increase in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and mitosis. Similarly, the frequency of abnormal nuclei and mitosis was increased in XP-F and XFE cells. In addition, we showed that Eg5 enhances the action of XPF-ERCC1 nuclease activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the interaction between XPF and Eg5 plays a role in mitosis and DNA repair and offer new insights into the pathogenesis of XP-F and XFE.

  18. DNA repair gene XRCC3 variants are associated with susceptibility to glioma in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Huang, J Y; Yang, J F; Qu, Q; Qu, J; Liu, F; Liu, F E; Xiong, T; Lu, S H

    2015-09-08

    The susceptibility to glioma is not well understood. It has been suggested that the X-ray cross complementing group 3 (XRCC3) gene influences the capacity to repair DNA damage, leading to increased glioma susceptibility. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between XRCC3 mutations and glioma risk. Genotypes were assessed in 389 Chinese glioma patients and 358 healthy controls. XRCC3 Thr241Met (rs861539) and 2 additional polymorphisms, rs3212112 (c.774+19T>G) and rs1799796 (c.562-14A>G), were directly sequenced. The frequency of the rs861539 T allele was significantly lower in the glioma group than in healthy controls [11.1 vs 17.7%, odds ratio = 0.62 (0.48-0.80), P < 0.001]; the frequencies of the CT or CT+TT genotypes differed between groups (18.5 vs 31%, 20.3 vs 33.2%, respectively). The frequency of the rs3212112 G allele was significantly higher in the glioma group than in healthy controls [15.8 vs 5.3%, odds ratio = 2.94 (2.07-4.17), P < 0.001]. The frequencies of the GT or TG+GG genotypes differed between groups (25.4 vs 7.8%, 28.5 vs 9.2%, respectively). This study demonstrates that the rs861539 and rs3212112 polymorphisms in the XRCC3 gene may influence the risk of glioma development in Chinese populations.

  19. Meningocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplasia repair; Spinal dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... If your child has hydrocephalus, a shunt (plastic tube) will be put in the child's brain to ...

  20. Repair of damaged DNA by extracts from a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A revertant and expression of a protein absent in its parental cell line.

    PubMed

    Jones, C J; Cleaver, J E; Wood, R D

    1992-03-11

    Cells derived from individuals with mutations in the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A gene (XP-A gene) are hypersensitive to UV light and have a severe defect in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. UV-resistant revertant cell lines can arise from XP-A cells in culture. Cells of one such revertant, XP129, were previously shown to remove (6-4) photoproducts from irradiated DNA, but to have poor repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. To analyze the biochemical nature of the reversion, whole cell extracts were prepared from the SV40-immortalized fibroblast cell lines XP12RO (an XP-A cell line), the revertant XP129 (derived from XP12RO), and 1BR.3N (from a normal individual). The ability of extracts to carry out repair synthesis in UV-irradiated DNA was examined, and immunoblots were performed using antiserum that recognizes XP-A protein. XP12RO extracts exhibited a very low level of repair and no detectable XP-A protein, but repair activity could be conferred by adding purified XP-A protein to the reaction mixture. XP129 extracts have essentially normal repair synthesis consistent with the observation that most repair of UV-irradiated DNA by extracts appears to occur at (6-4) photoproducts. An XP-A polypeptide of normal size was present in XP129, but in reduced amounts. The results indicate that in XP129 a mutational event has converted the inactive XP12RO XP-A gene into a form which expresses an active XP-A protein.

  1. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  2. RAD25 (SSL2), the yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability

    SciTech Connect

    Park, E.; Prakash, L. ); Guzder, S.N.; Prakash, S. ); Koken, M.H.M.; Jaspers-Dekker, I.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients are extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and suffer from a high incidence of skin cancers, due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, and seven complementation groups, A-G, have been identified. Homologs of human excision repair genes ERCC1, XPDC/ERCC2, and XPAC have been identified in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since no homolog of human XPBC/ERCC3 existed among the known yeast genes, we cloned the yeast homolog by using XPBC cDNA as a hybridization probe. The yeast homolog, RAD25 (SSL2), encodes a protein of 843 amino acids (M[sub r] 95,356). The RAD25 (SSL2)- and XPCX-encoded proteins share 55% identical and 72% conserved amino acid residues, and the two proteins resemble one another in containing the conserved DNA helicase sequence motifs. A nonsense mutation at codon 799 that deletes the 45 C-terminal amino acid residues in RAD25 (SSL2) confers UV sensitivity. This mutation shows epistasis with genes in the excision repair group, whereas a synergistic increase in UN sensitivity occurs when it is combined with mutations in genes in other DNA repair pathways, indicating that RAD25 (SSL2) functions in excision repair but not in other repair pathways. We also show that RAD25 (SSL2) is an essential gene. A mutation of the Lys[sup 392] residue to arginine in the conserved Walker type A nucleotide-binding motif is lethal, suggesting an essential role of the putative RAD 25 (SSL2) ATPase/DNA helicase activity in viability. 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Scott A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (X1RIR) motif. The X1RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol /REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the XRCC1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR–REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair.

  4. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara Madduma; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-09-02

    We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  5. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Mei Jing; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system. PMID:26404324

  6. Repair of 254 nm ultraviolet-induced (6-4) photoproducts: monoclonal antibody recognition and differential defects in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups A, D, and variant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiramoto, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Ichihashi, M.; Nikaido, O.; Fujiwara, Y.; Mishima, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    Repair kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) light-induced (6-4) photoproducts in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A, D, and variant cells were studied by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against (6-4) photoproducts, together with unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and loss of T4 endonuclease V-susceptible sites (ESS). Group AXP35KO cells completely failed to repair both ESS (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and antibody-recognizing (6-4) photoproducts until tested 24 h after irradiation, and had 2% early-time UDS. Group DXP43KO cells showed about 10% removal of both (6-4) photoproducts and ESS in 24 h, despite showing a residually higher level of 40% early-time and cumulative UDS. Thus, the results substantiated the extreme UV hypersensitivity of XP group A and D cells. However, XP52KO variant cells exhibited the normal level of UDS and ESS loss, but a slightly reduced repair of antibody-recognizing (6-4) photoproducts at 6 and 12 h after irradiation, which may account for a small UV hypersensitivity of the XP variant cells.

  7. DNA repair gene XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and susceptibility to glioma: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaofeng; Wang, Maode; Xie, Wanfu; Bai, Xiaobin

    2014-08-01

    The DNA repair gene, X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met polymorphism may be associated with a susceptibility to glioma. The present study aimed to investigate the association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and the potential susceptibility to gliomas. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted, which included a total of 886 patients with glioma and 886 healthy control subjects. Peripheral blood samples were extracted and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was performed to analyze the genotypes. The glioma patients had a significantly higher frequency of the XRCC3 241 MetMet genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-2.41; P=0.02] compared with the control subjects. When stratified by the grade of the glioma, the patients with stage IV glioma (according to the World Health Organization classification) had a significantly higher frequency of the XRCC3 241 MetMet genotype (OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.06-2.44; P=0.03). When stratified by the histology of the glioma, there was no significant difference in the distribution of each genotype. The findings of the present study indicate that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is associated with a susceptibility to glioma.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a mammalian excision repair gene that partially restores UV resistance to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arrand, J.E.; Bone, N.M.; Johnson, R.T. )

    1989-09-01

    A hamster DNA repair gene has been isolated by cosmid rescue after two rounds of transfection of an immortalized xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group D cell line with neomycin-resistance gene (neo)-tagged normal hamster DNA and selection with G418 and ultraviolet irradiation. The functional length of the sequence has been defined as 11.5 kilobase pairs by measurement of the region of overlap between two hamster DNA-containing cosmids, cloned by selection for the integrated neo gene, that are able to confer an increase in resistance to ultraviolet irradiation on two XP-D cell line but not on an XP-A line. Detailed molecular characterization of the hamster repair gene has revealed no obvious similarities to two human excision repair genes (ERCC1 and ERCC2) that correct repair-defective hamster cells but have no effect on XP cells. Hybridization analyses of normal human and XP cell genomic DNAs and mRNAs, using a cosmid-clone probe from which repeated sequences have been removed, show that homologues are present and expressed in all cases.

  9. DNA repair gene XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenyang; Zhang, Wanli; Lu, Jiangfeng; Wu, Huawen; Liu, Mengying; Zhu, Wentao

    2013-10-01

    The DNA repair genes have been indicated as candidates in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Published data on the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3), a critical member of the DNA repair genes, and HCC risk were contradictory. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism on HCC risk by pooling available data from published case-control studies. We calculated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) to estimate the effect. Based on the inclusion criteria, six individual studies with 2,288 cases and 3,170 controls were included into our study. Overall, significant association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met variant and HCC risk was observed under the following contrast models (OR Met vs. Thr = 1.68, 95 %CI 1.08-2.62; OR MetMet vs. ThrThr = 5.54, 95 %CI 3.09-9.94; OR MetMet vs. ThrThr + ThrMet = 5.70, 95 % CI 4.24-7.64). Besides, the pooled ORs indicated that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism exerted risk effect on the HCC pathogenesis among Asians. Additionally, when stratifying by the status of smoking and hepatitis B virus infection, the XRCC3 Thr241Met variant was significantly associated with HCC risk among the HBsAg (+) individuals but not the HBsAg (-) individuals, smokers, and non-smokers. The present meta-analysis suggests that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is an independent risk factor for HCC, particularly among Asians and the HBsAg (+) individuals.

  10. The Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal Syndrome Point Mutation F231L in the ERCC1 DNA Repair Protein Causes Dissociation of the ERCC1-XPF Complex.

    PubMed

    Faridounnia, Maryam; Wienk, Hans; Kovačič, Lidija; Folkers, Gert E; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Kaptein, Robert; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Boelens, Rolf

    2015-08-14

    The ERCC1-XPF heterodimer, a structure-specific DNA endonuclease, is best known for its function in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. The ERCC1 point mutation F231L, located at the hydrophobic interaction interface of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementation group 1) and XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F), leads to severe NER pathway deficiencies. Here, we analyze biophysical properties and report the NMR structure of the complex of the C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix domains of ERCC1-XPF that contains this mutation. The structures of wild type and the F231L mutant are very similar. The F231L mutation results in only a small disturbance of the ERCC1-XPF interface, where, in contrast to Phe(231), Leu(231) lacks interactions stabilizing the ERCC1-XPF complex. One of the two anchor points is severely distorted, and this results in a more dynamic complex, causing reduced stability and an increased dissociation rate of the mutant complex as compared with wild type. These data provide a biophysical explanation for the severe NER deficiencies caused by this mutation.

  11. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer.

  12. The Polycomb Group Protein EZH2 Impairs DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression in Human Uterine Fibroids1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei; Nair, Sangeeta; Laknaur, Archana; Ismail, Nahed; Diamond, Michael P.; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign, smooth muscle tumors that occur in approximately 70%–80% of women by age 50 yr. The cellular and molecular mechanism(s) by which uterine fibroids (UFs) develop are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that several genetic abnormalities, including deletions, rearrangements, translocations, as well as mutations, have been found in UFs. These genetic anomalies suggest that low DNA damage repair capacity may be involved in UF formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether expression levels of DNA damage repair-related genes were altered, and how they were regulated in the pathogenesis of UFs. Expression levels of DNA repair-related genes RAD51 and BRCA1 were deregulated in fibroid tissues as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues. Expression levels of chromatin protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were higher in a subset of fibroids as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Treatment with an inhibitor of EZH2 markedly increased expression levels of RAD51 and BRCA1 in fibroid cells and inhibited cell proliferation paired with cell cycle arrest. Restoring the expression of RAD51 and BRCA1 by treatment with EZH2 inhibitor was dependent on reducing the enrichment of trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 epigenetic mark in their promoter regions. This study reveals the important role of EZH2-regulated DNA damage-repair genes via histone methylation in fibroid biology, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for the medical treatment of women with symptomatic UFs. PMID:26888970

  13. Pharmacogenetic Study in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Polymorphisms in Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, GSTP1, and DNA Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, David; Salazar, Juliana; Pare, Laia; Pertriz, Lourdes; Targarona, Eduardo; Rio, Elisabeth del; Barnadas, Agusti; Marcuello, Eugenio; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several studies have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment using oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative biomarkers of outcome are lacking. We studied the polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase, epidermal growth factor receptor, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and several DNA repair genes to evaluate their usefulness as pharmacogenetic markers in a cohort of 128 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood nucleated cells, and the genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and automated sequencing techniques or using a 48.48 dynamic array on the BioMark system. The germline polymorphisms studied were thymidylate synthase, (VNTR/5 Prime UTR, 2R G>C single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], 3R G>C SNP), epidermal growth factor receptor (Arg497Lys), GSTP1 (Ile105val), excision repair cross-complementing 1 (Asn118Asn, 8092C>A, 19716G>C), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (Lys751Gln). The pathologic response, pathologic regression, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated according to each genotype. Results: The Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 thymidylate synthase genotype was associated with a greater response rate (pathologic complete remission and microfoci residual tumor, 59% in Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 vs. 35% in Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 3; p = .013). For the thymidylate synthase genotype, the median progression-free survival was 103 months for the Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 patients and 84 months for the Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk

  14. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens. PMID:27723831

  15. The Architectural Chromatin Factor High Mobility Group A1 Enhances DNA Ligase IV Activity Influencing DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Pellarin, Ilenia; Arnoldo, Laura; Costantini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Penzo, Carlotta; Triolo, Gianluca; Demarchi, Francesca; Sgarra, Riccardo; Vindigni, Alessandro; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

    2016-01-01

    The HMGA1 architectural transcription factor is an oncogene overexpressed in the vast majority of human cancers. HMGA1 is a highly connected node in the nuclear molecular network and the key aspect of HMGA1 involvement in cancer development is that HMGA1 simultaneously confers cells multiple oncogenic hits, ranging from global chromatin structural and gene expression modifications up to the direct functional alterations of key cellular proteins. Interestingly, HMGA1 also modulates DNA damage repair pathways. In this work, we provide evidences linking HMGA1 with Non-Homologous End Joining DNA repair. We show that HMGA1 is in complex with and is a substrate for DNA-PK. HMGA1 enhances Ligase IV activity and it counteracts the repressive histone H1 activity towards DNA ends ligation. Moreover, breast cancer cells overexpressing HMGA1 show a faster recovery upon induction of DNA double-strand breaks, which is associated with a higher survival. These data suggest that resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells could be partially attributed to HMGA1 overexpression thus highlighting the relevance of considering HMGA1 expression levels in the selection of valuable and effective pharmacological regimens.

  16. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  18. Role of DNA Repair Factor Xeroderma Pigmentosum Protein Group C in Response to Replication Stress As Revealed by DNA Fragile Site Affinity Chromatography and Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beresova, Lucie; Vesela, Eva; Chamrad, Ivo; Voller, Jiri; Yamada, Masayuki; Furst, Tomas; Lenobel, Rene; Chroma, Katarina; Gursky, Jan; Krizova, Katerina; Mistrik, Martin; Bartek, Jiri

    2016-12-02

    Replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability and cancer development and may contribute to aging, raising the need to identify factors involved in cellular responses to such stress. Here, we present a strategy for identification of factors affecting the maintenance of common fragile sites (CFSs), which are genomic loci that are particularly sensitive to RS and suffer from increased breakage and rearrangements in tumors. A DNA probe designed to match the high flexibility island sequence typical for the commonly expressed CFS (FRA16D) was used as specific DNA affinity bait. Proteins significantly enriched at the FRA16D fragment under normal and replication stress conditions were identified using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative mass spectrometry. The identified proteins interacting with the FRA16D fragment included some known CFS stabilizers, thereby validating this screening approach. Among the hits from our screen so far not implicated in CFS maintenance, we chose Xeroderma pigmentosum protein group C (XPC) for further characterization. XPC is a key factor in the DNA repair pathway known as global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), a mechanism whose several components were enriched at the FRA16D fragment in our screen. Functional experiments revealed defective checkpoint signaling and escape of DNA replication intermediates into mitosis and the next generation of XPC-depleted cells exposed to RS. Overall, our results provide insights into an unexpected biological role of XPC in response to replication stress and document the power of proteomics-based screening strategies to elucidate mechanisms of pathophysiological significance.

  19. Quantitative predictivity of carcinogenicity of the autoradiographic repair test (primary hepatocyte cultures) for a group of 80 chemicals belonging to different chemical classes.

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, C; Taningher, M; Parodi, S; Santi, L

    1986-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the correlation existing between a short-term genotoxicity test (DNA repair in rat liver cells) and carcinogenicity in rodents. The work is in the framework of a line of thinking that considers as a possibility the utilization of the quantitative component of the information obtained from genotoxicity tests. In a preliminary report for 25 compounds belonging to different chemical classes, a correlation coefficient of 0.36 was found between carcinogenic potency in small rodents and potency in autoradiographic repair. This level of correlation is comparable with similar levels found for many other short-term tests: Ames test, alkaline DNA fragmentation in vivo, DNA adducts in vivo, morphological transformation in vitro and SCE induction in vivo. Obviously, since only 25 compounds were examined, assessment was rather uncertain, and the subdivision of the set into subsets for different chemical classes would have generated groups too small for a meaningful statistical analysis. With a much larger set (80 compounds) we hoped to be able to discriminate different predictivities for different chemical classes. This seems important because the test could be much more suitable for one given class than for another. Previous investigations with different short-term tests have shown that these differences can indeed exist and be very great. In this respect it is potentially very encouraging that the test considered here showed a fair correlation with carcinogenic potency for aromatic amines. Many other tests that we have examined so far have shown little or no predictivity for this important class of chemicals. PMID:3830111

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  1. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  3. Members of the RAD52 Epistasis Group Contribute to Mitochondrial Homologous Recombination and Double-Strand Break Repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Alexis; Kalifa, Lidza; Sia, Elaine A.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria contain an independently maintained genome that encodes several proteins required for cellular respiration. Deletions in the mitochondrial genome have been identified that cause several maternally inherited diseases and are associated with certain cancers and neurological disorders. The majority of these deletions in human cells are flanked by short, repetitive sequences, suggesting that these deletions may result from recombination events. Our current understanding of the maintenance and repair of mtDNA is quite limited compared to our understanding of similar events in the nucleus. Many nuclear DNA repair proteins are now known to also localize to mitochondria, but their function and the mechanism of their action remain largely unknown. This study investigated the contribution of the nuclear double-strand break repair (DSBR) proteins Rad51p, Rad52p and Rad59p in mtDNA repair. We have determined that both Rad51p and Rad59p are localized to the matrix of the mitochondria and that Rad51p binds directly to mitochondrial DNA. In addition, a mitochondrially-targeted restriction endonuclease (mtLS-KpnI) was used to produce a unique double-strand break (DSB) in the mitochondrial genome, which allowed direct analysis of DSB repair in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that loss of these three proteins significantly decreases the rate of spontaneous deletion events and the loss of Rad51p and Rad59p impairs the repair of induced mtDNA DSBs. PMID:26540255

  4. Proximal Hamstring Repair Strength

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Margaret Ann; Singh, Hardeep; Obopilwe, Elifho; Charette, Ryan; Miller, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proximal hamstring repair for complete ruptures has become a common treatment. There is no consensus in the literature about postoperative rehabilitation protocols following proximal hamstring repair. Some protocols describe bracing to prevent hip flexion or knee extension while others describe no immobilization. There are currently no biomechanical studies evaluating proximal hamstring repairs; nor are there any studies evaluating the effect of different hip flexion angles on these repairs. Hypothesis: As hip flexion increases from 0° to 90°, there will be a greater gap with cyclical loading. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Proximal hamstring insertions were detached from the ischial tuberosity in 24 cadavers and were repaired with 3 single-loaded suture anchors in the hamstring footprint with a Krakow suture technique. Cyclic loading from 10 to 125 N at 1 Hz was then performed for 0°, 45°, and 90° of hip flexion for 1500 cycles. Gap formation, stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load were compared between groups using paired t tests. Results: Cyclic loading demonstrated the least amount of gap formation (P < .05) at 0° of hip flexion (2.39 mm) and most at 90° of hip flexion (4.19 mm). There was no significant difference in ultimate load between hip flexion angles (326, 309, and 338 N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively). The most common mode of failure occurred with knot/suture failure (n = 17). Conclusion: Increasing hip flexion from 0° to 90° increases the displacement across proximal hamstring repairs. Postoperative bracing that limits hip flexion should be considered. Clinical Relevance: Repetitive motion involving hip flexion after a proximal hamstring repair may cause compromise of the repair. PMID:26665049

  5. Eardrum repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ossicular fixation - surgery Images Eardrum repair - series References Adams ME, El-Kashlan HK. Tympanoplasty and ossiculoplasty. In: ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  6. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... is excellent. However, another hydrocele may form over time, or if there was also a hernia present. Alternative Names Hydrocelectomy Images Hydrocele repair - series References Aiken JJ, Oldham KT. Inguinal hernias. In: ...

  7. Susceptibility to Breast Cancer and Intron 3 Ins/Del Genetic Polymorphism of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Gene XRCC4

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa; Saadat, Shekoofeh

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Since genetic variations in X-ray cross-complementing group 4 (XRCC4; OMIM: 194363) repair gene might be associated with a reduction in cellular DNA repair capacity, it is hypothesized that XRCC4 Ins/Del (I/D) polymorphism (in intron 3 of the gene; rs28360071) may be a risk factor for breast cancer. Therefore, the present case-control study was carried out. Methods The present case-control study included 407 females with breast cancer and a total of 394 healthy females from the general population matched with patients according to age. Genotypic analysis for the XRCC4 I/D polymorphism was performed by PCR. In order to investigate the effect of XRCC4 I/D polymorphism on age at diagnosis of breast cancer, the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used. Results Based on the present case-control study, the ID (OR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.69–1.31, P=0.781) and DD (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.84–1.83, P=0.274) genotypes were not associated with breast cancer risk compared with the II genotype. Based on the Cox regression model, there was significant association between genotypes of I/D polymorphism and age at diagnosis of breast cancer (ID+DD vs II; HR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64–0.98, P=0.036). Conclusion Although there was no significant association between XRCC4 I/D polymorphism and risk of breast cancer, patients having the II genotype have lower age at diagnosis in comparison with patients having ID+DD genotypes. PMID:28356849

  8. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  9. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  10. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  11. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  12. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  13. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  14. A systematic gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analysis of DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC4, and oral cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Da; Yen, Ching-Yui; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a high mortality rate. Biomarkers that anticipate susceptibility, prognosis, or response to treatments are much needed. Oral cancer is a polygenic disease involving complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors, which require multifaceted analyses. Here, we examined in a dataset of 103 oral cancer cases and 98 controls from Taiwan the association between oral cancer risk and the DNA repair genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCCs) 1-4, and the environmental factors of smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel quid (BQ) chewing. We employed logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and hierarchical interaction graphs for analyzing gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions. We identified a significantly elevated risk of the XRCC2 rs2040639 heterozygous variant among smokers [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-12.1] and alcohol drinkers [adjusted OR=5.7, 95% CI=1.4-23.2]. The best two-factor based G×G interaction of oral cancer included the XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 [OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.66-6.13]. For the G×E interaction, the estimated OR of oral cancer for two (drinking-BQ chewing), three (XRCC1-XRCC2-BQ chewing), four (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-BQ chewing), and five factors (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-drinking-BQ chewing) were 32.9 [95% CI=14.1-76.9], 31.0 [95% CI=14.0-64.7], 49.8 [95% CI=21.0-117.7] and 82.9 [95% CI=31.0-221.5], respectively. Taken together, the genotypes of XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 DNA repair genes appear to be significantly associated with oral cancer. These were enhanced by exposure to certain environmental factors. The observations presented here warrant further research in larger study samples to examine their relevance for routine clinical care in oncology.

  15. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  16. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  17. Cyclosporin A inhibits nucleotide excision repair via downregulation of the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and G proteins, which is mediated by calcineurin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kuschal, Christiane; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Boeckmann, Lars; Laspe, Petra; Apel, Antje; Schön, Michael P; Emmert, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells, a process that contributes to the skin cancer proneness in organ transplant patients. We investigated the mechanisms of CsA-induced NER reduction by assessing all xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) genes (XPA-XPG). Western blot analyses revealed that XPA and XPG protein expression was reduced in normal human GM00637 fibroblasts exposed to 0.1 and 0.5 μm CsA. Interestingly, the CsA treatment reduced XPG, but not XPA, mRNA expression. Calcineurin knockdown in GM00637 fibroblasts using RNAi led to similar results suggesting that calcineurin-dependent signalling is involved in XPA and XPG protein regulation. CsA-induced reduction in NER could be complemented by the overexpression of either XPA or XPG protein. Likewise, XPA-deficient fibroblasts with stable overexpression of XPA (XP2OS-pCAH19WS) did not show the inhibitory effect of CsA on NER. In contrast, XPC-deficient fibroblasts overexpressing XPC showed CsA-reduced NER. Our data indicate that the CsA-induced inhibition of NER is a result of downregulation of XPA and XPG protein in a calcineurin-dependent manner.

  18. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    BLADES , *GUIDE VANES , *REPAIR, TURBOFAN ENGINES , DIFFUSION BONDING, COST EFFECTIVENESS Identifiers: (U) * Turbine vanes , TF-39 engines , Activated...REPAIR TECHNIQUES FOR TURBINE AIRFOILS J. A. WEIN W. R. YOUNG GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP CINCINNATI, OHIO 45215 APRIL 1979...Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OH AIRCRAFT ENGINE BUSINESS GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for

  19. Molecular and cellular analysis of the DNA repair defect in a patient in Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D who has the clinical features of Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, B.C.; Thompson, A.F.; Harcourt, S.A.; Cole, J.; Arlett, C.F.; Lehmann, A.R.; Vermeulen, W.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; Botta, E.; Stefanini, M.

    1995-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are quite distinct genetic disorders that are associated with defects in excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. A few patients have been described previously with the clinical features of both disorders. In this paper we describe an individual in this category who has unusual cellular responses to UV light. We show that his cultured fibroblasts and lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to irradiation with UV-C, despite a level of nucleotide excision repair that is 30%-40% that of normal cells. The deficiency is assigned to the XP-D complementation group, and we have identified two causative mutations in the XPD gene: a gly{yields}arg change at amino acid 675 in the allele inherited from the patient`s mother and a -1 frameshift at amino acid 669 in the allele inherited from his father. These mutations are in the C-terminal 20% of the 760-amino-acid XPD protein, in a region where we have recently identified several mutations in patients with trichothiodystrophy. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  1. Mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Fishel, Richard

    2015-10-30

    Highly conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS) are the fundamental components of mismatch repair (MMR). After decades of debate, it appears clear that the MSH proteins initiate MMR by recognizing a mismatch and forming multiple extremely stable ATP-bound sliding clamps that diffuse without hydrolysis along the adjacent DNA. The function(s) of MLH/PMS proteins is less clear, although they too bind ATP and are targeted to MMR by MSH sliding clamps. Structural analysis combined with recent real-time single molecule and cellular imaging technologies are providing new and detailed insight into the thermal-driven motions that animate the complete MMR mechanism.

  2. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  3. Effect of point substitutions within the minimal DNA-binding domain of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein on interaction with DNA intermediates of nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Maltseva, E A; Krasikova, Y S; Naegeli, H; Lavrik, O I; Rechkunova, N I

    2014-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum factor A (XPA) is one of the key proteins in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. The effects of point substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of XPA (positively charged lysine residues replaced by negatively charged glutamate residues: XPA K204E, K179E, K141E, and tandem mutant K141E/K179E) on the interaction of the protein with DNA structures modeling intermediates of the damage recognition and pre-incision stages in NER were analyzed. All these mutations decreased the affinity of the protein to DNA, the effect depending on the substitution and the DNA structure. The mutant as well as wild-type proteins bind with highest efficiency partly open damaged DNA duplex, and the affinity of the mutants to this DNA is reduced in the order: K204E > K179E > K141E = K141/179E. For all the mutants, decrease in DNA binding efficiency was more pronounced in the case of full duplex and single-stranded DNA than with bubble-DNA structure, the difference between protein affinities to different DNA structures increasing as DNA binding activity of the mutant decreased. No effect of the studied XPA mutations on the location of the protein on the partially open DNA duplex was observed using photoinduced crosslinking with 5-I-dUMP in different positions of the damaged DNA strand. These results combined with earlier published data suggest no direct correlation between DNA binding and activity in NER for these XPA mutants.

  4. Arsenic exposure is associated with decreased DNA repair in vitro and in individuals exposed to drinking water arsenic.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Angeline S; Burgess, Jefferey L; Meza, Maria M; Demidenko, Eugene; Waugh, Mary G; Hamilton, Joshua W; Karagas, Margaret R

    2006-08-01

    The mechanism(s) by which arsenic exposure contributes to human cancer risk is unknown ; however, several indirect cocarcinogenesis mechanisms have been proposed. Many studies support the role of As in altering one or more DNA repair processes. In the present study we used individual-level exposure data and biologic samples to investigate the effects of As exposure on nucleotide excision repair in two study populations, focusing on the excision repair cross-complement 1 (ERCC1) component. We measured drinking water, urinary, or toenail As levels and obtained cryopreserved lymphocytes of a subset of individuals enrolled in epidemiologic studies in New Hampshire (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). Additionally, in corroborative laboratory studies, we examined the effects of As on DNA repair in a cultured human cell model. Arsenic exposure was associated with decreased expression of ERCC1 in isolated lymphocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, lymphocytes from As-exposed individuals showed higher levels of DNA damage, as measured by a comet assay, both at baseline and after a 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2-AAAF) challenge. In support of the in vivo data, As exposure decreased ERCC1 mRNA expression and enhanced levels of DNA damage after a 2-AAAF challenge in cell culture. These data provide further evidence to support the ability of As to inhibit the DNA repair machinery, which is likely to enhance the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of other directly genotoxic compounds, as part of a cocarcinogenic mechanism of action.

  5. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  6. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, occupational exposure to arsenic and sunlight, and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a European case-control study.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2014-10-01

    X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3) polymorphisms are relatively frequent in Caucasian populations and may have implications in skin cancer modulation. A few studies have evaluated their association with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but the results are inconsistent. In the current study, we aim to assess the impact of XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms on the risk of NMSC associated with sunlight and arsenic exposure. Study participants consist of 618 new cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls frequency matched on age, sex, and county of residence from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Adjusted effects are estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The results indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC1 R399Q (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.14-5.65) and a protective effect against basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC3 T241M (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.92), compared with the respective homozygous common genotypes. Significant interactions are detected between XRCC3 T241M and sunlight exposure at work, and between XRCC3 T241M and exposure to arsenic in drinking water (p-value for interaction <0.10). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that polymorphisms in XRCC genes may modify the associations between skin cancer risk and exposure to sunlight or arsenic. Given the high prevalence of genetic polymorphisms modifying the association between exposure to environmental carcinogens and NMSC, these results are of substantial relevance to public health.

  7. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  8. DNA repair gene XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiliu; Mo, Cuiju; Tang, Weizhong; Chen, Zhiping; Li, Ruolin; Zhai, Limin; Yang, Shi; Wu, Junrong; Sui, Jingzhe; Li, Shan; Qin, Xue

    2014-03-01

    The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) in homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway plays a vital role in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). Variants in the XRCC3 gene might result in altered protein structure or function which may influence DSBR efficiency and lead to cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. However, the results of these previous studies have been inconsistent. To derive a more precise estimation of the association, we performed a meta-analysis of all available studies relating XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer. All studies published up to April 2013 on the association between XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical Literature databases. The association between the XRCC3 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 16 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria and were selected. With respect to C18067T polymorphism, significant increased bladder cancer risk was found when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.174, 95%CI = 1.033-1.335, P = 0.014 and recessive model TT vs. TC + CC: OR = 1.147, 95%CI = 1.020-1.290, P = 0.022, respectively). The results were still significant after excluding the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium violation studies (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.178, 95%CI = 1.036-1.339, P = 0.013 and recessive model TT vs. TC + CC: OR = 1.144, 95%CI = 1.017-1.287, P = 0.025, respectively). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant elevated risk was found among Asians (dominant model TT + TC vs. CC: OR = 1.285, 95%CI = 1.012-1.631). In the subgroup analyses according to smoking status, no significant association was detected in all

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  10. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  11. The Utility of Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, Excision Repair Cross-Complementing 1 (ERCC1), Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Expression in Small Biopsy in Prognosis of Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma – A Retrograde Single-Center Study from Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Burazer, Marina Piljić; Mladinov, Suzana; Ćapkun, Vesna; Kuret, Sendi; Durdov, Merica Glavina

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out in order to evaluate our institutional experience with small biopsy in diagnosis and molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma. Few specific and predictive markers have been evaluated and correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics and survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma who received platinum-based chemotherapy. There have not been such reports from Croatia. Material/Methods A total of 142 cases of lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively investigated in small biopsies for the immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, napsin A, ERCC1, ALK, and the EGFR mutation by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). Results TTF-1, napsin A, and ERCC1 expression was found in 81%, 78%, and 69% of patients, respectively, and the expressions were not significantly associated with subtype. Expression of ALK was found in 4% and EGFR mutation in 10% of patients. Exon 19 deletions were the most common. Longer survival was significantly associated with TTF-1 positivity (p=0.007) and napsin A positivity (p=0.026). Higher relative risk of death significantly correlated with positive expression of ERCC1 (p=0.041). Conclusions Positive TTF-1 and napsin A expressions in lung adenocarcinoma tissues were useful diagnostic and favorable prognostic parameters. Positive ERCC1 expression was identified as a negative prognostic marker in patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The percentages of EGFR and ALK mutations corresponded to those in previously published reports for Caucasians. PMID:28128193

  12. Inguinal hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... This repair can be done with open or laparoscopic surgery. You and your surgeon can discuss which type ... the repair, the cuts are stitched closed. In laparoscopic surgery: The surgeon makes three to five small cuts ...

  13. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some hernia repairs are performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. If your surgeon has ... in the abdominal wall (muscle) using small incisions, telescopes and a patch (mesh). Laparoscopic repair offers a ...

  14. Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  15. Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Transabdominal preperitoneal floor repair.

    PubMed

    Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach to inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired the indirect, direct, and femoral areas in all patients without tension. In our series, 183 patients had 205 hernia repairs and were followed for more than 6 months. Of this group, 128 hernias were indirect, 55 direct, 22 pantaloon, 26 recurrent, and 22 bilateral. All 12 females and the first 11 males had a single-buttress repair with polypropylene mesh. The other 160 male patients had a double-buttress repair. With median follow-up of 12 months, ranging from 6 to 21 months, no recurrences were found. Patients returned to normal activity in an average of 1 week. Dissection and buttressing of the entire inguinal floor with mesh appeared to solve the problem of early recurrence first seen in laparoscopic herniorrhaphy.

  16. Bilateral inguinal hernias: simultaneous or sequential repair?

    PubMed Central

    Stott, M. A.; Sutton, R.; Royle, G. T.

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred and forty four patients underwent either simultaneous bilateral inguinal hernia repair (n = 122) or unilateral inguinal hernia (n = 122) repair at a general hospital between January 1971 and December 1981. The two groups of patients were matched for age and sex. Both groups had a similar overall incidence of post-operative complications and in both groups the duration of post-operative stay and duration of operating time were similar. Chest infections developed in 12 patients after bilateral repair and in 3 patients after unilateral repair (P less than 0.02). All patients were assessed prospectively from 4 to 15 years after operation, when no significant difference in the number of recurrent hernias was found. Our results suggest that simultaneous bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy is economical in terms of both operating time and duration of hospital stay, and that this economy is not bought at a cost of increased short term morbidity or long-term recurrence rate. PMID:3200778

  17. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Assignment of the XRCC2 human DNA repair gene to chromosome 7q36 by complementation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.J.; Thompson, L.H.; Zhao, Y.

    1995-04-10

    The V79 hamster cell line irs1 is a repair-deficient mutant hypersensitive to radiation and DNA-reactive chemical agents. Somatic cell hybrids were formed by fusing irs1 cells with human lymphocytes and selecting for complementation in medium containing concentrations of mitomycin C (MMC) that are toxic to irs1. Thirty-eight MMC-resistant hybrids showed extensive segregation of human chromosomes, with 35 of them retaining human chromosome 7, as indicated by molecular marker and cytogenetic analyses. Inter-Alu-PCR products from the DNA of hybrids, when used as a fluorescence in situ hybridization probe onto normal human metaphases, indicated that one resistant hybrid was monochromosomal for chromosome 7 and that the three resistant hybrids shown to be negative for chromosome 7 markers have retained portions of chromosome 7, with region 7q36 being the smallest common region. MMC-sensitive subclones of a resistant hybrid lost human chromosome 7. Therefore, the gene complementing the repair defect, XRCC2 (X-ray repair cross complementing), is assigned to human chromosome 7q36. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  20. Proximal Contact Repair of Complex Amalgam Restorations.

    PubMed

    Zguri, M N; Casey, J A; Jessup, J P; Vandewalle, K S

    2017-01-12

    The carving of a complex amalgam restoration may occasionally result in light proximal contact with the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of complex amalgam restorations repaired with a proximal slot amalgam preparation. Extracted human third molars of similar coronal size were sectioned 1 mm apical to the height of the contour using a saw and were randomly distributed into 9 groups of 10 teeth each. One pin was placed at each line angle of the flattened dentinal tooth surface. A metal matrix band was placed and an admixed alloy was condensed and carved to create a full crown contour but with a flat occlusal surface. A proximal slot was prepared with or without a retention groove and repaired using a single-composition spherical amalgam 15 minutes, 24 hours, one week, or six months after the initial crown condensation. The specimens were stored for 24 hours in 37°C water before fracture at the marginal ridge using a round-ended blade in a universal testing machine. The control group was not repaired. The mean maximum force in newtons and standard deviation were determined per group. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance as well as Tukey and Dunnett tests (α=0.05). Significant differences were found between groups based on type of slot preparation (p=0.017) but not on time (p=0.327), with no significant interaction (p=0.152). No significant difference in the strength of the marginal ridge was found between any repair group and the unrepaired control group (p>0.076). The proximal repair strength of a complex amalgam restoration was not significantly different from an unrepaired amalgam crown. Placing a retention groove in the proximal slot preparation resulted in significantly greater fracture strength than a slot with no retention grooves. Time of repair had no significant effect on the strength of the repair.

  1. Retinal detachment repair

    MedlinePlus

    Scleral buckling; Vitrectomy; Pneumatic retinopexy; Laser retinopexy; Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair ... it meets the hole in the retina. Scleral buckling can be done using numbing medicine while you ...

  2. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Cihad; Tüzün, İshak Sefa; Karşıdağ, Tamer; Kızılkaya, Mehmet Celal; Yılmaz, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of non-complicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3), and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4). Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14%) of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78%) had hematomas, four (3.57%) had seromas, and one (0.89%) had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56%) of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69%) had hematomas, one (2.56%) had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection, seroma

  3. Cleft palate repair and variations

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Karoon

    2009-01-01

    Cleft palate affects almost every function of the face except vision. Today a child born with cleft palate with or without cleft lip should not be considered as unfortunate, because surgical repair of cleft palate has reached a highly satisfactory level. However for an average cleft surgeon palatoplasty remains an enigma. The surgery differs from centre to centre and surgeon to surgeon. However there is general agreement that palatoplasty (soft palate at least) should be performed between 6-12 months of age. Basically there are three groups of palatoplasty techniques. One is for hard palate repair, second for soft palate repair and the third based on the surgical schedule. Hard palate repair techniques are Veau-Wardill-Kilner V-Y, von Langenbeck, two-flap, Aleveolar extension palatoplasty, vomer flap, raw area free palatoplasty etc. The soft palate techniques are intravelar veloplasty, double opposing Z-plasty, radical muscle dissection, primary pharyngeal flap etc. And the protocol based techniques are Schweckendiek's, Malek's, whole in one, modified schedule with palatoplasty before lip repair etc. One should also know the effect of each technique on maxillofacial growth and speech. The ideal technique of palatoplasty is the one which gives perfect speech without affecting the maxillofacial growth and hearing. The techniques are still evolving because we are yet to design an ideal one. It is always good to know all the techniques and variations so that one can choose whichever gives the best result in one's hands. A large number of techniques are available in literature, and also every surgeon incorporates his own modification to make it a variation. However there are some basic techniques, which are described in details which are used in various centres. Some of the important variations are also described. PMID:19884664

  4. Repairs of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  5. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.

  6. Sexual function in women after rectocele repair with acellular porcine dermis graft vs site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

    PubMed

    Novi, Joseph M; Bradley, Catherine S; Mahmoud, Najjia N; Morgan, Mark A; Arya, Lily A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare preoperative and postoperative sexual function between women undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft and women undergoing site-specific repair of rectovaginal fascia. A standardized, validated questionnaire (Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire [PISQ]) was used to collect preoperative sexual function data from 100 patients with rectocele pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage 2 or greater. Fifty women underwent rectocele repair utilizing porcine dermis graft (group 1) and 50 women underwent a site-specific repair of the rectovaginal fascia (group 2). The same questionnaire was administered to all subjects 6 months after surgery. The two groups were similar in age, race, parity, prior hysterectomy, and postmenopausal hormone use. Preoperative sexual function scores were similar in the two groups (group 1 81.4+/-7.3 and group 2: 83.6+/-8.2, p=1.0). Six months after surgery, PISQ scores in group 1 significantly increased (score increase 19.9+/-2.2, p=0.01). The mean increase in PISQ scores for group 2 was 6.9+/-3.1 (p=0.08). When compared with group 2, subjects undergoing rectocele repair with porcine dermis graft scored significantly higher on the PISQ 6 months after surgery (group 1 101.3+/-6.4 and group 2 89.7+/-7.1, p=0.01). We conclude that rectocele repair using porcine dermis graft is associated with improved sexual functioning when compared with site-specific rectovaginal fascia repair.

  7. Methods of repairing a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  8. DNA repair genes in the Megavirales pangenome.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The order 'Megavirales' represents a group of eukaryotic viruses with a large genome encoding a few hundred up to two thousand five hundred genes. Several members of Megavirales possess genes involved in major DNA repair pathways. Some of these genes were likely inherited from an ancient virus world and some others were derived from the genomes of their hosts. Here we examine molecular phylogenies of key DNA repair enzymes in light of recent hypotheses on the origin of Megavirales, and propose that the last common ancestors of the individual families of the order Megavirales already possessed DNA repair functions to achieve and maintain a moderately large genome and that this repair capacity gradually increased, in a family-dependent manner, during their recent evolution.

  9. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  10. Chain Saw Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Helbling, Wayne

    This curriculum is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Repair guide by covering in detail all aspects of chain saw repair. The publication contains materials for both teacher and student and is written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes six units. Each unit contains some or all of the…

  11. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-12-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly.

  12. Repairability of aged resin composites mediated by different restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aa; Mauro, Sílvio J; de Campos, Renata A; Dos Santos, Paulo H; Machado, Lucas S; Fagundes, Ticiane C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of resin composite repairs with and without aging of the surface to be repaired, using different adhesive systems and resin composites. Ninety specimens were prepared: 10 for the Control Group (GC - without repair); 40 for Group I (GI - repairs after 7 days) and 40 for Group II (GII - repairs after 180 days). Groups I and II were divided into 4 subgroups of 10 specimens each, according to the adhesive system and composite resin used: A) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Filtek Z350 XT; B) Adper Single Bond Plus + Filtek Z350 XT; C) Adper Scotch Bond Multipurpose + Esthet-X; D) Adper Single Bond Plus + Esthet-X. The specimens were tested for shear strength in a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed by two-factor one-way ANOVA and Fisher's post hoc tests (alpha=0.05). The control group had better performance than the other groups. There was no significant difference when comparing different adhesive systems and composite resins. Repairs performed at 7 days were better than those performed at 180 days. The composite repairs decreased the mechanical strength of the restoration. Aging of the resin substrate may decrease repair bond strength over time, regardless of the type of adhesive systems and resin composites used.

  13. Comprehensive assessment of the association between DNA repair gene XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gang; Xu, Weiguo; Hua, Hongwei; Huang, Qian; Liang, Hongxiang; Ni, Yufeng; Ding, Zhaoheng

    2013-10-01

    A few case-control studies were performed to assess the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility, but no consistent finding was reported. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of 14 case-control studies with a total of 7,869 lung cancer cases and 10,778 controls to provide a comprehensive assessment of the association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Overall, there was no significant association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk under all genetic models [OR (95 % CI) for T versus C, 1.00 (0.89-1.13), P = 0.99; OR (95 % CI) for TT versus CC, 1.07 (0.81-1.41), P = 0.62; OR (95 % CI) for TT/CT versus CC, 0.95 (0.84-1.07), P = 0.39; OR (95 % CI) for TT versus CT/CC, 1.10 (0.86-1.39), P = 0.62]. In the subgroup analyses of both Asians and Caucasians, there was still no significant association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk under all genetic models (All P values were more than 0.05). However, there was an obvious association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and decreased risk of lung cancer in the subgroup analysis of the mixed population (All P values were less than 0.05). In addition, there was some risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis, and there was obvious discrepancy in the findings between studies with large sample size and studies with small sample size in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis indicates that the association between XRCC3 rs861539 C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk is still uncertain owing to the obvious discrepancy in the findings between studies with large sample size and studies with small sample size. More studies with large sample size are needed to further assess the association.

  14. Comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gottsäter, Anders; Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and standard endovascular aneurysm repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: Consecutive patients treated from 2007 to 2011 with elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 81) and endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 201) were evaluated concerning age, cardiovascular medication, comorbidities, and mid-term mortality. Results: Patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group were younger than the endovascular aneurysm repair group (p = 0.006). In comparison with the endovascular aneurysm repair group, a lower proportion of patients in the elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair group had diabetes (p = 0.013) and anemia (p = 0.003), and a higher proportion had arterial hypertension (p = 0.009). When entering age, endovascular aneurysm repair or fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair operation, diabetes, anemia, and hypertension in a Cox regression model, only age (hazard ratio: 1.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.11; p < 0.001) was a risk factor for mid-term mortality. Conclusion: Careful patient selection and medical optimization resulted in comparable mid-term survival in patients undergoing elective fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:26770700

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  16. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/22556195 . Szeder V, Tateshima S, Duckwiler GR. Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, ... chap 67. Read More Aneurysm in the brain Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Recovering after stroke Seizures Smoking - ...

  17. Pectus excavatum repair

    MedlinePlus

    Gottlieb LJ, Reid RR, Lee JC. Pediatric chest and trunk defects. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 41. Lumpkins KM, Colombani P, Abdullah F. Repair ...

  18. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  19. Timpani Repair and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, F. Michael

    1980-01-01

    Rather than focusing on specific brands of timpani, these guidelines for repair cover mechanical problems of a general nature: pedals, dents, unclear tone, and squeaking. Preventive maintenance is discussed. (Author/SJL)

  20. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 130. Read More Hypospadias Hypospadias repair Kidney removal Review Date 1/21/2015 Updated by: Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, ...

  1. Meningocele repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100128.htm Meningocele repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles and Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Review provided ...

  2. Achilles tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  3. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  4. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000166.htm Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  5. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100035.htm Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  6. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  7. Ventral hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia. PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:539-545. Nagle AP, Soper NJ. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. In: Khatri ... Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players ...

  8. Patent urachus repair

    MedlinePlus

    Patent urachal tube repair ... belly. Next, the surgeon will find the urachal tube and remove it. The bladder opening will be ... surgeon uses the tools to remove the urachal tube and close off the bladder and area where ...

  9. Imperforate anus repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100030.htm Imperforate anus repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  11. Carpal tunnel repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100078.htm Carpal tunnel repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... in the wrist and the wrist bones (carpal tunnel). Review Date 5/9/2015 Updated by: C. ...

  12. A biomechanical study of pediatric flexor profundus tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thunayan, Turki A.; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed T.; Hakeem, Ahmad A.; Al-Zahrani, Fahad M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the tensile strength of repaired flexor profundus tendons in young lambs, which would be equivalent to repairs in children older than 2 years of age. Methods: A comparative in-vitro experimental study conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2014 to December 2015. We utilized 30 flexor profundus tendons of young lambs with a width of 4 mm. All tendons were repaired with a 4-strand repair technique using 4/0 polypropylene core sutures. In group I (n=10 tendons), 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures were applied. In group II (n=10 tendons), simple locking sutures were added to the corners of 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures. In group III (n=10 tendons), the locked cruciate repair was used. All tendon repairs were tested to single-cycle tensile failure. Results: There was no significant difference between groups II and III with regards to gap and breaking forces; and all forces of these 2 groups were significantly higher than the forces in group I. Conclusion: It was concluded that 4 mm-wide pediatric flexor tendons allow a 4-strand repair and the use of 4/0 sutures. The use of locking sutures increases the tensile strength to values that may allow protective mobilization in children. PMID:27570850

  13. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery.

  14. Nerve Transfer in Delayed Obstetrical Palsy Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sénès, Filippo; Catena, Nunzio; Sénès, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Objective  When root avulsions are detected in children suffering from obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), neurotization procedures of different nerve trunks are commonly applied in primary brachial plexus repair, to connect distally the nerves of the upper limbs using healthy nerve structures. This article aims to outline our experience of neurotization procedures in OBPP, which involves nerve transfers in the event of delayed repair, when a primary repair has not occurred or has failed. In addition, we propose the opportunity for late repair, focusing on extending the time limit for nerve surgery beyond that which is usually recommended. Although, according to different authors, the time limit is still unclear, it is generally estimated that nerve repair should take place within the first months of life. In fact, microsurgical repair of OBPP is the technique of choice for young children with the condition who would otherwise have an unfavorable outcome. However, in certain cases the recovery process is not clearly defined so not all the patients are direct candidates for primary nerve surgery. Methods  In the period spanning January 2005 through January 2011, among a group of 105 patients suffering from OBPP, ranging from 1 month to 7 years of age, the authors have identified a group of 32 partially recovered patients. All these patients underwent selective neurotization surgery, which was performed in a period ranging from 5 months to 6.6 years of age. Results  Late neurotization of muscular groups achieved considerable functional recovery in these patients, who presented with reduced motor function during early childhood. The said patients, with the exception of five, would initially have avoided surgery because they had not met the criteria for nerve surgery. Conclusion  We have concluded that the execution of late nerve surgical procedures can be effective in children affected by OBPP. PMID:27917233

  15. Lightweight Material Patches Allow for Quick Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc., of Dayton, Ohio, has been the recipient of 16 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA with a variety of different focuses, including projects like creating inflatable structures for radio frequency antennas and, most recently, healable polymer matrix composites for future space vehicles. One of its earlier SBIR contracts, with Kennedy Space Center, led to the development of a new type of structural patch for a variety of consumer uses: Rubbn Repair, for automotive uses; and Rec Repair for the outdoors and adventure market. Both are flexible, heat-activated structural patches.

  16. Vein, silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh: a comparative study in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Lolley, R D; Bose, W J; Bastian, F; Bassam, B; Meyer, F N; Anderson, L D

    1995-09-01

    We investigated three sheathing materials (autogenous vein, silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh) using the rat model. Forty rats were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group A animals underwent transection of the sciatic nerve but had no repair. In Group B, a standard epineural repair was performed. In Groups C, D, and E, the nerve was repaired as in Group B with the addition of autogenous vein, Silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh sheaths, respectively. Nerve regeneration and function were assessed using sciatic functional index, nerve conduction studies, and light microscopy. Sheathing methods showed no statistically significant advantage to standard epineural repair without a sheath.

  17. Bond strength of dental nanocomposites repaired with a bulkfill composite

    PubMed Central

    Kerimova, Leyla; Baltacioglu, İsmail H.; Kiremitçi, Arlin

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the bond strength of aged resin based nanocomposites repaired with the same and bulk fill composites. Material and Methods Seventy-two disc shaped resin composites consisted of three different nanocomposite resins (Filtek Ultimate/FU, Herculite XRV Ultra/HXRV, and Reflectys/R) were produced. After storing the samples for 8 weeks in distilled water, each material was combined with the same material or the bulk-fill composite resin system (Filtek Ultimate+Filtek Ultimate/Group-1; Filtek Ultimate+Tetric BF/Group-2; Herculite XRV+Herculite XRV/Group-3; Herculite XRV+Tetric BF/ Group-4; Reflectys+Reflectys/Group 5; Reflectys+Tetric BF/Group-6), for repair. Then specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing(SBS), and the debonded surfaces were examined. Results There was a significant difference among three materials(repaired with itself+bulk fill) for SBS testing values (p=0.001). FU and R were found to be similar, while HXRV was significantly different from them. A significant difference between group-1 and 2 (p=0.006) was detected, while there were no differences between group 3 and 4 (p= 0.142), and 5 and 6 (p=0.346). Among the six groups, repair SBS testing values with TBF were higher than repair with itself except for FU. Conclusions The bulk-fill repaired materials showed higher bond strength except for FU, which showed the highest SBS value when repaired with itself. An increased incidence of adhesive fracture was observed at low strengths. Key words:Resin-based composites, nanofillers, surface treatment, macro-shear, repair. PMID:28298988

  18. Incisional hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Keith W

    2003-10-01

    Incisional ventral hernias are a common problem encountered by surgeons, with over 100,000 repairs being performed annually in the United States. Although many predisposing factors for incisional ventral hernia are patient-related, some factors such as type of primary closure and materials used may reduce the overall incidence of incisional ventral hernia. With the advent of prosthetic meshes being used for incisional ventral hernia repair, the recurrence rate has dropped to approximately 10%. More recently, with the development of prosthetic mesh that is now safe to place intraperitoneally, the recurrence rate has dropped to under 5%. The current controversies that exist for incisional ventral hernia repair are which approach to use (open versus laparoscopic) and what type of fixation (partial- versus full-thickness abdominal muscular/fascial wall) is necessary to stabilize the position of the mesh while tissue ingrowth occurs. During the next decade the answers to these controversies should be available in the surgical literature.

  19. Transactivation of repair genes by BRCA1.

    PubMed

    El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a link between the BRCA1 tumor suppressor and transcriptional regulation of a group of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair. There is some controversy regarding the precise mechanism of upregulation of XPE DDB2 or XPC by BRCA1, with some evidence suggesting that p53 is involved in their regulation. Some evidence suggests BRCA1 may stabilize p53 and direct regulation of DNA repair genes, although how BRCA1 stabilizes p53 remains unclear and whether BRCA1 can upregulate DNA repair genes in a p53-independent manner remains a possibility. A transcriptional component to the action of BRCA1 and involvement of XP genes brings up new and interesting questions about breast cancer development and therapy.

  20. Successful repair of a 6 meter battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, K.; Gratson, M.; Wash, S.; Sundholm, J.L.; Hippe, W.; Ramani, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Following a two-year construction period, LTV Steel Company commissioned a new six-meter coke oven battery and ancillary facilities in December 1981 at the S. Chicago Works. The battery is a 60-oven Didier grouped flue underjet design capable of firing coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In late 1990, coke side refractory damage in the form of severe spalls and holes in the walls were observed. Numerous repair techniques--welding, guniting, panel patching, end flue repairs using zero expansion brick--were employed as interim measures until a comprehensive repair plan could be implemented. A repair plan (primarily for coke side flues) was developed which envisioned end flue repairs on six walls per year beginning in late 1991, early 1992 depending on refractory delivery. However, in late 1992 it became apparent that the coke side deterioration was occurring faster than expected and that extensive pusher side deterioration was also occurring. Because of these developments, another battery inspection was performed. On the basis of this inspection, it was determined that a major rehabilitation would be required to assure long-term, environmentally acceptable operation of the battery.

  1. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, and produce modified schedules quickly. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  2. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  3. Assays for DNA double-strand break repair by microhomology-based end-joining repair mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kostyrko, Kaja; Mermod, Nicolas

    2016-04-07

    DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of DNA lesions. The main pathways responsible for repairing these breaks in eukaryotic cells are homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, a third group of still poorly characterized DSB repair pathways, collectively termed microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), relies on short homologies for the end-joining process. Here, we constructed GFP reporter assays to characterize and distinguish MMEJ variant pathways, namely the simple MMEJ and the DNA synthesis-dependent (SD)-MMEJ mechanisms. Transfection of these assay vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and characterization of the repaired DNA sequences indicated that while simple MMEJ is able to mediate relatively efficient DSB repair if longer microhomologies are present, the majority of DSBs were repaired using the highly error-prone SD-MMEJ pathway. To validate the involvement of DNA synthesis in the repair process, siRNA knock-down of different genes proposed to play a role in MMEJ were performed, revealing that the knock-down of DNA polymerase θ inhibited DNA end resection and repair through simple MMEJ, thus favoring the other repair pathway. Overall, we conclude that this approach provides a convenient assay to study MMEJ-related DNA repair pathways.

  4. Quantitative characterization of protein–protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Nina A.; Vasil'eva, Inna A.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Antson, Alfred A.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2015-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein–protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process. PMID:26013813

  5. Posterior repair and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy N.; Barber, Matthew D.; Olsen, Ambre L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of posterior repair (PR) on sexual function in patients who have undergone incontinence and/or pelvic reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN A cohort study of women who underwent incontinence and/or prolapse surgery was performed. Participants completed the pelvic organ prolapse urinary incontinence sexual questionnaire (PISQ) before and after the operation. PISQ scores were compared between women who underwent PR and women who did not. RESULTS Of 73 study participants, 30 women underwent PR; 43 women did not (no PR). Although there was no difference in dyspareunia between groups pre-op, dyspareunia prevalence post-op was significantly lower in the no PR group. Preoperative PISQ scores were similar between groups. After the operation, both groups significantly improved their PISQ scores, without a difference between groups. CONCLUSION Although the incidence of dyspareunia differed between PR and no PR groups, overall improvement in sexual function was reflected in improved total PISQ scores that occurred irrespective of PR performance. PMID:17618777

  6. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  7. Biomechanical Evaluation of Flexor Tendon Graft With Different Repair Techniques and Graft Surface Modification

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingheng; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; An, Kai-Nan; Moran, Steven L.; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of modified repair techniques for flexor tendon reconstruction and the effects of surface modification using carbodiimide-derivatized synovial fluid plus gelatin (cd-SF-G), compared to the traditional repair techniques. The second and fifth digits from 16 canine forepaws were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) traditional graft repairs (TGR group) including distal Bunnell repair and proximal Pulvertaft weave repair; (2) modified graft repairs (MGR group) including distal graft bony attachment repair and proximal step-cut repair; (3) group TGR coated with cd-SF-G (TGR-C group); and (4) group MGR coated with cd-SF-G (MGR-C group). Digit normalized work of flexion (nWOF), ultimate failure strength, and stiffness were measured. The nWOF in MGR group was significantly less than TGR group (p < 0.05). The nWOF in groups treated with cd-SF-G was significantly less than their untreated counterparts (p < 0.05). Ultimate load to failure of the MGR-C group was significantly greater than the TGR-C group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference in stiffness was found between these two groups. The modified techniques cannot only improve tendon gliding abilities but can also improve breaking strength. Additionally, surface modification with cd-SF-G significantly decreased the work of flexion. PMID:25665071

  8. Automotive Body Repair Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Armond, Jack; And Others

    Designed to provide a model curriculum and guidelines, this manual presents tasks that were identified by employers, employees, and teachers as important in a postsecondary auto body repair curriculum. The tasks are divided into ten major component areas of instruction: metalworking and fiberglass, painting, frame and suspension, glass and trim,…

  9. Getting Ready To Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stryker, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Successful camp repairs require careful planning. Prioritize projects by program needs first, then by cost. Determine the cause of deterioration and address it. Build goodwill with suppliers by knowing what you want and giving them ample time to prepare estimates. Include labor costs, even for staff labor. A cost-estimate table for a sample…

  10. Single cell wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Verboon, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    Cell wounding is a common event in the life of many cell types, and the capacity of the cell to repair day-to-day wear-and-tear injuries, as well as traumatic ones, is fundamental for maintaining tissue integrity. Cell wounding is most frequent in tissues exposed to high levels of stress. Survival of such plasma membrane disruptions requires rapid resealing to prevent the loss of cytosolic components, to block Ca2+ influx and to avoid cell death. In addition to patching the torn membrane, plasma membrane and cortical cytoskeleton remodeling are required to restore cell function. Although a general understanding of the cell wound repair process is in place, the underlying mechanisms of each step of this response are not yet known. We have developed a model to study single cell wound repair using the early Drosophila embryo. Our system combines genetics and live imaging tools, allowing us to dissect in vivo the dynamics of the single cell wound response. We have shown that cell wound repair in Drosophila requires the coordinated activities of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton components. Furthermore, we identified an unexpected role for E-cadherin as a link between the contractile actomyosin ring and the newly formed plasma membrane plug. PMID:21922041

  11. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  12. Hydrocele repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100163.htm Hydrocele repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  13. Eardrum repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100015.htm Eardrum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  14. Comprehensive Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hires, Bill; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains the basic information needed to repair all two- and four-stroke cycle engines. The curriculum covers four areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction that include performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and students, information sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, visual aids,…

  15. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hiatal Hernia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  16. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  17. Intestinal obstruction repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100116.htm Intestinal obstruction repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Adhesions Intestinal Obstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  18. Lawn and Garden Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack; And Others

    This publication is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Rapair guide by covering in detail all aspects of lawn and garden equipment repair not included in general engine repair or the repair of other small engines. It consists of instructional materials for both teachers and students, written in terms of student performance using…

  19. The role of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Emilie; Duan, Kai; Brzezinski, Alex; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to determine whether the use of preoperative antibiotics is effective in reducing postoperative wound infections and urinary tract infections (UTI) in hypospadias repair. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all hypospadias repairs performed at the Montreal Children’s Hospital between March 2009 and September 2012. All types of primary hypospadias repairs and redo cases were included. Patients with no adequate follow-up or with missing records of antibiotics were excluded. Preoperative antibiotics were given in the form of cefazolin (50 mg/kg intravenously) when appropriate. Postoperative oral antibiotics were administered as decided by the pediatric urologist. Primary outcomes included postoperative wound infection and UTI. Secondary outcomes included the need for reoperation of hypospadias due to urethrocutaneous fistula, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture and wound dehiscence. Results: In total, 157 cases of hypospadias repair were reviewed; of these 7 were excluded due to lack of follow-up. Of the remaining 150 patients, 62 received preoperative antibiotics and 88 did not. The groups were well-matched for age, hypospadias characteristics, type of repair and repair of curvature. The group that received preoperative antibiotics had a significantly higher number of stented cases (82% vs. 52% of the non-preoperative antibiotic group). Two cases of wound infection were reported (1 in the pre-operative antibiotic group and 1 in the non-preoperative antibiotic group). There was no symptomatic UTI or culture-demonstrated UTI in either group. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of primary outcomes. The complication rate was 11% (17/150 repairs) and all patients needed reoperation. This study’s important limitations include the rarity of studied end points combined with the small sample and the retrospective nature of our study. Conclusion: Our findings do not support the routine use of

  20. Blood lead levels in radiator repair workers in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dalton, C B; McCammon, J B; Hoffman, R E; Baron, R C

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory-based blood lead surveillance system in Colorado identified radiator repair workers as having the highest blood lead levels of all worker groups reported. A survey of 42 radiator repair shops in ten locales throughout Colorado was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of workers with elevated blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The survey was designed to test the sensitivity of the surveillance system and to assess working conditions and practices in the radiator repair industry in Colorado. Of 63 workers, 39 (62%) had blood lead levels > 25 micrograms/dL. The sensitivity of the surveillance system for detecting radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels was estimated at 11%. None of the radiator repair shops had adequate local exhaust ventilation. Work practice and engineering modifications are needed to reduce lead exposure in this industry.

  1. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, especially the differences to laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia are discussed in this article. PMID:27826574

  2. Porcelain repair - Influence of different systems and surface treatments on resin bond strength

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Young; Yoon, Hyung-In; Park, Ji-Man

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of composite resin on the fracture surface of metal-ceramic depending on the repair systems and surface roughening methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 30 disk specimens were fabricated, 15 of each were made from feldspathic porcelain and nickel-chromium base metal alloy. Each substrate was divided into three groups according to the repair method: a) application of repair system I (Intraoral Repair Kit) with diamond bur roughening (Group DP and DM), b) application of repair system I with airborne-particle abrasion (Group SP and SM), and c) application of repair system II (CoJet Intraoral Repair System, Group CP and CM). All specimens were thermocycled, and the shear bond strength was measured. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and the Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS For the porcelain specimens, group SP showed the highest shear bond strength (25.85 ± 3.51 MPa) and group DP and CP were not significantly different. In metal specimens, group CM showed superior values of bond strength (13.81 ± 3.45 MPa) compared to groups DM or SM. CONCLUSION Airborne-particle abrasion and application of repair system I can be recommended in the case of a fracture localized to the porcelain. If the fracture extends to metal surface, the repair system II is worthy of consideration. PMID:26576249

  3. Minimally Invasive Spigelian Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Catherine; Nguyen, Quan D.; Hidalgo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon ventral hernia characterized by a defect in the linea semilunaris. Repair of spigelian hernia has traditionally been accomplished via an open transverse incision and primary repair. The purpose of this article is to present 2 case reports of incarcerated spigelian hernia that were successfully repaired laparoscopically using Gortex mesh and to present a review of the literature regarding laparoscopic repair of spigelian hernias. Methods: Retrospective chart review and Medline literature search. Results: Two patients underwent laparoscopic mesh repair of incarcerated spigelian hernias. Both were started on a regular diet on postoperative day 1 and discharged on postoperative days 2 and 3. One patient developed a seroma that resolved without intervention. There was complete resolution of preoperative symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Minimally invasive repair of spigelian hernias is an alternative to the traditional open surgical technique. Further studies are needed to directly compare the open and the laparoscopic repair. PMID:19660230

  4. DNA repair genes of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Fuscoe, J.C.; Weber, C.A.

    1985-09-27

    In the CHO cell line various mutations affecting DNA repair have been obtained. Mutants that belong to five genetic complementation groups for UV sensitivity and resemble the cells from individuals having the cancer-prone genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum were previously identified. Each mutant is defective in the incision step of nucleotide excision repair and hypersensitive to bulky DNA lesions. A sixth genetic complementation group for UV sensitivity has now been identified with UV27-1. These UV mutants can be divided into two subgroups; only Groups 2 and 4 are extremely sensitive to mitomycin C and other DNA cross-linking agents. The clear-cut phenotypes of the CHO mutants have allowed us to construct hybrid cells by fusion with human lymphocytes and thereby identify which human chromosomes carry genes that correct the CHO mutations. The first two mutants analyzed, UV20 (excision-repair deficient; UV Group 2) and EM9, which has very high SCE, are both corrected by chromosome 19. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    PubMed Central

    ArRejaie, Aws S.; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  6. Effect of Finishing Time on Microleakage at the Composite-Repair Interface

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Berahman, Nazanin; Niazi, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repair is a conservative treatment of defective composite restoration. Sealing the repair interface is a critical factor to achieve successful repaired restorations. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of three finishing times on the microleakage at the composite-repair interface. Method: Eighty composite specimens (Z250) were made and aged for eight weeks in water. They were randomly divided into four groups. In the control group, repairing was done with no surface treatment and using bonding agent. In groups 2 to 4, the specimens were repaired following roughening, etching and use of Adper Single Bond, and finished immediately, after 20 minutes and after 24 hours, respectively. After thermocycling, the microleakage at the repair interface was assessed using dye-penetration technique. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results: There was a significant difference among the four groups (P<0.001). The control group with the highest leakage showed a significant difference with the other groups (P<0.05). Immediate finishing showed a significantly higher leakage compared to 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing time (P<0.001). The two latter groups had no difference. Conclusion: Immediate finishing of the repaired restorations negatively affect the sealing at the repair interface, while 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing had no adverse effect on the interface sealing. PMID:27733876

  7. Rapid Runway Repair Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report describes a series of tests to evaluate a system for rapidly repairing airfield pavement using polymer concrete (synthetic polymer plus...aggregate), thermally cured by microwave power. The technique, developed by the Syracuse University Research Corporation (SURC) for highway...maintenance, uses a truck-mounted 50-kilowatt microwave generator to irradiate areas patched with polymer concrete . Test results indicate that the polymer

  8. Complications of Distal Biceps Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Nirav H.; Volpi, Alex; Lynch, T. Sean; Patel, Ronak M.; Cerynik, Douglas L.; Schickendantz, Mark S.; Jones, Morgan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anatomic reinsertion of the distal biceps is critical for restoring flexion and supination strength. Single- and double-incision surgical techniques have been reported, analyzing complications and outcomes measures. Which technique results in superior clinical outcomes and the lowest associated complications remains unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that rerupture rates would be similar between the 2 techniques, while nerve complications would be higher for the single-incision technique and heterotopic ossification would be more frequent with the double-incision technique. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTSDiscus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify articles reporting distal biceps ruptures up to August 2013. We included English-language articles on adult patients with a minimum of 3 cases reporting single- and double-incision techniques. Frequencies of each complication as a percentage of total cases were calculated. Fisher exact tests were used to test the association between frequencies for each repair method, with P < .05 considered statistically significant. Odds ratios with 95% CIs were also computed. Results: A total of 87 articles met the inclusion criteria. Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve neurapraxia was the most common complication in the single-incision group, occurring in 77 of 785 cases (9.8%). Heterotopic ossification was the most common complication in the double-incision group, occurring in 36 of 498 cases (7.2%). Conclusion: The overall frequency of reported complications is higher for single-incision distal biceps repair than for double-incision repair. The frequencies of rerupture and nerve complications are both higher for single-incision repairs while the frequency of heterotopic ossification is higher for

  9. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  10. Improved repair of bone defects with prevascularized tissue-engineered bones constructed in a perfusion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Qiang; Li, Ming; Liu, Pei-Lai; Zhang, Yuan-Kai; Lu, Jian-Xi; Li, Jian-Min

    2014-10-01

    Vascularization of tissue-engineered bones is critical to achieving satisfactory repair of bone defects. The authors investigated the use of prevascularized tissue-engineered bone for repairing bone defects. The new bone was greater in the prevascularized group than in the non-vascularized group, indicating that prevascularized tissue-engineered bone improves the repair of bone defects. [Orthopedics. 2014; 37(10):685-690.].

  11. Effect of surface roughness on amalgam repair using adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Marcelo; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments and two adhesive systems on the shear bond strength of old and freshly placed amalgam. The results suggested that the intact amalgam showed a significantly higher strength than repaired groups and the strongest repaired specimens were made when the amalgam surfaces were roughened with a diamond bur or microetcher. The adhesive systems showed no significant differences on bond strength with the same superficial texture.

  12. Cartilage repair with autogenic perichondrium cell and polylactic acid grafts.

    PubMed

    Dounchis, J S; Bae, W C; Chen, A C; Sah, R L; Coutts, R D; Amiel, D

    2000-08-01

    The repair of articular cartilage injuries remains a challenge, with many of the current therapeutic strategies based on the grafting or recruitment of chondrogenic tissues or cells. This 1-year study compared the repair of a 3.7-mm diameter by 3-mm deep osteochondral defect in the medial femoral condyle of 24 New Zealand White rabbits; the defect was obtained using an autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid composite graft with a contralateral control in which the osteochondral defect remained empty. To elucidate the effect of host immune responses on the repair process after perichondrium cell transplantation, the results of the autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid graft group were compared with those obtained in the authors' previous 1-year study of allogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid composite grafts implanted in a similar model. One year after surgery, the repair site underwent gross inspection and histologic, histomorphometric, biochemical, and biomechanical analyses. The autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic acid graft group (92%) and the control group in which the osteochondral defect remained empty (88%) resulted in a high percentage of grossly acceptable repairs. The autogenic grafts appeared to augment the intrinsic healing capacity of the animals (as compared with the animals in the No Implant Group). The autogenic perichondrium cell polylactic and grafts improved the histologic appearance and percentage of Type II collagen of the cartilaginous repair tissue. Compared with allogenic grafts, the autogenic grafts had better reconstitution of the subchondral bone. However, the results of this experimental model suggest a suboptimal concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the neocartilage matrix, a depressed surface of the repair tissue, a histologic appearance that was not equivalent to that of normal articular cartilage, and reduced biomechanical properties for the repair tissue. The future application of growth factors to this

  13. Resin composite repair for implant-supported crowns.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Suzuki, Marcelo; Hirata, Ronaldo; Bonfante, Gerson; Fardin, Vinicius P; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-04-21

    This study evaluated the reliability of implant-supported crowns repaired with resin composites. Fifty-four titanium abutments were divided in three groups (n = 18 each) to support resin nanoceramic molar crowns, as follows: (LU) (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE); LU repaired with either a direct or an indirect resin composite. Samples were subjected to mouth-motion accelerated-life testing in water (n = 18). Cumulative damage with a use stress of 300 N was used to plot Weibull curves for group comparison. Reliability was calculated for a mission of 100,000 cycles at 400 N load. Beta values were 0.83 for LU, 0.31 and 0.27 for LU repaired with Filtek and Ceramage, respectively. Weibull modulus for LU was 9.5 and η = 1047 N, m = 6.85, and η = 1002 N for LU repaired with Ceramage, and m = 4.65 and η = 766 N for LU repaired with Filtek (p < 0.10 between LU and LU repaired with Filtek). Reliability at 400 N was 100% for both LU and LU repaired with Ceramage which were significantly higher than LU Filtek repair (32%). LU restored crowns failed cohesively. Fractures were confined within the restored material, and detailed fractography is presented. The performance of resin nanoceramic material repaired with an indirect composite was maintained after accelerated-life testing compared to unrepaired controls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  14. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-05-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m{sup 2} UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m{sup 2} and 350 J/m{sup 2} were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Stem cell repair of physeal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae I; Terry Canale, S; Butler, Stephanie D; Hasty, Karen A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to repair physeal defects, MSC-matrix constructs with 5% gelatin (group A), 10% gelatin/Gelfoam (Pharmacia, Peapack, NJ) (group B), and MSC grown in the presence of TGF-beta3 with Gelfoam (group C) were implanted in proximal tibial physeal defects created in 20 immature rabbits. Control groups (untreated partial defect and partial defect treated with Gelfoam) showed bony bar formation with varus deformities of 30 degrees and 28 degrees, respectively. Group A had an average 23 degrees varus deformity with bony bridge formation, and group B had mild varus angulation (average 14 degrees) of the proximal tibia. In group C, there was no significant varus deformity (average 9 degrees), and histologic examination showed that some of the columnation areas interspersed with chondrocytes were irregularly arranged in the matrix. These findings suggest that repair of physeal defects can be enhanced by the implantation of MSC cultured with TGF-beta3.

  16. Evaluation of the NIOSH draft method 5525 for determination of the total reactive isocyanate group (TRIG) for aliphatic isocyanates in autobody repair shops. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    PubMed

    Bello, D; Streicher, R P; Woskie, S R

    2002-06-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of the NIOSH draft method 5525 for analysis of monomeric and TRIG aliphatic isocyanates in autobody repair shops. It was found that an optimized pH gradient enhanced noticeably the resolution and, therefore, identification of aliphatic isocyanates. Samples proved to be very stable for at least a year when stored at -13 degrees C in the freezer, and no major stability problems were found for the MAP reagent. The detector response factor RSD for selected MAP ureas was 40% in the fluorescence (FLD), 3% in the UV at 254 nm (UV254), and 1% in the UV at 370 nm (UV370). The mean FLD/UV254 and UV254/UV370 detector response ratios of standards were 31.7 (RSD = 37.8) and 17.1 (RSD = 5.4), respectively. The FLD/UV254 ratio in bulks varied from 0.41 to 1.97 times the HDI monomer ratio. The mean UV254/UV370 ratio in bulks was 16.1 (range 14.1 to 19.2, N = 38). Mean (range) recovery of 92 (91.2-93.2)% was found for the N3300 (isocyanurate) spiked on 25 mm quartz fiber filters in the range 0.07 to 2.2 microg NCO ml(-1). Mean (range) recovery for impingers was 100.7 (91.7-106.0)% for N3300 in the concentration range of 0.018 to 2.5 microg NCO ml(-1) and 81.0 (76.1-89.1)% for IPDI in the concentration range of 0.016 to 1.87 microg NCO ml(-1). Analytical method precision was 3.4% and mean bias 7.4% (range = 0-25%). The NIOSH draft method 5525 provides flexibility, enhanced sensitivity and specificity, powerful resolution, and very small compound-to-compound variability in the UV254, resulting in a more reliable identification and quantification of aliphatic isocyanates.

  17. Immersion Study Abroad in Mexico: Using Repair Behaviors to Assess Proficiency Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smartt, Jerry T.; Scudder, Rosalind R.

    2004-01-01

    Repair behavior in university-level students was investigated to determine if students who study abroad use repair behavior differently from students who do not. The Mexico group (N =24) studied Conversational Spanish at La Salle University, Cancun. The U.S. group (N = 9) completed the same course at Friends University, Wichita, Kansas. Pretest…

  18. DNA excision repair at telomeres.

    PubMed

    Jia, Pingping; Her, Chengtao; Chai, Weihang

    2015-12-01

    DNA damage is caused by either endogenous cellular metabolic processes such as hydrolysis, oxidation, alkylation, and DNA base mismatches, or exogenous sources including ultraviolet (UV) light, ionizing radiation, and chemical agents. Damaged DNA that is not properly repaired can lead to genomic instability, driving tumorigenesis. To protect genomic stability, mammalian cells have evolved highly conserved DNA repair mechanisms to remove and repair DNA lesions. Telomeres are composed of long tandem TTAGGG repeats located at the ends of chromosomes. Maintenance of functional telomeres is critical for preventing genome instability. The telomeric sequence possesses unique features that predispose telomeres to a variety of DNA damage induced by environmental genotoxins. This review briefly describes the relevance of excision repair pathways in telomere maintenance, with the focus on base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR). By summarizing current knowledge on excision repair of telomere damage and outlining many unanswered questions, it is our hope to stimulate further interest in a better understanding of excision repair processes at telomeres and in how these processes contribute to telomere maintenance.

  19. DNA repair in cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Parsons, S.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1983-07-01

    Most of our understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in human cells has come from the study of these processes in cultured fibroblasts. The unique properties of keratinocytes and their pattern of terminal differentiation led us to a comparative examination of their DNA repair properties. The relative repair capabilities of the basal cells and the differentiated epidermal keratinocytes as well as possible correlations of DNA repair capacity with respect to age of the donor have been examined. In addition, since portions of human skin are chronically exposed to sunlight, the repair response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) when the cells are conditioned by chronic low-level UV irradiation has been assessed. The comparative studies of DNA repair in keratinocytes from infant and aged donors have revealed no significant age-related differences for repair of UV-induced damage to DNA. Sublethal UV conditioning of cells from infant skin had no appreciable effect on either the repair or normal replication response to higher, challenge doses of UVL. However, such conditioning resulted in attenuated repair in keratinocytes from adult skin after UV doses above 25 J/m2. In addition, a surprising enhancement in replication was seen in conditioned cells from adult following challenge UV doses.

  20. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  1. Regulation of DNA repair in serum-stimulated xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, P.K.; Sirover, M.A.

    1984-10-01

    The regulation of DNA repair during serum stimulation of quiescent cells was examined in normal human cells, in fibroblasts from three xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups (A, C, and D), in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, and in ataxia telangiectasia cells. The regulation of nucleotide excision repair was examined by exposing cells to ultraviolet irradiation at discrete intervals after cell stimulation. Similarly, base excision repair was quantitated after exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. WI-38 normal human diploid fibroblasts, xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, as well as ataxia telangiectasia cells enhanced their capacity for both nucleotide excision repair and for base excision repair prior to their enhancement of DNA synthesis. Further, in each cell strain, the base excision repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase was increased prior to the induction of DNA polymerase using the identical cells to quantitate each activity. In contrast, each of the three xeroderma complementation groups that were examined failed to increase their capacity for nucleotide excision repair above basal levels at any interval examined. This result was observed using either unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of 10 mM hydroxyurea or using repair replication in the absence of hydroxyurea to quantitate DNA repair. However, each of the three complementation groups normally regulated the enhancement of base excision repair after methylmethane sulfonate exposure and each induced the uracil DNA glycosylase prior to DNA synthesis. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Vascularized dorsal digital fascial flap improves flexor tendon repairs.

    PubMed

    Sun, L-Q; Zhao, G; Gao, S-H; Chen, C

    2014-09-01

    We report a new method of flexor tendon repair in zone II using a standard modified Kessler technique combined with a vascularized dorsal fascial flap from the finger pedicled on a dorsal cutaneous branch of the proper digital artery, which is placed as a mechanical barrier between the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons. The functional outcomes of 14 patients (Group A) with flexor tendon repairs in zone II by this new technique were compared with those of 32 patients (Group B) with flexor tendon repairs in zone II using a standard modified Kessler technique only. Patients in Group A had a higher proportion of excellent results (on the modified Strickland system) and more movement in the distal interphalangeal joint than the patients in Group B.

  3. The effect of muscle repair on postoperative facial skeletal growth in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Nagase, T; Januszkiewicz, J S; Keall, H J; de Geus, J J

    1998-12-01

    The effect of orbicularis muscle repair on postoperative facial skeletal growth in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients was studied by analysis of cephalometric radiographs and dental casts. Sixty-two patients operated on between 1961-1989 were selected for the study. They were divided into three groups, group 1a (muscle repair; n = 12), group 1b (failed attempt at muscle repair; n = 5), and group 2 (no attempt at muscle repair; n = 45). Comparison of the morphological measurements among these three groups showed that there was a trend towards crossbite in the muscle repair group, but this difference was not significant. Mechanisms by which muscle repair might influence maxillofacial skeletal growth include the possibility that the area around the nasal septum might be the growth centre. The choice of operative technique in bilateral cleft lip and palate should be important.

  4. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions of purged material resulting from immediate repair would be greater than the fugitive emissions likely to result from delay of repair, and (ii) When repair procedures are effected, the purged...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purged material resulting from immediate repair would be greater than the fugitive emissions likely to result from delay of repair, and (ii) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material...

  7. Biomechanical Study of Two Peripheral Suture Methods on Repaired Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Flexor digitorum tendon injuries are challenging conditions to manage to ensure optimal patient outcomes. While several surgical approaches with high success rates have been developed, there remains no gold standard for suture technique for the repair of flexor tendon injuries. In this study, we compared two distinct peripheral suture methods on the strength of repaired tendons. Pig flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used in biomechanical studies and the biomechanical influence on tendon repair of continuous running peripheral suture (CRPS) and continuous locking peripheral suture (CLPS), were compared, using stitch length ranging from 1mm to 5mm. In CRPS, the 1mm stitch length group displayed the highest maximum load and breaking power, which was 1.57 fold higher than the 2mm stitch length group. Pairwise comparison revealed that the 1 and 2mm groups were statistically different from the 3, 4, and 5mm stitch length groups while comparison among the latter groups was not statistically significant. For CLPS, the 1mm group exhibited consistently the highest maximum load strength and breaking power, which was twice the strength displayed by the 2mm group. Pairwise comparisons between groups showed statistical significance. For future repairs of flexor tendon injuries, 1mm stitch length is highly recommended for simple peripheral suture.

  8. New Materials for the Repair of Polyimide Electrical Wire Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Two viable polyimide backbone materials have been identified that will allow the repair of polyimide electrical wire insulation found on the Space Shuttle and other aging aircraft. This identification is the outcome of ongoing efforts to assess the viability of using such polyimides and polyimide precursors (polyamic acids [PAAs]) as repair materials for aging polyimide electrical wire insulation. These repair materials were selected because they match the chemical makeup of the underlying wire insulation as closely as possible. This similarity allows for maximum compatibility, coupled with the outstanding physical properties of polyimides. The two polyimide backbone materials allow the polymer to be extremely flexible and to melt at low temperatures. A polymer chain end capping group that allows the polymer to crosslink into a nonflowable repair upon curing at around 200 C was also identified.

  9. Mitral Repair Is Superior to Replacement When Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reece, T Brett; Tribble, Curtis G.; Ellman, Peter I.; Maxey, Thomas S.; Woodford, Randall L.; Dimeling, George M.; Wellons, Harry A.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of mitral repair and replacement in revascularized patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Summary Background Data: Combined coronary bypass (CABG) and mitral procedures have been associated with the highest mortality (>10%) in cardiac surgery. Recent studies have suggested that mitral valve replacement (MVR) with sparing of the subvalvular apparatus had comparable results to mitral repair when associated with CABG. Methods: Over the past 7 years, 54 patients had CABG/mitral repair versus 56 who had CABG/MVR with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. The groups were similar in age at 69.2 years in the replacement group versus 67.0 in the repair group. We compared these 2 groups based on hospital mortality, incidence of complications including nosocomial infection, neurologic decompensation (stroke), pulmonary complication (pneumonia, atelectasis, and prolonged ventilation), and renal complications (acute renal failure or insufficiency). Results: The mitral repair group had a hospital mortality of 1.9% versus 10.7% in the replacement group (P = 0.05). Infection occurred in 9% of repairs compared with 13% of replacements (P = 0.59). The incidence of stroke was no different between groups (2 of 54 repairs vs. 2 of 56 replacements, P = 1.00). Pulmonary complication rate was 39% in repairs versus 32% in replacements (P = 0.59). Worsening renal function occurred in 15% of repairs versus 18% of replacements (P = 0.67). Conclusions: Mitral repair is superior to mitral replacement when associated with coronary artery disease in terms of perioperative morbidity and hospital mortality. Although preservation of the subvalvular apparatus with MVR has a theoretical advantage in terms of ventricular function, mitral repair clearly adds a survival benefit in patients with concomitant ischemic cardiac disease. PMID:15082971

  10. Membrane Repair: Mechanisms and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sandra T.; McNeil, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have been confronted throughout their evolution with potentially lethal plasma membrane injuries, including those caused by osmotic stress, by infection from bacterial toxins and parasites, and by mechanical and ischemic stress. The wounded cell can survive if a rapid repair response is mounted that restores boundary integrity. Calcium has been identified as the key trigger to activate an effective membrane repair response that utilizes exocytosis and endocytosis to repair a membrane tear, or remove a membrane pore. We here review what is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of membrane repair, with particular emphasis on the relevance of repair as it relates to disease pathologies. Collective evidence reveals membrane repair employs primitive yet robust molecular machinery, such as vesicle fusion and contractile rings, processes evolutionarily honed for simplicity and success. Yet to be fully understood is whether core membrane repair machinery exists in all cells, or whether evolutionary adaptation has resulted in multiple compensatory repair pathways that specialize in different tissues and cells within our body. PMID:26336031

  11. Instructional Guide for Autobody Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    The curriculum guide was developed to serve as a statewide model for Virginia auto body repair programs. The guide is designed to 1,080 hours of instruction in eleven blocks: orientation, introduction, welding and cutting, techniques of shaping metal, body filler and fiberglass repairs, body and frame, removing and replacing damaged parts, basic…

  12. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  13. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  14. Small Crater Expedient Repair Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Crater 4, the timed polymer-concrete repair, failed due to material quality. An estimated 20 of the 464 bags of SilikalO lacked the benzoyl ... peroxide catalyst required for polymerization. As a result of this omission, several areas of the repair failed to harden, causing the unpolymerized mateiial

  15. A new nucleotide-excision-repair gene associated with the disorder trichothiodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanini, M.; Giliani, S. ); Vermuelen, W.; Weeda, G.; Hoeijmakers, H.J.; Mezzina, M.; Sarasin, A.; Harper, J.I.; Arlett, C.F.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1993-10-01

    The sun-sensitive, cancer-prone genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is associated in most cases with a defect in the ability to carry out excision repair of UV damage. Seven genetically distinct complementation groups (i.e., A-G) have been identified. A large proportion of patients with the unrelated disorder trichothiodystrophy (TTD), which is characterized by hair-shaft abnormalities, as well as by physical and mental retardation, are also deficient in excision repair of UV damage. In most of these cases the repair deficiency is in the same complementation group as is XP group D. The authors report here on cells from a patient, TTD1BR, in which the repair defect complements all known XP groups (including XP-D). Furthermore, microinjection of various cloned human repair genes fails to correct the repair defect in this cell strain. The defect in TTD1BR cells is therefore in a new gene involved in excision repair in human cells. The finding of a second DNA repair gene that is associated with the clinical features of TTD argues strongly for an involvement of repair proteins in hair-shaft development. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Comparison of shear bond strength of two porcelain repair systems after different surface treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ashish; Mohan, Murali S.; Gowda, E. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraoral chair side porcelain repair system is a quick, painless and highly patient acceptable procedure, without removal of restoration or fabrication of new restoration. There are very limited studies conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of repair systems after different surface treatment. Objectives of Research: The objective of research was to evaluate the shear bond strength of two intraoral porcelain repair systems Clearfil repair system (Kuraray) and Ceramic repair system (Ivoclar) to repair metal-ceramic restoration after three different surface treatment. Materials and Methods: Totally, 120 discs of base metal alloy were fabricated. The opaque, dentine and enamel of ceramic were applied to achieve the uniform thickness. Defect was created, and repair was done using two repair systems after different surface treatment. Shear bond strength was measured. Results: Analysis of variance was utilized. Ceramic repair system after 40% phosphoric acid surface treatment showed the highest mean value and Clearfil repair system after surface treatment with 37% phosphoric acid showed the lowest. The statistical difference was found to be significant between the groups. Conclusion: The shear bond strength of Ceramic repair system with 40% phosphoric acid etching showed highest shear bond strength as compared to other system and surface treatment used in the study. PMID:26097354

  17. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity.

  18. Laparoscopic repair of recurrent hernias.

    PubMed

    Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic approach to recurrent inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired all potential areas of recurrence without producing tension. Both a transabdominal preperitoneal and a totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach were utilized. Ninety recurrent hernias were repaired in 81 patients. The patients had 26 indirect, 36 direct, and 26 pantaloon recurrent hernias of which eight had a femoral component. In all but one patient the primary operations were open anterior repairs. The median follow-up was 14 months, ranging from 1 to 28 months. Patients returned to normal activities in an average of 1 week. The only recurrence observed was in the one patient whose primary repair was laparoscopic. When the entire inguinal floor of the recurrent hernia was redissected and buttressed with mesh, early recurrence was eliminated and recovery was shortened.

  19. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  20. TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Scott Parazynski provided a retrospective on the EVA tools and procedures efforts NASA went through in the aftermath of Columbia for the Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) inspection and repair. He describes his role as the lead astronaut on this effort, and covered all of the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), KC 135 (reduced gravity aircraft), Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF), vacuum chamber and 1 G testing that was done in order to develop the tools and techniques that were flown. Parazynski also discusses how the EVA community worked together to resolve a huge safety issue, and how his work in the spacesuit was critical to overcoming a design limitation of the Space Shuttle.

  1. Wound repair in Pocillopora.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry Martin; Calderon-Aguilera, Luis Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  2. DNA repair in human fibroblasts treated with a combination of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, F.E.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-07-01

    Excision repair of DNA damage was measured by the photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated during repair in normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum group C fibroblasts (XP C) treated with a combination of the carcinogens N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino fluorene (AAAF), and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). Repair was additive in normal and XP C cells treated with AAAF plus 4NQO, indicating that there are different rate limiting steps for removal of 4NQO and AAAF lesions.

  3. Frequency of intrachromosomal homologous recombination induced by UV radiation in normally repairing and excision repair-deficient human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimura, T.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. ); Godwin, A.R.; Liskay, R.M. )

    1990-02-01

    To investigate the role of DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair in intrachromosomal homologous recombination, a plasmid containing duplicated copies of the gene coding for hygromycin resistance was introduced into the genome of a repair-proficient human cell line, KMST-6, and two repair-deficient lines, XP2OS(SV) from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and XP2YO(SV) from complementation group F. Neither hygromycin-resistance gene codes for a functional enzyme because each contains an insertion/deletion mutation at a unique site, but recombination between the two defective genes can yield hygromycin-resistant cells. The rates of spontaneous recombination in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cell strains containing the recombination substrate were found to be similar. The frequency of UV-induced recombination was determined for three of these cell strains. At low doses, the group A cell strain and the group F cell strain showed a significant increase in frequency of recombinants. The repair-proficient cell strain required 10-to 20-fold higher doses of UV to exhibit comparable increases in frequency of recombinants. These results suggest that unexcised DNA damage, rather than the excision repair process per se, stimulates such recombination.

  4. Titanium Mesh Nasal Repair without Nasal Lining.

    PubMed

    Zenga, Joseph; Kao, Katherine; Chen, Collin; Gross, Jennifer; Hahn, Samuel; Chi, John J; Branham, Gregory H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe outcomes for patients who underwent titanium mesh reconstruction of full-thickness nasal defects without internal lining repair. This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with through-and-through nasal defects were identified at a single academic institution between 2008 and 2016. Nasal reconstruction was performed with either titanium mesh and external skin reconstruction without repair of the intranasal lining or traditional three-layer closure. Five patients underwent titanium mesh reconstruction and 11 underwent traditional three-layer repair. Median follow-up was 11 months (range, 2-66 months). The only significant difference between groups was older age in patients undergoing titanium reconstruction (mean, 81 vs. 63 years; difference of 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4-32 years). Defect extent including overall size and structures removed was similar between groups (p > 0.05). Paramedian forehead flap was the most common external reconstruction in both groups (100% for titanium mesh and 73% for three-layer closure). Time under anesthesia was significantly shorter for titanium mesh reconstruction (median, 119 vs. 314 minutes; difference of 195; 95% CI, 45-237). Estimated blood loss and length of hospital stay were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Complication rates were substantial although not significantly different, 40 and 36% in titanium and three-layer reconstruction, respectively (p > 0.05). All patients with complications after titanium reconstruction had prior or postoperative radiotherapy. Titanium mesh reconstruction of through-and-through nasal defects can successfully be performed without reconstruction of the intranasal lining, significantly decreasing operative times. This reconstructive technique may not be suitable for patients who undergo radiotherapy.

  5. How to repair an episiotomy.

    PubMed

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio .

  6. Rotator Cuff Repair in Patients over 75 Years of Age: Clinical Outcome and Repair Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Gwan; Cho, Nam Su; Song, Jong Hoon; Baek, Jong Hun; Jeong, Ho Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown significant functional improvement after rotator cuff (RC) repair in elderly patients. However, few studies have reported the healing potential of RC tears in elderly patients. Methods Twenty-five patients aged ≥ 75 years who underwent RC repair were enrolled. The mean age at the time of surgery was 78.3 years (range, 75 to 88 years) while the mean follow-up was 36.3 months (range, 18 to 114 months). We evaluated clinical and structural outcomes after RC repair in the retear and healed groups. Results Of 25 patients, 16 (64%) had healed RC lesions and 9 (36%) had retorn cuff lesions. The retear rate increased significantly with increasing initial tear size (small to medium, 13%; large, 60%; massive, 80%; p = 0.024) but not with increasing age (p = 0.072). The mean visual analog scale (VAS), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), and Constant scores significantly improved from 5.2, 15.8, and 49.3 preoperatively to 1.4, 31.1, and 71.9 in the healed group and from 6.0, 14.4, and 39.5 preoperatively to 2.4, 28.3, and 63.6 in the retear group at the final follow-up (p < 0.05, respectively). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the 2 groups at the final follow-up. Retear was significantly correlated with initial tear size (p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 2.771; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.394 to 5.509 for large to massive tears) (p = 0.001; OR, 0.183; 95% CI, 0.048 to 0.692 for small to medium tears). Conclusions There were significant improvements in clinical outcomes after RC repair in patients ≥ 75 years. Structural integrity after cuff repair did not affect the final clinical outcome. Even in elderly patients aged ≥ 75 years, healing of repaired RC can be expected in cases of small to medium tears. Although the retear rate was relatively high for large to massive tears, clinical outcomes still showed significant improvement. PMID:27904725

  7. Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Ciuluvica, R; Dinu, I; Careba, I; Gradinaru, S

    2015-01-01

    The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from the total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life. The majority of cases required reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this was that the bony walls were comminuted and/ or bone fragments were missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of the missing bone was important rather than reducing the bone fragments. This could be accomplished by using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: non resorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/ allogeneic/ xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of the material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:25914737

  8. Bone repair and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  9. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    acceptable only if at least one undamaged flange remains in the existing internal structure. Sandwich repairs using extrusions or formed parts are better...easily be affected by bridging the damage with two L-angle extrusions fastened together through undamaged portions of the existing rod to form a ‘splint...Cell Repairs Rubber fuel bladders with damage less than 3 inches/7.6 cm can be repaired in a manner similar to patching tire inner-tubes using Buna-N

  10. Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s Repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein Mesh Repair of Direct Inguinal Hernias in Rural Population – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh M; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuthadi Sravan; Mithun, Gorre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lichtenstein’s tension free mesh hernioplasty is the commonly done open technique for inguinal hernias. As our hospital is in rural area, majority of patients are labourers, open hernias are commonly done. The present study was done by comparing Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein mesh repair (LMR) of direct Inguinal Hernias to compare the technique of both surgeries and its outcome like postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods A comparative randomized study was conducted on patients reporting to MNR hospital, sangareddy with direct inguinal hernias. A total of fifty consecutive patients were included in this study of which, 25 patients were operated by LMR and 25 patients were operated by MBR+LMR and followed up for a period of two years. The outcomes of the both techniques were compared. Results Study involved 25 each of Lichtenstein’s mesh repair (LMR) and modified bassini’s repair (MBR) + LMR, over a period of 2 years. The duration of surgery for lichtenstein mesh repair is around 34.56 min compared to LMR+MBR, which is 47.56 min which was statistically significant (p-value is <0.0001). In this study the most common complication for both the groups was seroma. The pain was relatively higher in LMR+MBR group in POD 1, but not statistically significant (p-value is 0.0949) and from POD 7 the pain was almost similar in both groups. The recurrence rate is 2% for LMR and 0% for MBR+LMR. Conclusion LMR+MBR was comparatively better than only LMR in all direct inguinal hernias because of low recurrence rate (0%) and low postoperative complications, which showed in our present study. PMID:27042517

  11. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline M; Tanaka, Denise M; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valeria MC; Mazzer, Nilton

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis) and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis) during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05). A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32). Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary. PMID:26770674

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Repair Summaries. Sec. 19 Section 19 Shipping... Sec. 19 Ship Repair Summaries. (a) Ship Repair Summaries shall be prepared on Form MA-159 by the... jurisdiction and submitted to the District Ship Repair and Maintenance office involved. The summaries must...

  17. Biological significance of domain-oriented DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, G.J.; Elking, C.F.

    1988-02-15

    The patterns (domain oriented versus a random location) and amounts of DNA excision repair, determined by standard density gradient techniques and sedimentation properties of partially repaired and UV-endonuclease-digested DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients, are reported for UV (254 nm)-irradiated nondividing xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C or A (XP-C, XP-A) and normal cells. Repair synthesis in relatively UV-resistant XP-C (XP4RO) cells is domain oriented and limited (10% of normal values) while it is randomly located and not as limited in more sensitive XP-A (XP8LO) cells. Thus, greater UV resistance is associated with a very limited but domain-oriented pattern of repair. In XP-C cells, both total and domain-oriented repair syntheses, while limited, increase with UV dose and plateau at about 15-20 J/m2, as observed for normal cells. We suggest that repair in XP-C is limited at the lower UV doses (less than 15-20 J/m2) by substrate levels in specific chromatin domains and not by availability of essential enzymes for domain-oriented repair. In contrast, the XP-A strain XP8LO exhibits normal repair activities for doses up to 5 J/m2 and limited repair at higher doses, indicating that repair occurs through normal pathways that are limited by reduced availability of an essential enzyme.

  18. Laparoscopic-assisted Ventral Hernia Repair: Primary Fascial Repair with Polyester Mesh versus Polyester Mesh Alone.

    PubMed

    Karipineni, Farah; Joshi, Priya; Parsikia, Afshin; Dhir, Teena; Joshi, Amit R T

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic-assisted ventral hernia repair (LAVHR) with mesh is well established as the preferred technique for hernia repair. We sought to determine whether primary fascial closure and/or overlap of the mesh reduced recurrence and/or complications. We conducted a retrospective review on 57 LAVHR patients using polyester composite mesh between August 2010 and July 2013. They were divided into mesh-only (nonclosure) and primary fascial closure with mesh (closure) groups. Patient demographics, prior surgical history, mesh overlap, complications, and recurrence rates were compared. Thirty-nine (68%) of 57 patients were in the closure group and 18 (32%) in the nonclosure group. Mean defect sizes were 15.5 and 22.5 cm(2), respectively. Participants were followed for a mean of 1.3 years [standard deviation (SD) = 0.7]. Recurrence rates were 2/39 (5.1%) in the closure group and 1/18 (5.6%) in the nonclosure group (P = 0.947). There were no major postoperative complications in the nonclosure group. The closure group experienced four (10.3%) complications. This was not a statistically significant difference (P = 0.159). The median mesh-to-hernia ratio for all repairs was 15.2 (surface area) and 3.9 (diameter). Median length of stay was 14.5 hours (1.7-99.3) for patients with nonclosure and 11.9 hours (6.9-90.3 hours) for patients with closure (P = 0.625). In conclusion, this is one of the largest series of LAVHR exclusively using polyester dual-sided mesh. Our recurrence rate was about 5 per cent. Significant mesh overlap is needed to achieve such low recurrence rates. Primary closure of hernias seems less important than adequate mesh overlap in preventing recurrence after LAVHR.

  19. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scan Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular Aortic angiography Hardening of ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla ...

  20. Biologic scaffold for CNS repair.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanwei; Modo, Michel; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-05-01

    Injury to the CNS typically results in significant morbidity and endogenous repair mechanisms are limited in their ability to restore fully functional CNS tissue. Biologic scaffolds composed of individual purified components have been shown to facilitate functional tissue reconstruction following CNS injury. Extracellular matrix scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues retain a number of bioactive molecules and their ability for CNS repair has recently been recognized. In addition, novel biomaterials for dural mater repairs are of clinical interest as the dura provides barrier function and maintains homeostasis to CNS. The present article describes the application of regenerative medicine principles to the CNS tissues and dural mater repair. While many approaches have been exploring the use of cells and/or therapeutic molecules, the strategies described herein focus upon the use of extracellular matrix scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues that are free of cells and exogenous factors.

  1. Mammalian DNA Repair. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-01-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Mammalian DNA Repair was held at Harbortown Resort, Ventura Beach, CA. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  2. Nucleotide excision repair in humans.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-12-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process.

  3. Nucleotide excision repair in humans

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The demonstration of DNA damage excision and repair replication by Setlow, Howard-Flanders, Hanawalt and their colleagues in the early 1960s, constituted the discovery of the ubiquitous pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER). The serial steps in NER are similar in organisms from unicellular bacteria to complex mammals and plants, and involve recognition of lesions, adducts or structures that disrupt the DNA double helix, removal of a short oligonucleotide containing the offending lesion, synthesis of a repair patch copying the opposite undamaged strand, and ligation, to restore the DNA to its original form. The transcription-coupled repair (TCR) subpathway of NER, discovered nearly two decades later, is dedicated to the removal of lesions from the template DNA strands of actively transcribed genes. In this review I will outline the essential factors and complexes involved in NER in humans, and will comment on additional factors and metabolic processes that affect the efficiency of this important process. PMID:26388429

  4. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  5. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    PubMed

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  6. Bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis can be repaired through reduction in disease activity with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Haruko; Ohno, Shigeru; Hattori, Hideaki; Senuma, Akiko; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    We conducted the present study to determine whether repair of erosions occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and to compare clinical characteristics between patients exhibiting and not exhibiting erosion repair. We included in the study a total of 122 RA patients who fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA; all patients had paired sequential radiographs of both hands and wrists showing erosive changes at baseline. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence of repair of erosions at follow up, namely the 'repair observed' and 'repair not observed' groups. Clinical characteristics, disease activity, radiographic scores and treatment in the two groups were compared. Forty-four repairs were observed in 13 patients (10.7%). Compared with the repair not observed group, the functional class of the patients in the repair observed group was lower at baseline (P < 0.01) and the mean disease activity was lower at follow up (P < 0.005). The changes in radiographic scores per year (total radiographic score and erosion score) were lower (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in the repair observed group. No difference in treatment was observed. Repair of erosions was detected in 10.7% of RA patients treated with conventional DMARDs. Repairs were associated with low functional class at baseline and low disease activity at follow up. These observations support the importance of reduction in disease activity in RA patients. Because repair of erosions was detected in a substantial number of patients, assessment of erosion repair should be incorporated into the radiographic evaluation and scoring of RA.

  7. Economic evaluation of open versus laparoscopic hernia repair: some pragmatic considerations for the measurement of costs.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, E; Donaldson, C; Grant, A

    1998-12-01

    Laparoscopic hernia repair costs more than open repair. This increase in cost largely is because of the use of disposables. Indirect cost benefits of laparoscopic procedure because of a more rapid return to normal activity are different to calculate but may be present for select groups of patients.

  8. Introduction of a New Suture Method in Repair of Peripheral Nerves Injured with a Sharp Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Saied, Alireza; Shekaari, Majid Asadi; Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Karbalaeikhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The standard method for repair of an injured peripheal nerve is epineural repair with separate sutures. Herein we describe a method in which the nerve is sutured with continous sutures. In fact this method has not been utilized for nerve repair previously and our purpose was to compare it to the standard method. If it proved to be successful it would replace the standard method in certain circumstances. Methods: The proposal of the clinical trial was given a reference number form the ethics comitee. 25 dogs in which the scaitic nerve was cut by a sharp blade under genaeral anesthesia were divided randomly into three groups: control (5 dogs), repair of sciatic nerve with simple sutures (10) and repair with continous sutures (10). In the control group the nerve was not repaired at all. After 6 weeks the dogs were killed and the nerve was studied by light and electronic microscopes. The amount of consumed suture material, time of repair, myelin thickness and axon diiameter were examined. Ultrastructural studies were performed to assess degeneration and regeneration findings. Results: Time of repair and the amount of consumed suture material were significantly lower in the continous group (P<0.001). No difference was found with regard to light microscopy findings and regeneration was confirmed by electron microscopy in the continous group. Conclusion: The method described in the present study, provided a result similar to the standard method. Though undobtfully it has some limitations, can replace the standard method in many circumstances. PMID:26550589

  9. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  10. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. Methods: A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. Conclusion: The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  11. Shotcrete for Expedient Structural Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    AD-A260 788 ESL-TR-90-14 SHOTCRETE FOR EXPEDIENT STRUCTURAL REPAIR 4t ’Pit at MARK ANDERSON APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. P.O. BOX 40128...SUBTITrrLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Shotcrete for Expedient Structural Repair 4. AUTHOR(S) F08635-88-C-0067 Anderson, Mark 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release. Distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Shotcrete , or

  12. Durability of Expedient Repair Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    by the Flofida Department of Transportation. I&. SUWIUET" TERMS 󈧓. NUMBER OF 1A1ES Expedient Repair Materials 21PAGE Shotcrete Air Force Base...produced by CTS Cemem Company. A dry process shotcrete standard, MicrosilR, and a State of Florida corrosion - resistant concrete system, referred to as...34 durability of the rapid repair materials tested by conventional methods for determining durability. E. CONCLUSIONS The blended Rapid-SetR shotcrete system

  13. Regulation of DNA repair in serum-stimulated xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The regulation of DNA repair during serum stimulation of quiescent cells was examined in normal human cells, in fibroblasts from three xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups (A, C, and D), in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, and in ataxia telangiectasia cells. The regulation of nucleotide excision repair was examined by exposing cells to ultraviolet irradiation at discrete intervals after cell stimulation. Similarly, base excision repair was quantitated after exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. WI-38 normal human diploid fibroblasts, xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells, as well as ataxia telangiectasia cells enhanced their capacity for both nucleotide excision repair and for base excision repair prior to their enhancement of DNA synthesis. Further, in each cell strain, the base excision repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase was increased prior to the induction of DNA polymerase using the identical cells to quantitate each activity. In contrast, each of the three xeroderma complementation groups that were examined failed to increase their capacity for nucleotide excision repair above basal levels at any interval examined. This result was observed using either unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of 10 mM hydroxyurea or using repair replication in the absence of hydroxyurea to quantitate DNA repair. However, each of the three complementation groups normally regulated the enhancement of base excision repair after methylmethane sulfonate exposure and each induced the uracil DNA glycosylase prior to DNA synthesis. These results suggest that there may be a relationship between the sensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum cells from each complementation group to specific DNA damaging agents and their inability to regulate nucleotide excision repair during cell stimulation. PMID:6480691

  14. Arthroscopic revision of Bankart repair.

    PubMed

    Neri, Brian R; Tuckman, David V; Bravman, Jonathan T; Yim, Duke; Sahajpal, Deenesh T; Rokito, Andrew S

    2007-01-01

    The success of revision surgery for failed Bankart repair is not well known. This purpose of this study was to report the success rates achieved using arthroscopic techniques to revise failed Bankart repairs. Twelve arthroscopic revision Bankart repairs were performed on patients with recurrent unidirectional shoulder instability after open or arthroscopic Bankart repair. Follow-up was available on 11 of the 12 patients at a mean of 34.4 months (range, 25-56 months). The surgical findings, possible modes of failure, shoulder scores (Rowe score, University of California Los Angeles [UCLA], Simple Shoulder Test), and clinical outcome were evaluated. Various modes of failure were recognized during revision arthroscopic Bankart repairs. Good-to-excellent results were obtained in 8 patients (73%) undergoing revision stabilization according to Rowe and UCLA scoring. A subluxation or dislocation event occurred in 3 (27%) of the 11 patients at a mean of 8.7 months (range, 6-12 months) postoperatively. Arthroscopic revision Bankart repairs are technically challenging procedures but can be used to achieve stable, pain-free, functional shoulders with return to prior sport. Owing to limited follow-up and the small number of patients in this study, we were unable to conclude any pattern of failure or selection criteria for this procedure.

  15. Parastomal hernia repair. An update.

    PubMed

    Wara, P

    2011-04-01

    Repair of parastomal hernia remains controversial. Open suture repair of the fascial defect or stoma resiting are both associated with high morbidity and unacceptably high recurrence rates and are no longer recommended for routine use. Mesh repair appears to provide the best results. Following the first anectodal reports there are accumulating evidence that laparoscopic mesh repair is feasible and has a promising potential in the management of parastomal hernia. Two laparoscopic techniques have emerged, the use of a mesh with a slit and a central keyhole and a mesh without a slit, the latter often termed as a modified Sugarbaker. Published series, however, are observational and often with a short length of follow-up. Most series suffer from small sample size and controlled trials are lacking. The limited data, therefore, make it difficult to draw conclusions. At present none of the methods of open or laparoscopic mesh repair has proved superior. In spite of this laparoscopic repair has gained increasing acceptance. A polypropylene based mesh with an anti-adhesive layer covering the visceral side seems to be applicable using the keyhole technique with a slit as well as the modified Sugarbaker technique. A PTFE mesh should preferably be used with the modified Sugarbaker technique. If a PTFE mesh is used with the keyhole technique parastomal hernia is likely to recur.

  16. Correction of chromosomal instability and sensitivity to diverse mutagens by a cloned cDNA of the XRCC3 DNA repair gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbs, R.S.; Tucker, J.D.; Hwang, M.

    1995-07-03

    The mutagen-sensitive CHO line irs1SF was previously isolated on the basis of hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and was found to be chromosomally unstable as well as cross-sensitive to diverse kinds of DNA-damaging agents. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids formed between irs1SF and human lymphocytes implicated a human gene (defined as XRCC3; x-ray repair cross-complementing), which partially restored mitomycin C resistance to the mutant. A functional cDNA that confers mitomycin C resistance was transferred to irs1SF cells by transforming them with an expression cDNA library and obtaining primary and secondary transformants. Functional cDNA clones were recovered from a cosmid library prepared from a secondary transformant. Transformants also showed partial correction of sensitivity to displatin and {gamma}-rays, efficient correction of chromosomal instability, and substantially improved plating efficiency and growth rate. The XRCC3 cDNA insert is {approx} 2.5 kb and detects an {approx} 3.0-kb mRNA on Northern blots. The cDNA was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 14q32.3, which was consistent with the chromosome concordance data of two independent hybrid clone panels. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Results of arthroscopic meniscal repair

    PubMed Central

    Orlowski, María Belén; Arroquy, Damián; Chahla, Jorge; Guiñazú, Jorge; Bisso, Martín Carboni; Vilaseca, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Currently the arthroscopic treatment of meniscal pathology has become one of the most common procedures in orthopedic practice and although in most cases meniscectomy is done, meniscal sutures are the treatment of choice when a reparable lesion is diagnosed, especially in young patients. It has been reported that the meniscal repair leads to a lower incidence of developing degenerative changes in the long-term when compared with meniscectomy and nonsurgical treatment of meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of meniscal repair achieved in our sports medicine practice. Methods: Between 2006 and 2015, 62 meniscal tears in 58 patients with a mean age of 31 years (range 15-58) were repaired. Mean follow-up was 52 months (range 6-120 months). In 16 patients (28%) was associated with arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. The repair techniques used included outside-in sutures, inside-out sutures, all-inside sutures and a combination of techniques. Failure of the repair was defined by the requirement for repeat knee arthroscopy and partial or subtotal meniscectomy. The indication of arthroscopic revision was based on the presence of mechanical symptoms, after the suture. Results: Failure of meniscus repair occurred in four patients (failure rate: 6.45%), one case was associated with ACL reconstruction (failure rate: 6.25%) and 3 had undergone isolated meniscal suture (failure rate: 8%). The average time for the reoperation was 15 months (4-24). We had no intraoperative complications. Conclusion: The reported failure rate of meniscal repair in stable knees varies between 12% and 43%, with reports that demonstrate a clinical success rate of 100%. In this study, we obtained a success rate of 93.5%. These results are slightly higher than those in the literature, which can be attributed to careful selection of patients and the fact that clinical success tends to be better than the assessed arthroscopically. In summary, we consider the

  18. Effect of matrix placement on furcation perforation repair.

    PubMed

    Jantarat, J; Dashper, S G; Messer, H H

    1999-03-01

    Furcation perforations are a serious complication during endodontic treatment, and a matrix to aid placement of repair material has been recommended. This study tested the sealing ability of amalgam and Ketac silver placed with and without plaster of Paris as a matrix. A bacterial penetration technique was used to test the seal. Perforations created in the pulpal floor of extracted human mandibular molars were repaired as follows: group 1, amalgam; group 2, amalgam plus plaster as a matrix; group 3, Ketac silver; and group 4, Ketac silver plus plaster (17 teeth/group). Leakage was measured by placing bacteria (Streptococcus sobrinus) in the pulp chamber, and recording the time taken for bacterial growth in a medium bathing the root surface. A plaster of Paris matrix improved the seal with amalgam, but not with Ketac silver. Ketac silver provided the best seal, but all materials showed complete leakage within 22 days.

  19. Comparative analysis of outcome between laparoscopic versus open surgical repair for vesico-vaginal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bastab; Wats, Varun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) causes detrimental psychosomatic effects on a woman. It is repaired using open abdominal as well as laparoscopic approach. Here we compare a series of open versus laparoscopic VVF repairs done at a single centre. Methods Retrospectively data of patients undergoing VVF repair in our department between January 2011 to December 2014 was analyzed. Patients who had a single, primary, simple VVF following a gynaecological surgery were included in the study. 26 patients met all the criteria. Out of these, thirteen patients had undergone a laparoscopic VVF repair (group 1) while thirteen had undergone an open transabdominal VVF repair (group 2). Results Mean fistula size was 2.14±0.23 cm in group 1 and 2.18±0.30 cm in group 2, which was comparable. Mean blood loss was 58.69±6.48 mL in group 1 and 147.30±19.24 mL in group 2, which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). Mean hospital stay was 4 days in group 1 and 13 days in group 2 which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). The analgesic requirement (diclofenac) was 261.53±29.95 mg in group 1 and 617.30±34.43 mg in group 2, which is statistically significant (P<0.0001). Fistula repair was successful in all the patients in both the groups. Conclusion The present study shows that laparoscopic VVF repair results in reduced patient morbidity and shorter hospital stay without compromising the results. So laparoscopic repair may be a more attractive treatment option for patients with post gynecology surgery VVF. PMID:27896256

  20. In vitro comparison of two different materials for the repair of urethan dimethacrylate denture bases

    PubMed Central

    Cilingir, Altug; Bilhan, Hakan; Sulun, Tonguc; Bozdag, Ergun; Sunbuloglu, Emin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the flexural properties of a recently introduced urethane dimethacrylate denture base material (Eclipse) after being repaired with two different materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two repair groups and a control group consisting of 10 specimens each were generated. The ES group was repaired with auto-polymerizing polymer. The EE group was repaired with the Eclipse. The E group was left intact as a control group. A 3-point bending test device which was set to travel at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min was used. Specimens were loaded until fracture occurred and the mean displacement, maximum load, flexural modulus and flexural strength values and standard deviations were calculated for each group and the data were statistically analyzed. The results were assessed at a significance level of P<.05. RESULTS The mean "displacement", "maximum load before fracture", "flexural strength" and "flexural modulus" rates of Group E were statistically significant higher than those of Groups ES and EE, but no significant difference (P>.05) was found between the mean values of Group ES and EE. There was a statistically significant positive relation (P<.01) between the displacement and maximum load of Group ES (99.5%), Group EE (94.3%) and Group E (84.4%). CONCLUSION The more economic and commonly used self-curing acrylic resin can be recommended as an alternative repair material for Eclipse denture bases. PMID:24353876

  1. Evaluation of different rotary devices on bone repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Junior, Paulo Domingos; Barleto, Christiane Vespasiano; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2007-01-01

    In oral surgery, the quality of bone repair may be influenced by several factors that can increase the morbidity of the procedure. The type of equipment used for ostectomy can directly affect bone healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone repair of mandible bone defects prepared in rabbits using three different rotary devices. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=5) according to type of rotary device used to create bone defects: I--pneumatic low-speed rotation engine, II--pneumatic high-speed rotation engine, and III--electric low-speed rotation engine. The anatomic pieces were surgically obtained after 2, 7 and 30 days and submitted to histological and morphometric analysis. The morphometric results were expressed as the total area of bone remodeling matrix using an image analysis system. Increases in the bone remodeling matrix were noticed with time along the course of the experiment. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were observed among the groups at the three sacrificing time points considering the total area of bone mineralized matrix, although the histological analysis showed a slightly advanced bone repair in group III compared to the other two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the type of rotary device used in oral and maxillofacial surgery does not interfere with the bone repair process.

  2. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    Turbine blades and vanes in current engines are subjected to the most hostile environment...payoff potential in turbine vanes / blades . The criteria used included: • Incidence of damage - Scrapped or damaged turbine airfoils at the ALC centers...Corporate Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OHIO AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine

  3. Algorithms for treating redundancy in repairable and non-repairable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.E.; Longsine, D.E.; Atkins, J.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents equations and computational algorithms for analyzing reliability of several forms of redundancy in repairable and non-repairable systems. For repairable systems, active, standby, and R of N redundancy with and without repair are treated. For non-repairable systems, active, standby, and R of N redundancy are addressed. These equations can be used to calculate mean time between failures, mean time to repair, and reliability for complex systems involving redundancy.

  4. Self-repairable polymeric networks: Synthesis and network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit

    This dissertation describes the design, synthesis and development of a new class of polymeric networks that exhibit self-repairing properties under UV exposure. It consists of two parts: (a) modification and synthesis of oxetane (OXE), and oxolane (OXO) substituted chitosan (CHI) macromonomer, and (b) design, and synthesis of self-repairing polyurethane (PUR) networks consisting of modified chitosan. Unmodified CHI consisting of acetamide (-NHCOCH3), primary hydroxyl (-OH), and amine (-NH2) functional groups were reacted with OXE or OXO compounds under basic conditions in order to substitute the 1° --OH groups, and at the same time, convert -NHCOCH 3 functionalities into -NH2 groups, while maintaining their un-reacted form to generate OXE/OXO-substituted CHI macromonomer. These substituted CHI macromonomers were incorporated within the PUR backbone by reacting with trifunctional isocyanate in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dibutyl tin dilaurate catalyst (DBTDL). Utilizing spectroscopic analysis combined with optical microscopy, these studies showed that the kinetics of self-repair depends on the stoichiometry of the individual entities as well as the time required for self-repairing to occur decrease with increasing OXE quantity within the network. Internal reflection infrared imaging (IRIRI) of OXE/OXO-CHI-PUR networks as well as Raman and Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) studies of OXE/OXO-CHI macromonomers revealed that cationic OXE/OXO ring opening, free radical polyurea (PUA)-to-PUR conversion, along with chair-to-boat conformational changes of CHI backbone are responsible for repairing the damaged network. The network remodeling process, investigated by utilizing micro-thermal analyzer (muTA), revealed that mechanical damage generates small fragments or oligomers within the scratch, therefore glass transition temperature (Tg) decreases, and under UV exposure cross-linking reactions propagate from the bottom of the scratch to the top resulting in

  5. Electrically Mediated Trauma Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    an unambiguous technique for: 1) applying currents across the hemisected spinal cord of the mammal; 2) analyzing axonal regeneration within the cord ...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP spinal cord ; regeneration; bone; bioelectricity 06 01. 06 05 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...modify it, and central nervous system regeneration- especially spinal cord regeneration In bone have provided the first measurements of a natural

  6. The design of repairable advanced composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the repair of advanced composite structures by mechanical fasteners or by adhesive bonding. It is shown that many of today's composite designs are unreasonably difficult to repair. Conversely, the knowledge to design repairable structures is already available, if only it is applied during the initial design stage. Bolted or riveted repairs require only the avoidance of extremely orthotropic composite fiber patterns; those near the quasi-isotropic layup are the most suitable. Mildly orthotropic fiber patterns are appropriate for structures in which there is a dominant load direction. Thick composite structures are shown to require bolted or riveted repairs while thin structures favor adhesively bonded permanent repairs, although provisions can be easily made for temporary mechanical repairs. The reasons why integrally stiffened cocured composite designs are usually impractical to repair are explained and alternative repairable design concepts are presented.

  7. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA damage which is expressed as differential...

  8. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA damage which is expressed as differential...

  9. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a) Purpose. Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests measure DNA damage which is expressed as differential...

  10. Essentials of skin laceration repair.

    PubMed

    Forsch, Randall T

    2008-10-15

    Skin laceration repair is an important skill in family medicine. Sutures, tissue adhesives, staples, and skin-closure tapes are options in the outpatient setting. Physicians should be familiar with various suturing techniques, including simple, running, and half-buried mattress (corner) sutures. Although suturing is the preferred method for laceration repair, tissue adhesives are similar in patient satisfaction, infection rates, and scarring risk in low skin-tension areas and may be more cost-effective. The tissue adhesive hair apposition technique also is effective in repairing scalp lacerations. The sting of local anesthesia injections can be lessened by using smaller gauge needles, administering the injection slowly, and warming or buffering the solution. Studies have shown that tap water is safe to use for irrigation, that white petrolatum ointment is as effective as antibiotic ointment in postprocedure care, and that wetting the wound as early as 12 hours after repair does not increase the risk of infection. Patient education and appropriate procedural coding are important after the repair.

  11. Local and General Anesthesia in the Laparoscopic Preperitoneal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ferzli, George

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach (EXTRA) has been shown to be an effective and safe repair for primary (PIH), recurrent (RIH) and bilateral hernia (BIH). There is very little data examining the merits of laparoscopic repair for hernias under local anesthesia. In this paper, we compare EXTRA performed under both general and local anesthesia. Methods: This nonrandomized prospective study was performed selectively on a male population only. Patients with associated pulmonary disease and high risk for general surgery were selected. Patients with recurrence and previous abdominal operations were excluded to decrease confounding variables in the study. A Prolene mesh was used in all patients. Results: Between May 1997 and September 1998, 92 male patients underwent the repair of 107 groin hernias using the EXTRA technique. The procedure was explained to them, and different anesthesia options were given. Fourteen of these repairs were performed under local anesthesia and 93 under general anesthesia. Of the 10 patients who underwent a repair under local anesthesia, there were 8 indirect, 5 direct and 1 pantaloon. The mean age was 53 years. In the group of general anesthesia, the types of hernias repaired were 45 indirect, 30 direct and 11 pantaloon. The mean age was 45 years. The mean follow-up was 15 months. Each patient was sent home the same day. Two peritoneal tears were recorded in the first group. The operative time was longer in the local group (47 ± 11 vs 18 ± 3). None of the patients required conversion to an open technique or change of anesthesia. No recurrences were found in either group. The average time of return to work and regular activity was 3.5 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 days, respectively. Conclusion: There appears to be no significant difference in recurrence and complication rates when the EXTRA is performed under local anesthesia as compared to general. Blunt dissection of the preperitoneal space does not trigger pain and does not require

  12. Bonded composite repair of composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Mary A.

    Repair and maintenance cost drives a large percentage of the lifetime cost of aircraft structures. Understanding repair issues can lead to a structure that significantly lowers the lifetime cost. Advanced composite materials, while offering the potential to increase aircraft capabilities with minimum weight, are more susceptible to repairable damage than conventional aircraft materials. Improved inspection and repair methods are required to ensure structural integrity and aircraft readiness in the existing operational environment. Many of today's innovative composite designs may result in aircraft structures that are unreasonably difficult to repair. As a first step, technical issues associated with bonded composite repair of composite structures were investigated. An extensive literature review identified many areas where real world composite repairs are being used successfully. An electronic database was developed summarizing the publications found during the literature review. The database includes publication, experimental test results and analytical results of advanced composite bonded repairs. The current analysis of repair does not account for the variations that exist in repair. To facilitate the analysis, a finite element interface was developed to provide analysts with a tool that would create complete finite element models of repaired structures efficiently and in a 3-dimensional view. The finite element models created by the developed interface were successfully correlated to test data for accuracy of the results. Parametric studies were performed using the interface to evaluate effects of repair variables. Thermal impact of repair on the repair panel is one area lacking attention in the repair literature. To understand the impact of heat and thermal gradients of the repair, an analytical investigation was performed to evaluate. the parameters affected by heat. For a solid laminate, the temperature at the adhesive bondline was investigated. The primary

  13. Cognitive impairments after surgical repair of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, A.; Anderson, N.; Sampath, P.; Rigamonti, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the frequency and severity of neuropsychological impairments associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and associated with repair of intracerebral aneurysms.
METHODS—Two groups of patients who underwent repair of intracerebral aneurysms were studied: patients with unruptured aneurysms (n=20) and patients with ruptured aneurysms (n=27). All patients were administered a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests about 3 months after surgery. A subset of 12 patients with unruptured aneurysms were administered the battery both before and after elective repair of the aneurysm(s). A subset of six patients with ruptured aneurysms were given the test at both 3 months and 1year after surgery.
RESULTS—As previously reported for patients with ruptured aneurysms, patients with both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms performed, as a group, significantly below published norms on many of the neuropsychological tests after surgery. However, there were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative performance in the unruptured aneurysm group only on a few tests: measures of word fluency, verbal recall, and frontal lobe function. Performance of patients with ruptured aneurysms was significantly below that of patients with unruptured aneurysms only on a few tests of verbal and visual memory. In addition, group differences compared with published norms reflected severely impaired performance by a minority of patients, rather than moderately impaired performance in a majority of patients.
CONCLUSIONS—Although patients who undergo repair of ruptured aneursyms perform, as a group, below published norms on many neuropsychological tests, significant impairments are seen in a minority of patients. Some of the impairments are associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, whereas others (found in patients who underwent repair of unruptured aneurysms) are due to general effects of neurosurgery and perioperative management

  14. Clopidogrel enhances periodontal repair in rats through decreased inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Coimbra, Leila S; Steffens, Joao Paulo; Rossa, Carlos; Graves, Dana T; Spolidorio, Luis C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim We hypothesized that platelet inactivation induced by drugs might interfere with periodontal repair in experimental periodontitis by suppressing the release of biological mediators from platelets at the site of injury. Material and Methods 60 rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=10) and ligatures were placed around lower first molars of three groups. The other three groups were used as negative controls. Ligatures were removed after 10 days of periodontitis induction and all groups were submitted to treatment with aspirin (Asp) (30 mg/kg), clopidogrel (Clop) (75 mg/kg) or NaCl 0.9% intragastrically once daily for 3 days. Periodontal tissue was assessed by the measurement of CXCL12, CXCL4, CCL5 and PDGF by ELISA; histomorphometric analysis of PMN infiltration, attachment loss, bone loss and osteoclast numbers and quantification of blood vessels by imunnohistochemistry. Results During periodontal repair and treatment with NaCl 0.9%, CCL5 was decreased and CXCL12 increased when compared to negative control groups. Asp and Clop did not affect CCL5 expression, decreased CXCL12 but only Clop decreased CXCL4 and PDGF content compared to saline-treated animals. Clop increased blood vessel number, reduced PMN count, and decreased attachment and bone loss, also decreased osteoclast number in animals submitted or not to periodontal repair. Conclusion Systemic administration of Clop during 3 days improved the repair process associated with experimental periodontal disease, suggesting that it may have therapeutic value under situations where tissues undergo a transition from inflammation to repair. PMID:24433307

  15. Vein grafts to augment flexor tendon repairs: a biomechanical study on strength and gap resistance.

    PubMed

    Rodger, M P; Theobald, P; Giddins, G

    2015-09-01

    The ultimate tensile repair strength and gap formation of the pig extensor tendons repaired with a standard 4-strand Savage with epitendinous suture repair, was compared with a new technique of adding a vein sleeve. Force and displacement data were recorded, and video images during linear cyclic loading up to failure. At 35 N, video-graphic observation detected significantly smaller gap lengths in the standard and vein repair specimens compared with standard repair specimens (p = 0.047). The incidence of 3 mm gaps between the repaired tendon ends in the standard repair group was 20 %, but no 3 mm gaps were seen in the standard and vein specimens. The addition of a vein sleeve increased the ultimate tensile strength of the standard repair from 50.4 N (4.5) to 55.4 N (4.5); this was statistically significant (p = 0.03). This study demonstrated that the addition of a vein graft prevented gap formation and increased ultimate tensile strength of tendon repair.

  16. Recommendations for Enabling Manual Component Level Electronic Repair for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Easton, John W.; Funk, Gregory P.; Latta, Gary S.; Ganster, Andrew W.; Estes, Brett E.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration missions to the Moon and Mars pose a number of challenges to mission designers, controllers, and the crews. Among these challenges are planning for corrective maintenance actions which often require a repair. Current repair strategies on the International Space Station (ISS) rely primarily on the use of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), where a faulty unit is replaced with a spare, and the faulty unit typically returns to Earth for analysis and possible repair. The strategy of replace to repair has posed challenges even for the ISS program. Repairing faulty hardware at lower levels such as the component level can help maintain system availability in situations where no spares exist and potentially reduce logistic resupply mass.This report provides recommendations to help enable manual replacement of electronics at the component-level for future manned space missions. The recommendations include hardware, tools, containment options, and crew training. The recommendations are based on the work of the Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task of the Exploration Technology Development Program from 2006 to 2009. The recommendations are derived based on the experience of two experiments conducted by the CLEAR team aboard the International Space Station as well as a group of experienced Miniature/Microminiature (2M) electronics repair technicians and instructors from the U.S. Navy 2M Project Office. The emphasis of the recommendations is the physical repair. Fault diagnostics and post-repair functional test are discussed in other CLEAR reports.

  17. Nuclear Dynamics of Heterochromatin Repair.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Nuno; Ryu, Taehyun; Li, Xiao; Chiolo, Irene

    2017-02-01

    Repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) is particularly challenging in pericentromeric heterochromatin, where the abundance of repeated sequences exacerbates the risk of ectopic recombination and chromosome rearrangements. Recent studies in Drosophila cells revealed that faithful homologous recombination (HR) repair of heterochromatic DSBs relies on the relocalization of DSBs to the nuclear periphery before Rad51 recruitment. We summarize here the exciting progress in understanding this pathway, including conserved responses in mammalian cells and surprising similarities with mechanisms in yeast that deal with DSBs in distinct sites that are difficult to repair, including other repeated sequences. We will also point out some of the most important open questions in the field and emerging evidence suggesting that deregulating these pathways might have dramatic consequences for human health.

  18. Inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Yong; Kim, Jung Chul; Kim, Shin Kon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes after inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 636 adult patients who underwent mesh plug inguinal hernia repair performed by one surgeon from November 2001 to January 2009.The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients were analyzed. According to the body mass index, patients higher than 23 were defined as overweight and obese patient group (O group) and patients between 18.5 and 23 were defined as normal weight patient group (N group). Seventeen underweight patients were excluded in this study. Results Of 619 cases, the number for O group was 344 (55.6%) and for N group was 275 (44.4%). The mean age was significantly higher in N group (62.2 ± 12.6 vs. 64.4 ± 14.8, P = 0.048). Underlying diseases were present in 226 (65.7%) of the O group and 191 (69.5%) of the N group (P = 0.322). Anesthesia method, operative time and postoperative hospital stay had no significant difference between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 41 (11.9%) of the O group and in 28 (10.2%) of the N group, respectively, and no major complications developed in either group. Conclusion Adult inguinal hernias developed at a relatively younger age in overweight and obese patients than in normal weight patients. There were no specific differences in other clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two groups. Therefore inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients is a safe procedure as in normal weight patients. PMID:22066122

  19. Complications of groin hernia repair: their prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Gaines, R D

    1978-03-01

    An estimated overall complication rate of approximately ten percent is found in the half million patients who annually undergo groin hernia repair in the United States. Certain features in the operative technique are emphasized which should prevent many of these complications.Intraoperative complications during the groin hernia repair are primarily hemorrhage and injury to the vas deferens, the three nerves in the area, the vascular supply of the testis, and the abdominal and pelvic viscera. Miscellaneous intraoperative complications relate to problems associated with the repair of massive hernias, missed hernia, and the loss of strangulated bowel into the abdominal cavity.Early postoperative complications may be either systemic or local with cardiac and respiratory conditions comprising the former group. The early local complications are primarily wound problems of infection, hematoma formation, and scrotal swelling involving the skin and testis. High ligation in excision of the sac in all hernias, repair of the defect in the plane of its occurrence, and suture of fascia to fascia in the same plane without tension are the basic tenets of inguinal hernia repair which should result in a low incidence of recurrence.The most effective prophylactic measures necessary for the prevention of complications considered are a thorough knowledge of inguinofemoral anatomy, mature surgical judgment, and meticulous surgical technique.

  20. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option.

  1. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  2. Comparing Gray and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate as a Repair Material for Furcation Perforation: An in Vitro Dye Extraction Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kiran; Baba, Suheel Manzoor; Jaiswal, Shikha; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Jani, Mehul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Furcation perforation can have a negative impact on the prognosis of the affected tooth by compromising the attached apparatus. Hence these perforations require immediate repair. A variety of materials have been suggested for repair, of that MTA is the most promising material. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of Gray and White MTA to seal furcation perforations using a dye extraction method under spectrophotometer. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 permanent mandibular molars were randomly divided into four experimental groups of 15 samples each as follows: Group A: Perforation repaired with White MTA. Group B: Perforation repaired with Gray MTA. Group C: Perforation left unsealed (positive). Group D: without perforation (negative). Dye extraction was performed using full concentration nitric acid. Dye absorbance was measured at 550 nm using spectrophotometer. The data analyzed using one-way-Anova Ratio and Unpaired t-test showing statistically significance difference among the groups. Result: It was seen that Group D samples without perforation showed least absorbance followed by Group A (perforation repaired with White MTA) and Group B (perforation repaired with Gray MTA). Group C (perforation left unsealed) showed highest absorbance. Conclusion: The White and Gray Mineral Trioxide Aggregate performed similarly as a furcation perforation repair material. There was no significant difference between the Gray MTA and White MTA. PMID:25478452

  3. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory and construction, inspection diagnoses, and service and overhaul of automotive engines. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Fundamentals of Four-Cycle Engines, (2) Engine Construction, (3) Valve Train, (4) Lubricating Systems, and (5)…

  4. Ultraviolet light-resistant primary transfectants of xeroderma pigmentosum cells are also DNA repair-proficient

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.; Naiman, T.; Canaani, D. )

    1989-08-15

    In a previous work, an immortal xeroderma pigmentosum cell line belonging to complementation group C was complemented to a UV-resistant phenotype by transfection with a human cDNA clone library. We now report that the primary transformants selected for UV-resistance also acquired normal levels of DNA repair. This was assessed both by measurement of UV-induced ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation and by equilibrium sedimentation analysis of repair-DNA synthesis. Therefore, the transduced DNA element which confers normal UV-resistance also corrects the excision repair defect of the xeroderma pigmentosum group C cell line.

  5. The Influence of Arthroscopic Remplissage for Engaging Hill-Sachs Lesions Combined with Bankart Repair on Redislocation and Shoulder Function Compared with Bankart Repair Alone

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sang-Hun; Cha, Jae-Ryong; Hwang, Il-Yeong; Choe, Chang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrence of glenohumeral dislocation after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be associated with a large osseous defect in the posterosuperior part of the humeral head. Our hypothesis is that remplissage is more effective to prevent recurrence of glenohumeral instability without a severe motion deficit. Methods Engaging Hill-Sachs lesions were observed in 48 of 737 patients (6.5%). Twenty-four patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair combined with remplissage (group I) and the other 24 patients underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair alone (group II). Clinical outcomes were prospectively evaluated by assessing the range of motion. Complications, recurrence rates, and functional results were assessed utilizing the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Rowe score, and the Korean Shoulder Score for Instability (KSSI) score. Capsulotenodesis healing after remplissage was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. Results The average ASES, Rowe, and KSSI scores were statistically significantly higher in group I than group II. The frequency of recurrence was statistically significantly higher in group II. The average loss in external rotation measured with the arm positioned at the side of the trunk was greater in group II and that in abduction was also higher in group II. Conclusions Compared to single arthroscopic Bankart repair, the remplissage procedure combined with arthroscopic Bankart repair was more effective to prevent the recurrence of anterior shoulder instability without significant impact on shoulder mobility in patients who had huge Hill-Sachs lesions. PMID:27904726

  6. A Randomized Trial of Prenatal versus Postnatal Repair of Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Adzick, N. Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Brock, John W.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Johnson, Mark P.; Howell, Lori J.; Farrell, Jody A.; Dabrowiak, Mary E.; Sutton, Leslie N.; Gupta, Nalin; Tulipan, Noel B.; D'Alton, Mary E.; Farmer, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal repair of myelomeningocele, the most common form of spina bifida, may result in better neurologic function than repair deferred until after delivery. We compared outcomes of in utero repair with standard postnatal repair. Methods We randomly assigned eligible women to undergo either prenatal surgery before 26 weeks of gestation or standard postnatal repair. One primary outcome was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or the need for placement of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt by the age of 12 months. Another primary outcome at 30 months was a composite of mental development and motor function. Results The trial was stopped for efficacy of prenatal surgery after the recruitment of 183 of a planned 200 patients. This report is based on results in 158 patients whose children were evaluated at 12 months. The first primary outcome occurred in 68% of the infants in the prenatal-surgery group and in 98% of those in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.70; 97.7% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.84; P<0.001). Actual rates of shunt placement were 40% in the prenatal-surgery group and 82% in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.48; 97.7% CI, 0.36 to 0.64; P<0.001). Prenatal surgery also resulted in improvement in the composite score for mental development and motor function at 30 months (P = 0.007) and in improvement in several secondary outcomes, including hindbrain herniation by 12 months and ambulation by 30 months. However, prenatal surgery was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and uterine dehiscence at delivery. Conclusions Prenatal surgery for myelomeningocele reduced the need for shunting and improved motor outcomes at 30 months but was associated with maternal and fetal risks. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00060606.) PMID:21306277

  7. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  8. Outreach Materials for the Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign offers outreach materials to help collision repair shops reduce toxic air exposure. Materials include a DVD, poster, training video, and materials in Spanish (materiales del outreach en español).

  9. Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. The procedures include intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair, transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair and total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair. These procedures have totally different anatomic point of view, process and technical key points from open operations. The technical details of these operations are discussed in this article, also the strategies of treatment for some special conditions. PMID:27867954

  10. Computer Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in a course to train students to repair computer equipment and perform related administrative and customer service tasks. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics (with selected subtopics in brackets): performing administrative functions (preparing service bills, maintaining accounts and labor…

  11. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  12. Anodization As A Repair Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groff, Roy E.; Maloney, Robert D.; Reeser, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Thin, hard oxide layer added to aluminum part. Surfaces on aluminum part worn out of tolerance by no more than 0.004 in. often repaired by anodizing to build up aluminum oxide layers. Oxide layers very hard and grounded to desired final dimensions.

  13. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  14. Matrix metalloproteinases in wound repair (review).

    PubMed

    Ravanti, L; Kähäri, V M

    2000-10-01

    Wound repair is initiated with the aggregation of platelets, formation of a fibrin clot, and release of growth factors from the activated coagulation pathways, injured cells, platelets, and extracellular matrix (ECM), followed by migration of inflammatory cells to the wound site. Thereafter, keratinocytes migrate over the wound, angiogenesis is initiated, and fibroblasts deposit and remodel the granulation tissue. Cell migration, angiogenesis, degradation of provisional matrix, and remodeling of newly formed granulation tissue, all require controlled degradation of the ECM. Disturbance in the balance between ECM production and degradation leads to formation of chronic ulcers with excessive ECM degradation, or to fibrosis, for example hypertrophic scars or keloids characterized by excessive accumulation of ECM components. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which as a group can degrade essentially all ECM components. So far, 20 members of the human MMP family have been identified. Based on their structure and substrate specificity, they can be divided into subgroups of collagenases, stromelysins, stromelysin-like MMPs, gelatinases, membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs), and other MMPs. In this review, the role of MMPs in normal wound repair as well as in chronic ulcers is discussed. In addition, the role of signaling pathways, in particular, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in regulating MMP expression is discussed as possible therapeutical targets for wound healing disorders.

  15. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2010-01-01

    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair…

  16. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  17. Standardized Curriculum for Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for small engine repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all small engine repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for small engine repair I and II courses. Units in course I…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Body Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive body repair I and II. The nine units in automotive body repair I are as follows: introduction; related information; basic tool usage and safety; body and frame construction; basic sheet metal repair; preparing for…

  19. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  1. Standardized Curriculum for Shoe and Boot Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for shoe and boot repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all shoe and boot repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for shoe and boot repair I and II courses. Units in…

  2. Repair to the Huygens probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers examine the Huygens probe after removal from the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) at KSC. The spacecraft was returned to the PHSF after damage to the thermal insulation was discovered inside Huygens from an abnormally high flow of conditioned air. The damage required technicians to inspect the inside of the probe, repair the insulation, and clean the instruments. After returning from the PHSF to Launch Pad 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Cassini/Huygens launched successfully in October 1997, and reached Saturn in July of 2004. Scientific instruments carried aboard the Cassini orbiter will study Saturn's atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and several moons, while the Huygens probe will separate and land on the surface of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. The Cassini-Huygens mission owes its name to the Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens and Italian astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Both had spectacular careers as observers of the heavens, which included important discoveries about Saturn and its satellites. Huygens (1629-1695) discovered Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in 1655 and in 1656 described the shape and phase changes of Saturn's rings. Cassini (1625-1712) was the first to observe four of Saturn's moons, Iapetus, Rhea, Tethys, and Dione, in the 1670s and 1680s. He also, in 1675, discovered the gap in Saturn's rings, now called the Cassini Division, and proposed that the rings were formed from many tiny particles. Cassini-Huygens is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). JPL is managing the Cassini project for NASA. The mission was proposed in November 1982 by a group of European and American scientists from the European Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences. The Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council endorsed the idea in April 1983, and NASA and ESA began a

  3. Does the addition of a nerve wrap to a motor nerve repair affect motor outcomes?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Yup; Parisi, Thomas J; Friedrich, Patricia F; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wrapping bioabsorbable nerve conduit around primary suture repair on motor nerve regeneration in a rat model. Forty rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups according to the type of repair of the rat sciatic nerve: group I had primary suture repair; group II had primary suture repair and bioabsorbable collagen nerve conduit (NeuraGen® 1.5 mm, Integra LifeSciences Corp., Plainsboro, NJ) wrapped around the repair. At 12 weeks, no significant differences in the percentage of recovery between the two groups were observed with respect to compound muscle action potentials, isometric muscle force, and muscle weight (P = 0.816, P = 0.698, P = 0.861, respectively). Histomorphometric analysis as compared to the non-operative sites was also not significantly different between the two groups in terms of number of myelinated axons, myelinated fiber area, and nerve fiber density (P = 0.368, P = 0.968, P = 0.071, respectively). Perineural scar tissue formation was greater in primary suture repair group (0.36 ± 0.15) than in primary repair plus conduit wrapping group (0.17 ± 0.08). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Wrapping bioabsorbable nerve conduit around primary nerve repair can decrease perineural scar tissue formation. Although the scar-decreasing effect of bioabsorbable nerve wrap does not translate into better motor nerve recovery in this study, it might have an effect on the functional outcome in humans where scar formation is much more evident than in rats.

  4. Laparoscopic Repair Reduces Incidence of Surgical Site Infections for All Ventral Hernias

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Nestor A.; Nguyen, Mylan T.; Nguyen, Duyen H.; Berger, Rachel L.; Lew, Debbie F.; Suliburk, James T.; Askenasy, Erik P.; Kao, Lillian S.; Liang, Mike K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias remains incompletely defined. We hypothesize that laparoscopy, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases surgical site infection (SSI) for all ventral hernia types. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were reviewed to identify studies evaluating outcomes of laparoscopic versus open repair with mesh of ventral hernias and divided into groups (primary or incisional). Studies with high risk of bias were excluded. Primary outcomes of interest were recurrence and SSI. Fixed effects model was used unless significant heterogeneity, assessed with the Higgins I-square (I2), was encountered. Results There were five and fifteen studies for primary and incisional cohorts. No difference was seen in recurrence between laparoscopic and open repair in the two hernia groups. SSI was more common with open repair in both hernia groups: primary (OR 4.17, 95%CI [2.03–8.55]) and incisional (OR 5.16, 95%CI [2.79–9.57]). Conclusions Laparoscopic repair, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases rates of SSI in all types of ventral hernias with no difference in recurrence. This data suggests that laparoscopic approach may be the treatment of choice for all types of ventral hernias. PMID:25294541

  5. Repair of gamma-ray-induced DNA base damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Dobson, P.P.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    The repair of DNA damage produced by /sup 137/Cs gamma irradiation was measured with a preparation from Micrococcus luteus containing DNA damage-specific endonucleases in combination with alkaline elution. The frequency of these endonuclease sensitive sites (ESS) was determined after 54 or 110 Gy of oxic irradiation in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts from complementation groups A, C, D, and G. Repair was rapid in all cell strains with greater than 50% repair after 1.5 h of repair incubation. At later repair times, 12-17 h, more ESS remained in XP than in normal cells. The frequency of excess ESS in XP cells was approximately 0.04 per 10(9) Da of DNA per Gy which was equivalent to 10% of the initial ESS produced. The removal of ESS was comparable in XP cells with normal radiosensitivity and XP3BR cells which have been reported to be moderately radiosensitive.

  6. Octyl 2-cyanoacrylate for repair of peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Piñeros-Fernández, Angela; Rodeheaver, Pamela F; Rodeheaver, George T

    2005-08-01

    The repair of peripheral nerves with sutures is time consuming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and functional outcome of repairing nerves with octyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive. The right peroneal nerve of 64 male, Lewis rats was sectioned and repaired. The rats were randomized into 3 experimental groups: A (n = 27), using only octyl 2-cyanoacrylate; B (n = 27), using 4, 10-0 nylon sutures; and C (n = 10), a sham operation. The recovery of nerve function was quantified through walking-track analyses; group A showed faster return of nerve function than B, especially at 15 days (P < 0.017). Histologic analysis showed a greater axonal regeneration in group A versus group B and no indication of tissue toxicity in group A. No dehiscence occurred during the 6-month study. Use of adhesive shortened the anastomosis time from 12 minutes to 4 minutes. These results indicate that the use of octyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive for nerve anastomoses is safe and effective and may have benefits compared with the use of sutures.

  7. Flexural strength of acrylic resin repairs processed by different methods: water bath, microwave energy and chemical polymerization

    PubMed Central

    ARIOLI FILHO, João Neudenir; BUTIGNON, Luís Eduardo; PEREIRA, Rodrigo de Paula; LUCAS, Matheus Guilherme; MOLLO JUNIOR, Francisco de Assis

    2011-01-01

    Denture fractures are common in daily practice, causing inconvenience to the patient and to the dentists. Denture repairs should have adequate strength, dimensional stability and color match, and should be easily and quickly performed as well as relatively inexpensive. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin repairs processed by different methods: warm water-bath, microwave energy, and chemical polymerization. Material and methods Sixty rectangular specimens (31x10x2.5 mm) were made with warm water-bath acrylic resin (Lucitone 550) and grouped (15 specimens per group) according to the resin type used to make repair procedure: 1) specimens of warm water-bath resin (Lucitone 550) without repair (control group); 2) specimens of warm water-bath resin repaired with warm water-bath; 3) specimens of warm water-bath resin repaired with microwave resin (Acron MC); 4) specimens of warm water-bath resin repaired with autopolymerized acrylic resin (Simplex). Flexural strength was measured with the three-point bending in a universal testing machine (MTS 810 Material Test System) with load cell of 100 kgf under constant speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results The control group showed the best result (156.04±1.82 MPa). Significant differences were found among repaired specimens and the results were decreasing as follows: group 3 (43.02±2.25 MPa), group 2 (36.21±1.20 MPa) and group 4 (6.74±0.85 MPa). Conclusion All repaired specimens demonstrated lower flexural strength than the control group. Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin showed the lowest flexural strength. PMID:21625742

  8. Optimization of the MGH repair using an algorithm for tenorrhaphy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, R J; Howard, R; Markee, B; Payne, W; Ondrovic, L; Lee, W; Greenwald, D P

    1997-05-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated the superior strength and toughness of the MGH four-strand tendon repair technique and shown that it neither weakens during maximum tendon softening nor interferes with healing in an in vivo rabbit model. In the current study, the biomechanical performance of the modified Becker (MGH) and the modified Kessler repairs were compared in situ using a dynamic human cadaveric model to evaluate strength, toughness, glide efficiency, and operator variability. Three different surgeons performed a total of 42 zone II flexor digitorum profundus repairs in 14 fresh human cadaver hands. The modified Becker (MGH) repairs were stronger (79 +/- 3 versus 64 +/- 4 N; p < 0.01) and tougher (0.092 +/- 0.002 versus 0.078 +/- 0.003 J; p < 0.01) than the Kessler repairs while allowing equally efficient glide (32 +/- 6 versus 33 +/- 4 percent; p > 0.9). Strength was operator-dependent only for the modified Kessler repair (p < 0.005). We then established the optimal configuration of the MGH tenorrhaphy (number of preloaded crosses on either side of the tendon transection) by examining gap resistance ex vivo. Fifty-one MGH flexor tendon repairs were performed on explanted fresh human cadaver tendons. The experimental groups were randomly assigned to receive 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 crosses on each side of the tenorrhaphy. Strength and toughness to gap formation and to ultimate failure were assessed tensiometrically. The MGH two-cross configuration was most resistant to gap formation (peak load 39 +/- 3 N; p < 0.05), establishing this configuration as the optimal design of this four-strand crisscrossing repair technique. The augmented Becker (MGH) repair is significantly stronger and tougher than the modified Kessler repair and demonstrates no operator dependence. It is a superior technique for zone II tenorrhaphy in the human hand. An algorithm is presented as a systematic approach that includes the important elements necessary for the rigorous

  9. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The goal

  10. Shuttle orbiter TPS flight repair kit development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of a TPS repair kit is presented. The repair kit is designed for on orbit use by a crew member working in the manned maneuvering unit (MMU). The kit includes the necessary equipment and materials to accomplish the repair tasks which include the following: HRSI emittance coating repair, damaged tile repair, missing tile repair, and multiple tile repair. Two types of repair materials required to do the small area repair and the large area repair are described. The materials area cure in place, silicone base ablator for small damaged areas and precured ablator tile for repair of larger damaged areas is examined. The cure in place ablator is also used as an adhesive to bond the precured tiles in place. An applicator for the cure in place ablator, designed to contain a two-part silicon compound, mix the two components at correct ratio, and dispense the materials at rates compatible with mission timelines established for the EVA is described.

  11. Risk of motion loss with combined Bankart and SLAP repairs.

    PubMed

    Takase, Katsumi

    2009-08-01

    We have performed arthroscopic Bankart procedures using absorbable or metallic suture anchors for traumatic anterior shoulder instability for over a decade. This article describes the frequency, pathology, and therapeutic results of patients treated for superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions concomitant with Bankart lesions. Twenty patients (Group A) had a mean age of 33.8 years at the time of surgery. On arthroscopic findings, SLAP lesions were classified type 2 in 15 patients and type 4 in 5, based on Snyder's criteria. In addition, intra-articular free bodies were present in 2 SLAP lesions, and a capsular tear was present in 1. We performed debridement (Group A1) or reattachment (Group A2) to the superior glenoid edge of these lesions, considering whether they communicated to Bankart lesions. The therapeutic results were evaluated according to the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and Japan Shoulder Society (JSS) shoulder instability score. Mean JOA and JSS shoulder instability scores were 95.1 and 90.8 points, respectively. All Group A patients remained pain free, and no instability recurred in any patient. Meanwhile, mean JSS shoulder instability function and range of motion scores were 18.9 and 15.1 points, respectively, in Group A1, and 17.5 and 10.1 points, respectively, in Group A2. A significant correlation in range of motion was observed in Groups A1 and A2 (P=.04). Regarding postoperative limitation in external rotation with the arm at the side, the difference in range from that on the healthy side was 9.8 degrees in Group A (7.0 degrees in Group A1 and 12.6 degrees in Group A2). When SLAP lesions communicated to Bankart lesions, we had satisfactory results without SLAP repair; therefore, unnecessary repairs for the concomitant pathology should be avoided, and different postoperative care should be performed for patients with Bankart repair with reattachment of a SLAP lesion.

  12. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  13. The major DNA repair pathway after both proton and carbon-ion radiation is NHEJ, but the HR pathway is more relevant in carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Gerelchuluun, Ariungerel; Manabe, Eri; Ishikawa, Takaaki; Sun, Lue; Itoh, Kazuya; Sakae, Takeji; Suzuki, Kenshi; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J; Tsuboi, Koji

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the roles of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by exposure to high-energy protons and carbon ions (C ions) versus gamma rays in Chinese hamster cells. Two Chinese hamster cell lines, ovary AA8 and lung fibroblast V79, as well as various mutant sublines lacking DNA-PKcs (V3), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein-4 [XRCC4 (XR1), XRCC3 (irs1SF) and XRCC2 (irs1)] were exposed to gamma rays ((137)Cs), protons (200 MeV; 2.2 keV/μm) and C ions (290 MeV; 50 keV/μm). V3 and XR1 cells lack the NHEJ pathway, whereas irs1 and irs1SF cells lack the HR pathway. After each exposure, survival was measured using a clonogenic survival assay, in situ DSB induction was evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation at serine 139 (γ-H2AX foci) and chromosome aberrations were examined using solid staining. The findings from this study showed that clonogenic survival clearly depended on the NHEJ and HR pathway statuses, and that the DNA-PKcs(-/-) cells (V3) were the most sensitive to all radiation types. While protons and γ rays yielded almost the same biological effects, C-ion exposure greatly enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type and HR-deficient cells. However, no significant enhancement of sensitivity in cell killing was seen after C-ion irradiation of NHEJ deficient cells. Decreases in the number of γ-H2AX foci after irradiation occurred more slowly in the NHEJ deficient cells. In particular, V3 cells had the highest number of residual γ-H2AX foci at 24 h after C-ion irradiation. Chromosomal aberrations were significantly higher in both the NHEJ- and HR-deficient cell lines than in wild-type cell lines in response to all radiation types. Protons and gamma rays induced the same aberration levels in each cell line, whereas C ions introduced higher but not significantly different aberration levels. Our results

  14. Are valve repairs associated with better outcomes than replacements in patients with native active valve endocarditis?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Zhang, Benqing

    2014-12-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether valve replacement was associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than valve repair in patients with native active valve endocarditis. Altogether 662 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Traditionally, valve replacement has been the standard therapy for valve endocarditis when surgical treatment is indicated. But now valve repair is increasingly used as an alternative, which may avoid disadvantages of anticoagulation, lower the risk of prosthetic infection and improve postoperative survival. To compare outcomes of these two treatments between studies can be difficult because most of related papers contain raw data on prosthetic valve endocarditis or healed endocarditis, which were excluded from our manuscript. Studies only analysing the outcomes of either of these treatments without the comparison of valve repair and replacement were also excluded. Finally, seven papers were identified. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology 2006 valvular guidelines recommended that mitral valve repair should be performed instead of replacement when at all possible. In three of the seven studies, there were significant differences between valve repair and replacement in long-term survival. One study found that aortic valve repair offered better outcomes in freedom from reoperation at 5 years (P = 0.021) and in survival at 4 years (repair vs replacement 88 vs 65%; P = 0.047). One study reported that there was improved event-free survival at 10 years in the mitral valve repair group (P = 0.015), although there was more previous septic embolization in this group. In one study, early and late mortality

  15. Automatic OPC repair flow: optimized implementation of the repair recipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahnas, Mohamed; Al-Imam, Mohamed; Word, James

    2007-10-01

    Virtual manufacturing that is enabled by rapid, accurate, full-chip simulation is a main pillar in achieving successful mask tape-out in the cutting-edge low-k1 lithography. It facilitates detecting printing failures before a costly and time-consuming mask tape-out and wafer print occur. The OPC verification step role is critical at the early production phases of a new process development, since various layout patterns will be suspected that they might to fail or cause performance degradation, and in turn need to be accurately flagged to be fed back to the OPC Engineer for further learning and enhancing in the OPC recipe. At the advanced phases of the process development, there is much less probability of detecting failures but still the OPC Verification step act as the last-line-of-defense for the whole RET implemented work. In recent publication the optimum approach of responding to these detected failures was addressed, and a solution was proposed to repair these defects in an automated methodology and fully integrated and compatible with the main RET/OPC flow. In this paper the authors will present further work and optimizations of this Repair flow. An automated analysis methodology for root causes of the defects and classification of them to cover all possible causes will be discussed. This automated analysis approach will include all the learning experience of the previously highlighted causes and include any new discoveries. Next, according to the automated pre-classification of the defects, application of the appropriate approach of OPC repair (i.e. OPC knob) on each classified defect location can be easily selected, instead of applying all approaches on all locations. This will help in cutting down the runtime of the OPC repair processing and reduce the needed number of iterations to reach the status of zero defects. An output report for existing causes of defects and how the tool handled them will be generated. The report will with help further learning

  16. Does repair of pectus excavatum improve cardiopulmonary function?

    PubMed

    Jayaramakrishnan, Kumara; Wotton, Robin; Bradley, Amy; Naidu, Babu

    2013-06-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'Does repair of pectus excavatum (PE) improve cardiopulmonary function?' One hundred and sixty-eight papers were found using the reported search, 19 level III evidence papers and three meta-analyses were relevant. Studies were divided into four groups based on the surgical technique applied and pulmonary and cardiac functions in these groups were analysed. The meta-analyses show conflicting results for improvements in pulmonary and cardiac functions when comparing surgical techniques, while four more recent studies show improved long-term results using the Nuss technique. The best evidence of papers studying the PE repair using the minimally invasive Nuss technique demonstrates a decrease in pulmonary function during the early postoperative period, however, there is a small but significant improvement during the late postoperative period and after bar removal. The best evidence for cardiac function in this group suggests an early improvement that is sustained during further follow-up. The best evidence of papers studying the PE repair using the Ravitch technique shows that pulmonary function decreased during the early postoperative period, however, there is a small but significant improvement during the late postoperative period. The best evidence for cardiac function in this group suggests an early improvement that is sustained during further follow-up. The best evidence of papers studying the PE repair using other techniques (modified Daniel's technique, modified Baronofsky's technique, sterno-costal turn-over technique and sterno-costal elevation technique) or where surgical techniques used were not described (preceding year 1985) suggests that there is no improvement in pulmonary function after surgery. There is some evidence that certain aspects of cardiac function improved after surgery in this group.

  17. Biologic Prosthesis Reduces Recurrence After Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlager, Brant K.; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Hunter, John; Soper, Nathaniel; Brunt, Michael; Sheppard, Brett; Jobe, Blair; Polissar, Nayak; Mitsumori, Lee; Nelson, James; Swanstrom, L

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (LPEHR) is associated with a high recurrence rate. Repair with synthetic mesh lowers recurrence but can cause dysphagia and visceral erosions. This trial was designed to study the value of a biologic prosthesis, small intestinal submucosa (SIS), in LPEHR. Methods: Patients undergoing LPEHR (n = 108) at 4 institutions were randomized to primary repair −1° (n = 57) or primary repair buttressed with SIS (n = 51) using a standardized technique. The primary outcome measure was evidence of recurrent hernia (≥2 cm) on UGI, read by a study radiologist blinded to the randomization status, 6 months after operation. Results: At 6 months, 99 (93%) patients completed clinical symptomatic follow-up and 95 (90%) patients had an UGI. The groups had similar clinical presentations (symptom profile, quality of life, type and size of hernia, esophageal length, and BMI). Operative times (SIS 202 minutes vs. 1° 183 minutes, P = 0.15) and perioperative complications did not differ. There were no operations for recurrent hernia nor mesh-related complications. At 6 months, 4 patients (9%) developed a recurrent hernia >2 cm in the SIS group and 12 patients (24%) in the 1° group (P = 0.04). Both groups experienced a significant reduction in all measured symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, chest pain, early satiety, and postprandial pain) and improved QOL (SF-36) after operation. There was no difference between groups in either pre or postoperative symptom severity. Patients with a recurrent hernia had more chest pain (2.7 vs. 1.0, P = 0.03) and early satiety (2.8 vs. 1.3, P = 0.02) and worse physical functioning (63 vs. 72, P = 0.03 per SF-36). Conclusions: Adding a biologic prosthesis during LPEHR reduces the likelihood of recurrence at 6 months, without mesh-related complications or side effects. PMID:16998356

  18. DNA repair capacity of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Raquel

    2007-08-14

    Damage to the genome is unavoidable in living creatures, because of sunlight exposure as well as environmental chemicals present in food and drinking water. There is a need to monitor and purify the drinking water; therefore, several methods of detection have been developed. A very promising model system for this purpose is the zebrafish (Danio rerio), which is endowed with special qualities for detecting external as well as internal abnormalities. Grossman and Wei's assay [Grossman L, Wei Q (1995) Clin Chem 12:1854-1863], which measures the expression level of a nonreplicating recombinant plasmid DNA containing a UV-damaged luciferase reporter gene, shows that zebrafish can repair chromosomal lesions to a much greater extent than the human population. This vertebrate model is still very promising after possible down-regulation of the DNA repair enzymes.

  19. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    PubMed

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2-5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone.

  20. Is bone transplantation the gold standard for repair of alveolar bone defects?

    PubMed Central

    Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo; Bueno, Daniela Franco; Almeida, Ana Beatriz; Jorgetti, Vanda; Costa, Cristiane Cabral; Gouveia, Cecília Helena; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    New strategies to fulfill craniofacial bone defects have gained attention in recent years due to the morbidity of autologous bone graft harvesting. We aimed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of bone tissue engineering strategy using mesenchymal stem cells associated with two matrices (bovine bone mineral and α-tricalcium phosphate), compared to an autologous bone transfer. A total of 28 adult, male, non-immunosuppressed Wistar rats underwent a critical-sized osseous defect of 5 mm diameter in the alveolar region. Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 (n = 7) defects were repaired with autogenous bone grafts; Group 2 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral free of cells; Group 3 (n = 5) defects were repaired with bovine bone mineral loaded with mesenchymal stem cells; Group 4 (n = 5) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate free of cells; and Group 5 (n = 6) defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate loaded with mesenchymal stem cells. Groups 2–5 were compared to Group 1, the reference group. Healing response was evaluated by histomorphometry and computerized tomography. Histomorphometrically, Group 1 showed 60.27% ± 16.13% of bone in the defect. Groups 2 and 3 showed 23.02% ± 8.6% (p = 0.01) and 38.35% ± 19.59% (p = 0.06) of bone in the defect, respectively. Groups 4 and 5 showed 51.48% ± 11.7% (p = 0.30) and 61.80% ± 2.14% (p = 0.88) of bone in the defect, respectively. Animals whose bone defects were repaired with α-tricalcium phosphate and mesenchymal stem cells presented the highest bone volume filling the defects; both were not statistically different from autogenous bone. PMID:24551445

  1. Repairable, nanostructured biomimetic hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Brombosz, S.; Grubjesic, S.

    2013-03-01

    Proteins facilitate many key cellular processes, including signal recognition and energy transduction. The ability to harness this evolutionarily-optimized functionality could lead to the development of protein-based systems useful for advancing alternative energy storage and conversion. The future of protein-based, however, requires the development of materials that will stabilize, order and control the activity of the proteins. Recently we have developed a synthetic approach for the preparation of a durable biomimetic chemical hydrogel that can be reversibly swollen in water. The matrix has proven ideal for the stable encapsulation of both water- and membrane-soluble proteins. The material is composed of an aqueous dispersion of a diacrylate end-derivatized PEO-PPO-PEO macromer, a saturated phospholipid and a zwitterionic co-surfactant that self-assembles into a nanostructured physical gel at room temperature as determined by X-ray scattering. The addition of a water soluble PEGDA co-monomer and photoinitator does not alter the self-assembled structure and UV irradiation serves to crosslink the acrylate end groups on the macromer with the PEGDA forming a network within the aqueous domains as determined by FT-IR. More recently we have begun to incorporate reversible crosslinks employing Diels-Alder chemistry, allowing for the extraction and replacement of inactive proteins. The ability to replenish the materials with active, non-denatured forms of protein is an important step in advancing these materials for use in nanostructured devices This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences, USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. Surgeon-Directed Cost Variation in Isolated Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, E. Bailey; Cannamela, Peter C.; Johnson, Jared S.; Saad, Charles D.; Barnes, John; Silbernagel, Janette; Faciszewski, Thomas; Shea, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: As value becomes a larger component of heath care decision making, cost data can be evaluated for regional and physician variation. Value is determined by outcome divided by cost, and reducing cost increases value for patients. “Third-party spend” items are individual selections by surgeons used to perform procedures. Cost data for third-party spend items provide surgeons and hospitals with important information regarding care value, potential cost-saving opportunities, and the total cost of ownership of specific clinical decisions. Purpose: To perform a cost review of isolated rotator cuff repair within a regional 7-hospital system and to document procedure cost variation among operating surgeons. Study Design: Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes were used to retrospectively identify subjects who received an isolated rotator cuff repair within a 7-hospital system. Cost data were collected for clinically sensitive third-party spend items and divided into 4 cost groups: (1) suture anchors, (2) suture-passing devices and needles, (3) sutures used for cuff repair, and (4) disposable tools or instruments. Results: A total of 62 isolated rotator cuff repairs were performed by 17 surgeons over a 13-month period. The total cost per case for clinically sensitive third-party spend items (in 2015 US dollars) ranged from $293 to $3752 (mean, $1826). Four surgeons had a mean procedure cost that was higher than the data set mean procedure cost. The cost of an individual suture anchor ranged from $75 to $1775 (mean, $403). One disposable suture passer was used, which cost $140. The cost of passing needles ranged from $140 to $995 (mean, $468). The cost per repair suture (used to repair cuff tears) varied from $18 to $298 (mean, $61). The mean suture (used to close wounds) cost per case was $81 (range, $0-$454). A total of 316 tools or disposable instruments were used, costing $1 to $1573 per

  3. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    regeneration using our approach with an acellular nerve allograft to be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. An ongoing large animal ...be clinically acceptable for use in the animal studies in Aim 2. The anatomy of HAM is shown pictorially in Figure 7. In vivo, the epithelial...product. Given that the large animal studies with large caliber nerves in Aim 3 will use AxoGuard we feel that the single layer SIS material is totally

  4. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    approach with an acellular nerve allograft to be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. An ongoing large animal validation study...the animal studies in Aim 2. The anatomy of HAM is shown pictorially in Figure 7. In vivo, the epithelial layer is in contact with the amniotic...AxoGuard and Oasis SIS products are manufactured by Cook Medical. AxoGuard is simply a multi-layered SIS product. Given that the large animal studies with

  5. Wnt Signaling and Injury Repair

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Jemima L.; Smith, Andrew A.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling is activated by wounding and participates in every subsequent stage of the healing process from the control of inflammation and programmed cell death, to the mobilization of stem cell reservoirs within the wound site. In this review we summarize recent data elucidating the roles that the Wnt pathway plays in the injury repair process. These data provide a foundation for potential Wnt-based therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating tissue regeneration. PMID:22723493

  6. Which mesh for hernia repair?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, CN; Finch, JG

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The concept of using a mesh to repair hernias was introduced over 50 years ago. Mesh repair is now standard in most countries and widely accepted as superior to primary suture repair. As a result, there has been a rapid growth in the variety of meshes available and choosing the appropriate one can be difficult. This article outlines the general properties of meshes and factors to be considered when selecting one. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a search of the medical literature from 1950 to 1 May 2009, as indexed by Medline, using the PubMed search engine (). To capture all potentially relevant articles with the highest degree of sensitivity, the search terms were intentionally broad. We used the following terms: ‘mesh, pore size, strength, recurrence, complications, lightweight, properties’. We also hand-searched the bibliographies of relevant articles and product literature to identify additional pertinent reports. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The most important properties of meshes were found to be the type of filament, tensile strength and porosity. These determine the weight of the mesh and its biocompatibility. The tensile strength required is much less than originally presumed and light-weight meshes are thought to be superior due to their increased flexibility and reduction in discomfort. Large pores are also associated with a reduced risk of infection and shrinkage. For meshes placed in the peritoneal cavity, consideration should also be given to the risk of adhesion formation. A variety of composite meshes have been promoted to address this, but none appears superior to the others. Finally, biomaterials such as acellular dermis have a place for use in infected fields but have yet to prove their worth in routine hernia repair. PMID:20501011

  7. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    were conducted using microstructural analysis, hardness, bond strength, and corrosion testing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cold spray, magnesium, aluminum ... corrosion pitting are the primary causes for removing the components from service. In addition, any repair must be confined to nonstructural areas of...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army has experienced significant corrosion problems with magnesium alloys that are used to

  8. Structural Health Monitoring of Repairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    monitoring, the monitoring system consists of several design elements with defined interfaces. The raw monitoring signals are generated by a sensor with...is directly connected or integrated in the structure or repair. In Figure 2.3-1, the design element 1 is showing a surface mounted sensor. The...aircraft bus system. The monitoring data from the bus system are transferred to the next design element (element 4), where an onboard processing

  9. Calcium signaling in membrane repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lu; Xu, Haoxing

    2015-01-01

    Resealing allows cells to mend damaged membranes rapidly when plasma membrane (PM) disruptions occur. Models of PM repair mechanisms include the “lipid-patch”, “endocytic removal”, and “macro-vesicle shedding” models, all of which postulate a dependence on local increases in intracellular Ca2+ at injury sites. Multiple calcium sensors, including synaptotagmin (Syt) VII, dysferlin, and apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), are involved in PM resealing, suggesting that Ca2+ may regulate multiple steps of the repair process. Although earlier studies focused exclusively on external Ca2+, recent studies suggest that Ca2+ release from intracellular stores may also be important for PM resealing. Hence, depending on injury size and the type of injury, multiple sources of Ca2+ may be recruited to trigger and orchestrate repair processes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which the resealing process is promoted by vesicular Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ sensors that accumulate at damage sites. PMID:26519113

  10. Tissue Engineering for Rotator Cuff Repair: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to address the treatment of rotator cuff tears by applying tissue engineering approaches to improve tendon healing, specifically platelet rich plasma (PRP) augmentation, stem cells, and scaffolds. Our systematic search was performed using the combination of the following terms: “rotator cuff”, “shoulder”, “PRP”, “platelet rich plasma”, “stemcells”, “scaffold”, “growth factors”, and “tissue engineering”. No level I or II studies were found on the use of scaffolds and stem cells for rotator cuff repair. Three studies compared rotator cuff repair with or without PRP augmentation. All authors performed arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with different techniques of suture anchor fixation and different PRP augmentation. The three studies found no difference in clinical rating scales and functional outcomes between PRP and control groups. Only one study showed clinical statistically significant difference between the two groups at the 3-month follow up. Any statistically significant difference in the rates of tendon rerupture between the control group and the PRP group was found using the magnetic resonance imaging. The current literature on tissue engineering application for rotator cuff repair is scanty. Comparative studies included in this review suggest that PRP augmented repair of a rotator cuff does not yield improved functional and clinical outcome compared with non-augmented repair at a medium and long-term followup. PMID:25098365

  11. An alternative eukaryotic DNA excision repair pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, G A; Davey, S; Ferrer, J V; Martin, A M; Beach, D; Doetsch, P W

    1995-01-01

    DNA lesions induced by UV light, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and (6-4)pyrimidine pyrimidones are known to be repaired by the process of nucleotide excision repair (NER). However, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, studies have demonstrated that at least two mechanisms for excising UV photo-products exist; NER and a second, previously unidentified process. Recently we reported that S. pombe contains a DNA endonuclease, SPDE, which recognizes and cleaves at a position immediately adjacent to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4)pyrimidine pyrimidones. Here we report that the UV-sensitive S. pombe rad12-502 mutant lacks SPDE activity. In addition, extracts prepared from the rad12-502 mutant are deficient in DNA excision repair, as demonstrated in an in vitro excision repair assay. DNA repair activity was restored to wild-type levels in extracts prepared from rad12-502 cells by the addition of partially purified SPDE to in vitro repair reaction mixtures. When the rad12-502 mutant was crossed with the NER rad13-A mutant, the resulting double mutant was much more sensitive to UV radiation than either single mutant, demonstrating that the rad12 gene product functions in a DNA repair pathway distinct from NER. These data directly link SPDE to this alternative excision repair process. We propose that the SPDE-dependent DNA repair pathway is the second DNA excision repair process present in S. pombe. PMID:7623848

  12. Laparoscopic Repair of Incidentally Found Spigelian Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Nickloes, Todd; Mancini, Greg; Solla, Julio A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A Spigelian hernia is a rare type of hernia that occurs through a defect in the anterior abdominal wall adjacent to the linea semilunaris. Estimation of its incidence has been reported as 0.12% of all abdominal wall hernias. Traditionally, the method of repair has been an open approach. Herein, we discuss a series of laparoscopic repairs. Methods: Case series and review of the literature. Cases: Three patients are presented. All were evaluated and taken to surgery initially for a different disease process, and all were incidentally found to have a spigelian hernia. These patients underwent laparoscopic repair of their hernias; 2 were repaired intraperitoneally and one was repaired totally extraperitoneally. Two patients initially underwent a mesh repair, while the third had an attempted primary repair. Conclusions: There is evidence that supports the use of laparoscopy for both diagnosis and repair of spigelian hernias. There are also reports of successful repairs both primarily and with mesh. In our experience with the preceding 3 patients, we found that laparoscopic repair of incidentally discovered spigelian hernias is a viable option, and we also found that implantation of mesh, when possible, resulted in satisfactory results and no recurrence. PMID:21902949

  13. TRIM proteins in therapeutic membrane repair of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Alloush, Jenna; Weisleder, Noah

    2013-07-01

    Muscular dystrophy represents a major unmet medical need; only palliative treatments exist for this group of debilitating diseases. Because multiple forms of muscular dystrophy arise from compromised sarcolemmal membrane integrity, a therapeutic approach that can target this loss of membrane function could be applicable to a number of these distinct diseases.One promising therapeutic approach involves the process the cell uses to repair injuries to the plasma membrane. Recent discoveries of genes associated with the membrane repair process provide an opportunity to promote this process as a way to treat muscular dystrophy. One such gene is mitsugumin 53 (MG53), a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins (TRIM72), which is an essential component of the membrane repair pathway in muscle. Recent results indicate that MG53/TRIM72 protein can be directly applied as a therapeutic agent to increase membrane repair capacity of many cell types and treat some aspects of the disease in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. There is great potential for the use of recombinant human MG53 in treating muscular dystrophy and other diseases in which compromised membrane integrity contributes to the disease. Other TRIM family proteins may provide additional targets for therapeutic intervention in similar disease states.

  14. Percutaneous Achilles tendon repair with and without endoscopic control.

    PubMed

    Halasi, Tamás; Tállay, András; Berkes, István

    2003-11-01

    One hundred and fifty six patients were treated using the modified double suture technique for percutaneous Achilles tendon repair between 1994 and 1998. Endoscopy was used in 67 cases. The first ten cases were dropped (learning curve), 57 were followed (E-group). Percutaneous suture without endoscopy was performed in 89 patients. Two could not be followed (went abroad), so this group consists of 87 patients (P-group). Mean age: E-group 37.8 (22-60) years, P-group 38.9 (20-68) years. Male-female ratio: E 49/8, P 74/13. There were 54 and 83 athletes in groups E and P respectively. Follow-up period was 12-60 months. Overall re-rupture rate was 6/144 (4.2%). Two total and 3 partial re-ruptures were in the P-group, and 1 partial was in the E-group. Fusiform thickening of the tendon (delayed healing) occurred in 4 cases in each group. The mean plantar flexion strength compared with the non-affected side was 89% in the P-group and 86% in the E-group. The length of time before returning to sports activity ranged from 4 to 6 months after surgery in both groups. Subjective results were excellent to good in 88% (P-group) and in 89% (E-group) of the cases. On the basis of the results, the percutaneous double suture technique proved to be a simple and safe method for Achilles tendon repair with or without the use of an endoscope. The re-rupture rate was lower in the endoscopic controlled group. The basic goal of the endoscopy was to control the adaptation of the tendon ends. This method yielded further operative possibilities and benefits as well.

  15. Effect of Scapular Dyskinesis on Supraspinatus Repair Healing in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Katherine E.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Vafa, Rameen P.; Liu, Stephen S.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Caro, Adam C.; Yannascoli, Sarah M.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff tears are common conditions that often require surgical repair to improve function and relieve pain. Unfortunately, repair failure remains a common problem following rotator cuff repair surgery. Several factors may contribute to repair failure including age, tear size, and time from injury. However, the mechanical mechanisms resulting in repair failure are not well understood making clinical management difficult. Specifically, altered scapular motion (termed scapular dyskinesis) may be one important and modifiable factor contributing to the risk of repair failure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of scapular dyskinesis on supraspinatus tendon healing following repair. Methods A rat model of scapular dyskinesis was used. 70 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-450 grams) were randomized into two groups: nerve transection of the accessory and long-thoracic nerves (SD) or sham nerve transection (Sham Control). Following this procedure, all rats underwent unilateral detachment and repair of the supraspinatus tendon. All rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Shoulder function, passive joint mechanics, and tendon properties (mechanical, histological, organizational, and compositional) were evaluated. Results Scapular dyskinesis alters joint function and may lead to compromised supraspinatus tendon properties. Specifically, diminished mechanical properties, altered histology, and decreased tendon organization was observed for some parameters. Conclusion This study identifies scapular dyskinesis as one underlying mechanism leading to compromise of supraspinatus healing following repair. Identifying modifiable factors that lead to compromised tendon healing will help improve clinical outcomes following repair. Level of evidence Basic Science, in-vivo Animal Study. PMID:25745826

  16. Causes of late mortality after endovascular and open surgical repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Goodney, Philip P.; Tavris, Dale; Lucas, F. Lee; Gross, Thomas; Fisher, Elliott S.; Finlayson, Samuel R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several reports suggest unexpectedly high rates of late abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture occur after endovascular AAA repair (EVAR). However, a population-based study examining causes of late death after EVAR vs open surgical repair has not been performed. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing infrarenal AAA repair using information from the Medicare inpatient hospital discharge records (MedPAR files), physician claim files (Part B files, 20% sample), and Medicare Denominator Files for the years 2001 to 2004. Using the Social Security Death Index, we identified all “late” deaths, defined as deaths occurring >30 days and after hospital discharge. We used the National Death Index to identify cause of death information; in particular, those deaths that were likely caused by late rupture. We compared causes of late death and survival between EVAR and open repair using Wilcoxon log-rank and rank-sum tests. Results Between 2001 and 2004, 13,971 patients underwent AAA repair (6119 EVAR, 7852 open repair). After a mean follow-up of 1.6 years in the EVAR cohort and 1.9 years in the open cohort, mortality rates were similar across repair type (15.4% EVAR, 15.9% open repair), with an adjusted odds ratio for death after open repair of 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.90–1.07). Of the 2194 documented deaths, 523 occurred before discharge or ≤30 days, and 1671 occurred >30 days and after hospital discharge. Cause of death information for the 1671 late deaths was available from the National Death Index for 1515 (91%). The 15 most common codes for causes of late death were dominated by cardiac disease (atherosclerotic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction) and pulmonary disease (lung cancer, respiratory failure). Causes of late death with specific mention of aneurysm were identified in 37 patients (2.4% of all deaths), but this event was not more common in EVAR or open repair (15 [0.3%] in the EVAR group, 22 [0

  17. One-year aging effects on microtensile bond strengths of composite and repairs with different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcela Oliveira de; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Rodrigues, Stéfani Becker; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2017-01-05

    The present study aimed to evaluate effects of different surface treatments and aging of composite cylinders on bond strength of composite resin repair. Thirty-two composite cylinders were produced and divided into four groups according to type of surface treatment and storage time of composite cylinder and repair. Cylinder surface of control group (Gcontrol) received no treatment before composite repair. Other groups were sandblasted with aluminum oxide (GAl2O3), followed by silane (GAl2O3sil) or adhesive (GAl2O3ad). Composite cylinders were stored in artificial saliva for either 24 hours or 1 year. Repairs were performed and stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours or 1 year and repair strength was evaluated using microtensile bond strength test. Data were submitted to Student's t test, two-way ANOVA, and post hoc test for storage time and treatment (α = 0.05). Gcontrol group showed lower values of aging of composite cylinder and storage time of repair (24 hours or 1 year for both) compared with other groups (p < 0.05). GAl2O3ad and GAl2O3sil groups did not exhibit decreased microtensile bond strength with aged repairs (1 year; p > 0.05). Polymer degradation was significant for composite cylinders during the first year of storage in Gcontrol, GAl2O3, and GAl2O3ad groups (p < 0.05). In GAl2O3sil group, storage time of composite cylinders was not significant (p > 0.05). Aging of composite resin influenced bond strength of restoration repair for up to 1 year. Sandblasting with Al2O3, followed by application of silane layer, produced high bond strength after composite or repair aging.

  18. Virtual reality and anxiety in primiparous women during episiotomy repair

    PubMed Central

    Shourab, Nahid Jahani; Zagami, Samira Ebrahimzadeh; Golmakhani, Nahid; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Nahvi, Ali; Pabarja, Ferial; Talebi, Mahdi; Rizi, Sohaiela Mohamadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent studies, using virtual reality (VR) has been proposed as a nonpharmacological method for anxiety reduction, but until this time, its effects have not been assessed on anxiety during episiotomy repair. This study aimed to determine the effect of audiovisual distraction (VR) on anxiety in primiparous women during episiotomy repair. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 30 primigravida from May to July 2012 in the maternity unit of the Omolbanin Hospital, Mashhad city, Iran. The samples were divided randomly into two groups with the toss of a coin. Anxiety were evaluated by the numeric 0–10 anxiety self-report, in the first and during labor. However, after delivery, anxiety was measured with the Spilberger scale. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher tests, and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results: Anxiety scores were not significantly different between the two groups (wearing video-glass and receiving routine care), but anxiety scores were lower in the intervention group during and after repair (P = 0.000). Conclusions: VR are safe, appropriate, and nonpharmacologic to decrease and manage the anxiety-associated episiotomy. PMID:27904638

  19. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengkun; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired with PET were assigned to PET group; the other eight rabbits repaired with PET along with injection of HE were assigned to HA-PET group. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical and histological examination. The HA-PET group revealed higher biomechanical property compared with the PET group. Histologically, more collagen tissues grew into the HA-PET group compared with PET group. In conclusion, application of sodium hyaluronate can improve the healing of Achilles tendon reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament. PMID:28105436

  20. The effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anasane, Nayana; Ahirrao, Yogesh; Chitnis, Deepa; Meshram, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Denture fracture is an unresolved problem in complete denture prosthodontics. However, the repaired denture often experiences a refracture at the repaired site due to poor transverse strength. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 specimens of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin of dimensions 64 × 10 × 2.5 mm were fabricated. Fifteen intact specimens served as the control and 120 test specimens were divided into four groups (30 specimens each), depending upon the joint surface contour (butt, bevel, rabbet and round), with two subgroups based on type of the repair. Half of the specimens were repaired with plain repair resin and the other half with glass fibers reinforced repair resin. Transverse strength of the specimens was determined using three-point bending test. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α= 0.05). Results: Transverse strength values for all repaired groups were significantly lower than those for the control group (P < 0.001) (88.77 MPa), with exception of round surface design repaired with glass fiber reinforced repair resin (89.92 MPa) which was significantly superior to the other joint surface contours (P < 0.001). Glass fiber reinforced resin significantly improved the repaired denture base resins as compared to the plain repair resin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Specimens repaired with glass fiber reinforced resin and round surface design exhibited highest transverse strength; hence, it can be advocated for repair of denture base resins. PMID:23946739

  1. Carbon dioxide laser-assisted nerve repair: effect of solder and suture material on nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, Tomas; Beek, Johan F

    2003-01-01

    In order to further improve and explore the role of lasers for nerve reconstruction, this study was designed to investigate regeneration of sharply transected peripheral nerves repaired with a CO(2) milliwatt laser in combination with three different suture materials and a bovine albumin protein solder as an adjunct to the welding process. Unilateral sciatic nerve repair was performed in 44 rats. In the laser group, nerves were gently apposed, and two stay sutures (10-0 nylon, 10-0 polyglycolic acid, or 25 microm stainless steel) were placed epi/perineurially. Thereafter, the repair site was fused at 100 mW with pulses of 1.0 s. In the subgroup of laser-assisted nerve repair (LANR), albumen was used as a soldering agent to further reinforce the repair site. The control group consisted of nerves repaired by conventional microsurgical suture repair (CMSR), using 4-6 10-0 nylon sutures. Evaluation was performed at 1 and 6 weeks after surgery, and included qualitative and semiquantitative light microscopy. LANR performed with a protein solder results in a good early peripheral nerve regeneration, with an optimal alignment of nerve fibers and minimal connective tissue proliferation at the repair site. All three suture materials produced a foreign body reaction; the least severe was with polyglycolic acid sutures. CMSR resulted in more pronounced foreign-body granulomas at the repair site, with more connective-tissue proliferation and axonal misalignment. Furthermore, axonal regeneration in the distal nerve segment was better in the laser groups. Based on these results, CO(2) laser-assisted nerve repair with soldering in combination with absorbable sutures has the potential of allowing healing to occur with the least foreign-body reaction at the repair site. Further experiments using this combination are in progress.

  2. Inactivation of ultraviolet repair in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cells by methyl methanesulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1982-03-01

    Excision repair of ultraviolet damage in the DNA of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (Groups C, D, and variant) cells was inactivated by exposure of cells to methyl methanesulfonate immediately before irradiation independent of the presence of 0 to 10% fetal calf serum. The inactivation could be represented by a semilog relationship between the amount of repair and methyl methanesulfonate concentration up to approximately 5 mM. The inactivation can be considered to occur as the result of alkylation of a large (about 10(6) daltons) repair enzyme complex, and the dose required to reduce repair to 37% for most cells types was between 4 and 7 mM. No consistent, large difference in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate was found in any xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group compared to normal cells, implying that reduced repair in these groups may be caused by small inherited changes in the amino acid composition (i.e., point mutations or small deletions) rather than by losses of major components of the repair enzyme complex.

  3. Hiatal hernia repair with biologic mesh reinforcement reduces recurrence rate in small hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E; Shaligram, A; Reynoso, J F; Kothari, V; Oleynikov, D

    2014-01-01

    The utility of mesh reinforcement for small hiatal hernia found especially during antireflux surgery is unknown. Initial reports for the use of biological mesh for crural reinforcement during repair for defects greater than 5 cm have been shown to decrease recurrence rates. This study compares patients with small hiatal hernias who underwent onlay biologic mesh buttress repair versus those with suture cruroplasty alone. This is a single-institution retrospective review of all patients undergoing repair of hiatal hernia measuring 1-5 cm between 2002 and 2009. The patients were evaluated based on surgical repair: one group undergoing crural reinforcement with onlay biologic mesh and other group with suture cruroplasty only. Seventy patients with hiatal hernia measuring 1-5 cm were identified. Thirty-eight patients had hernia repair with biologic mesh, and 32 patients had repair with suture cruroplasty only. Recurrence rate at 1 year was 16% (5/32) in patients who had suture cruroplasty only and 0% (0/38) in the group with crural reinforcement with absorbable mesh (statistically significant, P = 0.017). Suture cruroplasty alone appears to be inadequate for hiatal hernias measuring 1-5 cm with significant recurrence rate and failure of antireflux surgery. Crural reinforcement with absorbable mesh may reduce hiatal hernia recurrence rate in small hiatal hernias.

  4. Diver assisted pipeline repair manual. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual is comprised of vendor supplied parts lists and information on various aspects of underwater pipeline repair. Topics include mechanical repair components, welded repair components, inspection vehicles-tools, pipeline handling systems, cleaning and coatings removal tools, bolt-stud tensioning tools, friction welding, NDT tools, handling tools, pipe anchoring components, pigging and plugging equipment, corrosion preventative coatings, trenching-burial equipment. Also listed are diving contractors, support vessel operators and a bibliography of technical publications.

  5. Spall Repair of Wet Concrete Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    ILE COPY REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMR-CS-25 SPALL REPAIR OF WET CONCRETE SURFACES by J...of the number designating technical reports of research published under the Repair, Evaluation. Maintenance. and Rehabilitation (REMR) Research ...Program identify the problem area under which the report was prepared Problem Area Problem Area CS Concrete and Steel Structures EM Electrical and

  6. Thermal protection system repair kit program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility and conceptual design aspects of repair materials and procedures for in orbit repair of the space shuttle orbiter TPS tiles are investigated. Material studies to investigate cure in place materials are described including catalyst and cure studies, ablation tests and evaluations, and support mixing and applicator design. The feasibility of the repair procedures, the storage of the TPS, dispensing, and cure problems are addressed.

  7. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  8. Plasma Membrane Repair in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demonbreun, Alexis R.; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Since an intact membrane is required for normal cellular homeostasis, membrane repair is essential for cell survival. Human genetic studies, combined with the development of novel animal models and refinement of techniques to study cellular injury, have now uncovered series of repair proteins highly relevant for human health. Many of the deficient repair pathways manifest in skeletal muscle, where defective repair processes result in myopathies or other forms of muscle disease. Dysferlin is a membrane-associated protein implicated in sarcolemmal repair and also linked to other membrane functions including the maintenance of transverse tubules in muscle. MG53, annexins, and Eps15-homology domain (EHD)-containing proteins interact with dysferlin to form a membrane repair complex and similarly have roles in membrane trafficking in muscle. These molecular features of membrane repair are not unique to skeletal muscle, but rather skeletal muscle, due to its high demands, is more dependent on an efficient repair process. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5 bisphosphate, as well as Ca2+, are central regulators of membrane organization during repair. Given the importance of muscle health in disease and in aging, these pathways are targets to enhance muscle function and recovery from injury. PMID:26781830

  9. Current Trends in Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Patapis, Paul; Zavras, Nick; Tzanetis, Panagiotis; Machairas, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical technique, postoperative complications, and possible recurrence after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) in comparison with open ventral hernia repair (OVHR), based on the international literature. Database: A Medline search of the current English literature was performed using the terms laparoscopic ventral hernia repair and incisional hernia repair. Conclusions: LVHR is a safe alternative to the open method, with the main advantages being minimal postoperative pain, shorter recovery, and decreased wound and mesh infections. Incidental enterotomy can be avoided by using a meticulous technique and sharp dissection to avoid thermal injury. PMID:26273186

  10. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  11. Repair and rehabilitation with polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    As a result of their fast setting characteristics and excellent mechanical and physical properties, polymer concretes (PC) are finding ever increasing useage for the repair of deteriorated portland cement concrete structures. Applications include the repair of highway pavements and bridge decks, airport runways, hydrotechnical structures, tunnels, and industrial flooring. The most commonly used resins and monomer systems for these applications are epoxies, polyesters and methylmethacrylate. Furfuryl alcohol has been used experimentally, and shows promise for use in making emergency repairs under adverse moisture or extreme temperature conditions. In the paper, repair procedures will be discussed and several case histories given. 6 refs.

  12. Transcriptomic Approaches to Neural Repair

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Martins, Ana; Chandran, Vijayendran; Costigan, Michael; Lerch, Jessica K.; Willis, Dianna E.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding why adult CNS neurons fail to regenerate their axons following injury remains a central challenge of neuroscience research. A more complete appreciation of the biological mechanisms shaping the injured nervous system is a crucial prerequisite for the development of robust therapies to promote neural repair. Historically, the identification of regeneration associated signaling pathways has been impeded by the limitations of available genetic and molecular tools. As we progress into an era in which the high-throughput interrogation of gene expression is commonplace and our knowledge base of interactome data is rapidly expanding, we can now begin to assemble a more comprehensive view of the complex biology governing axon regeneration. Here, we highlight current and ongoing work featuring transcriptomic approaches toward the discovery of novel molecular mechanisms that can be manipulated to promote neural repair. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Transcriptional profiling is a powerful technique with broad applications in the field of neuroscience. Recent advances such as single-cell transcriptomics, CNS cell type-specific and developmental stage-specific expression libraries are rapidly enhancing the power of transcriptomics for neuroscience applications. However, extracting biologically meaningful information from large transcriptomic datasets remains a formidable challenge. This mini-symposium will highlight current work using transcriptomic approaches to identify regulatory networks in the injured nervous system. We will discuss analytical strategies for transcriptomics data, the significance of noncoding RNA networks, and the utility of multiomic data integration. Though the studies featured here specifically focus on neural repair, the approaches highlighted in this mini-symposium will be of broad interest and utility to neuroscientists working in diverse areas of the field. PMID:26468186

  13. 14 CFR 145.107 - Satellite repair stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Satellite repair stations. 145.107 Section... Data § 145.107 Satellite repair stations. (a) A certificated repair station under the managerial control of another certificated repair station may operate as a satellite repair station with its...

  14. 24 CFR 206.47 - Property standards; repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property standards; repair work... Property standards; repair work. (a) Need for repairs. Properties must meet the applicable property... insured mortgage. (b) Assurance that repairs are made. The mortgage may be closed before the repair...

  15. Laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; He, Kai; Hua, Rong; Shen, Qiwei

    2017-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is one of the most common long-term complications after abdominal ostomy. Surgical treatment for parastomal hernia is the only cure but a fairly difficult field because of the problems of infection, effects, complications and recurrence. Laparoscopic repair operations are good choices for Parastomal hernia because of their mini-invasive nature and confirmed effects. There are several major laparoscopic procedures for parastomal hernioplasty. The indications, technical details and complications of them will be introduced and discussed in this article. PMID:28251124

  16. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes may predict neoadjuvant therapy response in triple negative breast patients.

    PubMed

    Spugnesi, Laura; Gabriele, Michele; Scarpitta, Rosa; Tancredi, Mariella; Maresca, Luisa; Gambino, Gaetana; Collavoli, Anita; Aretini, Paolo; Bertolini, Ilaria; Salvadori, Barbara; Landucci, Elisabetta; Fontana, Andrea; Rossetti, Elena; Roncella, Manuela; Naccarato, Giuseppe Antonio; Caligo, Maria Adelaide

    2016-12-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) represent about 15-20% of all breast cancer cases and are characterized by a complex molecular heterogeneity. Some TNBCs exhibit clinical and pathological properties similar to BRCA-mutated tumors, without actually bearing a mutation in BRCA genes. This "BRCAness" phenotype may be explained by germline mutations in other genes involved in DNA repair. Although respond to chemotherapy with alkylating agents, they have a high risk of recurrence and progression. Some studies have shown the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy in TNBC patients with DNA repair defects, but proper biomarkers of DNA repair deficiency are still needed. Here, we investigated if mutations in DNA repair genes may be correlated with anthracyclines/taxanes neoadjuvant therapy response. DNA from 19 TNBC patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy were subjected to next generation sequencing of a panel of 24 genes in DNA repair and breast cancer predisposition. In this study, 5 of 19 patients (26%) carried a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1, PALB2, RAD51C and two patients carried a probable pathogenic missense variant. Moreover, VUS (Variants of Unknown Significance) in other genes, predicted to be deleterious by in silico tools, were detected in five patients. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes were found to be associated with the group of TNBC patients who responded to therapy. We conclude that a subgroup of TNBC patients have defects in DNA repair genes, other than BRCA1, and such patients respond favourably to neoadjuvant anthracyclines/taxanes therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Repair synthesis by human cell extracts in DNA damaged by cis- and trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II).

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, J; Wood, R D

    1989-01-01

    DNA damage was induced in closed circular plasmid DNA by treatment with cis- or trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). These plasmids were used as substrates in reactions to give quantitative measurements of DNA repair synthesis mediated by cell free extracts from human lymphoid cell lines. Adducts induced by both drugs stimulated repair synthesis in a dose dependent manner by an ATP-requiring process. Measurements by an isopycnic gradient sedimentation method gave an upper limit for the average patch sizes in this in vitro system of around 140 nucleotides. It was estimated that up to 3% of the drug adducts induce the synthesis of a repair patch. The repair synthesis is due to repair of a small fraction of frequent drug adducts, rather than extensive repair of a rare subclass of lesions. Nonspecific DNA synthesis in undamaged plasmids, caused by exonucleolytic degradation and resynthesis, was reduced by repeated purification of intact circular forms. An extract made from cells belonging to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A was deficient in repair synthesis in response to the presence of cis- or trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adducts in DNA. Images PMID:2554251

  18. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Karen L; Dashner, Erica J; Tsosie, Ranalda; Cho, Young Mi; Lewis, Johnnye; Hudson, Laurie G

    2016-01-15

    Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; <10 μM) is not cytotoxic to human embryonic kidney cells or normal human keratinocytes; however, uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations.

  19. Single-Versus Double-Row Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair in Massive Tears

    PubMed Central

    Wang, EnZhi; Wang, Liang; Gao, Peng; Li, ZhongJi; Zhou, Xiao; Wang, SongGang

    2015-01-01

    Background It is a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons to treat massive rotator cuff tears. The optimal management of massive rotator cuff tears remains controversial. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare arthroscopic single- versus double-row rotator cuff repair with a larger sample size. Material/Methods Of the subjects with massive rotator cuff tears, 146 were treated using single-row repair, and 102 were treated using double-row repair. Pre- and postoperative functional outcomes and radiographic images were collected. The clinical outcomes were evaluated for a minimum of 2 years. Results No significant differences were shown between the groups in terms of functional outcomes. Regarding the integrity of the tendon, a lower rate of post-treatment retear was observed in patients who underwent double-row repair compared with single-row repair. Conclusions The results suggest that double-row repair is relatively superior in shoulder ROM and the strength of tendon compared with single-row repair. Future studies involving more patients in better-designed randomized controlled trials will be required. PMID:26017641

  20. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Karen L.; Dashner, Erica J.; Tsosie, Ranalda; Cho, Young Mi; Lewis, Johnnye

    2015-01-01

    Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; <10 μM) is not cytotoxic to human embryonic kidney cells or normal human keratinocytes; however, uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations. PMID:26627003

  1. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells.

  2. Use of stem cells and growth factors in rotator cuff tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Engin; Hindocha, Sandip; Khan, Wasim S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we analysed the role of stem cell and growth factor therapy on rotator cuff tendon repair. The injury to the rotator cuff tendons can be sustained in numerous ways and generally causes significant pain and disability to the affected individual. Following surgical repair of ruptured rotator cuff tendons re-rupture rates can be as high as 20-60%. In order to augment this repair process and to decrease the re-rupture rates tissue engineering methods can be used. These include the use of stem cells and growth factors. Mesenchymal stem cells are stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of connective tissue cell types and can therefore be utilised in repairing tendons. So far there has only been one human study using stem cells in rotator cuff tendon repair. This study has produced a positive result but consisted of only 14 patients and lacks a control group for comparison. Similar work has also been done using growth factors. Both individual and combination growth factor therapy have been used to improve rotator cuff tendon repair. However, the results so far have been disappointing with growth factors. For the purpose of future studies better techniques should be explored with regards to the delivery of stem cells and growth factors as well as the possibility of combining growth factor and stem cell therapy to improve repair rates.

  3. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others... PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.42 Administration, repair...

  4. A history of the DNA repair and mutagenesis field: The discovery of base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Errol C

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the early history of the discovery of an DNA repair pathway designated as base excision repair (BER), since in contrast to the enzyme-catalyzed removal of damaged bases from DNA as nucleotides [called nucleotide excision repair (NER)], BER involves the removal of damaged or inappropriate bases, such as the presence of uracil instead of thymine, from DNA as free bases.

  5. Fibrin glue repair leads to enhanced axonal elongation during early peripheral nerve regeneration in an in vivo mouse model.

    PubMed

    Koulaxouzidis, Georgios; Reim, Gernot; Witzel, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Microsurgical suturing is the gold standard of nerve coaptation. Although literature on the usefulness of fibrin glue as an alternative is becoming increasingly available, it remains contradictory. Furthermore, no data exist on how both repair methods might influence the morphological aspects (arborization; branching) of early peripheral nerve regeneration. We used the sciatic nerve transplantation model in thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice (YFP; n = 10). Pieces of nerve (1cm) were grafted from YFP-negative mice (n = 10) into those expressing YFP. We performed microsuture coaptations on one side and used fibrin glue for repair on the contralateral side. Seven days after grafting, the regeneration distance, the percentage of regenerating and arborizing axons, the number of branches per axon, the coaptation failure rate, the gap size at the repair site and the time needed for surgical repair were all investigated. Fibrin glue repair resulted in regenerating axons travelling further into the distal nerve. It also increased the percentage of arborizing axons. No coaptation failure was detected. Gap sizes were comparable in both groups. Fibrin glue significantly reduced surgical repair time. The increase in regeneration distance, even after the short period of time, is in line with the results of others that showed faster axonal regeneration after fibrin glue repair. The increase in arborizing axons could be another explanation for better functional and electrophysiological results after fibrin glue repair. Fibrin glue nerve coaptation seems to be a promising alternative to microsuture repair.

  6. Repair-defective mutants of Alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage PM2

    SciTech Connect

    Zerler, B.R.; Wallace, S.S.

    1984-02-01

    The in vivo repair processes of Alteromonas espejiana, the host for bacteriophage PM2, were characterized, and UV- and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants were isolated. Wild-type A. espejiana cells were capable of photoreactivation, excision, recombination, and inducible repair. There was no detecttable pyrimidine dimer-DNA N-glycosylase activity, and pyrimidine dimer removal appeared to occur by a pathway analogous to the Escherichia coli Uvr pathway. The UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants of A. espejiana included three groups, each containing at least one mutation involved with excision, recombination, or inducible repair. One group that was UV sensitive but not sensitive to MMS or X rays showed a decreased ability to excise pyrimidine dimers. Mutants in this group were also sensitive to psoralen plus near-UV light and were phenotypically analogous to the E. coli uvr mutants. A second group was UV and MMS sensitive but not sensitive to X rays and appeared to contain mutations in a gene(s) involved in recombination repair. These recombination-deficient mutants differed from the E. coli rec mutants, which are MMS and X-ray sensitive. The third group of A. espejiana mutants was sensitive to UV, MMS, and X rays. These mutants were recombination deficient, lacked inducible repair, and were phenotypically similar to E. coli recA mutants.

  7. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Recommended Guidelines for Histological Endpoints for Cartilage Repair Studies in Animal Models and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577

  8. Combined Orbital Fractures: Surgical Strategy of Sequential Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Su Won; Kim, Sung Eun; Chung, Kyu Jin; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Gon

    2015-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of combined orbital floor and medial wall fractures with a comminuted inferomedial strut (IMS) is challenging and requires careful practice. We present our surgical strategy and postoperative outcomes. Methods We divided 74 patients who underwent the reconstruction of the orbital floor and medial wall concomitantly into a comminuted IMS group (41 patients) and non-comminuted IMS group (33 patients). In the comminuted IMS group, we first reconstructed the floor stably and then the medial wall by using separate implant pieces. In the non-comminuted IMS group, we reconstructed the floor and the medial wall with a single large implant. Results In the follow-up of 6 to 65 months, most patients with diplopia improved in the first-week except one, who eventually improved at 1 year. All patients with an EOM limitation improved during the first month of follow-up. Enophthalmos (displacement, 2 mm) was observed in two patients. The orbit volume measured on the CT scans was statistically significantly restored in both groups. No complications related to the surgery were observed. Conclusions We recommend the reconstruction of orbit walls in the comminuted IMS group by using the following surgical strategy: usage of multiple pieces of rigid implants instead of one large implant, sequential repair first of the floor and then of the medial wall, and a focus on the reconstruction of key areas. Our strategy of step-by-step reconstruction has the benefits of easy repair, less surgical trauma, and minimal stress to the surgeon. PMID:26217562

  9. Regenerative endodontics: regeneration or repair?

    PubMed

    Simon, Stéphane R J; Tomson, Phillip L; Berdal, Ariane

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in biotechnology and translational research have made it possible to provide treatment modalities that protect the vital pulp, allow manipulation of reactionary and reparative dentinogenesis, and, more recently, permit revascularization of an infected root canal space. These approaches are referred to as regenerative procedures. The method currently used to determine the origin of the tissue secreted during the repair/regeneration process is largely based on the identification of cellular markers (usually proteins) left by cells that were responsible for this tissue production. The presence of these proteins in conjunction with other indicators of cellular behavior (especially biomineralization) and analysis of the structure of the newly generated tissue allow conclusions to be made of how it was formed. Thus far, it has not been possible to truly establish the biological mechanism controlling tertiary dentinogenesis. This article considers current therapeutic techniques to treat the dentin-pulp complex and contextualize them in terms of reparative and regenerative processes. Although it may be considered a semantic argument rather than a biological one, the definitions of regeneration and repair are explored to clarify our position in this era of regenerative endodontics.

  10. Dynamics of DNA Mismatch Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Julie; Lin, Yuyen; Rasnik, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    DNA mismatch repair protects the genome from spontaneous mutations by recognizing errors, excising damage, and re-synthesizing DNA in a pathway that is highly conserved. Mismatch recognition is accomplished by the MutS family of proteins which are weak ATPases that bind specifically to damaged DNA, but the specific molecular mechanisms by which these proteins recognize damage and initiate excision are not known. Previous structural investigations have implied that protein-induced conformational changes are central to mismatch recognition. Because damage detection is a highly dynamic process in which conformational changes of the protein-DNA complexes occur on a time scale of a few seconds, it is difficult to obtain meaningful kinetic information with traditional ensemble techniques. In this work, we use single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates in the presence of the mismatch repair protein MutS from E. coli and its human homolog MSH2/MSH6. Our studies allow us to obtain quantitative kinetic information about the rates of binding and dissociation and to determine the conformational states for each protein-DNA complex.

  11. Targeting Microtubules for Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Charafeddine, Rabab A.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Sharp, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Fast and seamless healing is essential for both deep and chronic wounds to restore the skin and protect the body from harmful pathogens. Thus, finding new targets that can both expedite and enhance the repair process without altering the upstream signaling milieu and causing serious side effects can improve the way we treat wounds. Since cell migration is key during the different stages of wound healing, it presents an ideal process and intracellular structural machineries to target. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is rising as an important structural and functional regulator of wound healing. MTs have been reported to play different roles in the migration of the various cell types involved in wound healing. Specific microtubule regulatory proteins (MRPs) can be targeted to alter a section or subtype of the MT cytoskeleton and boost or hinder cell motility. However, inhibiting intracellular components can be challenging in vivo, especially using unstable molecules, such as small interfering RNA. Nanoparticles can be used to protect these unstable molecules and topically deliver them to the wound. Utilizing this approach, we recently showed that fidgetin-like 2, an uncharacterized MRP, can be targeted to enhance cell migration and wound healing. Future Directions: To harness the full potential of the current MRP therapeutic targets, studies should test them with different delivery platforms, dosages, and skin models. Screening for new MT effectors that boost cell migration in vivo would also help find new targets for skin repair. PMID:27785378

  12. DNA excision repair in cell extracts from human cell lines exhibiting hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hansson, J.; Keyse, S.M.; Lindahl, T.; Wood, R.D. )

    1991-07-01

    Whole cell extracts from human lymphoid cell lines can perform in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids damaged by agents including UV or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP). Extracts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells are defective in repair synthesis. We have now studied in vitro DNA repair synthesis using extracts from lymphoblastoid cell lines representing four human hereditary syndromes with increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Extracts of cell lines from individuals with the sunlight-sensitive disorders dysplastic nevus syndrome or Cockayne's syndrome (complementation groups A and B) showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids with UV photoproducts. This is consistent with in vivo measurements of the overall DNA repair capacity in such cell lines. A number of extracts were prepared from two cell lines representing the variant form of XP (XP-V). Half of the extracts prepared showed normal levels of in vitro DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing UV lesions, but the remainder of the extracts from the same cell lines showed deficient repair synthesis, suggesting the possibility of an unusually labile excision repair protein in XP-V. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells show cellular hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents including cis-DDP. Extracts from cell lines belonging to two different complementation groups of FA showed normal DNA repair synthesis in plasmids containing cis-DDP or UV adducts. Thus, there does not appear to be an overall excision repair defect in FA, but the data do not exclude a defect in the repair of interstrand DNA cross-links.

  13. “Evaluation of sealing ability of MM-MTA, Endosequence, and biodentine as furcation repair materials: UV spectrophotometric analysis”

    PubMed Central

    Jeevani, Eppala; Jayaprakash, Thumu; Bolla, Nagesh; Vemuri, Sayesh; Sunil, Chukka Ram; Kalluru, Rama S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the sealing ability of MICRO-MEGA Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Endosequence, Biodentine as furcation repair materials using a dye extraction leakage method. Materials and Methods: Forty mandibular molars were randomly divided according to the material used for perforation repair. Group I- (left unsealed) control, Group II-MICRO-MEGA Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Group III - Endosequence, Group IV - Biodentine. All samples were subjected to orthograde and retrograde methylene blue dye challenge followed by dye extraction with 65% nitric acid. Samples were then analyzed using Ultra violet (UV) Visible Spectrophotometer. Results: Biodentine showed highest dye absorbance, whereas Endosequence showed lowest dye absorbance when compared with other repair materials. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that Endosequence showed better sealing ability when compared with other root repair materials. PMID:25125846

  14. Base sequence context effects on nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuqin; Patel, Dinshaw J; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2010-08-23

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the genome when damaged by bulky DNA lesions, since inefficient repair can cause mutations and human diseases notably cancer. The structural properties of DNA lesions that determine their relative susceptibilities to NER are therefore of great interest. As a model system, we have investigated the major mutagenic lesion derived from the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 10S (+)-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(2)-dG in six different sequence contexts that differ in how the lesion is positioned in relation to nearby guanine amino groups. We have obtained molecular structural data by NMR and MD simulations, bending properties from gel electrophoresis studies, and NER data obtained from human HeLa cell extracts for our six investigated sequence contexts. This model system suggests that disturbed Watson-Crick base pairing is a better recognition signal than a flexible bend, and that these can act in concert to provide an enhanced signal. Steric hinderance between the minor groove-aligned lesion and nearby guanine amino groups determines the exact nature of the disturbances. Both nearest neighbor and more distant neighbor sequence contexts have an impact. Regardless of the exact distortions, we hypothesize that they provide a local thermodynamic destabilization signal for repair.

  15. Microscale Electrode Implantation during Nerve Repair: Effects on Nerve Morphology, Electromyography, and Recovery of Muscle Contractile Function

    PubMed Central

    Urbanchek, Melanie G; Wei, Benjamin; Egeland, Brent M; Abidian, Mohammad R; Kipke, Daryl R; Cederna, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Background Our goal is to develop a peripheral nerve electrode with long-term stability and fidelity for use in nerve-machine interfaces. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) use silicon probes that contain multi-channel actuators, sensors, and electronics. We tested the null hypothesis that implantation of MEMS probes do not have a detrimental effect on peripheral nerve function or regeneration. Methods A rat hindlimb, peroneal nerve model was utilized in all experimental groups: a) intact nerve (Control, n= 10); b) nerve division and repair (Repair, n= 9); and c) Nerve division, insertion of MEMS probe, and repair (Repair + Probe, n=9). Nerve morphology, nerve to muscle compound action potential (CMAP) studies, walking tracks, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle function tests were evaluated following an 80 day recovery. Results Repair and Repair + Probe showed no differences in axon count, axon size, percent non-neural area, CMAP amplitude, latency, muscle mass, muscle force, or walking track scores. Though there was some local fibrosis around each MEMS probe, this did not lead to measurable detrimental effects in any anatomic or functional outcome measurements. Conclusions The lack of a significant difference between Repair and Repair + Probe groups in histology, CMAP, walking tracks, and muscle force suggests that MEMS electrodes are compatible with regenerating axons and show promise for establishing chemical and electrical interfaces with peripheral nerves. PMID:21921739

  16. Comparative Analysis of Surgical Options for Medial Collateral Ligament Repair in Terrible Triad Injury of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Taku; Nobuta, Shingo; Aizawa, Toshitake; Sasajima, Koichi; Nakajima, Soichi; Honda, Masahito; Oki, Gosuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Itoi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes in patients with terrible triad injury, who underwent surgical treatment with or without the medial collateral ligament (MCL) repair. Fourteen patients who underwent surgery with a minimum of 12-month follow-up (mean, 17 months) were reviewed. Based on the systematic treatment protocol, radial head fracture, lateral collateral ligament, and coracoid fracture were treated. Subsequently, torn MCL was repaired in 7 patients, whereas in the remaining 7 patients, the MCL was not treated. Range of motion, elbow function, and radiographs regarding the arthrosis and heterotopic ossification were assessed. At final follow-up, no significant differences were found in elbow motion or function between the groups with and without MCL repair; except the pronation and supination which had superior range in repair group. In contrast, radiologic findings such as the arthrosis were seen more frequently in patients without MCL repair than those with repair. Our results indicate the effect of MCL repair on elbow motion and function might be small, whereas osteoarthritic changes occurred more frequently in elbows without MCL repair. PMID:27761222

  17. [Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo; Caceres, Alfredo; Palacio, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Animal models of injury and repair in developing brain. Brain injury is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality, a considerable group of these children will develop long term neurological sequels. Despite the great clinical and social significance and the advances in neonatal medicine, no therapy yet does exist that prevent or decrease detrimental effects in cases of neonatal brain injury. Our objective was to review recent research in relation to the hypothesis for repair mechanism in the developing brain, based in animal models that show developmental compensatory mechanisms that promote neural and functional plasticity. A better understanding of these adaptive mechanisms will help clinicians to apply knowledge derived from animals to human clinical situations.

  18. Evaluation of Vibratory Rollers for Bomb Damage Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Repair Base Course Bomb Damage Repair Crushed Stone Vibratory Rollers\\ Soil Compaction Unsurfaced Repairs 0. ABSTRACT (Continue on reveres aide if...3 Test Areas ....... ............. ............ 3 Vibratory Rollers............................... 3 Soils ...Roller Evaluation Tests ................. 16 Soil Preparation and Placement ................ 16 Compaction .................................... 16

  19. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  20. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehousefield ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lube rack of Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops with Warehouse-field Equipment Repair Shop Building's wall to the right, looking from the south - Kekaha Sugar Company, Automotive and Tractor Repair Shops, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  2. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  4. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  5. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF FABRICATING PRESS IN EAST END OF MAIN WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  6. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREWFEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF MILLS COAL BOILER WITH SCREW-FEED COAL HOPPER ON RIGHT SIDE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  7. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, DETAIL OF BUILDING CORNER (MAIN WING) SHOWING WOOD EAVE AND STUCCO RAKEBOARD ON GABLE END. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  8. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, SLIDING DOOR LEADING TO BOILER ROOM ON SOUTH SIDE OF SOUTH WING, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  9. AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOP, INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DOORWAYS TO SHOP OFFICE AND SOUTH WING. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  10. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purged material resulting from immediate repair are greater than the fugitive emissions likely to result from delay of repair, and (2) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material is collected...

  11. 40 CFR 61.242-10 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... repair for valves will be allowed if: (1) The owner or operator demonstrates that emissions of purged... delay of repair, and (2) When repair procedures are effected, the purged material is collected...

  12. 5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE NORTH REPAIR BAY OF THE MOTOR REPAIR SHOP, BUILDING 104, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Motor Repair & Auto Hobby Shop, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  13. The Outcomes of Primary Scleral Buckling during Repair of Posterior Segment Open-Globe Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Dan; Lifshitz, Tova; Belfair, Nadav; Klemperer, Itamar; Yanculovich, Noam

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare visual outcomes of eyes which underwent primary scleral buckling (PSB) treatment during posterior segment open-globe injury (OGI) repair with eyes not treated with PSB. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 38 eyes which underwent a posterior segment OGI repair with no preoperative evidence of retinal detachment (RD) at Soroka University Medical Center (1995–2010). 19 (50%) underwent scleral repair alone (control group) and the other 19 eyes were treated with PSB also (PSB group). We compared visual outcomes in these two groups and rates of subsequent postoperative complications. Results. Baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Compared with the control group, the PSB group had statistically significant lower rates of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (5.3% versus 38.4%, P < 0.05) and a trend towards lower rates of RD (15.8% versus 41.1%, P = 0.1). PSB group eyes had a statistically significant improvement of their best distance visual acuity (BDVA) with lower means of final BDVA-grade (P < 0.05) and logMAR vision (P < 0.05). Eyes in the control group had no improvement in these parameters. Conclusion. PSB procedure during posterior segment OGI repair may decrease the risk of subsequent retinal complications and improve final visual outcome. PMID:25050367

  14. Trichothiodystrophy, a human DNA repair disorder with heterogeneity in the cellular response to ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, A.R.; Arlett, C.F.; Broughton, B.C.; Harcourt, S.A.; Steingrimsdottir, H.; Stefanini, M.; Malcolm, A.; Taylor, R.; Natarajan, A.T.; Green, S.

    1988-11-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brittle hair with reduced sulfur content, ichthyosis, peculiar face, and mental and physical retardation. Some patients are photosensitive. A previous study by Stefanini et al. showed that cells from four photosensitive patients with TTD had a molecular defect in DNA repair, which was not complemented by cells from xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D. In a detailed molecular and cellular study of the effects of UV light on cells cultured from three further TTD patients who did not exhibit photosensitivity we have found an array of different responses. In cells from the first patient, survival, excision repair, and DNA and RNA synthesis following UV irradiation were all normal, whereas in cells from the second patient all these responses were similar to those of excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum (group D) cells. With the third patient, cell survival measured by colony-forming ability was normal following UV irradiation, even though repair synthesis was only 50% of normal and RNA synthesis was severely reduced. The excision-repair defect in these cells was not complemented by other TTD cell strains. These cellular characteristics of patient 3 have not been described previously for any other cell line. The normal survival may be attributed to the finding that the deficiency in excision-repair is confined to early times after irradiation. Our results pose a number of questions about the relationship between the molecular defect in DNA repair and the clinical symptoms of xeroderma pigmentosum and TTD.

  15. Effect of overuse-induced tendinopathy on tendon healing in a rat supraspinatus repair model.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jennica J; Riggin, Corinne N; Connizzo, Brianne K; Mauck, Robert L; Steinberg, David R; Kuntz, Andrew F; Soslowsky, Louis J; Bernstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Supraspinatus tears often result in the setting of chronic tendinopathy. However, the typical repair model utilizes an acute injury. In recognition of that distinction, our laboratory developed an overuse animal model; however it is unclear whether induced overuse is necessary in the repair model. We studied the repair properties of overuse-induced tendons compared to normal tendons. We hypothesized that histological and mechanical properties would not be altered between the overuse-induced and normal tendons 1 and 4 weeks after repair. Thirty-one adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either overuse or cage activity for 4 weeks prior to bilateral supraspinatus tendon repair surgery. Rats were sacrificed at 1 and 4 weeks post-surgery and evaluated for histology and mechanics. Results at 1 week showed no clear histologic changes, but increased inflammatory protein expression in overuse tendons. At 4 weeks, percent relaxation was slightly increased in the overuse group. No other alterations in mechanics or histology were observed. Our results suggest that the effects of the surgical injury overshadow the changes evoked by overuse. Because clinically relevant mechanical parameters were not altered in the overuse group, we conclude that when examining tendons 4 weeks after repair in the classic rat supraspinatus model, inducing overuse prior to surgery is likely to be unnecessary.

  16. Image-Guided Techniques Improve the Short-Term Outcome of Autologous Osteochondral Cartilage Repair Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Steven M.; Hurtig, Mark B.; Waldman, Stephen D.; Rudan, John F.; Bardana, Davide D.; Stewart, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Autologous osteochondral cartilage repair is a valuable reconstruction option for cartilage defects, but the accuracy to harvest and deliver osteochondral grafts remains problematic. We investigated whether image-guided methods (optically guided and template guided) can improve the outcome of these procedures. Design: Fifteen sheep were operated to create traumatic chondral injuries in each knee. After 4 months, the chondral defect in one knee was repaired using (a) conventional approach, (b) optically guided method, or (c) template-guided method. For both image-guided groups, harvest and delivery sites were preoperatively planned using custom-made software. During optically guided surgery, instrument position and orientation were tracked and superimposed onto the surgical plan. For the template-guided group, plastic templates were manufactured to allow an exact fit between template and the joint anatomy. Cylindrical holes within the template guided surgical tools according to the plan. Three months postsurgery, both knees were harvested and computed tomography scans were used to compare the reconstructed versus the native pre-injury joint surfaces. For each repaired defect, macroscopic (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS]) and histological repair (ICRS II) scores were assessed. Results: Three months after repair surgery, both image-guided surgical approaches resulted in significantly better histology scores compared with the conventional approach (improvement by 55%, P < 0.02). Interestingly, there were no significant differences found in cartilage surface reconstruction and macroscopic scores between the image-guided and the conventional surgeries. PMID:26069658

  17. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pump that meets the requirements of § 65.107(e)(2) will be installed; or (C) A system that routes.... First attempt at repair for pumps includes, but is not limited to, tightening the packing gland nuts and... destroyed or recovered in a control device complying with § 65.115. (4) Delay of repair for pumps is...

  18. Robot Service and Repair. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum Dissemination Center.

    This document is a teacher's guide for teaching a course on robot service and repair. The guide is organized in four units covering the following topics: introduction to robots, power supply, robot control systems, and service and repair. Each unit contains several lesson plans on the unit topic. Lesson plans consist of objectives, tools and…

  19. Robot Service and Repair. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburg State Univ., KS. Kansas Vocational Curriculum Dissemination Center.

    This document is a student guide for a course on robot service and repair. It is organized in four units covering the following topics: introduction to robots, power supply, robot control systems, and service and repair. Each unit contains several lesson plans on the unit topic. Lesson plans consist of lesson objectives, lists of teaching aids and…

  20. Flavonoids and DNA Repair in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    hours of naringenin treatment. The tea flavonoid EGC and apigenin from parsley did not show any DNA repair-stimulatory activity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS No...flavonoids to continue the investigations on the stimulatory effect on DNA repair: -naringenin from citrus -apigenin from parsley -epicatechin

  1. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  2. Railroad track repairs are complete at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Railroad track repairs have been completed at Kennedy Space Center. This section of track is located on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area. The repairs were required following the minor derailment of two solid rocket booster segment cars on July 18.

  3. Self repairing composites for drone air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of impact-initiated delivery of repair chemicals through hollow fiber architectures embedded within graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, representative of advanced drone aircraft component material systems. Self-repairing structures through coupon and elements were demonstrated, and evaluated.

  4. 46 CFR 160.006-2 - Repairing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairing. 160.006-2 Section 160.006-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS.... No repairs, except in emergency, shall be made to an approved life preserver without advance...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  15. Anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is performed more and more nowadays. The anatomy of these procedures is totally different from traditional open procedures because they are performed from different direction and in different space. The important anatomy essentials for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair will be discussed in this article. PMID:27826575

  16. Evaluation of Rapid-Setting Concretes for Airfield Spall Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    repair concretes for Rapid Runway Repair (RRR). The three were a methyl methacrylate binder (Silikal RI7AF), a magnesium phosphate mortar mix (Set-45...Performance Reauirements Definition of small repair 5. The Rapid Runway Repair Program of the US Air Force (USAF) includes the activities that must be performed...scenario for wartime spall repair includes the expectation that a runway will be damaged by tens to hundreds of spalls at one time. The repair activity

  17. DNA Repair by Reversal of DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chengqi; He, Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous factors constantly challenge cellular DNA, generating cytotoxic and/or mutagenic DNA adducts. As a result, organisms have evolved different mechanisms to defend against the deleterious effects of DNA damage. Among these diverse repair pathways, direct DNA-repair systems provide cells with simple yet efficient solutions to reverse covalent DNA adducts. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the field of direct DNA repair, namely, photolyase-, alkyltransferase-, and dioxygenase-mediated repair processes. We present specific examples to describe new findings of known enzymes and appealing discoveries of new proteins. At the end of this article, we also briefly discuss the influence of direct DNA repair on other fields of biology and its implication on the discovery of new biology. PMID:23284047

  18. Repair Development for a Composite Cryotank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Danley, Susan E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Cheshire, Brian C.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project is working to advance the technologies for composite cryogenic propellant tanks at diameters suitable for future heavy lift vehicles and other in-space applications. The main goals of the project are to reduce weight and cost. One aspect of this project has focused on damage evaluation and repair development. Test panels have been impacted, repaired, and tested. Several repair methods were used to compare their effectiveness at restoring the integrity of the composite. Panels were evaluated by nondestructive evaluations at several points during the process to assess the damage and repair. The testing performed and the results and conclusions from the nondestructive evaluations and the destructive testing will be discussed. These results will lead to further development of inspection techniques and repair methods.

  19. Effect of acrylamide on hepatocellular DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.; McQueen, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide has recently been reported to induce tumors in laboratory animals. The effect of acrylamide on unscheduled DNA synthesis using the hepatocyte primary culture (HPC)/DNA repair test was examined. Isolated hepatocytes were exposed to acrylamide and (3H)thymidine ( (3H)TdR) for 18 hr. Incorporation of (3H)TdR into DNA was determined by autoradiography. No DNA repair was observed at acrylamide concentrations up to 10(-2) M. These findings were confirmed using density gradients. Acrylamide concentrations exceeding 10(-2) M were cytotoxic to hepatocytes. Because both autoradiography and density gradients measure DNA repair as an endpoint, the ability of acrylamide to inhibit these repair processes was also determined. Acrylamide had no effect on the repair of UV-damaged DNA. These results show that acrylamide is not genotoxic in isolated hepatocytes.

  20. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Jahan; Chen, Frederick Y

    2015-05-01

    Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation remains controversial. In moderate mitral regurgitation (MR), controversy exists whether revascularization alone will be adequate to restore native valve geometry or whether intervention on the valve (repair) should be performed concomitantly. When MR is severe, the need for valve intervention is not disputed. Rather, the controversy is whether repair versus replacement should be undertaken. In contrast to degenerative or myxomatous disease that directly affects leaflet integrity and morphology, ischemic FMR results from a distortion and dilation of native ventricular geometry that normally supports normal leaflet coaptation. To address this, the first and most crucial step in successful valve repair is placement of an undersized, complete remodeling annuloplasty ring to restore the annulus to its native geometry. The following article outlines the steps for repair of ischemic mitral regurgitation.

  1. Integrated structural repair of a producing FPSO

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.R.; Smith, T.A.

    1997-07-01

    The state of the art in FPSO design is advancing rapidly. The long-term reliability of FPSO systems has improved as maintenance issues, have received greater emphasis in both new-builds and conversions. Despite this new emphasis, problems will still arise and repairs will still be required. Ultimately, the ability of any FPSO to stay on location and on production will depend on the scope of repairs which can be economically performed in-situ. In 1994 and 1995, Marathon Petroleum Indonesia Limited (MPIL) performed an in-situ repair on the FPSO Kakap Natuna. The scope and complexity of this work suggests there are few, if any, limits on in-situ structural repairs which can be successfully performed on a producing FPSO. The use of an integrated execution strategy for the repairs greatly reduced their cost.

  2. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  3. The role of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bas, Gurhan; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Alimoglu, Orhan; Eryilmaz, Ramazan; Sahin, Mustafa; Okan, Ismail; Cevikbas, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragmatic injuries either by blunt or penetrating trauma require prompt surgical intervention and are often exigent to repair. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (n-butyl-2-CA) is a tissue adhesive which has gained wide application in many areas of surgery including emergency. To repair the extensive injuries of the diaphragm it may be necessary the use of synthetic mesh by fixing it with sutures or staples. The use of tissue adhesives may circumvent the potential problems associated with mesh fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tissue adhesives usage for mesh fixation in diaphragmatic injury repair. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups each of them containing 8 rats. A 1- cm diaphragmatic defect was created in all rats. The defect was repaired by polypropylene suture in Group I, by mesh fixed with sutures in group II and by mesh fixed with n-butyl-2-CA in group III. The rats were sacrificed after 1 month. The episode of hernia and the adhesions were assessed by adhesion density score. Also, the abscess and inflammation in the repaired tissue were evaluated microscopically. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for the histopathological analysis. No diaphragmatic hernia was detected in any group. While Group III had higher adhesion density scores than group I (P: 0.027), there were no differences between group III and II (P: 0.317) and group II and I (P = 0.095) regarding adhesion density scores. The inflammation grade was higher in group III than group I and II (P < 0.001) and was higher in group II than group I (P < 0.05). There was no differences between each groups, concerning microabcsess formation (P > 0.05). Repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injury in penetrating wound, with polypropylene mesh fixed by n-butyl-2-CA in rats appears to be as efficacious and safe as conventional methods in early period. However, further experimental and clinical study are needed to compare the long-term results of adhesive mesh repair with those of

  4. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

  5. A mutation in the XPB/ERCC3 DNA repair transcription gene, associated with trichothiodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Weeda, G.; Donker, I.; Vermeulen, W.

    1997-02-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sulfur-deficient brittle hair and nails, mental retardation, impaired sexual development, and ichthyosis. Photosensitivity has been reported in {approximately}50% of the cases, but no skin cancer is associated with TTD. Virtually all photosensitive TTD patients have a deficiency in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UV-induced DNA damage that is indistinguishable from that of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation group D (XP-D) patients. DNA repair defects in XP-D are associated with two additional, quite different diseases; XP, a sun-sensitive and cancer-prone repair disorder, and Cockayne syndrome (CS), a photosensitive condition characterized by physical and mental retardation and wizened facial appearance. One photosensitive TTD case constitutes a new repair-deficient complementation group, TTD-A. Remarkably, both TTD-A and XP-D defects are associated with subunits of TFIIH, a basal transcription factor with a second function in DNA repair. Thus, mutations in TFIIH components may, on top of a repair defect, also cause transcriptional insufficiency, which may explain part of the non-XP clinical features of TTD. To date, three patients with the remarkable conjunction of XP and CS but not TM have been assigned to XP complementation group B (XP-B). Here we present the characterization of the NER defect in two mild TTD patients (TTD6VI and TTD4VI) and confirm the assignment to X-PB. The causative mutation was found to be a single base substitution resulting in a missense mutation (T119P) in a region of the XPB protein. These findings define a third TTD complementation group, extend the clinical heterogeneity associated with XP-B, stress the exclusive relationship between TTD and mutations in subunits of repair/transcription factor TFIIH, and strongly support the concept of {open_quotes}transcription syndromes.{close_quotes} 46 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone-Induced Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenic Differentiation and its Repair of Articular Cartilage Injury in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yushu; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Shujiang; Du, Xiufan; Bai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background We explored the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) complexed with fibrin glue (FG) in the repair of articular cartilage injury in rabbits. Material/Methods Forty-eight rabbits randomized into four groups were subjected to articular surgery (cartilage loss). The PTH and non-PTH intervention groups included transplantation with PTH/BMSC/FG xenogeneic and BMSC/FG xenogeneic complexes, respectively, into the injured area. The injured group contained no transplant while the control group comprised rabbits without any articular injury. Samples were monitored for cartilage repair up to three months post-surgery. Immunohistochemistry as well as real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan in the repaired tissue. Results At 12 weeks post-surgery, the loss of articular cartilage in the PTH group was fully repaired by hyaline tissue. Typical cartilage lacunae and intact subchondral bone were found. The boundary separating the surrounding normal cartilage tissue disappeared. The gross and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) histological ranking of the repaired tissue was significantly higher in the PTH intervention group than in the non-PTH intervention and injury groups (p<0.05) without any significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). Type II collagen and aggrecan stained positive and the average optical density, relative mRNA expression and protein-integrated optical density in the PTH group were higher than in non-PTH and injured groups (p<0.05) but not significantly different from the control group (p>0.05). Conclusions PTH/BMSC/FG xenogeneic complexes effectively repaired the loss of cartilage in rabbit knee injury. PMID:27847384

  7. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  8. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  9. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  10. “Early Evaluation of Nerve Regeneration After Nerve Injury and Repair Using Functional Connectivity MRI”

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rupeng; Hettinger, Patrick C.; Liu, Xiping; Machol, Jacques; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies in rat brain show brain reorganization caused by nerve injury and repair. In this study, distinguishable differences were found in healthy, nerve transection without repair (R+) and nerve transection with repair (R−) groups in the subacute stage (two weeks after initial injury). Only forepaw on the healthy side was used to determine seed voxel regions in this study. Disturbance of neuronal network in the primary sensory region of cortex occurs within two hours after initial injury, and the network pattern was restored in R+ group in subacute stage, while the disturbed pattern remained in R− group. These are the central findings of the study. This technique provides a novel way of detecting and monitoring the effectiveness of peripheral nerve injury treatment in the early stage and potentially offers a tool for clinicians to avoid poor clinical outcomes. PMID:24515926

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF GAS PIPLINES SURVEY OF OPERATOR EXPERIENCE AND INDUSTRY NEEDS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Ian D. Harris

    2003-09-01

    A repair method that can be applied from the inside of a gas transmission pipeline (i.e., a trenchless repair) is an attractive alternative to conventional repair methods since the need to excavate the pipeline is precluded. This is particularly true for pipelines in environmentally sensitive and highly populated areas. The objectives of the project are to evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and validate internal repair methods for pipelines; develop a functional specification for an internal pipeline repair system; and prepare a recommended practice for internal repair of pipelines. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. A total of fifty-six surveys were sent to pipeline operators. A total of twenty completed surveys were returned, representing a 36% response rate, which is considered very good given the fact that tailored surveys are known in the marketing industry to seldom attract more than a 10% response rate. The twenty survey responses produced the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water (e.g., lakes and swamps) in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. All these areas tend to be very difficult and very costly if, and where, conventional excavated repairs may be currently used. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem in a water/river crossing. (3) The typical travel distances required can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). In concept, these groups require pig-based systems; despooled umbilical systems could be considered for the first two groups

  12. Postreplication repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, M.A.; Boyce, J.; Cox, B.

    1981-04-01

    Postreplication events in logarithmically growing excision-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined after low doses of ultraviolet light. Pulse-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid had interruptions, and when the cells were chased, the interruptions were no longer detected. Since the loss of interruptions was not associated with an exchange of pyrimidine dimers at a detection level of 10 to 20% of the induced dimers, it was concluded that postreplication repair in excision-defective mutants does not involve molecular recombination. Pyrimidine dimers were assayed by utilizing the ultraviolet-endonuclease activity in extracts of Micrococcus luteus and newly developed alkaline sucrose gradient techniques, which yielded chromosomal-size deoxyribonucleic acid after treatment of irradiated cells.

  13. Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Erminia; Pulsatelli, Lia; Facchini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In adult healthy cartilage, chondrocytes are in a quiescent phase characterized by a fine balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. In ageing, degenerative joint diseases and traumatic injuries of cartilage, a loss of homeostatic conditions and an up-regulation of catabolic pathways occur. Since cartilage differentiation and maintenance of homeostasis are finely tuned by a complex network of signaling molecules and biophysical factors, shedding light on these mechanisms appears to be extremely relevant for both the identification of pathogenic key factors, as specific therapeutic targets, and the development of biological approaches for cartilage regeneration. This review will focus on the main signaling pathways that can activate cellular and molecular processes, regulating the functional behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological conditions. These networks may be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and increased knowledge in this field may lead to the development of more effective strategies for inducing cartilage repair. PMID:24837833

  14. Articular cartilage repair with recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold in a preliminary porcine study.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, Virpi; Salonius, Eve; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Järvinen, Elina; Paatela, Teemu; Meller, Anna; Hannula, Markus; Björkman, Mimmi; Pyhältö, Tuomo; Ellä, Ville; Vasara, Anna; Töyräs, Juha; Kellomäki, Minna; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a novel recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold (rhCo-PLA) in the repair of full-thickness cartilage lesions with autologous chondrocyte implantation technique (ACI). The forming repair tissue was compared to spontaneous healing (spontaneous) and repair with a commercial porcine type I/III collagen membrane (pCo). Domestic pigs (4-month-old, n = 20) were randomized into three study groups and a circular full-thickness chondral lesion with a diameter of 8 mm was created in the right medial femoral condyle. After 3 weeks, the chondral lesions were repaired with either rhCo-PLA or pCo together with autologous chondrocytes, or the lesion was only debrided and left untreated for spontaneous repair. The repair tissue was evaluated 4 months after the second operation. Hyaline cartilage formed most frequently in the rhCo-PLA treatment group. Biomechanically, there was a trend that both treatment groups resulted in better repair tissue than spontaneous healing. Adverse subchondral bone reactions developed less frequently in the spontaneous group (40%) and the rhCo-PLA treated group (50%) than in the pCo control group (100%). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups. The novel rhCo-PLA biomaterial showed promising results in this proof-of-concept study, but further studies will be needed in order to determine its effectiveness in articular cartilage repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:745-753, 2016.

  15. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  16. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  17. One-stage dorsal lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for the treatment of failed hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yue-Min; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Ying-Long; Zhang, Jiong; Xie, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the outcomes of patients who underwent one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using a lingual mucosal graft (LMG) after failed hypospadias repairs. Inclusion criteria included a history of failed hypospadias repair, insufficiency of the local skin that made a reoperation with skin flaps difficult, and necessity of an oral mucosal graft urethroplasty. Patients were excluded if they had undergone a failed hypospadias repair using the foreskin or a multistage repair urethroplasty. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 110 patients with failed hypospadias repairs were treated in our center. Of these patients, 56 underwent a one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty using LMG. The median age was 21.8 years (range: 4–45 years). Of the 56 patients, one-stage onlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 42 patients (group 1), and a modified Snodgrass technique using one-stage inlay LMG urethroplasty was performed in 14 (group 2). The median LMG urethroplasty length was 5.6 ± 1.6 cm (range: 4–13 cm). The mean follow-up was 34.7 months (range: 10–58 months), and complications developed in 12 of 56 patients (21.4%), including urethrocutaneous fistulas in 7 (6 in group 1, 1 in group 2) and neourethral strictures in 5 (4 in group 1, 1 in group 2). The total success rate was 78.6%. Our survey suggests that one-stage onlay or inlay urethroplasty with LMG may be an effective option to treat the patients with less available skin after failed hypospadias repairs; LMG harvesting is easy and safe, irrespective of the patient's age. PMID:26228042

  18. Home Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahler, Theresa M.

    All students enrolled in the entry level foundations course in the College of Education of Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) participate in home groups, a cooperative learning strategy. Each student is assigned to a five- or six-person home group on the first day of class. Although group placements are made on the basis of class lists, every…

  19. Diverless pipeline repair clamp: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Knott, B. )

    1991-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas developments are underway for water depths beyond which divers can function. The economic lifelines of these projects are the pipelines which will transport the products to shore. In preparation for the day when one of these pipelines will require repair because of a leak, the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association is funding research directed at developing diverless pipeline repair capabilities. Several types of damage are possible, ranging from latent weld defects on one end of the spectrum to damage resulting in parting of the pipe at the other end. This study is specifically directed toward laying the groundwork for development of a diverless pipeline repair clamp for use in repair of leaks resulting from minor pipe defects. The incentive for a clamp type repair is costs. When compared to replacing a section of pipe, either by welding or by mechanical means, the clamp type repair requires much less disturbance of the pipe, less time, fewer operations and less equipment. This report summarizes (1) capabilities of remotely operated vehicles (ROV's) and associated systems, (2) highlights areas for further research and development, (3) describes the required capabilities of the diverless repairclamp, (4) investigates some alternatives to the diverless clamp, (5) overviews the state of the art in leak repair clamps, and (6) critiques several possible generic clamp concepts.

  20. Dental materials for cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Faiza; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham; Muhammad, Nawshad; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    Numerous bone and soft tissue grafting techniques are followed to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP) defects. In addition to the gold standard surgical interventions involving the use of autogenous grafts, various allogenic and xenogenic graft materials are available for bone regeneration. In an attempt to discover minimally invasive and cost effective treatments for cleft repair, an exceptional growth in synthetic biomedical graft materials have occurred. This study gives an overview of the use of dental materials to repair cleft of lip and palate (CLP). The eligibility criteria for this review were case studies, clinical trials and retrospective studies on the use of various types of dental materials in surgical repair of cleft palate defects. Any data available on the surgical interventions to repair alveolar or palatal cleft, with natural or synthetic graft materials was included in this review. Those datasets with long term clinical follow-up results were referred to as particularly relevant. The results provide encouraging evidence in favor of dental and other related biomedical materials to fill the gaps in clefts of lip and palate. The review presents the various bones and soft tissue replacement strategies currently used, tested or explored for the repair of cleft defects. There was little available data on the use of synthetic materials in cleft repair which was a limitation of this study. In conclusion although clinical trials on the use of synthetic materials are currently underway the uses of autologous implants are the preferred treatment methods to date.

  1. 'Relax and Repair' to restrain aging.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vaidehi; Liu, Baohua; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2011-10-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity requires the precise identification and repair of DNA damage. Since DNA is packaged and condensed into higher order chromatin, the events associated with DNA damage recognition and repair are orchestrated within the layers of chromatin. Very similar to transcription, during DNA repair, chromatin remodelling events and histone modifications act in concert to 'open' and relax chromatin structure so that repair proteins can gain access to DNA damage sites. One such histone mark critical for maintaining chromatin structure is acetylated lysine 16 of histone H4 (AcH4K16), a modification that can disrupt higher order chromatin organization and convert it into a more 'relaxed' configuration. We have recently shown that impaired H4K16 acetylation delays the accumulation of repair proteins to double strand break (DSB) sites which results in defective genome maintenance and accelerated aging in a laminopathy-based premature aging mouse model. These results support the idea that epigenetic factors may directly contribute to genomic instability and aging by regulating the efficiency of DSB repair. In this article, the interplay between epigenetic misregulation, defective DNA repair and aging is discussed.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  3. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery. PMID:18264850

  4. Repair of DNA-protein cross-links in an excision repair-deficient human cell line and its simian virus 40-transformed derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, R.; Taylor, W.G.; Camalier, R.F.; Stephens, E.V.

    1984-05-01

    DNA-protein cross-links are induced in mammalian cells by X-rays, ultraviolet light, fluorescent light, and numerous chemical carcinogens. Others have shown that these cross-links are repaired by normal cells but that excision repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) Group A cells, XP12BE, are deficient in repair of these bulky adducts. This paper compares the DNA-protein cross-link repair competency of another XP Group A strain, XP20S, with its more rapidly proliferating simian virus 40-transformed derivative line and with normal human skin fibroblasts. DNA-protein cross-links were induced with 20 microM transplatinum(II)diamminedichloride and assayed by the membrane alkaline elution procedure of Kohn. Treated and untreated cells are lysed on a polycarbonate membrane filter, and the coelution rates of the DNA at pH 12.2 are compared; DNA-protein cross-links retard elution of DNA. The repair competency of XP20S cells for trans-platinum(II)diamminedichloride-induced DNA-protein cross-links was similar to that of XP12BE cells, but the competency of the simian virus 40-transformed XP20S cells was nearly equal to that of normal human skin fibroblasts. These results suggest that either cell cycling compensates for the genetic deficiency present in the nucleotide excision process of XP Group A cells or that a process other than nucleotide excision can repair these lesions; this process requires cell cycling or activation by the virus.

  5. Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Bienek, Diane R.; Tutak, Wojtek; Skrtic, Drago

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field. PMID:28134776

  6. Comparison of the Effects of Lidocaine Prilocaine Cream (EMLA) and Lidocaine Injection on Reduction of Perineal Pain During Perineum Repair in Normal Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kargar, Roxana; Aghazadeh-Nainie, Afsaneh; Khoddami-Vishteh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of EMLA cream and lidocaine injection to reduce pain during episiotomy repair. Materials and methods: A total of 46 primiparous women with normal pregnancy who referred for normal vaginal delivery and needed episiotomy repair were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For EMLA group, one hour before the estimated time of delivery, 5g of EMLA cream was applied to perinealmediolateral incision, and after the delivery of the fetus and placenta, again 5g of EMLA cream was applied to healthy skin around the episiotomy for repair. In the other group, lidocaine 2% was used before episiotomy and for its repair, too. Results: Only 8 people (19%) were in need of further analgesia. The mean ± SD of pain during repair of episiotomy on the VAS scale in all cases was 4.2 ± 2.3 cm. Most people (97%) were satisfied with their episiotomy repair. Comparing the two groups of EMLA and lidocaine, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of the duration of episiotomy repair, need for further analgesia, pain on the VAS scale, and satisfaction with the repair method. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the use of EMLA cream in the site of episiotomy incision in primiparous women can induce a level of analgesia equal to that of lidocaine, and cause a similar level of satisfaction. PMID:27385970

  7. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  8. DNA excision repair in permeable human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.K.; Bodell, W.J.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    U.v. irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts activated DNA repair, aspects of which were characterized in the cells after they were permeabilized. Incubation of intact cells for 20 min between irradiation and harvesting was necessary to obtain a maximum rate of reparative DNA synthesis. Cells harvested immediately after irradiation before repair was initiated displayed only a small stimulation of DNA synthesis, indicating that permeable cells have a reduced capacity to recognize pyrimidine dimers and activate repair. The distribution of sizes of DNA strands labeled during 10 min of reparative DNA synthesis resembled that of parental DNA. However, during a 60-min incubation of permeable cells at 37 degrees C, parental DNA and DNA labeled by reparative DNA synthesis were both cleaved to smaller sizes. Cleavage also occurred in unirradiated cells, indicating that endogenous nuclease was active during incubation. Repair patches synthesized in permeable cells displayed increased sensitivity to digestion by micrococcal nuclease. However, the change in sensitivity during a chase with unlabeled DNA precursors was small, suggesting that reassembly of nucleosome structure at sites of repair was impaired. To examine whether this deficiency was due to a preponderance of incomplete or unligated repair patches, 3H-labeled (repaired) DNA was purified, then digested with exonuclease III and nuclease S1 to probe for free 3' ends and single-stranded regions. About 85% of the (3H)DNA synthesized during a 10-min pulse resisted digestion, suggesting that a major fraction of the repair patches that were filled were also ligated. U.v. light-activated DNA synthesis in permeable cells, therefore, appears to represent the continuation of reparative gap-filling at sites of excision repair activated within intact cells. Gap-filling and ligation were comparatively efficient processes in permeable cells.

  9. Meshless treatment of open inguinal hernia repair: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Paulo; Franciulli, Ettore Ferrari; Wroclawski, Carolina Kassab; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Castro, Osvaldo Antônio Prado; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate two types of meshless open inguinal repair and to evaluate the recurrence rate. Methods: We operated on sequentially 98 men and 15 women with 144 unilateral or bilateral inguinal hernias between December 1988 and April 2007. The surgeries were performed by two experienced surgeons and divided into two groups: Bassini or McVay reconstructive surgery techniques. Bassini type reinforcements were employed for Nyhus II and IIIB with minor destruction of the posterior wall. Patients with Nyhus type IIIA, type IIIB with major destruction of the fascia transversalis, and type IIIC were subjected to the McVay technique. Results: Seventy-five hernias were corrected using the McVay technique. Only two recurrences (2.67%) were observed in this group. For group Bassini, two recurrences for 69 hernias (2.89%) were observed (p=0.658). Mean age for the recurrent group was 56 years. No differences were observed between the ages of males and females (52 years). Conclusions: Non-mesh repair in inguinal hernia can be safely used if performed by experienced surgeons. PMID:23843059

  10. [Application of fibrin glue in facial nerve repair].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinying; Hua, Qingquan; Wang, Shenqing

    2007-06-01

    This animal experiment was aimed to apply fibrin in facial nerve repair and to quest for technical improvements in facial surgery. In each of 15 healthy large ear white rabbits, a unilateral 5 mm intratemporal facial nerve gap was created, the proximal and distal stumps were inserted into chitin tube, 1 ml autologous fibrin glue was applied around the anastomotic zone, and no suture was employed. At 3 months and 5 months after opertion, electrophysioligical study was performed. Compared with normal nerves, the regenerating nerves in both the chitin tube bridged group and the perineurium suture group had longer incubation period, lower amplitude, slower nerve-muscle conduction velocity at 3 months postoperatively. The differences were distinctly significant (P < 0.01). Although being decreased at 5 months after operation, the differences were still statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the chitin tube bridged group and perineurium suture group at 3 months and 5 months, respectively. The study suggests that facial nerve repair using fibrin glue and chitin tube has the advantages of being easier,faster and more stable.

  11. Compression therapy promotes proliferative repair during rat Achilles tendon immobilization.

    PubMed

    Schizas, Nikos; Li, Jian; Andersson, Therese; Fahlgren, Anna; Aspenberg, Per; Ahmed, Mahmood; Ackermann, Paul W

    2010-07-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are treated with an initial period of immobilization, which obstructs the healing process partly by a reduction of blood circulation. Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has been proposed to enhance tendon repair by stimulation of blood flow. We hypothesized that daily IPC treatment can counteract the deficits caused by 2 weeks of immobilization post tendon rupture. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley SD) rats, all subjected to blunt Achilles tendon transection, were divided in three equal groups. Group A was allowed free cage activity, whereas groups B-C were immobilized at the operated hindleg. Group C received daily IPC treatment. Two weeks postrupture the rats were euthanatized and the tendons analyzed with tensile testing and histological assessments of collagen organization and collagen III-LI occurrence. Immobilization significantly reduced maximum force, energy uptake, stiffness, tendon length, transverse area, stress, organized collagen diameter and collagen III-LI occurrence by respectively 80, 75, 77, 22, 47, 65, 49, and 83% compared to free mobilization. IPC treatment improved maximum force 65%, energy 168%, organized collagen diameter 50%, tendon length 25%, and collagen III-LI occurrence 150% compared to immobilization only. The results confirm that immobilization impairs healing after tendon rupture and furthermore demonstrate that IPC-treatment can enhance proliferative tendon repair by counteracting biomechanical and morphological deficits caused by immobilization.

  12. Biological baseline of joint self-repair procedures.

    PubMed

    Di Nicola, Valerio; Pierpaoli, Walter

    2013-07-01

    Gel-Repairer is a biomaterial composed of Polydeoxyribonucleotides (Pdrn), Heat Shock Proteins (Hsps) and a thickening substance. It works as a local mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stimulator, finally generating connective tissue renewal. Our research is within the field of regenerative medicine and has historically built its foundation from the studies carried out on non-vital amnion and placental membranes. Our end point is the activation and stimulation of the local mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the structural recovery of the joint involved in the degenerative process. Since 2003, we have been applying the Gel Repairer over more than 1200 patients, most of them elderly, affected by Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD). After 10 years of clinical experience, the results are really impressive, including the absence of toxicity, adverse reactions or side effects. Our clinical findings allowed the presentation of a clinical preliminary study performed on a large group of patients from 2003 to 2009 and recently published [1]. The following article is aimed at looking into the mechanism of action of the Joint Self-Repair procedure; furthermore some new technical opportunities are presented on tissue engineering advances in this fast evolving sector.

  13. The power of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair testing to predict breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Keimling, Marlen; Deniz, Miriam; Varga, Dominic; Stahl, Andreea; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Kreienberg, Rolf; Hoffmann, Isabell; König, Jochem; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Most presently known breast cancer susceptibility genes have been linked to DSB repair. To identify novel markers that may serve as indicators for breast cancer risk, we performed DSB repair analyses using a case-control design. Thus, we examined 35 women with defined familial history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (first case group), 175 patients with breast cancer (second case group), and 245 healthy women without previous cancer or family history of breast cancer (control group). We analyzed DSB repair in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) by a GFP-based test system using 3 pathway-specific substrates. We found increases of microhomology-mediated nonhomologous end joining (mmNHEJ) and nonconservative single-strand annealing (SSA) in women with familial risk vs. controls (P=0.0001-0.0022) and patients with breast cancer vs. controls (P=0.0004-0.0042). Young age (<50) at initial diagnosis of breast cancer, which could be indicative of genetic predisposition, was associated with elevated SSA using two different substrates, amounting to similar odds ratios (ORs=2.54-4.46, P=0.0059-0.0095) as for familial risk (ORs=2.61-4.05, P=0.0007-0.0045). These findings and supporting validation data underscore the great potential of detecting distinct DSB repair activities in PBLs as method to estimate breast cancer susceptibility beyond limitations of genotyping and to predict responsiveness to therapeutics targeting DSB repair-dysfunctional tumors.

  14. Influence of different repair procedures on bond strength of adhesive filling materials to etched enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hahn, Petra; Thiele, Patrick-Philipp; Attin, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of etched enamel with repair bond agents during repair of dental restorations may interfere with the bonding of composite to enamel. This study examined the bond strength of adhesive filling materials to etched bovine enamel after pre-treatment with the repair systems Monobond S, Silibond and Co-Jet. The materials Tetric Ceram, Dyract and Definite and their corresponding bonding agents (Syntac Single Comp, Prime & Bond NT, Etch and Prime) were tested in combination with the repair systems. One hundred and thirty-five enamel specimens were etched (37% phosphoric acid, 60 seconds) and equally distributed among three groups (A-C). In Group A, the repair materials were applied on etched enamel followed by applying the composite materials without using their respective bonding material. In Group B, the composite materials were placed on etched enamel after applying the repair materials and bonding agents. In control Group C, the composite materials and bonding agents were applied on etched enamel without using the repair systems. In each sub-group, every composite material was applied on 15 specimens. Samples were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days and thermocycled 1,000 times (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). The shear bond strength of the samples were then determined in a universal testing machine (ISO 10477). Applying Monobond or Silibond followed by the use of its respective bonding agents resulted in a bond strength that was not statistically different from the controls for all filling materials (Group C). The three composites that used Monobond and Silibond without applying the corresponding bonding agent resulted in bond strengths that were significantly lower than the controls. Utilizing the Co-Jet-System drastically reduced the bond strength of composites on etched enamel. Contamination of etched enamel with the repairing bonding agents Monobond and Silibond does not interfere with bond strength if the application of Monobond and Silibond is

  15. Membrane fusion in muscle development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Demonbreun, Alexis R.; Biersmith, Bridget H.

    2015-01-01

    Mature skeletal muscle forms from the fusion of skeletal muscle precursor cells, myoblasts. Myoblasts fuse to other myoblasts to generate multinucleate myotubes during myogenesis, and myoblasts also fuse to other myotubes during muscle growth and repair. Proteins within myoblasts and myotubes regulate complex processes such as elongation, migration, cell adherence, cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane coalescence, and ultimately fusion. Recent studies have identified cell surface proteins, intracellular proteins, and extracellular signaling molecules required for the proper fusion of muscle. Many proteins that actively participate in myoblast fusion also coordinate membrane repair. Here we will review mammalian membrane fusion with specific attention to proteins that mediate myoblast fusion and muscle repair. PMID:26537430

  16. Colocutaneous Fistula after Open Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kallis, Panayiotis; Koronakis, Nikolaos; Hadjicostas, Panayiotis

    2016-01-01

    The plug-and-patch technique is frequently used for the open repair of inguinal hernias; however, serious complications may arise on rare occasions. We present the case of a 69-year-old patient who presented with a colocutaneous fistula with the sigmoid colon 9 years after the repair of a left sliding inguinal hernia with the plug-and-patch technique. The patient underwent sigmoidectomy and excision of the fistulous track. He was discharged on postoperative day 5 and had an uneventful recovery. Although such complications are reported rarely, the surgeon must be aware of them when deciding upon the method of hernia repair. PMID:27738544

  17. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  18. Method of repairing discontinuity in fiberglass structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, L. L.; Helbert, W. B., Jr.; Enie, R. B.; Mulliken, R. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Damaged fiberglass structures are repaired by substantially filling the irregular surfaced damaged area with a liquid, self-curing resin, preferably an epoxy resin mixed with chopped fiberglass, and then applying to the resin surface the first of several woven fiberglass swatches which has stitching in a zig-zag pattern parallel to each of its edges and a fringe of warp and fill glass fibers about the edges outward of the stitching. The method is especially applicable to repair of fiberglass rocket engine casings and is particularly advantageous since it restores the repaired fiberglass structure to substantially its original strength without any significant changes in the geometry or mass of the structure.

  19. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  20. Revisiting a runner cavitation repair job

    SciTech Connect

    Witman, J.K.

    1996-05-01

    This article reviews the efforts to repair turbine runner cavitation damage. The particular runner was originally repaired in 1990 with the application of a layer of beaded epoxy to areas of severe cavitation on the suction side of the blades on the upper runner. A year later, the runner was inspected, with no damage to the epoxy. In June of 1994, the runner was again inspected, and this and the most recent inspection shows that the epoxy coating is holding up well. The last inspection did show the beginnings on some erosion of the repair material. Based on this long-term series of inspections, maintenance recommendations are set forth.

  1. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  2. The role of aging and DNA repair in chronic disease. Final progress report, December 1, 1985--September 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.

    1993-11-01

    We carried out a molecular epidemiological study of the DNA repair of photochemical damage as a risk factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In that clinic-based control study of 88 cases and 135 cancer-free control it was found that DNA repair in the controls declined linearly at a rate of 0.61% per year over a 30-60 year age group. However, repair in younger BCC cases, significantly less than their age-matched controls, did not decline at the same rate so that the repair differences between the cases and the controls disappeared as the cases grew older. Besides this age effect, the odds are high (5:1) that an individual with low repair overexposed to sunlight will have basal cell carcinoma. That these odds increase to 10:1 for females compared to male subjects led to the observation that repair may be sensitive to hormonal control. Because of the ease of BCC diagnosis it is possible to demonstrate significantly that the level of DNA repair directly influences the multiplicity of tumors. Further, both those cases and controls with a family history of BCC invariably have reduced levels of DNA repair (p<0-05).

  3. The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Martha M.; Flutie, Brett M.; Kalish, Leslie A.; Ecklund, Kirsten; Fleming, Braden C.; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. Hypothesis: The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture). The secondary hypotheses were that patients treated with BEAR would have early postoperative outcomes that were similar to patients treated with ACL reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 20 patients were enrolled in this nonrandomized, first-in-human study. Ten patients received BEAR treatment and 10 received a hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. The BEAR procedure was performed by augmenting a suture repair with a proprietary scaffold, the BEAR scaffold, placed in between the torn ends of the ACL at the time of suture repair. The BEAR scaffold is to our knowledge the only device that fills the gap between the torn ligament ends to have current Investigational Device Exemption approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Ten milliliters of autologous whole blood were added to the scaffold prior to wound closure. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months postoperatively. The outcomes measures included postoperative pain, muscle atrophy, loss of joint range of motion, and implant failure (designated by an International Knee Documentation Committee grade C or D Lachman test and/or an absence of continuous ACL tissue on magnetic resonance images). Results: There were no joint

  4. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  5. Cartilage repair: past and future – lessons for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Brittberg, Mats; Dennis, James E; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Yvonne M; Erben, Reinhold G; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Luyten, Frank P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since the first cell therapeutic study to repair articular cartilage defects in the knee in 1994, several clinical studies have been reported. An overview of the results of clinical studies did not conclusively show improvement over conventional methods, mainly because few studies reach level I of evidence for effects on middle or long term. However, these explorative trials have provided valuable information about study design, mechanisms of repair and clinical outcome and have revealed that much is still unknown and further improvements are required. Furthermore, cellular and molecular studies using new technologies such as cell tracking, gene arrays and proteomics have provided more insight in the cell biology and mechanisms of joint surface regeneration. Besides articular cartilage, cartilage of other anatomical locations as well as progenitor cells are now considered as alternative cell sources. Growth Factor research has revealed some information on optimal conditions to support cartilage repair. Thus, there is hope for improvement. In order to obtain more robust and reproducible results, more detailed information is needed on many aspects including the fate of the cells, choice of cell type and culture parameters. As for the clinical aspects, it becomes clear that careful selection of patient groups is an important input parameter that should be optimized for each application. In addition, the study outcome parameters should be improved. Although reduced pain and improved function are, from the patient's perspective, the most important outcomes, there is a need for more structure/tissue-related outcome measures. Ideally, criteria and/or markers to identify patients at risk and responders to treatment are the ultimate goal for these more sophisticated regenerative approaches in joint surface repair in particular, and regenerative medicine in general. PMID:19453519

  6. Universal Principles in the Repair of Communication Problems.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Mark; Roberts, Seán G; Baranova, Julija; Blythe, Joe; Drew, Paul; Floyd, Simeon; Gisladottir, Rosa S; Kendrick, Kobin H; Levinson, Stephen C; Manrique, Elizabeth; Rossi, Giovanni; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    There would be little adaptive value in a complex communication system like human language if there were no ways to detect and correct problems. A systematic comparison of conversation in a broad sample of the world's languages reveals a universal system for the real-time resolution of frequent breakdowns in communication. In a sample of 12 languages of 8 language families of varied typological profiles we find a system of 'other-initiated repair', where the recipient of an unclear message can signal trouble and the sender can repair the original message. We find that this system is frequently used (on average about once per 1.4 minutes in any language), and that it has detailed common properties, contrary to assumptions of radical cultural variation. Unrelated languages share the same three functionally distinct types of repair initiator for signalling problems and use them in the same kinds of contexts. People prefer to choose the type that is the most specific possible, a principle that minimizes cost both for the sender being asked to fix the problem and for the dyad as a social unit. Disruption to the conversation is kept to a minimum, with the two-utterance repair sequence being on average no longer that the single utterance which is being fixed. The findings, controlled for historical relationships, situation types and other dependencies, reveal the fundamentally cooperative nature of human communication and offer support for the pragmatic universals hypothesis: while languages may vary in the organization of grammar and meaning, key systems of language use may be largely similar across cultural groups. They also provide a fresh perspective on controversies about the core properties of language, by revealing a common infrastructure for social interaction which may be the universal bedrock upon which linguistic diversity rests.

  7. Evaluation of Internet Information About Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Kevin A; Codella, Stephen; Ciccotti, Michael G; Kane, Patrick W; Duncan, Ian C; Cohen, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    The content and quality of Internet websites are not governed or regulated. Therefore, patients who consult the Internet may receive outdated or incorrect medical information. Researchers have analyzed the quality of web information about various orthopedic surgeries, but no such analysis has been performed on websites covering rotator cuff repair. We conducted a study to evaluate and analyze rotator cuff repair information available to the general public through the Internet; to assess changes in the quality of information over time; to determine if sites sponsored by academic institutions offered higher-quality information; and to assess whether the readability of the material varied according to DISCERN scores. Two Internet searches were conducted, in 2011 and 2014. The 3 most commonly used search engines were used to search for rotator cuff repair. The first 50 websites from each search engine were evaluated for authorship and content. The DISCERN instrument was used to analyze the quality of each website's health information. The 2011 search revealed 21% of websites were associated with an academic institution, 38% were authored by a hospital or physician group, and 11.5% were industry-sponsored. The 2014 search revealed a similar distribution of contributors. The highest DISCERN scores were given to academic institution websites (51.6) and public education websites (49). There was no correlation between readability and DISCERN scores. Websites associated with academic institutions produced the highest-quality medical information. Over the past few years, authorship and content have changed little with respect to Internet information about rotator cuff repair.

  8. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  9. FEN1 participates in repair of the 5'-phosphotyrosyl terminus of DNA single-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yukiko; Takahata, Chiaki; Narita, Takashi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Etoposide is a widely used anticancer drug and a DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) inhibitor. Etoposide produces Top2-attached single-strand breaks (Top2-SSB complex) and double-strand breaks (Top2-DSB complex) that are thought to induce cell death in tumor cells. The Top2-SSB complex is more abundant than the Top2-DSB complex. Human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is required for efficient repair of Top2-DSB complexes. However, the identities of the proteins involved in the repair of Top2-SSB complexes are unknown, although yeast genetic data indicate that 5' to 3' structure-specific DNA endonuclease activity is required for alternative repair of Top2 DNA damage. In this study, we purified a flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) in the 5' to 3' structure-specific DNA endonuclease family and synthesized single-strand break DNA substrates containing a 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond, mimicking the Top2-SSB complex. We found that FEN1 and XPG did not remove the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing DSB substrates but removed the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing SSB substrates. Under DNA repair conditions, FEN1 efficiently repaired the 5'-phoshotyrosyl bond-containing SSB substrates in the presence of DNA ligase and DNA polymerase. Therefore, FEN1 may play an important role in the repair of Top2-SSB complexes in etoposide-treated cells.

  10. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen profiles on the bond strength of repaired composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Hossam; ElKhatat, Essam; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Baroudi, Kusai; Beshr, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the bond strength of repaired three types of composite resins under various hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) profiles with various session numbers. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens of three types of composite resin (nanofilled composite, nanohybrid composite and microfilled composite) each type of composite was divided into four group according to various profiles of HBO treatment (control, 2bar, 3 bar and 5 bar). Then, the specimens were repaired; thermocycled, the tensile bond strength were measured. Then the data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for the repaired nanofilled composite resin specimens while; the lowest bond strength was obtained for the repaired microfilled composite resin specimens. The highest tensile bond strength was recorded for the specimens who treated with the highest pressure of HBO. Conclusion: The bond strength of repaired nanofilled composite resins is better than the other types of composite resin. The highest pressure of HBO, the highest bond strength of repaired composite resins. PMID:27195232

  11. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  12. Effect of Intermediate Agents and Preheated Composites on Repair Bond Strength of Silorane-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Daryadar, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Repairing composite restorations is a challenging procedure especially when two different types of composites are used. This study aimed to compare the repair strength of silorane-based composite (SC) (Filtek P90) with that of preheated SC, methacrylate composite (MC)(Z250), flowable MC (Filtek Supreme Plus) and different adhesive/composite combinations. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SC specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (G). In the control group (G7), SC was bonded immediately to SC. The other specimens were water-aged for two months and were then roughened, etched and repaired with the following materials: G1) Silorane Adhesive Bond (SAB)/SC; G2) Preheated SC; G3) SAB/MC; G4) Adper Single Bond (SB)/MC; G5) Flowable MC/MC; G6) Preheated MC. After water storage and thermocycling, the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Preheated SC and MC, flowable MC and SAB/SC resulted in bond strength comparable to that of the control group. Preheated SC showed significantly higher bond strength when compared to SAB/MC (P=0.04) and SB/MC (P<0.001). Bond strength of SB/MC was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05), except for SAB/SC and SAB/MC. Conclusion: All repairing materials except for SB/MC resulted in bond strength values comparable to that of the control group. Repair with preheated SC yielded the highest bond strength. PMID:27148378

  13. Outcomes of pediatric inguinal hernia repair with or without opening the external oblique muscle fascia

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Masoud; Dastgerdi, Mohamad Masoud Heydari; Sirousfard, Motaherh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering that complications and outcome of each method of pediatric inguinal hernia repair are one of the determinants for pediatric surgeons for selection of the appropriate surgical technique, we compared the early and late complications of two inguinal repair techniques, with and without opening the external oblique muscle fascia. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, boy children aged 1-month to 6 years with diagnosed inguinal hernia were included and randomly allocated into two groups for undergoing two types of hernia repair techniques, with and without opening the external oblique muscle fascia. Surgical complications such as fever, scrotal edema and hematoma, and wound infections classified as early complication and recurrence, testis atrophy and sensory impairment of inguinal area classified as late complications. The rates of mentioned early and late complications were compared in the two interventional groups. Results: In this study, 66 patients were selected and allocated to the two interventional groups. The prevalence of early and late complications in two studied groups were not different significantly in two interventional groups (P > 0.05). Operation time was significantly shorter in inguinal repair techniques without opening the external oblique muscle fascia than the other studied technique (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of our study indicated that though early and late complications of the two repair methods were similar, but the time of procedure was shorter in herniotomy without opening the external oblique muscle, which considered the superiority of this method than inguinal hernia repair with opening the external oblique muscle. PMID:26958052

  14. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection Repair (EVAR) in Iran: Descriptive Midterm Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Haji Zeinali, Ali Mohammad; Marzban, Mehrab; Zafarghandi, Mohammadreza; Shirzad, Mahmood; Shirani, Shapour; Mahmoodian, Roshanak; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Lotfi-Tokaldany, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endovascular repair of aorta in comparison to open surgery has a low early operative mortality rate, but its long-term results are uncertain. Objectives: The current study describes for the first time our initial four-year experience of elective endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) at Tehran heart center, the first and a major referral heart center in Iran, as a pioneer of EVAR in Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 51 patients (46 men) who had the diagnosis of either an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n = 36), thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) (n = 7), or thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) (n = 8) who had undergone EVAR by Medtronic stent grafts by our team between December 2006 and June 2009 were reviewed. Results: The rate of in-hospital aneurysm-related deaths in the group with AAA stood at 2.8% (one case), while there was no in-hospital mortality in the other groups. All patients were followed up for 13-18 months. The cumulative death rate in follow-up was nine cases from the total 51 cases (18%), out of which six cases were in the AAA group (four patients due to non-cardiac causes and two patients due to aneurysm-related causes), one case in the TAA group (following a severe hemoptysis), and two cases in the TAD group (following an expansion of dissection from re-entrance). The major event-free survival rate was 80.7% for endovascular repair of AAA, 85.7% for endovascular repair of TAA, and 65.6% for endovascular repair of TAD. Conclusion: The endovascular stent-graft repair of the abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection had high technical success rates in tandem with low-rate early mortality and morbidity, short hospital stay, and acceptable mid-term free symptom survival among Iranian patients. PMID:27110330

  15. DNA Repair Pathways in Trypanosomatids: from DNA Repair to Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Paquet, Eric R.; Laffitte, Marie-Claude N.; Maity, Ranjan; Rodrigue, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY All living organisms are continuously faced with endogenous or exogenous stress conditions affecting genome stability. DNA repair pathways act as a defense mechanism, which is essential to maintain DNA integrity. There is much to learn about the regulation and functions of these mechanisms, not only in human cells but also equally in divergent organisms. In trypanosomatids, DNA repair pathways protect the genome against mutations but also act as an adaptive mechanism to promote drug resistance. In this review, we scrutinize the molecular mechanisms and DNA repair pathways which are conserved in trypanosomatids. The recent advances made by the genome consortiums reveal the complete genomic sequences of several pathogens. Therefore, using bioinformatics and genomic sequences, we analyze the conservation of DNA repair proteins and their key protein motifs in trypanosomatids. We thus present a comprehensive view of DNA repair processes in trypanosomatids at the crossroads of DNA repair and drug resistance. PMID:24600040

  16. Quantifying the emission benefits of opacity testing and repair of heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Robert L; Graboski, Michael S; Alleman, Teresa L; Alvarez, Javier R; Duleep, K G

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to begin to quantify the benefits of a smoke opacity-based (SAE J1667 test) inspection and maintenance program. Twenty-six vehicles exhibiting visible smoke emissions were recruited: 14 pre-1991 vehicles and 12 1991 and later model year vehicles. Smoke opacity and regulated pollutant emissions via chassis dynamometer were measured, with testing conducted at 1609 m above sea level. Twenty of the vehicles were then repaired with the goal of lowering visible smoke emission, and the smoke opacity testing and pollutant emissions measurements were repeated. For the pre-1991 vehicles actually repaired, pre-repair smoke opacity averaged 39% and PM averaged 5.6 g/mi. NOx emissions averaged 22.1 g/mi. After repair, the average smoke opacity had declined to 26% and PM declined to 3.3 g/mi, while NOx emissions increased to 30.9 g/mi. For the 1991 and newer vehicles repaired, pre-repair smoke opacity averaged 59% and PM averaged 2.2 g/mi. NOx emissions averaged 12.1 g/mi. After repair, the average opacity had declined to 30% and PM declined to 1.3 g/mi, while NOx increased slightly to 14.4 g/mi. For vehicles failing the California opacity test at >55% for pre-1991 and >40% for 1991 and later model years, the changes in emissions exhibited a high degree of statistical significance. The average cost of repairs was 1088 dollars, and the average is very similar for both the pre-1991 and 1991+ model year groups. Smoke opacity was shown to be a relatively poor predictor of driving cycle PM emissions. Peak CO or peak CO and THC as measured during a snap-acceleration were much better predictors of driving cycle PM emissions.

  17. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair.

  18. Surgical Repair of Retrograde Type A Aortic Dissection after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Young; Kim, Yeon Soo; Ryoo, Ji Yoon

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that the stent graft will become an alternative method for treating aortic diseases or reducing the extent of surgery; therefore, thoracic endovascular aortic repair has widened its indications. However, it can have rare but serious complications such as paraplegia and retrograde type A aortic dissection. Here, we report a surgical repair of retrograde type A aortic dissection that was performed after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. PMID:24570865

  19. Small Engines Care, Operation, Maintenance and Repair. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard

    Developed by teacher educators and agricultural engineers, this teacher and student reference is for use in a course in small engine operation and maintenance. Content includes: (1) Principles of Good Workmanship, (2) Repairing Starters, (3) Maintaining and Repairing Ignition Systems, (4) Repairing Fuel Systems, (5) Repairing Governors, (6)…

  20. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  1. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  2. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  3. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  4. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Furnace repairs. 59.15-1 Section 59.15-1 Shipping COAST... VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or plain furnaces or flues are distorted by 11/2 inches or more, they shall be repaired by either of...

  5. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  6. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  7. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  8. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  9. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  10. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  11. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  12. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  13. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  14. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1350 Catheter balloon repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace...

  18. 48 CFR 252.247-7025 - Reflagging or repair work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reflagging or repair work... of Provisions And Clauses 252.247-7025 Reflagging or repair work. As prescribed in 247.574(d), use the following clause: Reflagging or Repair Work (JUN 2005) (a) Definition. Reflagging or repair...

  19. 49 CFR 396.3 - Inspection, repair, and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection, repair, and maintenance. 396.3 Section..., REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.3 Inspection, repair, and maintenance. (a) General. Every motor carrier and... and maintenance operations to be performed; (3) A record of inspection, repairs, and...

  20. Structural basis for group A trichothiodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Kainov, Denis E; Vitorino, Marc; Cavarelli, Jean; Poterszman, Arnaud; Egly, Jean-Marc

    2009-06-17

    Patients with the rare neurodevelopmental repair syndrome known as group A trichothiodystrophy (TTD-A) carry mutations in the gene encoding the p8 subunit of the transcription and DNA repair factor TFIIH. Here we describe the crystal structure of a minimal complex between Tfb5, the yeast ortholog of p8, and the C-terminal domain of Tfb2, the yeast p52 subunit of TFIIH. The structure revealed that these two polypeptides adopt the same fold, forming a compact pseudosymmetric heterodimer via a {beta}-strand addition and coiled coils interactions between terminal {alpha}-helices. Furthermore, Tfb5 protects a hydrophobic surface in Tfb2 from solvent, providing a rationale for the influence of p8 in the stabilization of p52 and explaining why mutations that weaken p8-p52 interactions lead to a reduced intracellular TFIIH concentration and a defect in nucleotide-excision repair, a common feature of TTD cells.