Background Perineal trauma during childbirth affects millions of women worldwide every year. The aim of the Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS) was to improve maternal clinical outcomes following childbirth through an enhanced cascaded multiprofessional training program to support implementation of evidence-based perineal management. Methods This was a pragmatic matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) that enrolled women (n = 3681) sustaining a second-degree perineal tear in one of 22 UK maternity units (clusters), organized in 11 matched pairs. Units in each matched pair were randomized to receive the training intervention either early (group A) or late (group B). Outcomes within each cluster were assessed prior to any training intervention (phase 1), and then after the training intervention was given to group A (phase 2) and group B (phase 3). Focusing on phase 2, the primary outcome was the percentage of women who had pain on sitting or walking at 10 to 12 days post-natal. Secondary outcomes included use of pain relief at 10 to 12 days post-natal, need for suture removal, uptake and duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and perineal wound infection. Practice-based measures included implementation of evidence into practice to promote effective clinical management of perineal trauma. Cluster-level paired t-tests were used to compare groups A and B. Results There was no significant difference between the clusters in phase 2 of the study in the average percentage of women reporting perineal pain on sitting and walking at 10 to 12 days (mean difference 0.7%; 95% CI −10.1% to 11.4%; P = 0.89). The intervention significantly improved overall use of evidence-based practice in the clinical management of perineal trauma. Following the training intervention, group A clusters had a significant reduction in mean percentages of women reporting perineal wound infections and of women needing sutures removed. Conclusion PEARLS is the first
Weldon, J Kenneth; Pashley, David H; Loushine, Robert J; Weller, R Norman; Kimbrough, W Frank
Immediate sealing of furcation perforations enhances the repair process. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally compare the ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Super-EBA to seal furcation perforations. Fifty-one extracted human maxillary molars were decoronated 3 mm above the CEJ, and the roots were amputated 3 mm below the furcation. A #2 high-speed round bur was used to perforate the center of the furcations. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha, and the root ends were sealed with C&B Metabond. Three experimental groups of 15 teeth each were restored with MTA, Super-EBA, or a combination of MTA in the perforation and a Super-EBA dome on the pulpal floor. Six teeth served as controls. Each tooth was affixed to a fluid filtration device and subjected to a pressure of 20 cm H2O. The integrity of the perforation seal was evaluated initially at 30 min for the Super-EBA and the combination groups and at 4 h for the MTA group. Additional measurements were then made at 24 h, 1 week, and 1 month. The controls behaved as expected. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference (p = 0.01) between materials. Tukey's test isolated the difference to Super EBA as producing a superior seal but only at 24 h. There was no significant effect with time (p = 0.57) or the interaction of the materials with time (p = 0.66). All materials sealed the perforations very well. The maximum leakage of all materials was <0.007 microL min(-1) cm H2O(-1).
Rosen, Michael J.; Bauer, Joel J.; Harmaty, Marco; Carbonell, Alfredo M.; Cobb, William S.; Matthews, Brent; Goldblatt, Matthew I.; Selzer, Don J.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Hansson, Bibi M. E.; Rosman, Camiel; Chao, James J.; Jacobsen, Garth R.
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate biosynthetic absorbable mesh in single-staged contaminated (Centers for Disease Control class II and III) ventral hernia (CVH) repair over 24 months. Background: CVH has an increased risk of postoperative infection. CVH repair with synthetic or biologic meshes has reported chronic biomaterial infections and high hernia recurrence rates. Methods: Patients with a contaminated or clean-contaminated operative field and a hernia defect at least 9 cm2 had a biosynthetic mesh (open, sublay, retrorectus, or intraperitoneal) repair with fascial closure (n = 104). Endpoints included overall Kaplan-Meier estimates for hernia recurrence and postoperative wound infection rates at 24 months, and the EQ-5D and Short Form 12 Health Survey (SF-12). Analyses were conducted on the intent-to-treat population, and health outcome measures evaluated using paired t tests. Results: Patients had a mean age of 58 years, body mass index of 28 kg/m2, 77% had contaminated wounds, and 84% completed 24-months follow-up. Concomitant procedures included fistula takedown (n = 24) or removal of infected previously placed mesh (n = 29). Hernia recurrence rate was 17% (n = 16). At the time of CVH repair, intraperitoneal placement of the biosynthetic mesh significantly increased the risk of recurrences (P ≤ 0.04). Surgical site infections (19/104) led to higher risk of recurrence (P < 0.01). Mean 24-month EQ-5D (index and visual analogue) and SF-12 physical component and mental scores improved from baseline (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In this prospective longitudinal study, biosynthetic absorbable mesh showed efficacy in terms of long-term recurrence and quality of life for CVH repair patients and offers an alternative to biologic and permanent synthetic meshes in these complex situations. PMID:28009747
Rodriguez, John; El-Hayek, Kevin; Brethauer, Stacy; Schauer, Philip; Zelisko, Andrea; Chand, Bipan; O'Rourke, Colin; Kroh, Matthew
Background and Objectives: Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with hiatal hernia in obese patients has proven difficult, as studies demonstrate poor symptom control and high failure rates in this patient population. Recent data have shown that incorporating weight loss procedures into the treatment of reflux may improve overall outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 28 obese and morbidly obese patients who presented from December 2007 through July 2013 with large or recurrent type 3 or 4 paraesophageal hernia. All of the patients underwent combined paraesophageal hernia repair and partial longitudinal gastrectomy. Charts were retrospectively reviewed, and the patients were contacted to determine symptomatic relief. Results: Mean preoperative body mass index was 38.1 ± 4.9 kg/m2. Anatomic failure of prior fundoplication occurred in 7 patients (25%). The remaining 21 had primary paraesophageal hernia, 3 of which were type 4. Postoperative complications included pulmonary embolism (n = 1), pulmonary decompensation (n = 2), and wound infection (n = 1). Mean hospital stay was 5 ± 3 days. Upper gastrointestinal esophagogram was performed in 21 patients with no immediate recurrence or staple line dehiscence. Mean excess weight loss was 44 ± 25%. All of the patients surveyed experienced near to total resolution of their preoperative symptoms within the first month. At 1 year, symptom scores decreased significantly. At 27 months, however, there was a mild increase in the scores. Return of severe symptoms occurred in 2 patients, both of whom underwent conversion to gastric bypass. Conclusions: Combined laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair with longitudinal partial gastrectomy offers a safe, feasible approach to the management of large or recurrent paraesophageal hernia in well-selected obese and morbidly obese patients. Short-term results were promising; however, intermediate results showed increasing rates of reflux symptoms that required
Milchteim, Charles; Branch, Eric A.; Maughon, Ty; Hughey, Jay; Anz, Adam W.
Background: Longitudinal meniscus tears are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Meniscus repair devices have been previously tested and presented; however, prior studies have not evaluated repair construct designs head to head. This study compared a new-generation meniscus repair device, SpeedCinch, with a similar established device, Fast-Fix 360, and a parallel repair construct to a crossed construct. Both devices utilize self-adjusting No. 2-0 ultra–high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and 2 polyether ether ketone (PEEK) anchors. Hypothesis: Crossed suture repair constructs have higher failure loads and stiffness compared with simple parallel constructs. The newer repair device would exhibit similar performance to an established device. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Sutures were placed in an open fashion into the body and posterior horn regions of the medial and lateral menisci in 16 cadaveric knees. Evaluation of 2 repair devices and 2 repair constructs created 4 groups: 2 parallel vertical sutures created with the Fast-Fix 360 (2PFF), 2 crossed vertical sutures created with the Fast-Fix 360 (2XFF), 2 parallel vertical sutures created with the SpeedCinch (2PSC), and 2 crossed vertical sutures created with the SpeedCinch (2XSC). After open placement of the repair construct, each meniscus was explanted and tested to failure on a uniaxial material testing machine. All data were checked for normality of distribution, and 1-way analysis of variance by ranks was chosen to evaluate for statistical significance of maximum failure load and stiffness between groups. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05. Results: The mean maximum failure loads ± 95% CI (range) were 89.6 ± 16.3 N (125.7-47.8 N) (2PFF), 72.1 ± 11.7 N (103.4-47.6 N) (2XFF), 71.9 ± 15.5 N (109.4-41.3 N) (2PSC), and 79.5 ± 25.4 N (119.1-30.9 N) (2XSC). Interconstruct comparison revealed no statistical difference between all 4 constructs regarding maximum
This report describes a series of tests to evaluate a system for rapidly repairing airfield pavement using polymer concrete (synthetic polymer plus...aggregate), thermally cured by microwave power. The technique, developed by the Syracuse University Research Corporation (SURC) for highway...maintenance, uses a truck-mounted 50-kilowatt microwave generator to irradiate areas patched with polymer concrete . Test results indicate that the polymer
Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K
Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.
Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.
Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106
Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.
The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…
Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin
The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…
Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Brazzarola, Marta; Marangoni, Sara; Barbera, Claudia; Zannoni, Ilaria
Confabulation, the production of statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, background, present and future situation, is a rather infrequent disorder, observed in several conditions affecting the nervous system. Little is known about the quantitative and qualitative evolution of confabulation in time. In this study we evaluated longitudinally the evolution of this disorder in a group of severe confabulators, using the Confabulation Battery (CB), a sensitive tool to detect confabulations in various memory domains. It was found that confabulations were stable over time and not temporally limited. It was also found that "Habits Confabulations" (HCs), i.e., habits and repeated personal events mistaken as specific, unique past and future personal episodes, or well-known public events when semantic knowledge is concerned, was the more frequently observed type of confabulation. Confabulations were also more prominent in the domain of Temporal Consciousness (TC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness that allows individuals to remember their personal past, to be oriented in their present world and to predict their personal future, than in Knowing Consciousness (KC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness allowing individuals to be aware of past, present and future impersonal knowledge and information. Confabulations showed also persistence, i.e., confabulations at the same questions over time, and consistency, i.e., same type of confabulation at the same question over time. These findings are discussed within the framework of the Memory, Consciousness and Temporality Theory.
Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…
Wackym, P. Ashley; Balaban, Carey D.; Mackay, Heather T.; Wood, Scott J.; Lundell, Christopher J.; Carter, Dale M.; Siker, David A.
Objective: Patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunction because of gravitational receptor asymmetries display signs of cognitive dysfunction and are assumed to have neurobehavioral sequelae. This was tested with pre- and postoperatively quantitative measurements in three cohort groups with superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SSCDS) symptoms with: 1) superior canal dehiscence (SCD) repaired via a middle cranial fossa craniotomy and canal plugging only; 2) otic capsule defects not visualized with imaging (no-iOCD) repaired with round window reinforcement (RWR) only; or 3) both SCD plugging and subsequent development of no-iOCD followed by RWR. Study Design: Prospective patient series. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: There were 13 adult and 4 pediatric patients with SSCDS who had completion of neuropsychology test batteries pre- and every 3 months postoperatively. Eight patients had no-iOCD and RWR exclusively, 5 had SCD and plugging exclusively, and 4 had both SCD plugging and then development of no-iOCD with RWR. These cohorts included SSCDS with 2 different dehiscence locations. Interventions: Completion of a neuropsychology test battery preoperatively and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively that included: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI); Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT FSIQ) including average verbal (crystallized intelligence) and visual (fluid intelligence); Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), including the four domains of verbal memory, visual memory, attention/concentration, and working memory; and Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) were also completed to assess the impact of their disease on activities pre- and postoperatively. Main Outcome Measures: Quantitative and statistical analysis of their cognitive and neurobehavioral function. Results: The pattern of differences between the SCD group and the no
A longitudinal study of otitis media in young children, begun in 1981, aimed to provide information on the incidence and prevalence of otitis media in young children in the Newcastle (England) region and to follow their academic progress. Subjects selected for the study were kindergartners in five schools and represented an ethnically homogeneous…
Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.
Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)
The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…
Schaie, K. Warner
This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912
Department of Psychology . : PREDICTORS OF TRANSFER AIIJUSTNEN: . A LONGITUDIN4AL STUDY"- Jaues B. Shaw Cynthia D. Fisher and Richard W. Woodman...1985 Acssa o NTIS GRA&I TR-ONR-7 DTIC TAB Unannounced E Just ification Distribution/ Department of Psychology Availability Codes Department of...PROJECT. TASKAREA & WORK UNIT NUMIBERS Departments of Management and Psychology 62763 N Texas.A&M University RF 63521 College Station, TX 77843 RF
Häfner, H; an der Heiden, W
Longitudinal studies are a key to understanding schizophrenia. They are the more informative, the longer the periods covered. Hence, good studies into the course of schizophrenia almost exclusively involve a lot of effort and cost. In practice, however, time-consuming methods and design variables must be avoided. The pitfalls this constraint produces are instructive of the difficulties longitudinal studies are faced with in striving for valid results. For reasons of research economy, requirements must be adjusted to study objectives. Studies into the short term course are less time-consuming, but because of the rapid changes in the illness course study intervals should be defined clearly and observed strictly. In long-term studies, too, one source of error lies in the highly varying lengths of illness of the patients studied. Even some of the classic long-term studies are marred by this error. The beginning of the follow-up period should be comparable across the study cohort and as close to illness onset as possible. To obtain generally valid results the probands must be representative of all the illness cases in the general population not only at the outset, but also all the later stages of the study. Besides the efforts to avoid attrition in the study cohort, ways must be found for correcting and estimating data for an acceptable proportion of drop-outs. In the analysis of course and outcome the indicators chosen must be apt to the traditional subtypes as well as to a theoretical symptom patterns and empirical symptom structures. In the context of typical design variables of longitudinal studies the assets and weaknesses of two retrospective and one prospective design will be discussed. Concerning the social course, importance of disease-independent factors, such as age, sex and level of social development at illness onset, as well as of control groups will be demonstrated. Predictor models will be discussed with reference to the direct and indirect influences
Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.
A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764
Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib
Iatrogenic spinal cord herniation is a rare complication following spinal surgery. We introduce a posterior trans-dural repair technique used in a case of thoracic spinal cord herniation through a ventral dural defect following resection of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervicothoracic spine. A 51-year-old female was suffering from paraplegia after laminectomy alone for cervicothoracic OPLL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a severely compressed spinal cord with pseudomeningocele identified postoperatively. Cerebrospinal fluid leak and iatrogenic spinal cord herniation persisted despite several operations with duroplasty and sealing agent. Finally, the problems were treated by repair of the ventral dural defect with posterior trans-dural duroplasty. Several months after surgery, the patient could walk independently. This surgical technique can be applied to treat ventral dural defect and spinal cord herniation. PMID:27114779
Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer
The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome.
Batshaw, Mark L.; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer
The urea cycle disorders consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCD) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCD enrolled in the UCDC’s longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenybutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. PMID:25135652
Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong
Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.
Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea
For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.
Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea
For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696
Puma, Francesco; Vannucci, Jacopo; Santoprete, Stefano
Several techniques exist for the repair of complex pectus excavatum. The placement of retrosternal metal bars improves the results by reducing the recurrence rate, but entails several possible risks, complications and disadvantages. A new method, specifically conceived for the repair of severe, asymmetric forms in adult patients, is reported. The corrected bone is fixed in the proper position by two, patient-customized, titanium struts, externally screwed to the manubrium and sternal body. Any retrosternal bar is thus avoided, reducing possible complications, without hampering the chest wall dynamic. In this particularly difficult issue, this technique provides long-term good functional, mechanical and cosmetic results and does not entail a second surgery for struts removal.
Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer
The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…
McNulty, Amy L; Guilak, Farshid
Current therapies for meniscal injury seek to preserve and repair damaged tissue since loss of meniscal tissue is associated with degenerative changes in the joint, ultimately leading to osteoarthritis (OA). After a meniscal tear, the difficulty of integrating juxtaposed meniscal surfaces continues to be an obstacle. In order to determine the local factors that are necessary for successful tissue repair, previous studies have developed in vitro model systems that allow both biological and quantitative biomechanical measures of meniscus repair. Many studies have shown the importance of individual factors in meniscus metabolism, but there is a complex interplay among a variety of factors that influence meniscal healing, including inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, mechanical loading, and zonal differences in cell and tissue properties. In particular, the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines following joint injury appears to have significant catabolic influences on meniscal cell metabolic activity that must be overcome in order to promote repair. In the presence of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), intrinsic meniscal repair in vitro is significantly inhibited. While anabolic growth factors, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), enhance meniscal repair, they cannot completely overcome the IL-1-mediated inhibition of repair. The mechanisms by which these mediators influence meniscal repair, and their interactions with other factors in the microenvironment, such as mechanical loading, remain to be determined. Future studies must address these complex interactions during meniscal healing to ultimately enhance meniscal repair.
Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana
Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…
Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.
This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…
Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.
NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.
Di, Lu-Zhao; Leblanc, Élisabeth; Alinejad, Yasaman; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Lecomte, Roger; Berthod, François; Faucheux, Nathalie; Balg, Frédéric
Low dose microcomputed tomography (μCT) is a recently matured technique that enables the study of longitudinal bone healing and the testing of experimental treatments for bone repair. This imaging technique has been used for studying craniofacial repair in mice but not in an orthopedic context. This is mainly due to the size of the defects (approximately 1.0 mm) in long bone, which heal rapidly and may thus negatively impact the assessment of the effectiveness of experimental treatments. We developed a longitudinal low dose μCT scan analysis method combined with a new image segmentation and extraction software using Hounsfield unit (HU) scores to quantitatively monitor bone healing in small femoral cortical defects in live mice. We were able to reproducibly quantify bone healing longitudinally over time with three observers. We used high speed intramedullary reaming to prolong healing in order to circumvent the rapid healing typical of small defects. Bone healing prolongation combined with μCT imaging to study small bone defects in live mice thus shows potential as a promising tool for future preclinical research on bone healing. PMID:25431676
Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F
Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011), sponsored by the National...
A longitudinal study of one children documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Argues that this game may more closely resemble adult rhyme. (Author/VWL)
Al-Thunayan, Turki A.; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed T.; Hakeem, Ahmad A.; Al-Zahrani, Fahad M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.
Objectives: To investigate the tensile strength of repaired flexor profundus tendons in young lambs, which would be equivalent to repairs in children older than 2 years of age. Methods: A comparative in-vitro experimental study conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2014 to December 2015. We utilized 30 flexor profundus tendons of young lambs with a width of 4 mm. All tendons were repaired with a 4-strand repair technique using 4/0 polypropylene core sutures. In group I (n=10 tendons), 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures were applied. In group II (n=10 tendons), simple locking sutures were added to the corners of 2 separate figure-of-eight sutures. In group III (n=10 tendons), the locked cruciate repair was used. All tendon repairs were tested to single-cycle tensile failure. Results: There was no significant difference between groups II and III with regards to gap and breaking forces; and all forces of these 2 groups were significantly higher than the forces in group I. Conclusion: It was concluded that 4 mm-wide pediatric flexor tendons allow a 4-strand repair and the use of 4/0 sutures. The use of locking sutures increases the tensile strength to values that may allow protective mobilization in children. PMID:27570850
Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…
Golden, Mark; And Others
In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…
Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia
Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…
Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava
English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…
Sampson, Pauline M.
In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…
Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…
Hanna, Linda G.
In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…
Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.
This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…
McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne
Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…
Peterson, Jean Sunde
A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…
Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F
The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.
Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina
This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.
Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…
Van de Ven, Andrew H.; Huber, George P.
This and the next issue of "Organization Science" contain eight papers that deal with the process of organizational change. The five papers in this issue feature the theory of method and practice of researchers engaged in longitudinal field studies aimed at understanding processes of organizational change. (MLF)
Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.
This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…
Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea
Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…
This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…
Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica
We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…
Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan
In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.
Cao, Yiqian Katherine
This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…
Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.
The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio
In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…
Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel
In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…
Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Burr, Jean E.; Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Jansen-Yeh, Elizabeth; Ralston, Peter
To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys ("M" age=39.0; "SD"=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted…
Brewer, Ernest W.; Landers, Jama McMahan
This longitudinal study examined the impact of participation in the federally funded Talent Search program at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The Talent Search program provides career exploration and counseling services to low-income students with the potential to be first-generation college graduates. Postsecondary education enrollment…
Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara
The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…
A longitudinal field study conducted in Turku, Finland, traced the development of aggression as a function of the viewing of violence by children from the ages of 7 and 9 to the ages of 15 and 17 to explore the connection between violence viewing and viewers' aggression, and to shed light on the question of causality. The 220 subjects, both male…
Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.
This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…
Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.
This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai
A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…
Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.
This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…
Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell
During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…
This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…
Flohr, John W.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…
Amer, Kenneth B
A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.
Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.
Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.
Gordon, M; Holmes, S; McGrath, K; Neil, A
This paper details the benchmarking process and its application to the activities of pathology laboratories participating in a benchmark pilot study [the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasian (RCPA) Benchmarking Project]. The discussion highlights the primary issues confronted in collecting, processing, analysing and comparing benchmark data. The paper outlines the benefits of engaging in a benchmarking exercise and provides a framework which can be applied across a range of public health settings. This information is then applied to a review of the development of the RCPA Benchmarking Project. Consideration is also given to the nature of the preliminary results of the project and the implications of these results to the on-going conduct of the study.
Flexor digitorum tendon injuries are challenging conditions to manage to ensure optimal patient outcomes. While several surgical approaches with high success rates have been developed, there remains no gold standard for suture technique for the repair of flexor tendon injuries. In this study, we compared two distinct peripheral suture methods on the strength of repaired tendons. Pig flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used in biomechanical studies and the biomechanical influence on tendon repair of continuous running peripheral suture (CRPS) and continuous locking peripheral suture (CLPS), were compared, using stitch length ranging from 1mm to 5mm. In CRPS, the 1mm stitch length group displayed the highest maximum load and breaking power, which was 1.57 fold higher than the 2mm stitch length group. Pairwise comparison revealed that the 1 and 2mm groups were statistically different from the 3, 4, and 5mm stitch length groups while comparison among the latter groups was not statistically significant. For CLPS, the 1mm group exhibited consistently the highest maximum load strength and breaking power, which was twice the strength displayed by the 2mm group. Pairwise comparisons between groups showed statistical significance. For future repairs of flexor tendon injuries, 1mm stitch length is highly recommended for simple peripheral suture.
Armstrong, R; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Blindt, M; Mason, H J
Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been assessed and is considered to be small. Changes in cadmium body burden with time have been studied in relation to kidney function. The results suggest several interesting patterns, although more data are needed to elucidate these further. They do, however, show the effectiveness of good hygiene in the workplace. PMID:1515347
O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha
The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement.
Biglan, A W
Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031
O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.
The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626
Chahraoui, Khadija; Duchene, Céline; Rollot, Fabien; Bonin, Bernard; Moreau, Thibault
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the course of alexithymia and its relation with anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), over a period of 5 years. Methods Sixty-two MS patients were examined at two timepoints, 5 years apart, and they answered questionnaires collecting socio-demographic, medical, and psychological data (depression, anxiety, alexithymia). Results Our data show that emotional disorders remain stable over time in patients with MS, particularly as regards alexithymia and anxiety. Conversely, the rate of depression decreased between the two evaluations, falling from 40% to 26%. The two dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., difficulty describing and difficulty identifying feelings) were correlated with anxiety and depression, whereas the third component of alexithymia (externally oriented thinking) was independent, and was the only component to change over time, with a significant fall observed at 5 years. Conclusion Alexithymia was associated with increased severity of anxiety and attack relapses. PMID:24653957
Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan
Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.
Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I.L.
This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In addition, this article reports original analyses of the relation of personality dimensions to cognitive abilities (both concurrent and longitudinal). While personality remains relatively stable over the adult life span, modest proportions of variance are shared between various personality traits and the cognitive abilities. PMID:16755303
Claus, Ronald E; Kindleberger, Lisa R; Dugan, Mary C
Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substance abusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and were more likely to provide three or more contacts when recruited, to be female, to have been married, and to have previously received substance abuse or psychiatric treatment. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that complete data participants (those who completed all three ASI interviews) were nearly three times more likely to have previously received psychiatric treatment and twice as likely to have completed an early engagement interview. In addition, they were twice as likely to be female, and nearly twice as likely to be employed, own a residence, have completed high school, and be married. Procedures that may help decrease study attrition are discussed.
Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R
The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning.
Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria
Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students.
Hua, Jun; Liu, Yang; Hou, Yan
Due to the restrictions in graphene manufacturing process, the presence of defects in graphene structures is almost inevitable and these defects can affect its excellent mechanical properties. In this paper, we study the reparation of cracked graphene by C ion irradiation. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study the performance of graphene with a pre-crack which is irradiated by C ions. First, the reparation mechanism of defect graphene is investigated. The tensile properties of pristine graphene and graphene with a crack are simulated and compared for the cases of irradiation and without irradiation. The simulation results demonstrate that the irradiation can be used to repair the crack in graphene and can improve its mechanical properties. It means that the reparation of defective graphene with irradiation is feasible. The influences of the ion dose and ion energy on the irradiation reparation are analyzed. We found that both ion dose and ion energy have important influences on the defects reparation. Furthermore, temperature effects on tensile properties of graphene after reparation are also studied for the temperature range of 1K to 1500K. It shows that temperature has a great effect on the mechanical properties of the repaired graphene. With an increase of temperature, the tensile strength and failure strain of repaired graphene decrease linearly. The studies in this article are hoped to promote the application of graphene in practice.
De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Delille, Peter; Geys, Helena; Boehringer-Shahidi, Christian; Vanhove, Christian
Micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) has been reported as a reliable method to assess ex vivo rat and rabbit fetal skeletons in embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies. Since micro-CT is a non-invasive imaging modality it has the potential for longitudinal, in vivo investigation of postnatal skeletal development. This is the first paper using micro-CT to assess the reversibility of drug-induced bent long bones in a longitudinal study from birth to early adulthood in rat offspring. Analysis of the scans obtained on postnatal Day 0, 7, 21 and 80 showed complete recovery or repair of the bent long limb bones (including the scapula) within the first 3 weeks. When assessing risk the ability to demonstrate recovery is highly advantageous when interpreting such transient skeletal change. In summary, in vivo micro-CT of small laboratory animals can aid in non-clinical safety assessment, particularly for specific mechanistic purposes or to address a particular concern in developmental biology.
This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…
.... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....firstname.lastname@example.org . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey... Control Number: 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type of Review: New data collection....
Shi, Feng; Fan, Yong; Tang, Songyuan; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang
In the study of early brain development, tissue segmentation of neonatal brain MR images remains challenging because of the insufficient image quality due to the properties of developing tissues. Among various brain tissue segmentation algorithms, atlas-based brain image segmentation can potentially achieve good segmentation results on neonatal brain images. However, their performances rely on both the quality of the atlas and the spatial correspondence between the atlas and the to-be-segmented image. Moreover, it is difficult to build a population atlas for neonates due to the requirement of a large set of tissue-segmented neonatal brain images. To combat these obstacles, we present a longitudinal neonatal brain image segmentation framework by taking advantage of the longitudinal data acquired at late time-point to build a subject-specific tissue probabilistic atlas. Specifically, tissue segmentation of the neonatal brain is formulated as two iterative steps of bias correction and probabilistic-atlas-based tissue segmentation, along with the longitudinal atlas reconstructed by the late time image of the same subject. The proposed method has been evaluated qualitatively through visual inspection and quantitatively by comparing with manual delineations and two population-atlas-based segmentation methods. Experimental results show that the utilization of a subject-specific probabilistic atlas can substantially improve tissue segmentation of neonatal brain images.
No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.
Canè, V; Botti, P; Farneti, D; Soana, S
The effect of pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on bone repair was studied in principal metacarpal bones of eight adult male horses: Six horses were treated with PEMFs, and two horses were untreated. In treated horses, Helmholtz coils were applied during a 60-day period to the left metacarpal bones, bored with eight holes of equal diameter and depth, from the middiaphysis toward the distal metaphysis. Eight equal holes bored in the right metacarpal, surrounded by unactivated Helmholtz coils, were taken as controls. The two untreated horses were taken as additional control. The results of computer-assisted histomorphometric analysis indicate that (a) in diaphyseal levels, the amount of bone formed during 60 days is significantly greater (p less than 0.01) in PEMF-treated holes than in contralateral ones and those in control horses; (b) in metaphyseal levels, PEMF-treated holes are sometimes more closed, sometimes less, as compared with contralateral holes and those in control horses; in any case the statistical analysis indicates that the symmetry in the rate of hole repair, found between the two antimeres of control horses, is not appreciable at metaphyseal levels also; (c) there was no statistically significant difference between untreated holes in PEMF-treated horses and holes in control horses, neither at diaphyseal nor at metaphyseal levels. These preliminary findings indicate that PEMFs at low frequency influence the process of bone repair on both diaphysis and metaphysis, and seem to improve the process of bone repair in skeletal regions normally having a lower osteogenetic activity, i.e., in diaphyses as against metaphyses.
Patil, Santosh M; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuthadi Sravan; Mithun, Gorre
Introduction Lichtenstein’s tension free mesh hernioplasty is the commonly done open technique for inguinal hernias. As our hospital is in rural area, majority of patients are labourers, open hernias are commonly done. The present study was done by comparing Lichtenstein Mesh Repair (LMR) v/s Modified Bassini’s repair (MBR) + Lichtenstein mesh repair (LMR) of direct Inguinal Hernias to compare the technique of both surgeries and its outcome like postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods A comparative randomized study was conducted on patients reporting to MNR hospital, sangareddy with direct inguinal hernias. A total of fifty consecutive patients were included in this study of which, 25 patients were operated by LMR and 25 patients were operated by MBR+LMR and followed up for a period of two years. The outcomes of the both techniques were compared. Results Study involved 25 each of Lichtenstein’s mesh repair (LMR) and modified bassini’s repair (MBR) + LMR, over a period of 2 years. The duration of surgery for lichtenstein mesh repair is around 34.56 min compared to LMR+MBR, which is 47.56 min which was statistically significant (p-value is <0.0001). In this study the most common complication for both the groups was seroma. The pain was relatively higher in LMR+MBR group in POD 1, but not statistically significant (p-value is 0.0949) and from POD 7 the pain was almost similar in both groups. The recurrence rate is 2% for LMR and 0% for MBR+LMR. Conclusion LMR+MBR was comparatively better than only LMR in all direct inguinal hernias because of low recurrence rate (0%) and low postoperative complications, which showed in our present study. PMID:27042517
Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results
Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.
The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…
Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James
The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611
Milanowska, Kaja; Rother, Kristian; Bujnicki, Janusz M.
DNA is continuously exposed to many different damaging agents such as environmental chemicals, UV light, ionizing radiation, and reactive cellular metabolites. DNA lesions can result in different phenotypical consequences ranging from a number of diseases, including cancer, to cellular malfunction, cell death, or aging. To counteract the deleterious effects of DNA damage, cells have developed various repair systems, including biochemical pathways responsible for the removal of single-strand lesions such as base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) or specialized polymerases temporarily taking over lesion-arrested DNA polymerases during the S phase in translesion synthesis (TLS). There are also other mechanisms of DNA repair such as homologous recombination repair (HRR), nonhomologous end-joining repair (NHEJ), or DNA damage response system (DDR). This paper reviews bioinformatics resources specialized in disseminating information about DNA repair pathways, proteins involved in repair mechanisms, damaging agents, and DNA lesions. PMID:22091405
Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.
We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.
Fetters, William B.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, the National Center for Education Statistics undertook a study of dropouts in higher education. Specifically, the study was designed to discover: (1) to what extent students withdraw from institutions of higher education before completion, and how these rates might…
Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F
We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.
Schmah, Tanya; Yourganov, Grigori; Zemel, Richard S; Hinton, Geoffrey E; Small, Steven L; Strother, Stephen C
We compare 10 methods of classifying fMRI volumes by applying them to data from a longitudinal study of stroke recovery: adaptive Fisher's linear and quadratic discriminant; gaussian naive Bayes; support vector machines with linear, quadratic, and radial basis function (RBF) kernels; logistic regression; two novel methods based on pairs of restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM); and K-nearest neighbors. All methods were tested on three binary classification tasks, and their out-of-sample classification accuracies are compared. The relative performance of the methods varies considerably across subjects and classification tasks. The best overall performers were adaptive quadratic discriminant, support vector machines with RBF kernels, and generatively trained pairs of RBMs.
Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.; Shahar, Golan; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran
Study Objectives: To assess the links between sleep and pubertal development using a longitudinal design. Design: Three consecutive annual assessments of sleep and pubertal development. Sleep was assessed using a week of home actigraphy. Setting: Naturalistic sleep in the home setting of school children, Tel Aviv Area, Israel. Participants: A sample of 94 (41 boys) typically developing healthy school-age children (age range at first assessment: 9.9–11.2 years). Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The Petersen's Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) were used to assess pubertal development, and a week of actigraphy served to assess naturalistic sleep patterns. The results reflect expected developmental trends: an increase in signs of pubertal maturation, delayed sleep onset, and shorter sleep time. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between sleep onset time, true sleep time, and number of night wakings at Time 1 and pubertal ratings at Time 2, and pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. Delayed and disrupted sleep at Time 1 predicted faster pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. These results were supported by structural equation modeling. These findings were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Based on these longitudinal data, it appears that pubertal changes in sleep (delayed sleep phase and disrupted sleep patterns) antedate bodily changes associated with puberty. The underlying mechanisms explaining these predictive links should be further explored. Citation: Sadeh A; Dahl RE; Shahar G; Rosenblat-Stein S. Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1602-1609. PMID:20041596
Horneck, G; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Rink, H; Kozubek, S; Schäfer, M; Schmitz, C
The impact of microgravity on cellular repair processes was tested in the space experiments REPAIR and KINETICS, which were performed during the IML-2 mission in the Biorack of ESA: (a) survival of spores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 after UV-irradiation (up to 340 J m-2) in the experiment REPAIR; (b) in the experiment KINETICS the kinetics of DNA repair in three different test systems: rejoining of X-ray-induced DNA strand breaks (B1) in cells of Escherichia coli B/r (120 Gy) and (B2) in human fibroblasts (5 and 10 Gy) as well as (B3) induction of the SOS response after gamma-irradiation (300 Gy) of cells of Escherichia coli PQ37. Cells were irradiated prior to the space mission and were kept in a non-metabolic state (metabolically inactive spores of B. subtilis on membrane filters, frozen cells of E. coli and human fibroblasts) until incubation in orbit. Germination and growth of B. subtilis were initiated by humidification, E. coli and fibroblasts were thawed up and incubated at 37 degrees C for defined repair periods (up to 4.5 h), thereafter they were frozen again for laboratory analysis. Relevant controls were performed in-flight (1 x g reference centrifuge) and on ground (1 x g and 1.4 x g) The results show no significant differences between the microgravity samples and the corresponding controls neither in the survival curves nor in the kinetics of DNA strand break rejoining and induction of the SOS response (proven by Student's t-test, 2 P = 0.05). These observations provide evidence that in the microgravity environment cells are able to repair radiation-induced DNA damage close to normality. The results suggest that a disturbance of cellular repair processes in the microgravity environment might not be the explanation for the reported synergism of radiation and microgravity.
Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim
Abstract Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.
Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R
The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.
Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim
Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.
Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A
Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.
Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran
Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n = 178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803
This paper presents some findings from a case study of repair sequences in conversations between a dysarthric speaker, Chris, and her interactional partners. It adopts the methodology of interactional phonetics, where turn design, sequence organization, and variation in phonetic parameters are analysed in unison. The analysis focused on the use of segmental and prosodic variation found during attempts by Chris to repair a previously identified trouble source. The results indicate that trouble sources were extremely common in the recorded conversations, but that repair attempts were almost always communicatively successful. Analysis of the fragments revealed that repair sequences are often collaborative achievements, with the participant's conversational partners signalling the specific trouble source within a turn, or providing feedback about repair attempts. It was also observed that successful repair attempts were not always simple repetitions of the trouble source, but varied in other linguistic areas. It is suggested that intelligibility repairs should be studied using both experimental and qualitative methods.
Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M
Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.
Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.
An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.
Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…
Uenking, Michael D.
Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.
relative contributions of variables which are presently influencing attitudes from historical variables. Conversely a longitudinal method can be used to...different training techniques. Neidt and Meredith (1966) used a longitudinal method to determine the changes in attitudes of a single group of Air... longitudinal method is viewed as the most promising for measurement of change. With the increasing improvement in unobtrusive measures (e.g., Webb
Uphoff, Stephan; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.
DNA repair safeguards the genome against a diversity of DNA damaging agents. Although the mechanisms of many repair proteins have been examined separately in vitro, far less is known about the coordinated function of the whole repair machinery in vivo. Furthermore, single-cell studies indicate that DNA damage responses generate substantial variation in repair activities across cells. This review focuses on fluorescence imaging methods that offer a quantitative description of DNA repair in single cells by measuring protein concentrations, diffusion characteristics, localizations, interactions, and enzymatic rates. Emerging single-molecule and super-resolution microscopy methods now permit direct visualization of individual proteins and DNA repair events in vivo. We expect much can be learned about the organization of DNA repair by linking cell heterogeneity to mechanistic observations at the molecular level. PMID:24629485
Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.
In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170
Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. S.; Brunair, R. M.
Welded joints are an essential part of rocket engine structures such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet X-rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered in this report. Using the FEM and beamlike plate approximations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thicknesses on both sides of the joint. Following the study, some conclusions are derived for the weld offsets.
Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru
This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.
Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E
The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689
Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia
Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.
Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia
Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time‐dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data. PMID:27917593
Amirouche, F; Gonzalez, M; Koldoff, J; Tioco, J; Ham, K
This paper addresses the mechanics of the finger/pulley system when subjected to various excisions and repairs. Several cadaver hands were used to study the finger/pulley's function, finger joint dynamics, and the relationship between tendon excursion and finger joint angles of rotation. By using a method of continuous and simultaneous data acquisition of the entire finger joint's motion, a more detailed analysis was achieved. Our experimental investigation is based on the use of four micro-potentiometers inserted at the finger's joints and a pulley system to simulate tendon excursion. Using this procedure, a detailed kinematic analysis of the entire finger was performed. This included analysis of the intact hand, various pulley excisions, and reconstruction. In addition to introducing a new method of acquisition, a mathematical model was developed for the inverse dynamic analysis of the finger pulley system. From this model, the torques required at the joints for the motion were computed. The results provided new insight into possible ways of characterizing kinematic changes resulting from pulley damage and repair.
Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Ming; Qian, Ji; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Lu, Daru; Yu, Shunzhang; Meng, Wei; Ye, Weimin; Jin, Li
Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China) to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million) of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction) through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China) for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors. PMID:19589173
Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian
Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.
Brunswick, Nicola; Neil Martin, G; Rippon, Georgina
This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability during the earliest stages, but onset awareness did not emerge as important until after the children had started reading. Digit span correlated significantly with future reading ability at every stage. These findings indicate that although phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability are all necessary for emergent reading, their relative importance varies across the first 2 years of reading development.
Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H
This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.
Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C
Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.
A longitudinal study of one child aged 2;5 documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Initially, reduplication is partial: the reduplicant enlarges in discrete increments over the five stages of the game until by the last stage reduplication is total. Reduplication is accompanied by a process of onset replacement, in which the reduplicant always begins with /b/. Early in the game, this replacive onset 'dissimilates' to /p/ whenever the reduplicant would independently have begun with /b/. In subsequent stages, other voiced obstruents trigger dissimilation as well. Though similar in many ways to adult language reduplication, it is argued that J's game may more closely resemble adult rhyme (both poetic and word rhyme). Regardless, the structure of the game clearly reveals the child's awareness, in the third year of life, of stress and metrical feet, segmental natural classes, and segments themselves (phonemic awareness).
Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica
We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.
Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento
Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.
Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian
Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802
Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik
Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.
Meltzer, Jed A; Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney A; McArdle, Joseph J; Braun, Allen R
Longitudinal fMRI studies of language production are of interest for evaluating recovery from post-stroke aphasia, but numerous methodological issues remain unresolved, particularly regarding strategies for evaluating single subjects at multiple timepoints. To address these issues, we studied overt picture naming in eleven healthy subjects, scanned four times each at one-month intervals. To evaluate the natural variability present across repeated sessions, repeated scans were directly contrasted in a unified statistical framework on a per-voxel basis. The effect of stimulus familiarity was evaluated using explicitly overtrained pictures, novel pictures, and untrained pictures that were repeated across sessions. For untrained pictures, we found that activation declined across multiple sessions, equally for both novel and repeated stimuli. Thus, no repetition priming for individual stimuli at one-month intervals was found, but rather a general effect of task habituation was present. Using a set of overtrained pictures identical in each session, no decline was found, but activation was minimized and produced less consistent patterns across participants, as measured by intra-class correlation coefficients. Subtraction of a baseline task, in which subjects produced a stereotyped utterance to scrambled pictures, resulted in specific activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and other language areas for untrained items, while overlearned stimuli relative to pseudo pictures activated only the fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. These findings indicate that longitudinal fMRI is an effective means of detecting changes in neural activation magnitude over time, as long as the effect of task habituation is taken into account.
Hoemann, Caroline; Kandel, Rita; Roberts, Sally; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Creemers, Laura; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Méthot, Stephane; Hollander, Anthony P.; Buschmann, Michael D.
Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for standardized histoprocessing and unbiased evaluation of animal tissues and human biopsies. Methods were compiled from a literature review, and illustrative data were added. In animal models, treatments are usually administered to acute defects created in healthy tissues, and the entire joint can be analyzed at multiple postoperative time points. In human clinical therapy, treatments are applied to developed lesions, and biopsies are obtained, usually from a subset of patients, at a specific time point. In striving to standardize evaluation of structural endpoints in cartilage repair studies, 5 variables should be controlled: 1) location of biopsy/sample section, 2) timing of biopsy/sample recovery, 3) histoprocessing, 4) staining, and 5) blinded evaluation with a proper control group. Histological scores, quantitative histomorphometry of repair tissue thickness, percentage of tissue staining for collagens and glycosaminoglycan, polarized light microscopy for collagen fibril organization, and subchondral bone integration/structure are all relevant outcome measures that can be collected and used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics. Standardized histology methods could improve statistical analyses, help interpret and validate noninvasive imaging outcomes, and permit cross-comparison between studies. Currently, there are no suitable substitutes for histology in evaluating repair tissue quality and cartilaginous character. PMID:26069577
Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899
McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter
Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…
AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ≥140 mm Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range.
Punwar, Shahid; Khan, Wasim S
Cartilage is frequently injured but shows little capacity for repair. Current treatment options include the use of procedures that stimulate repair through the stimulation of subchondral bone marrow and result in the formation of fibrocartilage. There is considerable interest in the use of cell-based treatment strategies and there are limited studies describing the use of mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage repair with promising early results. This paper reviews the current treatment strategies for articular cartilage, describes use of mesenchymal stem cells for articular cartilage repair along with the results of clinical studies, and describes the future direction that these strategies are likely to take. PMID:21886696
Yücebaş, Kadir; Taşkın, Ümit; Oktay, Mehmet Faruk; Tansuker, Hasan Deniz; Erdil, Mehmet; Altınay, Serdar; Kozanoğlu, Erol; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi
The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and biocompatibility of polypropylene mesh for the repair of nasal septal perforations in an animal model on rabbits. A full-thickness nasal septal perforation with a diameter of nearly 10 × 10 mm was created on 12 rabbits, and then the perforation was reconstructed with two different methods. We used mucosal flaps and polypropylene mesh as an interpositional graft in group 1. Only mucosal flaps were used for reconstruction and are identified as group 2. After 4 weeks, we removed the nasal septum of the rabbits and performed histopathological examinations for acute rejection, infection, inflammatory response, fibrosis, and granuloma formation. We found perforation closure rates of 75 and 25 % in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Inflammatory response was seen in all specimens of group 1 (100 %). The inflammatory response was +1 in five of the specimens (62.5 %), +2 in one specimen (12.5 %), and +3 in two specimens (25 %). Mild fibrosis around the mesh was detected in four specimens (50 %), medium-level fibrosis was detected in one (12.5 %), and no fibrosis was detected in three (37.5 %). Severe fibrosis was not seen in any specimens. The foreign-body reaction was limited to a few giant cells, and granuloma formation was seen in two specimens (25 %). The propylene mesh showed excellent biocompatibility with the septal mucosa, and it can, therefore, be used for the repair of septal perforation as an interpositional graft safely.
This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
Karatzas, Vasileios A.; Kotsidis, Elias A.; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.
Cracks are among the most commonly encountered defects in metallic structures operating at sea. Composite patch repairing is a repair method which is gaining popularity as it counters most of the problems faced by conventional renewal repairs. Extensive studies can be found in the literature addressing the efficiency of this novel repair method using techniques which meet higher performance and monitoring standards than these commonly found in naval applications. In this work the efficiency of practices widely used in the ship repair industry for the implementation of composite patch repairing is addressed. To this end, steel plates repaired with composite patches were tested under fatigue loading. The composite patches consisted of carbon fibers in epoxy matrix and were directly laminated to the steel surface using the vacuum infusion method. Two different surface preparation methods, namely grit-blasting and mechanical treatment with the use of a needle gun were studied. In addition, in order to account for the harsh environmental conditions during the operating life of the structure and to study its effect on the repair, two different aging scenarios were considered. Non-destructive evaluation of the patches was performed so as to assess the quality of the repair, and the evolution of debonding during testing.
Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia
This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.
Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )
A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.
Nagata, H; Kondo, M; Ogawa, S
Our cross-sectional studies of interpersonal values in female student nurses showed that (1) third graders attached more importance to the values of Support and Independence and less to those of Benevolence and Leadership than did first graders, and (2) the discrepancy between the ratings of what they were and those of what their ideal nurses were was greater in the third than in the first graders. We interpreted these differences between the two graders as indicating a developmental change brought about during the three years. This study examined the internal validity of this interpretation through the use of a longitudinal method. The KG-SIV (Kikuchi-Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values) was administered twice to 85 female student nurses: immediately after entering their nursing schools and immediately before finishing them, with a testing interval of approximately three years. For each testing, subjects were asked to rate what they were and then what their ideal nurses were. Analyses produced almost the same results as obtained in cross-sectional studies: perceived values of Benevolence and Leadership decrease while those of Support and Independence increase over the three years, with the discrepancy increasing from the first to the second testing. Findings thus support the internal validity of our prior interpretation. The changes in interpersonal values found for the student nurses suggest a socialization process they undertake in nurse training and imply an increase of stress they experience in that process.
Roberts, R J; Musick, B S; Olley, B; Hall, K S; Hendrie, H C; Oyediran, A B
The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-cultural study. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-cultural study, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have different levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning.
Newman, Anne B
Longitudinal studies have contributed substantially to understanding of aging and geriatric syndromes. These efforts have provided a base of knowledge of the critical factors to consider in designing and implementing new longitudinal studies in older adults. This review highlights some of the major considerations in planning and implementing this type of study. Longitudinal studies can assess change over time and specific disease endpoints. Such projects require multidisciplinary teams with expertise in the many health and contextual factors that must be considered. Recent advances in study design include the use of imaging and biomarkers to assess mechanisms and approaches that raise the ceiling on measurement and integrate assessment of exposures over time. Study implementation requires careful planning and monitoring to maintain fidelity to the scientific goals. Analysis of longitudinal data requires approaches that account for inevitable missing data. New studies should take advantage of the experience obtained from longitudinal studies on aging already conducted.
Lolley, R D; Bose, W J; Bastian, F; Bassam, B; Meyer, F N; Anderson, L D
We investigated three sheathing materials (autogenous vein, silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh) using the rat model. Forty rats were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group A animals underwent transection of the sciatic nerve but had no repair. In Group B, a standard epineural repair was performed. In Groups C, D, and E, the nerve was repaired as in Group B with the addition of autogenous vein, Silastic, and polyglycolic acid fine mesh sheaths, respectively. Nerve regeneration and function were assessed using sciatic functional index, nerve conduction studies, and light microscopy. Sheathing methods showed no statistically significant advantage to standard epineural repair without a sheath.
Smartt, Jerry T.; Scudder, Rosalind R.
Repair behavior in university-level students was investigated to determine if students who study abroad use repair behavior differently from students who do not. The Mexico group (N =24) studied Conversational Spanish at La Salle University, Cancun. The U.S. group (N = 9) completed the same course at Friends University, Wichita, Kansas. Pretest…
Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.
The Training and Technology (TAT) program, operated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility, has trained unemployed Kentuckians for a number of years. The program is part of DOE's continuing effort to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 192 Kentuckians under CETA, Balance of State, and Governor's Special Grants contracts with the Department for Human Resources. One hundred sixty-seven (87%) of these participants completed the program, of which 154 (92%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 154 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.05; FY 1979 - $4.94; and FY 1978 - $4.97. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.
Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.
The Training and Technology (TAT) program is operated for the US Department of Energy by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility. The program is part of the Department's continuing efforts to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. TAT has trained unemployed economically disadvantaged Tennesseans for 16 years. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 460 Tennesseans under CETA, Title 2B contracts with the Department of Employment Security. Three hundred sixty (78%) of these participants completed the program, of which 335 (93%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 335 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.32; FY 1979 - $5.12; FY 1978 - $5.71. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long-term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.
Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A
Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629
Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.
This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.
Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.
Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630
Rispin, Karen; Riseling, Kristofer; Wee, Joy
Wheelchair breakdowns increase the risk of injury and limit the mobility of wheelchair users. In the endeavour to meet the enormous global need for wheelchairs, manufacturers of wheelchairs for low-resource settings face a cost-benefit tension between affordability and durability. Field studies are needed to provide feedback on durability. Four manufacturers provided cadres of wheelchairs to the organization providing rehabilitation to students at a boarding school for children with disabilities in a low-resource area. The Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition was used to evaluate wheelchair maintenance condition at several time intervals after fitting. Because the maintenance regime was not identical for the four wheelchair types, wheelchair types were not compared. Analysis of variance indicated differences in condition across time and between wheelchair components. Tukey's simultaneous comparison of means indicated that across the entire group, brakes, seats, casters and foot rests received lower ratings than frame. Preliminary data after each iteration of this study were provided to manufactures and resulted in responsive design changes. Implications for Rehabilitation Longitudinal studies with the Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition (WCQc) have enabled manufacturers to make responsive design improvements. Additional studies could be done with other wheelchair types to result in responsive positive design changes for those wheelchairs as well. The WCQc can be used in studies on wheelchair condition even when records of repair history are not reliably available, a situation which is not uncommon in low-resource areas. Data sets collected at an individual clinic uses the WCQc could focus attention on wheelchair components needing regular repair. With that data in mind, the maintenance regime could be modified to respond and in so doing improve wheelchair condition and reduce loss of mobility or risk of injury. Organizations involved in
The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...
Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.
Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan
Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…
Rodger, M P; Theobald, P; Giddins, G
The ultimate tensile repair strength and gap formation of the pig extensor tendons repaired with a standard 4-strand Savage with epitendinous suture repair, was compared with a new technique of adding a vein sleeve. Force and displacement data were recorded, and video images during linear cyclic loading up to failure. At 35 N, video-graphic observation detected significantly smaller gap lengths in the standard and vein repair specimens compared with standard repair specimens (p = 0.047). The incidence of 3 mm gaps between the repaired tendon ends in the standard repair group was 20 %, but no 3 mm gaps were seen in the standard and vein specimens. The addition of a vein sleeve increased the ultimate tensile strength of the standard repair from 50.4 N (4.5) to 55.4 N (4.5); this was statistically significant (p = 0.03). This study demonstrated that the addition of a vein graft prevented gap formation and increased ultimate tensile strength of tendon repair.
Nomura, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Akihisa; Takao, Yoshimune
Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair using a memory-ring patch (Polysoft™ mesh). Patients and Methods. Between April 2010 and March 2013, a total of 76 inguinal hernias underwent TAPP repair using Polysoft mesh in 67 adults under general anesthesia. Three different senior resident surgeons performed TAPP repair under the instruction of a specialist surgeon. Nine patients had bilateral hernias. The 76 hernias included 37 indirect inguinal hernias, 29 direct hernias, 1 femoral hernia, 1 pantaloon hernia (combined direct/indirect inguinal hernia), and 8 recurrent hernias after open anterior hernia repair. The immediate postoperative outcomes as well as the short-term outcomes (mainly recurrence and incidence of chronic pain) were studied. Results. There was no conversion from TAPP repair to anterior open repair. The mean operation time was 109 minutes (range, 40–132) for unilateral hernia repair. Scrotal seroma was diagnosed at the operation site in 5 patients. No patient had operation-related orchitis, testicle edema, trocar site infection, or chronic pain during follow-up. Conclusions. The use of Polysoft mesh for TAPP inguinal hernia repair does not seem to adversely affect the quality of repair. The use of this mesh is therefore feasible and safe and may reduce postoperative pain. PMID:27635414
Matsutani, Takeshi; Nomura, Tsutomu; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Matsuda, Akihisa; Takao, Yoshimune; Uchida, Eiji
Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair using a memory-ring patch (Polysoft™ mesh). Patients and Methods. Between April 2010 and March 2013, a total of 76 inguinal hernias underwent TAPP repair using Polysoft mesh in 67 adults under general anesthesia. Three different senior resident surgeons performed TAPP repair under the instruction of a specialist surgeon. Nine patients had bilateral hernias. The 76 hernias included 37 indirect inguinal hernias, 29 direct hernias, 1 femoral hernia, 1 pantaloon hernia (combined direct/indirect inguinal hernia), and 8 recurrent hernias after open anterior hernia repair. The immediate postoperative outcomes as well as the short-term outcomes (mainly recurrence and incidence of chronic pain) were studied. Results. There was no conversion from TAPP repair to anterior open repair. The mean operation time was 109 minutes (range, 40-132) for unilateral hernia repair. Scrotal seroma was diagnosed at the operation site in 5 patients. No patient had operation-related orchitis, testicle edema, trocar site infection, or chronic pain during follow-up. Conclusions. The use of Polysoft mesh for TAPP inguinal hernia repair does not seem to adversely affect the quality of repair. The use of this mesh is therefore feasible and safe and may reduce postoperative pain.
Thomas, Richard M; Forde, Emer M E; Humphreys, Glyn W; Graham, Kim S
We report a 12-year longitudinal case study on a 60-year-old male patient (DW) with category-specific agnosia. The extent to which DW's impairment has changed over time was evaluated using identical tests at time 1 (1988) and time 2 (2000). In particular, we assessed his ability to identify pictures and real objects, to draw from memory, and to access stored semantic information about living and non-living things. The principal findings were: (i). DW was significantly better at identifying real objects in comparison with line drawings. (ii). DW presented with a category-specific impairment for living things that remained consistent over the 12-year period. (iii). He significantly improved in his ability to identify real non-living objects over the 12-year period but real living objects remained at floor. (iv). His ability to access stored visual knowledge declined over time. On the basis of these data, we suggest that visual perception is required to maintain intact visual memories over a period of time. We also suggest that integrative visual agnosia co-occurs with a category-specific impairment for living things because the recognition of these items requires more global processing than for non-living things. In addition, we suggest that degradation to stored visual knowledge can cause category-specific naming impairments for living compared with non-living things because naming living things requires access to more detailed visual knowledge.
McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.
Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596
McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G
Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.
Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo
Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888
Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A
The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.
Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I
This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.
The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.
McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J; Willms, Rhonda
Phenyl alcohol blocks are used to relieve spasticity. Such nerve conduction blocks result from phenol-induced axonotmesis and could potentially affect muscle properties related to the ability to generate, maximize, and reduce force. This study assessed the 12-week longitudinal effect of phenol on position (stiffness) and velocity (damping) components of hypertonia, in addition to strength (peak torque and times to generate and reduce torque) in an individual with chronic elbow flexor spasticity following stroke. Phenol motor point injections of flexor muscles paradoxically increased the magnitude of flexion torque and decreased the times required to generate and reduce flexion and extension joint torques, in addition to reducing elbow extension stiffness and damping. Large reductions in the velocity-related component of hypertonia (damping changes > 90%) occurred immediately following injection, which is a finding that supports the velocity-dependent definition of spasticity. Although the changes in damping were large and transient, changes in stiffness and strength variables were small, slower to occur, and maintained. This suggests secondary changes following nerve block, possibly facilitated by regular elbow use subsequent to spasticity reduction.
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.
Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert
Increased levels of antibodies to gliadin, which is derived from the wheat protein gluten, have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally the levels of antibody reactivity to gliadin in acute mania. The sample included 60 individuals assessed during a hospital stay for acute mania, 39 at a 6-month follow-up, and a sample of 143 non-psychiatric controls. Antibodies to gliadin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The relationship of the antibodies to the clinical course of mania was analyzed by the use of regression models. Individuals with mania had significantly increased levels of IgG antibodies to gliadin, but not other markers of celiac disease, at baseline compared with controls in multivariate analyses. However, these levels were not significantly different from those of controls at the six month follow-up. Among the individuals with mania, elevated levels at follow-up were significantly associated with re-hospitalization in the 6-month follow-up period. The monitoring and control of gluten sensitivity may have significant effects on the management of individuals hospitalized with acute mania.
Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient = 0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288
Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri
Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571
The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…
Peng, Samuel S.; And Others
Over 150 journal articles, papers presented at professional meetings, dissertations, government publications, contract reports, and studies in progress as of March 1977 on the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) are annotated and indexed by subject, author, and sponsoring agency. Introductory chapters describe the…
Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.
Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035
Laarhoven, Laura M; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Duijkeren, Engeline
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of
Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne
This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to
Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin
In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.
Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.
Kinetic studies on double strand DNA damages induced by a laser microbeam have allowed a precise definition of the temporal order of recruitment of repair molecules. The order is KU70 / KU80 - XRCC4 --NBS1 -- RAD51. These kinetic studies are now complemented by studies on molecular structures of the repair proteins, using the program YASARA which does not only give molecular structures but also physicochemical details on forces involved in binding processes. It turns out that the earliest of these repair proteins, the KU70 / KU80 heterodimer, has a hole with high DNA affinity. The next molecule, XRCC4, has a body with two arms, the latter with extremely high DNA affinity at their ends and a binding site for Ligase 4. Together with the laser microbeam results this provides a detailed view on the early steps of DNA double strand break repair. The sequence of DNA repair events is presented as a movie.
Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin
Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…
Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.
Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…
Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong
We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…
Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika
In longitudinal studies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…
Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.
This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…
Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy
Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…
Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela
Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…
Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon
This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…
in whom, when, and where exercise participation (EX) has significant effects on depression (DEP), self - esteem (SE), and quality of life (QOL). Data...subgroups, Depression Longitudinal, Residualized gain analysis, Self - Esteem , Navy Men and Women....A predominant opinion in research and society today maintains that exercise is beneficial for the reduction of depression and enhancement of self
Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…
Knaub, Patricia K.
The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to assess the extent to which adolescent girls' sex role expectations reflect traditional or egalitarian concepts of marriage and career roles as evidenced in a longitudinal design; and (2) to compare both the adolescents' role projections and their subsequent enactment to the educational attainment and…
Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health
Hoopes, Janet L.
A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…
Chan, Chio Mui
RNA modification, RNA interference, and RNA repair are important events in the cell. This thesis presents three projects related to these three fields. By using both biochemical and structural methods, we characterized enzymatic activities of pseudouridine synthase TruD, solved the structure of "A. aeolicus" GidA, and reconstituted a novel…
Inside-Out or Outside-In Suturing Should Not Be Considered the Standard Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Midbody of the Lateral Meniscus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Biomechanical Studies.
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Choi, J H James; Stuart, Joseph J; Toth, Alison P; Garrett, William E; Taylor, Dean C; Moorman, Claude T
The purpose was to evaluate which meniscal repair technique for radial tears of the midbody of the lateral meniscus demonstrates the best biomechanical properties. An electronic literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases. Biomechanical studies investigating the repair characteristics of radial tears in the midbody of the lateral meniscus were included. After appropriate screening, a total of 54 studies were reviewed in detail (full text), and 6 met inclusion criteria. The most common cause of exclusion was the investigation of longitudinal tears. Only two studies could be meta-analyzed. Stiffness was significantly higher for all-inside compared with inside-out repair techniques (p = 0.0009). No significant differences were observed between both suture methods for load to failure (p = 0.45). However, both studies used different all-inside devices and suture constructs. No clear conclusions can be drawn from the comparison of both types of repairs for displacement, site of failure, or contact pressure changes. Overall, there are no conclusive data to suggest that inside-out or outside-in suture repair has better load to failure or stiffness, less displacement, or different site of failure compared with all-inside repair. According to biomechanical data, it is under surgeon's preference to elect one repair technique over the other.
Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson
Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings.
... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...
... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in...
Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong
Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.
Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S
The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health.
A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...
July 20, 2004 1 ElectroSpark Deposition studies for gas turbine engine component repair Hard Chrome Alternatives Team Canadian Hard...2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ElectroSpark Deposition studies for gas turbine engine component repair 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Cornelius, Oregon Norma Price – Mechanical Engineer, Project Manager John Kelley – VP R&D July 20, 2004 3 ElectroSpark Deposition (ESD
March 17, 2005 1 ElectroSpark Deposition studies for gas turbine engine component repair Norma Price Advanced Surfaces and Processes, Inc. HCAT...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ElectroSpark Deposition studies for gas turbine engine component repair 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... ElectroSpark Deposition (ESD) as technically feasible and commercially viable for a production-scale process, and to perform the tests necessary
Context: This study is about documentation of a technique which includes a combination of both hernioplasty and Herniorrhaphy, and its outcome in terms of recurrence rate and postoperative complications. It also compares the outcome of this method with routinely used techniques reported in the literature. Materials and Methods: LR with Herniorrhaphy was performed in the patients admitted with inguinal hernia under concerned surgeon. Their follow-up was assessed after 12 months. Incidences of recurrence rate and other postoperative complications like painful scar, atrophy of testis, urinary retention, hematoma, sinus and infection were noted and compared with other techniques of repair from published data. Statistical Analysis: was carried out by calculating the mean, standard deviation (SD), percentage and incidence rates. Results: LR with Herniorrhaphy performed in 475 patients showed recurrence rate of <<0.01% (n=1) and very low incidences of other postoperative complications like painful scar (0.01%, n=5), sinus (0%, n=0), atrophy of testis (0%, n=0), retention of urine (0.01%, n=6), hematoma (<<0.01%, n=1) and infection (0%, n=0); as compared to published data with different techniques. Conclusion: LR with Herniorrhaphy can be used for open inguinal hernia repair as the gold standard procedure as it has got low recurrence rate and other postoperative complications as compared to other techniques. However, the result of this study is based on the data from a single center, thus we recommend multicentric trials to test the efficacy of this technique. PMID:25478390
Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina
This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…
Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Christensen, Kaare; Stevnsner, Tinna
Accumulation of DNA damage deriving from exogenous and endogenous sources has significant consequences for cellular survival, and is implicated in aging, cancer, and neurological diseases. Different DNA repair pathways have evolved in order to maintain genomic stability. Genetic and environmental factors are likely to influence DNA repair capacity. In order to gain more insight into the genetic and environmental contribution to the molecular basis of DNA repair, we have performed a human twin study, where we focused on the consequences of some of the most abundant types of DNA damage (single-strand breaks), and some of the most hazardous lesions (DNA double-strand breaks). DNA damage signaling response (Gamma-H2AX signaling), relative amount of endogenous damage, and DNA-strand break repair capacities were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 198 twins (94 monozygotic and 104 dizygotic). We did not detect genetic effects on the DNA-strand break variables in our study.
Joslin, R.; Ohmiya, H.; Ellis, D. R.
Using an inflight simulator, a simple longitudinal decoupling concept was compared with conventional airplane characteristics for the approach and landing tasks. The decoupling system allowed the pilot to command flight path angle changes with the stick with little or no accompanying speed change; likewise, speed changes with only small accompanying flight path changes could be made with throttle only. The unique feature of the concept is that it is an open loop (that is, nonfeedback) control system. Results indicate that in calm air and up to moderate levels of turbulence the decoupling system provides a substantial reduction in pilot workload.
Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.
A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)
Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen
The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1 year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively.
Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M
Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.
Mohamedali, Mustafa; Sandoval, Joanna; Thiruvarooran, Vikarnan; Stacey, Holly; O'Neill, Meagan; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Durbano, Sara; Alibhai, Shabbir M H
To date, no study has examined the value of providing study newsletters in educating and motivating participants taking part in longitudinal intervention studies and reducing attrition in studies. The study team examined perceptions and satisfaction towards study newsletters, and their potential benefits, in a population of older men with prostate cancer participating in two ongoing longitudinal trials. Two study newsletters issues were mailed out 4 months apart to prostate cancer patients participating in a bone health and/or exercise intervention trial. Participants (n = 133) were invited to complete an 18-item custom-designed survey examining perceptions towards and satisfaction with the newsletter, and provide feedback about what makes an ideal study newsletter. Analyses were primarily descriptive. Resources required to produce a study newsletter were also calculated. Of 133 participants, 83 usable surveys were returned (response rate 62.4%). The mean satisfaction rating for the newsletter was 8.5/10 (SD 1.9) (10 = highly satisfied). Seventy eight percent said the newsletter encouraged them to continue to participate in the study, and 93% indicated that providing such study newsletters should be optional (64%) or mandatory (29%). Each newsletter required 31 h of study personnel time (mostly research student) to produce. Study participants were very satisfied with the newsletter and the majority indicated that study newsletters should be a regular practice in all long-term studies and may improve participant retention. Producing a newsletter is a low-cost method of educating participants in longitudinal studies. Its impact on recruitment and retention should be examined in clinical trials.
Imura, N; Otani, S M; Hata, G; Toda, T; Zuolo, M L
The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the sealing ability of various materials in the repair of furcation perforations in mandibular molars by measuring coronal microleakage with Indian ink. Ninety extracted mandibular molars were embedded individually into a plaster of Paris block, with the roots surrounded by a simulated periodontal ligament of silicone. Subsequently, a standard coronal access opening was prepared, the root canal orifices were located and a perforation was made with a size 012 round bur in a water-cooled high-speed handpiece directly into the centre of the floor of the pulp chamber. The perforations were repaired with amalgam, composite resin, calcium sulphate under composite resin and calcium hydroxide under composite resin. The teeth were coated with two layers of nail polish, leaving the access opening area uncovered, and immersed in Indian ink for 4 days at 37 degrees C. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and dye penetration measured from the coronal level of the repair material to the apical end of the perforation. All experimental groups revealed dye penetration in varying degrees, but there was no significant difference amongst them (Kruskal-Wallis test P < 0.05). Calcium sulphate and calcium hydroxide prevented overextrusion of composite resin when used under this repair material.
Bourhis, M.Y.; Aldridge, T.
Subsea inspection techniques are required to confirm that the initial construction of offshore oil platforms meets pre-established standards and specifications and that structural deterioration does not exceed levels which are consistent with the design and continued serviceability of a structure. Such inspection, rigorously performed, will normally satisfy the various interrelated requirements of the operators, the government, and the certifying authority. This paper presents a review of the current techniques for underwater inspection, an application of ultrasonic equipment for this purpose, and an application of welded point repair in a hyperbaric habitat.
We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430
Vande Loock, Kim; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Ciardelli, Roberta; Haumont, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline
Recognition of the potential vulnerability of children and newborns and protection of their health is essential, especially regarding to genotoxic compounds. Benzo(a)pyrene B(a)P a commonly found carcinogen, and its metabolite BPDE, are known to cross the placenta. To investigate how well newborns are able to cope with BPDE-induced DNA damage, a recent developed nucleotide excision repair cell phenotype assay was applied in a pilot study of 25 newborn daughters and their mothers, using the Alkaline Comet Assay and taking demographic data into account. Newborns seemed to be less able to repair BPDE-induced DNA damage since lower repair capacity levels were calculated compared to their mothers although statistical significance was not reached. Assessment of repair capacity in combination with genotypes will provide important information to support preventive strategies in neonatal care and to define science based exposure limits for pregnant women and children.
Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C
Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers' depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.
Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya
The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific.
Qi, Na; Li, Wen-jiao; Tian, Hong
Replacing urethral tissue with functional scaffolds has been one of the challenging problems in the field of urethra reconstruction or repair over the last several decades. Various scaffold materials have been used in animal studies, but clinical studies on use of scaffolds for urethral repair are scarce. The aim of this study was to review recent animal and clinical studies on the use of different scaffolds for urethral repair, and to evaluate these scaffolds based on the evidence from these studies. PubMed and OVID databases were searched to identify relevant studies, in conjunction with further manual search. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated. Of 555 identified studies, 38 were included for analysis. It was found that in both animal and clinical studies, scaffolds seeded with cells were used for repair of large segmental defects of the urethra, such as in tubular urethroplasty. When the defect area was small, cell-free scaffolds were more likely to be applied. A lot of pre-clinical and limited clinical evidence showed that natural or artificial materials could be used as scaffolds for urethral repair. Urinary tissue engineering is still in the immature stage, and the safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness of the scaffolds are needed for further study.
Kassab, Paulo; Franciulli, Ettore Ferrari; Wroclawski, Carolina Kassab; Ilias, Elias Jirjoss; Castro, Osvaldo Antônio Prado; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate two types of meshless open inguinal repair and to evaluate the recurrence rate. Methods: We operated on sequentially 98 men and 15 women with 144 unilateral or bilateral inguinal hernias between December 1988 and April 2007. The surgeries were performed by two experienced surgeons and divided into two groups: Bassini or McVay reconstructive surgery techniques. Bassini type reinforcements were employed for Nyhus II and IIIB with minor destruction of the posterior wall. Patients with Nyhus type IIIA, type IIIB with major destruction of the fascia transversalis, and type IIIC were subjected to the McVay technique. Results: Seventy-five hernias were corrected using the McVay technique. Only two recurrences (2.67%) were observed in this group. For group Bassini, two recurrences for 69 hernias (2.89%) were observed (p=0.658). Mean age for the recurrent group was 56 years. No differences were observed between the ages of males and females (52 years). Conclusions: Non-mesh repair in inguinal hernia can be safely used if performed by experienced surgeons. PMID:23843059
Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia
Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159
Nelson, Jon P
This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.
Nelson, Jon P
This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009
Li, Bo; Zhou, Qingyan; Jiang, Yong; Xiang, Xia; Liao, Wei; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Wanguo; Yuan, Xiaodong
The cone and Gaussian repaired damage craters are two typical morphologies induced by CO2 laser evaporation and nonevaporation technologies. The mathematical models are built for these two types of repaired craters, and the light modulation at 355 nm induced by the millimeter-scale repaired damage morphology is studied by scalar diffraction theory. The results show that the modulation of the Gaussian repaired morphology has one peak and then decreases with the increasing distance from 0 to 30 cm. While the modulation for cone repaired morphology remains stable after decreasing quickly with the increasing distance. When the horizontal radius increases, the modulation looks like a saw-tooth. However, the modulation has irregular variations for two kinds of morphologies with the increasing vertical depth. The simulated results agree well with experimental results. The horizontal and vertical dimensions, and downstream distance have different influences on the modulation. The risk of damage to downstream optical components can be suppressed to improve the stability of the optical system if the shape and size of repaired craters are well controlled and the positions of downstream optical components are selected appropriately.
Mihos, Christos G; Santana, Orlando
Approximately 30% to 50% of patients will develop ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) after a myocardial infarction, which is a result of progressive left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction of the subvalvular apparatus, and portends a poor long-term prognosis. Surgical treatment is centered on mitral valve repair utilizing a restrictive annuloplasty, or valve replacement with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. In the recent Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CSTN) study, patients with severe ischemic MR were randomized to mitral valve repair with a restrictive annuloplasty versus chordal-sparing valve replacement, and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, if indicated. At 2-year follow-up, mitral valve repair was associated with a significantly higher incidence of moderate or greater recurrent MR and heart failure, with no difference in the indices of left ventricular reverse remodeling, as compared with valve replacement. The current appraisal aims to provide insight into the CSTN trial results, and discusses the evidence supporting a pathophysiologic-guided repair strategy incorporating combined annuloplasty and subvalvular repair techniques to optimize the outcomes of mitral valve repair in ischemic MR.
... Myelodysplasia repair; Spinal dysraphism repair; Meningomyelocele repair; Neural tube defect repair; Spina bifida repair ... If your child has hydrocephalus, a shunt (plastic tube) will be put in the child's brain to ...
Eller, R; Twaddell, C; Poulos, E; Jenevein, E; McIntire, D; Russell, S
Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy is becoming an increasingly common procedure. The possible creation of intraperitoneal adhesions during laparoscopic herniorrhaphy has not been examined. For the transperitoneal hernia repair to be an acceptable option, the hypothesis that this approach will incite significant adhesions must be rejected. To test this hypothesis, 21 pigs underwent laparoscopic herniorrhaphy using a standard procedure with the implantation of a polypropylene mesh graft on one side while a sham procedure was performed on the other. These animals were later examined laparoscopically for adhesion formation and the condition of the graft. None of the 21 animals developed adhesions to the trocar sites, 12 animals developed adhesions to the area of the polypropylene mesh, and 3 developed adhesions to the side of the sham procedure. There were no adhesions involving the small intestine. It is therefore concluded that the hypothesis should be rejected and that laparoscopic herniorrhaphy does not incite significant adhesions.
Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.
The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689
Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.
Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana
Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.
Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.
During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
McCulloch, Charles E.; Neuhaus, John M.; Olin, Rebecca L.
Summary The availability of data in longitudinal studies is often driven by features of the characteristics being studied. For example, clinical databases are increasingly being used for research to address longitudinal questions. Because visit times in such data are often driven by patient characteristics that may be related to the outcome being studied, the danger is that this will result in biased estimation compared to designed, prospective studies. We study longitudinal data that follow a generalized linear mixed model and use a log link to relate an informative visit process to random effects in the mixed model. This device allows us to elucidate which parameters are biased under the informative visit process and to what degree. We show that the informative visit process can badly bias estimators of parameters of covariates associated with the random effects, while allowing consistent estimation of other parameters. PMID:26990830
Background A two-year longitudinal study composed of morphometric MRI measures and cognitive behavioral evaluation was performed on a transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) monkey. rHD1, a transgenic HD monkey expressing exon 1 of the human gene encoding huntingtin (HTT) with 29 CAG repeats regulated by a human polyubiquitin C promoter was used together with four age-matched wild-type control monkeys. This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. Results Changes in striatal and hippocampal volumes in rHD1 were observed with progressive impairment in motor functions and cognitive decline, including deficits in learning stimulus-reward associations, recognition memory and spatial memory. The results demonstrate a progressive cognitive decline and morphometric changes in the striatum and hippocampus in a transgenic HD monkey. Conclusions This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. While this study is based a single HD monkey, an ongoing longitudinal study with additional HD monkeys will be important for the confirmation of our findings. A nonhuman primate model of HD could complement other animal models of HD to better understand the pathogenesis of HD and future development of diagnostics and therapeutics through longitudinal assessment. PMID:24581271
Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...
Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra
Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new
Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Gorman, Kathleen S; Wilde, Parke; Kallio, Jan
We examined the association between women's/children's duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001-2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security status at the last WIC visit was associated with measures of WIC duration (number of trimesters on WIC for pregnant women, and number of WIC visits for children). Among women with prenatal household food insecurity with hunger, odds of any post-partum household food insecurity was reduced with first (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.94) or second trimester of entry (AOR= 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90) versus third. Among children with initial household food insecurity without hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.98) at the last visit. Among those with initial household food insecurity with hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.83-0.94) at the last visit. Earlier and longer WIC participation may improve household food security status, particularly of vulnerable groups.
The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…
Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…
McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.
Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…
Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.
Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…
East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley
The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…
Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…
During nucleotide excision repair, a multiprotein system locates a lesion in DNA and catalyzes enzymatic cleavage of the altered strand. The damaged oligonucleotide and the incision proteins are then displaced, DNA synthesis proceeds to form a short patch using the nonmodified strand as a template, and repair is completed by a DNA ligase. Many gene products participate in these reactions, the best known of which correspond to the seven genetic complementation groups XP-A to XP-G of the disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). Cells representing any of these XP groups appear to exhibit, to varying degrees, defects in the first steps of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals affected with XP are hypersensitive to sunlight; most have a predisposition to skin cancer, and some patients show severe neurological abnormalities. In addition to XP, other UV-sensitive mutants of mammalian cells are providing insight into nucleotide excision repair. Of particular interest are mutants isolated from the rodent cells, which have been assigned to 11 different complementation groups. Human genes that can correct the repair defects of rodent mutants in these complementation groups are denoted. ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes are are referred to by number, ERCC1 to ERCC11. Some of these genes are proving to be equivalent to particular XP-complementing genes, while others are distinct. The process of nucleotide excision repair is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes, and functional homologues of many of the ERCC and XP genes have been identified in other organisms; studies in yeast are proving to be particularly informative.
Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L.; Rindal, D. Brad; Qvist, Vibeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Dilbone, Deborah A.; Brotman, Solomon G.; Gilbert, Gregg H.
OBJECTIVES (1) quantify 12-month failures of restorations that were repaired or replaced at baseline; (2) test the hypothesis that no significant differences exist in failure percentages between repaired and replaced restorations after 12 months; (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist’s, patient’s and restoration’s characteristics are significantly associated with the incidence of restoration failure. METHODS This prospective cohort study included dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Dentists recorded data for 50 or more consecutive defective restorations. The restorations that were either repaired or replaced were recalled after 12 months and characterized for developing defects. RESULTS 195 dentists recorded data on 5,889 restorations. 378 restorations required additional treatment (74 repaired, 171 replaced, 84 teeth received endodontic treatment, and 49 were extracted). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that additional treatment was more likely to occur if the original restoration had been repaired (7%) compared to replaced (5%)(OR = 1.6, p < .001; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.1), if a molar tooth was restored (7%) compared to pre-molar or anterior teeth (5%, 6% respectively)(OR = 1.4, p = .010; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7), and if the primary reason was a fracture (8%) compared to other reasons (6%)(OR = 1.3, p = .033; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.6). CONCLUSION An additional treatment was more likely to occur within the first year if the original restoration had been repaired (7%) compared to being replaced (5%). However, repaired restorations were less likely to need an aggressive treatment (replacement, endodontic treatment, or extraction) than replaced restorations. PMID:26610834
This study sought to exploit the use of uv radiation as a source of genomic damage. We explored the molecular mechanism of the repair of DNA damage at a number of different levels of biological organization, by investigating bacteriophage, bacterial, yeast and mammalian cells. Not only have observations obtained in one biological system suggested specific experimental approaches in others, but we have also learned that some biochemical pathways for DNA repair are unique to specific organisms. Our studies are summarized in terms of 4 major areas of research activity that span the past 16 years. 86 refs.
This research focuses on the structure of the mei-41 gene and elucidation of the role the mei-41 gene product plays in both recombination and repair. Genetic and molecular studies are continuing on the mus308 locus and the mus312 and mei-9 genes. The author views mus312 as a very likely candidate for a gene required for both chromosome pairing/synopsis and for double strand break repair. A thorough genetic study has been initiated of this locus and of the cytology of the meiotic and mitotic defects of mutations at this locus.
Smith, Jacqui; Maas, Ineke; Mayer, Karl Ulrich; Helmchen, Hanfried; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Baltes, Paul B
We provide background information for a collection of articles that describe two-wave longitudinal findings derived from the first intensive follow-up of participants of the Berlin Aging Study (BASE). Multidisciplinary data were collected during 1995-1996 from 206 survivors approximately 4 years after baseline assessment (1990-1993). The strengths of the initial BASE design, in terms of a focus on very old age, multidisciplinary intensive assessment, and an examination of selectivity issues, were maintained in this longitudinal extension of the study.
Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.
Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565
Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.
Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.
Knell, Ellen Shipley
The present study investigated the efficacy of early English immersion in the Shi Da Fu Elementary School in Xi'an, China. Three hundred and fifty one students were tested in Grades 1-6. There were two main purposes that motivated this longitudinal and cross-sectional study. The first goal was to compare the L1 and L2 language and literacy…
Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara
This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…
Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.
The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…
Ozmen, Kemal Sinan
This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…
Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria
Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…
Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.
Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…
Durand, Tina M.
Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.
Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Lindsay, Paul; Knox, William E.
Previous findings, from a more limited sample, of the stability of work values, their effects on occupational selection, and the socializing effects of occupations are all reconfirmed in a study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. (Author/IS)
Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman
Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596
Three issues need to be decided in the design stage of a longitudinal intervention study: the number of persons, the number of repeated measurements per person, and the duration of the study. The degree to which polynomial effects vary across persons and the drop-out pattern also influence the statistical power to detect intervention effects. This…
This article reports on a longitudinal study that aims to investigate pre-service EFL teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in Greece. The study attempts to track possible changes in those beliefs during a 3-year teacher education program and explores the impact of teaching practice, in particular, on student teachers' beliefs. The results…
Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.
Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…
Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath
In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…
Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine
Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…
Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…
Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…
Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…
Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.
There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…
Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette
This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…
Maryland Univ., College Park. Maryland Longitudinal Study Steering Committee.
As part of the Maryland Longitudinal Study of 772 students entering the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) in 1980, the use and ratings of UMCP campus services by students in the third year of the study were analyzed. Findings included the following: (1) Representative Group (containing members of all ethnic groups) and Black Group…
Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve
Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…
Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso
Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…
Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter
Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…
Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail
This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles
This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…
Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari
This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…
Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.
Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…
Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…
Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.
Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…
Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.
This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew
The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…
Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris
Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…
Recounts the pedagogical history of the Anglo-Welsh Adams family that spans the 1840s to the 1930s in England and Wales. Comprises summarized biographical details of relevant family members and offers generalizations drawn from this longitudinal case study. Argues that this study highlights neglected aspects within educational history. (DSK)
Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert
Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…
Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta
Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…
Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.
Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)
Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…
McDaniel, Ernest D.; And Others
Patterns of cognitive, affective, and social growth of elementary school children are described and the school and home variables which influence such growth are identified in this longitudinal study. This final report presents the final instruments and the interpretive data associated with them. The study permits the tracing of developmental…
Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly
In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…
Martell, Christopher C.
This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…
St. Jean, Beth Lenore
This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…
Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd
Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…
Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others
This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…
Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin
Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve
Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…
van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…
Hellden, Gustav F.
The present study of personal context and continuity in twenty-three students' thinking builds upon data from a longitudinal study of the students' conceptualizations of ecological processes. Each student was interviewed eleven times from age 9-15 about the conditions for life, decomposition, and the role of the flower in plant reproduction. At…
Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary
Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena
The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…
Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael
The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…
Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia
The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…
Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi
By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…
Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara
A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…
Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.
This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…
De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Gatignol, Peggy; Duffau, Hugues
Human brain pathways required for language processing are poorly known. A new white matter tract in humans, the middle longitudinal fascicle, has recently been anatomically determined by diffusion tensor imaging and suggested to be essential for language. Our aim is to determine the importance of the middle longitudinal fascicle for language processing. This study is based on 8 patients with glioma resection at least involving the superior temporal gyrus of the left dominant hemisphere. Language is systematically examined pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Intraoperative electrostimulation is used to map cortical and subcortical structures as functional boundaries of the glioma resection, including those essential for language processing. The resections are extensive (on average 62 ml, ranging from 21 to 111 ml) and include a large part of the middle longitudinal fascicle in all patients. Intraoperatively, no interference with picture naming is observed by electrostimulation of the middle longitudinal fascicle, while in all patients the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle is identified by eliciting semantic paraphasia as functional boundary. Postoperatively, no new permanent language deficits are detected by systematic language examination. Therefore, we suggest that the middle longitudinal fascicle may participate but is not essential for language processing.
Tappen, Ruth M; Ouslander, Joseph G
The articles in this supplement are based on a conference held in January 2008 sponsored by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The purpose of the conference was to summarize major findings and methodological issues in previous and ongoing longitudinal studies on aging and to identify potentially fruitful areas for future research. This article is a review and synthesis of the articles in this supplement. Each of the articles makes important contributions to summarizing existing research, identifying challenging methodological issues, or proposing areas that should be explored in future research. Three themes were identified: general improvement in the health status of the population aged 65 and older in the United States, a shift in longitudinal research on aging from a focus on the endpoints of disease to a focus on the preclinical stage and underlying mechanisms of these diseases, and contemporary developments in longitudinal research methodology. A number of practical suggestions were also drawn from the articles reviewed.
Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley
Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918
Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J
Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.
Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael
In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…
Hughes, Claire; Roman, Gabriela; Hart, Martha J.; Ensor, Rosie
Background: Building on reports that parental maltreatment and neglect adversely affect young children's executive function (EF), this longitudinal study examined whether exposure to a more common risk factor, mothers' depressive symptoms, predicted individual differences in EF at school-age. Methods: We followed up at age 6 a socially diverse…
Diamond, Lisa M.
Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…
Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.
Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…
Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.
Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…
Vander Schee, Brian A.
This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…
MacDonald, Amy; Carmichael, Colin
This article presents a snapshot of the mathematical competencies of children aged four to five years in Australian early childhood education settings, as perceived by their educators. Data are presented from a nationally-representative sample of 6511 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The results…
Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi
Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend at…
Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.
This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing for the base year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data files, as they appear on the ELS:2002 base year Electronic Codebook (ECB). Most…
This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.
Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.
The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…
Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve
This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…
Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.
The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…
Wolfe, Joseph; Roberts, C. Richard
Describes a longitudinal study designed to determine whether a positive correlation exists between the economic performance of college seniors in a business decision-making simulation (The Business Management Laboratory) and business career success 5 years later as measured by salary level, salary improvement, promotions, and job satisfaction.…
Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…
The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…
Cook, Jean Marie
The University of West Georgia's Ingram Library has offered a fifteen-week two-hour credit course since 1998. In a longitudinal study covering twelve years, the library analyzed the progression and graduation rates of more than fifteen thousand students. Students who took the class during their undergraduate career were found to graduate at much…
Valeri-Gold, Maria; Kearse, Wendy; Deming, Mary P.; Errico, Maryann; Callahan, Carol
Presents results from a longitudinal study of 23 college developmental students, who were surveyed regarding their educational needs and objectives. Recommends that colleges: (1) create a student advisement center with academic counselors; (2) require that all incoming freshmen enroll in learning experience courses; and (3) schedule a monthly…
Oakhill, Jane V.; Cain, Kate
We report a longitudinal study investigating the predictors of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy between the ages of 7 to 8 (UK Year 3) and 10 to 11 years (Year 6). We found that different skills predicted the development of each. Reading comprehension skill measured in Year 3 was a strong predictor of comprehension in Year 6;…
Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Thomson, Dana; Rosen, Rhoda
This longitudinal study examined the outcomes of Project Excite on reducing minority students' achievement gaps in STEM over 14 years. Project Excite was designed to provide intensive supplemental enrichment and accelerated programming for high-potential, underrepresented minority students from third through eighth grades to better prepare them…
Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka
This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…
Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra
Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…
Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan
People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…
Schellenberg, Stephen J.; And Others
For students in most high schools, graduation is predicated on the successful completion of a specified number of courses or credits. In most cases when these students fail they are not retained in grade but become credit deficient. This report is concerned with a longitudinal study of loss of credit among high school students in the St. Paul…
Hunter, Russell; Sheldon, M. Stephen
As the fourth in a series of reports on a longitudinal study of over 7,000 students who entered 15 California community colleges in Fall 1978, this eight-chapter report profiles the students as of Spring 1980 in terms of: (1) demography, academic progress, and employment status; and (2) their distribution among 18 "prototypes," defined…
Tichenor, P. J.; And Others
Two longitudinal field studies of the process of information dissemination through newspapers were conducted on two different public affairs topics (regional planning and routing of a high voltage power line) in four communities to examine the role of newspapers in increasing levels of conflict and in creating greater levels of awareness and…
Lucas, John A.
A longitudinal study of full- and part-time students was undertaken at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to provide institutional data about student performance over time. Each fall from 1967 to 1980, transcripts of a random sample of 200 full-time and 200 part-time beginning credit students were analyzed to obtain data about students'…
Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens
We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…
This longitudinal study examined the development of the semantic "strand" (the relationship between drawing and writing, differentiation of literary genres, influence of literature, coherence, and part-whole coordination) of children's writing development over a 5-year period. Subjects, eight girls and nine boys enrolled in a small,…
Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan
This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…
Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.
School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.
Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.
This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…
Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe
The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…
Peterson, Jean; Duncan, Nancy; Canady, Kate
An 11-year mixed-methods, cross-sectional longitudinal study began with a group of 121 children, identified as gifted, and followed them until high-school graduation. Parents annually identified negative life events experienced by child and family, and, at graduation, students completed an open-ended retrospective questionnaire, focusing on…
Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John
There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…
Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick
This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…
The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…
Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark
The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…
LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...
Boyden, Jo; James, Zoe
Due to the rarity of longitudinal data, evidence on the benefits of education across the life-course is relatively sparse in developing countries. Young Lives is the only comparative dual-cohort study to combine data collection using mixed-methods at child, household, school and community levels, following 12,000 children in two cohorts across…
Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus
Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…
Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa
This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…
Grace, Cathy; Shores, Elizabeth F.; Zaslow, Martha; Brown, Brett; Aufseeser, Dena; Bell, Lynn
This report shows the rural disparities in the baseline data of the Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts of the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives, known as Rural Early Childhood, commissioned Child Trends to perform the analysis of key indicators of child well-being and…
Szteinberg, Gabriela A.
The Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that seeks to introduce first- and second-year undergraduate students to research in their mainstream laboratory courses. To investigate the effects of this research-based curriculum, a longitudinal study was initiated at Purdue…
Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.
In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…
Jin, Jing; Rounds, James
A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…
As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…
Johnson, Nan E.
Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…
Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei
This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…
Wachs, Peter M.; Cooper, Diane L.
Study assessed the effectiveness of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) in measuring psychosocial changes from the freshman year through the senior year using longitudinal research design. Results provide evidence of validity for the SDTLA and demonstrate that as a measurement tool, the SDTLA is sensitive to changes…
Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.
Research on second language (L2) phonetic learning indicates that, even in adults, segmental acquisition remains possible through L2 experience. However, the findings of previous cross-sectional studies of vowel and consonant learning have proved difficult to interpret. In this longitudinal investigation of 44 recent arrivals in Canada,…
Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…
Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.
This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript…
Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues
Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…
Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…
Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan
This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…
This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…
Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; O'Sullivan, Mary
A better understanding of the relationship between beginning teachers' beliefs and the pedagogies of teacher education (TE) programmes that support their learning across time can enhance TE programme effectiveness. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the development and change of beginning primary classroom teachers' (n = 6) beliefs about…
Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.
This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…
Martin, Anita M.; Hand, Brian
This longitudinal case study describes the factors that affect an experienced teacher's attempt to shift her pedagogical practices in order to implement embedded elements of argument into her science classroom. Research data was accumulated over 2 years through video recordings of science classes. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP)…
Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)
An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...
A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...
Kibler, Amanda K.; Hardigree, Christine
This 8-year longitudinal case study of Fabiola, a Spanish-English bilingual, investigated her argumentative writing development, focusing on her use of evidence to support and develop arguments over time from high school through university. Data sources included 36 writing samples. Texts across grade levels and course types were analyzed to…
Costa, Ana; Faria, Luísa
This study examines the developmental trajectories of ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI) in the Portuguese secondary school. Within a three-wave longitudinal design, 395 students (M[subscript age] = 15.4; SD = 0.74) completed both the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) and the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET). Results…
Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey
The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…
Werner, Emmy E.
A 30-year longitudinal study was undertaken in order to document the course, and determine the outcome, of all pregnancies in a community of Asian Americans on Kauai, the western most of the Hawaiian Islands and equidistant from the continental United States and Japan. The project's goal was to document both the good and poor outcomes of the…
Bosacki, Sandra Leanne
This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…
Sotardi, Valerie A.
This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…
Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise
Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…
Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine
The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…
Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane
Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.
Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…
Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…
Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila
This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…
Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica
Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…
The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…
Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel
In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…
Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael
Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing
Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…
Serdar Tülüce, Hande; Çeçen, Sevdeger
This study aims to explore the role of school-based practicum in promoting pre-service English language teachers' professional development through the use of a longitudinal design in combination with qualitative methods. To achieve this aim, pre-service teachers were asked to successively reflect on video-recordings of their micro-lessons in their…
Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine
This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…
Richmond, Jayne; Sherman, Karen J.
Examined graduate students' and new professionals' choices and satisfaction with careers, preparation programs, and mentor relationships. Findings from four phases of longitudinal study begun in 1983 with graduate students in student development field suggest that entering students need to be adequately informed about changing career options in…
McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.
A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…
Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew
The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…
Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele
We studied the relationship between victimization and fear of crime longitudinally, analyzing data from the Observatory of the North-West (Italian national sample, N = 1,701, two waves: January 2006 and January 2007). We modeled fear of crime at T[subscript 2] using as independent variables: (a) the main sociodemographic variables and fear of…
Witte, John F.; Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Wolf, Patrick J.
This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides…
Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita
This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…
De Mulder, Hannah
This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…
Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.
A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…
Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather
This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.
This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…
Ashford, Janka; Smit, Filip; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.
Background: Longitudinal studies on risk indicators of internalizing problems in childhood are in short supply, but could be valuable to identify target groups for prevention. Methods: Standardized assessments of 294 children's internalizing problems at the age of 2-3 years (parent report), 4-5 years (parent and teacher report) and 11 years…
Glenn, Christopher M.
Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…
Crespo, Carla; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Jose, Paul; Pryor, Jan
The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774 (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10-15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction…
Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav
In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…
Booth, Margaret Zoller
In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…
Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Georgiou, George K.; Kendeou, Panayiota
This study examined longitudinally the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek, an orthographically consistent language, following a group of children from kindergarten to Grade 2. Four groups were formed on the basis of two composite scores of phonological and naming-speed criterion measures: a double-deficit group (DD; n = 17), a phonological deficit…
Roebers, Claudia M.; Spiess, Manuela
Although metacognition is considered a central aspect of self-regulated learning and is often linked to learning outcomes, little is known about the intraindividual development and factors that lead to developmental improvement over time. This longitudinal study investigated 2nd graders' (N = 119, aged 8-9 years) metacognitive monitoring and…
Stancliffe, Roger J.; Hayden, Mary F.; Lakin, K. Charlie
This longitudinal study examined the effectiveness of intervention for behavioral objectives in Individualized Habilitation Plans of 130 adults with mental retardation in residential settings. Little evidence of effective intervention was found using three indicators: discontinuation of the behavior objective, change in challenging behavior, and…
Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis
The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…
Nicholson, Walter; Corson, Walter
The study reports the results of a two-wave longitudinal interview of over 2,000 individuals who exhausted their unemployment insurance (UI) benefits in October 1974. The interviews were conducted at the time of exhaustion and four months later in Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle. UI exhaustees are a relatively representative cross-section…
Scott, Karen M.
Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…
Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.
Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…
Karnes, Merle B.; And Others
This 3-year study made a longitudinal comparison of three types of preschool intervention programs. The Traditional approach (two classes of 15 students and three teachers each) worked in conventional ways to improve personal, social, motor and general language development; children were placed in a regular public school kindergarten the following…
Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean
This report presents data from a longitudinal study of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…
Kokaliari, Efrosini D.; Brainerd, Mary; Roy, Ann
Presented is a longitudinal study evaluating a Bachelor of Social Work writing program. The independent variable is a BSW curriculum in which social work courses include American Psychological Association 5th edition writing modules. In 2005, a baseline was established. From 2006 to 2010, a writing program was implemented. Using a brief rating…
Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha
The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…
This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…
Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel
This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…
Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.
This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…
Fave, Antonella Delle; Massimini, Fausto
This longitudinal study analyzes the time budget and the quality of experience reported by new parents. Five primiparous couples were repeatedly administered Experience Sampling Method. They carried pagers sending random signals 6-8 times a day; at the signal reception, they filled out forms sampling current thoughts, activities, and the quality…
MacAllum, Keith; Worgs, Donn; Bozick, Robert; McDonald, Deanne
The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study that…
MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Kim, Scott; Bozick, Robert
A longitudinal study examined the college and career transitions of graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) program, which is a school-to-career (STC) program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County Intermediate School District. The progress of three cohorts of LAMP…
MacAllum, Keith; Bozick, Robert
The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career (STC) program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study of…
Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin
This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…
Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan
Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…
Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol
This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…
Driessen, Geert; van der Slik, Frans; De Bot, Kees
Reports on a large-scale longitudinal study into the development of language proficiency of Dutch primary school children aged 7-10. Data on language proficiency and a range of background variables were analyzed. Results suggest that while immigrant children develop their language skill in Dutch considerably over 2 years, they are nonetheless…
Kandiko, Camille B.; Kinchin, Ian M.
Competing notions of what a Ph.D. has been, is and should be are undercurrents in doctoral education. A longitudinal study of Ph.D. supervision based on interviews and concept mapping was used to surface understandings of the purpose of a Ph.D. This research tracks change over time for both the student and the supervisor. The data were analysed…
Executive summary Trust Repair between a Military Organization and a Local Population: A Pilot Study: [Ritu Gill; Angela R. Febbraro...i Executive summary...questionnaires were reviewed and approved by the DRDC Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) and all participants received remuneration according to DRDC
Golding, J; Pembrey, M; Jones, R
ALSPAC (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, formerly the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood) was specifically designed to determine ways in which the individual's genotype combines with environmental pressures to influence health and development. To date, there are comprehensive data on approximately 10,000 children and their parents, from early pregnancy until the children are aged between 8 and 9. The study aims to continue to collect detailed data on the children as they go through puberty noting, in particular, changes in anthropometry, attitudes and behaviour, fitness and other cardiovascular risk factors, bone mineralisation, allergic symptoms and mental health. The study started early during pregnancy and collected very detailed data from the mother and her partner before the child was born. This not only provided accurate data on concurrent features, especially medication, symptoms, diet and lifestyle, attitudes and behaviour, social and environmental features, but was unbiased by parental knowledge of any problems that the child might develop. From the time of the child's birth many different aspects of the child's environment have been monitored and a wide range of phenotypic data collected. By virtue of being based in one geographic area, linkage to medical and educational records is relatively simple, and hands-on assessments of children and parents using local facilities has the advantage of high quality control. The comprehensiveness of the ALSPAC approach with a total population sample unselected by disease status, and the availability of parental genotypes, provides an adequate sample for statistical analysis and for avoiding spurious results. The study has an open policy in regard to collaboration within strict confidentiality rules.
Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard
Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…
Watson, Jane; Kelly, Ben; Izard, John
This study uses Partial Credit Rasch analysis to study a complex data set of student responses to survey items relating to chance and data. The items were administered in the classroom and collected from 1993 to 2003 in the Australian state of Tasmania. Data were collected from a total of 5514 individual students across Grades 3 to 11 over the…
Mangum, Wiley M.; Baugher, Dan; Winch, Janice K.; Varanelli, Andrew
In this study, the authors identified variables that predict college student dropout from a business school. In the 1st phase of the study, they collected information from students (N = 403) in the 2nd semester of their freshman year. Then they collected dropout data from the same students 4 semesters after the first phase. The authors used…
Asher, Steven R.; And Others
This is a report on a study of racial interrelationships among students in desegregated schools. Sociometric measures of third graders' willingness to play and work with their classmates (indicating cross-race acceptance) showed evidence of racial bias; however, the amount of bias appeared small compared to the findings of earlier studies which…
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James
We report the results of latent growth model analyses examining the continuity of cocaine use among adolescents. This study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse funded study. Latent growth models were analyzed examining (1) changes in…
Sasanguie, Delphine; Van den Bussche, Eva; Reynvoet, Bert
Numerical processing has been extensively studied by examining the performance on basic number processing tasks, such as number priming, number comparison, and number line estimation. These tasks assess the innate "number sense," which is assumed to be the breeding ground for later mathematics development. Indeed, several studies have…
Wilson, Charlotte; Gardner, Frances; Burton, Jennifer; Leung, Sarah
The association between negative maternal attributions and child conduct problems is well established in correlational studies. However, little is known about how these variables influence each other over time. The present study examined patterns of prediction over time between maternal attributions and pre-school conduct problems. Sixty mothers…
Fadyl, Joanna K; Channon, Alexis; Theadom, Alice; McPherson, Kathryn M
Knowledge about aspects that influence recovery and adaptation in the postacute phase of disabling health events is key to understanding how best to provide appropriate rehabilitation and health services. Qualitative longitudinal research makes it possible to look for patterns, key time points and critical moments that could be vital for interventions and supports. However, strategies that support robust data management and analysis for longitudinal qualitative research in health-care are not well documented in the literature. This article reviews three challenges encountered in a large longitudinal qualitative descriptive study about experiences of recovery and adaptation after traumatic brain injury in New Zealand, and the strategies and technologies used to address them. These were (i) tracking coding and analysis decisions during an extended analysis period; (ii) navigating interpretations over time and in response to new data; and (iii) exploiting data volume and complexity. Concept mapping during coding review, a considered combination of information technologies, employing both cross-sectional and narrative analysis, and an expectation that subanalyses would be required for key topics helped us manage the study in a way that facilitated useful and novel insights. These strategies could be applied in other qualitative longitudinal studies in healthcare inquiry to optimise data analysis and stimulate important insights.
Oskamp, Stuart; And Others
This is a study of new birth-control patients in four Los Angeles suburban area Planned Parenthood clinics. The data include interviews, tests, questionnaires, and archival and demographic information, focusing particularly on personality, attitude, and motivation variables. (BB)
Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina
The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…
Stanziano, Damian C; Whitehurst, Michael; Graham, Patricia; Roos, Bernard A
A review of the 51 longitudinal aging studies currently in the National Institute on Aging Database of Longitudinal Studies was conducted to identify major information gaps and areas for future research. Database information, which included posted study summaries, study details from principal investigators or directors of these projects, and more than 300 recent publications based on the studies, were reviewed to identify significant findings of each study. This review summarizes the main findings and identifies the need for future work within six broad study topics: cognitive function, socioeconomic status, health and physical performance, morbidity and mortality predictors, healthcare costs, and genetics. The percentages of these 51 studies addressing the four most common topics are as follows: cognitive function (44%), health and physical performance (51%), socioeconomic factors (55%), and predictors of morbidity/mortality (63%). Important areas not addressed to any major degree were healthcare costs and genetics. Only two studies reported findings on genetics or epigenetics of human aging, and only a single study reported on associations between aging and financial costs, especially healthcare costs, which have been postulated to be important determinants of care and life quality. The results of this review, together with the specific directions proposed by other investigators with longitudinal study expertise, will inform the strategic planning of future long-term studies of aging.
Nemeth, Kathleen A; Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Burke, Sharon
Venous leg ulcer pain experienced during compression bandaging is poorly understood. A prospective, pilot cohort study was initiated to determine the feasibility of conducting a large-scale, repeated measures cohort study of venous leg ulcer pain and to document and describe the venous leg ulcer pain experience during the first 5 weeks of treatment with compression bandages. Eligible individuals admitted to a nurse-led community leg ulcer service in one Canadian community were recruited for the 5-week study. Pain assessment tools (ie, numerical rating scale and short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) were evaluated by 20 venous ulcer patients (mean age = 73.7 years) and their nurses for ease of use during one baseline and five weekly follow-up visits. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) information was obtained. Nurses reported on ease of integrating pain data collection into regular clinical care. Each pain assessment tool was audited for completion. Most participants found the pain assessment tools easy to use, but nurses reported lengthened visit times with some participants as a result of tool administration difficulties, particularly the visual analogue scale (VAS). Overall completeness of pain assessment tools ranged from 85.0% (visual analogue scale) to 96.3% (present pain intensity and word descriptor list). The vast majority of patients (18) reported ulcer pain at baseline. Total mean scores for all pain assessment tools used decreased over time, but most patients reported pain throughout the study. The most common pain descriptors used were "aching," "stabbing," "sharp," "tender," and "tiring." Health-related quality of life was low and did not change during the 5-week study. The results of this study suggest that the vast majority of venous ulcer patients experience pain and that it is feasible to examine this pain in individuals receiving care in the community over time.
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew
This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the United States in 1994-1995 who have been followed for 15 years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with four in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including sibling pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community.
Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas and they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. For a long beam bunch, the longitudinal physics can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model, with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past 5 years on the U. Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena, for the first time, over time scales of hundreds and thousands of plasma periods. These results are in good agreement with theory and simulation. Topics that will be discussed are: Longitudinal confinement of a long bunch using barrier fields. The generation of space charge waves from barrier field mismatches, their propagation along the bunch and reflection at the beam ends, as well as their long-term dissipation. The characterization of solitary waves from density/velocity perturbations in the center of the bunch. Compression of solitary wave trains with velocity ``tilts'' (head-to-tail gradient). Observation of a multi-stream instability driven by the longitudinal merging of bunches and the characterization of the onset of the instability with a PIC code. The shock-wave compression of a bunch using rapidly-moving barrier fields.
Christ, Thomas W.
Mixed methods research has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Literature reveals that exploratory qualitative analysis followed by confirmatory survey research is common and concurrent studies outnumber longitudinal design. Longitudinal studies using quantitative and qualitative methods in sequence for exploratory purposes are rare,…
Bolton, Patrick F.; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D.
Objective: To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and…
Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve
The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…
Taura, Hideyuki; Taura, Amanda
In the seven decades since Leopold's groundbreaking 1939 study, there has been no longitudinal study covering more than two years of a Japanese bilingual subject's development. Despite the lack of longitudinal research, however, we have been broadly informed by the veritable outpouring of research on a short-term basis since the late twentieth…
Jepsen, David A.; Noeth, Richard J.
A study was conducted to examine the predictive relationship between job values and early employment satisfaction and success as well as to provide information about the stability of job values over time. (Job values refer to generalized concepts of desirable future outcomes anticipated from jobs and describe qualities of satisfactions desired as…
Clement, Madeleine; Jankowski, Louis W.; Bouchard, Louise; Perreault, Michel; Lepage, Yves
A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 health behaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)
Brophy, Timothy S.
This study is an examination of the melodic improvisations of a group of children (N = 62) for 3 years, from ages 7 through 9. Participants improvised as part of a class rondo for Orff instruments, in ABACADA form, in which the B, C, and D sections were 8-measure alto-xylophone improvisations in C pentatonic. Each participant improvised three…
Kohn, Mary Elizabeth
Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…
The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…
Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong
The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…
Plante, Thomas; Halman, Katherine
Little research exists on the development of compassion among college undergraduates. This study tracks changes in compassion and identifies factors associated with these changes over the course of undergraduate students' college careers, from the time of admittance to the time of graduation. Compassion levels assessed at the point of college…
Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan
Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…
Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…
Faith stage development of Catholic college seniors was compared with their levels of denominational affiliation as a follow-up of a similar study of the students during their sophomore year. The students were male and female dormitory residents from the liberal arts and business schools of an eastern Catholic university. Affiliation was defined…
Theories of socialization have developed independently of established facts against which to measure their adequacy. Studies showing low levels of skin conductance and slow latency of response among criminals have supported a bio-social theory that criminals inherit neurological systems that impede reduction of fear and interfere with learning.…
Sedova, Ekaterina; Goryacheva, Tatiana
The research studies features of self-regulation of schoolchildren in the age of eight to nine and 11 to 12 years. The sample consisting of 30 students (12 boys and 18 girls) has been divided into two groups--students with good and poor school progress. The school results are compared with the results of neuropsychological tests and the level of…
Hare, Amanda L.; Marston, Emily G.; Allen, Joseph P.
With substantive evidence suggesting that adolescents' disclosure is likely a protective factor against problem behaviors, as well as evidence that many adolescents will go to great lengths to "avoid" sharing information with parents, one may conclude that parents' face a formidable task. Previous studies have identified parental acceptance as a…
Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne
Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…
Atroszko, Paweł Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle
Background and aims "Study addiction" has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. Methods The BStAS and the Ten Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 1,133 Norwegians and 794 Polish, who were still students completed the survey. Results The test-retest reliability coefficients for the BStAS revealed that the scores were relatively stable over time. In Norway, scores on the BStAS were higher in Wave 2 than in Wave 1, whereas in Poland, the reverse pattern was observed. Learning time outside classes at Wave 1 was positively related to escalation of study addiction symptoms over time in both samples. Being female and scoring higher on neuroticism was related to an increase in study addiction in the Norwegian sample only. Conclusions Study addiction appears to be temporally stable, and the amount of learning time spent outside classes predicts changes in study addiction 1 year later.
Atroszko, Paweł Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, Ståle
Background and aims “Study addiction” has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. Methods The BStAS and the Ten Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 1,133 Norwegians and 794 Polish, who were still students completed the survey. Results The test–retest reliability coefficients for the BStAS revealed that the scores were relatively stable over time. In Norway, scores on the BStAS were higher in Wave 2 than in Wave 1, whereas in Poland, the reverse pattern was observed. Learning time outside classes at Wave 1 was positively related to escalation of study addiction symptoms over time in both samples. Being female and scoring higher on neuroticism was related to an increase in study addiction in the Norwegian sample only. Conclusions Study addiction appears to be temporally stable, and the amount of learning time spent outside classes predicts changes in study addiction 1 year later. PMID:27156381
This article examines the methods and dynamics of packaging multiple sources of wage and nonwage income as a means of making ends meet over a 10-year period among a sample of displaced steelworkers who lost jobs as a result of plant closings in the 1980s and then experienced extensive downward mobility. The study tracked changes in the respondents' income and employment over a decade, the dynamics of their use of social services, their pooling of a variety of income sources, and the use of social assistance to supplement low wages. The study found that among this sample income packaging was a universal economic strategy and that use of social services did not affect later employment and earnings.
Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160
Lövdahl, Susanna; Henriksson, Karin M; Baghaei, Fariba; Holmström, Margareta; Berntorp, Erik; Astermark, Jan
The aim of the study was to investigate, over time, the incidence of and mortality due to malignant diseases among persons with haemophilia, compared to matched controls. Persons with haemophilia A or B were enrolled via registries at each haemophilia centre, as well as from the National Patient Registry, and were compared to five sex and age-matched controls per patient. Data from the national Cancer Registry were linked to the study participants. A total of 1431 persons with haemophilia and 7150 matched controls were enrolled. Between the years 1972 and 2008, 164 malignancies were reported. The most common type of cancer among patients was prostate cancer, followed by haematologic malignancies, including lymphoma and leukaemia, which were significantly more frequent in patients [n = 35 (2.4%) vs. n = 60 (0.8%); P < 0.001]. Malignancies in bladder and other urinary organs were also significantly different [n = 21 (1.5%) vs. n = 46 (0.6%); P < 0.01]. The overall incidence rate ratio of malignancies per 1000 person-years compared to the controls was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.6]. In subgroup analysis, the corresponding incidence rate ratios per 1000 person-years for persons with severe haemophilia was 1.7 (95% CI 0.9, 3.1) and that for mild/moderate haemophilia 1.1 (95% CI 0.8, 1.5). Swedish persons with haemophilia had a significantly higher incidence of malignant diseases than controls. These were primarily haematologic malignancies and cancer in urinary organs, and the difference independent of any co-infections with HIV and/or viral hepatitis. The findings indicate the importance of further studies and close follow-up of malignancies in persons with haemophilia.
Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques-Jr, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi
Background Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. Methodology/Principal findings We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p<0.05). Despite this reduction, we observed a greater frequency of poor CSA outcomes in the MB compared to the PB (77.8% and 40.6%; p>0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; p<0.05). There was significantly higher odds ratio (7.75; 95%CI: 1.56–38.45) for poor CSA outcomes only for M nerve in patients with reactions. Poor echogenicity outcomes were more frequent in MB (59.4%) compared to PB (22.2%) (p<0.05). There was significant association between poor Doppler outcomes and neuritis. Gender, disease duration, and leprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. Conclusions/Significance US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions
This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.
Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Deeg, Dorly J H; Poppelaars, Jan; van der Horst, Marleen; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; Comijs, Hannie C; Pasman, H Roeline W; van Schoor, Natasja M; Suanet, Bianca; Thomése, Fleur; van Tilburg, Theo G; Visser, Marjolein; Huisman, Martijn
The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is an ongoing longitudinal study of older adults in the Netherlands, which started in 1992. LASA is focused on the determinants, trajectories and consequences of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 55 years and over. The findings of the LASA study have been reported in over 450 publications so far (see www.lasa-vu.nl ). In this article we describe the background and the design of the LASA study, and provide an update of the methods. In addition, we provide a summary of the major findings from the period 2011-2015.
Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J
Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20 years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex between Waves 1 and 2. Adolescents who reported more sexual communication with parents were more likely to initiate oral sex. Results for vaginal intercourse were similar to those for oral sex. Co-viewing was a significant negative predictor of initiation of sexual behavior. Parental attitudes and television mediation can delay potentially risky adolescent sexual behaviors. PMID:19750131
Hauser, Robert M.; Palloni, Alberto
Objective. This study attempts to explain the ubiquitous positive correlation between cognitive ability (IQ) and survival. Methods. A sample of 10,317 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 was followed until 2009, from ages 18 to 68 years. Mortality was analyzed using a Weibull survival model that includes gender, social background, Henmon–Nelson IQ, and rank in high school class. Results. Rank in high school class, a cumulative measure of responsible performance during high school, entirely mediates the relationship between adolescent IQ and survival. Its effect on survival is 3 times greater than that of IQ, and it accounts for about 10% of the female advantage in survival. Discussion. Cognitive functioning may improve survival by promoting responsible and timely patterns of behavior that are firmly in place by late adolescence. Prior research suggests that conscientiousness, one of the “Big Five” personality characteristics, plays a key role in this relationship. PMID:21743056
Delvecchio, Maurizio; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Vigone, Maria Cristina; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Popolo, Pietro Pio; Lapolla, Rosa; Mussa, Alessandro; Tronconi, Giulia Maria; D'Acunzo, Ida; Di Mase, Raffaella; Falcone, Rosa Maria; Corrias, Andrea; De Luca, Filippo; Weber, Giovanna; Cavallo, Luciano; Faienza, Maria Felicia
The aim of the replacement therapy with levothyroxine in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is to correct hypothyroidism and ensure normal growth and neuropsychological development. Few data are available about the appropriate dose during childhood and early adolescence; therefore, we performed a multicenter observational study in a large population of patients with CH to assess the required levothyroxine dose to obtain euthyroidism. We recruited 216 patients with permanent CH classified into three groups (agenesia, ectopia, and in situ gland) on the basis of the thyroid imaging. The levothyroxine dose was recorded at 6 and 12 months and then yearly until 12 years of age. The daily levothyroxine requirement progressively decreased during the follow-up, irrespective of etiology. It was significantly lower in patients with in situ gland than in patients with athyreosis during the entire study period and with ectopic gland from the age of 1 year. The levothyroxine requirement at 6 months of age was correlated with the requirement at each later time-point. The daily dose was modified less frequently in patients with in situ thyroid (36 %) than in patients with ectopic gland (41.4 %) or with athyreosis (43.6 %). Patients with in situ gland required a lower dose than the other two subgroups. The dose at 6 months seems predictive of the requirement until 12 years of age. Euthyroidism may be achieved in pre-school and in-school patients by 3-4 and 2-3 µg/kg/day (70-90 and 60-80 µg/m(2)/day) of levothyroxine, respectively.
Leppik, Aire; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak
The purpose of this study was to establish the reproducibility of a series of anthropometric measures performed twice during one week during a three year period in boys and girls. The subjects of this investigation were 39 children (21 boys and 18 girls), 9-10 year of age at the beginning of the study. Children were measured three times with one year interval. Children were classified by Tanner stage 1-2 during the first measurements, stage 1-3 during the second measurements and stage 1-4 during the third measurements. Body height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. All anthropometric parameters were measured according to the protocol recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (Norton & Olds 1996). Nine skinfolds, 13 girths, eight lengths and eight breadths/lengths were measured. The reproducibility of body height (r = 0.995-0.999), body weight (r = 0.990-0.999) and BMI (r = 0.969-0.999) was very high in boys and girls. The intraclass correlations (ICC), technical errors (TE) and coefficients of variation (CV) were quite different depending on the measurement site of the skinfold thickness. It was surprising that the ICCs were highest and TEs and CVs were lowest during the second year of the measurement. The computed ICC was high, and TE and CV values were quite similar and relatively low in girth, length and breadth/length measurements. It was concluded that the reproducibility of girths, lengths and breadths/lengths in children is very high and the reproducibility of skinfolds is high. Specifically, the reproducibility is very high immediately before puberty in boys and girls.
Atroszko, Paweł A.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, Ståle
Aims Recent empirical studies investigating “study addiction” have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter. PMID:27842448
Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle
Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.
Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Wehmeyer, Michael; Uchida, Naomi; Nakaya, Akitaka; Yanagihara, Masafumi
The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of a time-delay prompting procedure on the acquisition of skills for repairing multiple listener misunderstandings. A prelinguistic student with autism was taught to use picture cards as a strategy to repair listener misunderstandings in a setting where the student had to ask the listener…
Cai, Qi-Zhe; Lu, Xiu-Zhang; Lu, Ye; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon
Little is known regarding the natural longitudinal changes in cardiac structure and function in CKD. We hypothesized that baseline CKD stage is associated with progressive worsening in cardiac structure and function. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study, recruiting 300 patients with stages 3-5 CKD from a major regional tertiary center and university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Baseline CKD stages were studied in relation to natural longitudinal changes in echocardiographic and tissue Doppler imaging-derived parameters. Over 1 year, the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy increased from 40.3% to 48.9%, median left atrial volume index increased 4.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.1, 7.7) ml/m(2) (P<0.001), peak systolic mitral annular velocity decreased 0.5 (IQR, -1.5, 0.5) cm/s (P<0.001), early diastolic mitral annular velocity decreased 0.5 (IQR, -1.5, 0.5) cm/s (P<0.001), and eGFR declined 2.0 (IQR, -5.0, 0.0) ml/min per 1.73 m(2). CKD stages 4 and 5 were associated with more baseline abnormalities in cardiac structure and function and predicted greater longitudinal progression in LV mass index (odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39 to 6.58), volume index (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.62), and left atrial volume index (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.20 to 5.69) and worse diastolic dysfunction grade (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.16 to 8.69) compared with stage 3a in the fully adjusted analysis. In conclusion, more advanced CKD at baseline may be associated with larger longitudinal increases in LV mass and volume and greater deterioration in diastolic function.
Moedano, Jesus A.
In the industry of manufacturing, each gas turbine engine component begins in a raw state such as bar stock and is routed through manufacturing processes to define its final form before being installed on the engine. What is the follow-up to this part? What happens when over time and usage it wears? Several factors have created a section of the manufacturing industry known as aftermarket to support the customer in their need for restoration and repair of their original product. Once a product has reached a wear factor or cycle limit that cannot be ignored, one of the options is to have it repaired to maintain use of the core. This research investigated the study into the creation and application of repair development methodology that can be utilized by current and new manufacturing engineers of the world. Those who have been in this field for some time will find the process thought provoking while the engineering students can develop a foundation of thinking to prepare for the common engineering problems they will be tasked to resolve. The examples, figures and tables are true issues of the industry though the data will have been changed due to proprietary factors. The results of the study reveals, under most scenarios, a solid process can be followed to proceed with the best options for repair based on the initial discrepancy. However, this methodology will not be a "catch-all" process but a guidance that will develop the proper thinking in evaluation of the repair options and the possible failure modes of each choice. As with any continuous improvement tool, further research is needed to test the applicability of this process in other fields.
Cherry, N; Kiernan, K
The personality scores at 16 years of age of 2753 people, all members of the National Survey of Health and Development, were related, in a follow-up study, to cigarette smoking behaviour in their young adult years. Survey members who recorded high neuroticism scores were found to be more likely to smoke than those with low scores and, among the smokers, deep inhalers formed the most neurotic group. Extraverts were more likely to smoke than introverts, the mean extraversion score being greatest for the male smokers with a high daily consumption of cigarettes. The personality scores were found to have some power in predicting changes in smoking behaviour. Neurotics and extraverts who had not started to smoke by the time of completing the personality inventory at 16 were more likely than the stable and introverted to take up the habit subsequently. Among survey members who were regular smokers at the time of completing the personality inventory the proportion giving up smoking by the time they reached the age of 25 years was related to consumption level recorded at 20 years and the personality scores recorded at 16, stable extraverts among the men being most likely to stop smoking. PMID:953376
Miall, W. E.; Del Campo, E.; Fodor, J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Ruiz, L.; Standard, K. L.; Swan, A. V.
A long-term epidemiological study of heart disease in a representative rural community in Jamaica was started in 1962-63 and the first follow-up survey was carried out in 1967-68. This report describes the prevalence of several cardiovascular characteristics at each survey, and their associations with other measurements. The nature of the electrocardiographic abnormalities and their relationship with symptoms of effort pain and prolonged chest pain suggests that much of the disease seen in this population is ultimately ischaemic in origin despite evidence that classical myocardial infarction and severe coronary atheroma are relatively infrequent. Nevertheless both the symptoms and the electrocardiographic abnormalities had features that were not completely typical of occlusive disease of extramural coronary arteries. These findings are discussed in terms of the four conditions—hypertension, conventional coronary heart disease, small artery disease, and cardiomyopathy—that are believed to account for most cases of heart disease in this community, and it is concluded that the overall pattern of disease cannot be explained by any single disorder of overriding importance. The evidence suggests that all may be important contributors. PMID:4538187
Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne
Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.
Żelaźniewicz, Agnieszka; Pawłowski, Bogusław
Disgust, an emotion triggering behavioral avoidance of pathogens, serves as a first line of defense against infections. Since behavior related to disgust involves some cost, the aversive reaction should be adjusted to the level of an individual's immunocompetence, and raise only when immunological function is lower (e.g. during pregnancy). We studied changes in disgust sensitivity in pregnant women, and tested if disgust sensitivity is related to a fetus's sex. 92 women participated in a three-stage research, answering the Disgust Scale-Revised questionnaire at each trimester of pregnancy. The result showed that total disgust and disgust sensitivity in the Core Domain were the highest in the first trimester (when maternal immunosuppression is also the highest), and decreased during pregnancy in women bearing daughters. Women bearing sons had relatively high disgust sensitivity persisting in the first and in the second trimester. The elevation in disgust sensitivity during the second trimester for mothers bearing male fetus can be explained by the necessity to protect for a longer time, a more ecologically sensitive fetus, and also herself when bearing a more energetically costly sex. The proximate mechanism may involve the differences in maternal testosterone and cortisol concentrations in the second trimester of pregnancy.
Sweetman, Sara Berry
If students are to be successful in the ever-changing scientific world they need to be taught how to think critically, to manipulate materials, and to gather evidence to build knowledge. Most teachers fall short in providing students the inquiry instruction described in the Next Generation Science Frameworks (National Research Council, 2011). This study examined three elementary science teachers' processes as they developed inquiry practices over time. The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) was used to gather quantitative and qualitative evidence of the teachers' inquiry practices in terms of four factors, Curriculum, Instruction, Discourse, and Assessment. A chronological analysis was used to examine the teachers' professional development and curriculum experiences in relation to their teaching practices. The results showed that all three teachers did change their practice, although the changes varied among cases. For each case, multiple factors influenced the teacher's development. There was a strong positive correlation between the quality of the teachers' inquiry practices and the time spent in curriculum-contextualized professional development. This research indicates that when teachers are supported with curriculum and professional development over extended periods, they develop exemplary inquiry practices. Three recommendations are provided for those interested in implementing science education reform.
Sudom, Kerry A; Lee, Jennifer E C; Zamorski, Mark A
Research on psychological resilience is important for occupations involving routine exposure to trauma or critical events. Such research can allow for the identification of factors to target in training, education and intervention programs, as well as groups that may be at higher risk for mental health problems. Although efforts have been made to determine the individual characteristics that contribute to positive outcomes under stress, little is known about whether such characteristics are stable over time or how stressful events can impact psychological resilience in high-risk occupations such as military service. Following a review of the evidence on variations in resilience over time, results of a pilot study of Canadian Armed Forces personnel are presented in which differences in resilience characteristics were examined from military recruitment to several years after enrollment. While there was little change in resilience characteristics over time on average, there was considerable individual variation, with some individuals showing marked improvement and others showing marked deterioration in resilience characteristics. At both time points, individuals who had been deployed showed greater resilience characteristics than those who had never been deployed. Implications for the promotion of psychological resilience in military populations and personnel employed in other high-risk occupations are discussed.
Ladouceur, Robert; Sylvain, Caroline; Gosselin, Patrick
Few self-exclusion programs have been evaluated and their long-term impact remains unknown. This study has two main goals: (1) to assess changes in gambling behaviour and gambling problems for self-excluded patrons, and (2) to follow self-excluded gamblers for a two-year period (during and after the self-exclusion period). Individuals who excluded themselves (N = 161 at the initial stage) participated in telephone interviews after signing the self-exclusion agreement and were followed at 6, 12, 18 and 24-months. Results show that according to the DSM-IV, 73.1% of the participants were pathological gamblers. The self-exclusion program has many positive effects. During the follow-ups, the urge to gamble was significantly reduced while the perception of control increased significantly for all participants. The intensity of negative consequences for gambling was significantly reduced for daily activities, social life, work, and mood. The DSM score was significantly reduced over time. This reduction also took place between the baseline and the 6-month follow-up. The clinical implications of the results are discussed in relation to the effectiveness of the program. Suggestions are provided in order to increase compliance of self-excluded patrons.
Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.
Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195
Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon
Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries.
Pedersen, W; Skrondal, A
In a study of sexual victimization and alcohol consumption, a population sample of Norwegian adolescents from the Oslo area was followed-up through five data collections over a 6-year time span. By means of generalized structural equation modeling, alcohol-related predictors and consequences of sexual assaults were investigated; 17% of the girls reported that they had been sexually assaulted at some time: 7% in childhood, 6% in early adolescence (13-16 years) and 4% in late adolescence (17-19 years). Only 1% of the boys reported having been sexually victimized. Female childhood sex victims reported increased alcohol consumption from their mid-teens, with dramatic increase in alcohol-related problems (using DSM-III-R criteria) at the end of their teens. However, the analyses showed that alcohol consumption was not influenced by childhood sexual abuse when parental use of tobacco and alcohol and normative standards imparted to their children were taken into consideration as confounding variables. There was, on the other hand, a strong effect on alcohol problems. Thus, the victims of childhood sexual abuse seem to be at high risk for alcohol abuse and dependency. Further, early alcohol debut and high alcohol consumption combined with permissive parental norms increased the risk of sexual assault in early adolescence. The girls who were assaulted in early adolescence also reported a high number of sexual partners and early intercourse debut. There was no increase in subsequent alcohol consumption after assaults in this group. Late adolescent victims did not report increased alcohol consumption either prior to or after the assault.
Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J; Brooks, Harriet W; Brownlie, Joe
In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs.
Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe
In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs. PMID:15472304
Gao, Xin; Brown, Gregory K.; Elliott, Michael R.
This article discusses joint modeling of compliance and outcome for longitudinal studies when noncompliance is present. We focus on two-arm randomized longitudinal studies in which subjects are randomized at baseline, treatment is applied repeatedly over time, and compliance behaviors and clinical outcomes are measured and recorded repeatedly over time. In the proposed Markov compliance and outcome model, we use the potential outcome framework to define pre-randomization principal strata from the joint distribution of compliance under treatment and control arms, and estimate the effect of treatment within each principal strata. Besides the causal effect of the treatment, our proposed model can estimate the impact of the causal effect of the treatment at a given time on the future compliance. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the parameters. The results are illustrated using a study assessing the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on depression. A simulation study is used to assess the repeated sampling properties of the proposed model. PMID:23576159
Shulruf, Boaz; Morton, Susan; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; O'Loughlin, Claire; Dixon, Robyn
This review identifies key issues associated with the design of future longitudinal studies of human development. Sixteen international studies were compared for initial response and retention rate, sample size, type of data collected, and sampling frames. The studies had little information about the influences of fathers, extended family members, childcare, and educational institutions; the effects of peers; children's use of time; the needs of disabled children; urban versus rural environments; or the influence of genetic factors. A contemporary longitudinal study should include measures of physical and mental health, cognitive capacity, educational attainment, social adjustment, conduct and behavior, resiliency, and risk-taking behaviors. It needs to address genetic and intergenerational factors, cultural identity, and the influences of neighborhood, community, and wider social and political environments and to encompass outcomes at all life stages to systematically determine the role each factor plays in individuals' lives, including interactions within and across variables.
Bos, Henny M W; Gartrell, Nanette K; Peyser, Heidi; van Balen, Frank
The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by interviewing the children and having the mothers complete questionnaires. No significant differences were found in the psychological adjustment of children in the present study and their age-matched peers in a U.S.-population sample. Homophobia had a negative impact on the well-being of children who experienced it. Attending schools with LGBT curricula and their mothers' participation in the lesbian community were found to protect children against the negative influences of homophobia.