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Sample records for repair protein xrcc1

  1. Purification of mammalian DNA repair protein XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Malfunctioning DNA repair systems lead to cancer mutations, and cell death. XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Cross Complementing) is a human DNA repair gene that has been found to fully correct the x-ray repair defect in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant EM9. The corresponding protein (XRCC1) encoded by this gene has been linked to a DNA repair pathway known as base excision repair, and affects the activity of DNA ligase III. Previously, an XRCC1 cDNA minigene (consisting of the uninterrupted coding sequence for XRCC1 protein followed by a decahistidine tag) was constructed and cloned into vector pET-16b for the purpose of: (1) overproduction of XRCC1 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and (2) to facilitate rapid purification of XRCC1 from these systems. A vector is basically a DNA carrier that allows recombinant protein to be cloned and overexpressed in host cells. In this study, XRCC1 protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Currently, the XRCC1 minigene is being inserted into a new vector [pET-26b(+)] in hopes to increase overexpression and improve purification. Once purified XRCC1 can be crystallized for structural studies, or studied in vitro for its biological function.

  2. Reduction of the DNA base excision repair protein, XRCC1, may contribute to DNA fragmentation after cold injury-induced brain trauma in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, M; Morita-Fujimura, Y; Noshita, N; Yoshimoto, T; Chan, P H

    2000-06-30

    The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) protein plays a central role in the DNA base excision repair pathway by interacting with DNA ligase III and DNA polymerase beta. The present study examined the protein expression of XRCC1 and DNA fragmentation before and after cold injury-induced brain trauma (CIBT) in mice, in which apoptosis is assumed to participate. Immunohistochemistry showed the nuclear expression of XRCC1 in the entire region of the control brains. Fifteen minutes after CIBT, nuclear immunoreactivity was predominantly decreased in the inner boundary of the lesion, followed by a significant reduction of XRCC1 in the entire lesion 4 h after CIBT. A characteristic 70-kDa band was detected in the non-traumatic area, and was markedly decreased after CIBT as shown by Western blot analysis. DNA fragmentation was also observed after CIBT, and double staining with XRCC1 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling showed a spatial relationship between XRCC1 loss and DNA fragmentation 24 h after CIBT. These data indicate that early decrease of XRCC1 and failure of the DNA repair mechanism may contribute to DNA-damaged neuronal cell death after CIBT.

  3. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery.

  4. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery. PMID:25971543

  5. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  6. The cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting Epac1-mediated proteasomal degradation of XRCC1 protein in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Eun-Ah; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits DNA damage repair by decreasing XRCC1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system decreases XRCC1 expression by promoting its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The promotion of XRCC1 degradation by cAMP signaling system is mediated by Epac1. -- Abstract: Cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cellular growth and proliferation. Recently, the cAMP signaling system was found to modulate DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and inhibitors of apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the cAMP signaling may modulate DNA repair activity, and we investigated the effects of the cAMP signaling system on {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage repair in lung cancer cells. Transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of stimulatory G protein (G{alpha}sQL) or treatment with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, augmented radiation-induced DNA damage and inhibited repair of the damage in H1299 lung cancer cells. Expression of G{alpha}sQL or treatment with forskolin or isoproterenol inhibited the radiation-induced expression of the XRCC1 protein, and exogenous expression of XRCC1 abolished the DNA repair-inhibiting effect of forskolin. Forskolin treatment promoted the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in a significant decrease in the half-life of the protein after {gamma}-ray irradiation. The effect of forskolin on XRCC1 expression was not inhibited by PKA inhibitor, but 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analog, increased ubiquitination of XRCC1 protein and decreased XRCC1 expression. Knockdown of Epac1 abolished the effect of 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP and restored XRCC1 protein level following {gamma}-ray irradiation. From

  7. XRCC1 and base excision repair balance in response to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Mutamba, James T; Svilar, David; Prasongtanakij, Somsak; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Ying-Chih; Dedon, Peter C; Sobol, Robert W; Engelward, Bevin P

    2011-12-10

    Inflammation associated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONs), including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitric oxide (NO), create base lesions that potentially play a role in the toxicity and large genomic rearrangements associated with many malignancies. Little is known about the role of base excision repair (BER) in removing these endogenous DNA lesions. Here, we explore the role of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) in attenuating RONs-induced genotoxicity. XRCC1 is a scaffold protein critical for BER for which polymorphisms modulate the risk of cancer. We exploited CHO and human glioblastoma cell lines engineered to express varied levels of BER proteins to study XRCC1. Cytotoxicity and the levels of DNA repair intermediates (single-strand breaks; SSB) were evaluated following exposure of the cells to the ONOO(-) donor, SIN-1, and to gaseous NO. XRCC1 null cells were slightly more sensitive to SIN-1 than wild-type cells. We used small-scale bioreactors to expose cells to NO and found that XRCC1-deficient CHO cells were not sensitive. However, using a molecular beacon assay to test lesion removal in vitro, we found that XRCC1 facilitates AAG-initiated excision of two key NO-induced DNA lesions: 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine and hypoxanthine. Furthermore, overexpression of AAG rendered XRCC1-deficient cells sensitive to NO-induced DNA damage. These results show that AAG is a key glycosylase for BER of NO-induced DNA damage and that XRCC1's role in modulating sensitivity to RONs is dependent upon the cellular level of AAG. This demonstrates the importance of considering the expression of other components of the BER pathway when evaluating the impact of XRCC1 polymorphisms on cancer risk.

  8. CK2 phosphorylation of XRCC1 facilitates dissociation from DNA and single-strand break formation during base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Ström, Cecilia E; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Finch, David; Parsons, Jason L; Lagerqvist, Anne; Johansson, Fredrik; Schultz, Niklas; Erixon, Klaus; Dianov, Grigory L; Helleday, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    CK2 phosphorylates the scaffold protein XRCC1, which is required for efficient DNA single-strand break (SSB) repair. Here, we express an XRCC1 protein (XRCC1(ckm)) that cannot be phosphorylated by CK2 in XRCC1 mutated EM9 cells and show that the role of this post-translational modification gives distinct phenotypes in SSB repair and base excision repair (BER). Interestingly, we find that fewer SSBs are formed during BER after treatment with the alkylating agent dimethyl sulfate (DMS) in EM9 cells expressing XRCC1(ckm) (CKM cells) or following inhibition with the CK2 inhibitor 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT). We also show that XRCC1(ckm) protein has a higher affinity for DNA than wild type XRCC1 protein and resides in an immobile fraction on DNA, in particular after damage. We propose a model whereby the increased affinity for DNA sequesters XRCC1(ckm) and the repair enzymes associated with it, at the repair site, which retards kinetics of BER. In conclusion, our results indicate that phosphorylation of XRCC1 by CK2 facilitates the BER incision step, likely by promoting dissociation from DNA.

  9. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa(R), ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. PMID:25662161

  10. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Scott A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (X1RIR) motif. The X1RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol /REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the XRCC1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR–REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair.

  11. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cozzi, Renata

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR) can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER). In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:20798883

  12. Temporal activation of XRCC1-mediated DNA repair is essential for muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalaf, Mohammad H; Blake, Leanne E; Larsen, Brian D; Bell, Ryan A; Brunette, Steve; Parks, Robin J; Rudnicki, Michael A; McKinnon, Peter J; Jeffrey Dilworth, F; Megeney, Lynn A

    2016-01-01

    Transient DNA strand break formation has been identified as an effective means to enhance gene expression in living cells. In the muscle lineage, cell differentiation is contingent upon the induction of caspase-mediated DNA strand breaks, which act to establish the terminal gene expression program. This coordinated DNA nicking is rapidly resolved, suggesting that myoblasts may deploy DNA repair machinery to stabilize the genome and entrench the differentiated phenotype. Here, we identify the base excision repair pathway component XRCC1 as an indispensable mediator of muscle differentiation. Caspase-triggered XRCC1 repair foci form rapidly within differentiating myonuclei, and then dissipate as the maturation program proceeds. Skeletal myoblast deletion of Xrcc1 does not have an impact on cell growth, yet leads to perinatal lethality, with sustained DNA damage and impaired myofiber development. Together, these results demonstrate that XRCC1 manages a temporally responsive DNA repair process to advance the muscle differentiation program. PMID:27462438

  13. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer.

  14. Decreased DNA repair gene XRCC1 expression is associated with radiotherapy-induced acute side effects in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Batar, Bahadir; Guven, Gulgun; Eroz, Seda; Bese, Nuran Senel; Guven, Mehmet

    2016-05-10

    DNA repair plays a critical role in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and developing of radiotherapy induced normal tissue reactions. In our study, we investigated the association of radiotherapy related acute side effects, with X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair gene expression levels, their changes in protein expression and DNA damage levels in breast cancer patients. The study included 40 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer; an experimental case group (n=20) with acute side effects and the control group (n=20) without side effects. For gene and protein expression analysis, lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and followed by in vitro 2 Gray (Gy) gamma-irradiation. For detection of DNA damage levels, lymphocytes were irradiated with in vitro 2 Gy gamma-rays and followed by incubation for 72 h. XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in controls than in experimental cases (P=0.020). In terms of DNA damage levels, an increased frequency of micronucleus (MN) was observed in experimental cases versus controls, but this association was not significant (P=0.206). We also observed a significant negative correlation between MN frequency and XRCC1 protein levels in experimental (r=-0.469, P=0.037) vs control (r=-0.734, P<0.001). Our results suggested that decreased XRCC1 expression levels might be associated with the increased risk of therapeutic IR-related acute side effects in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26826460

  15. Curcumin downregulates p38 MAPK-dependent X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 (XRCC1) expression to enhance cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chun-Liang; Jian, Yi-Jun; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chen, Wen-Ching; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chang, Po-Yuan; Liao, Kai-Sheng; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Cisplatin is a well-studied and widely used chemotherapeutic agent and is effective in the treatment of the advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Curcumin is a yellow pigment derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and has been proved to have antioxidant and antitumor properties. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein involved in base excision repair and plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. In this study, we characterize the role of curcumin in the cytotoxicity, p38 MAPK activation, and XRCC1 expression affected by cisplatin in NSCLC cells. We show that curcumin enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with cisplatin alone increased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through p38 MAPK activation. Moreover, SB2023580 (p38 inhibitor) decreased the XRCC1 mRNA and protein stability upon cisplatin treatment. Knockdown of XRCC1 in NSCLC cells by transfection of XRCC1 siRNA or inactivation of p38 MAPK resulted in enhancing the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition induced by cisplatin. Curcumin inhibited the expression of XRCC1 in cisplatin-exposed NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK6 or HA-p38 MAPK vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level and also the cell survival suppressed by cisplatin and curcumin combination in A549 and H1703 cells. These findings suggested that the downregulation of XRCC1 expression by curcumin can enhance the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells. PMID:27026405

  16. The XRCC1 phosphate-binding pocket binds poly (ADP-ribose) and is required for XRCC1 function

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Claire; Hornyak, Peter; Ridley, Andrew; Rulten, Stuart L.; Hanzlikova, Hana; Oliver, Antony W.; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) is synthesized at DNA single-strand breaks and can promote the recruitment of the scaffold protein, XRCC1. However, the mechanism and importance of this process has been challenged. To address this issue, we have characterized the mechanism of poly (ADP-ribose) binding by XRCC1 and examined its importance for XRCC1 function. We show that the phosphate-binding pocket in the central BRCT1 domain of XRCC1 is required for selective binding to poly (ADP-ribose) at low levels of ADP-ribosylation, and promotes interaction with cellular PARP1. We also show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required for EGFP-XRCC1 accumulation at DNA damage induced by UVA laser, H2O2, and at sites of sub-nuclear PCNA foci, suggesting that poly (ADP-ribose) promotes XRCC1 recruitment both at single-strand breaks globally across the genome and at sites of DNA replication stress. Finally, we show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required following DNA damage for XRCC1-dependent acceleration of DNA single-strand break repair, DNA base excision repair, and cell survival. These data support the hypothesis that poly (ADP-ribose) synthesis promotes XRCC1 recruitment at DNA damage sites and is important for XRCC1 function. PMID:26130715

  17. The XRCC1 phosphate-binding pocket binds poly (ADP-ribose) and is required for XRCC1 function.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Claire; Hornyak, Peter; Ridley, Andrew; Rulten, Stuart L; Hanzlikova, Hana; Oliver, Antony W; Caldecott, Keith W

    2015-08-18

    Poly (ADP-ribose) is synthesized at DNA single-strand breaks and can promote the recruitment of the scaffold protein, XRCC1. However, the mechanism and importance of this process has been challenged. To address this issue, we have characterized the mechanism of poly (ADP-ribose) binding by XRCC1 and examined its importance for XRCC1 function. We show that the phosphate-binding pocket in the central BRCT1 domain of XRCC1 is required for selective binding to poly (ADP-ribose) at low levels of ADP-ribosylation, and promotes interaction with cellular PARP1. We also show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required for EGFP-XRCC1 accumulation at DNA damage induced by UVA laser, H2O2, and at sites of sub-nuclear PCNA foci, suggesting that poly (ADP-ribose) promotes XRCC1 recruitment both at single-strand breaks globally across the genome and at sites of DNA replication stress. Finally, we show that the phosphate-binding pocket is required following DNA damage for XRCC1-dependent acceleration of DNA single-strand break repair, DNA base excision repair, and cell survival. These data support the hypothesis that poly (ADP-ribose) synthesis promotes XRCC1 recruitment at DNA damage sites and is important for XRCC1 function. PMID:26130715

  18. An intronic polymorphism associated with increased XRCC1 expression, reduced apoptosis and familial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bu, Dawei; Tomlinson, Gail; Lewis, Cheryl M; Zhang, Cindy; Kildebeck, Eric; Euhus, David M

    2006-10-01

    XRCC1 coordinates the activities of DNA polymerase-beta and DNA ligase for base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage. In addition, there is some evidence that XRCC1 is a negative regulator of apoptosis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in XRCC1 have been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk. We evaluated XRCC1 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and carcinogen-induced apoptosis in benign breast epithelial cells in relation to XRCC1 genotypes. XRCC1 IVS10+141G>A was associated with increased expression of XRCC1 mRNA and protein, and reduced apoptosis in response to benzo-[a]-pyrene or ionizing radiation, but XRCC1 R399Q was not. These genotypes were also assessed in a clinic-based sample that included 190 breast cancer patients with a family history of breast cancer and 95 controls with no family history of breast cancer. Heterozygous XRCC1 IVS10+141G>A was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (O.R. = 1.7, 95% C.I. 1.016-2.827, P = 0.04) as was homozygous XRCC1 IVS10+141G>A (O.R. = 4.7, 95% C.I. 1.028-21.444, P = 0.03). XRCC1 R399Q was not associated with breast cancer (O.R. 1.00, 95% C.I. 0.61-1.64). The XRCC1 IVS10+141G>A locus is centered in a sequence that is nearly identical to the consensus binding site for the PLAG1 transcription factor. XRCC1 IVS10+141G>A is an intronic polymorphism that is associated with XRCC1 expression, apoptosis and familial breast cancer. It may occur within an intronic regulatory sequence. PMID:16596326

  19. DNA-PKcs and PARP1 Bind to Unresected Stalled DNA Replication Forks Where They Recruit XRCC1 to Mediate Repair.

    PubMed

    Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihui; Medhurst, Annette L; Neal, Jessica A; Bao, Zhengqiang; Mortusewicz, Oliver; McGouran, Joanna; Song, Xinming; Shen, Huahao; Hamdy, Freddie C; Kessler, Benedikt M; Meek, Katheryn; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A series of critical pathways are responsible for the detection, signaling, and restart of replication forks that encounter blocks during S-phase progression. Small base lesions may obstruct replication fork progression and processing, but the link between repair of small lesions and replication forks is unclear. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized role for DNA-PK, an important enzyme in DNA repair, in cellular responses to DNA replication stress. The enzyme catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs was phosphorylated on S2056 at sites of stalled replication forks in response to short hydroxyurea treatment. Using DNA fiber experiments, we found that catalytically active DNA-PK was required for efficient replication restart of stalled forks. Furthermore, enzymatically active DNA-PK was also required for PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 to stalled replication forks. This activity was enhanced by preventing Mre11-dependent DNA end resection, suggesting that XRCC1 must be recruited early to an unresected stalled fork. We also found that XRCC1 was required for effective restart of a subset of stalled replication forks. Overall, our work suggested that DNA-PK and PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 is necessary to effectively protect, repair, and restart stalled replication forks, providing new insight into how genomic stability is preserved.

  20. Repair of radiation-induced heat-labile sites is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 or PARP

    SciTech Connect

    Stenerlöw, Bo; Karlsson, Karin H.; Radulescu, Irina; Rydberg, Bjorn; Stenerlow, Bo

    2008-04-29

    Ionizing radiation induces a variety of different DNA lesions: in addition to the most critical DNA damage, the DSB, numerous base alterations, SSBs and other modifications of the DNA double-helix are formed. When several non-DSB lesions are clustered within a short distance along DNA, or close to a DSB, they may interfere with the repair of DSBs and affect the measurement of DSB induction and repair. We have previously shown that a substantial fraction of DSBs measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are in fact due to heat-labile sites (HLS) within clustered lesions, thus reflecting an artifact of preparation of genomic DNA at elevated temperature. To further characterize the influence of HLS on DSB induction and repair, four human cell lines (GM5758, GM7166, M059K, U-1810) with apparently normal DSB rejoining were tested for bi-phasic rejoining after gamma irradiation. When heat-released DSBs were excluded from the measurements the fraction of fast rejoining decreased to less than 50% of the total. However, neither the half-times of the fast (t{sub 1/2} = 7-8 min) or slow (t{sub 1/2} = 2.5 h) DSB rejoining were changed significantly. At t=0 the heat-released DSBs accounted for almost 40% of the DSBs, corresponding to 10 extra DSB/cell/Gy in the initial DSB yield. These heat-released DSBs were repaired within 60-90 min in all tested cells, including M059K cells treated with wortmannin or DNA-PKcs defect M059J cells. Furthermore, cells lacking XRCC1 or Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) rejoined both total DSBs and heat-released DSBs similar to normal cells. In summary, the presence of heat-labile sites have a substantial impact on DSB induction yields and DSB rejoining rates measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and HLS repair is independent of DNA-PKcs, XRCC1 and PARP.

  1. Association study between XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Fabbrizi, Maria Rita; Carlesi, Cecilia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Corti, Stefania; Mezzina, Nicoletta; del Bo, Roberto; Comi, Giacomo P; Siciliano, Gabriele; Migliore, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible contribution of three common functional polymorphisms in the DNA repair protein X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), namely Arg194Trp (rs1799782), Arg280His (rs25489) and Arg399Gln (rs25487), to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). We genotyped 206 Italian SALS patients and 203 matched controls for XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln polymorphisms by means of PCR/RFLP technique, searching for association between any of the studied polymorphisms and disease risk, age and site of onset. We observed a statistically significant difference in XRCC1 Gln399 allele frequencies between SALS cases and controls (0.39/0.28; p=0.001). The present study suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism might contribute to SALS risk. PMID:19707910

  2. A systematic gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analysis of DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, XRCC4, and oral cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Da; Yen, Ching-Yui; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a high mortality rate. Biomarkers that anticipate susceptibility, prognosis, or response to treatments are much needed. Oral cancer is a polygenic disease involving complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors, which require multifaceted analyses. Here, we examined in a dataset of 103 oral cancer cases and 98 controls from Taiwan the association between oral cancer risk and the DNA repair genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCCs) 1-4, and the environmental factors of smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel quid (BQ) chewing. We employed logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and hierarchical interaction graphs for analyzing gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environment (G×E) interactions. We identified a significantly elevated risk of the XRCC2 rs2040639 heterozygous variant among smokers [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-12.1] and alcohol drinkers [adjusted OR=5.7, 95% CI=1.4-23.2]. The best two-factor based G×G interaction of oral cancer included the XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 [OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.66-6.13]. For the G×E interaction, the estimated OR of oral cancer for two (drinking-BQ chewing), three (XRCC1-XRCC2-BQ chewing), four (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-BQ chewing), and five factors (XRCC1-XRCC2-age-drinking-BQ chewing) were 32.9 [95% CI=14.1-76.9], 31.0 [95% CI=14.0-64.7], 49.8 [95% CI=21.0-117.7] and 82.9 [95% CI=31.0-221.5], respectively. Taken together, the genotypes of XRCC1 rs1799782 and XRCC2 rs2040639 DNA repair genes appear to be significantly associated with oral cancer. These were enhanced by exposure to certain environmental factors. The observations presented here warrant further research in larger study samples to examine their relevance for routine clinical care in oncology.

  3. Modulation of DNA repair capacity and mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC genes in styrene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanova, Monika; Stetina, Rudolf; Vodickova, Ludmila; Vaclavikova, Radka; Hlavac, Pavel; Smerhovsky, Zdenek; Naccarati, Alessio; Polakova, Veronika; Soucek, Pavel; Kuricova, Miroslava; Manini, Paola; Kumar, Rajiv; Hemminki, Kari; Vodicka, Pavel

    2010-11-01

    Decreased levels of single-strand breaks in DNA (SSBs), reflecting DNA damage, have previously been observed with increased styrene exposure in contrast to a dose-dependent increase in the base-excision repair capacity. To clarify further the above aspects, we have investigated the associations between SSBs, micronuclei, DNA repair capacity and mRNA expression in XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC genes on 71 styrene-exposed and 51 control individuals. Styrene concentrations at workplace and in blood characterized occupational exposure. The workers were divided into low (below 50 mg/m{sup 3}) and high (above 50 mg/m{sup 3}) styrene exposure groups. DNA damage and DNA repair capacity were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes by Comet assay. The mRNA expression levels were determined by qPCR. A significant negative correlation was observed between SSBs and styrene concentration at workplace (R = - 0.38, p = 0.001); SSBs were also significantly higher in men (p = 0.001). The capacity to repair irradiation-induced DNA damage was the highest in the low exposure group (1.34 {+-} 1.00 SSB/10{sup 9} Da), followed by high exposure group (0.72 {+-} 0.81 SSB/10{sup 9} Da) and controls (0.65 {+-} 0.82 SSB/10{sup 9} Da). The mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC negatively correlated with styrene concentrations in blood and at workplace (p < 0.001) and positively with SSBs (p < 0.001). Micronuclei were not affected by styrene exposure, but were higher in older persons and in women (p < 0.001). In this study, we did not confirm previous findings on an increased DNA repair response to styrene-induced genotoxicity. However, negative correlations of SSBs and mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC with styrene exposure warrant further highly-targeted study.

  4. Influence of DNA repair gene polymorphisms of hOGG1, XRCC1, XRCC3, ERCC2 and the folate metabolism gene MTHFR on chromosomal aberration frequencies.

    PubMed

    Skjelbred, Camilla Furu; Svendsen, Marit; Haugan, Vera; Eek, Anette Kildal; Clausen, Kjell Oskar; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Hansteen, Inger-Lise

    2006-12-01

    We have studied the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes hOGG1, XRCC1, XRCC3, ERCC2 and the MTHFR gene in the folate metabolism on the frequencies of cells with chromosomal aberrations (CA), chromosome-type aberrations (CSA), chromatid-type aberrations (CTA), chromatid breaks (CTB) and chromatid gaps (CTG) scored in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 651 Norwegian subjects of Caucasian descendant. DNA was extracted from fixed cell suspensions. The log-linear Poisson regression model was used for the combined data which included age, smoking, occupational exposure and genotype for 449 subjects. Our results suggest that individuals carrying the hOGG1 326Cys or the XRCC1 399Gln allele have an increased risk of chromosomal damage, while individuals carrying the XRCC1 194Trp or the ERCC2 751Gln allele have a reduced risk regardless of smoking habits and age. Individuals carrying the XRCC1 280His allele had an increased risk of CSA which was only apparent in non-smokers. This was independent of age. A protective effect of the XRCC3 241Met allele was only found in the older age group in non-smokers for CA, CSA and CTA, and in smokers for CSA. In the youngest age group, the opposite effect was found, with an increased risk for CA, CTA and CTG in smokers. Carrying the MTHFR 222Val allele gave an increased risk for chromosome and chromatid-type aberrations for both non-smokers and smokers, especially for individuals in the older age group, and with variable results in the youngest age group. The variables included in the different regression models accounted, however, for only 4-10% of the variation. The frequency ratio for CTG was significantly higher than for CTA and CTB for only 7 of the 43 comparisons performed. Some of the gap frequencies diverge from the trend in the CA, CSA, CTA and CTB results.

  5. Recent developments with the human repair genes ERCC2, ERCC4, and XRCC1

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Caldecott, K.W.; Brookman, K.W.; Weber, C.A.; Salazar, E.S.; Takayama, K.; Fornace, A.J.

    1992-11-06

    ERCC2 was first identified as a gene on human chromosome 19 that complemented the UV sensitivity of CHO UV5 cells in somatic cell hybrids. Subsequent studies localized ERCC2 to the same chromosomal region (19q13.2--13.3) as the ERCC1 gene and showed that the two genes were less than 250 kb apart. Cloning of ERCC2 was accomplished by transfection of genomic DNA into UV5 cells and rescue of the gene from a secondary transformant. Recovery of the gene was aided by the presence of repetitive sequences that were detected on Southern blots with a probe for Alu-family repeats. ERCC2, which is 19 kb in size, quantitatively corrected the UV sensitivity and incision defect in UV5 cells upon transfection. An ERCC2 CDNA clone was recovered from the pcD2 expression library. Although this clone was truncated at the 5 in. end, it conferred transient, but not stable, correction to UV5 cells upon transfection. Based on genomic sequence, this clone was extended by oligonucleotide addition to obtain minigene constructs in which the complete open reading frame (ORF) was present. Translation of the ERCC2 ORF gives an amino acid sequence that has 72% similarity with the S. cerevisiae RAD3 protein, which encodes a DNA helicase.

  6. XRCC1 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms as susceptibility factors of plasma mutant p53 protein and anti-p53 antibody expression in vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ruey-Hong; Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan J; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2002-05-01

    Mutant p53 protein and anti-p53 antibody in circulating blood can be detectedamong individuals with mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Plasma mutant p53 protein and anti-p53 antibody have also been associated with vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure, although the mechanism of VCM-related carcinogenesis remains unclear. Polymorphisms of metabolic and DNA repair genes have been implicated in chemical exposure-related carcinogenesis. The aim of this study is to explore the association between polymorphisms of metabolic and DNA repair genes with mutant p53 protein and anti-p53 antibody expression induced by VCM. Study subjects comprised 333 male workers occupationally exposed to VCM. Plasma mutant p53 protein and anti-p53 antibody detected with ELISA were grouped together as p53 overexpression. Genotypes of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1, exon 10) genes were identified by the PCR. High VCM exposure group had significantly higher p53 overexpression as compared with low exposure group [odds ratio (OR), 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-3.8]. Individuals having experienced a high VCM exposure and displaying a XRCC1 Gln-Gln genotype had a highest risk of p53 overexpression among those having different combinations of VCM exposure and XRCC1 genotypes (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.7-24.2). Interestingly, those subjects reflecting a CYP2E1 c2c2 genotype among the low VCM-exposure group demonstrated a greater risk of p53 overexpression (OR, 9.8; 95% CI, 1.2-81.6) as compared with those experiencing a low VCM exposure and CYP2E1 c1c1/c1c2 genotypes. Additional analysis revealed that individuals possessing more susceptible XRCC1 Gln-Gln, CYP2E1 c2c2, ALDH2 1-2/2-2, and non-null GSTT1 genotypes were more likely to reveal p53 overexpression. Our results suggest that susceptible XRCC1 and CYP2E1 genotypes may modulate the mutation of the p53 gene among

  7. Nuclear Localization of the DNA Repair Scaffold XRCC1: Uncovering the Functional Role of a Bipartite NLS

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Thomas W.; Gassman, Natalie R.; Smith, Cassandra E.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Gabel, Scott A.; Sobhany, Mack; Wilson, Samuel H.; London, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of XRCC1 structurally using X-ray crystallography and functionally using fluorescence imaging. Crystallography and binding studies confirm the bipartite nature of the XRCC1 NLS interaction with Importin α (Impα) in which the major and minor binding motifs are separated by >20 residues, and resolve previous inconsistent determinations. Binding studies of peptides corresponding to the bipartite NLS, as well as its major and minor binding motifs, to both wild-type and mutated forms of Impα reveal pronounced cooperative binding behavior that is generated by the proximity effect of the tethered major and minor motifs of the NLS. The cooperativity stems from the increased local concentration of the second motif near its cognate binding site that is a consequence of the stepwise binding behavior of the bipartite NLS. We predict that the stepwise dissociation of the NLS from Impα facilitates unloading by providing a partially complexed intermediate that is available for competitive binding by Nup50 or the Importin β binding domain. This behavior provides a basis for meeting the intrinsically conflicting high affinity and high flux requirements of an efficient nuclear transport system. PMID:26304019

  8. Nuclear localization of the DNA repair scaffold XRCC1: Uncovering the functional role of a bipartite NLS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Thomas W.; Gassman, Natalie R.; Smith, Cassandra E.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Gabel, Scott A.; Sobhany, Mack; Wilson, Samuel H.; London, Robert E.

    2015-08-25

    We have characterized the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of XRCC1 structurally using X-ray crystallography and functionally using fluorescence imaging. Crystallography and binding studies confirm the bipartite nature of the XRCC1 NLS interaction with Importin α (Impα) in which the major and minor binding motifs are separated by >20 residues, and resolve previous inconsistent determinations. Binding studies of peptides corresponding to the bipartite NLS, as well as its major and minor binding motifs, to both wild-type and mutated forms of Impα reveal pronounced cooperative binding behavior that is generated by the proximity effect of the tethered major and minor motifs of the NLS. The cooperativity stems from the increased local concentration of the second motif near its cognate binding site that is a consequence of the stepwise binding behavior of the bipartite NLS. We predict that the stepwise dissociation of the NLS from Impα facilitates unloading by providing a partially complexed intermediate that is available for competitive binding by Nup50 or the Importin β binding domain. This behavior gives a basis for meeting the intrinsically conflicting high affinity and high flux requirements of an efficient nuclear transport system.

  9. Nuclear localization of the DNA repair scaffold XRCC1: Uncovering the functional role of a bipartite NLS

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kirby, Thomas W.; Gassman, Natalie R.; Smith, Cassandra E.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Gabel, Scott A.; Sobhany, Mack; Wilson, Samuel H.; London, Robert E.

    2015-08-25

    We have characterized the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of XRCC1 structurally using X-ray crystallography and functionally using fluorescence imaging. Crystallography and binding studies confirm the bipartite nature of the XRCC1 NLS interaction with Importin α (Impα) in which the major and minor binding motifs are separated by >20 residues, and resolve previous inconsistent determinations. Binding studies of peptides corresponding to the bipartite NLS, as well as its major and minor binding motifs, to both wild-type and mutated forms of Impα reveal pronounced cooperative binding behavior that is generated by the proximity effect of the tethered major and minor motifs ofmore » the NLS. The cooperativity stems from the increased local concentration of the second motif near its cognate binding site that is a consequence of the stepwise binding behavior of the bipartite NLS. We predict that the stepwise dissociation of the NLS from Impα facilitates unloading by providing a partially complexed intermediate that is available for competitive binding by Nup50 or the Importin β binding domain. This behavior gives a basis for meeting the intrinsically conflicting high affinity and high flux requirements of an efficient nuclear transport system.« less

  10. Nuclear Localization of the DNA Repair Scaffold XRCC1: Uncovering the Functional Role of a Bipartite NLS.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Thomas W; Gassman, Natalie R; Smith, Cassandra E; Pedersen, Lars C; Gabel, Scott A; Sobhany, Mack; Wilson, Samuel H; London, Robert E

    2015-08-25

    We have characterized the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of XRCC1 structurally using X-ray crystallography and functionally using fluorescence imaging. Crystallography and binding studies confirm the bipartite nature of the XRCC1 NLS interaction with Importin α (Impα) in which the major and minor binding motifs are separated by >20 residues, and resolve previous inconsistent determinations. Binding studies of peptides corresponding to the bipartite NLS, as well as its major and minor binding motifs, to both wild-type and mutated forms of Impα reveal pronounced cooperative binding behavior that is generated by the proximity effect of the tethered major and minor motifs of the NLS. The cooperativity stems from the increased local concentration of the second motif near its cognate binding site that is a consequence of the stepwise binding behavior of the bipartite NLS. We predict that the stepwise dissociation of the NLS from Impα facilitates unloading by providing a partially complexed intermediate that is available for competitive binding by Nup50 or the Importin β binding domain. This behavior provides a basis for meeting the intrinsically conflicting high affinity and high flux requirements of an efficient nuclear transport system.

  11. The genetic variations in DNA repair genes ERCC2 and XRCC1 were associated with the overall survival of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suhan; Wang, Jianzhong; Bai, Yansen; Wang, Qing; Liu, Li; Zhang, Kai; Hong, Xiaohua; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; Wu, Tangchun; Xu, Ping; Guo, Huan

    2016-09-01

    It was reported that DNA repair can confer cancer cell resistance to therapeutic treatments by activating antiapoptotic cellular defense. We hypothesized that genetic variants of DNA repair genes may be associated with lung cancer prognosis. Seventeen tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism (tagSNPs) selected from 12 DNA repair genes were genotyped in 280 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by TaqMan assay. The associations of these SNPs and overall survival of advanced NSCLC patients were investigated. Advanced NSCLC patients carrying ERCC2 rs50872 CT+TT genotypes had significantly longer median survival time (MST) and decreased death risk than patients with rs50872 CC genotype [log-rank P = 0.031; adjusted HR(95% CI) = 0.73 (0.55-0.98), P = 0.033]. These effects were mainly seen among younger patients (≤65 years old) [HR(95% CI) = 0.57 (0.37-0.87), P = 0.010], patients without surgery [HR(95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47-0.98), P = 0.036] but with chemotherapy [HR(95% CI) = 0.64 (0.46-0.91), P = 0.012] or radiotherapy [HR(95% CI) = 0.58 (0.38-0.89), P = 0.013]. Meanwhile, compared to advanced NSCLC patients with rs25487 GG genotype, patients carrying XRCC1 rs25487 GA+AA genotypes had significantly shorter MST (MST = 11.7 vs. 16.7, log-rank P = 0.048). In addition, advanced NSCLC patients carrying the ERCC2 rs50872 CC in combination with XRCC1 rs25487 GA+AA genotype had the shortest MST (11.2 month) and highest death risk [HR(95% CI) = 1.70 (1.15-2.52), P = 0.008] when compared with those carrying rs50872 CT+TT and rs25487 GG genotype (MST = 22.0 month). The ERCC2 rs50872 T allele was associated with favorable but XRCC1 rs25487 A allele with bad survival for advanced NSCLC in Chinese population, which may offer novel biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes.

  12. Recombination activating activity of XRCC1 analogous genes in X-ray sensitive and resistant CHO cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubnitchaya-Labudová, O.; Portele, A.; Vaçata, V.; Lubec, G.; Rink, H.; Höfer, M.

    1997-10-01

    The XRCC1 gene (X-ray repair cross complementing) complements the DNA repair deficiency of the radiation sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant cell line EM9 but the mechanism of the correction is not elucidated yet. XRCC1 shows substantial homology to the RAG2 gene (recombination activating gene) and we therefore tried to answer question, whether structural similarities (sequence of a putative recombination activating domain, aa 332-362 for XRCC1 and aa 286-316 in RAG2) would reflect similar functions of the homologous, putative recombination activating domain. PCR experiments revealed that no sequence homologous to the structural part of human XRCC1 was present in cDNA of CHO. Differential display demonstrated two putative recombination activating domains in the parental CHO line AA8 and one in the radiosensitive mutant EM9. Southern blot experiments showed the presence of several genes with partial homology to human XRCC1. Recombination studies consisted of expressing amplified target domains within chimeric proteins in recA - bacteria and subsequent detection of recombination events by sequencing the recombinant plasmids. Recombination experiments demonstrated recombination activating activity of all putative recombination activating domains amplified from AA8 and EM9 genomes as reflected by deletions within the insert of the recombinant plasmids. The recombination activating activity of XRCC1 analogues could explain a mechanism responsible for the correction of the DNA repair defect in EM9.

  13. JWA reverses cisplatin resistance via the CK2—XRCC1 pathway in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, W; Chen, Q; Wang, Q; Sun, Y; Wang, S; Li, A; Xu, S; Røe, O D; Wang, M; Zhang, R; Yang, L; Zhou, J

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy in China, with a median 5-year survival of only 20%. Cisplatin has been used in first-line cancer treatment for several types of cancer including gastric cancer. However, patients are often primary resistant or develop acquired resistance resulting in relapse of the cancer and reduced survival. Recently, we demonstrated that the reduced expression of base excision repair protein XRCC1 and its upstream regulator JWA in gastric cancerous tissues correlated with a significant survival benefit of adjuvant first-line platinum-based chemotherapy as well as XRCC1 playing an important role in the DNA repair of cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated the role of JWA in cisplatin-induced DNA lesions and aquired cisplatin resistance in five cell-culture models: gastric epithelial cells GES-1, cisplatin-sensitive gastric cancer cell lines BGC823 and SGC7901, and the cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell lines BGC823/DDP and SGC7901/DDP. Our results indicated that JWA is required for DNA repair following cisplatin-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) via XRCC1 in normal gastric epithelial cells. However, in gastric cancer cells, JWA enhanced cisplatin-induced cell death through regulation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. The protein expression of JWA was significantly decreased in cisplatin-resistant cells and contributed to cisplatin resistance. Interestingly, as JWA upregulated XRCC1 expression in normal cells, JWA downregulated XRCC1 expression through promoting the degradation of XRCC1 in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the negative regulation of JWA to XRCC1 was blocked due to the mutation of 518S/519T/523T residues of XRCC1, and indicating that the CK2 activated 518S/519T/523T phosphorylation is a key point in the regulation of JWA to XRCC1. In conclusion, we report for the first time that JWA regulated cisplatin-induced DNA damage and apoptosis through the

  14. Functional Polymorphisms of Base Excision Repair Genes XRCC1 and APEX1 Predict Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Ming; Liao Zhongxing; Liu Zhensheng; Wang, Li-E; Gomez, Daniel; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Qingyi

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To explore whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of base-excision repair genes are predictors of radiation treatment-related pneumonitis (RP), we investigated associations between functional SNPs of ADPRT, APEX1, and XRCC1 and RP development. Methods and Materials: We genotyped SNPs of ADPRT (rs1136410 [V762A]), XRCC1 (rs1799782 [R194W], rs25489 [R280H], and rs25487 [Q399R]), and APEX1 (rs1130409 [D148E]) in 165 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received definitive chemoradiation therapy. Results were assessed by both Logistic and Cox regression models for RP risk. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for the cumulative RP probability by the genotypes. Results: We found that SNPs of XRCC1 Q399R and APEX1 D148E each had a significant effect on the development of Grade {>=}2 RP (XRCC1: AA vs. GG, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.97; APEX1: GG vs. TT, adjusted HR = 3.61, 95% CI, 1.64-7.93) in an allele-dose response manner (Trend tests: p = 0.040 and 0.001, respectively). The number of the combined protective XRCC1 A and APEX1 T alleles (from 0 to 4) also showed a significant trend of predicting RP risk (p = 0.001). Conclusions: SNPs of the base-excision repair genes may be biomarkers for susceptibility to RP. Larger prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.

  15. SNPs of GSTM1, T1, P1, epoxide hydrolase and DNA repair enzyme XRCC1 and risk of urinary transitional cell carcinoma in southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.-I; Chiu, Allen W.; Huan, Steven K.; Chen, C.-L.; Wang, Y.-H.; Hsieh, F.-I; Chou, W.-L.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-04-15

    A hospital-based case-control study was conducted near a former black-foot disease (BFD)-endemic area in southwestern Taiwan to examine the possible risk factors and genetic susceptibility for urinary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). A total of 221 patients with pathologically confirmed TCC and 223 age-sex-matched control subjects from urology outpatient clinics were recruited between 1998 and 2002. The results showed that residency in the BFD area and consumption of well water for more than 10 years was a strong factor on urinary cancer risk (odds ratio [OR],8.16, 95% confidence interval [CI],3.34-19.90, p < 0.0001). Dose response relationship between average arsenic concentration in well water and TCC risk was also observed. Cigarette smoking played a relatively minor role in urinary carcinogenesis in this study. The GSTP1 Ile105Val A {yields} G polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk (A/G + G/G: OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.39-0.94, p = 0.02), and the effect of Val105 allele was largely confined to the subjects diagnosed earlier than 55 years old (A/G + G/G: OR,0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.87, p = 0.03). The results suggest that GSTP1 is a candidate for susceptibility locus and Ile105 allele may predispose individuals to early-onset urinary TCC. The GSTM1 null genotype was associated with tumors of high-invasiveness (OR,2.21; 95% CI, 1.34-4.73) as well as with early-onset TCC risk (OR,2.53; 95% CI, 0.97-6.59). Our preliminary results showed the XRCC1 Arg194Trp were associated with arsenic-related urinary TCC and the interaction between the genotype and the exposure was statistically significant. The modulating effect of the GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile105Val, EPHX Tyr113His and XRCC1 Arg280His on arsenic-related TCC risk was also suggestive. These observations implied that impaired metabolism of carcinogenic exposure as well as impaired DNA repair function play an important role in arsenic-related urinary transitional cell carcinogenesis.

  16. Two stages of XRCC1 recruitment and two classes of XRCC1 foci formed in response to low level DNA damage induced by visible light, or stress triggered by heat shock.

    PubMed

    Solarczyk, Kamil J; Kordon, Magdalena; Berniak, Krzysztof; Dobrucki, Jurek W

    2016-01-01

    Induction of local photosensitised DNA damage has been used to study recruitment of repair factors, spatial organisation and subsequent stages of the repair processes. However, the damage induced by a focused laser beam interacting with a photosensitiser may not fully reflect the types of damage and repair encountered in cells of an animal under typical conditions in vivo. We report on two characteristic stages of recruitment of XRCC1 (a protein engaged in BER and SSB repair pathways), in response to low level DNA damage induced by visible light. We demonstrate that, when just a few DNA breaks are induced in a small region of the nucleus, the recruited XRCC1 is initially distributed uniformly throughout this region, and rearranges into several small stationary foci within minutes. In contrast, when heavy damage of various types (including oxidative damage) is induced in cells pre-sensitized with a DNA-binding drug ethidium bromide, XRCC1 is also recruited but fails to rearrange from the stage of the uniform distribution to the stage of several small foci, indicating that this heavy damage interferes with the progress and completion of the repair processes. We hypothesize that that first stage may reflect recruitment of XRCC1 to poly(ADP-ribose) moieties in the region surrounding the single-strand break, while the second-binding directly to the DNA lesions. We also show that moderate damage or stress induces formation of two types of XRCC1-containing foci differing in their mobility. A large subset of DNA damage-induced XRCC1 foci is associated with a major component of PML nuclear bodies--the Sp100 protein.

  17. Association of the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Lin, Yong; Qi, Cong-Cong; Sheng, Bao-Wei; Fu, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1) plays important roles in the DNA base excision repair pathway which may influence the development of lung cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential association of the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism with lung cancer risk. The created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods were utilized to evaluate the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism among 376 lung cancer patients and 379 controls. Associations between the genetic polymorphism and lung cancer risk were determined with an unconditional logistic regression model. Our data suggested that the distribution of allele and genotype in lung cancer patients was significantly different from that of controls. The XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (AA vs GG: OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.70-4.98, p<0.001; A vs G: OR=1.52, 95%CI 1.22-1.90, p<0.001). The allele A and genotype AA may contribute to risk of lung cancer. These preliminary results suggested that the XRCC1 c.1178G>A genetic polymorphism is statistically associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese population.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of hOGG1 and XRCC1 DNA repair genes and the risk of ovarian cancer in Polish women.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Magdalena M; Samulak, Dariusz; Romanowicz, Hanna; Bieńkiewicz, Jan; Sobkowski, Maciej; Ciesielski, Krzysztof; Smolarz, Beata

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms in hOGG1 (Ser326Cys (rs13181)) and XRCC1 (Arg194Trp (rs1799782)) genes, respectively, and to identify the correlation between them and the overall risk, grading and staging of ovarian cancer in Polish women. Our study comprised 720 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 720 healthy controls. The genotype analysis of hOGG1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for each genotype and allele were calculated. Results revealed an association between hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and the incidence of ovarian cancer. Variant Cys allele of hOGG1 increased the overall cancer risk (OR 2.89; 95 % CI 2.47-3.38; p < .0001). Moreover, ovarian cancer grading remained in a relationship with both analysed polymorphisms; G1 tumours presented increased frequencies of hOGG1 Cys/Cys homozygotes (OR 18.33; 95 % CI 9.38-35.81; p < .0001) and XRCC1 Trp/Trp homozygotes (OR 20.50; 95 % CI 10.17-41.32; p < .0001). Furthermore, G1 ovarian cancers displayed an overrepresentation of Cys and Trp allele. In conclusion, hOGG1 Ser326Cys and XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphisms may be regarded as risk factors of ovarian cancer.

  19. A prospective study of XRCC1 haplotypes and their interaction with plasma carotenoids on breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H W; Han, J; Hankinson, S E; De Vivo, I; Spiegelman, D; Tamimi, R M; Colditz, G A; Hunter, D J

    2004-01-15

    The XRCC1 protein is involved in the base excision repair pathway through interactions with other proteins. Polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene may lead to variation in repair proficiency and confer inherited predisposition to cancer. We prospectively assessed the associations between polymorphisms and haplotypes in XRCC1 and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study (incident cases, n 1004; controls, n 1385). We further investigated gene-environment interactions between the XRCC1 variations and plasma carotenoids on breast cancer risk. We genotyped four haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms Arg {sup 194}Trp, C26602T, Arg{sup 399}Gln, and Gln{sup 632}Gln in the XRCC1 gene. Five common haplotypes accounted for 99% of the chromosomes in the present study population of mostly Caucasian women. We observed a marginally significant reduction in the risk of breast cancer among {sup 194}Trp carriers. As compared with no-carriers, women with at least one {sup 194}Trp allele had a multivariate odds ratio of 0.79 (95% of the confidence interval, 0.60 -1.04). The inferred haplotype harboring the {sup 194}Trp allele was more common in controls than in cases (6.6 versus 5.3%, P 0.07). We observed that the Arg {sup 194}Trp modified the inverse associations of plasma -carotene level (P, ordinal test for interaction 0.02) and plasma -carotene level (P, ordinal test for interaction 0.003) with breast cancer risk. No suggestion of an interaction was observed between the Arg {sup 194}Trp and cigarette smoking. Our results suggest an inverse association between XRCC1 {sup 194}Trp allele and breast cancer risk. The findings of the effect modification of the Arg {sup 194}Trp on the relations of plasma -and -carotene levels with breast cancer risk suggest a potential protective effect of carotenoids in breast carcinogenesis by preventing oxidative DNA damage.

  20. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3, occupational exposure to arsenic and sunlight, and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in a European case-control study.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Simona; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Bloom, Michael S; Boscoe, Francis P; Carpenter, David O; Haase, Richard F; Gurzau, Eugen; Rudnai, Peter; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vahter, Marie; Leonardi, Giovanni; Goessler, Walter; Kumar, Rajiv; Fletcher, Tony

    2014-10-01

    X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and group 3 (XRCC3) polymorphisms are relatively frequent in Caucasian populations and may have implications in skin cancer modulation. A few studies have evaluated their association with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but the results are inconsistent. In the current study, we aim to assess the impact of XRCC1 R399Q and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms on the risk of NMSC associated with sunlight and arsenic exposure. Study participants consist of 618 new cases of NMSC and 527 hospital-based controls frequency matched on age, sex, and county of residence from Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Adjusted effects are estimated using multivariable logistic regression. The results indicate an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC1 R399Q (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.14-5.65) and a protective effect against basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for the homozygous variant genotype of XRCC3 T241M (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.92), compared with the respective homozygous common genotypes. Significant interactions are detected between XRCC3 T241M and sunlight exposure at work, and between XRCC3 T241M and exposure to arsenic in drinking water (p-value for interaction <0.10). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that polymorphisms in XRCC genes may modify the associations between skin cancer risk and exposure to sunlight or arsenic. Given the high prevalence of genetic polymorphisms modifying the association between exposure to environmental carcinogens and NMSC, these results are of substantial relevance to public health.

  1. XRCC1 haploinsufficiency in mice has little effect on aging, but adversely modifies exposure-dependent susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Daniel R.; Lin, Ping-Chang; Miller, Marshall G.; Pistell, Paul J.; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Spencer, Richard G.; Liu, Yie; Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Ladiges, Warren C.; Wilson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage plays a role in disease development and the aging process. A prominent participant in orchestrating the repair of oxidative DNA damage, particularly single-strand breaks, is the scaffold protein XRCC1. A series of chronological and biological aging parameters in XRCC1 heterozygous (HZ) mice were examined. HZ and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice exhibit a similar median lifespan of ~26 months and a nearly identical maximal life expectancy of ~37 months. However, a number of HZ animals (7 of 92) showed a propensity for abdominal organ rupture, which may stem from developmental abnormalities given the prominent role of XRCC1 in endoderm and mesoderm formation. For other end-points evaluated—weight, fat composition, blood chemistries, condition of major organs, tissues and relevant cell types, behavior, brain volume and function, and chromosome and telomere integrity—HZ mice exhibited by-and-large a normal phenotype. Treatment of animals with the alkylating agent azoxymethane resulted in both liver toxicity and an increased incidence of precancerous lesions in the colon of HZ mice. Our study indicates that XRCC1 haploinsufficiency in mammals has little effect on chronological longevity and many key biological markers of aging in the absence of environmental challenges, but may adversely affect normal animal development or increase disease susceptibility to a relevant genotoxic exposure. PMID:21737425

  2. Effects of the XRCC1 gene-environment interactions on DNA damage in healthy Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zuquan; Lu, Yuquan; Weng, Huachuan; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2008-12-01

    X-ray repair crosscomplementing group 1 (XRCC1) has a central role in base excision repair (BER) and single-strand break repair (SSBR). XRCC1 gene polymorphisms (codons 194, 280, and 399) have been identified, and in some cases have been reported to contribute to variations in DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to cancer. To further characterize the effects of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and their possible interactions with environmental factors on individual levels of DNA damage, we investigated the XRCC1 genotypes of 222 healthy Japanese workers and analyzed data with respect to smoking, drinking habits, age, and health practice index (HPI). Our results showed that poor HPI would associate with a higher level of tail moment (TM). Individuals with one or two XRCC1(R280H) variant alleles exhibited significantly higher TM values, and these differences were enhanced by alcohol consumption and aging, whereas smoking and poor HPI may cover up the differences. On the other hand, using a stratified analysis, we found that the XRCC1(R194W) variant was associated with a higher TM value in the 40-50 year-old age group, and the XRCC1(R399Q) variant was associated with a lower TM value in the < or =20 pack-years group or in the 40-50 year-old age group. These data suggest that XRCC1 polymorphisms could influence individual DNA repair capacity by interacting with lifestyle factors, and specifically, the data indicated that the XRCC1(R280H) allele may be more important than codon 194 or 399 alleles.

  3. POLYMORPHISMS IN THE DNA BASE EXCISION REPAIR GENES APEX1 AND XRCC1 AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN XUAN WEI, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a key role in revers...

  4. Association of -77T>C and Arg194trp polymorphisms of XRCC1 with risk of coronary artery diseases in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Pahlavanneshan, Saghar; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Sadeghian, Saeed; Behmanesh, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in both male and female worldwide. The main cause of CAD is the atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, which is, mostly caused by genetic alteration. 50% of such cases occur in mitotic cells where single-strand breaks occur spontaneously or due to ionizing radiation. X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) as a key element, participate in the base excision repair (BER) and Single-strand Break Repair (SSBR) pathways. It has been suggested that XRCC1 functions as a scaffold protein able to coordinate and facilitate the various steps of DNA repair pathways. Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (Arg194Trp and -77T>C) were reported to affect the function and expression of XRCC1, respectively. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed to investigate the relation between these polymorphisms and the CAD development. A population of 406 individuals was screened for SNPs by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) method. Results: XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism was associated with increased risk of CAD in examined population under a dominant model (Odds-ratio=2.604, P-value=0.001). Also the SNP of -77T>C revealed a protective role in the population under a dominant model (Odds-ratio=0.618, P-value=0.032). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated a contributory role of these two SNPs in CAD. Furthermore, our results support the role of DNA damages and the malfunctions of DNA repair system in cardiovascular disease development in Iranian patients. PMID:27081465

  5. Quantitative characterization of protein-protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Moor, Nina A; Vasil'eva, Inna A; Anarbaev, Rashid O; Antson, Alfred A; Lavrik, Olga I

    2015-07-13

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein-protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process.

  6. The structural basis for partitioning of the XRCC1/DNA ligase III-[alpha] BRCT-mediated dimer complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Matthew J.; Gabel, Scott A.; Krahn, Joseph M.; Ricker, Melissa A.; London, Robert E.

    2011-11-17

    The ultimate step common to almost all DNA repair pathways is the ligation of the nicked intermediate to form contiguous double-stranded DNA. In the mammalian nucleotide and base excision repair pathways, the ligation step is carried out by ligase III-{alpha}. For efficient ligation, ligase III-{alpha} is constitutively bound to the scaffolding protein XRCC1 through interactions between the C-terminal BRCT domains of each protein. Although structural data for the individual domains has been available, no structure of the complex has been determined and several alternative proposals for this interaction have been advanced. Interpretation of the models is complicated by the formation of homodimers that, depending on the model, may either contribute to, or compete with heterodimer formation. We report here the structures of both homodimer complexes as well as the heterodimer complex. Structural characterization of the heterodimer formed from a longer XRCC1 BRCT domain construct, including residues comprising the interdomain linker region, revealed an expanded heterodimer interface with the ligase III-{alpha} BRCT domain. This enhanced linker-mediated binding interface plays a significant role in the determination of heterodimer/homodimer selectivity. These data provide fundamental insights into the structural basis of BRCT-mediated dimerization, and resolve questions related to the organization of this important repair complex.

  7. The Structural Basis for Partitioning of the XRCC1/DNA Ligase III-alpha BRCT-mediated Dimer Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    M Cuneo; S Gabel; J Krahn; M Ricker; R London

    2011-12-31

    The ultimate step common to almost all DNA repair pathways is the ligation of the nicked intermediate to form contiguous double-stranded DNA. In the mammalian nucleotide and base excision repair pathways, the ligation step is carried out by ligase III-{alpha}. For efficient ligation, ligase III-{alpha} is constitutively bound to the scaffolding protein XRCC1 through interactions between the C-terminal BRCT domains of each protein. Although structural data for the individual domains has been available, no structure of the complex has been determined and several alternative proposals for this interaction have been advanced. Interpretation of the models is complicated by the formation of homodimers that, depending on the model, may either contribute to, or compete with heterodimer formation. We report here the structures of both homodimer complexes as well as the heterodimer complex. Structural characterization of the heterodimer formed from a longer XRCC1 BRCT domain construct, including residues comprising the interdomain linker region, revealed an expanded heterodimer interface with the ligase III-{alpha} BRCT domain. This enhanced linker-mediated binding interface plays a significant role in the determination of heterodimer/homodimer selectivity. These data provide fundamental insights into the structural basis of BRCT-mediated dimerization, and resolve questions related to the organization of this important repair complex.

  8. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chien-I; Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-15

    The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03-2.75) and 0.66 (0.48-0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas.

  9. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-15

    The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case–control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03–2.75) and 0.66 (0.48–0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas. - Highlights: • The XRCC1 399Gln/Gln genotype was significantly associated with increased OR of UC. • The XRCC1 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotype had a significantly decreased OR of UC. • Combined effect of the XRCC1 genotypes and poor arsenic methylation capacity on

  10. XRCC1 and OGG1 Gene Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Nazarzadeh, Milad; Noroozi, Rezvan; Darvish, Hossein; Mosavi Jarrahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Context: Known polymorphisms of DNA repair genes can be associated with the risk of many types of cancer. There is no consensus regarding association between XRCC1 and OGG1 with breast cancer (BC). Objectives: The aim of this study is to collect relevant published studies systematically. Data Sources: Sixty-two publications were identified through searching PubMed, PubMed Central, ISI web of knowledge, and reference list of related articles. Study Selection: We performed a systematic review according MOOSE guideline criteria. All longitudinal cohort and case-control studies investigating association of any type and grade of breast cancer with XRCC1 and OGG1 gene and their polymorphisms were eligible for initial inclusion. Data Extraction: Two authors screened titles and abstracts and extracted all needed information from eligible studies. Four research methodological components causing bias for the association between gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, including source of controls sampling, population ethnicity, sample size of studies and menopausal status of cases and controls was used for assessment of quality of studies Results: A total of 14,793 breast cancer cases and 15,409 controls were included in assessment of XRCC1 Arg194Trp. Four studies showed significant association and one study showed protective effect of XRCC1 Arg194Trp and BC. A total of 7,716 cases and 7,370 controls were included for XRCC1 Arg280His. Only one study showed significant association of XRCC1 Arg280His and breast cancer (OR = 1.82 (1.06 - 3.15). A total of 27,167 cases and 31,998 controls were included to estimate association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer. Seven studies showed significant association and one showed protective effect of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and BC. A total of 9,417 cases and 11,087 controls were included for OGG1 Ser326Cys. Among studies focused on OGG1 Ser326Cys, none showed significant association with breast cancer. Conclusions

  11. Quantitative characterization of protein–protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Nina A.; Vasil'eva, Inna A.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Antson, Alfred A.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2015-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Polβ, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Polβ-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Polβ. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Polβ complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein–protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Polβ, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Polβ is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process. PMID:26013813

  12. Investigation on XRCC1 genetic polymorphism and its relationship with breast cancer risk factors in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Luming; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xukui; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Pen; Yu, Fang; Hou, Lei; Zhao, Guowei; He, Qingqing; Wang, Baocheng

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) remains one of the most common cancers among women. The human X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) gene plays key roles in base excision repair, and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 may be associated with the susceptibility to BC. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms and BC susceptibility. A total of 354 BC patients and 366 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this study. Data about the risk factors of BC were collected using questionnaires. The XRCC1 genetic polymorphism was determined using created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. No significant differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of c.1804C>A genetic polymorphism were detected between cases and controls. The distributions of BC patients' risk factors were not significantly different between CC, CA, and AA genotypes. These findings indicate that the c.1804C>A genetic polymorphism of XRCC1 gene is not significantly associated with BC susceptibility in the Chinese women.

  13. Polymorphism of XRCC1, XRCC3, and XPD genes and risk of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bănescu, Claudia; Trifa, Adrian P; Demian, Smaranda; Benedek Lazar, Erzsebeth; Dima, Delia; Duicu, Carmen; Dobreanu, Minodora

    2014-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1), X-ray repair cross complementing group 3 (XRCC3), and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) repair genes may lead to genetic instability and leukemogenesis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg280His and Arg194Trp, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms and the risk of developing CML in Romanian patients. A total of 156 patients diagnosed with CML and 180 healthy controls were included in this study. We found no association between CML and XRCC1 or XRCC3 variant genotypes in any of the investigated cases. A significant difference was observed in the variant genotype frequencies of the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism between the patients with CML and control group (for variant homozygous genotypes, OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.20-4.67; P value = 0.016 and for combined heterozygous and variant homozygous genotypes, OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.10-2.69; P value = 0.019). This was also observed when analyzing the variant 751Gln allele (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.13-2.11; P value = 0.008). Our results suggest that the XPD Lys751Gln variant genotype increases the risk of CML.

  14. Polymorphism of XRCC1, XRCC3, and XPD Genes and Risk of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bănescu, Claudia; Trifa, Adrian P.; Demian, Smaranda; Benedek Lazar, Erzsebeth; Dima, Delia; Duicu, Carmen; Dobreanu, Minodora

    2014-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1), X-ray repair cross complementing group 3 (XRCC3), and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) repair genes may lead to genetic instability and leukemogenesis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg280His and Arg194Trp, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms and the risk of developing CML in Romanian patients. A total of 156 patients diagnosed with CML and 180 healthy controls were included in this study. We found no association between CML and XRCC1 or XRCC3 variant genotypes in any of the investigated cases. A significant difference was observed in the variant genotype frequencies of the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism between the patients with CML and control group (for variant homozygous genotypes, OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.20–4.67; P value = 0.016 and for combined heterozygous and variant homozygous genotypes, OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.10–2.69; P value = 0.019). This was also observed when analyzing the variant 751Gln allele (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.13–2.11; P value = 0.008). Our results suggest that the XPD Lys751Gln variant genotype increases the risk of CML. PMID:24955348

  15. Polymorphism of XRCC1, XRCC3, and XPD genes and risk of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bănescu, Claudia; Trifa, Adrian P; Demian, Smaranda; Benedek Lazar, Erzsebeth; Dima, Delia; Duicu, Carmen; Dobreanu, Minodora

    2014-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1), X-ray repair cross complementing group 3 (XRCC3), and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) repair genes may lead to genetic instability and leukemogenesis. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg280His and Arg194Trp, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms and the risk of developing CML in Romanian patients. A total of 156 patients diagnosed with CML and 180 healthy controls were included in this study. We found no association between CML and XRCC1 or XRCC3 variant genotypes in any of the investigated cases. A significant difference was observed in the variant genotype frequencies of the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism between the patients with CML and control group (for variant homozygous genotypes, OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.20-4.67; P value = 0.016 and for combined heterozygous and variant homozygous genotypes, OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.10-2.69; P value = 0.019). This was also observed when analyzing the variant 751Gln allele (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.13-2.11; P value = 0.008). Our results suggest that the XPD Lys751Gln variant genotype increases the risk of CML. PMID:24955348

  16. Versatility in phospho-dependent molecular recognition of the XRCC1 and XRCC4 DNA-damage scaffolds by aprataxin-family FHA domains

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Amy L.; Nott, Timothy J.; Kelly, Geoffrey; Rulten, Stuart L.; Caldecott, Keith W.; Smerdon, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Aprataxin, aprataxin and PNKP-like factor (APLF) and polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNKP) are key DNA-repair proteins with diverse functions but which all contain a homologous forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. Their primary binding targets are casein kinase 2-phosphorylated forms of the XRCC1 and XRCC4 scaffold molecules which respectively coordinate single-stranded and double-stranded DNA break repair pathways. Here, we present the high-resolution X-ray structure of a complex of phosphorylated XRCC4 with APLF, the most divergent of the three FHA domain family members. This, combined with NMR and biochemical analysis of aprataxin and APLF binding to singly and multiply-phosphorylated forms of XRCC1 and XRCC4, and comparison with PNKP reveals a pattern of distinct but overlapping binding specificities that are differentially modulated by multi-site phosphorylation. Together, our data illuminate important differences between activities of the three phospho-binding domains, in spite of a close evolutionary relationship between them. PMID:26519825

  17. Versatility in phospho-dependent molecular recognition of the XRCC1 and XRCC4 DNA-damage scaffolds by aprataxin-family FHA domains.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Amy L; Nott, Timothy J; Kelly, Geoffrey; Rulten, Stuart L; Caldecott, Keith W; Smerdon, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Aprataxin, aprataxin and PNKP-like factor (APLF) and polynucleotide kinase phosphatase (PNKP) are key DNA-repair proteins with diverse functions but which all contain a homologous forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. Their primary binding targets are casein kinase 2-phosphorylated forms of the XRCC1 and XRCC4 scaffold molecules which respectively coordinate single-stranded and double-stranded DNA break repair pathways. Here, we present the high-resolution X-ray structure of a complex of phosphorylated XRCC4 with APLF, the most divergent of the three FHA domain family members. This, combined with NMR and biochemical analysis of aprataxin and APLF binding to singly and multiply-phosphorylated forms of XRCC1 and XRCC4, and comparison with PNKP reveals a pattern of distinct but overlapping binding specificities that are differentially modulated by multi-site phosphorylation. Together, our data illuminate important differences between activities of the three phospho-binding domains, in spite of a close evolutionary relationship between them. PMID:26519825

  18. In silico study of effects of polymorphisms on biophysical chemical properties of oxidized N-terminal domain of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 protein.

    PubMed

    Mehrzad, J; Monajjemi, M; Hashemi, M

    2014-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway involved in removal of endogenous and mutagen-induced DNA damage. The X-ray cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), which participates in BER, is a scaffolding protein. The oxidized XRCC1 N-terminal domain (NTD) forms additional interactions with DNA polymerase β (Pol β). Any change in the residues of a protein (XRCC1, XRCC4, etc.) may alter its stability and function. Many coding regions of genes have single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change the conformation of their products, and they are probably involved in some diseases. The R7L and R107H mutations are located in the XRCC1-NTD. In the present study, biophysical chemical properties of oxidized XRCC1-NTD (wild type or mutants) were investigated at different temperatures (290, 295, 298, 301, 304, 309, 310, 311, and 312 K) in water using in silico molecular mechanic computational methods. Comparison of the average calculated potential energies of oxidized XRCC1-NTD reveals that the R7L mutation increases stability, but the R107H and R7L&R107H mutations are destabilizing. Therefore, mutant types of this protein (R107H or R7L&R107H) may not function correctly. Furthermore, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of oxidized XRCC1-NTD and docking assay showed that the R7L mutation is advantageous but the R107H and R7L&R107H mutations are disadvantageous for XRCC1-NTD, and in the latter cases it cannot interact with Pol β as well as the wild type does. Hence, DNA repair may be defective. Also, using the equation dE = ∂Ε/(∂Τ)V·dT + ∂Ε/(∂V)T·dV, it was determined that the best temperature for normal activity of oxidized XRCC1-NTD is exactly the natural body temperature (310 K).

  19. Association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism with bladder cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dengfeng; Liu, Chuan; Shi, Jing; Wang, Ning; Du, Xiaobo; Yin, Qinghua; Wang, Yajie

    2014-01-15

    Genetic variations in DNA repair genes are thought to modify DNA repair capacity and may to be related to cancer susceptibility. However, epidemiological study results have been inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, we assessed 24 case-control studies of association between the X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility in the general population and in Asian and non-Asian subgroups. A moderately significant association with bladder cancer risk was found for AG vs GG (OR=1.110, 95% CI=1.018-1.210). No significant associations with bladder cancer risk were found for AA vs GG (OR=0.942, 95% CI=0.823-1.077), the dominant model AA/AG vs GG (OR=1.075, 95% CI=0.990-1.167) and the recessive model AA vs AG/GG(OR=0.890, 95% CI=0.788-1.005). In subgroup analysis, a moderately significant association was also found for AG vs GG (OR=1.091, 95% CI=1.008-1.180) in non-Asian subgroup. The analysis suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism might be a moderate risk factor for bladder cancer, especially in non-Asian population.

  20. Polymorphism of the XRCC1 Gene Is Associated with Susceptibility and Short-Term Recovery of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Huang, Peng; Liu, Dinghua; Zhong, Lingling; Yu, Rongbin; Li, Jianan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA repair system with the ability to fix base lesions caused by oxidative damage. Genetic variants influencing the BER pathway may affect the susceptibility and the outcomes of ischemic stroke. Here, we examined how single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BER impact susceptibility and short-term recovery of ischemic stroke. Methods: We selected 320 ischemic stroke patients and 303 controls. Then we genotyped SNPs of NEIL1 rs4462560, NEIL3 rs12645561 and XRCC1 rs25487 in both groups. Results: Polymorphism in XRCC1 rs25487 was significantly associated with reduced ischemic stroke (IS) risk (dominant model: OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36–0.79, p = 0.002), a milder initial stroke (dominant model: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33–0.98, p = 0.043), and also a better short-term recovery (dominant model: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.35–0.92, p = 0.022). No association was observed in the other two SNPs. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the genetic variant of XRCC1 rs25487 may contribute to the etiology of ischemic stroke. PMID:27763529

  1. XRCC1 Polymorphism Associated With Late Toxicity After Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Seibold, Petra; Behrens, Sabine; Schmezer, Peter; Helmbold, Irmgard; Barnett, Gillian; Coles, Charlotte; Yarnold, John; Talbot, Christopher J.; Imai, Takashi; Azria, David; Koch, C. Anne; Dunning, Alison M.; Burnet, Neil; Bliss, Judith M.; Symonds, R. Paul; Rattay, Tim; Suga, Tomo; Kerns, Sarah L.; and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress–related genes associated with risk of late toxicities in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Using a 2-stage design, 305 SNPs in 59 candidate genes were investigated in the discovery phase in 753 breast cancer patients from 2 prospective cohorts from Germany. The 10 most promising SNPs in 4 genes were evaluated in the replication phase in up to 1883 breast cancer patients from 6 cohorts identified through the Radiogenomics Consortium. Outcomes of interest were late skin toxicity and fibrosis of the breast, as well as an overall toxicity score (Standardized Total Average Toxicity). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to assess associations between SNPs and late toxicity. A meta-analysis approach was used to summarize evidence. Results: The association of a genetic variant in the base excision repair gene XRCC1, rs2682585, with normal tissue late radiation toxicity was replicated in all tested studies. In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, carrying the rare allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of skin toxicities (multivariate odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.96, P=.02) and a decrease in Standardized Total Average Toxicity scores (−0.08, 95% confidence interval −0.15 to −0.02, P=.016). Conclusions: Using a stage design with replication, we identified a variant allele in the base excision repair gene XRCC1 that could be used in combination with additional variants for developing a test to predict late toxicities after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients.

  2. Polymorphisms of the XRCC1, XRCC3, & XPD genes, and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chih-Ching; Sung, Fung-Chang; Tang, Reiping; Chang-Chieh, Chung Rong; Hsieh, Ling-Ling

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent studies relating to the association between DNA repair-gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk would, to the best of our knowledge, appear to be very limited. This study was designed to examine the polymorphisms associated with three DNA repair genes, namely: XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met and XPD Lys751Gln, and investigate their role as susceptibility markers for colorectal cancer. Methods We conducted a case-control study including 727 cases of cancer and 736 hospital-based age- and sex-matched healthy controls to examine the role of genetic polymorphisms of three DNA-repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3 and XPD) in the context of colorectal cancer risk for the Taiwanese population. Genomic DNA isolated from 10 ml whole blood was used to genotype XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met and XPD Lys751Gln by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results The risk for colorectal cancer did not appear to differ significantly amongst individuals featuring the XRCC1 399Arg/Arg genotype (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96–1.45), the XRCC3 241Thr/Thr genotype (OR = 1.25; 95% CI, 0.88–1.79) or the XPD 751Gln allele (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.90–1.61), although individuals featuring a greater number of risk genotypes (genotype with OR greater than 1) did experience a higher risk for colorectal cancer when compared to those who didn't feature any risk genotypes (Trend test P = 0.03). Compared with those individuals who didn't express any putative risk genotypes, individuals featuring all of the putative risk genotypes did experience a significantly greater cancer risk (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.21–4.90), particularly for individuals suffering tumors located in the rectum (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.29–7.82) and diagnosed prior to the age of 60 years (OR = 4.90, 95% CI = 1.72–14.0). Conclusions Our results suggest that DNA-repair pathways may simultaneously modulate the risk of colorectal cancer for the Taiwanese

  3. XRCC1, CYP2E1 and ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms and sister chromatid exchange frequency alterations amongst vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ruey-Hong; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2003-08-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a known human carcinogen, which may be metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1). A DNA-repair gene, X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 ( XRCC1, exon 10), may also be implicated in the process of VCM-related carcinogenesis. Thus, VCM-exposed workers with inherited susceptible metabolic and DNA-repair genotypes may experience an increased risk of genotoxiciy. This study was designed to investigate whether metabolic and DNA-repair genotypes affected sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in occupationally VCM-exposed workers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing plants. Study subjects comprised 61 male workers having experienced VCM exposure, and 29 male controls. Questionnaires were administered to obtain detailed histories of cigarette-smoking habits, alcohol consumption behavior, and occupation. The frequency of SCE in peripheral lymphocytes was determined using a standardized method, and genotypes of CYP2E1, ALDH2, GSTT1 and XRCC1 were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure. Our results demonstrated that smoking, age and VCM exposure and XRCC1 ( P=0.03), CYP2E1 ( P=0.04), and ALDH2 ( P=0.08) were significantly associated with an increased SCE frequency. Further analysis of gene combinations, including CYP2E1, ALDH2 and XRCC1, revealed an increased trend for these genotypes to influence SCE frequencies for the low VCM-exposure group ( P<0.01), but not so for the high VCM-exposure group ( P=0.29) or for controls ( P=0.49). These results suggest that workers with susceptible metabolic and DNA-repair genotypes, may experience an increased risk of DNA damage elicited by VCM exposure.

  4. A unified view of base excision repair: lesion-dependent protein complexes regulated by post-translational modification

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Karen H.; Sobol, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) proteins act upon a significantly broad spectrum of DNA lesions that result from endogenous and exogenous sources. Multiple sub-pathways of BER (short-path or long-patch) and newly designated DNA repair pathways (e.g., SSBR and NIR) that utilize BER proteins complicate any comprehensive understanding of BER and its role in genome maintenance, chemotherapeutic response, neurodegeneration, cancer or aging. Herein, we propose a unified model of BER, comprised of three functional processes: Lesion Recognition/Strand Scission, Gap Tailoring and DNA Synthesis/Ligation, each represented by one or more multiprotein complexes and coordinated via the XRCC1/DNA Ligase III and PARP1 scaffold proteins. BER therefore may be represented by a series of repair complexes that assemble at the site of the DNA lesion and mediates repair in a coordinated fashion involving protein-protein interactions that dictate subsequent steps or sub-pathway choice. Complex formation is influenced by post-translational protein modifications that arise from the cellular state or the DNA damage response, providing an increase in specificity and efficiency to the BER pathway. In this review, we have summarized the reported BER protein-protein interactions and protein post-translational modifications and discuss the impact on DNA repair capacity and complex formation. PMID:17337257

  5. Expression profiles of DNA repair-related genes in rat target organs under subchronic cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Lei, Y X; Lu, Q; Shao, C; He, C C; Lei, Z N; Lian, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the toxicity of long-term exposure to different cadmium (Cd) doses in rats and expression profiles of DNA repair-related genes. The model rats were exposed to different concentrations of CdCl2 for 3 months, and 5 DNA repair-related genes - hMSH2, MLH1, XRCC1, hOGG1, ERCC1 - were cloned in different tissues, including the liver, kidney, heart, and lung. Accumulated amounts of Cd were detected in the tissues. Gene and protein detections were conducted via fluorescence quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Methylated sequences of the 5 DNA repair-related gene promoters were used to investigate whether the low expression levels of the genes were related to methylation of the promoter. In the Cd-exposed group, 3 DNA repair genes (i.e., XRCC1, hOGG1, and ERCC1) significantly decreased in the rat liver, kidney, heart, and lung according to the β-actin internal standard (P < 0.01). Western blotting indicated the same trend for the different tissues. Each of the DNA repair genes had special characteristics; for example, hOGG1 gene expression decreased by 75% in the kidney, and XRCC1 gene expression decreased by 5% in the liver and heart when compared to the control group (P < 0.01). A negative correlation between the DNA repair gene expression levels and the cumulative levels of Cd was also suggested by malignancy pathology. The expression levels of 3 DNA repair genes (i.e., ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1) played an important role in the rat response to Cd exposure but not DNA methylated protection. PMID:25729986

  6. Requirement for Parp-1 and DNA ligases 1 or 3 but not of Xrcc1 in chromosomal translocation formation by backup end joining.

    PubMed

    Soni, Aashish; Siemann, Maria; Grabos, Martha; Murmann, Tamara; Pantelias, Gabriel E; Iliakis, George

    2014-06-01

    In mammalian cells, ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired in all phases of the cell cycle predominantly by classical, DNA-PK-dependent nonhomologous end joining (D-NHEJ). Homologous recombination repair (HRR) is functional during the S- and G2-phases, when a sister chromatid becomes available. An error-prone, alternative form of end joining, operating as backup (B-NHEJ) functions robustly throughout the cell cycle and particularly in the G2-phase and is thought to backup predominantly D-NHEJ. Parp-1, DNA-ligases 1 (Lig1) and 3 (Lig3), and Xrcc1 are implicated in B-NHEJ. Chromosome and chromatid translocations are manifestations of erroneous DSB repair and are crucial culprits in malignant transformation and IR-induced cell lethality. We analyzed shifts in translocation formation deriving from defects in D-NHEJ or HRR in cells irradiated in the G2-phase and identify B-NHEJ as the main DSB repair pathway backing up both of these defects at the cost of a large increase in translocation formation. Our results identify Parp-1 and Lig1 and 3 as factors involved in translocation formation and show that Xrcc1 reinforces the function of Lig3 in the process without being required for it. Finally, we demonstrate intriguing connections between B-NHEJ and DNA end resection in translocation formation and show that, as for D-NHEJ and HRR, the function of B-NHEJ facilitates the recovery from the G2-checkpoint. These observations advance our understanding of chromosome aberration formation and have implications for the mechanism of action of Parp inhibitors.

  7. 8-Oxoguanine incision activity is impaired in lung tissues of NSCLC patients with the polymorphism of OGG1 and XRCC1 genes.

    PubMed

    Janik, Justyna; Swoboda, Maja; Janowska, Beata; Cieśla, Jarosław M; Gackowski, Daniel; Kowalewski, Janusz; Olinski, Ryszard; Tudek, Barbara; Speina, Elżbieta

    2011-05-10

    Decreased repair of oxidative DNA damage is a risk factor for developing certain human malignancies. We have previously found that the capacity of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine repair was lower in leukocytes of NSCLC patients than in controls. To explain these observations, we searched for mutations and polymorphisms in the OGG1 gene among 88 NSCLC patients and 79 controls. One patient exhibited a heterozygous mutation in exon 1, which resulted in Arg46Gln substitution. Normal lung and tumor tissue carrying this mutation showed markedly lower 8-oxoG incision activity than the mean for all patients. The predominant polymorphism of OGG1 was Ser326Cys. A significant difference was observed in the frequencies of the OGG1 variants between populations of NSCLC patients and controls. The frequency of the Cys326 allele and the number of Cys326Cys homozygotes was higher among patients than controls. In individuals with either Ser326Cys or Cys326Cys genotype 8-oxoG incision rate was lower than in those with both Ser326 alleles, either in lung or leukocytes. Moreover, 8-oxodG level was higher in lung tissue and leukocytes of patients carrying two Cys326 alleles and in leukocytes of patients with the Ser326Cys genotype. We also screened for polymorphisms of the XRCC1 gene. Only heterozygotes of the XRCC1 variants Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln were found among patients and controls, with the frequency of Arg280His being significantly higher among patients. NSCLC patients with Arg280His or Arg399Gln polymorphism revealed lower 8-oxoG incision activity in their lung tissues, but not in leukocytes. We can conclude that the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphisms may have an impact on the efficiency of 8-oxoG incision in humans and the XRCC1 His280 and Gln399 may influence the OGG1 activity in tissues exposed to chronic oxidative/inflammatory stress. Higher frequency of the OGG1 Cys326 allele among NSCLC patients may partially explain the impairment of the 8-oxoG repair observed in their

  8. Protein oxidation, UVA and human DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Karran, Peter; Brem, Reto

    2016-08-01

    Solar UVB is carcinogenic. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) counteracts the carcinogenicity of UVB by excising potentially mutagenic UVB-induced DNA lesions. Despite this capacity for DNA repair, non-melanoma skin cancers and apparently normal sun-exposed skin contain huge numbers of mutations that are mostly attributable to unrepaired UVB-induced DNA lesions. UVA is about 20-times more abundant than UVB in incident sunlight. It does cause some DNA damage but this does not fully account for its biological impact. The effects of solar UVA are mediated by its interactions with cellular photosensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce oxidative stress. The proteome is a significant target for damage by UVA-induced ROS. In cultured human cells, UVA-induced oxidation of DNA repair proteins inhibits DNA repair. This article addresses the possible role of oxidative stress and protein oxidation in determining DNA repair efficiency - with particular reference to NER and skin cancer risk.

  9. Analysis of aberrant methylation in DNA repair genes during malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by cadmium.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-heng; Lei, Yi-xiong; Wang, Cai-xia

    2012-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and its compounds are well-known human carcinogens, but the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis are not entirely understood yet. Aberrant methylation was investigated in order to obtain insight into the DNA repair-related epigenetic mechanisms underlying CdCl(2)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). Gene expression and DNA methylation were assessed in untreated control cells; 5th, 15th, and 35th passage of CdCl2-treated cells and tumorigenic cells (TCs) from nude mice by using high-performance liquid chromatography, real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and methylation-specific PCR assay. During Cd-induced malignant transformation, global DNA methylation progressively increased and was associated with the overexpression of the DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1 and DNMT3a but not DNMT3b. Expression of both the messenger RNA and proteins of the DNA repair genes (hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1) progressively reduced and DNA damage increased with Cd-induced transformation. The promoter regions of hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1 were heavily methylated in the 35th passage transformed cells and the TCs. The DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine could reverse the Cd-induced global DNA hypermethylation, DNMT hyperactivity, and the silencing of hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1 in a time-dependent manner. The results indicate that DNMT1 and DNMT3a overexpression can result in global DNA hypermethylation and silencing of the hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1 genes. They may partly explain the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis due to Cd.

  10. Association of Polymorphisms (rs 1799782, rs25489 and rs25487) in XRCC1 and (rs 13181) XPD genes with Acute Coronary Artery Syndrome in Subjects from Multan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Hafsa; Faryal, Maemona; Aslam, Muhammad Assad; Akbar, Atif; Saad, Abu Bakar Ali; Pasha, Muhammad Burhan; Latif, Muhammad; Rehan Sadiq Shaikh, Rehan Rehan Sadiq Shaikh; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2016-05-01

    Acute coronary artery syndrome (ACS) is the major cause of mortality in Pakistan with genetic and environmental influence on the incidence of the disease. This case-control study was designed to find out if a correlation is existing between ACS and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes XPD [at codon 751, rs 13181 (Lys to Gln)] and XRCC1 [at codon 399, rs25487 (Arg to Gln); 280, rs25489 (Arg to His) and 194, rs 1799782 (Arg to Trp)] either individually or in various combination with each other (haplotype analysis). The objective of this study was to find out the association of various studied risk factors and serum lipid profile of the subjects with the disease, if any. PCR-RFLP method was used to determine genotype at specific codon in 221 subjects (115 ACS patients and 106 healthy controls) from Southern Punjab population. Genotypic and allelic frequency distribution among the cases and controls revealed that all the studied SNPs were not individually associated with the ACS. Haplotype analysis revealed that subjects having wild type combination of all three XRCC1 SNPs had greater susceptibility to ACS than any other studied genotypic combinations. Analysis of risk factors revealed that hypertension (P<0.001), age (P=0.05), education (P<0.001), gender (P<0.001), family history (P=0.005), smoking habit (P=0.002) and diabetes (P<0.001) were significantly associated with the incidence of ACS. Serum lipid profile analysis indicated that cholesterol level was significantly higher (P=0.048) in patients (161.5mg/dL) than controls (142.1mg/dL) while triglyceride remained unaffected (P=0.87) when compared between the two treatments. PMID:27166553

  11. hOGG1(326), XRCC1(399) and XRCC3(241) polymorphisms influence micronucleus frequencies in human lymphocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mateuca, Raluca A; Roelants, Mathieu; Iarmarcovai, Gwenaelle; Aka, Peter V; Godderis, Lode; Tremp, Annie; Bonassi, Stefano; Fenech, Michael; Bergé-Lefranc, Jean-Louis; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2008-01-01

    A pooled analysis of five biomonitoring studies was performed to assess the influence of hOGG1(326), XRCC1(399) and XRCC3(241) gene polymorphisms on micronuclei (MN) frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, as measured by the ex vivo/in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Each study addressed a type of occupational exposure potentially able to induce DNA strand breakage (styrene, ionising radiation, cobalt/hard metal, welding fumes and inorganic arsenite compounds), and therefore MN, as a result of base excision repair and double-strand break repair deficiencies. The effect of genotype, age, exposure to genotoxic agents and smoking habit on MN induction was determined using Poisson regression analysis in 171 occupationally exposed male workers and in 132 non-exposed male referents. The analysis of genotype-genotype, genotype-smoking and genotype-exposure interactions by linear combinations of parameters showed significantly higher MN frequencies in the following subsets: (i) occupationally exposed workers carrying either the Thr/Thr or the Thr/Met XRCC3(241) genotypes compared to their referent counterparts (P < 0.001) and (ii) carriers of the Met/Met XRCC3(241) genotype compared to Thr/Thr XRCC3(241) carriers, as far as they are non-exposed and bear the variant (Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys) hOGG1(326) genotype (P < 0.01). Significantly lower MN frequencies were observed in carriers of the variant hOGG1(326) genotype compared to Ser/Ser hOGG1(326) carriers in the subgroup of non-smokers with Thr/Thr XRCC3(241) genotype (P < 0.01). Stratified analysis by occupational exposure showed a significant MN increase with smoking in occupationally exposed carriers of the Arg/Gln XRCC1(399)genotype (P < 0.001). In contrast, a significant MN decrease with smoking was observed in referents carrying the Ser/Ser hOGG1(326) genotype (P < 0.01). These findings provide evidence that the combination of different DNA repair genes and their interaction with environmental

  12. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  13. Antibody specific for a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-07-11

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  14. Microsecond dynamics of mismatch repair proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsbury, Freddie; Thompson, William

    We will present the results of long-time simulations (250ns-1microsecond) of the mismatch repair protein complexes Mutsalpha bound to various substrates, both normal and damaged. We do so to demonstrate the importance of long-range fluctuations and generalized allostery in such systems and how long-scale GPU-enabled simulations can enabled such analysis.

  15. Defective DNA repair and increased chromatin binding of DNA repair factors in Down syndrome fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Necchi, Daniela; Pinto, Antonella; Tillhon, Micol; Dutto, Ilaria; Serafini, Melania Maria; Lanni, Cristina; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Prosperi, Ennio

    2015-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by genetic instability, neurodegeneration, and premature aging. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to this phenotype are not yet well understood. Here, we report that DS fibroblasts from both fetal and adult donors show the presence of oxidative DNA base damage, such as dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG), and activation of a DNA damage response (DDR), already during unperturbed growth conditions. DDR with checkpoint activation was indicated by histone H2AX and Chk2 protein phosphorylation, and by increased p53 protein levels. In addition, both fetal and adult DS fibroblasts were more sensitive to oxidative DNA damage induced by potassium bromate, and were defective in the removal of 8-oxodG, as compared with age-matched cells from control healthy donors. The analysis of core proteins participating in base excision repair (BER), such as XRCC1 and DNA polymerase β, showed that higher amounts of these factors were bound to chromatin in DS than in control cells, even in the absence of DNA damage. These findings occurred in concomitance with increased levels of phosphorylated XRCC1 detected in DS cells. These results indicate that DS cells exhibit a BER deficiency, which is associated with prolonged chromatin association of core BER factors.

  16. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, GSTM1, GSTT1, MSH2, MLH1, MSH3, and MGMT Genes and Radiosensitivity in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mangoni, Monica; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Carozzi, Francesca; Sani, Cristina; Biti, Giampaolo; Livi, Lorenzo; Barletta, Emanuela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Clinical radiosensitivity varies considerably among patients, and radiation-induced side effects developing in normal tissue can be therapy limiting. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to correlate with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy. We conducted a prospective study of 87 female patients with breast cancer who received radiotherapy after breast surgery. We evaluated the association between acute skin reaction following radiotherapy and 11 genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes: XRCC1 (Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp), XRCC3 (Thr241Met), XPD (Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln), MSH2 (gIVS12-6T>C), MLH1 (Ile219Val), MSH3 (Ala1045Thr), MGMT (Leu84Phe), and in damage-detoxification GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes (allele deletion). Methods and Materials: Individual genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and single nucleotide primer extension for single nucleotide polymorphisms or by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for deletion polymorphisms. The development of severe acute skin reaction (moist desquamation or interruption of radiotherapy due to toxicity) associated with genetic polymorphisms was modeled using Cox proportional hazards, accounting for cumulative biologically effective radiation dose. Results: Radiosensitivity developed in eight patients and was increased in carriers of variants XRCC3-241Met allele (hazard ratio [HR] unquantifiably high), MSH2 gIVS12-6nt-C allele (HR = 53.36; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 3.56-798.98), and MSH3-1045Ala allele (HR unquantifiably high). Carriers of XRCC1-Arg194Trp variant allele in combination with XRCC1-Arg399Gln wild-type allele had a significant risk of radiosensitivity (HR = 38.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1232.52). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report to find an association between MSH2 and MSH3 genetic variants and the development of radiosensitivity in breast cancer patients. Our findings suggest the hypothesis that mismatch repair mechanisms may be

  18. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  19. Disruption of PARP1 function inhibits base excision repair of a sub-set of DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Pamela; Cooper, Sarah; Lomax, Martine; O'Neill, Peter

    2015-04-30

    The repair of endogenously induced DNA damage is essential to maintain genomic integrity. It has been shown that XRCC1 and PARP1 are involved in the repair of base lesions and SSBs, although the exact mode of action has yet to be determined. Here we show that XRCC1 is involved in the repair of base lesions and SSBs independent of the cell cycle. However, the rate of repair of damage requiring XRCC1 does reflect the damage complexity. The repair of induced DNA damage occurs by PARP1-dependent and PARP1-independent sub-pathways of BER. It is suggested that the repair of SSBs and purine base damage is by a sub-pathway of BER that requires both XRCC1 and PARP1. Repair of pyrimidine base damage may require XRCC1 but does not require PARP1 activity. Therefore, although BER of simple lesions occurs rapidly, pathway choice and the involvement of PARP1 are highly dependent on the types of lesion induced.

  20. Double strand break (DSB) repair in heterochromatin and heterochromatin proteins in DSB repair.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Charlène; Soutoglou, Evi

    2014-07-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer cells and they represent a major cause of tumorigenesis. To avoid chromosomal translocations, faithful repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) has to be ensured in the context of high ordered chromatin structure. However, chromatin compaction is proposed to represent a barrier for DSB repair. Here we review the different mechanisms cells use to alleviate the heterochromatic barrier for DNA repair. At the same time, we discuss the activating role of heterochromatin-associated proteins in this process, therefore proposing that chromatin structure, more than being a simple barrier, is a key modulator of DNA repair.

  1. Cloning and characterization of the rad4 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe; a gene showing short regions of sequence similarity to the human XRCC1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fenech, M; Carr, A M; Murray, J; Watts, F Z; Lehmann, A R

    1991-01-01

    The rad4.116 mutant of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is temperature-sensitive for growth, as well as being sensitive to the killing actions of both ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation. We have cloned the rad4 gene by complementation of the temperature sensitive phenotype of the rad4.116 mutant with a S. pombe gene bank. The rad4 gene fully complemented the UV sensitivity of the rad4.116 mutant. The gene is predicted to encode a protein of 579 amino acids with a basic tail, a possible zinc finger and a nuclear location signal. The amino terminal part of the predicted rad4 ORF contains two short regions of similarity to the C-terminal part of the human XRCC1 gene. Codon usage suggests that the gene is very poorly expressed, and this was confirmed by RNA studies. Gene disruption showed that the rad4 gene was essential for the mitotic growth of S. pombe. Images PMID:1762905

  2. Risk assessment of welders using analysis of eight metals by ICP-MS in blood and urine and DNA damage evaluation by the comet and micronucleus assays; influence of XRCC1 and XRCC3 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Iarmarcovai, G; Sari-Minodier, I; Chaspoul, F; Botta, C; De Méo, M; Orsière, T; Bergé-Lefranc, J L; Gallice, P; Botta, A

    2005-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the occupational risk of welders using analysis of metals in biological fluids, DNA damage evaluation by complementary genotoxic endpoints and the incidence of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. A biomonitoring study was conducted that included biometrology (blood and urinary concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, zinc by ICP-MS), comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays in peripheral lymphocytes and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 (p.Arg399Gln) and XRCC3 (p.Thr241Met). This study included 60 male welders divided into two groups: group 1 working without any collective protection device and group 2 equipped with smoke extraction systems. A control group (n = 30) was also included in the study. Higher chromium, lead and nickel blood and urinary concentrations were detected in the two groups of welders compared to controls. Statistically differences between welders of group 1 and group 2 were found for blood concentration of cobalt and urinary concentrations of aluminium, chromium, lead and nickel. The alkaline comet assay revealed that welders had a significant increase of OTMchi2 distribution at the end of a work week compared to the beginning; a significant induction of DNA strand breaks at the end of the week was observed in 20 welders out of 30. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay showed that welders of group 1 had a higher frequency of chromosomal damage than controls. The XRCC1 variant allele coding Gln amino acid at position 399 was found to be associated with a higher number of DNA breaks as revealed by the comet assay. Increased metal concentrations in biological fluids, DNA breaks and chromosomal damage in lymphocytes emphasized the need to develop safety programmes for welders.

  3. In situ analysis of repair processes for oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Li; Nakajima, Satoshi; Oohata, Yoshitsugu; Takao, Masashi; Okano, Satoshi; Masutani, Mitsuko; Wilson, Samuel H.; Yasui, Akira

    2004-09-01

    Oxidative DNA damage causes blocks and errors in transcription and replication, leading to cell death and genomic instability. Although repair mechanisms of the damage have been extensively analyzed in vitro, the actual in vivo repair processes remain largely unknown. Here, by irradiation with an UVA laser through a microscope lens, we have conditionally produced single-strand breaks and oxidative base damage at restricted nuclear regions of mammalian cells. We showed, in real time after irradiation by using antibodies and GFP-tagged proteins, rapid and ordered DNA repair processes of oxidative DNA damage in human cells. Furthermore, we characterized repair pathways by using repair-defective mammalian cells and found that DNA polymerase accumulated at single-strand breaks and oxidative base damage by means of its 31- and 8-kDa domains, respectively, and that XRCC1 is essential for both polymerase -dependent and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent repair pathways of single-strand breaks. Thus, the repair of oxidative DNA damage is based on temporal and functional interactions among various proteins operating at the site of DNA damage in living cells.

  4. DNA ligase III acts as a DNA strand break sensor in the cellular orchestration of DNA strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Ismail; Poirier, Guy G.; Hendzel, Michael J.; Weinfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the current model of DNA SSBR, PARP1 is regarded as the sensor of single-strand breaks (SSBs). However, biochemical studies have implicated LIG3 as another possible SSB sensor. Using a laser micro-irradiation protocol that predominantly generates SSBs, we were able to demonstrate that PARP1 is dispensable for the accumulation of different single-strand break repair (SSBR) proteins at sites of DNA damage in live cells. Furthermore, we show in live cells for the first time that LIG3 plays a role in mediating the accumulation of the SSBR proteins XRCC1 and PNKP at sites of DNA damage. Importantly, the accumulation of LIG3 at sites of DNA damage did not require the BRCT domain-mediated interaction with XRCC1. We were able to show that the N-terminal ZnF domain of LIG3 plays a key role in the enzyme's SSB sensing function. Finally, we provide cellular evidence that LIG3 and not PARP1 acts as the sensor for DNA damage caused by the topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan. Our results support the existence of a second damage-sensing mechanism in SSBR involving the detection of nicks in the genome by LIG3. PMID:25539916

  5. Purification of PCNA as a nucleotide excision repair protein

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Anne F.; Sancar, Aziz

    1992-01-01

    Human cell free extracts carry out nucleotide excision repair in vitro. The extract is readily separated into two fractions by chromatography on a DEAE column. Neither the low salt (0.1 M KCl) nor the high salt (0.8 M KCl) fractions are capable of repair synthesis but the combination of the two restore the repair synthesis activity. Using the repair synthesis assay we purified a protein of 37 kDa from the high salt fraction which upon addition to the low salt fraction restores repair synthesis activity. Amino acid sequence analysis, amino acid composition and immunobloting with PCNA antibodies revealed that the 37 kDa protein is the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) known to stimulate DNA Polymerases δ and ε. By using an assay which specifically measures the excision of thymine dimers we found that PCNA is not required for the actual excision reaction per se but increases the extent of excision by enabling the excision repair enzyme to turn over catalytically. Images PMID:1352873

  6. Repair of hair bundles in sea anemones by secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Watson, G M; Mire, P; Hudson, R R

    1998-01-01

    Sea anemones are sessile invertebrates that detect movements of prey using numerous hair bundles located on tentacles surrounding their mouth. Previously we found that hair bundles of anemones are structurally and functionally similar to those of vertebrates. After 10-15 min exposure to calcium depleted buffers, hair bundles in chickens suffer moderate damage from which they recover in 12 h without requiring new protein synthesis [Zhao, Yamoah and Gillespie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1996) 15469-15474]. We find that after 1 h exposure to calcium free seawater, hair bundles of anemones suffer extensive damage from which they recover in 4 h, apparently because of newly synthesized, secretory proteins called 'repair proteins'. Recovery is delayed in a dose dependent fashion by cycloheximide. In the presence of exogenously added repair proteins, recovery occurs within 8 min and is cycloheximide insensitive. Recovery is ascertained by a bioassay performed on intact specimens, by electrophysiology, and by timelapse video microscopy. Fraction beta, a chromatographic fraction with bioactivity comparable to the complete mixture of repair proteins, consists of complexes having an estimated mass of 2000 kDa. Avidin based cytochemistry suggests that biotinylated fraction beta binds to damaged hair bundles. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis demonstrates that fraction beta contains 8-10 polypeptides of 90 kDa or smaller. At least four of these polypeptides apparently are consumed during the repair process. Negatively stained samples of fraction beta are shown by transmission electron microscopy to include filamentous structures similar in length (150 nm) and width (6 nm) to linkages between stereocilia. The filamentous structures can be associated with globular structures (20 nm in diameter). A model is presented wherein repair proteins comprise replacement linkages and enzymes that attach linkages to appropriate membrane proteins. PMID:9472741

  7. Repair of traumatized mammalian hair cells via sea anemone repair proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Smith, Karen Müller; Watson, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian hair cells possess only a limited ability to repair damage after trauma. In contrast, sea anemones show a marked capability to repair damaged hair bundles by means of secreted repair proteins (RPs). Previously, it was found that recovery of traumatized hair cells in blind cavefish was enhanced by anemone-derived RPs; therefore, the ability of anemone RPs to assist recovery of damaged hair cells in mammals was tested here. After a 1 h incubation in RP-enriched culture media, uptake of FM1-43 by experimentally traumatized murine cochlear hair cells was restored to levels comparable to those exhibited by healthy controls. In addition, RP-treated explants had significantly more normally structured hair bundles than time-matched traumatized control explants. Collectively, these results indicate that anemone-derived RPs assist in restoring normal function and structure of experimentally traumatized hair cells of the mouse cochlea. PMID:27489215

  8. Repair of traumatized mammalian hair cells via sea anemone repair proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Smith, Karen Müller; Watson, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian hair cells possess only a limited ability to repair damage after trauma. In contrast, sea anemones show a marked capability to repair damaged hair bundles by means of secreted repair proteins (RPs). Previously, it was found that recovery of traumatized hair cells in blind cavefish was enhanced by anemone-derived RPs; therefore, the ability of anemone RPs to assist recovery of damaged hair cells in mammals was tested here. After a 1 h incubation in RP-enriched culture media, uptake of FM1-43 by experimentally traumatized murine cochlear hair cells was restored to levels comparable to those exhibited by healthy controls. In addition, RP-treated explants had significantly more normally structured hair bundles than time-matched traumatized control explants. Collectively, these results indicate that anemone-derived RPs assist in restoring normal function and structure of experimentally traumatized hair cells of the mouse cochlea.

  9. Methods to alter levels of a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-10-17

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  10. DNA Repair-Protein Relocalization After Heavy Ion Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metting, N. F.

    1999-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is good at making DNA double strand breaks, and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as heavy ion particles are particularly efficient. For this reason, the proteins belonging to repair systems that deal with double strand breaks are of particular interest. One such protein is Ku, a component in the non-homologous recombination repair system. The Ku protein is an abundant, heterodimeric DNA end-binding complex, composed of one 70 and one 86 kDa subunit. Ku protein binds to DNA ends, nicks, gaps, and regions of transition between single and double-stranded structure. These binding properties suggest an important role in DNA repair. The Ku antigen is important in this study because it is present in relatively large copy numbers and it is part of a double-strand-break repair system. More importantly, we consistently measure an apparent upregulation in situ that is not verified by whole-cell-lysate immunoblot measurements. This apparent upregulation is triggered by very low doses of radiation, thus showing a potentially useful high sensitivity. However, elucidation of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still to be done.

  11. Genetic Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes as Modulators of Hodgkin Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    El-Zein, Randa; Monroy, Claudia M.; Etzel, Carol J.; Cortes, Andrea C.; Xing, Yun; Collier, Amanda L.; Strom, Sara S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although the pathogenesis of Hodgkin disease (HD) remains unknown, the results of epidemiologic studies suggest that heritable factors are important in terms of susceptibility. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to individual susceptibility for development of different cancers. However, to the authors’ knowledge, few studies to date have investigated the role of such polymorphisms as risk factors for development of HD. METHODS The authors evaluated the relation between polymorphisms in 3 nucleotide excision repair pathway genes (XPD [Lys751Gln], XPC [Lys939Gln], and XPG [Asp1104His]), the base excision repair XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), and double-strand break repair XRCC3 (Thr241Met) in a population of 200 HD cases and 220 matched controls. Variants were investigated independently and in combination; odd ratios (OR) were calculated. RESULTS A positive association was found for XRCC1 gene polymorphism Arg399Gln (OR, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16−2.71) and risk of HD. The combined analysis demonstrated that XRCC1/XRCC3 and XRCC1/XPC polymorphisms were associated with a significant increase in HD risk. XRCC1 Arg/Arg and XRCC3 Thr/Met genotypes combined were associated with an OR of 2.38 (95% CI, 1.24−4.55). The XRCC1 Arg/Gln and XRCC3 Thr/Thr, Thr/Met, and Met/Met genotypes had ORs of 1.88 (95% CI, 1.02−4.10), 1.97 (95% CI, 1.05−3.73), and 4.13 (95% CI, 1.50−11.33), respectively. XRCC1 Gln/Gln and XRCC3 Thr/Thr variant led to a significant increase in risk, with ORs of 3.00 (95% CI, 1.15−7.80). Similarly, XRCC1 Arg/Gln together with XPC Lys/Lys was found to significantly increase the risk of HD (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09−4.23). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may modify the risk of HD, especially when interactions between the pathways are considered. PMID:19280628

  12. Eukaryotic damaged DNA-binding proteins: DNA repair proteins or transcription factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Protic, M.

    1994-12-31

    Recognition and removal of structural defects in the genome, caused by diverse physical and chemical agents, are among the most important cell functions. Proteins that recognize and bind to modified DNA, and thereby initiate damage-induced recovery processes, have been identified in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Damaged DNA-binding (DDB) proteins from prokaryotes are either DNA repair enzymes or noncatalytic subunits of larger DNA repair complexes that participate in excision repair, or in recombinational repair and SOS-mutagenesis. Although the methods employed may not have allowed detection of all eukaryotic DDB proteins and identification of their functions, it appears that during evolution cells have developed a wide array of DDB proteins that can discriminate among the diversity of DNA conformations found in the eukaryotic nucleus, as well as a gene-sharing feature found in DDB proteins that also act as transcription factors.

  13. Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, TP; McCammon, J A; Miller, John H; Smith, Paul E; Vorpagel, Erich R; Wong, Chung F; Zacharias, Martin W

    2006-03-03

    The goal of the Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling project is to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of human polymerase-β, one of the key enzymes in base excision repair (BER) and the cell-signaling enzymes cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. This work used molecular modeling and simulation studies to specifically focus on the • dynamics of DNA and damaged DNA • dynamics and energetics of base flipping in DNA • mechanism and fidelity of nucleotide insertion by BER enzyme human polymerase-β • mechanism and inhibitor design for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations have been performed using the computer resources at the Molecular Science Computing Facility at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  14. CFTR protein repair therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gallego, Esther; Delgado-Pecellín, Isabel; Calero Acuña, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a single gene, autosomal recessive disorder, in which more than 1,900 mutations grouped into 6 classes have been described. It is an example a disease that could be well placed to benefit from personalised medicine. There are currently 2 very different approaches that aim to correct the basic defect: gene therapy, aimed at correcting the genetic alteration, and therapy aimed at correcting the defect in the CFTR protein. The latter is beginning to show promising results, with several molecules under development. Ataluren (PTC124) is a molecule designed to make the ribosomes become less sensitive to the premature stop codons responsible for class i mutations. Lumacaftor (VX-809) is a CFTR corrector directed at class ii mutations, among which Phe508del is the most frequent, with encouraging results. Ivacaftor (VX-770) is a potentiator, the only one marketed to date, which has shown good efficacy for the class iii mutation Gly551Asp in children over the age of 6 and adults. These drugs, or a combination of them, are currently undergoing various clinical trials for other less common genetic mutations. In the last 5 years, CFTR has been designated as a therapeutic target. Ivacaftor is the first drug to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis, but only provides a response in a small number of patients. New drugs capable of restoring the CFTR protein damaged by the most common mutations are required.

  15. CFTR protein repair therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gallego, Esther; Delgado-Pecellín, Isabel; Calero Acuña, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a single gene, autosomal recessive disorder, in which more than 1,900 mutations grouped into 6 classes have been described. It is an example a disease that could be well placed to benefit from personalised medicine. There are currently 2 very different approaches that aim to correct the basic defect: gene therapy, aimed at correcting the genetic alteration, and therapy aimed at correcting the defect in the CFTR protein. The latter is beginning to show promising results, with several molecules under development. Ataluren (PTC124) is a molecule designed to make the ribosomes become less sensitive to the premature stop codons responsible for class i mutations. Lumacaftor (VX-809) is a CFTR corrector directed at class ii mutations, among which Phe508del is the most frequent, with encouraging results. Ivacaftor (VX-770) is a potentiator, the only one marketed to date, which has shown good efficacy for the class iii mutation Gly551Asp in children over the age of 6 and adults. These drugs, or a combination of them, are currently undergoing various clinical trials for other less common genetic mutations. In the last 5 years, CFTR has been designated as a therapeutic target. Ivacaftor is the first drug to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis, but only provides a response in a small number of patients. New drugs capable of restoring the CFTR protein damaged by the most common mutations are required. PMID:24095197

  16. Laser-activated protein solder for peripheral nerve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickett, Rodney I.; Lauto, Antonio; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1995-05-01

    A 100 micrometers core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the albumin based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 +/- 5 min. (n equals 20) compared to 23 +/- 9 min. (n equals 10) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 +/- 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 +/- 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study is under way comparing laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. At the time of submission 15 laser soldered nerves and 7 sutured nerves were characterized at 3 months and showed successful regeneration with compound muscle action potentials of 27 +/- 8 mV and 29 +/- 8 mW respectively. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

  17. Laser-activated protein bands for peripheral nerve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Trickett, Rodney I.; Malik, Richard; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1996-01-01

    A 100 micrometer core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the protein based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 plus or minus 5 min. (n equals 24) compared to 23 plus or minus 9 min (n equals 13) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 plus or minus 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 plus or minus 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study, with a total of fifty-seven adult male wistar rats, compared laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. Twenty-four laser soldered nerves and thirteen sutured nerves were characterized at three months and showed successful regeneration with average compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of 2.4 plus or minus 0.7 mV and 2.7 plus or minus 0.8 mV respectively. Histopathology of the in vivo study, confirmed the comparable regeneration of axons in laser and suture operated nerves. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

  18. Identification of novel DNA repair proteins via primary sequence, secondary structure, and homology

    PubMed Central

    Brown, JB; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Background DNA repair is the general term for the collection of critical mechanisms which repair many forms of DNA damage such as methylation or ionizing radiation. DNA repair has mainly been studied in experimental and clinical situations, and relatively few information-based approaches to new extracting DNA repair knowledge exist. As a first step, automatic detection of DNA repair proteins in genomes via informatics techniques is desirable; however, there are many forms of DNA repair and it is not a straightforward process to identify and classify repair proteins with a single optimal method. We perform a study of the ability of homology and machine learning-based methods to identify and classify DNA repair proteins, as well as scan vertebrate genomes for the presence of novel repair proteins. Combinations of primary sequence polypeptide frequency, secondary structure, and homology information are used as feature information for input to a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Results We identify that SVM techniques are capable of identifying portions of DNA repair protein datasets without admitting false positives; at low levels of false positive tolerance, homology can also identify and classify proteins with good performance. Secondary structure information provides improved performance compared to using primary structure alone. Furthermore, we observe that machine learning methods incorporating homology information perform best when data is filtered by some clustering technique. Analysis by applying these methodologies to the scanning of multiple vertebrate genomes confirms a positive correlation between the size of a genome and the number of DNA repair protein transcripts it is likely to contain, and simultaneously suggests that all organisms have a non-zero minimum number of repair genes. In addition, the scan result clusters several organisms' repair abilities in an evolutionarily consistent fashion. Analysis also identifies several functionally unconfirmed

  19. Repair of uv damaged DNA: Genes and proteins of yeast and human

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, L.

    1992-04-01

    Our objectives are to determine the molecular mechanism of the incision step of excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) light damaged DNA in eukaryotic organisms, using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, and to study the human homologs of yeast excision repair and postreplication repair proteins progress is described.

  20. Understanding the molecular mechanism of formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein crosslink repair

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde induces DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in several experimental in vitro and in vivo test systems, as well as in exposed human workers. DPCs are repaired by several DNA repair pathways in different species, but the molecular understanding of DPC repair in human tissues...

  1. Spatiotemporal analysis of DNA repair using charged particle radiation.

    PubMed

    Tobias, F; Durante, M; Taucher-Scholz, G; Jakob, B

    2010-01-01

    Approaches to visualise the dynamics of the DNA lesion processing substantially contributes to the understanding of the hierarchical organisation of the DNA damage response pathways. Charged particle irradiation has recently emerged as a tool to generate discrete sites of subnuclear damage by its means of extremely localised dose deposition at low energies, thus facilitating the spatiotemporal analysis of repair events. In addition, they are of high interest for risk estimations of human space exploration (e.g. mars mission) in the high energy regime (HZE). In this short review we will give examples for the application of charged particle irradiation to study spatiotemporal aspects of DNA damage recognition and repair in the context of recent achievements in this field. Beamline microscopy allows determining the exact kinetics of repair-related proteins after irradiation with different charged particles that induce different lesion densities. The classification into fast recruited proteins like DNA-PK or XRCC1 or slower recruited ones like 53BP1 or MDC1 helps to establish the hierarchical organisation of damage recognition and subsequent repair events. Additionally, motional analysis of DNA lesions induced by traversing particles proved information about the mobility of DSBs. Increased mobility or the absence of large scale motion has direct consequences on the formation of chromosomal translocations and, thus, on mechanisms of cancer formation. Charged particle microbeams offer the interesting perspective of precise nuclear or subnuclear targeting with a defined number of ions, avoiding the Poisson distribution of traversals inherent to broad beam experiments. With the help of the microbeam, geometrical patterns of traversing ions can be applied facilitating the analysis of spatial organisation of repair. PMID:19944777

  2. The Intertwined Roles of Transcription and Repair Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Yick W.; Cattoglio, Claudia; Tjian, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Transcription is apparently risky business. Its intrinsic mutagenic potential must be kept in check by networks of DNA repair factors that monitor the transcription process to repair DNA lesions that could otherwise compromise transcriptional fidelity and genome integrity. Intriguingly, recent studies point to an even more direct function of DNA repair complexes as co-activators of transcription and the unexpected role of “scheduled” DNA damage/repair at gene promoters. Paradoxically, spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks also induce ectopic transcription that is essential for repair. Thus, transcription, DNA damage and repair may be more physically and functionally intertwined than previously appreciated. PMID:24207023

  3. Mutagenic roles of DNA "repair" proteins in antibody diversity and disease-associated trinucleotide repeat instability.

    PubMed

    Slean, Meghan M; Panigrahi, Gagan B; Ranum, Laura P; Pearson, Christopher E

    2008-07-01

    While DNA repair proteins are generally thought to maintain the integrity of the whole genome by correctly repairing mutagenic DNA intermediates, there are cases where DNA "repair" proteins are involved in causing mutations instead. For instance, somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) require the contribution of various DNA repair proteins, including UNG, MSH2 and MSH6 to mutate certain regions of immunoglobulin genes in order to generate antibodies of increased antigen affinity and altered effector functions. Another instance where "repair" proteins drive mutations is the instability of gene-specific trinucleotide repeats (TNR), the causative mutations of numerous diseases including Fragile X mental retardation syndrome (FRAXA), Huntington's disease (HD), myotonic dystrophy (DM1) and several spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) all of which arise via various modes of pathogenesis. These healthy and deleterious mutations that are induced by repair proteins are distinct from the genome-wide mutations that arise in the absence of repair proteins: they occur at specific loci, are sensitive to cis-elements (sequence context and/or epigenetic marks) and transcription, occur in specific tissues during distinct developmental windows, and are age-dependent. Here we review and compare the mutagenic role of DNA "repair" proteins in the processes of SHM, CSR and TNR instability.

  4. Antagonistic role of tea against sodium arsenite-induced oxidative DNA damage and inhibition of DNA repair in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dona; Roy, Madhumita

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater is of increasing health concern in West Bengal, India. Arsenic has been associated with various human cancers, but the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is not clearly elucidated. Oxidative stress and defective repair mechanisms may promote accumulation of mutations and may be a stepping stone for carcinogenesis. Prevention of arsenic-induced oxidative stress and repair inhibition may reduce the chances of initiation of cancer. Tea polyphenols are reported to have excellent chemopreventive properties against cancer. This study aimed to elucidate the role of tea against arsenic-induced formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and arsenic-suppressed DNA repair in Swiss albino mice. Both green and black tea gave fruitful results in the reduction of 8OHdG and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in Swiss albino mice administered sodium arsenite (As III). DNA repair enzymes--such as PARP1, DNA β-polymerase, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, DNA protein kinase (catalytic subunit), XRCC 4, DNA ligase IV, and DNA topoisomerase IIβ--were induced by the phytochemicals at both the protein and genetic levels. Thus, tea polyphenols may prove effective in treating arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

  5. Mitotic crossovers between diverged sequences are regulated by mismatch repair proteins in Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, A; Adjiri, A; New, L; Crouse, G F; Jinks Robertson, S

    1996-01-01

    Mismatch repair systems correct replication- and recombination-associated mispaired bases and influence the stability of simple repeats. These systems thus serve multiple roles in maintaining genetic stability in eukaryotes, and human mismatch repair defects have been associated with hereditary predisposition to cancer. In prokaryotes, mismatch repair systems also have been shown to limit recombination between diverged (homologous) sequences. We have developed a unique intron-based assay system to examine the effects of yeast mismatch repair genes (PMS1, MSH2, and MSH3) on crossovers between homologous sequences. We find that the apparent antirecombination effects of mismatch repair proteins in mitosis are related to the degree of substrate divergence. Defects in mismatch repair can elevate homologous recombination between 91% homologous substrates as much as 100-fold while having only modest effects on recombination between 77% homologous substrates. These observations have implications for genome stability and general mechanisms of recombination in eukaryotes. PMID:8622653

  6. A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein in direct alkylation repair.

    PubMed

    Shivange, Gururaj; Kodipelli, Naveena; Monisha, Mohan; Anindya, Roy

    2014-12-26

    Alkylating agents induce cytotoxic DNA base adducts. In this work, we provide evidence to suggest, for the first time, that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tpa1 protein is involved in DNA alkylation repair. Little is known about Tpa1 as a repair protein beyond the initial observation from a high-throughput analysis indicating that deletion of TPA1 causes methyl methane sulfonate sensitivity in S. cerevisiae. Using purified Tpa1, we demonstrate that Tpa1 repairs both single- and double-stranded methylated DNA. Tpa1 is a member of the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family, and we show that mutation of the amino acid residues involved in cofactor binding abolishes the Tpa1 DNA repair activity. Deletion of TPA1 along with the base excision repair pathway DNA glycosylase MAG1 renders the tpa1Δmag1Δ double mutant highly susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. We further demonstrate that the trans-lesion synthesis DNA polymerase Polζ (REV3) plays a key role in tolerating DNA methyl-base lesions and that tpa1Δmag1revΔ3 triple mutant is extremely susceptible to methylation-induced toxicity. Our results indicate a synergism between the base excision repair pathway and direct alkylation repair by Tpa1 in S. cerevisiae. We conclude that Tpa1 is a hitherto unidentified DNA repair protein in yeast and that it plays a crucial role in reverting alkylated DNA base lesions and cytotoxicity.

  7. Quantification of DNA repair protein kinetics after γ-irradiation using number and brightness analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdisalaam, Salim; Poudel, Milan; Chen, David J.; Alexandrakis, George

    2011-03-01

    The kinetics of most proteins involved in DNA damage sensing, signaling and repair following ionizing radiation exposure cannot be quantified by current live cell fluorescence microscopy methods. This is because most of these proteins, with only few notable exceptions, do not attach in large numbers at DNA damage sites to form easily detectable foci in microscopy images. As a result a high fluorescence background from freely moving and immobile fluorescent proteins in the nucleus masks the aggregation of proteins at sparse DNA damage sites. Currently, the kinetics of these repair proteins are studied by laser-induced damage and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching that rely on the detectability of high fluorescence intensity spots of clustered DNA damage. We report on the use of Number and Brightness (N&B) analysis methods as a means to monitor kinetics of DNA repair proteins during sparse DNA damage created by γ-irradiation, which is more relevant to cancer treatment than laser-induced clustered damage. We use two key double strand break repair proteins, namely Ku 70/80 and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKCS), as specific examples to showcase the feasibility of the proposed methods to quantify dose-dependent kinetics for DNA repair proteins after exposure to γ-rays.

  8. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells. PMID:26183436

  9. Proteomic identification of hair cell repair proteins in the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Watson, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Sea anemones have an extraordinary capability to repair damaged hair bundles, even after severe trauma. A group of secreted proteins, named repair proteins (RPs), found in mucus covering sea anemones significantly assists the repair of damaged hair bundle mechanoreceptors both in the sea anemone Haliplanella luciae and the blind cavefish Astyanax hubbsi. The polypeptide constituents of RPs must be identified in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms by which repair of hair bundles is accomplished. In this study, several polypeptides of RPs were isolated from mucus using blue native PAGE and then sequenced using LC-MS/MS. Thirty-seven known polypeptides were identified, including Hsp70s, as well as many polypeptide subunits of the 20S proteasome. Other identified polypeptides included those involved in cellular stress responses, protein folding, and protein degradation. Specific inhibitors of Hsp70s and the 20S proteasome were employed in experiments to test their involvement in hair bundle repair. The results of those experiments suggested that repair requires biologically active Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes. A model is proposed that considers the function of extracellular Hsp70s and 20S proteasomes in the repair of damaged hair cells.

  10. DNA damage repair and genetic polymorphisms: Assessment of individual sensitivity and repair capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Cornetta, Tommaso; Festa, Fabiola; Testa, Antonella; Cozzi, Renata Prof. . E-mail: cozzi@uniroma3.it

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To study the repair capacity after X-ray irradiation in human peripheral blood cells of healthy subjects, in relation to their genotypes. Methods and Materials: The peripheral blood of 50 healthy subjects was irradiated in vitro with 2 Gy of X rays and the induced DNA damage was measured by Comet assay immediately after irradiation. DNA repair was detected by analyzing the cells at defined time intervals after the exposure. Furthermore, all subjects were genotyped for XRCC1, OGG1, and XPC genes. Results: After X-ray irradiation, persons bearing XRCC1 homozygous variant (codon 399) genotype exhibited significantly lower Tail DNA values than those bearing wild-type and heterozygous genotypes. These results are also confirmed at 30 and 60 min after irradiation. Furthermore, XPC heterozygous subjects (variant codon 939) showed lower residual DNA damage 60 min after irradiation compared with wild-type and homozygous genotypes. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could influence individual DNA repair capacity.

  11. Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and MDR1 and the Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Nan Young; Yu, Li; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Lee, Il-Kwon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Shin, Min-Ho; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Choi, Jin-Su; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    The damage caused by oxidative stress and exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol necessitate DNA damage repair and transport by multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1). To explore the association between polymorphisms in these genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk, we analyzed 15 polymorphisms of 12 genes in a population-based study in Korea (694 cases and 1700 controls). Four genotypes of DNA repair pathway genes (XRCC1 399 GA, OGG1 326 GG, BRCA1 871 TT, and WRN 787 TT) were associated with a decreased risk for NHL [odds ratio (OR)XRCC1 GA = 0.80, p = 0.02; OROGG1 GG = 0.70, p = 0.008; ORBRCA1 TT = 0.71, p = 0.048; ORWRN TT = 0.68, p = 0.01]. Conversely, the MGMT 115 CT genotype was associated with an increased risk for NHL (OR = 1.25, p = 0.04). In the MDR1 gene, the 1236 CC genotype was associated with a decreased risk for NHL (OR = 0.74, p = 0.04), and the 3435 CT and TT genotypes were associated with an increased risk (OR3435CT = 1.50, p < 0.0001; OR3435TT = 1.43, p = 0.02). These results suggest that polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1, OGG1, BRCA1, WRN1, and MGMT and in the MDR1 gene may affect the risk for NHL in Korean patients. PMID:24756092

  12. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and MDR1 and the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Nan Young; Yu, Li; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Lee, Il-Kwon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Shin, Min-Ho; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Choi, Jin-Su; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon

    2014-04-21

    The damage caused by oxidative stress and exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol necessitate DNA damage repair and transport by multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1). To explore the association between polymorphisms in these genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk, we analyzed 15 polymorphisms of 12 genes in a population-based study in Korea (694 cases and 1700 controls). Four genotypes of DNA repair pathway genes (XRCC1 399 GA, OGG1 326 GG, BRCA1 871 TT, and WRN 787 TT) were associated with a decreased risk for NHL [odds ratio (OR)XRCC1 GA=0.80, p=0.02; OROGG1 GG=0.70, p=0.008; ORBRCA1 TT=0.71, p=0.048; ORWRN TT=0.68, p=0.01]. Conversely, the MGMT 115 CT genotype was associated with an increased risk for NHL (OR=1.25, p=0.04). In the MDR1 gene, the 1236 CC genotype was associated with a decreased risk for NHL (OR=0.74, p=0.04), and the 3435 CT and TT genotypes were associated with an increased risk (OR3435CT=1.50, p<0.0001; OR3435TT=1.43, p=0.02). These results suggest that polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1, OGG1, BRCA1, WRN1, and MGMT and in the MDR1 gene may affect the risk for NHL in Korean patients.

  13. An Achilles' Heel in an Amyloidogenic Protein and Its Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanwu; Petkova, Aneta; Huang, Kun; Xu, Bin; Hua, Qing-xin; Ye, I-Ju; Chu, Ying-Chi; Hu, Shi-Quan; Phillips, Nelson B.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Mackin, Robert B.; Katsoyannis, Panayotis G.; Tycko, Robert; Weiss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Insulin fibrillation provides a model for a broad class of amyloidogenic diseases. Conformational distortion of the native monomer leads to aggregation-coupled misfolding. Whereas β-cells are protected from proteotoxicity by hexamer assembly, fibrillation limits the storage and use of insulin at elevated temperatures. Here, we have investigated conformational distortions of an engineered insulin monomer in relation to the structure of an insulin fibril. Anomalous 13C NMR chemical shifts and rapid 15N-detected 1H-2H amide-proton exchange were observed in one of the three classical α-helices (residues A1–A8) of the hormone, suggesting a conformational equilibrium between locally folded and unfolded A-chain segments. Whereas hexamer assembly resolves these anomalies in accordance with its protective role, solid-state 13C NMR studies suggest that the A-chain segment participates in a fibril-specific β-sheet. Accordingly, we investigated whether helicogenic substitutions in the A1–A8 segment might delay fibrillation. Simultaneous substitution of three β-branched residues (IleA2 → Leu, ValA3 → Leu, and ThrA8 → His) yielded an analog with reduced thermodynamic stability but marked resistance to fibrillation. Whereas amide-proton exchange in the A1–A8 segment remained rapid, 13Cα chemical shifts exhibited a more helical pattern. This analog is essentially without activity, however, as IleA2 and ValA3 define conserved receptor contacts. To obtain active analogs, substitutions were restricted to A8. These analogs exhibit high receptor-binding affinity; representative potency in a rodent model of diabetes mellitus was similar to wild-type insulin. Although 13Cα chemical shifts remain anomalous, significant protection from fibrillation is retained. Together, our studies define an “Achilles' heel” in a globular protein whose repair may enhance the stability of pharmaceutical formulations and broaden their therapeutic deployment in the developing world

  14. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  15. Repair of UV damaged DNA, genes and proteins of yeast and human

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, L.

    1991-04-01

    Our objectives are to determine the molecular mechanism of the incision step of excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) light damaged DNA in eukaryotic organisms, using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, as well as studying the human homologs of yeast excision repair and postreplication repair proteins. In addition to its single-stranded DNA-dependent A TPase and DNA helicase activities, we have found that RAD3 protein also possesses DNA-RNA helicase activity, and that like RAD3, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RAD3 homolog, rhp3{sup +}, is an essential gene. We have overexpressed the human RAD3 homolog, ERCC2, in yeast to facilitate its purification. The RAD10 protein was purified to homogeneity and shown to bind DNA. ERCC3y, the yeast homolog of the human ERCC-3/XP-B gene, has been sequenced and shown to be essential for viability. The Drosophila and human homologs of RAD6, required for postreplication repair and UV induced mutagenesis, were shown to complement the rad6 {Delta} mutation of yeast. Since defective DNA repair and enhanced neoplasia characterize several human genetic diseases, and repair proteins are highly conserved between yeast and man, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of DNA repir in yeast should provide a better understanding of the causes of carcinogenesis.

  16. Production, Purification, and Characterization of 15N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C.; Lowenthal, Mark S.; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA–protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length 15N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of 15N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented. PMID:26791985

  17. Zinc Binding to MG53 Protein Facilitates Repair of Injury to Cell Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chuanxi; Lin, Peihui; Zhu, Hua; Ko, Jae-Kyun; Hwang, Moonsun; Tan, Tao; Pan, Zui; Korichneva, Irina; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element that participates in a wide range of biological functions, including wound healing. Although Zn2+ deficiency has been linked to compromised wound healing and tissue repair in human diseases, the molecular mechanisms underlying Zn2+-mediated tissue repair remain unknown. Our previous studies established that MG53, a TRIM (tripartite motif) family protein, is an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Domain homology analysis revealed that MG53 contains two Zn2+-binding motifs. Here, we show that Zn2+ binding to MG53 is indispensable to assembly of the cell membrane repair machinery. Live cell imaging illustrated that Zn2+ entry from extracellular space is essential for translocation of MG53-containing vesicles to the acute membrane injury sites for formation of a repair patch. The effect of Zn2+ on membrane repair is abolished in mg53−/− muscle fibers, suggesting that MG53 functions as a potential target for Zn2+ during membrane repair. Mutagenesis studies suggested that both RING and B-box motifs of MG53 constitute Zn2+-binding domains that contribute to MG53-mediated membrane repair. Overall, this study establishes a base for Zn2+ interaction with MG53 in protection against injury to the cell membrane. PMID:25869134

  18. The Friedreich's ataxia protein frataxin modulates DNA base excision repair in prokaryotes and mammals.

    PubMed

    Thierbach, René; Drewes, Gunnar; Fusser, Markus; Voigt, Anja; Kuhlow, Doreen; Blume, Urte; Schulz, Tim J; Reiche, Carina; Glatt, Hansruedi; Epe, Bernd; Steinberg, Pablo; Ristow, Michael

    2010-11-15

    DNA-repair mechanisms enable cells to maintain their genetic information by protecting it from mutations that may cause malignant growth. Recent evidence suggests that specific DNA-repair enzymes contain ISCs (iron-sulfur clusters). The nuclearencoded protein frataxin is essential for the mitochondrial biosynthesis of ISCs. Frataxin deficiency causes a neurodegenerative disorder named Friedreich's ataxia in humans. Various types of cancer occurring at young age are associated with this disease, and hence with frataxin deficiency. Mice carrying a hepatocyte-specific disruption of the frataxin gene develop multiple liver tumours for unresolved reasons. In the present study, we show that frataxin deficiency in murine liver is associated with increased basal levels of oxidative DNA base damage. Accordingly, eukaryotic V79 fibroblasts overexpressing human frataxin show decreased basal levels of these modifications, while prokaryotic Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium TA104 strains transformed with human frataxin show decreased mutation rates. The repair rates of oxidative DNA base modifications in V79 cells overexpressing frataxin were significantly higher than in control cells. Lastly, cleavage activity related to the ISC-independent repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase was found to be unaltered by frataxin overexpression. These findings indicate that frataxin modulates DNA-repair mechanisms probably due to its impact on ISC-dependent repair proteins, linking mitochondrial dysfunction to DNA repair and tumour initiation.

  19. Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zdżalik, Daria; Domańska, Anna; Prorok, Paulina; Kosicki, Konrad; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Tudek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno (ε)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ε-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ε-adducts, 1,N6-ethenoadenine (εA), 3,N4-ethenocytosine (εC) and 1,N2-ethenoguanine (1,N2-εG) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ε-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed εA and εC from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N2-εG. SC-1A repaired only εA with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ε-adducts in dsDNA, while only εA and εC in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only εC in ssDNA Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N2-εG and that ALKBH3 removes only εC from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins. PMID:25797601

  20. Conserved and nonconserved proteins for meiotic DNA breakage and repair in yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer A; Hyppa, Randy W; Smith, Gerald R

    2004-01-01

    During meiosis DNA double-strand breaks initiate recombination in the distantly related budding and fission yeasts and perhaps in most eukaryotes. Repair of broken meiotic DNA is essential for formation of viable gametes. We report here distinct but overlapping sets of proteins in these yeasts required for formation and repair of double-strand breaks. Meiotic DNA breakage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe did not require Rad50 or Rad32, although the homologs Rad50 and Mre11 are required in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; these proteins are required for meiotic DNA break repair in both yeasts. DNA breakage required the S. pombe midmeiosis transcription factor Mei4, but the structurally unrelated midmeiosis transcription factor Ndt80 is not required for breakage in S. cerevisiae. Rhp51, Swi5, and Rad22 + Rti1 were required for full levels of DNA repair in S. pombe, as are the related S. cerevisiae proteins Rad51, Sae3, and Rad52. Dmc1 was not required for repair in S. pombe, but its homolog Dmc1 is required in the well-studied strain SK1 of S. cerevisiae. Additional proteins required in one yeast have no obvious homologs in the other yeast. The occurrence of conserved and nonconserved proteins indicates potential diversity in the mechanism of meiotic recombination and divergence of the machinery during the evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:15238514

  1. Protein oxidation and DNA repair inhibition by 6-thioguanine and UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Gueranger, Quentin; Li, Feng; Peacock, Matthew; Larnicol-Fery, Annabel; Brem, Reto; Macpherson, Peter; Egly, Jean-Marc; Karran, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Damage to skin DNA by solar UV is largely unavoidable, and an optimal cellular response to it requires the coordinated operation of proteins in numerous pathways. A fully functional DNA repair proteome for removing harmful DNA lesions is a prerequisite for an appropriate DNA damage response. Genetically determined failure to repair UV-induced DNA damage is associated with skin photosensitivity and increased skin cancer risk. Patients treated with immunosuppressant/anti-inflammatory thiopurines are also photosensitive and have high rates of sun-related skin cancer. Their DNA contains the base analog 6-thioguanine (6-TG), which acts as a UVA photosensitizer to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), predominantly singlet oxygen ((1)O2). ROS damage both DNA and proteins. Here we show that UVA irradiation of cultured human cells containing DNA 6-TG causes significant protein oxidation and damages components of the DNA repair proteome, including the Ku, OGG-1, MYH, and RPA proteins. Assays of DNA repair in intact cells or in cell extracts indicate that this protein damage compromises DNA break rejoining and base and nucleotide excision repair. As these experimental conditions simulate those in the skin of patients taking thiopurines, our findings suggest a mechanism whereby UVA in sunlight may contribute to skin carcinogenesis in immunosuppressed patients.

  2. Repair of uv damaged DNA: Genes and proteins of yeast and human. Progress report, November 1, 1991--April 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, L.

    1992-04-01

    Our objectives are to determine the molecular mechanism of the incision step of excision repair of ultraviolet (UV) light damaged DNA in eukaryotic organisms, using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, and to study the human homologs of yeast excision repair and postreplication repair proteins progress is described.

  3. Solid protein solder-doped biodegradable polymer membranes for laser-assisted tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Diane E.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2000-05-01

    Solid protein solder-doped polymer membranes have been developed for laser-assisted tissue repair. Biodegradable polymer films of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) using a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique. The films provided a porous scaffold that readily absorbed the traditional protein solder mix composed of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and indocyanine green (ICG) dye. In vitro investigations were conducted to assess the influence of various processing parameters on the strength of tissue repairs formed using the new membranes. These parameters included the PLGA copolymer and PLGA/PEG blend ratio, the salt particle size, the initial bovine serum albumin (BSA) weight fraction, and the laser irradiance used to denature the solder. Altering the PLGA copolymer ratio had little effect on repair strength, however, it influenced the membrane degradation rate. Repair strength increased with increased membrane pore size and BSA concentration. The addition of PEG during the film casting stage increased the flexibility of the membranes but not necessarily the repair strength. The repair strength increased with increasing irradiance from 12 W/cm2 to 15 W/cm2. The new solder-doped polymer membranes provide all of the benefits associated with solid protein solders including high repair strength and improved edge coaptation. In addition, the flexible and moldable nature of the new membranes offer the capability of tailoring the membranes to a wide range of tissue geometries, and consequently, improved clinical applicability of laser- assisted tissue repair.

  4. Repair of DNA lesions in chromosomal DNA impact of chromatin structure and Cockayne syndrome proteins.

    PubMed

    Fousteri, Maria; van Hoffen, Anneke; Vargova, Hana; Mullenders, Leon H F

    2005-07-28

    Decondensation of chromatin is essential to facilitate access to DNA metabolizing processes such as transcription and DNA repair. Disruption of histone-DNA contacts by histone modification or by ATP dependent chromatin remodelling allows DNA-binding proteins to compete with histones for DNA. The efficiency of global genome nucleotide excision repair (GGR) that removes a variety of helix distorting DNA lesions is known to be affected by chromatin structure most notably demonstrated by the slow repair of heterochromatin. In addition, the efficiency of GGR to repair lesions in transcriptionally active genes requires functional CSA and B proteins. We found that repair of UV-photolesions in both strands of the active adenosine deaminase gene was delayed in CS cells when compared to normal human fibroblasts. We suggest that the lack of transcription recovery characteristic for CS cells exposed to DNA damaging agents, might lead to changes in the chromatin structure of active genes, causing less efficient repair of lesions in these genes when compared to normal cells. PMID:15961352

  5. Role of β-catenin-regulated CCN matricellular proteins in epithelial repair after inflammatory lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zemans, Rachel L; McClendon, Jazalle; Aschner, Yael; Briones, Natalie; Young, Scott K; Lau, Lester F; Kahn, Michael; Downey, Gregory P

    2013-03-15

    Repair of the lung epithelium after injury is integral to the pathogenesis and outcomes of diverse inflammatory lung diseases. We previously reported that β-catenin signaling promotes epithelial repair after inflammatory injury, but the β-catenin target genes that mediate this effect are unknown. Herein, we examined which β-catenin transcriptional coactivators and target genes promote epithelial repair after inflammatory injury. Transmigration of human neutrophils across cultured monolayers of human lung epithelial cells resulted in a fall in transepithelial resistance and the formation of discrete areas of epithelial denudation ("microinjury"), which repaired via cell spreading by 96 h. In mice treated with intratracheal (i.t.) LPS or keratinocyte chemokine, neutrophil emigration was associated with increased permeability of the lung epithelium, as determined by increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid albumin concentration, which decreased over 3-6 days. Activation of β-catenin/p300-dependent gene expression using the compound ICG-001 accelerated epithelial repair in vitro and in murine models. Neutrophil transmigration induced epithelial expression of the β-catenin/p300 target genes Wnt-induced secreted protein (WISP) 1 and cysteine-rich (Cyr) 61, as determined by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunostaining. Purified neutrophil elastase induced WISP1 upregulation in lung epithelial cells, as determined by qPCR. WISP1 expression increased in murine lungs after i.t. LPS, as determined by ELISA of the BAL fluid and qPCR of whole lung extracts. Finally, recombinant WISP1 and Cyr61 accelerated repair, and Cyr61-neutralizing antibodies delayed repair of the injured epithelium in vitro. We conclude that β-catenin/p300-dependent expression of WISP1 and Cyr61 is critical for epithelial repair and represents a potential therapeutic target to promote epithelial repair after inflammatory injury.

  6. Functional interactions and signaling properties of mammalian DNA mismatch repair proteins.

    PubMed

    Bellacosa, A

    2001-11-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) system promotes genomic fidelity by repairing base-base mismatches, insertion-deletion loops and heterologies generated during DNA replication and recombination. This function is critically dependent on the assembling of multimeric complexes involved in mismatch recognition and signal transduction to downstream repair events. In addition, MMR proteins coordinate a complex network of physical and functional interactions that mediate other DNA transactions, such as transcription-coupled repair, base excision repair and recombination. MMR proteins are also involved in activation of cell cycle checkpoint and induction of apoptosis when DNA damage overwhelms a critical threshold. For this reason, they play a role in cell death by alkylating agents and other chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin. Inactivation of MMR genes in hereditary and sporadic cancer is associated with a mutator phenotype and inhibition of apoptosis. In the future, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional interactions of MMR proteins will lead to the development of more effective cancer prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:11687886

  7. The Rad9 protein enhances survival and promotes DNA repair following exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Patrick D.; Helt, Christopher E.; Keng, Peter C.; Bambara, Robert A. . E-mail: robert_bambara@urmc.rochester.edu

    2006-08-18

    Following DNA damage cells initiate cell cycle checkpoints to allow time to repair sustained lesions. Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 proteins form a toroidal complex, termed the 9-1-1 complex, that is involved in checkpoint signaling. 9-1-1 shares high structural similarity to the DNA replication protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and 9-1-1 has been shown in vitro to stimulate steps of the repair process known as long patch base excision repair. Using a system that allows conditional repression of the Rad9 protein in human cell culture, we show that Rad9, and by extension, the 9-1-1 complex, enhances cell survival, is required for efficient exit from G2-phase arrest, and stimulates the repair of damaged DNA following ionizing radiation. These data provide in vivo evidence that the human 9-1-1 complex participates in DNA repair in addition to its previously described role in DNA damage sensing.

  8. FIGNL1-containing protein complex is required for efficient homologous recombination repair

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingsong; Chen, Junjie

    2013-01-01

    The RAD51 recombinase plays a central role in homologous recombination (HR), which is critical for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, maintenance of genomic stability, and prevention of developmental disorders and cancer. Here, we report the identification of an RAD51-binding protein fidgetin-like 1 (FIGNL1). FIGNL1 specifically interacts with RAD51 through its conserved RAD51 binding domain. Cells depleted of FIGNL1 show defective HR repair. Interestingly, FIGNL1 is recruited to sites of DNA damage in a manner that is independent of breast cancer 2, early onset, RAD51, and probably, RAD51 paralogs. Conversely, FIGNL1 depletion does not affect the loading of RAD51 onto ssDNA. Our additional analysis uncovered KIAA0146, also known as scaffolding protein involved in DNA repair (SPIDR), as a binding partner of FIGNL1 and established that KIAA0146/SPIDR acts with FIGNL1 in HR repair. Collectively, our study uncovers a protein complex, which consists of FIGNL1 and KIAA0146/SPIDR, in DNA repair and provides potential directions for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23754376

  9. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  10. Proteasome inhibition rescues clinically significant unstable variants of the mismatch repair protein Msh2

    PubMed Central

    Arlow, Tim; Scott, Kristan; Wagenseller, Aubrey; Gammie, Alison

    2013-01-01

    MSH2 is required for DNA mismatch repair recognition in eukaryotes. Deleterious mutations in human MSH2 account for approximately half of the alleles associated with a common hereditary cancer syndrome. Previously, we characterized clinically identified MSH2 missense mutations, using yeast as a model system, and found that the most common cause of defective DNA mismatch repair was low levels of the variant Msh2 proteins. Here, we show that increased protein turnover is responsible for the reduced cellular levels. Increasing gene dosage of more than half of the missense alleles fully restored function. A titration experiment revealed that raising the expression level of one variant to less than wild-type levels restored mismatch repair, suggesting that overexpression is not always required to regain function. We found that the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation pathway is the major mechanism for increased turnover of the Msh2 variants and identified the primary ubiquitin ligase as San1. Deletion of San1 restored protein levels for all but one variant, but did not elevate wild-type Msh2 levels. The unstable variants interacted with San1, whereas wild-type Msh2 did not. Additionally, san1Δ suppressed the mismatch repair defect of unstable variants. Of medical significance, the clinically approved drug Bortezomib partially restored protein levels and mismatch repair function for low-level variants and reversed the resistance to cisplatin, a common chemotherapeutic. Our results provide the foundation for an innovative therapeutic regime for certain mismatch-repair-defective cancers that are refractory to conventional chemotherapies. PMID:23248292

  11. A novel structure of DNA repair protein RecO from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Makharashvili, Nodar; Koroleva, Olga; Bera, Sibes; Grandgenett, Duane P; Korolev, Sergey

    2004-10-01

    Recovery of arrested replication requires coordinated action of DNA repair, replication, and recombination machineries. Bacterial RecO protein is a member of RecF recombination repair pathway important for replication recovery. RecO possesses two distinct activities in vitro, closely resembling those of eukaryotic protein Rad52: DNA annealing and RecA-mediated DNA recombination. Here we present the crystal structure of the RecO protein from the extremely radiation resistant bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans (DrRecO) and characterize its DNA binding and strand annealing properties. The RecO structure is totally different from the Rad52 structure. DrRecO is comprised of three structural domains: an N-terminal domain which adopts an OB-fold, a novel alpha-helical domain, and an unusual zinc-binding domain. Sequence alignments suggest that the multidomain architecture is conserved between RecO proteins from other bacterial species and is suitable to elucidate sites of protein-protein and DNA-protein interactions necessary for RecO functions during the replication recovery and DNA repair. PMID:15458636

  12. Understanding the Molecular Mechanism(s) of Formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein Crosslink Repair

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although formaldehyde has been shown to induce many kinds of DNA damage both in in vitro and in vivo assay systems, initial DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) formation might play a major role in FA-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Several DNA repair pathways, such as base excisi...

  13. New paradigms in the repair of oxidative damage in human genome: mechanisms ensuring repair of mutagenic base lesions during replication and involvement of accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arijit; Yang, Chunying; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-05-01

    Oxidized bases in the mammalian genome, which are invariably mutagenic due to their mispairing property, are continuously induced by endogenous reactive oxygen species and more abundantly after oxidative stress. Unlike bulky base adducts induced by UV and other environmental mutagens in the genome that block replicative DNA polymerases, oxidatively damaged bases such as 5-hydroxyuracil, produced by oxidative deamination of cytosine in the template strand, do not block replicative polymerases and thus need to be repaired prior to replication to prevent mutation. Following up our earlier studies, which showed that the Nei endonuclease VIII like 1 (NEIL1) DNA glycosylase, one of the five base excision repair (BER)-initiating enzymes in mammalian cells, has enhanced expression during the S-phase and higher affinity for replication fork-mimicking single-stranded (ss) DNA substrates, we recently provided direct experimental evidence for NEIL1's role in replicating template strand repair. The key requirement for this event, which we named as the 'cow-catcher' mechanism of pre-replicative BER, is NEIL1's non-productive binding (substrate binding without product formation) to the lesion base in ss DNA template to stall DNA synthesis, causing fork regression. Repair of the lesion in reannealed duplex is then carried out by NEIL1 in association with the DNA replication proteins. NEIL1 (and other BER-initiating enzymes) also interact with several accessory and non-canonical proteins including the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U and Y-box-binding protein 1 as well as high mobility group box 1 protein, whose precise roles in BER are still obscure. In this review, we have discussed the recent advances in our understanding of oxidative genome damage repair pathways with particular focus on the pre-replicative template strand repair and the role of scaffold factors like X-ray repairs cross-complementing protein 1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and other accessory

  14. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-01-01

    DNA-protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA-protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination. PMID:25879709

  15. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells.

    PubMed

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-05-01

    DNA-protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA-protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination. PMID:25879709

  16. The DNA base excision repair protein Ape1/Ref-1 as a therapeutic and chemopreventive target.

    PubMed

    Fishel, Melissa L; Kelley, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    With our growing understanding of the pathways involved in cell proliferation and signaling, targeted therapies, in the treatment of cancer are entering the clinical arena. New and emerging targets are proteins involved in DNA repair pathways. Inhibition of various proteins in the DNA repair pathways sensitizes cancer cells to DNA damaging agents such as chemotherapy and/or radiation. We study the apurinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) and believe that its crucial function in DNA repair and reduction-oxidation or redox signaling make it an excellent target for sensitizing tumor cells to chemotherapy. Ape1/Ref-1 is an essential enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway which is responsible for the repair of DNA caused by oxidative and alkylation damage. As importantly, Ape1/Ref-1 also functions as a redox factor maintaining transcription factors in an active reduced state. Ape1/Ref-1 stimulates the DNA binding activity of numerous transcription factors that are involved in cancer promotion and progression such as AP-1 (Fos/Jun), NFkappaB, HIF-1alpha, CREB, p53 and others. We will discuss what is known regarding the pharmacological targeting of the DNA repair activity, as well as the redox activity of Ape1/Ref-1, and explore the budding clinical utility of inhibition of either of these functions in cancer treatment. A brief discussion of the effect of polymorphisms in its DNA sequence is included because of Ape1/Ref-1's importance to maintenance and integrity of the genome. Experimental modification of Ape1/Ref-1 activity changes the response of cells and of organisms to DNA damaging agents, suggesting that Ape1/Ref-1 may also be a productive target of chemoprevention. In this review, we will provide an overview of Ape1/Ref-1's activities and explore the potential of this protein as a target in cancer treatment as well as its role in chemoprevention.

  17. Retinoblastoma family proteins: New players in DNA repair by non-homologous end-joining.

    PubMed

    Huang, Paul H; Cook, Rebecca; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Luczynski, Maciej T; Mittnacht, Sibylle

    2016-03-01

    Loss of retinoblastoma protein (RB1) function is a major driver in cancer development. We have recently reported that, in addition to its well-documented functions in cell cycle and fate control, RB1 and its paralogs have a novel role in regulating DNA repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Here we summarize our findings and present mechanistic hypotheses on how RB1 may support the DNA repair process and the therapeutic implications for patients who harbor RB1-negative cancers. PMID:27308588

  18. Retinoblastoma family proteins: New players in DNA repair by non-homologous end-joining

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Paul H.; Cook, Rebecca; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Luczynski, Maciej T.; Mittnacht, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of retinoblastoma protein (RB1) function is a major driver in cancer development. We have recently reported that, in addition to its well-documented functions in cell cycle and fate control, RB1 and its paralogs have a novel role in regulating DNA repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Here we summarize our findings and present mechanistic hypotheses on how RB1 may support the DNA repair process and the therapeutic implications for patients who harbor RB1-negative cancers. PMID:27308588

  19. Protein Expression of DNA Damage Repair Proteins Dictates Response to Topoisomerase and PARP Inhibitors in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Julie L.; Nechiporchik, Nicole; Mueller, Kelly L.; Polin, Lisa; Heilbrun, Lance; Boerner, Scott A.; Zoratti, Gina L.; Stark, Karri; LoRusso, Patricia M.; Burger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a poor prognosis. New approaches for the treatment of TNBC are needed to improve patient survival. The concept of synthetic lethality, brought about by inactivating complementary DNA repair pathways, has been proposed as a promising therapeutic option for these tumors. The TNBC tumor type has been associated with BRCA mutations, and inhibitors of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a family of proteins that facilitates DNA repair, have been shown to effectively kill BRCA defective tumors by preventing cells from repairing DNA damage, leading to a loss of cell viability and clonogenic survival. Here we present preclinical efficacy results of combining the PARP inhibitor, ABT-888, with CPT-11, a topoisomerase I inhibitor. CPT-11 binds to topoisomerase I at the replication fork, creating a bulky adduct that is recognized as damaged DNA. When DNA damage was stimulated with CPT-11, protein expression of the nucleotide excision repair enzyme ERCC1 inversely correlated with cell viability, but not clonogenic survival. However, 4 out of the 6 TNBC cells were synergistically responsive by cell viability and 5 out of the 6 TNBC cells were synergistically responsive by clonogenic survival to the combination of ABT-888 and CPT-11. In vivo, the BRCA mutant cell line MX-1 treated with CPT-11 alone demonstrated significant decreased tumor growth; this decrease was enhanced further with the addition of ABT-888. Decrease in tumor growth correlated with an increase in double strand DNA breaks as measured by γ-H2AX phosphorylation. In summary, inhibiting two arms of the DNA repair pathway simultaneously in TNBC cell lines, independent of BRCA mutation status, resulted in un-repairable DNA damage and subsequent cell death. PMID:25774912

  20. Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk: Role of Genetic Polymorphisms and Gene-Gene Interactions in DNA repair pathways

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Claudia M.; Cortes, Andrea C.; Lopez, Mirtha; Rourke, Elizabeth; Etzel, Carol J.; Younes, Anas; Strom, Sara S.; El-Zein, Randa

    2011-01-01

    DNA repair variants may play a potentially important role in an individual’s susceptibility to developing cancer. Numerous studies have reported the association between genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes and different types of hematologic cancers. However, to date, the effects of such SNPs on modulating Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) risk have not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that gene-gene interaction between candidate genes in Direct Reversal, Nucleotide excision repair (NER), Base excision repair (BER) and Double strand break (DSB) pathways may contribute to susceptibility to HL. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study on 200 HL cases and 220 controls to assess associations between HL risk and 21 functional SNPs in DNA repair genes. We evaluated potential gene-gene interactions and the association of multiple polymorphisms in a chromosome region using a multi-analytic strategy combining logistic regression, multi-factor dimensionality reduction and classification and regression tree approaches. We observed that, in combination, allelic variants in the XPC Ala499Val, NBN Glu185Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Me, XRCC1 Arg194Trp and XRCC1 399Gln polymorphisms modify the risk for developing HL. Moreover, the cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant trend where the risk for developing HL increases as the number of adverse alleles in BER and DSB genes increase. These findings suggest that DNA repair variants in BER and DSB pathways may play an important role in the development of HL. PMID:21374732

  1. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates endochondral ossification by regulating periosteal cell fate during bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan Yiu; Lieu, Shirley; Lu, Chuanyong; Colnot, Céline

    2010-01-01

    Bone repair depends on the coordinated action of numerous growth factors and cytokines to stimulate new skeletal tissue formation. Among all the growth factors involved in bone repair, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are the only molecules now used therapeutically to enhance healing. Although BMPs are known as strong bone inducers, their role in initiating skeletal repair is not entirely elucidated. The aim of this study was to define the role of BMP2 during the early stages of bone regeneration and more specifically in regulating the fate of skeletal progenitors. During healing of non-stabilized fractures via endochondral ossification, exogenous BMP2 increased the deposition and resorption of cartilage and bone, which was correlated with a stimulation of osteoclastogenesis but not angiogenesis in the early phase of repair. During healing of stabilized fractures, which normally occurs via intramembranous ossification, exogenous BMP2 induced cartilage formation suggesting a role in regulating cell fate decisions. Specifically, the periosteum was found to be a target of exogenous BMP2 as shown by activation of the BMP pathway in this tissue. Using cell lineage analyses, we further show that BMP2 can direct cell differentiation towards the chondrogenic lineage within the periosteum but not the endosteum, indicating that skeletal progenitors within periosteum and endosteum respond differently to BMP signals. In conclusion, BMP2 plays an important role in the early stages of repair by recruiting local sources of skeletal progenitors within periosteum and endosteum and by determining their differentiation towards the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. PMID:20348041

  3. Prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Tongshan; Xu, Jun; Chen, WenJiao; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to identify the prognostic significance of X-ray cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) in patients with gastric cancer undergoing surgery and platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluate XRCC1 protein expression profiles on surgical specimens of 612 gastric cancer patients. The relationship between XRCC1 expression and existing prognostic factors, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results Among 612 patients staged Ⅱ/Ⅲ in our study, 182 (29.74%) were evaluated as XRCC1 IHC positive. XRCC1 expression was not significantly related to OS (P = 0.347) or DFS (P = 0.297). Compared with surgery only, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved the OS (P = 0.031). And the patients with negative XRCC1 expression benefited more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.049). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size, T category, N category, vascular or nerve invasion and platinum-based chemotherapy were good prognostic factors for OS (P < 0.05). Though XRCC1 plays an important role in DNA repair pathways, no significant relationship is found in XRCC1 expression and OS among gastric cancer in our study. Conclusions XRCC1 might be an alternative prognostic marker for the patients of gastric cancer after radical resection. The patients with negative XRCC1 expression can benefit more from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27478321

  4. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-07-15

    Vehicular traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with breast cancer incidence in epidemiologic studies, including our own. Because PAHs damage DNA by forming adducts and oxidative lesions, genetic polymorphisms that alter DNA repair capacity may modify associations between PAH-related exposures and breast cancer risk. Our goal was to examine the association between vehicular traffic exposure and breast cancer incidence within strata of a panel of nine biologically plausible nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) genotypes. Residential histories of 1,508 cases and 1,556 controls were assessed in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project between 1996 and 1997 and used to reconstruct residential traffic exposures to benzo[a]pyrene, as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs. Likelihood ratio tests from adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess multiplicative interactions. A gene-traffic interaction was evident (p = 0.04) for ERCC2 (Lys751); when comparing the upper and lower tertiles of 1995 traffic exposure estimates, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.09 (1.13, 3.90) among women with homozygous variant alleles. Corresponding odds ratios for 1960-1990 traffic were also elevated nearly 2-3-fold for XRCC1(Arg194Trp), XRCC1(Arg399Gln) and OGG1(Ser326Cys), but formal multiplicative interaction was not evident. When DNA repair variants for ERCC2, XRCC1 and OGG1 were combined, among women with 4-6 variants, the odds ratios were 2.32 (1.22, 4.49) for 1995 traffic and 2.96 (1.06, 8.21) for 1960-1990 traffic. Our study is first to report positive associations between traffic-related PAH exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with select biologically plausible DNA repair genotypes.

  5. High-strength silk protein scaffolds for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Biman B.; Grinberg, Ariela; Seok Gil, Eun; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration represent a major focus of orthopedic research. However, only a handful of polymeric biomaterials are utilized today because of their failure to address critical issues like compressive strength for load-bearing bone grafts. In this study development of a high compressive strength (~13 MPa hydrated state) polymeric bone composite materials is reported, based on silk protein-protein interfacial bonding. Micron-sized silk fibers (10–600 µm) obtained utilizing alkali hydrolysis were used as reinforcement in a compact fiber composite with tunable compressive strength, surface roughness, and porosity based on the fiber length included. A combination of surface roughness, porosity, and scaffold stiffness favored human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward bone-like tissue in vitro based on biochemical and gene expression for bone markers. Further, minimal in vivo immunomodulatory responses suggested compatibility of the fabricated silk-fiber-reinforced composite matrices for bone engineering applications. PMID:22552231

  6. Homology-directed repair in rodent zygotes using Cas9 and TALEN engineered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ménoret, Séverine; De Cian, Anne; Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Boulé, Jean-Baptiste; Boix, Charlotte; Fontanière, Sandra; Crénéguy, Alison; Nguyen, Tuan H.; Brusselle, Lucas; Thinard, Reynald; Gauguier, Dominique; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Cherifi, Yacine; Fraichard, Alexandre; Giovannangeli, Carine; Anegon, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The generation of genetically-modified organisms has been revolutionized by the development of new genome editing technologies based on the use of gene-specific nucleases, such as meganucleases, ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPRs-Cas9 systems. The most rapid and cost-effective way to generate genetically-modified animals is by microinjection of the nucleic acids encoding gene-specific nucleases into zygotes. However, the efficiency of the procedure can still be improved. In this work we aim to increase the efficiency of CRISPRs-Cas9 and TALENs homology-directed repair by using TALENs and Cas9 proteins, instead of mRNA, microinjected into rat and mouse zygotes along with long or short donor DNAs. We observed that Cas9 protein was more efficient at homology-directed repair than mRNA, while TALEN protein was less efficient than mRNA at inducing homology-directed repair. Our results indicate that the use of Cas9 protein could represent a simple and practical methodological alternative to Cas9 mRNA in the generation of genetically-modified rats and mice as well as probably some other mammals. PMID:26442875

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Vahid; Molaei, Mahsa; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of DNA (MMR) proteins, including hMLH1 and hMSH2, in gastric epithelial cells in the patients with or without Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-infected gastritis. METHODS: Fifty H pylori-positive patients and 50 H pylori-negative patients were enrolled in the study. During endoscopy of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, two antral and two corpus biopsies were taken for histological examination (Giemsa stain) and for immunohistochemical staining of hMLH1 and hMSH2. RESULTS: The percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMLH1 staining was 84.14 ± 7.32% in H pylori-negative patients, while it was 73.34 ± 10.10% in H pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMSH2 staining (81.16 ± 8.32% in H pylori-negative versus 78.24 ± 8.71% in H pylori-positive patients; P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that H pylori might promote development of gastric carcinoma at least in part through its ability to affect the DNA MMR system. PMID:19034977

  8. Regulation of NEIL1 protein abundance by RAD9 is important for efficient base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Sunil K; Hopkins, Kevin M; Lieberman, Howard B

    2015-05-19

    RAD9 participates in DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. As a member of the RAD9-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex, it can sense DNA damage and recruit ATR to damage sites. RAD9 binding can enhance activities of members of different DNA repair pathways, including NEIL1 DNA glycosylase, which initiates base excision repair (BER) by removing damaged DNA bases. Moreover, RAD9 can act independently of 9-1-1 as a gene-specific transcription factor. Herein, we show that mouse Rad9(-/-) relative to Rad9(+/+) embryonic stem (ES) cells have reduced levels of Neil1 protein. Also, human prostate cancer cells, DU145 and PC-3, knocked down for RAD9 demonstrate reduced NEIL1 abundance relative to controls. We found that Rad9 is required for Neil1 protein stability in mouse ES cells, whereas it regulates NEIL1 transcription in the human cells. RAD9 depletion enhances sensitivity to UV, gamma rays and menadione, but ectopic expression of RAD9 or NEIL1 restores resistance. Glycosylase/apurinic lyase activity was reduced in Rad9(-/-) mouse ES and RAD9 knocked-down human prostate cancer whole cell extracts, relative to controls. Neil1 or Rad9 addition restored this incision activity. Thus, we demonstrate that RAD9 regulates BER by controlling NEIL1 protein levels, albeit by different mechanisms in human prostate cancer versus mouse ES cells.

  9. Modulation of Wound Healing and Scar Formation by MG53 Protein-mediated Cell Membrane Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M.; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53−/− mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. PMID:26306047

  10. Modulation of wound healing and scar formation by MG53 protein-mediated cell membrane repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-10-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53(-/-) mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing.

  11. A moonlighting metabolic protein influences repair at DNA double-stranded breaks

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Machorro, Ana Lilia; Aris, John P.; Pillus, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Catalytically active proteins with divergent dual functions are often described as ‘moonlighting’. In this work we characterize a new, chromatin-based function of Lys20, a moonlighting protein that is well known for its role in metabolism. Lys20 was initially described as homocitrate synthase (HCS), the first enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathway in yeast. Its nuclear localization led to the discovery of a key role for Lys20 in DNA damage repair through its interaction with the MYST family histone acetyltransferase Esa1. Overexpression of Lys20 promotes suppression of DNA damage sensitivity of esa1 mutants. In this work, by taking advantage of LYS20 mutants that are active in repair but not in lysine biosynthesis, the mechanism of suppression of esa1 was characterized. First we analyzed the chromatin landscape of esa1 cells, finding impaired histone acetylation and eviction. Lys20 was recruited to sites of DNA damage, and its overexpression promoted enhanced recruitment of the INO80 remodeling complex to restore normal histone eviction at the damage sites. This study improves understanding of the evolutionary, structural and biological relevance of independent activities in a moonlighting protein and links metabolism to DNA damage repair. PMID:25628362

  12. Structure-function relationships governing activity and stability of a DNA alkylation damage repair thermostable protein

    PubMed Central

    Perugino, Giuseppe; Miggiano, Riccardo; Serpe, Mario; Vettone, Antonella; Valenti, Anna; Lahiri, Samarpita; Rossi, Franca; Rossi, Mosè; Rizzi, Menico; Ciaramella, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferases repair alkylated DNA bases, which are among the most common DNA lesions, and are evolutionary conserved, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. The human ortholog, hAGT, is involved in resistance to alkylating chemotherapy drugs. We report here on the alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferase, SsOGT, from an archaeal species living at high temperature, a condition that enhances the harmful effect of DNA alkylation. The exceptionally high stability of SsOGT gave us the unique opportunity to perform structural and biochemical analysis of a protein of this class in its post-reaction form. This analysis, along with those performed on SsOGT in its ligand-free and DNA-bound forms, provides insights in the structure-function relationships of the protein before, during and after DNA repair, suggesting a molecular basis for DNA recognition, catalytic activity and protein post-reaction fate, and giving hints on the mechanism of alkylation-induced inactivation of this class of proteins. PMID:26227971

  13. Expression of domains for protein-protein interaction of nucleotide excision repair proteins modifies cancer cell sensitivity to platinum derivatives and genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Matera, Eva-Laure; Bouledrak, Karima; Dumontet, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in the repair of DNA damage caused by platinum derivatives and has been shown to decrease the cytotoxic activity of these drugs. Because protein-protein interactions are essential for NER activity, we transfected human cancer cell lines (A549 and HCT116) with plasmids coding the amino acid sequences corresponding to the interacting domains between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA), as well as ERCC1 and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group F (XPF), all NER proteins. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and annexin V staining, we showed that transfected A549 cells were sensitized 1.2-2.2-fold to carboplatin and that transfected HCT116 cells were sensitized 1.4-5.4-fold to oxaliplatin in vitro. In addition, transfected cells exhibited modified in vivo sensitivity to the same drugs. Finally, in particular cell models of the interaction between ERCC1 and XPF, DNA repair was decreased, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of the histone 2AX after exposure to mitomycin C, and genomic instability was increased, as determined by comparative genomic hybridization studies. The results indicate that the interacting peptides act as dominant negatives and decrease NER activity through inhibition of protein-protein interactions.

  14. Mutant Cockayne syndrome group B protein inhibits repair of DNA topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Saijo, Masafumi; Bay, Mui N; Lan, Li; Kuraoka, Isao; Brooks, Philip J; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Yasui, Akira; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2011-01-01

    Two UV-sensitive syndrome patients who have mild photosensitivity without detectable somatic abnormalities lack detectable Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein because of a homozygous null mutation in the CSB gene. In contrast, mutant CSB proteins are produced in CS-B patients with the severe somatic abnormalities of Cockayne syndrome and photosensitivity. It is known that the piggyBac transposable element derived 3 is integrated within the CSB intron 5, and that CSB-piggyBac transposable element derived 3 fusion (CPFP) mRNA is produced by alternative splicing. We found that CPFP or truncated CSB protein derived from CPFP mRNA was stably produced in CS-B patients, and that wild-type CSB, CPFP, and truncated CSB protein interacted with DNA topoisomerase I. We also found that CPFP inhibited repair of a camptothecin-induced topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex. The inhibition was suppressed by the presence of wild-type CSB, consistent with the autosomal recessive inheritance of Cockayne syndrome. These results suggested that reduced repair of a DNA topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex because of truncated CSB proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of CS-B. PMID:21143350

  15. Might there be a link between intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 DNA repair gene and the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Sacide; Balci, Sibel Oguzkan; Aydeniz, Ali; Pehlivan, Mustafa; Sever, Tugce; Gursoy, Savas

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair genes are involved in several diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies indicated that a DNA repair system was involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we aimed to examine whether four polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D [XPD], X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 [XRCC1], and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 [XRCC4]) were associated with RA. Sixty-five patients with RA and 70 healthy controls (HCs) were examined for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T) polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR and/or PCR-RFLP. The association between the polymorphisms and RA was analyzed using the chi-square test and de Finetti program. The intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene showed an association with RA patients. The DI genotype was found lower in RA patients (χ(2)=8.227; p=0.0021), while the II genotype was higher in RA patients (χ(2)=5.285; p=0.010). There were deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in both intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T polymorphisms in the XRCC4 gene and in the polymorphism in the XRCC1 gene, and the observed genotype counts deviated from those expected according to the HWE (p=0.027, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively); however, there was no deviation in the other gene polymorphisms. There is no statistical difference between the RA patients and HCs for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms (p>0.05). Although XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of RA in Turkish patients. In conclusion, we suggested that the intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of RA as a marker of immune aging.

  16. Might there be a link between intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 DNA repair gene and the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Sacide; Balci, Sibel Oguzkan; Aydeniz, Ali; Pehlivan, Mustafa; Sever, Tugce; Gursoy, Savas

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair genes are involved in several diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies indicated that a DNA repair system was involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we aimed to examine whether four polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D [XPD], X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 [XRCC1], and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 [XRCC4]) were associated with RA. Sixty-five patients with RA and 70 healthy controls (HCs) were examined for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T) polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR and/or PCR-RFLP. The association between the polymorphisms and RA was analyzed using the chi-square test and de Finetti program. The intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene showed an association with RA patients. The DI genotype was found lower in RA patients (χ(2)=8.227; p=0.0021), while the II genotype was higher in RA patients (χ(2)=5.285; p=0.010). There were deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in both intron 3 VNTR and G-1394T polymorphisms in the XRCC4 gene and in the polymorphism in the XRCC1 gene, and the observed genotype counts deviated from those expected according to the HWE (p=0.027, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively); however, there was no deviation in the other gene polymorphisms. There is no statistical difference between the RA patients and HCs for XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms (p>0.05). Although XPD (A-751G), XRCC1 (A399G), and XRCC4 (G-1394T) gene polymorphisms have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of RA in Turkish patients. In conclusion, we suggested that the intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the XRCC4 gene may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of RA as a marker of immune aging. PMID:25494482

  17. Chromodomain protein Tcd1 is required for macronuclear genome rearrangement and repair in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Yuan, Yajing; Liang, Aihua; Wang, Wei

    2015-05-19

    The survival of an organism's progeny depends on the maintenance of its genome. Programmed DNA rearrangement and repair in Tetrahymena occur during the differentiation of the developing somatic macronuclear genome from the germ line micronuclear genome. Tetrahymena chromodomain protein (Tcd1) exhibited dynamic localization from the parental to the developing macronuclei. In the developing macronuclei, Tcd1 colocalized with Pdd1 and H3K9me3. Furthermore, Tcd1 colocalized with Pdd1 in the conjusome and "donut structure" of DNA elimination heterochromatin region. During the growth and conjugation stages, TCD1 knockout cells appeared normal and similar to wild-type strains. In addition, these knockout cells proceeded to the 2MAC-1MIC stage. However, the progeny of the TCD1 knockout cells did not grow upon return to SPP medium and eventually died. The deletion of the internal elimination sequence R element was partially disrupted in the developing new macronuclei. Gamma H2A staining showed that Tcd1 loss induced the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks and the failure of genome repair. These results suggest that the chromodomain protein Tcd1 is required for the rearrangement and repair of new macronuclear genome in Tetrahymena.

  18. Dynamic binding of replication protein a is required for DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Elcock, Adrian H.; Spies, Maria; Wold, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is essential for replication, repair and recombination. High-affinity ssDNA-binding by RPA depends on two DNA binding domains in the large subunit of RPA. Mutation of the evolutionarily conserved aromatic residues in these two domains results in a separation-of-function phenotype: aromatic residue mutants support DNA replication but are defective in DNA repair. We used biochemical and single-molecule analyses, and Brownian Dynamics simulations to determine the molecular basis of this phenotype. Our studies demonstrated that RPA binds to ssDNA in at least two modes characterized by different dissociation kinetics. We also showed that the aromatic residues contribute to the formation of the longer-lived state, are required for stable binding to short ssDNA regions and are needed for RPA melting of partially duplex DNA structures. We conclude that stable binding and/or the melting of secondary DNA structures by RPA is required for DNA repair, including RAD51 mediated DNA strand exchange, but is dispensable for DNA replication. It is likely that the binding modes are in equilibrium and reflect dynamics in the RPA–DNA complex. This suggests that dynamic binding of RPA to DNA is necessary for different cellular functions. PMID:27131385

  19. Computational and experimental investigation of DNA repair protein photolyase interactions with low molecular weight drugs.

    PubMed

    Azizoğlu, Selimcan; Kizilel, Riza; Marušič, Maja; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Erman, Burak; Kizilel, Seda

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the previously unknown interactions between eight low molecular weight commercially available drugs (130-800 Da) and DNA repair protein photolyase using computational docking simulations and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. Theoretical dissociation constants, K(d), obtained from molecular docking simulations were compared with the values found from SPR experiments. Among the eight drugs analyzed, computational and experimental values showed similar binding affinities between selected drug and protein pairs. We found no significant differences in binding interactions between pure and commercial forms of the drug lornoxicam and DNA photolyase. Among the eight drugs studied, prednisone, desloratadine, and azelastine exhibited the highest binding affinity (K(d) = 1.65, 2.05, and 8.47 μM, respectively) toward DNA photolyase. Results obtained in this study are promising for use in the prediction of unknown interactions of common drugs with specific proteins such as human clock protein cryptochrome. PMID:23657985

  20. Emerging roles for centromere-associated proteins in DNA repair and genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    Osman, Fekret; Whitby, Matthew C

    2013-12-01

    Centromere proteins CENP-S and CENP-X are members of the constitutive centromere-associated network, which is a conserved group of proteins that are needed for the assembly and function of kinetochores at centromeres. Intriguingly CENP-S and CENP-X have alter egos going by the names of MHF1 (FANCM-associated histone-fold protein 1) and MHF2 respectively. In this guise they function with a DNA translocase called FANCM (Fanconi's anemia complementation group M) to promote DNA repair and homologous recombination. In the present review we discuss current knowledge of the biological roles of CENP-S and CENP-X and how their dual existence may be a common feature of CCAN (constitutive centromere-associated network) proteins.

  1. Non-repair pathways for minimizing protein isoaspartyl damage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Patananan, Alexander N; Capri, Joseph; Whitelegge, Julian P; Clarke, Steven G

    2014-06-13

    The spontaneous degradation of asparaginyl and aspartyl residues to isoaspartyl residues is a common type of protein damage in aging organisms. Although the protein-l-isoaspartyl (d-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.77) can initiate the repair of l-isoaspartyl residues to l-aspartyl residues in most organisms, no gene homolog or enzymatic activity is present in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we used biochemical approaches to elucidate how proteins containing isoaspartyl residues are metabolized in this organism. Surprisingly, the level of isoaspartyl residues in yeast proteins (50-300 pmol of isoaspartyl residues/mg of protein extract) is comparable with organisms with protein-l-isoaspartyl (d-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase, suggesting a novel regulatory pathway. Interfering with common protein quality control mechanisms by mutating and inhibiting the proteasomal and autophagic pathways in vivo did not increase isoaspartyl residue levels compared with wild type or uninhibited cells. However, the inhibition of metalloproteases in in vitro aging experiments by EDTA resulted in an ∼3-fold increase in the level of isoaspartyl-containing peptides. Characterization by mass spectrometry of these peptides identified several proteins involved in metabolism as targets of isoaspartyl damage. Further analysis of these peptides revealed that many have an N-terminal isoaspartyl site and originate from proteins with short half-lives. These results suggest that one or more metalloproteases participate in limiting isoaspartyl formation by robust proteolysis.

  2. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 protein impairs DNA repair mediated through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Sueoka, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo . E-mail: sueokae@post.saga-med.ac.jp

    2005-08-05

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1, an RNA binding protein, is overexpressed from the early stage of lung cancers; it is evident even in bronchial dysplasia, a premalignant lesion. We evaluated the proteins bound with hnRNP B1 and found that hnRNP B1 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, and recombinant hnRNP B1 protein dose-dependently inhibited DNA-PK activity in vitro. To test the effect of hnRNP B1 on DNA repair, we performed comet assay after irradiation, using normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1: reduction of hnRNP B1 treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1 induced faster DNA repair in normal HBE cells. Considering these results, we assume that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurring in the early stage of carcinogenesis inhibits DNA-PK activity, resulting in subsequent accumulation of erroneous rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks, causing tumor progression.

  3. The Xanthomonas citri effector protein PthA interacts with citrus proteins involved in nuclear transport, protein folding and ubiquitination associated with DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Mariane Noronha; De Souza, Tiago Antonio; Cernadas, Raúl Andrés; de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Peixoto; Docena, Cássia; Farah, Chuck Shaker; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri utilizes the type III effector protein PthA to modulate host transcription to promote citrus canker. PthA proteins belong to the AvrBs3/PthA family and carry a domain comprising tandem repeats of 34 amino acids that mediates protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. We show here that variants of PthAs from a single bacterial strain localize to the nucleus of plant cells and form homo- and heterodimers through the association of their repeat regions. We hypothesize that the PthA variants might also interact with distinct host targets. Here, in addition to the interaction with alpha-importin, known to mediate the nuclear import of AvrBs3, we describe new interactions of PthAs with citrus proteins involved in protein folding and K63-linked ubiquitination. PthAs 2 and 3 preferentially interact with a citrus cyclophilin (Cyp) and with TDX, a tetratricopeptide domain-containing thioredoxin. In addition, PthAs 2 and 3, but not 1 and 4, interact with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex formed by Ubc13 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant (Uev), required for K63-linked ubiquitination and DNA repair. We show that Cyp, TDX and Uev interact with each other, and that Cyp and Uev localize to the nucleus of plant cells. Furthermore, the citrus Ubc13 and Uev proteins complement the DNA repair phenotype of the yeast Deltaubc13 and Deltamms2/uev1a mutants, strongly indicating that they are also involved in K63-linked ubiquitination and DNA repair. Notably, PthA 2 affects the growth of yeast cells in the presence of a DNA damage agent, suggesting that it inhibits K63-linked ubiquitination required for DNA repair.

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis Repair of Iron Centres Proteins: The Different Role of Two Paralogs.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Lígia S; Meloni, Dionigia; Teixeira, Miguel; Viscogliosi, Eric; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative parasite of one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases is, so far, the only protozoan encoding two putative Repair of Iron Centres (RIC) proteins. Homologs of these proteins have been shown to protect bacteria from the chemical stress imposed by mammalian immunity. In this work, the biochemical and functional characterisation of the T. vaginalis RICs revealed that the two proteins have different properties. Expression of ric1 is induced by nitrosative stress but not by hydrogen peroxide, while ric2 transcription remained unaltered under similar conditions. T. vaginalis RIC1 contains a di-iron centre, but RIC2 apparently does not. Only RIC1 resembles bacterial RICs on spectroscopic profiling and repairing ability of oxidatively-damaged iron-sulfur clusters. Unexpectedly, RIC2 was found to bind DNA plasmid and T. vaginalis genomic DNA, a function proposed to be related with its leucine zipper domain. The two proteins also differ in their cellular localization: RIC1 is expressed in the cytoplasm only, and RIC2 occurs both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Therefore, we concluded that the two RIC paralogs have different roles in T. vaginalis, with RIC2 showing an unprecedented DNA binding ability when compared with all other until now studied RICs. PMID:27124376

  5. Macin Family of Antimicrobial Proteins Combines Antimicrobial and Nerve Repair Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sascha; Sönnichsen, Frank D.; Hung, Chien-Wen; Tholey, Andreas; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Haeusgen, Wiebke; Gelhaus, Christoph; Desel, Christine; Podschun, Rainer; Waetzig, Vicki; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Leippe, Matthias; Grötzinger, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The tertiary structures of theromacin and neuromacin confirmed the macin protein family as a self-contained family of antimicrobial proteins within the superfamily of scorpion toxin-like proteins. The macins, which also comprise hydramacin-1, are antimicrobially active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Despite high sequence identity, the three proteins showed distinct differences with respect to their biological activity. Neuromacin exhibited a significantly stronger capacity to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacillus megaterium than theromacin and hydramacin-1. Accordingly, it is the only macin that displays pore-forming activity and that was potently active against Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, neuromacin and hydramacin-1 led to an aggregation of bacterial cells that was not observed with theromacin. Analysis of the molecular surface properties of macins allowed confirmation of the barnacle model as the mechanistic model for the aggregation effect. Besides being antimicrobially active, neuromacin and theromacin, in contrast to hydramacin-1, were able to enhance the repair of leech nerves ex vivo. Notably, all three macins enhanced the viability of murine neuroblastoma cells, extending their functional characteristics. As neuromacin appears to be both a functional and structural chimera of hydramacin-1 and theromacin, the putative structural correlate responsible for the nerve repair capacity in leech was located to a cluster of six amino acid residues using the sequence similarity of surface-exposed regions. PMID:22396551

  6. Elastin-like protein matrix reinforced with collagen microfibers for soft tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Caves, Jeffrey M; Cui, Wanxing; Wen, Jing; Kumar, Vivek A; Haller, Carolyn A; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2011-08-01

    Artificial composites designed to mimic the structure and properties of native extracellular matrix may lead to acellular materials for soft tissue repair and replacement, which display mechanical strength, stiffness, and resilience resembling native tissue. We describe the fabrication of thin lamellae consisting of continuous collagen microfiber embedded at controlled orientations and densities in a recombinant elastin-like protein polymer matrix. Multilamellar stacking affords flexible, protein-based composite sheets whose properties are dependent upon both the elastomeric matrix and collagen content and organization. Sheets are produced with properties that range over 13-fold in elongation to break (23-314%), six-fold in Young's modulus (5.3-33.1 MPa), and more than two-fold in tensile strength (1.85-4.08 MPa), exceeding that of a number of native human tissues, including urinary bladder, pulmonary artery, and aorta. A sheet approximating the mechanical response of human abdominal wall fascia is investigated as a fascial substitute for ventral hernia repair. Protein-based composite patches prevent hernia recurrence in Wistar rats over an 8-week period with new tissue formation and sustained structural integrity. PMID:21550111

  7. The redox/DNA repair protein, Ref-1, is essential for early embryonic development in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Xanthoudakis, S; Smeyne, R J; Wallace, J D; Curran, T

    1996-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of AP-1 proteins is modulated, in vitro, by a posttranslational mechanism involving reduction oxidation. This mode of regulation has been proposed to control both the transcriptional activity and the oncogenic potential of Fos and Jun. Previous studies revealed that reduction of oxidized Fos and Jun by a cellular protein, Ref-1, stimulates sequence-specific AP-1 DNA-binding activity. Ref-1, a bifunctional protein, is also capable of initiating the repair of apurinic/apyrymidinic sites in damaged DNA. The relationship between the redox and DNA repair activities of Ref-1 is intriguing; both activities have been suggested to play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. To investigate the physiological function of Ref-1, we used a gene targeting strategy to generate mice lacking a functional ref-1 gene. We report here that heterozygous mutant mice develop into adulthood without any apparent abnormalities. In contrast, homozygous mutant mice, lacking a functional ref-1 gene, die during embryonic development. Detailed analysis indicates that death occurs following blastocyst formation, shortly after the time of implantation. Degeneration of the mutant embryos is clearly evident at embryonic day 5.5. These findings demonstrate that Ref-1 is essential for early embryonic development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8799128

  8. Effects of double-strand break repair proteins on vertebrate telomere structure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chao; Skopp, Rose; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Price, Carolyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Although telomeres are not recognized as double-strand breaks (DSBs), some DSB repair proteins are present at telomeres and are required for telomere maintenance. To learn more about the telomeric function of proteins from the homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining pathways (NHEJ), we have screened a panel of chicken DT40 knockout cell lines for changes in telomere structure. In contrast to what has been observed in Ku-deficient mice, we found that Ku70 disruption did not result in telomere–telomere fusions and had no effect on telomere length or the structure of the telomeric G-strand overhang. G-overhang length was increased by Rad51 disruption but unchanged by disruption of DNA-PKcs, Mre11, Rad52, Rad54, XRCC2 or XRCC3. The effect of Rad51 depletion was unexpected because gross alterations in telomere structure have not been detected in yeast HR mutants. Thus, our results indicate that Rad51 has a previously undiscovered function at vertebrate telomeres. They also indicate that Mre11 is not required to generate G-overhangs. Although Mre11 has been implicated in overhang generation, overhang structure had not previously been examined in Mre11-deficient cells. Overall our findings indicate that there are significant species-specific differences in the telomeric function of DSB repair proteins. PMID:12087170

  9. Elastin-like protein matrix reinforced with collagen microfibers for soft tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Caves, Jeffrey M.; Cui, Wanxing; Wen, Jing; Kumar, Vivek A.; Haller, Carolyn A.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial composites designed to mimic the structure and properties of native extracellular matrix may lead to acellular materials for soft tissue repair and replacement, which display mechanical strength, stiffness, and resilience resembling native tissue. We describe the fabrication of thin lamellae consisting of continuous collagen microfiber embedded at controlled orientations and densities in a recombinant elastin-like protein polymer matrix. Multilamellar stacking affords flexible, protein-based composite sheets whose properties are dependent upon both the elastomeric matrix and collagen content and organization. Sheets are produced with properties that range over 13-fold in elongation to break (23 – 314%), six-fold in Young’s modulus (5.3 to 33.1 MPa), and more than two-fold in tensile strength (1.85 to 4.08 MPa), exceeding that of a number of native human tissues, including urinary bladder, pulmonary artery, and aorta. A sheet approximating the mechanical response of human abdominal wall fascia is investigated as a fascial substitute for ventral hernia repair. Protein-based composite patches prevent hernia recurrence in Wistar rats over an 8-week period with new tissue formation and sustained structural integrity. PMID:21550111

  10. SWI/SNF complex deficiency and mismatch repair protein expression in undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Crook, Maxine L

    2015-08-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma (UEC) is a relatively uncommon but clinically aggressive uterine malignancy. In common with a subset of poorly differentiated carcinomas arising in other sites, UEC may exhibit rhabdoid morphology and be associated with a low-grade tumour component (dedifferentiated carcinoma). Recent studies have implicated inactivation of the SWI/SNF complex subunits in the aforementioned extrauterine tumours. Therefore we have examined INI1 (SMARCB1), BRG1 (SMARCA4), and BAF250a (ARID1A) immunostaining, and also expression of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 in 22 UEC, seventeen of which were dedifferentiated. Abnormal SWI/SNF subunit expression was detected in four dedifferentiated carcinomas including three with loss of BRG1 staining limited to the undifferentiated tumour component and one case with loss of INI1 expression in both low- and high-grade elements; the latter case also showed BAF250a deficiency in the undifferentiated tumour cells. Abnormal MMR protein expression was identified in 13 tumours (59%) including nine with concurrent loss of MLH1 and PMS2. These findings suggest that SWI/SNF subunit alterations may play a role in the progression/ dedifferentiation of endometrial carcinoma, and that SWI/SNF and MMR protein deficiencies may act synergistically in deregulating DNA repair mechanisms in these tumours.

  11. Rapid induction of chromatin-associated DNA mismatch repair proteins after MNNG treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schroering, Allen G.; Williams, Kandace J.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with low concentrations of monofunctional alkylating agents induces a G2 arrest only after the second round of DNA synthesis in mammalian cells and requires a proficient mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. Here we have investigated rapid alkylation-induced recruitment of DNA repair proteins to chromosomal DNA within synchronized populations of MMR proficient cells (HeLa MR) after MNNG treatment. Within the first hour, the concentrations of MutSα and PCNA increase well beyond their constitutive chromosomally bound levels and MutLα is newly recruited to the chromatin-bound MutSα. Remarkably, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate rapid association of these proteins on the alkylation-damaged chromatin, even when DNA replication is completely blocked. The extent of association of PCNA and MMR proteins on the chromatin is dependent upon the concentration of MNNG and on the specific type of replication block. A subpopulation of the MutSα-associated PCNA also becomes monoubiquitinated, a known requirement for PCNA to interact with translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases. In addition, chromatin-bound SMC1 and NBS1 proteins, associated with DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs), become phosphorylated within one to two hours of exposure to MNNG. However, these activated proteins are not colocalized on the chromatin with MutSα in response to MNNG exposure. PCNA, MutSα/MutLα and activated SMC1/NBS1 remain chromatin-bound for at least 6–8 hours after alkylation damage. Thus, cells that are exposed to low levels of alkylation treatment undergo rapid recruitment to and/or activation of key proteins already on the chromatin without the requirement for DNA replication, apparently via different DNA-damage signaling pathways. PMID:18468964

  12. Production, Purification, and Characterization of ¹⁵N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Prasad T; Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C; Lowenthal, Mark S; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas; Dizdaroglu, Miral

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA-protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length (15)N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of (15)N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented.

  13. The Polycomb Group Protein EZH2 Impairs DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression in Human Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Nair, Sangeeta; Laknaur, Archana; Ismail, Nahed; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign, smooth muscle tumors that occur in approximately 70%-80% of women by age 50 yr. The cellular and molecular mechanism(s) by which uterine fibroids (UFs) develop are not fully understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that several genetic abnormalities, including deletions, rearrangements, translocations, as well as mutations, have been found in UFs. These genetic anomalies suggest that low DNA damage repair capacity may be involved in UF formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether expression levels of DNA damage repair-related genes were altered, and how they were regulated in the pathogenesis of UFs. Expression levels of DNA repair-related genes RAD51 and BRCA1 were deregulated in fibroid tissues as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues. Expression levels of chromatin protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) were higher in a subset of fibroids as compared to adjacent myometrial tissues by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Treatment with an inhibitor of EZH2 markedly increased expression levels of RAD51 and BRCA1 in fibroid cells and inhibited cell proliferation paired with cell cycle arrest. Restoring the expression of RAD51 and BRCA1 by treatment with EZH2 inhibitor was dependent on reducing the enrichment of trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 epigenetic mark in their promoter regions. This study reveals the important role of EZH2-regulated DNA damage-repair genes via histone methylation in fibroid biology, and may provide novel therapeutic targets for the medical treatment of women with symptomatic UFs. PMID:26888970

  14. Relationship of the xeroderma pigmentosum group E DNA repair defect to the chromatin and DNA binding proteins UV-DDB and replication protein A.

    PubMed

    Rapić Otrin, V; Kuraoka, I; Nardo, T; McLenigan, M; Eker, A P; Stefanini, M; Levine, A S; Wood, R D

    1998-06-01

    Cells from complementation groups A through G of the heritable sun-sensitive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) show defects in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. Proteins representing groups A, B, C, D, F, and G are subunits of the core recognition and incision machinery of repair. XP group E (XP-E) is the mildest form of the disorder, and cells generally show about 50% of the normal repair level. We investigated two protein factors previously implicated in the XP-E defect, UV-damaged DNA binding protein (UV-DDB) and replication protein A (RPA). Three newly identified XP-E cell lines (XP23PV, XP25PV, and a line formerly classified as an XP variant) were defective in UV-DDB binding activity but had levels of RPA in the normal range. The XP-E cell extracts did not display a significant nucleotide excision repair defect in vitro, with either UV-irradiated DNA or a uniquely placed cisplatin lesion used as a substrate. Purified UV-DDB protein did not stimulate repair of naked DNA by DDB- XP-E cell extracts, but microinjection of the protein into DDB- XP-E cells could partially correct the repair defect. RPA stimulated repair in normal, XP-E, or complemented extracts from other XP groups, and so the effect of RPA was not specific for XP-E cell extracts. These data strengthen the connection between XP-E and UV-DDB. Coupled with previous results, the findings suggest that UV-DDB has a role in the repair of DNA in chromatin. PMID:9584159

  15. Assessing tumor mutations to gain insight into base excision repair sequence polymorphisms and smoking in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Karen; Samowitz, Wade S.; Wolff, Roger K.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    DNA repair enzymes function in major pathways to reverse DNA damage, including base excision repair (BER). Missense polymorphisms in BER repair genes may contribute to differences in DNA repair capacity, specific mutations, and susceptibility to cancer in the presence of exposure to carcinogens such as cigarette smoking. In a study of 1,604 incident colon cancer cases and 1,969 matched population-based controls genotyped for BER variants OGG1 (S326C) and XRCC1 (R194W, R280H, and R399Q), we found no associations with colon cancer overall. However, a two-fold increased risk of BRAF V600E tumor mutation was observed in current and former cigarette smokers homozygous for the OGG1 polymorphism (OR= 2.2, 95%CI 1.02-4.9, recessive model); similar associations were not observed for microsatellite instability, CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, KRAS2 mutations, or TP53 mutations. The XRCC1 R194W polymorphism was associated with a modest increased risk of TP53 tumor mutations in those who regularly smoked cigarettes (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.02-1.9). These findings point to the importance of studying tumor mutations when examining DNA repair polymorphisms and cigarette smoke exposure to identify potentially relevant associations with colorectal cancer. PMID:19959686

  16. Distinct kinetics of human DNA ligases I, IIIalpha, IIIbeta, and IV reveal direct DNA sensing ability and differential physiological functions in DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Ballin, Jeff D.; Della-Maria, Julie; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; White, Elizabeth J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2009-05-11

    The three human LIG genes encode polypeptides that catalyze phosphodiester bond formation during DNA replication, recombination and repair. While numerous studies have identified protein partners of the human DNA ligases (hLigs), there has been little characterization of the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this study, we developed and optimized a fluorescence-based DNA ligation assay to characterize the activities of purified hLigs. Although hLigI joins DNA nicks, it has no detectable activity on linear duplex DNA substrates with short, cohesive single-strand ends. By contrast, hLigIII{beta} and the hLigIII{alpha}/XRCC1 and hLigIV/XRCC4 complexes are active on both nicked and linear duplex DNA substrates. Surprisingly, hLigIV/XRCC4, which is a key component of the major non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, is significantly less active than hLigIII on a linear duplex DNA substrate. Notably, hLigIV/XRCC4 molecules only catalyze a single ligation event in the absence or presence of ATP. The failure to catalyze subsequent ligation events reflects a defect in the enzyme-adenylation step of the next ligation reaction and suggests that, unless there is an in vivo mechanism to reactivate DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 following phosphodiester bond formation, the cellular NHEJ capacity will be determined by the number of adenylated DNA ligaseIV/XRCC4 molecules.

  17. Mismatch repair protein expression and colorectal cancer in Hispanics from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Monge, Wilfredo E; Gonzalez-Keelan, Carmen; Zhao, Ronghua; Hamilton, Stanley R; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and alterations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, leading to absent protein (negative) expression, are responsible for approximately 20% of CRC cases. Immunohistochemistry is a tool for prescreening of MMR protein expression in CRC but the literature on its use on Hispanics is scarce. However, Hispanics represent the second leading ethnicity in the United States (US) and CRC is a public health burden in this group. Our objectives were to determine the frequency of MMR protein-negative CRC and to evaluate its association with clinical and pathological characteristics among Hispanics from Puerto Rico, for the first time to our knowledge. A retrospective observational study of unselected CRC patients from the Puerto Rico Medical Center from 2001 to 2005 was done. MLH1 and MSH2, the most commonly altered MMR genes, protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, with microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF gene analyses in the absence of MLH1 protein expression. One-hundred sixty-four CRC patients were evaluated: the overall MMR protein-negative frequency was 4.3%, with 0.6% frequency of co-occurrence of MLH1-protein negative expression, MSI-high, and normal BRAF gene. MMR protein-negative expression was associated with proximal colon location (P = 0.02) and poor histological tumor differentiation (P = 0.001), but not with other characteristics. The frequency of MMR protein-negative CRC in Hispanics from Puerto Rico was lower than reported in other populations. This finding may explain the lower CRC incidence rate among US Hispanics as compared to US non-Hispanic whites and blacks.

  18. Comparison of phosphorylation kinetics in DNA repair proteins after exposure to high and low LET radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, R.; Okabe, A.; Takakura, K.

    We irradiated plateau phase normal human fibroblasts with 2 Gy X-rays 70 keV um carbon 290MeV n and 200 keV um iron ions 500 MeV n and observed the kinetics of phosphorylation in various proteins associated with DNA double strand break DSB repair GammaH2AX foci a marker for DSBs were detected immediately after irradiation and the peak of phosphorylation was seen 30 to 60 min post-irradiation for three kinds of radiations Disappearance of gamma-H2AX foci was much faster for X-irradiated samples than that for heavy ion irradiated samples the phosphorylation kinetics for carbon and iron ions are similar for gamma-H2AX foci In contrast phosphorylation of an NHEJ protein DNA-PKcs threonine 2609 was significantly delayed in carbon and iron irradiated cells when compared to X-irradiated cells Disappearance of DNA-PKcs sites was much faster in X-irradiated samples than carbon and iron samples which showed a similar pattern as in the case of gamma-H2AX Furthermore in the case of ATM protein phosphorylation serine 1981 iron irradiation alone caused a significant initial delay but the kinetics of disappearance is similar for iron and carbon samples with much higher remaining number of foci in iron samples than those for X-rays and carbon ions These results suggest that 1 high LET irradiation induces complex and or severe DNA DSB damage which affects the function of DSB repair proteins 2 Both ATM and DNA-PKcs may recognize the complexity of DSBs but ATM may be more sensitive to detecting the complexity of DSB damage 3 gamma-H2AX may

  19. Contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids to intestinal repair in protein-energy malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Natalia; Mesa, María Dolores; López-Pedrosa, José María; Torres, M Isabel; Ríos, Antonio; Suárez, María Dolores; Gil, Angel

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplied in the diet on intestinal mucosa repair in a rat model of protein-energy malnutrition. Rats were fed either a standard semipurified diet or the same diet containing lactose as the only source of carbohydrate to cause protein-energy malnutrition. Diarrhea was induced within 24 h and was maintained for 2 weeks, after which both groups of rats were fed for 1 week either the standard diet or the standard diet supplemented with different sources of fatty acids, such as olive oil (OO), fish oil (FO), and purified phospholipids from pig brain (BPL). The lactose-enriched diet caused loss of enterocyte microvilli, lymphocyte infiltration, supranuclear cytoplasmic vesiculation, decreased number of goblet cells, low-density enlarged mitochondria, and less cristae. The FO diet improved the pathology score according to the histological and ultrastructural analysis, with an increased number of goblet cells, ratio of microvilli length to crypt depth, and percentage of intraepithelial lymphocytes compared to those found in rats with protein-energy malnutrition. We previously reported that chronic diarrhea depletes the antioxidant defense in rat intestine; we now show that both, the FO and the BPL diets, increase GSH levels in colon and that some antioxidant enzyme activities vary according to the source of fatty acids, with higher catalase and superoxide dismutase by the FO diet in jejunum, increased catalase by the BPL diet in jejunum, and elevated glutathione peroxidase by the OO diet in colon. The fatty acid profile of intestinal mucosa reflects the source of fat in the diet, with the lowest ratio of n-6/n-3 for rats fed the FO diet. These results suggest that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly those in the n-3 series, may play an important role in intestinal repair in chronic diarrhea due to protein-energy malnutrition.

  20. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in plants. Phylogenetic distribution and the accumulation of substrate proteins in aged barley seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Mudgett, M B; Lowenson, J D; Clarke, S

    1997-01-01

    Protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferases (MTs; EC 2.1.1.77) can initiate the conversion of detrimental L-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal L-aspartyl residues. We detected this enzyme in 45 species from 23 families representing most of the divisions of the plant kingdom. MT activity is often localized in seeds, suggesting that it has a role in their maturation, quiescence, and germination. The relationship among MT activity, the accumulation of abnormal protein L-isoaspartyl residues, and seed viability was explored in barley (Hordeum vulgare cultivar Himalaya) seeds, which contain high levels of MT. Natural aging of barley seeds for 17 years resulted in a significant reduction in MT activity and in seed viability, coupled with increased levels of "unrepaired" L-isoaspartyl residues. In seeds heated to accelerate aging, we found no reduction of MT activity, but we did observe decreased seed viability and the accumulation of isoaspartyl residues. Among populations of accelerated aged seed, those possessing the highest levels of L-isoaspartyl-containing proteins had the lowest germination percentages. These results suggest that the MT present in seeds cannot efficiently repair all spontaneously damaged proteins containing altered aspartyl residues, and their accumulation during aging may contribute to the loss of seed viability. PMID:9414558

  1. Complex relationship between mismatch repair proteins and MBD4 during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Grigera, Fernando; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Kenter, Amy L

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) safeguards against genomic instability and is required for efficient Ig class switch recombination (CSR). Methyl CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) binds to MutL homologue 1 (MLH1) and controls the post-transcriptional level of several MMR proteins, including MutS homologue 2 (MSH2). We show that in WT B cells activated for CSR, MBD4 is induced and interacts with MMR proteins, thereby implying a role for MBD4 in CSR. However, CSR is in the normal range in Mbd4 deficient mice deleted for exons 2-5 despite concomitant reduction of MSH2. We show by comparison in Msh2(+/-) B cells that a two-fold reduction of MSH2 and MBD4 proteins is correlated with impaired CSR. It is therefore surprising that CSR occurs at normal frequencies in the Mbd4 deficient B cells where MSH2 is reduced. We find that a variant Mbd4 transcript spanning exons 1,6-8 is expressed in Mbd4 deficient B cells. This transcript can be ectopically expressed and produces a truncated MBD4 peptide. Thus, the 3' end of the Mbd4 locus is not silent in Mbd4 deficient B cells and may contribute to CSR. Our findings highlight a complex relationship between MBD4 and MMR proteins in B cells and a potential reconsideration of their role in CSR.

  2. Uncertainty in the Utility of Immunohistochemistry in Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Copppola, Domenico; Nicosia, Santo V.; Doty, Andrea; Sellers, Thomas A; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, Jimmy; Thompson, Zachary; Galeb, Sanja; McLaughlin, John; Narod, Steven A; Schildkraut, Joellen; Pal, Tuya

    2014-01-01

    Background Utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression has been demonstrated in colorectal cancer but remains incompletely defined in ovarian cancer. We evaluated MMR protein expression in three population-based samples of epithelial ovarian cancers. Methods IHC staining was performed on full section (FS) or tissue microarray (TMA) slides for MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 expression. Results Of 487 cases, 147 and 340 were performed through FS and TMA, respectively. Overall, Loss of Expression (LoE) of at least one MMR protein was observed in 12.7% based on an expression score of ≤3 (on a scale of 9). Notably, LoE was significantly higher in TMAs (17.9%) compared to FS cases (0.7%) (p <0.001). Conclusions A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancers have a loss of MMR protein expression. Protein expression results vary significantly by the tissue sampling methodology utilized, raising concerns about the clinical utility of this test for ovarian tumors. PMID:23155266

  3. Cell and protein compatible 3D bioprinting of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Sawkins, M J; Mistry, P; Brown, B N; Shakesheff, K M; Bonassar, L J; Yang, J

    2015-09-01

    Rapid prototyping of bone tissue engineering constructs often utilizes elevated temperatures, organic solvents and/or UV light for materials processing. These harsh conditions may prevent the incorporation of cells and therapeutic proteins in the fabrication processes. Here we developed a method for using bioprinting to produce constructs from a thermoresponsive microparticulate material based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) at ambient conditions. These constructs could be engineered with yield stresses of up to 1.22 MPa and Young's moduli of up to 57.3 MPa which are within the range of properties of human cancellous bone. Further study showed that protein-releasing microspheres could be incorporated into the bioprinted constructs. The release of the model protein lysozyme from bioprinted constructs was sustainted for a period of 15 days and a high degree of protein activity could be measured up to day 9. This work suggests that bioprinting is a viable route to the production of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair under mild conditions which allow the inclusion of viable cells and active proteins. PMID:26133398

  4. Cell and protein compatible 3D bioprinting of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Sawkins, M J; Mistry, P; Brown, B N; Shakesheff, K M; Bonassar, L J; Yang, J

    2015-07-02

    Rapid prototyping of bone tissue engineering constructs often utilizes elevated temperatures, organic solvents and/or UV light for materials processing. These harsh conditions may prevent the incorporation of cells and therapeutic proteins in the fabrication processes. Here we developed a method for using bioprinting to produce constructs from a thermoresponsive microparticulate material based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) at ambient conditions. These constructs could be engineered with yield stresses of up to 1.22 MPa and Young's moduli of up to 57.3 MPa which are within the range of properties of human cancellous bone. Further study showed that protein-releasing microspheres could be incorporated into the bioprinted constructs. The release of the model protein lysozyme from bioprinted constructs was sustainted for a period of 15 days and a high degree of protein activity could be measured up to day 9. This work suggests that bioprinting is a viable route to the production of mechanically strong constructs for bone repair under mild conditions which allow the inclusion of viable cells and active proteins.

  5. Functions of single-strand DNA-binding proteins in DNA replication, recombination, and repair.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Aimee H

    2012-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds) DNA contains all of the necessary genetic information, although practical use of this information requires unwinding of the duplex DNA. DNA unwinding creates single-stranded (ss) DNA intermediates that serve as templates for myriad cellular functions. Exposure of ssDNA presents several problems to the cell. First, ssDNA is thermodynamically less stable than dsDNA, which leads to spontaneous formation of duplex secondary structures that impede genome maintenance processes. Second, relative to dsDNA, ssDNA is hypersensitive to chemical and nucleolytic attacks that can cause damage to the genome. Cells deal with these potential problems by encoding specialized ssDNA-binding proteins (SSBs) that bind to and stabilize ssDNA structures required for essential genomic processes. SSBs are essential proteins found in all domains of life. SSBs bind ssDNA with high affinity and in a sequence-independent manner and, in doing so, SSBs help to form the central nucleoprotein complex substrate for DNA replication, recombination, and repair processes. While SSBs are found in every organism, the proteins themselves share surprisingly little sequence similarity, subunit composition, and oligomerization states. All SSB proteins contain at least one DNA-binding oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold, which consists minimally of a five stranded beta-sheet arranged as a beta barrel capped by a single alpha helix. The OB fold is responsible for both ssDNA binding and oligomerization (for SSBs that operate as oligomers). The overall organization of OB folds varies between bacteria, eukaryotes, and archaea. As part of SSB/ssDNA cellular structures, SSBs play direct roles in the DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In many cases, SSBs have been found to form specific complexes with diverse genome maintenance proteins, often helping to recruit SSB/ssDNA-processing enzymes to the proper cellular sites of action. This clustering of genome maintenance

  6. Alterations of DNA mismatch repair proteins and microsatellite instability levels in gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Tao, Hong; Kim, Jae J; Burkhead, Benjamin; Carloni, Emilia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2004-07-01

    Alterations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins result in microsatellite instability (MSI), increased mutation accumulation at target genes and cancer development. About one-third of gastric cancers display high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-High) and low-level microsatellite instability (MSI-Low) is frequently detected. To determine whether variations in the levels of MMR proteins or mutations in the main DNA MMR genes are associated with MSI-Low and MSI-High in gastric cancer cell lines, the MSI status (MSI-High, MSI-Low or MS-Stable (MSS)) of 14 gastric cancer lines was determined using multiple clone analysis with a panel of five microsatellite markers. Protein levels of hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, hPMS2 and hPMS1 were determined by Western blot. Sequence analysis of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was performed and the methylation status of the hMLH1 promoter was examined. The cell lines SNU1 and SNU638 showed MSI-High, decreased to essentially absent hMLH1 and hPMS2 and reduced hPMS1 and hMSH6 protein levels. The hMLH1 promoter region was hypermethylated in SNU638 cells. The MKN28, MKN87, KATOIII and SNU601 cell lines showed MSI-Low. The MMR protein levels of cells with MSI-Low status was similar to the levels detected in MSS cells. A marked decrease in the expression levels of MutL MMR proteins (hMLH1, hPMS2 and hPMS1) is associated with high levels of MSI mutations in gastric cancer cells. Gastric cancer cell lines with MSI-Low status do not show significant changes in the levels of the main DNA MMR proteins or mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes hMSH2 and hMLH1. These well-characterized gastric cancer cell lines are a valuable resource to further our understanding of DNA MMR deficiency in cancer development, progression and prognosis. PMID:15133479

  7. RecFOR proteins load RecA protein onto gapped DNA to accelerate DNA strand exchange: a universal step of recombinational repair.

    PubMed

    Morimatsu, Katsumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

    2003-05-01

    Genetic evidence suggests that the RecF, RecO, and RecR (RecFOR) proteins participate in a common step of DNA recombination and repair, yet the biochemical event requiring collaboration of all three proteins is unknown. Here, we show that the concerted action of the RecFOR complex directs the loading of RecA protein specifically onto gapped DNA that is coated with single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein, thereby accelerating DNA strand exchange. The RecFOR complex recognizes the junction between the ssDNA and dsDNA regions and requires a base-paired 5' terminus at the junction. Thus, the RecFOR complex is a structure-specific mediator that targets recombinational repair to ssDNA-dsDNA junctions. This reaction reconstitutes the initial steps of recombinational gapped DNA repair and uncovers an event also common to the repair of ssDNA-tailed intermediates of dsDNA-break repair. We propose that the behavior of the RecFOR proteins is mimicked by functional counterparts that exist in all organisms. PMID:12769856

  8. Hydrogel Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Expressing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Enhances Bone Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hui-Yi; Yang, Shu-Rui; Brey, Eric M.; Chu, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of bone tissue engineering for repairing bone defects has gradually shown some satisfactory progress. One of the concerns raising scientific attention is the poor supply of growth factors. A number of growth factor delivery approaches have been developed for promoting bone formation. However, there is no systematic comparison of those approaches on efficiency of neobone formation. In this study, the approaches using periosteum, direct supply of growth factors, or gene transfection of growth factors were evaluated to determine the osteogenic capacity on the repair of bone defect. Methods: In total, 42 male 21-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 to 400 g were used as the bone defect model to evaluate the bone repair efficiency. Various tissue engineered constructs of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactic acid) (PEG-PLLA) copolymer hydrogel with periosteum, with external supply of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), or with BMP2-transfected bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were filled in a 7-mm bone defect region. Animals were euthanized at 3 months, and the hydrogel constructs were harvested. The evaluation with histological staining and radiography analysis were performed for the volume of new bone formation. Results: The PEG-PLLA scaffold with BMMSCs promotes bone regeneration with the addition of periosteum. The group with BMP2-transfected BMMSCs demonstrated the largest volume of new bone among all the testing groups. Conclusions: Altogether, the results of this study provide the evidence that the combination of PEG-PLLA hydrogels with BMMSCs and sustained delivery of BMP2 resulted in the maximal bone regeneration.

  9. Hydrogel Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Expressing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Enhances Bone Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hui-Yi; Yang, Shu-Rui; Brey, Eric M.; Chu, I-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of bone tissue engineering for repairing bone defects has gradually shown some satisfactory progress. One of the concerns raising scientific attention is the poor supply of growth factors. A number of growth factor delivery approaches have been developed for promoting bone formation. However, there is no systematic comparison of those approaches on efficiency of neobone formation. In this study, the approaches using periosteum, direct supply of growth factors, or gene transfection of growth factors were evaluated to determine the osteogenic capacity on the repair of bone defect. Methods: In total, 42 male 21-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 to 400 g were used as the bone defect model to evaluate the bone repair efficiency. Various tissue engineered constructs of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactic acid) (PEG-PLLA) copolymer hydrogel with periosteum, with external supply of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), or with BMP2-transfected bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were filled in a 7-mm bone defect region. Animals were euthanized at 3 months, and the hydrogel constructs were harvested. The evaluation with histological staining and radiography analysis were performed for the volume of new bone formation. Results: The PEG-PLLA scaffold with BMMSCs promotes bone regeneration with the addition of periosteum. The group with BMP2-transfected BMMSCs demonstrated the largest volume of new bone among all the testing groups. Conclusions: Altogether, the results of this study provide the evidence that the combination of PEG-PLLA hydrogels with BMMSCs and sustained delivery of BMP2 resulted in the maximal bone regeneration. PMID:27622106

  10. RAD6 Promotes Homologous Recombination Repair by Activating the Autophagy-Mediated Degradation of Heterochromatin Protein HP1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su; Wang, Chen; Sun, Luxi; Wang, Da-Liang; Chen, Lu; Huang, Zhuan; Yang, Qi; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xi-Bin; Chang, Jian-Feng; Chen, Ping; Lan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is critical for the maintenance of genome stability. Unrepaired or misrepaired DSBs cause chromosomal rearrangements that can result in severe consequences, such as tumorigenesis. RAD6 is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that plays a pivotal role in repairing UV-induced DNA damage. Here, we present evidence that RAD6 is also required for DNA DSB repair via homologous recombination (HR) by specifically regulating the degradation of heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α). Our study indicates that RAD6 physically interacts with HP1α and ubiquitinates HP1α at residue K154, thereby promoting HP1α degradation through the autophagy pathway and eventually leading to an open chromatin structure that facilitates efficient HR DSB repair. Furthermore, bioinformatics studies have indicated that the expression of RAD6 and HP1α exhibits an inverse relationship and correlates with the survival rate of patients. PMID:25384975

  11. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins - MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 - using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  12. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. Material/Methods The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins – MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 – using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Results A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusions In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  13. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of DNA repair and xenobiotic metabolism genes and risk of DNA damage in Chinese vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shou-Min; Xia, Zhao-Lin; Wang, Ai-Hong; Ren, Xue-Feng; Jiao, Jie; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Qian, Ji; Jin, Li; Christiani, David C

    2008-05-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the association between DNA damage and genetic susceptibility among vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)-exposed workers. The cumulative exposure dose of VCM was calculated based on the workers' duration of exposure and the geometric mean concentration of VCM in the workplace. DNA damage to peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, and single nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) in xenobiotic metabolism and DNA repair genes were detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Univariate analysis showed that the CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2 and XPD751 Lys/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes were significantly associated with the levels of DNA damage (P<0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Further logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2 and DNA damage, and risk of having increased levels of DNA damage was more pronounced in those individuals having XRCC1 194 mutant genotypes and/or XPD751 Lys/Gln and Gln/Gln genotypes. Although most of the XPD and XRCC1 haplotypes did not show any significant difference, the XRCC1 haplotype Trp194-Arg280 was significantly over-represented in the case group (P<0.05; OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.07-4.06) than in controls. Overall, our data suggest that the genotypes of CYP2E1, XRCC1 194, and XPD 751 were associated with the level of DNA damage and may contribute to individual sensitivity to DNA damage induced by VCM in the workplace.

  14. Nucleophosmin modulates stability, activity, and nucleolar accumulation of base excision repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Mattia; Lirussi, Lisa; Wilson, David M.; Tell, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a multifunctional protein that controls cell growth and genome stability via a mechanism that involves nucleolar–cytoplasmic shuttling. It is clear that NPM1 also contributes to the DNA damage response, yet its exact function is poorly understood. We recently linked NPM1 expression to the functional activation of the major abasic endonuclease in mammalian base excision repair (BER), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1). Here we unveil a novel role for NPM1 as a modulator of the whole BER pathway by 1) controlling BER protein levels, 2) regulating total BER capacity, and 3) modulating the nucleolar localization of several BER enzymes. We find that cell treatment with the genotoxin cisplatin leads to concurrent relocalization of NPM1 and BER components from nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, and cellular experiments targeting APE1 suggest a role for the redistribution of nucleolar BER factors in determining cisplatin toxicity. Finally, based on the use of APE1 as a representative protein of the BER pathway, our data suggest a function for BER proteins in the regulation of ribogenesis. PMID:24648491

  15. Nuclear localization of human DNA mismatch repair protein exonuclease 1 (hEXO1)

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Vinther, Lena; Bertelsen, Ronni; Holten-Andersen, Steen; Liberti, Sascha Emilie; Hofstra, Robert; Kooi, Krista; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2007-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and mutations in hEXO1 may be associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Since the subcellular localization of MMR proteins is essential for proper MMR function, we characterized possible nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in hEXO1. Using fluorescent fusion proteins, we show that the sequence 418KRPR421, which exhibit strong homology to other monopartite NLS sequences, is responsible for correct nuclear localization of hEXO1. This NLS sequence is located in a region that is also required for hEXO1 interaction with hMLH1 and we show that defective nuclear localization of hEXO1 mutant proteins could be rescued by hMLH1 or hMSH2. Both hEXO1 and hMLH1 form complexes with the nuclear import factors importin β/α1,3,7 whereas hMSH2 specifically recognizes importin β/α3. Taken together, we infer that hEXO1, hMLH1 and hMSH2 form complexes and are imported to the nucleus together, and that redundant NLS import signals in the proteins may safeguard nuclear import and thereby MMR activity. PMID:17426132

  16. The reaction of the dura to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in repair of skull defects.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, K; Urist, M R

    1982-01-01

    Trephine defects in the adult rat skull 0.8 cm in diameter, which do not spontaneously heal, were filled with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) fraction. The defects healed not only by bony ingrowth from the trephine rim, but also by proliferation of pervascular mesenchymal-type cells (pericytes) of the dura mater. Under the influence of BMP, dural pericytes differentiated into chondroid and woven bone. Between three and four weeks postimplantation, sinusoids formed and the woven bone remodelled into lamellar bone. Concurrently, blood-borne bone marrow cells colonized the bone deposits, and the diploe were restored. Demonstrating that it is soluble in interstitial fluid, and diffusible across a nucleopore membrane (which isolated the bony margins of the skull), BMP induced new bone formation in the underlying dura and complete repair of the defect. The response of the dura to the BMP fraction produced more new bone than the response to allogeneic bone matrix. The BMP-induced repair was dose dependent; the quantity of new bone was proportional to the dose of the implanted BMP. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7092346

  17. Direct Involvement of Retinoblastoma Family Proteins in DNA Repair by Non-homologous End-Joining

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Rebecca; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Luczynski, Maciej T.; Rieger, Simone; Moquet, Jayne; Spanswick, Victoria J.; Hartley, John A.; Rothkamm, Kai; Huang, Paul H.; Mittnacht, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deficiencies in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair lead to genetic instability, a recognized cause of cancer initiation and evolution. We report that the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB1) is required for DNA DSB repair by canonical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ). Support of cNHEJ involves a mechanism independent of RB1’s cell-cycle function and depends on its amino terminal domain with which it binds to NHEJ components XRCC5 and XRCC6. Cells with engineered loss of RB family function as well as cancer-derived cells with mutational RB1 loss show substantially reduced levels of cNHEJ. RB1 variants disabled for the interaction with XRCC5 and XRCC6, including a cancer-associated variant, are unable to support cNHEJ despite being able to confer cell-cycle control. Our data identify RB1 loss as a candidate driver of structural genomic instability and a causative factor for cancer somatic heterogeneity and evolution. PMID:25818292

  18. SUMO modification of the neuroprotective protein TDP1 facilitates chromosomal single-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Jessica J.R.; Chiang, Shih-Chieh; Wells, Owen S.; Rookyard, Chris; El-Khamisy, Sherif F.

    2012-01-01

    Breaking and sealing one strand of DNA is an inherent feature of chromosome metabolism to overcome torsional barriers. Failure to reseal broken DNA strands results in protein-linked DNA breaks, causing neurodegeneration in humans. This is typified by defects in tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), which removes stalled topoisomerase 1 peptides from DNA termini. Here we show that TDP1 is a substrate for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO. We purify SUMOylated TDP1 from mammalian cells and identify the SUMOylation site as lysine 111. While SUMOylation exhibits no impact on TDP1 catalytic activity, it promotes its accumulation at sites of DNA damage. A TDP1 SUMOylation-deficient mutant displays a reduced rate of repair of chromosomal single-strand breaks arising from transcription-associated topoisomerase 1 activity or oxidative stress. These data identify a role for SUMO during single-strand break repair, and suggest a mechanism for protecting the nervous system from genotoxic stress. PMID:22415824

  19. Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4 Modulates Temozolomide Sensitivity in Glioblastoma by Regulating DNA Repair Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kitange, Gaspar J.; Mladek, Ann C.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Pokorny, Jenny C.; Carlson, Brett L.; Zhang, Yuji; Nair, Asha A.; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Yan, Huihuang; Decker, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiguo; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Here we provide evidence that RBBP4 modulates temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity through coordinate regulation of 2 key DNA repair genes critical for recovery from TMZ-induced DNA damage: methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and RAD51. Disruption of RBBP4 enhanced TMZ sensitivity, induced synthetic lethality to PARP inhibition and increased DNA damage signaling in response to TMZ. Moreover, RBBP4 silencing enhanced TMZ-induced H2AX phosphorylation and apoptosis in GBM cells. Intriguingly, RBBP4 knockdown suppressed the expression of MGMT, RAD51 and other genes in association with decreased promoter H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) and increased H3K9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3). Consistent with these data, RBBP4 interacts with CBP/p300 to form a chromatin modifying complex that binds within the promoter of MGMT, RAD51 and perhaps other genes. Globally, RBBP4 positively and negatively regulates genes involved in critical cellular functions including tumorigenesis. RBBP4/CBP/p300 complex may provide an interesting target for developing therapy sensitizing strategies for GBM and other tumors. PMID:26972001

  20. Methods for quantitative evaluation of dynamics of repair proteins within irradiated cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hable, V.; Dollinger, G.; Greubel, C.; Hauptner, A.; Krücken, R.; Dietzel, S.; Cremer, T.; Drexler, G. A.; Friedl, A. A.; Löwe, R.

    2006-04-01

    Living HeLa cells are irradiated well directed with single 100 MeV oxygen ions by the superconducting ion microprobe SNAKE, the Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied Nuclear (=Kern-) Physics Experiments, at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. Various proteins, which are involved directly or indirectly in repair processes, accumulate as clusters (so called foci) at DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the ions. The spatiotemporal dynamics of these foci built by the phosphorylated histone γ-H2AX are studied. For this purpose cells are irradiated in line patterns. The γ-H2AX is made visible under the fluorescence microscope using immunofluorescence techniques. Quantitative analysis methods are developed to evaluate the data of the microscopic images in order to analyze movement of the foci and their changing size.

  1. Role of novel dimeric Photosystem II (PSII)-Psb27 protein complex in PSII repair.

    PubMed

    Grasse, Nicole; Mamedov, Fikret; Becker, Kristin; Styring, Stenbjörn; Rögner, Matthias; Nowaczyk, Marc M

    2011-08-26

    The multisubunit membrane protein complex Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes one of the key reactions in photosynthesis: the light-driven oxidation of water. Here, we focus on the role of the Psb27 assembly factor, which is involved in biogenesis and repair after light-induced damage of the complex. We show that Psb27 is essential for the survival of cyanobacterial cells grown under stress conditions. The combination of cold stress (30 °C) and high light stress (1000 μmol of photons × m(-2) × s(-1)) led to complete inhibition of growth in a Δpsb27 mutant strain of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, whereas wild-type cells continued to grow. Moreover, Psb27-containing PSII complexes became the predominant PSII species in preparations from wild-type cells grown under cold stress. Two different PSII-Psb27 complexes were isolated and characterized in this study. The first complex represents the known monomeric PSII-Psb27 species, which is involved in the assembly of PSII. Additionally, a novel dimeric PSII-Psb27 complex could be allocated in the repair cycle, i.e. in processes after inactivation of PSII, by (15)N pulse-label experiments followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Comparison with the corresponding PSII species from Δpsb27 mutant cells showed that Psb27 prevented the release of manganese from the previously inactivated complex. These results indicate a more complex role of the Psb27 protein within the life cycle of PSII, especially under stress conditions.

  2. A structure-specific nucleic acid-binding domain conserved among DNA repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Aaron C.; Rambo, Robert P.; Greer, Briana; Pritchett, Michael; Tainer, John A.; Cortez, David; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2014-01-01

    SMARCAL1, a DNA remodeling protein fundamental to genome integrity during replication, is the only gene associated with the developmental disorder Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD). SMARCAL1-deficient cells show collapsed replication forks, S-phase cell cycle arrest, increased chromosomal breaks, hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, and chromosomal instability. The SMARCAL1 catalytic domain (SMARCAL1CD) is composed of an SNF2-type double-stranded DNA motor ATPase fused to a HARP domain of unknown function. The mechanisms by which SMARCAL1 and other DNA translocases repair replication forks are poorly understood, in part because of a lack of structural information on the domains outside of the common ATPase motor. In the present work, we determined the crystal structure of the SMARCAL1 HARP domain and examined its conformation and assembly in solution by small angle X-ray scattering. We report that this domain is conserved with the DNA mismatch and damage recognition domains of MutS/MSH and NER helicase XPB, respectively, as well as with the putative DNA specificity motif of the T4 phage fork regression protein UvsW. Loss of UvsW fork regression activity by deletion of this domain was rescued by its replacement with HARP, establishing the importance of this domain in UvsW and demonstrating a functional complementarity between these structurally homologous domains. Mutation of predicted DNA-binding residues in HARP dramatically reduced fork binding and regression activities of SMARCAL1CD. Thus, this work has uncovered a conserved substrate recognition domain in DNA repair enzymes that couples ATP-hydrolysis to remodeling of a variety of DNA structures, and provides insight into this domain’s role in replication fork stability and genome integrity. PMID:24821763

  3. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. PMID:27060854

  4. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed.

  5. 2-step purification of the Ku DNA repair protein expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The Ku protein is involved in DNA double-strand break repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is crucial to the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammals. To study the role of Ku in NHEJ we developed a bicistronic E. coli expression system for the Ku70 and Ku80 subunits. Association of the Ku70 and Ku80 subunits buries a substantial amount of surface area (~9000Å2 [1]), which suggests that herterodimerization may be important for protein stability. N-terminally his6-tagged Ku80 was soluble in the presence, but not in the absence, of bicistronically expressed untagged Ku70. In a 2-step purification, metal chelating affinity chromatography was followed by step-gradient elution from heparin-agarose. Co-purification of equimolar amounts of his6-tagged Ku80 and untagged Ku70 was observed, which indicated heterodimerization. Recombinant Ku bound dsDNA, activated the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase (DNA-PKcs) and functioned in NHEJ reactions in vitro. Our results demonstrate that while the heterodimeric interface of Ku is extensive it is nonetheless possible to produce biologically active Ku protein in E. coli. PMID:17110127

  6. UV-sensitive syndrome protein UVSSA recruits USP7 to regulate transcription-coupled repair.

    PubMed

    Schwertman, Petra; Lagarou, Anna; Dekkers, Dick H W; Raams, Anja; van der Hoek, Adriana C; Laffeber, Charlie; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Fousteri, Maria; Vermeulen, Wim; Marteijn, Jurgen A

    2012-05-01

    Transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair (TC-NER) is a subpathway of NER that efficiently removes the highly toxic RNA polymerase II blocking lesions in DNA. Defective TC-NER gives rise to the human disorders Cockayne syndrome and UV-sensitive syndrome (UV(S)S). NER initiating factors are known to be regulated by ubiquitination. Using a SILAC-based proteomic approach, we identified UVSSA (formerly known as KIAA1530) as part of a UV-induced ubiquitinated protein complex. Knockdown of UVSSA resulted in TC-NER deficiency. UVSSA was found to be the causative gene for UV(S)S, an unresolved NER deficiency disorder. The UVSSA protein interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II, localizes specifically to UV-induced lesions, resides in chromatin-associated TC-NER complexes and is implicated in stabilizing the TC-NER master organizing protein ERCC6 (also known as CSB) by delivering the deubiquitinating enzyme USP7 to TC-NER complexes. Together, these findings indicate that UVSSA-USP7–mediated stabilization of ERCC6 represents a critical regulatory mechanism of TC-NER in restoring gene expression. PMID:22466611

  7. Genetic variation in DNA-repair pathways and response to radiochemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent data in esophageal cancer suggests the variant allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC1 may be associated with resistance to radiochemotherapy. However, this SNP has not been assessed in a histologically homogeneous clinical trial cohort that has been treated with a uniform approach. In addition, whether germline DNA may serve as a surrogate for tumor genotype at this locus is unknown in this disease. Our objective was to assess this SNP in relation to the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy in a multicenter clinical trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1201). As a secondary aim, we investigated the rate of allelic imbalance between germline and tumor DNA. Methods Eighty-one eligible treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received radiotherapy (45 Gy) concurrent with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was pCR, defined as complete absence of tumor in the surgical specimen after radiochemotherapy. Using germline DNA from 60 subjects, we examined the base-excision repair SNP, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and 4 other SNPs in nucleotide excision (XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, ERCC1 3' flank) and double-stranded break (XRCC2 5' flank) repair pathways, and correlated genotype with pCR rate. Paired tumor tissue was used to estimate the frequency of allelic imbalance at the XRCC1 SNP. Results The variant allele of the XRCC1 SNP (399Gln) was detected in 52% of subjects. Only 6% of subjects with the variant allele experienced a pCR, compared to 28% of subjects without the variant allele (odds ratio 5.37 for failing to achieve pCR, p = 0.062). Allelic imbalance at this locus was found in only 10% of informative subjects, suggesting that germline genotype may reflect tumor genotype at this locus. No significant association with pCR was noted

  8. Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons.

    PubMed

    Gennaris, Alexandra; Ezraty, Benjamin; Henry, Camille; Agrebi, Rym; Vergnes, Alexandra; Oheix, Emmanuel; Bos, Julia; Leverrier, Pauline; Espinosa, Leon; Szewczyk, Joanna; Vertommen, Didier; Iranzo, Olga; Collet, Jean-François; Barras, Frédéric

    2015-12-17

    The reactive species of oxygen and chlorine damage cellular components, potentially leading to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine is converted to methionine sulfoxide, which can cause a loss of biological activity. To rescue proteins with methionine sulfoxide residues, living cells express methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) in most subcellular compartments, including the cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we report the identification of an enzymatic system, MsrPQ, repairing proteins containing methionine sulfoxide in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly exposed to the reactive species of oxygen and chlorine generated by the host defence mechanisms. MsrP, a molybdo-enzyme, and MsrQ, a haem-binding membrane protein, are widely conserved throughout Gram-negative bacteria, including major human pathogens. MsrPQ synthesis is induced by hypochlorous acid, a powerful antimicrobial released by neutrophils. Consistently, MsrPQ is essential for the maintenance of envelope integrity under bleach stress, rescuing a wide series of structurally unrelated periplasmic proteins from methionine oxidation, including the primary periplasmic chaperone SurA. For this activity, MsrPQ uses electrons from the respiratory chain, which represents a novel mechanism to import reducing equivalents into the bacterial cell envelope. A remarkable feature of MsrPQ is its capacity to reduce both rectus (R-) and sinister (S-) diastereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide, making this oxidoreductase complex functionally different from previously identified Msrs. The discovery that a large class of bacteria contain a single, non-stereospecific enzymatic complex fully protecting methionine residues from oxidation should prompt a search for similar systems in eukaryotic subcellular oxidizing compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Identification of Intrinsic Order and Disorder in the DNA Repair Protein XPA

    SciTech Connect

    Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Kimzey, Amy L.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Bruce, James E.; Garner, Ethan C.; Brown, Celeste J.; Dunker, A. K.; Smith, Richard D.; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2001-03-01

    The damage recognition protein XPA is required to recognize a wide variety of bulky lesions during nucleotide excision repair (NER). Independent NMR solution structures of a human XPA protein (hXPA) fragment comprising approximately one-third of the full-length protein, the minimal DNA-binding domain (MBD), revealed that ~30% of the molecule was structurally disordered. To better characterize structural features of XPA, we performed time-resolved trypsin proteolysis on active, full-length recombinant Xenopus XPA protein (xXPA). The resulting proteolytic fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization interface coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and selected N-terminal sequence determinations. The mass spectrum of the full-length xXPA was consistent with the predicted sequence, 30922.02 vs. 30922.45 Da; respectively. Moreover, the mass spectrometric data allowed the assignment of multiple xXPA fragments not resolvable by SDS PAGE. Full-length xXPA exhibited aberrant mobility on SDS-PAGE with an apparent MW of ~40 kDa. To test predictions that a Glu-rich region (E70-E76) or other local regions of high charge were responsible for this ~40% aberrant SDS-PAGE mobility, the MW's of partial proteolytic fragments from ~5 to 25 kDa precisely determined by ESI-FTICR MS were correlated with their gel positions. Surprisingly, all tested partial tryptic fragments within this size-range exhibited 10-42% divergence between calculated MW and that estimated by SDS-PAGE, thus indicating the origin of anomalous migration of XPA is not localized. The computer program Predictor of Natural Disordered Regions (PONDR) correctly identified several regions of xXPA either sensitive or resistant to partial proteolysis, thereby indicating that disorder in XPA shares sequence features with other well-characterized intrinsically unstructured proteins.

  10. Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Camille; Agrebi, Rym; Vergnes, Alexandra; Oheix, Emmanuel; Bos, Julia; Leverrier, Pauline; Espinosa, Leon; Szewczyk, Joanna; Vertommen, Didier; Iranzo, Olga; Collet, Jean-François; Barras, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The reactive species of oxygen (ROS) and chlorine (RCS) damage cellular components, potentially leading to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine (Met) is converted to methionine sulfoxide (Met-O), which can cause a loss of biological activity. To rescue proteins with Met-O residues, living cells express methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) in most subcellular compartments, including the cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts 1-3. Here, we report the identification of an enzymatic system, MsrPQ, repairing Met-O containing proteins in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly exposed to the ROS and RCS generated by the host defense mechanisms. MsrP, a molybdo-enzyme, and MsrQ, a heme-binding membrane protein, are widely conserved throughout Gram-negative bacteria, including major human pathogens. MsrPQ synthesis is induced by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a powerful antimicrobial released by neutrophils. Consistently, MsrPQ is essential for the maintenance of envelope integrity under bleach stress, rescuing a wide series of structurally unrelated periplasmic proteins from Met oxidation, including the primary periplasmic chaperone SurA. For this activity, MsrPQ uses electrons from the respiratory chain, which represents a novel mechanism to import reducing equivalents into the bacterial cell envelope. A remarkable feature of MsrPQ is its capacity to reduce both R- and S- diastereoisomers of Met-O, making this oxidoreductase complex functionally different from previously identified Msrs. The discovery that a large class of bacteria contain a single, non-stereospecific enzymatic complex fully protecting Met residues from oxidation should prompt search for similar systems in eukaryotic subcellular oxidizing compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PMID:26641313

  11. Participation of Chromatin-Remodeling Proteins in the Repair of Ultraviolet-B-Damaged DNA1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Mabel; D’Andrea, Lucio; Emiliani, Julia; Casati, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The genome of plants is organized into chromatin, affecting the rates of transcription, DNA recombination, and repair. In this work, we have investigated the consequences of reduced expression of some chromatin-remodeling factors and histone acetylation in maize (Zea mays) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in their participation in DNA repair after ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. Plants deficient in NFC102/NFC4 or SDG102/SDG26 showed more damaged DNA than wild-type plants; however, the Arabidopsis chc1 mutant showed similar accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers as wild-type plants, in contrast to the increased DNA damage measured in the maize chc101 RNA interference line. In Arabidopsis, plants deficient in chromatin remodeling are also affected in the accumulation of pigments by UV-B. Plants treated with an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases, curcumin, previous to the UV-B treatment show deficiencies in DNA repair; in addition, the chromatin remodeling-deficient plants have altered levels of acetylated histones after the UV-B treatment, demonstrating that histone acetylation is important during DNA repair in these two plant species. Arabidopsis mutants ham1 and ham2 also showed increased DNA damage after UV-B, suggesting that the role of these proteins in DNA damage repair has been conserved through evolution. However, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer accumulation was higher in ham1 than in ham2; suggesting that HAM1 has a major role in DNA repair after UV-B. In summary, in this work, we have demonstrated that chromatin remodeling, and histone acetylation in particular, is important during DNA repair by UV-B, demonstrating that both genetic and epigenetic effects control DNA repair in plants. PMID:22170978

  12. Involvement of the Artemis Protein in the Relative Biological Efficiency Observed With the 76-MeV Proton Beam Used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay

    SciTech Connect

    Calugaru, Valentin; Nauraye, Catherine; Cordelières, Fabrice P.; Biard, Denis; De Marzi, Ludovic; Hall, Janet; Favaudon, Vincent; Mégnin-Chanet, Frédérique

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Previously we showed that the relative biological efficiency for induced cell killing by the 76-MeV beam used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay increased with depth throughout the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). To investigate the repair pathways underlying this increase, we used an isogenic human cell model in which individual DNA repair proteins have been depleted, and techniques dedicated to precise measurements of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: The 3-Gy surviving fractions of HeLa cells individually depleted of Ogg1, XRCC1, and PARP1 (the base excision repair/SSB repair pathway) or of ATM, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, and Artemis (nonhomologous end-joining pathway) were determined at the 3 positions previously defined in the SOBP. Quantification of incident SSBs and DSBs by the alkaline elution technique and 3-dimensional (3D) immunofluorescence of γ-H2AX foci, respectively, was performed in SQ20 B cells. Results: We showed that the amount of SSBs and DSBs depends directly on the particle fluence and that the increase in relative biological efficiency observed in the distal part of the SOBP is due to a subset of lesions generated under these conditions, leading to cell death via a pathway in which the Artemis protein plays a central role. Conclusions: Because therapies like proton or carbon beams are now being used to treat cancer, it is even more important to dissect the mechanisms implicated in the repair of the lesions generated by these particles. Additionally, alteration of the expression or activity of the Artemis protein could be a novel therapeutic tool before high linear energy transfer irradiation treatment.

  13. Biodegradable synthetic polymer scaffolds for reinforcement of albumin protein solders used for laser-assisted tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Grant T; Soller, Eric C; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M

    2002-01-01

    Laser tissue soldering has been investigated for several years by researchers in our laboratory as an alternative to conventional tissue fasteners, including sutures, staples and clips. Laser tissue soldering is a bonding technique in which protein solder is applied to the tissue surfaces to be joined, and laser energy is used to bond the solder to the tissue surfaces. Over the past four years we have been investigating the use of synthetic polymer membranes as a means for reinforcing the strength of tissue repairs formed using traditional laser tissue soldering techniques. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various processing parameters on the strength of tissue repairs formed using the reinforced solder. Biodegradable polymer membranes of specific porosity were fabricated by means of a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique, using three different poly(alpha ester)s: polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). In addition, several membranes were also prepared with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The membranes were then doped with the traditional protein solder mixture of serum albumin and indocyanine green dye. Varied processing parameters included the polymer type, the PLGA copolymer blend ratio, the polymer/PEG blend ratio, the porosity of the polymer membrane and the initial albumin weight fraction. Variation of the polymer type had negligible effect on the strength of the repairs. Although it is known that alteration of the copolymer blend ratio of PLGA influences the degradation rate of the polymer, this variation also had no significant effect on the strength of the repairs formed. Increased membrane flexibility was observed when PEG was added during the casting stage. An increase in the porosity of the polymer membranes led to a subsequent increase in the final concentration of protein contained within the membranes, hence aiding in strengthening the resultant repairs. Likewise

  14. Characterization of DNA binding and pairing activities associated with the native SFPQ•NONO DNA repair protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Durga; Dynan, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks. We have previously shown that a complex of SFPQ (PSF) and NONO (p54nrb) cooperates with Ku protein at an early step of NHEJ, forming a committed preligation complex and stimulating end-joining activity by 10-fold or more. SFPQ and NONO show no resemblance to other repair factors, and their mechanism of action is uncertain. Here, we use an optimized microwell-based assay to characterize the in vitro DNA binding behavior of the native SFPQ•NONO complex purified from human (HeLa) cells. SFPQ•NONO and Ku protein bind independently to DNA, with little evidence of cooperativity and only slight mutual interference at high concentration. Whereas Ku protein requires free DNA ends for binding, SFPQ•NONO does not. Both Ku and SFPQ•NONO have pairing activity, as measured by the ability of DNA-bound protein to capture a second DNA fragment in a microwell-based assay. Additionally, SFPQ•NONO stimulates DNA-dependent protein kinase autophosphorylation, consistent with the ability to promote formation of a synaptic complex formation without occluding the DNA termini proper. These findings suggest that SFPQ•NONO promotes end joining by binding to internal DNA sequences and cooperating with other repair proteins to stabilize a synaptic pre-ligation complex. PMID:25998385

  15. A high throughput screening strategy to identify protein-protein interaction inhibitors that block the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Voter, Andrew F.; Manthei, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Induction of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway is a common mechanism by which tumors evolve resistance to DNA crosslinking chemotherapies. Proper execution of the FA pathway requires interaction between the FA complementation group M protein (FANCM) and the RecQ-mediated genome instability protein (RMI) complex, and mutations that disrupt FANCM/RMI interactions sensitize cells to DNA crosslinking agents. Inhibitors that block FANCM/RMI complex formation could be useful therapeutics for re-sensitizing tumors that have acquired chemotherapeutic resistance. To identify such inhibitors, we have developed and validated high-throughput fluorescence polarization and proximity assays that are sensitive to inhibitors that disrupt interactions between the RMI complex and its binding site on FANCM (a peptide referred to as MM2). A pilot screen of 74,807 small molecules was performed using the fluorescence polarization assay. Hits from the primary screen were further tested using the proximity assay and an orthogonal proximity assay was used to assess inhibitor selectivity. Direct physical interaction between the RMI complex and the most selective inhibitor identified through the screening process was measured by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. Observation of direct binding by this small molecule validates the screening protocol. PMID:26962873

  16. Arabidopsis Protein Repair L-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferases: Predominant Activities at Lethal Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sarah T; Xu, Qilong; Downie, A Bruce; Clarke, Steven G

    2006-12-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferases (EC 2.1.1.77; PIMT or PCMT) are enzymes that initiate the full or partial repair of damaged L-aspartyl and L-asparaginyl residues, respectively. These enzymes are found in most organisms and maintain a high degree of sequence conservation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis L. Heynh.) is unique among eukaryotes in that it contains two genes, rather than one, that encode PIMT isozymes. We describe a novel Arabidopsis PIMT isozyme, designated AtPIMT2αω, encoded by the PIMT2 gene (At5g50240). We characterized the enzymatic activity of the recombinant AtPIMT2αω in comparison to the other AtPIMT2 isozymes, AtPIMT1, and to the human PCMT ortholog, to better understand its role in Arabidopsis. All Arabidopsis PIMT isozymes are active over a relatively wide pH range. For AtPIMT2αω maximal activity is observed at 50 °C (a lethal temperature for Arabidopsis); this activity is almost ten times greater than the activity at the growth temperature of 25 °C. Interestingly, enzyme activity decreases after pre-incubation at temperatures above 30°C. A similar situation is found for the recombinant AtPIMT2ψ and the AtPIMT2ω isozymes, as well as for the AtPIMT1 and human PCMT1 enzymes. These results suggest that the short-term ability of these methyltransferases to initiate repair under extreme temperature conditions may be a common feature of both the plant and animal species.

  17. Dynamics of the DNA repair proteins WRN and BLM in the nucleoplasm and nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Jensen, Martin Borch; May, Alfred; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Trusina, Ala; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Jensen, Mogens H

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mobility of two EGFP-tagged DNA repair proteins, WRN and BLM. In particular, we focused on the dynamics in two locations, the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. We found that both WRN and BLM use a "DNA-scanning" mechanism, with rapid binding-unbinding to DNA resulting in effective diffusion. In the nucleoplasm WRN and BLM have effective diffusion coefficients of 1.62 and 1.34 μm(2)/s, respectively. Likewise, the dynamics in the nucleoli are also best described by effective diffusion, but with diffusion coefficients a factor of ten lower than in the nucleoplasm. From this large reduction in diffusion coefficient we were able to classify WRN and BLM as DNA damage scanners. In addition to WRN and BLM we also classified other DNA damage proteins and found they all fall into one of two categories. Either they are scanners, similar to WRN and BLM, with very low diffusion coefficients, suggesting a scanning mechanism, or they are almost freely diffusing, suggesting that they interact with DNA only after initiation of a DNA damage response.

  18. The Ku70 DNA-repair protein is involved in centromere function in a grasshopper species.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Josefa; Bakkali, Mohammed; Navarro-Domínguez, Beatriz; Ruíz-Ruano, Francisco J; Martín-Blázquez, Rubén; López-León, María Dolores; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2013-06-25

    The Ku70 protein is involved in numerous cell functions, the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway being the best known. Here, we report a novel function for this protein in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. We observed the presence of large Ku70 foci on the centromeres of meiotic and mitotic chromosomes during the cell cycle stages showing the highest centromeric activity (i.e., metaphase and anaphase). The fact that colchicine treatment prevented centromeric location of Ku70, suggests a microtubule-dependent centromeric function for Ku70. Likewise, the absence of Ku70 at metaphase-anaphase centromeres from three males whose Ku70 gene had been knocked down using interference RNA, and the dramatic increase in the frequency of polyploid spermatids observed in these males, suggest that the centromeric presence of Ku70 is required for normal cytokinesis in this species. The centromeric function of Ku70 was not observed in 14 other grasshopper and locust species, or in the mouse, thus suggesting that it is an autapomorphy in E. plorans. PMID:23797468

  19. Identification of Pathways in Liver Repair Potentially Targeted by Secretory Proteins from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Sandra; Hempel, Madlen; Brückner, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Kaufmann, Roland; Christ, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background: The beneficial impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on both acute and chronic liver diseases has been confirmed, although the molecular mechanisms behind it remain elusive. We aim to identify factors secreted by undifferentiated and hepatocytic differentiated MSC in vitro in order to delineate liver repair pathways potentially targeted by MSC. Methods: Secreted factors were determined by protein arrays and related pathways identified by biomathematical analyses. Results: MSC from adipose tissue and bone marrow expressed a similar pattern of surface markers. After hepatocytic differentiation, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1) increased and CD166 (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, ALCAM) decreased. MSC secreted different factors before and after differentiation. These comprised cytokines involved in innate immunity and growth factors regulating liver regeneration. Pathway analysis revealed cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, chemokine signalling pathways, the complement and coagulation cascades as well as the Januskinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD-like receptor) signalling pathways as relevant networks. Relationships to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α) signalling seemed also relevant. Conclusion: MSC secreted proteins, which differed depending on cell source and degree of differentiation. The factors might address inflammatory and growth factor pathways as well as chemo-attraction and innate immunity. Since these are prone to dysregulation in most liver diseases, MSC release hepatotropic factors, potentially supporting liver regeneration. PMID:27409608

  20. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in mesenchymal stem cell stimulation of cartilage and bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Scarfì, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix-associated bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) govern a plethora of biological processes. The BMPs are members of the transforming growth factor-β protein superfamily, and they actively participate to kidney development, digit and limb formation, angiogenesis, tissue fibrosis and tumor development. Since their discovery, they have attracted attention for their fascinating perspectives in the regenerative medicine and tissue engineering fields. BMPs have been employed in many preclinical and clinical studies exploring their chondrogenic or osteoinductive potential in several animal model defects and in human diseases. During years of research in particular two BMPs, BMP2 and BMP7 have gained the podium for their use in the treatment of various cartilage and bone defects. In particular they have been recently approved for employment in non-union fractures as adjunct therapies. On the other hand, thanks to their potentialities in biomedical applications, there is a growing interest in studying the biology of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), the rules underneath their differentiation abilities, and to test their true abilities in tissue engineering. In fact, the specific differentiation of MSCs into targeted cell-type lineages for transplantation is a primary goal of the regenerative medicine. This review provides an overview on the current knowledge of BMP roles and signaling in MSC biology and differentiation capacities. In particular the article focuses on the potential clinical use of BMPs and MSCs concomitantly, in cartilage and bone tissue repair. PMID:26839636

  1. Dynamics of the DNA repair proteins WRN and BLM in the nucleoplasm and nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Jensen, Martin Borch; May, Alfred; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Trusina, Ala; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Jensen, Mogens H

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mobility of two EGFP-tagged DNA repair proteins, WRN and BLM. In particular, we focused on the dynamics in two locations, the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. We found that both WRN and BLM use a "DNA-scanning" mechanism, with rapid binding-unbinding to DNA resulting in effective diffusion. In the nucleoplasm WRN and BLM have effective diffusion coefficients of 1.62 and 1.34 μm(2)/s, respectively. Likewise, the dynamics in the nucleoli are also best described by effective diffusion, but with diffusion coefficients a factor of ten lower than in the nucleoplasm. From this large reduction in diffusion coefficient we were able to classify WRN and BLM as DNA damage scanners. In addition to WRN and BLM we also classified other DNA damage proteins and found they all fall into one of two categories. Either they are scanners, similar to WRN and BLM, with very low diffusion coefficients, suggesting a scanning mechanism, or they are almost freely diffusing, suggesting that they interact with DNA only after initiation of a DNA damage response. PMID:25119658

  2. The Protein Oxidation Repair Enzyme Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Modulates Aβ Aggregation and Toxicity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Minniti, Alicia N.; Arrazola, Macarena S.; Bravo-Zehnder, Marcela; Ramos, Francisca; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To examine the role of the enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A-1 (MSRA-1) in amyloid-β peptide (Aβ)-peptide aggregation and toxicity in vivo, using a Caenorhabditis elegans model of the human amyloidogenic disease inclusion body myositis. Results: MSRA-1 specifically reduces oxidized methionines in proteins. Therefore, a deletion of the msra-1 gene was introduced into transgenic C. elegans worms that express the Aβ-peptide in muscle cells to prevent the reduction of oxidized methionines in proteins. In a constitutive transgenic Aβ strain that lacks MSRA-1, the number of amyloid aggregates decreases while the number of oligomeric Aβ species increases. These results correlate with enhanced synaptic dysfunction and mislocalization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ACR-16 at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Innovation: This approach aims at modulating the oxidation of Aβ in vivo indirectly by dismantling the methionine sulfoxide repair system. The evidence presented here shows that the absence of MSRA-1 influences Aβ aggregation and aggravates locomotor behavior and NMJ dysfunction. The results suggest that therapies which boost the activity of the Msr system could have a beneficial effect in managing amyloidogenic pathologies. Conclusion: The absence of MSRA-1 modulates Aβ-peptide aggregation and increments its deleterious effects in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 48–62. PMID:24988428

  3. Significance of the photosystem II core phosphatase PBCP for plant viability and protein repair in thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Woodiwiss, Timothy; Knoerdel, Ryan; Zia, Ahmad; Wood, Magnus; Hoehner, Ricarda; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    PSII undergoes photodamage, which results in photoinhibition-the light-induced loss of photosynthetic activity. The main target of damage in PSII is the reaction center protein D1, which is buried in the massive 1.4 MDa PSII holocomplex. Plants have evolved a PSII repair cycle that degrades the damaged D1 subunit and replaces it with a newly synthesized copy. PSII core proteins, including D1, are phosphorylated in high light. This phosphorylation is important for the mobilization of photoinhibited PSII from stacked grana thylakoids to the repair machinery in distant unstacked stroma lamellae. It has been recognized that the degradation of the damaged D1 is more efficient after its dephosphorylation by a protein phosphatase. Recently a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C)-type PSII core phosphatase (PBCP) has been discovered, which is involved in the dephosphorylation of PSII core proteins. Its role in PSII repair, however, is unknown. Using a range of spectroscopic and biochemical techniques, we report that the inactivation of the PBCP gene affects the growth characteristic of plants, with a decreased biomass and altered PSII functionality. PBCP mutants show increased phosphorylation of core subunits in dark and photoinhibitory conditions and a diminished degradation of the D1 subunit. Our results on D1 turnover in PBCP mutants suggest that dephosphorylation of PSII subunits is required for efficient D1 degradation. PMID:24793754

  4. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes as risk factors for asbestos-related malignant mesothelioma in a general population study.

    PubMed

    Dianzani, I; Gibello, L; Biava, A; Giordano, M; Bertolotti, M; Betti, M; Ferrante, D; Guarrera, S; Betta, G P; Mirabelli, D; Matullo, G; Magnani, C

    2006-07-25

    Differences in response to carcinogenic agents are due to the allelic variants of the genes that control it. Key genes are those involved in the repair of the DNA damage caused by such agents. This paper describes the results of a case-control epidemiological study designed to determine the genotypes of four of these genes in persons exposed to a single genotoxic factor, i.e. asbestos, who had or had not developed malignant mesothelioma (MM). Our working hypothesis was that an imperfect DNA repair, as revealed by subtle polymorphic variants, could reduce protection against the chronic DNA insult provoked by asbestos and eventually result in mutagenesis and cancer. Seven variants (i.e. XRCC1-R399Q-NCBI SNP, XRCC1-R194W, XRCC3-T241M, XRCC3-IVS6-14, XPD-K751Q, XPD-D312N, OGG1-S326C) were investigated in 81 patients and 110 age and sex-matched controls, all residents at Casale Monferrato, a Piedmontese town highly exposed to asbestos pollution. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When considered as a categorical variable, XRCC1-399Q showed an increased OR both in heterozygotes (OR=2.08; 95% CI=1.00-4.33) and homozygotes (2.38; 95% CI=0.82-6.94), although individual ORs were not significant. When it was considered as a continuous variable OR was significant (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.02-2.75). When genotypes were divided into "non-risk" and "risk" genotypes, i.e. those thought to be associated with increased risk in the light of the functional significance of the variants, XRCC1-399Q (Q homozygotes+Q/R heterozygotes versus R homozygotes) had an OR=2.147 (95% CI: 1.08-4.28), whereas that of XRCC3-241T (T homozygotes+M/T heterozygotes versus M homozygotes) was 4.09 (95% CI: 1.26-13.21) and that of OGG1-326C was increased, though not significantly. None of the haplotypes showed a significantly different frequency between patients and controls. This is the first report of an association between

  5. Telomere binding of checkpoint sensor and DNA repair proteins contributes to maintenance of functional fission yeast telomeres.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Toru M; Moser, Bettina A; Russell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, are DNA double-strand ends that do not trigger a cell cycle arrest and yet require checkpoint and DNA repair proteins for maintenance. Genetic and biochemical studies in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe were undertaken to understand how checkpoint and DNA repair proteins contribute to telomere maintenance. On the basis of telomere lengths of mutant combinations of various checkpoint-related proteins (Rad1, Rad3, Rad9, Rad17, Rad26, Hus1, Crb2, Chk1, Cds1), Tel1, a telomere-binding protein (Taz1), and DNA repair proteins (Ku70, Rad32), we conclude that Rad3/Rad26 and Tel1/Rad32 represent two pathways required to maintain telomeres and prevent chromosome circularization. Rad1/Rad9/Hus1/Rad17 and Ku70 are two additional epistasis groups, which act in the Rad3/Rad26 pathway. However, Rad3/Rad26 must have additional target(s), as cells lacking Tel1/Rad32, Rad1/Rad9/Hus1/Rad17, and Ku70 groups did not circularize chromosomes. Cells lacking Rad3/Rad26 and Tel1/Rad32 senesced faster than a telomerase trt1Delta mutant, suggesting that these pathways may contribute to telomere protection. Deletion of taz1 did not suppress chromosome circularization in cells lacking Rad3/Rad26 and Tel1/Rad32, also suggesting that two pathways protect telomeres. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses found that Rad3, Rad1, Rad9, Hus1, Rad17, Rad32, and Ku70 associate with telomeres. Thus, checkpoint sensor and DNA repair proteins contribute to telomere maintenance and protection through their association with telomeres. PMID:12196391

  6. SIRT6 stabilizes DNA-dependent Protein Kinase at chromatin for DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Ronald A.; Michishita, Eriko; Hong, Tao; Berber, Elisabeth; Boxer, Lisa D.; Kusumoto, Rika; Guan, Shenheng; Shi, Xiaobing; Gozani, Or; Burlingame, Alma L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Chua, Katrin F.

    2009-01-01

    The Sir2 chromatin regulatory factor links maintenance of genomic stability to life span extension in yeast. The mammalian Sir2 family member SIRT6 has been proposed to have analogous functions, because SIRT6-deficiency leads to shortened life span and an aging-like degenerative phenotype in mice, and SIRT6 knockout cells exhibit genomic instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 forms a macromolecular complex with the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) and promotes DNA DSB repair. In response to DSBs, SIRT6 associates dynamically with chromatin and is necessary for an acute decrease in global cellular acetylation levels on histone H3 Lysine 9. Moreover, SIRT6 is required for mobilization of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to chromatin in response to DNA damage and stabilizes DNA-PKcs at chromatin adjacent to an induced site-specific DSB. Abrogation of these SIRT6 activities leads to impaired resolution of DSBs. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism whereby regulation of dynamic interaction of a DNA repair factor with chromatin impacts on the efficiency of repair, and establish a link between chromatin regulation, DNA repair, and a mammalian Sir2 factor. PMID:20157594

  7. Bacillus subtilis SbcC protein plays an important role in DNA inter-strand cross-link repair

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Judita; Sanchez, Humberto; Tadesse, Serkalem; Kidane, Dawit; Krisnamurthy, Mahalakshmi; Alonso, Juan C; Graumann, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    Background Several distinct pathways for the repair of damaged DNA exist in all cells. DNA modifications are repaired by base excision or nucleotide excision repair, while DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired through direct joining of broken ends (non homologous end joining, NHEJ) or through recombination with the non broken sister chromosome (homologous recombination, HR). Rad50 protein plays an important role in repair of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, and forms a complex with the Mre11 nuclease. The prokaryotic ortholog of Rad50, SbcC, also forms a complex with a nuclease, SbcD, in Escherichia coli, and has been implicated in the removal of hairpin structures that can arise during DNA replication. Ku protein is a component of the NHEJ pathway in pro- and eukaryotic cells. Results A deletion of the sbcC gene rendered Bacillus subtilis cells sensitive to DNA damage caused by Mitomycin C (MMC) or by gamma irradiation. The deletion of the sbcC gene in a recN mutant background increased the sensitivity of the single recN mutant strain. SbcC was also non-epistatic with AddAB (analog of Escherichia coli RecBCD), but epistatic with RecA. A deletion of the ykoV gene encoding the B. subtilis Ku protein in a sbcC mutant strain did not resulted in an increase in sensitivity towards MMC and gamma irradiation, but exacerbated the phenotype of a recN or a recA mutant strain. In exponentially growing cells, SbcC-GFP was present throughout the cells, or as a central focus in rare cases. Upon induction of DNA damage, SbcC formed 1, rarely 2, foci on the nucleoids. Different to RecN protein, which forms repair centers at any location on the nucleoids, SbcC foci mostly co-localized with the DNA polymerase complex. In contrast to this, AddA-GFP or AddB-GFP did not form detectable foci upon addition of MMC. Conclusion Our experiments show that SbcC plays an important role in the repair of DNA inter-strand cross-links (induced by MMC), most likely through HR, and suggest

  8. Interdependence of DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and MSH2 in apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Samar; Ali, Akhtar A; Kilaparty, Surya P; Al-Anbaky, Qudes A; Majeed, Waqar; Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system consists of a number of proteins that play important roles in repair of base pair mismatch mutations and in maintenance of genomic integrity. A defect in this system can cause genetic instability, which can lead to carcinogenesis. For instance, a germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair proteins, especially MLH1 or MSH2, is responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. These MMR proteins also play an important role in the induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, altered expression of or a defect in MLH1 or MSH2 may confer resistance to anti-cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the ability of these two MMR proteins to regulate apoptosis are interdependent. Moreover, a defect in either one may confer resistance to chemotherapy by an inability to trigger apoptosis. To this end, we studied three cell lines-SW480, LoVo, and HTC116. These cell lines were selected based on their differential expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. SW480 expresses both MLH1 and MSH2; LoVo expresses only MLH1 but not MSH2; HCT116 expresses only MSH2 but not MLH1 protein. MTT assays, a measure of cytotoxicity, showed that there were different cytotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, on these cell lines, effects that were correlated with the MMR status of the cells. Cells that are deficient in MLH1 protein (HCT116 cells) were resistant to the drug. Cells that express both MLH1 and MSH2 proteins (SW480 cells) showed caspase-3 cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis. Cells that lack MLH1 (HCT116 cells) did not show any caspase-3 cleavage. Expression of full-length MLH1 protein was decreased in MMR proficient (SW480) cells during apoptosis; it remained unchanged in cells that lack MSH2 (LoVo cells). The expression of MSH2 protein remained unchanged during apoptosis both in MMR proficient (SW480) and deficient (HCT116) cells. Studies on translocation of MLH1 protein from nucleus to cytosolic fraction, an

  9. Prereplicative repair of oxidized bases in the human genome is mediated by NEIL1 DNA glycosylase together with replication proteins.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Muralidhar L; Hegde, Pavana M; Bellot, Larry J; Mandal, Santi M; Hazra, Tapas K; Li, Guo-Min; Boldogh, Istvan; Tomkinson, Alan E; Mitra, Sankar

    2013-08-13

    Base oxidation by endogenous and environmentally induced reactive oxygen species preferentially occurs in replicating single-stranded templates in mammalian genomes, warranting prereplicative repair of the mutagenic base lesions. It is not clear how such lesions (which, unlike bulky adducts, do not block replication) are recognized for repair. Furthermore, strand breaks caused by base excision from ssDNA by DNA glycosylases, including Nei-like (NEIL) 1, would generate double-strand breaks during replication, which are not experimentally observed. NEIL1, whose deficiency causes a mutator phenotype and is activated during the S phase, is present in the DNA replication complex isolated from human cells, with enhanced association with DNA in S-phase cells and colocalization with replication foci containing DNA replication proteins. Furthermore, NEIL1 binds to 5-hydroxyuracil, the oxidative deamination product of C, in replication protein A-coated ssDNA template and inhibits DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ. We postulate that, upon encountering an oxidized base during replication, NEIL1 initiates prereplicative repair by acting as a "cowcatcher" and preventing nascent chain growth. Regression of the stalled replication fork, possibly mediated by annealing helicases, then allows lesion repair in the reannealed duplex. This model is supported by our observations that NEIL1, whose deficiency slows nascent chain growth in oxidatively stressed cells, is stimulated by replication proteins in vitro. Furthermore, deficiency of the closely related NEIL2 alone does not affect chain elongation, but combined NEIL1/2 deficiency further inhibits DNA replication. These results support a mechanism of NEIL1-mediated prereplicative repair of oxidized bases in the replicating strand, with NEIL2 providing a backup function.

  10. Repair of oxidative DNA damage is delayed in the Ser326Cys polymorphic variant of the base excision repair protein OGG1.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Rachael M; Hodges, Nikolas J

    2012-07-01

    Gene-environment interactions influence an individual's risk of disease development. A common human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) variant, Cys326-hOGG1, has been associated with increased cancer risk. Evidence suggests that this is due to reduced repair ability, particularly under oxidising conditions but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Oxidising conditions may arise due to internal cellular processes, such as inflammation or external chemical or radiation exposure. To investigate wild-type and variant OGG1 regulation and activity under oxidising conditions, we generated mOgg1 (-/-) null mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells stably expressing Ser326- and Cys326-hOGG1 and measured activity, gene expression, protein expression and localisation following treatment with the glutathione-depleting compound L-buthionine-S-sulfoximine (BSO). Assessment of OGG1 activity using a 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanine (8-oxo dG) containing molecular beacon demonstrated that the activity of both Ser326- and Cys326-hOGG1 was increased following oxidative treatment but with different kinetics. Peak activity of Ser326-hOGG1 occurred 12 h prior to that of Cys326-hOGG1. In both variants, the increased activity was not associated with any gene expression or protein increase or change in protein localisation. These findings suggest that up-regulation of OGG1 activity in response to BSO-induced oxidative stress is via post-transcriptional regulation and provide further evidence for impaired Cys326-hOGG1 repair ability under conditions of oxidative stress. This may have important implications for increased mutation frequency resulting from increased oxidative stress in individuals homozygous for the Cys326 hOGG1 allele.

  11. Microtubule-targeting agents augment the toxicity of DNA-damaging agents by disrupting intracellular trafficking of DNA repair proteins.

    PubMed

    Poruchynsky, Marianne S; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Trostel, Shana; Wilkerson, Julia; Regairaz, Marie; Pommier, Yves; Zhang, Xu; Kumar Maity, Tapan; Robey, Robert; Burotto, Mauricio; Sackett, Dan; Guha, Udayan; Fojo, Antonio Tito

    2015-02-01

    The paradigm that microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) cause cell death via mitotic arrest applies to rapidly dividing cells but cannot explain MTA activity in slowly growing human cancers. Many preferred cancer regimens combine a MTA with a DNA-damaging agent (DDA). We hypothesized that MTAs synergize with DDAs by interfering with trafficking of DNA repair proteins on interphase microtubules. We investigated nine proteins involved in DNA repair: ATM, ATR, DNA-PK, Rad50, Mre11, p95/NBS1, p53, 53BP1, and p63. The proteins were sequestered in the cytoplasm by vincristine and paclitaxel but not by an aurora kinase inhibitor, colocalized with tubulin by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitated with the microtubule motor dynein. Furthermore, adding MTAs to radiation, doxorubicin, or etoposide led to more sustained γ-H2AX levels. We conclude DNA damage-repair proteins traffic on microtubules and addition of MTAs sequesters them in the cytoplasm, explaining why MTA/DDA combinations are common anticancer regimens.

  12. The bacterial DNA repair protein Mfd confers resistance to the host nitrogen immune response.

    PubMed

    Guillemet, Elisabeth; Leréec, Alain; Tran, Seav-Ly; Royer, Corinne; Barbosa, Isabelle; Sansonetti, Philippe; Lereclus, Didier; Ramarao, Nalini

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive nitrogen species (NO) is a key step in the immune response following infections. NO induces lesions to bacterial DNA, thus limiting bacterial growth within hosts. Using two pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Shigella flexneri, we show that the DNA-repair protein Mfd (Mutation-Frequency-Decline) is required for bacterial resistance to the host-NO-response. In both species, a mutant deficient for mfd does not survive to NO, produced in vitro or by phagocytic cells. In vivo, the ∆mfd mutant is avirulent and unable to survive the NO-stress. Moreover, NO induces DNA-double-strand-breaks and point mutations in the Δmfd mutant. In overall, these observations demonstrate that NO damages bacterial DNA and that Mfd is required to maintain bacterial genomic integrity. This unexpected discovery reveals that Mfd, a typical housekeeping gene, turns out to be a true virulence factor allowing survival and growth of the pathogen in its host, due to its capacity to protect the bacterium against NO, a key molecule of the innate immune defense. As Mfd is widely conserved in the bacterial kingdom, these data highlight a mechanism that may be used by a large spectrum of bacteria to overcome the host immune response and especially the mutagenic properties of NO.

  13. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation

    PubMed Central

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. PMID:25820262

  14. Intracellular Protein Shuttling: A Mechanism Relevant for Myelin Repair in Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Göttle, Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A prominent feature of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is the degeneration and loss of previously established functional myelin sheaths, which results in impaired signal propagation and axonal damage. However, at least in early disease stages, partial replacement of lost oligodendrocytes and thus remyelination occur as a result of resident oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) activation. These cells represent a widespread cell population within the adult central nervous system (CNS) that can differentiate into functional myelinating glial cells to restore axonal functions. Nevertheless, the spontaneous remyelination capacity in the adult CNS is inefficient because OPCs often fail to generate new oligodendrocytes due to the lack of stimulatory cues and the presence of inhibitory factors. Recent studies have provided evidence that regulated intracellular protein shuttling is functionally involved in oligodendroglial differentiation and remyelination activities. In this review we shed light on the role of the subcellular localization of differentiation-associated factors within oligodendroglial cells and show that regulation of intracellular localization of regulatory factors represents a crucial process to modulate oligodendroglial maturation and myelin repair in the CNS. PMID:26151843

  15. The bacterial DNA repair protein Mfd confers resistance to the host nitrogen immune response.

    PubMed

    Guillemet, Elisabeth; Leréec, Alain; Tran, Seav-Ly; Royer, Corinne; Barbosa, Isabelle; Sansonetti, Philippe; Lereclus, Didier; Ramarao, Nalini

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive nitrogen species (NO) is a key step in the immune response following infections. NO induces lesions to bacterial DNA, thus limiting bacterial growth within hosts. Using two pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Shigella flexneri, we show that the DNA-repair protein Mfd (Mutation-Frequency-Decline) is required for bacterial resistance to the host-NO-response. In both species, a mutant deficient for mfd does not survive to NO, produced in vitro or by phagocytic cells. In vivo, the ∆mfd mutant is avirulent and unable to survive the NO-stress. Moreover, NO induces DNA-double-strand-breaks and point mutations in the Δmfd mutant. In overall, these observations demonstrate that NO damages bacterial DNA and that Mfd is required to maintain bacterial genomic integrity. This unexpected discovery reveals that Mfd, a typical housekeeping gene, turns out to be a true virulence factor allowing survival and growth of the pathogen in its host, due to its capacity to protect the bacterium against NO, a key molecule of the innate immune defense. As Mfd is widely conserved in the bacterial kingdom, these data highlight a mechanism that may be used by a large spectrum of bacteria to overcome the host immune response and especially the mutagenic properties of NO. PMID:27435260

  16. The bacterial DNA repair protein Mfd confers resistance to the host nitrogen immune response

    PubMed Central

    Guillemet, Elisabeth; Leréec, Alain; Tran, Seav-Ly; Royer, Corinne; Barbosa, Isabelle; Sansonetti, Philippe; Lereclus, Didier; Ramarao, Nalini

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive nitrogen species (NO) is a key step in the immune response following infections. NO induces lesions to bacterial DNA, thus limiting bacterial growth within hosts. Using two pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Shigella flexneri, we show that the DNA-repair protein Mfd (Mutation-Frequency-Decline) is required for bacterial resistance to the host-NO-response. In both species, a mutant deficient for mfd does not survive to NO, produced in vitro or by phagocytic cells. In vivo, the ∆mfd mutant is avirulent and unable to survive the NO-stress. Moreover, NO induces DNA-double-strand-breaks and point mutations in the Δmfd mutant. In overall, these observations demonstrate that NO damages bacterial DNA and that Mfd is required to maintain bacterial genomic integrity. This unexpected discovery reveals that Mfd, a typical housekeeping gene, turns out to be a true virulence factor allowing survival and growth of the pathogen in its host, due to its capacity to protect the bacterium against NO, a key molecule of the innate immune defense. As Mfd is widely conserved in the bacterial kingdom, these data highlight a mechanism that may be used by a large spectrum of bacteria to overcome the host immune response and especially the mutagenic properties of NO. PMID:27435260

  17. The HhH domain of the human DNA repair protein XPF forms stable homodimers.

    PubMed

    Das, Devashish; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf; Folkers, Gert E

    2008-03-01

    The human XPF-ERCC1 protein complex plays an essential role in nucleotide excision repair by catalysing positioned nicking of a DNA strand at the 5' side of the damage. We have recently solved the structure of the heterodimeric complex of the C-terminal domains of XPF and ERCC1 (Tripsianes et al., Structure 2005;13:1849-1858). We found that this complex comprises a pseudo twofold symmetry axis and that the helix-hairpin-helix motif of ERCC1 is required for DNA binding, whereas the corresponding domain of XPF is functioning as a scaffold for complex formation with ERCC1. Despite the functional importance of heterodimerization, the C-terminal domain of XPF can also form homodimers in vitro. We here compare the stabilities of homodimeric and heterodimeric complexes of the C-terminal domains of XPF and ERCC1. The higher stability of the XPF HhH complexes under various experimental conditions, determined using CD and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, is well explained by the structural differences that exist between the HhH domains of the two complexes. The XPF HhH homodimer has a larger interaction interface, aromatic stacking interactions, and additional hydrogen bond contacts as compared to the XPF/ERCC1 HhH complex, which accounts for its higher stability. PMID:17912758

  18. Intracellular Protein Shuttling: A Mechanism Relevant for Myelin Repair in Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Göttle, Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2015-07-03

    A prominent feature of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is the degeneration and loss of previously established functional myelin sheaths, which results in impaired signal propagation and axonal damage. However, at least in early disease stages, partial replacement of lost oligodendrocytes and thus remyelination occur as a result of resident oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) activation. These cells represent a widespread cell population within the adult central nervous system (CNS) that can differentiate into functional myelinating glial cells to restore axonal functions. Nevertheless, the spontaneous remyelination capacity in the adult CNS is inefficient because OPCs often fail to generate new oligodendrocytes due to the lack of stimulatory cues and the presence of inhibitory factors. Recent studies have provided evidence that regulated intracellular protein shuttling is functionally involved in oligodendroglial differentiation and remyelination activities. In this review we shed light on the role of the subcellular localization of differentiation-associated factors within oligodendroglial cells and show that regulation of intracellular localization of regulatory factors represents a crucial process to modulate oligodendroglial maturation and myelin repair in the CNS.

  19. Resveratrol improves bone repair by modulation of bone morphogenetic proteins and osteopontin gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Casarin, R C; Casati, M Z; Pimentel, S P; Cirano, F R; Algayer, M; Pires, P R; Ghiraldini, B; Duarte, P M; Ribeiro, F V

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on bone healing and its influence on the gene expression of osteogenic markers. Two calvarial defects were created and one screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in the tibia of rats that were assigned to daily administration of placebo (control group, n=15) or 10mg/kg of resveratrol (RESV group, n=15) for 30 days. The animals were then sacrificed. One of the calvarial defects was processed for histomorphometric analysis and the tissue relative to the other was collected for mRNA quantification of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-7, osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteoprotegrin (OPG), and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Implants were removed by applying a counter-torque force. Histomorphometric analysis revealed higher remaining defect in the calvarial defects of the control group than the RESV group (P=0.026). Resveratrol increased the counter-torque values of implant removal when compared to control therapy (P=0.031). Gene expression analysis showed a higher expression of BMP-2 (P=0.011), BMP-7 (P=0.049), and OPN (P=0.002) genes in the RESV group than in the control group. In conclusion, resveratrol improved the repair of critical-sized bone defects and the biomechanical retention of implants. Indeed, this natural agent may up-regulate the gene expression of important osteogenic markers. PMID:24530035

  20. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Katarzyna A.; Synowiec, Ewelina; Sobierajczyk, Katarzyna; Izdebska, Justyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER). Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1) nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease. PMID:25356504

  1. The proteomic investigation reveals interaction of mdig protein with the machinery of DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Yongju; Stemmer, Paul M; Zhang, Xiangmin; Bi, Yongyi; Yi, Zhengping; Chen, Fei

    2015-09-29

    To investigate how mineral dust-induced gene (mdig, also named as mina53, MINA, or NO52) promotes carcinogenesis through inducing active chromatin, we performed proteomics analyses for the interacting proteins that were co-immunoprecipitated by anti-mdig antibody from either the lung cancer cell line A549 cells or the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B cells. On SDS-PAGE gels, three to five unique protein bands were consistently observed in the complexes pulled-down by mdig antibody, but not the control IgG. In addition to the mdig protein, several DNA repair or chromatin binding proteins, including XRCC5, XRCC6, RBBP4, CBX8, PRMT5, and TDRD, were identified in the complexes by the proteomics analyses using both Orbitrap Fusion and Orbitrap XL nanoESI-MS/MS in four independent experiments. The interaction of mdig with some of these proteins was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation using antibodies against mdig and its partner proteins, respectively. These data, thus, provide evidence suggesting that mdig accomplishes its functions on chromatin, DNA repair and cell growth through interacting with the partner proteins. PMID:26293673

  2. The proteomic investigation reveals interaction of mdig protein with the machinery of DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Yongju; Stemmer, Paul M; Zhang, Xiangmin; Bi, Yongyi; Yi, Zhengping; Chen, Fei

    2015-09-29

    To investigate how mineral dust-induced gene (mdig, also named as mina53, MINA, or NO52) promotes carcinogenesis through inducing active chromatin, we performed proteomics analyses for the interacting proteins that were co-immunoprecipitated by anti-mdig antibody from either the lung cancer cell line A549 cells or the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B cells. On SDS-PAGE gels, three to five unique protein bands were consistently observed in the complexes pulled-down by mdig antibody, but not the control IgG. In addition to the mdig protein, several DNA repair or chromatin binding proteins, including XRCC5, XRCC6, RBBP4, CBX8, PRMT5, and TDRD, were identified in the complexes by the proteomics analyses using both Orbitrap Fusion and Orbitrap XL nanoESI-MS/MS in four independent experiments. The interaction of mdig with some of these proteins was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation using antibodies against mdig and its partner proteins, respectively. These data, thus, provide evidence suggesting that mdig accomplishes its functions on chromatin, DNA repair and cell growth through interacting with the partner proteins.

  3. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura T.; Sutera, Vincent A.; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S.; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3’ azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5’ to 3’ helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3’ exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication. PMID:26544712

  4. Effect of the Space Environment on the Induction of DNA-repair Related Proteins and Recovery from Radiation Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Kikuchi, M.; Narumi, I.

    Recovery of bacterial cells from radiation damage and the effects of microgravity were examined in an STS-79 Shuttle/Mir Mission-4 experiment using the extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The cells were irradiated with gamma rays before the space flight and incubated on board the Space-Shuttle. The survival of the wild type cells incubated in space increased compared with the ground controls, suggesting that the recovery of this bacterium from radiation damage was enhanced under microgravity. No difference was observed for the survival of radiosensitive mutant rec30 cells whether incubated in space or on the ground. The amount of DNA-repair related RecA protein induced under microgravity was similar to those of ground controls, however, induction of PprA protein, the product of a newly found gene related to the DNA repair mechanism of D. radiodurans, was enhanced under microgravity compared with ground controls

  5. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  6. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam.

    PubMed

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10(-3) s(-1) and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10(-2) s(-1). PMID:27036791

  7. Protein phosphatases pph3, ptc2, and ptc3 play redundant roles in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Hicks, Wade M; Li, Jin; Tay, Sue Yen; Haber, James E

    2011-02-01

    In response to a DNA double-strand break (DSB), cells undergo a transient cell cycle arrest prior to mitosis until the break is repaired. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the DNA damage checkpoint is regulated by a signaling cascade of protein kinases, including Mec1 and Rad53. When DSB repair is complete, cells resume cell cycle progression (a process called "recovery") by turning off the checkpoint. Recovery involves two members of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family, Ptc2 and Ptc3, as well as the protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) enzyme, Pph3. Here, we demonstrate a new function of these three phosphatases in DSB repair. Cells lacking all three phosphatases Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 exhibit synergistic sensitivities to the DNA-damaging agents camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate, as well as hydroxyurea but not to UV light. Moreover, the simultaneous absence of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 results in defects in completing DSB repair, whereas neither single nor double deletion of the phosphatases causes a repair defect. Specifically, cells lacking all three phosphatases are defective in the repair-mediated DNA synthesis. Interestingly, the repair defect caused by the triple deletion of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 is most prominent when a DSB is slowly repaired and the DNA damage checkpoint is fully activated.

  8. Overproduction, purification, and ATPase activity of the Escherichia coli RuvB protein involved in DNA repair.

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, H; Shiba, T; Makino, K; Nakata, A; Shinagawa, H

    1989-01-01

    The ruvA and ruvB genes of Escherichia coli constitute an operon which belongs to the SOS regulon. Genetic evidence suggests that the products of the ruv operon are involved in DNA repair and recombination. To begin biochemical characterization of these proteins, we developed a plasmid system that overproduced RuvB protein to 20% of total cell protein. Starting from the overproducing system, we purified RuvB protein. The purified RuvB protein behaved like a monomer in gel filtration chromatography and had an apparent relative molecular mass of 38 kilodaltons in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which agrees with the value predicted from the DNA sequence. The amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal region of the purified protein was analyzed, and the sequence agreed with the one deduced from the DNA sequence. Since the deduced sequence of RuvB protein contained the consensus sequence for ATP-binding proteins, we examined the ATP-binding and ATPase activities of the purified RuvB protein. RuvB protein had a stronger affinity to ADP than to ATP and weak ATPase activity. The results suggest that the weak ATPase activity of RuvB protein is at least partly due to end product inhibition by ADP. Images PMID:2529252

  9. Protein energy-malnutrition: does the in vitro zinc sulfate supplementation improve chromosomal damage repair?

    PubMed

    Padula, Gisel; González, Horacio F; Varea, Ana; Seoane, Analía I

    2014-12-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is originated by a cellular imbalance between nutrient/energy supply and body's demand. Induction of genetic damage by PEM was reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic effect of the in vitro zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) supplementation of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with PEM. Twenty-four samples from 12 children were analyzed. Anthropometric and biochemical diagnosis was made. For the anthropometric assessment, height-for-age index, weight-for-age index, and weight-for-height index were calculated (WHO, 2005). Micronutrient status was evaluated. A survey for assessed previous exposure to potentially genotoxic agents was applied. Results were statistically evaluated using paired sample t test and χ (2) test. Each sample was fractionated and cultured in two separate flasks to performed two treatments. One was added with 180 μg/dl of ZnSO4 (PEMs/ZnSO4) and the other remains non-supplemented (PEMs). Cytotoxic effects and chromosomal damage were assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). All participants have at least one type of malnutrition and none have anemia, nor iron, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiency. All PEMs/ZnSO4 samples have a significant reduction in the micronucleus (MNi) frequency compared with PEMs (t = 6.25685; p < 0.001). Nuclear division index (NDI) increase in PEMs/ZnSO4 (t = -17.4226; p < 0.001). Nucleoplasmic bridge (NPBs) frequency was four times smaller in PEMs/ZnSO4 (χ (2) = 40.82; p < 0.001). No nuclear buds (NBuds) were observed. Cytotoxic effects and chromosomal damage observed in children suffering from PEM can be repaired in vitro with zinc sulfate supplementation.

  10. Immunohistochemistry staining for mismatch repair proteins: the endoscopic biopsy material provides useful and coherent results.

    PubMed

    Vilkin, Alex; Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Halpern, Marisa; Morgenstern, Sara; Brazovski, Eli; Gingold-Belfer, Rachel; Wasserberg, Nir; Brenner, Baruch; Niv, Yaron; Sneh-Arbib, Orly; Levi, Zohar

    2015-11-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing for mismatch repair proteins (MMRP) in patients with colorectal cancer can be performed on endoscopic biopsy material or the surgical resection material. Data are continuing to accumulate regarding the deleterious effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation on MMRP expression. However, despite continuing rise in the use of endoscopic biopsies for IHC, most pathology departments still use mainly the surgical materials for IHC testing. In this study we compared the quality of stains among 96 colon cancer subjects with paired endoscopic and surgical material available for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 stains (96 × 4, yielding 384 paired stains). Each slide received both a quantitative score (immunoreactivity [0-3] × percent positivity [0-4]) and a qualitative score (absent; weak and focal; strong). The quantitative scores of all MMRP were significantly higher among the endoscopic material (P<.001 for all). In 358 pairs (93.2%), both the endoscopic and operative material stained either strong (322, 83.9%) or absent (36, 9.4%). In 26 pairs (6.8%), the endoscopic material stained strong, whereas the operative material stained focal and weak. No endoscopic biopsy materials stained focal and weak. Our findings indicate that the biopsy material may provide more coherent results. Although these results may indicate that biopsy material provides coherent and useful results, it is yet to be determined if the demonstrated differences pose a real clinical problem in interpreting final results of IHC staining of such kind. Hence, we suggest that when available, the endoscopic material rather than the operative one should serve as the primary substrate for IHC staining.

  11. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase 1 (PIMT1) in rice improves seed longevity by preserving embryo vigor and viability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yidong; Xu, Huibin; Diao, Lirong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Wu, Fangxi; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Jianfu; Xie, Huaan

    2015-11-01

    Damaged proteins containing abnormal isoaspartyl (isoAsp) accumulate as seeds age and the abnormality is thought to undermine seed vigor. Protein-L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is involved in isoAsp-containing protein repair. Two PIMT genes from rice (Oryza sativa L.), designated as OsPIMT1 and OsPIMT2, were isolated and investigated for their roles. The results indicated that OsPIMT2 was mainly present in green tissues, but OsPIMT1 largely accumulated in embryos. Confocal visualization of the transient expression of OsPIMTs showed that OsPIMT2 was localized in the chloroplast and nucleus, whereas OsPIMT1 was predominately found in the cytosol. Artificial aging results highlighted the sensitivity of the seeds of OsPIMT1 mutant line when subjected to accelerated aging. Overexpression of OsPIMT1 in transgenic seeds reduced the accumulation of isoAsp-containing protein in embryos, and increased embryo viability. The germination percentage of transgenic seeds overexpressing OsPIMT1 increased 9-15% compared to the WT seeds after 21-day of artificial aging, whereas seeds from the OsPIMT1 RNAi lines overaccumulated isoAsp in embryos and experienced rapid loss of seed germinability. Taken together, these data strongly indicated that OsPIMT1-related seed longevity improvement is probably due to the repair of detrimental isoAsp-containing proteins that over accumulate in embryos when subjected to accelerated aging.

  12. Variable continental distribution of polymorphisms in the coding regions of DNA-repair genes.

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, Géraldine; Labuda, Damian; Meloche, Caroline; Wambach, Tina; Krajinovic, Maja; Sinnett, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    DNA-repair pathways are critical for maintaining the integrity of the genetic material by protecting against mutations due to exposure-induced damages or replication errors. Polymorphisms in the corresponding genes may be relevant in genetic epidemiology by modifying individual cancer susceptibility or therapeutic response. We report data on the population distribution of potentially functional variants in XRCC1, APEX1, ERCC2, ERCC4, hMLH1, and hMSH3 genes among groups representing individuals of European, Middle Eastern, African, Southeast Asian and North American descent. The data indicate little interpopulation differentiation in some of these polymorphisms and typical FST values ranging from 10 to 17% at others. Low FST was observed in APEX1 and hMSH3 exon 23 in spite of their relatively high minor allele frequencies, which could suggest the effect of balancing selection. In XRCC1, hMSH3 exon 21 and hMLH1 Africa clusters either with Middle East and Europe or with Southeast Asia, which could be related to the demographic history of human populations, whereby human migrations and genetic drift rather than selection would account for the observed differences.

  13. A method for systematic mapping of protein lysine methylation identifies new functions for HP1β in DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huadong; Galka, Marek; Liu, Xuguang; Lin, Yu-fen; Pittock, Paula; Voss, Courtney; Dhami, Gurpreet; Li, Xing; Miyaji, Masaaki; Lajoie, Gilles; Chen, Benjamin; Li, Shawn S.-C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine methylation occurs on both histone and non-histone proteins. However, our knowledge on the prevalence and function of non-histone protein methylation is poor. We describe here an approach that combines peptide array, bioinformatic and mass spectrometric analyses to systematically identify lysine methylation sites in proteins and methyllysine-mediated protein-protein interactions. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by identifying a methyllysine-driven interactome of the heterochromatin protein (HP) 1β and uncovering, simultaneously, numerous methyllysine sites on non-histone proteins. The HP1β interactome is enriched with proteins involved in DNA damage repair and RNA splicing. We showed that lysine methylation played a pivotal role in the function of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and its interaction with HP1β during DNA damage response. Moreover, by combining heavy methyl SILAC with Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS), we showed that lysine methylation underwent widespread and large changes in response to DNA damage. Our work indicates that lysine methylation is a highly dynamic post-translational modification occurring frequently on non-histone proteins and that the approach presented herein may be extended to many methyllysine-binding modules to systematically uncover lysine methylation events in the cell. PMID:23707759

  14. Non-covalent interactions between ATP and RecA DNA-repairing proteins: DFT and semiempirical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The role of Bacterial RecA in the structural maintenance of genomes and the genetic information they carry has been established. In particular, the RecA DNA-repairing protein from D. Radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacteria, is crucial for the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs). We have performed semi-empirical free-energy calculations and QM/MM calculations to study their non-covalent interactions with ATP and ADP. Such studies provide insight into the mechanisms of ATP/ADP --> RecA energy transfer and, therefore, about specific functional uses of incoming energy for DNA repairing mechanisms. We present a detailed analysis of the non-covalent interactions which minimize the interaction Gibbs free energies leading to the most stable non-covalent binding sites. Van der Waal, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions has been quantified which provides a detailed insight into the mechanisms of ATP-RecA interaction. Further, possible chemical interactions and functional roles of RecA proteins are explored based on the previously mentioned studies. Acknowledgements: Funded, in part, by DTRA award 106339 (JHR). Dr. Mark C. Palenik and Mrs. Lora Beard are gratefully acknowledged Supported in part by DTRA Award 106339.

  15. The role of base excision repair in the development of primary open angle glaucoma in the Polish population.

    PubMed

    Cuchra, Magda; Markiewicz, Lukasz; Mucha, Bartosz; Pytel, Dariusz; Szymanek, Katarzyna; Szemraj, Janusz; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2015-08-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in developing countries. Previous data have shown that progressive loss of human TM cells may be connected with chronic exposure to oxidative stress. This hypothesis may suggest a role of the base excision repair (BER) pathway of oxidative DNA damage in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate an association of BER gene polymorphism with a risk of POAG. Moreover, an association of clinical parameters was examined including cup disk ratio (c/d), rim area (RA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) with glaucoma progression according to BER gene polymorphisms. Our research included 412 patients with POAG and 454 healthy controls. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) clinical parameters were also analyzed. The 399 Arg/Gln genotype of the XRCC1 gene (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.02-1.89 p = 0.03) was associated with an increased risk of POAG occurrence. It was indicated that the 399 Gln/Gln XRCC1 genotype might increase the risk of POAG progression according to the c/d ratio (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.07-2.61 P = 0.02) clinical parameter. Moreover, the association of VF factor with 148 Asp/Glu of APE1 genotype distribution and POAG progression (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.30-3.89) was also found. Additionally, the analysis of the 324 Gln/His MUTYH polymorphism gene distribution in the patient group according to RNFL factor showed that it might decrease the progression of POAG (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.82 P = 0.005). We suggest that the 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism of the XRCC1 gene may serve as a predictive risk factor of POAG.

  16. ATM protein is indispensable to repair complex-type DNA double strand breaks induced by high LET heavy ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Emiko; Yu, Dong; Fujimori, Akira; Anzai, Kazunori; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated) protein responsible for a rare genetic disease with hyperradiosensitivity, is the one of the earliest repair proteins sensing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). ATM is known to phosphorylate DNA repair proteins such as MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50 and NBS1), 53BP1, Artemis, Brca1, gamma-H2AX, and MDC. We studied the interactions between ATM and DNA-PKcs, a crucial NHEJ repair protein, after cells exposure to high and low LET irradiation. Normal human (HFL III, MRC5VA) and AT homozygote (AT2KY, AT5BIVA, AT3BIVA) cells were irradiated with X-rays and high LET radiation (carbon ions: 290MeV/n initial energy at 70 keV/um, and iron ions: 500MeV/n initial energy at 200KeV/um), and several critical end points were examined. AT cells with high LET irradiation showed a significantly higher radiosensitivity when compared with normal cells. The behavior of DNA DSB repair was monitored by immuno-fluorescence techniques using DNA-PKcs (pThr2609, pSer2056) and ATM (pSer1981) antibodies. In normal cells, the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs was clearly detected after high LET irradiation, though the peak of phosphorylation was delayed when compared to X-irradiation. In contrast, almost no DNA-PKcs phosphorylation foci were detected in AT cells irradiated with high LET radiation. A similar result was also observed in normal cells treated with 10 uM ATM kinase specific inhibitor (KU55933) one hour before irradiation. These data suggest that the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with low LET X-rays is mostly ATM-independent, and the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with high LET radiation seems to require ATM probably due to its complex nature of DSB induced. Our study indicates that high LET heavy ion irradiation which we can observe in the space environment would provide a useful tool to study the fundamental mechanism associated with DNA DSB repair.

  17. The Role of Slr0151, a Tetratricopeptide Repeat Protein from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, during Photosystem II Assembly and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rast, Anna; Rengstl, Birgit; Heinz, Steffen; Klingl, Andreas; Nickelsen, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The assembly and repair of photosystem II (PSII) is facilitated by a variety of assembly factors. Among those, the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein Slr0151 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) has previously been assigned a repair function under high light conditions (Yang et al., 2014). Here, we show that inactivation of slr0151 affects thylakoid membrane ultrastructure even under normal light conditions. Moreover, the level and localization of Slr0151 are affected in a variety of PSII-related mutants. In particular, the data suggest a close functional relationship between Slr0151 and Sll0933, which interacts with Ycf48 during PSII assembly and is homologous to PAM68 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed a punctate distribution of Slr0151 within several different membrane types in Synechocystis cells. PMID:27200072

  18. Histone chaperone activity of Fanconi anemia proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI, is required for DNA crosslink repair

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Koichi; Ishiai, Masamichi; Toda, Kazue; Furukoshi, Satoshi; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Kagawa, Wataru; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Obuse, Chikashi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by genomic instability and cancer susceptibility. A key FA protein, FANCD2, is targeted to chromatin with its partner, FANCI, and plays a critical role in DNA crosslink repair. However, the molecular function of chromatin-bound FANCD2-FANCI is still poorly understood. In the present study, we found that FANCD2 possesses nucleosome-assembly activity in vitro. The mobility of histone H3 was reduced in FANCD2-knockdown cells following treatment with an interstrand DNA crosslinker, mitomycin C. Furthermore, cells harbouring FANCD2 mutations that were defective in nucleosome assembly displayed impaired survival upon cisplatin treatment. Although FANCI by itself lacked nucleosome-assembly activity, it significantly stimulated FANCD2-mediated nucleosome assembly. These observations suggest that FANCD2-FANCI may regulate chromatin dynamics during DNA repair. PMID:22828868

  19. Chronic Alcohol Exposure Decreases 53BP1 Protein Levels Leading to a Defective DNA Repair in Cultured Primary Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ana M; Palanca, Ana; Ruiz-Soto, Maria; Llorca, Javier; Marín, María P; Renau-Piqueras, Jaime; Berciano, Maria T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption may cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Alcohol neurotoxicity is associated with the production of acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species that induce oxidative DNA damage. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ethanol disturbs the DNA damage response (DDR), resulting in a defective DNA repair, remain unknown. Here, we have used cultured primary cortical neurons exposed to 50 or 100 mM ethanol for 7 days to analyze the ethanol-induced DDR. Ethanol exposure produced a dose-dependent generation of double strand breaks and the formation of DNA damage foci immunoreactive for the histone γH2AX, a DNA damage marker, and for the ubiquitylated H2A, which is involved in chromatin remodeling at DNA damage sites. Importantly, these DNA damage foci failed to recruit the protein 53BP1, a crucial DNA repair factor. This effect was associated with a drop in 53BP1 mRNA and protein levels and with an inhibition of global transcription. Moreover, ethanol-exposed neurons treated with ionizing radiation (2 Gy) also failed to recruit 53BP1 at DNA damage foci and exhibited a greater vulnerability to DNA lesions than irradiated control neurons. Our results support that defective DNA repair, mediated by the deficient expression and recruitment of 53BP1 to DNA damage sites, represents a novel mechanism involved in ethanol neurotoxicity. The design of therapeutic strategies that increase or stabilize 53BP1 levels might potentially promote DNA repair and partially compensate alcohol neurotoxicity.

  20. Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding Protein 4 (CHD4) Regulates Homologous Recombination DNA Repair, and Its Deficiency Sensitizes Cells to Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitor Treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Mei-Ren; Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Dai, Hui; Hung, Wen-Chun; Li, Kaiyi; Peng, Guang; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2012-01-01

    To ensure genome stability, cells have evolved a robust defense mechanism to detect, signal, and repair damaged DNA that is generated by exogenous stressors such as ionizing radiation, endogenous stressors such as free radicals, or normal physiological processes such as DNA replication. Homologous recombination (HR) repair is a critical pathway of repairing DNA double strand breaks, and it plays an essential role in maintaining genomic integrity. Previous studies have shown that BRIT1, also known as MCPH1, is a key regulator of HR repair. Here, we report that chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) is a novel BRIT1 binding partner that regulates the HR repair process. The BRCA1 C-terminal domains of BRIT1 are required for its interaction with CHD4. Depletion of CHD4 and overexpression of the ATPase-dead form of CHD4 impairs the recruitment of BRIT1 to the DNA damage lesions. As a functional consequence, CHD4 deficiency sensitizes cells to double strand break-inducing agents, reduces the recruitment of HR repair factor BRCA1, and impairs HR repair efficiency. We further demonstrate that CHD4-depleted cells are more sensitive to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor treatment. In response to DNA damage induced by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, CHD4 deficiency impairs the recruitment of DNA repair proteins BRIT1, BRCA1, and replication protein A at early steps of HR repair. Taken together, our findings identify an important role of CHD4 in controlling HR repair to maintain genome stability and establish the potential therapeutic implications of targeting CHD4 deficiency in tumors. PMID:22219182

  1. Roles for mismatch repair family proteins in promoting meiotic crossing over.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Carol M; Alani, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) family complexes Msh4-Msh5 and Mlh1-Mlh3 act with Exo1 and Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 in a meiotic double strand break repair pathway that results in the asymmetric cleavage of double Holliday junctions (dHJ) to form crossovers. This review discusses how meiotic roles for Msh4-Msh5 and Mlh1-Mlh3 do not fit paradigms established for post-replicative MMR. We also outline models used to explain how these factors promote the formation of meiotic crossovers required for the accurate segregation of chromosome homologs during the Meiosis I division.

  2. Use of a molecular beacon to track the activity of base excision repair protein OGG1 in live cells.

    PubMed

    Mirbahai, Leda; Kershaw, Rachael M; Green, Richard M; Hayden, Rachel E; Meldrum, Rosalind A; Hodges, Nikolas J

    2010-02-01

    An abundant form of DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine for which the base excision repair protein 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) is a major repair enzyme. To assess the location and intracellular activity of the OGG1 protein in response to oxidative stress, we have utilised a fluorescence-quench molecular beacon switch containing a 8-oxo-dG:C base pair and a fluorescent and quencher molecule at opposite ends of a hairpin oligonucleotide. Oxidative stress was induced by treatment with potassium bromate. Flow cytometry demonstrated a concentration-dependent increase in the activity of OGG1 that was detected by the fluorescence produced when the oligonucleotide was cleaved in the cells treated with potassium bromate. This signal is highly specific and not detectable in OGG1 knock out cells. Induction of OGG1 activity is not a result of induction of OGG1 gene expression as assessed by qPCR suggesting a role for protein stabilisation or increased OGG1 catalytic activity. High resolution confocal microscopy pinpointed the location of the fluorescent molecular beacon in live cells to perinuclear regions that were identified as mitochondria by co-staining with mitotracker dye. There is no evidence of cut beacon within the nuclear compartment of the cell. Control experiments with a positive control beacon (G:C base pair and lacking the DAB quencher) did not result in mitochondrial localisation of fluorescence signal indicating that the dye does not accumulate in mitochondria independent of OGG1 activity. Furthermore, faint nuclear staining was apparent confirming that the beacon structure is able to enter the nucleus. In conclusion, these data indicate that the mitochondria are the major site for OGG1 repair activity under conditions of oxidative stress.

  3. RNA binding protein RBM14 promotes radio-resistance in glioblastoma by regulating DNA repair and cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ming; Eberhart, Charles G.; Kai, Mihoko

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain tumor. Standard treatment for GBM patients is surgery followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, but tumors always recur. Traditional therapies seem to fail because they eliminate only the bulk of the tumors and spare a population of stem-like cells termed tumor-initiating cells. The stem-like state and preferential activation of DNA damage response in the GBM tumor-initiating cells contribute to their radio-resistance and recurrence. The molecular mechanisms underlying this efficient activation of damage response and maintenance of stem-like state remain elusive. Here we show that RBM14 controls DNA repair pathways and also prevents cell differentiation in GBM spheres, causing radio-resistance. Knockdown of RBM14 affects GBM sphere maintenance and sensitizes radio-resistant GBM cells at the cellular level. We demonstrate that RBM14 knockdown blocks GBM regrowth after irradiation in vivo. In addition, RBM14 stimulates DNA repair by controlling the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. These results reveal unexpected functions of the RNA-binding protein RBM14 in control of DNA repair and maintenance of tumor-initiating cells. Targeting the RBM14-dependent pathway may prevent recurrence of tumors and eradicate the deadly disease completely. PMID:24811242

  4. DNA Binding Properties of the Actin-Related Protein Arp8 and Its Role in DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Hirokazu; Otawa, Kenji; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Oma, Yukako; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Shibahara, Kei-ich; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Harata, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), which are members of the actin family, are essential components of many of these remodeling complexes. Actin, Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8 are found to be evolutionarily conserved components of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is involved in transcriptional regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair. A recent report showed that Arp8 forms a module in the INO80 complex and this module can directly capture a nucleosome. In the present study, we showed that recombinant human Arp8 binds to DNAs, and preferentially binds to single-stranded DNA. Analysis of the binding of adenine nucleotides to Arp8 mutants suggested that the ATP-binding pocket, located in the evolutionarily conserved actin fold, plays a regulatory role in the binding of Arp8 to DNA. To determine the cellular function of Arp8, we derived tetracycline-inducible Arp8 knockout cells from a cultured human cell line. Analysis of results obtained after treating these cells with aphidicolin and camptothecin revealed that Arp8 is involved in DNA repair. Together with the previous observation that Arp8, but not γ-H2AX, is indispensable for recruiting INO80 complex to DSB in human, results of our study suggest an individual role for Arp8 in DNA repair. PMID:25299602

  5. Stimulation of Rotator Cuff Repair by Sustained Release of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Using a Gelatin Hydrogel Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Kabuto, Yukichi; Morihara, Toru; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Kida, Yoshikazu; Oda, Ryo; Arai, Yuji; Sawada, Koshiro; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) promotes not only osteogenesis but also matrix production in chondrocytes and tenocytes. However, because of its short half-life, maintaining local concentrations of BMP-7 is difficult. We examined the use of a gelatin hydrogel sheet (GHS) for the sustained release of BMP-7 in stimulating rotator cuff repair at the tendon-to-bone insertion. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Radiolabeled BMP-7 (125I-BMP-7) was injected into the subacromial bursa in the 125I-BMP-7 group, whereas a GHS impregnated with 125I-BMP-7 was implanted on the tendon attached to the tendon-to-bone insertion in the 125I-BMP-7+GHS group. Levels of 125I-BMP-7 in the tendon-to-bone insertion were assessed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 postoperative days. The BMP-7 concentrations were significantly higher in the 125I-BMP-7+GHS group than in the 125I-BMP-7 group. Next, the bilateral supraspinatus tendons were resected and sutured to the greater tuberosity of the humerus using the Mason-Allen technique. Treatment groups were created as follows: either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or BMP-7 was injected into the subacromial bursa in the PBS and BMP-7 groups, whereas a GHS impregnated with either PBS or BMP-7 was implanted on the repaired tendon attached to the tendon-to-bone insertion in the PBS+GHS and BMP-7+GHS groups. The resected specimens were stained at 2, 4, and 8 postoperative weeks with hematoxylin and eosin as well as Safranin O, and tissue repair was evaluated histologically by using the tendon-to-bone maturing score. Tissue repair was assessed biomechanically at 4 and 8 postoperative weeks. The BMP-7+GHS group at 8 postoperative weeks demonstrated a favorable cartilage matrix production and tendon orientation; moreover, the tendon-to-bone maturing score and the ultimate force-to-failure were the highest in this group. The ability of GHS to provide controlled release of various growth factors has been previously reported. We confirmed that

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and 3D Modeling of Proteins involved in DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruben A. Abagyan, PhD

    2004-04-15

    OAK-B135 DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (DDR and R) proteins play a critical role in cellular responses to low-dose radiation and are associated with cancer. the authors have performed a systematic, genome-wide computational analysis of genomic data for human genes involved in the DDR and R process. The significant achievements of this project include: (1) Construction of the computational pipeline for searching DDR and R genes, building and validation of 3D models of proteins involved in DDR and R; (2) Functional and structural annotation of the 3D models and generation of comprehensive lists of suggested knock-out mutations; (3) Important improvement of macromolecular docking technology and its application to predict the DNA-Protein complex conformation; (4) Development of a new algorithm for improved analysis of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling; (5) Construction and maintenance of the DNA Damage Recognition and Repair Database; and (6) Producing 14 research papers (10 published and 4 in preparation).

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and 3D Modeling of Proteins involved in DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Abagyan, Ruben; An, Jianghong

    2005-08-12

    DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (DDR&R) proteins play a critical role in cellular responses to low-dose radiation and are associated with cancer. We have performed a systematic, genome-wide computational analysis of genomic data for human genes involved in the DDR&R process. The significant achievements of this project include: 1) Construction of the computational pipeline for searching DDR&R genes, building and validation of 3D models of proteins involved in DDR&R; 2) Functional and structural annotation of the 3D models and generation of comprehensive lists of suggested knock-out mutations; and the development of a method to predict the effects of mutations. Large scale testing of technology to identify novel small binding pockets in protein structures leading to new DDRR inhibitor strategies 3) Improvements of macromolecular docking technology (see the CAPRI 1-3 and 4-5 results) 4) Development of a new algorithm for improved analysis of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling; 5) Construction and maintenance of the DNA Damage Recognition and Repair Database; 6) Producing 15 research papers (12 published and 3 in preparation).

  8. Many amino acid substitution variants identified in DNA repair genes during human population screenings are predicted to impact protein function

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, T; Jones, I M; Mohrenweiser, H W

    2003-11-03

    Over 520 different amino acid substitution variants have been previously identified in the systematic screening of 91 human DNA repair genes for sequence variation. Two algorithms were employed to predict the impact of these amino acid substitutions on protein activity. Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT) classified 226 of 508 variants (44%) as ''Intolerant''. Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen) classed 165 of 489 amino acid substitutions (34%) as ''Probably or Possibly Damaging''. Another 9-15% of the variants were classed as ''Potentially Intolerant or Damaging''. The results from the two algorithms are highly associated, with concordance in predicted impact observed for {approx}62% of the variants. Twenty one to thirty one percent of the variant proteins are predicted to exhibit reduced activity by both algorithms. These variants occur at slightly lower individual allele frequency than do the variants classified as ''Tolerant'' or ''Benign''. Both algorithms correctly predicted the impact of 26 functionally characterized amino acid substitutions in the APE1 protein on biochemical activity, with one exception. It is concluded that a substantial fraction of the missense variants observed in the general human population are functionally relevant. These variants are expected to be the molecular genetic and biochemical basis for the associations of reduced DNA repair capacity phenotypes with elevated cancer risk.

  9. MET1 is a thylakoid-associated TPR protein involved in photosystem II supercomplex formation and repair in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Nazmul H; Friso, Giulia; Poliakov, Anton; Ponnala, Lalit; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) requires constant disassembly and reassembly to accommodate replacement of the D1 protein. Here, we characterize Arabidopsis thaliana MET1, a PSII assembly factor with PDZ and TPR domains. The maize (Zea mays) MET1 homolog is enriched in mesophyll chloroplasts compared with bundle sheath chloroplasts, and MET1 mRNA and protein levels increase during leaf development concomitant with the thylakoid machinery. MET1 is conserved in C3 and C4 plants and green algae but is not found in prokaryotes. Arabidopsis MET1 is a peripheral thylakoid protein enriched in stroma lamellae and is also present in grana. Split-ubiquitin assays and coimmunoprecipitations showed interaction of MET1 with stromal loops of PSII core components CP43 and CP47. From native gels, we inferred that MET1 associates with PSII subcomplexes formed during the PSII repair cycle. When grown under fluctuating light intensities, the Arabidopsis MET1 null mutant (met1) showed conditional reduced growth, near complete blockage in PSII supercomplex formation, and concomitant increase of unassembled CP43. Growth of met1 in high light resulted in loss of PSII supercomplexes and accelerated D1 degradation. We propose that MET1 functions as a CP43/CP47 chaperone on the stromal side of the membrane during PSII assembly and repair. This function is consistent with the observed differential MET1 accumulation across dimorphic maize chloroplasts.

  10. Complex formation by the human Rad51B and Rad51C DNA repair proteins and their activities in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lio, Yi-Ching; Mazin, Alexander V.; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; Chen, David J.

    2003-01-01

    The human Rad51 protein is essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination. In addition to Rad51 protein, five paralogs have been identified: Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, Rad51D/Rad51L3, XRCC2, and XRCC3. To further characterize a subset of these proteins, recombinant Rad51, Rad51B-(His)(6), and Rad51C proteins were individually expressed employing the baculovirus system, and each was purified from Sf9 insect cells. Evidence from nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid pull-down experiments demonstrates a highly stable Rad51B.Rad51C heterodimer, which interacts weakly with Rad51. Rad51B and Rad51C proteins were found to bind single- and double-stranded DNA and to preferentially bind 3'-end-tailed double-stranded DNA. The ability to bind DNA was elevated with mixed Rad51 and Rad51C, as well as with mixed Rad51B and Rad51C, compared with that of the individual protein. In addition, both Rad51B and Rad51C exhibit DNA-stimulated ATPase activity. Rad51C displays an ATP-independent apparent DNA strand exchange activity, whereas Rad51B shows no such activity; this apparent strand exchange ability results actually from a duplex DNA destabilization capability of Rad51C. By analogy to the yeast Rad55 and Rad57, our results suggest that Rad51B and Rad51C function through interactions with the human Rad51 recombinase and play a crucial role in the homologous recombinational repair pathway.

  11. Role of the yeast DNA repair protein Nej1 in end processing during the repair of DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Trujillo, Kelly M.; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Osley, Mary Ann; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB)s often require end processing prior to joining during their repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although the yeast proteins, Pol4, a Pol X family DNA polymerase, and Rad27, a nuclease, participate in the end processing reactions of NHEJ, the mechanisms underlying the recruitment of these factors to DSBs are not known. Here we demonstrate that Nej1, a NHEJ factor that interacts with and modulates the activity of the NHEJ DNA ligase complex (Dnl4/Lif1), physically and functionally interacts with both Pol4 and Rad27. Notably, Nej1 and Dnl4/Lif1, which also interacts with both Pol4 and Rad27, independently recruit the end processing factors to in vivo DSBs via mechanisms that are additive rather than redundant. As was observed with Dnl4/Lif1, the activities of both Pol4 and Rad27 were enhanced by the interaction with Nej1. Furthermore, Nej1 increased the joining of incompatible DNA ends in reconstituted reactions containing Pol4, Rad27 and Dnl4/Lif1, indicating that the stimulatory activities of Nej1 and Dnl4/Lif1 are also additive. Together our results reveal novel roles for Nej1 in the recruitment of Pol4 and Rad27 to in vivo DSBs and the coordination of the end processing and ligation reactions of NHEJ. PMID:25942368

  12. The effect of acute dose charge particle radiation on expression of DNA repair genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Akram; Soedipe, Ayodotun; Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu; Zhang, Ye; Shishodia, Shishir; Gridley, Daila S; Pourmand, Nader; Jejelowo, Olufisayo

    2011-03-01

    The space radiation environment consists of trapped particle radiation, solar particle radiation, and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), in which protons are the most abundant particle type. During missions to the moon or to Mars, the constant exposure to GCR and occasional exposure to particles emitted from solar particle events (SPE) are major health concerns for astronauts. Therefore, in order to determine health risks during space missions, an understanding of cellular responses to proton exposure is of primary importance. The expression of DNA repair genes in response to ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma rays) has been studied, but data on DNA repair in response to protons is lacking. Using qPCR analysis, we investigated changes in gene expression induced by positively charged particles (protons) in four categories (0, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy) in nine different DNA repair genes isolated from the testes of irradiated mice. DNA repair genes were selected on the basis of their known functions. These genes include ERCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), ERCC2/NER (opening DNA around the damage, Nucleotide Excision Repair), XRCC1 (5' incision subunit, DNA strand break repair), XRCC3 (DNA break and cross-link repair), XPA (binds damaged DNA in preincision complex), XPC (damage recognition), ATA or ATM (activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks), MLH1 (post-replicative DNA mismatch repair), and PARP1 (base excision repair). Our results demonstrate that ERCC1, PARP1, and XPA genes showed no change at 0.1 Gy radiation, up-regulation at 1.0 Gy radiation (1.09 fold, 7.32 fold, 0.75 fold, respectively), and a remarkable increase in gene expression at 2.0 Gy radiation (4.83 fold, 57.58 fold and 87.58 fold, respectively). Expression of other genes, including ATM and XRCC3, was unchanged at 0.1 and 1.0 Gy radiation but showed up-regulation at 2.0 Gy radiation (2.64 fold and 2.86 fold, respectively). We were unable to detect gene expression for the

  13. The role of AlkB protein in repair of 1,N⁶-ethenoadenine in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Agnieszka M; Sokołowska, Beata; Nowicki, Adam; Kuśmierek, Jarosław T

    2011-05-01

    Etheno (ε) DNA adducts, including 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (εA), are formed by various bifunctional agents of exogenous and endogenous origin. The AT→TA transversion, the most frequent mutation provoked by the presence of εA in DNA, is very common in critical codons of the TP53 and RAS genes in tumours induced by exposure to carcinogenic vinyl compounds. Here, using a method that allows examination of the mutagenic potency of a metabolite of vinyl chloride, chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), but eliminates its cytotoxicity, we studied the participation of alkA, alkB and mug gene products in the repair of εA in Escherichia coli cells. The test system used comprised the pIF105 plasmid bearing the lactose operon of CC105 origin, which allowed monitoring of Lac(+) revertants that arose by AT→TA substitutions due to the modification of adenine by CAA. The plasmid was CAA-modified in vitro and replicated in E.coli of various genetic backgrounds (wt, alkA, alkB, mug, alkAalkB, alkAmug and alkBmug). To modify the levels of the AlkA and AlkB proteins, mutagenesis was studied in E.coli cells induced or not in adaptive response to alkylating agents. Considering the levels of CAA-induced Lac(+) revertants in strains harbouring the CAA-modified pIF105 plasmid and induced or not in adaptive response, we conclude that the AlkB dioxygenase plays a major role in decreasing the level of AT→TA mutations, thus in the repair of εA in E.coli cells. The observed differences of mutation frequencies in the various mutant strains assayed indicate that Mug glycosylase is also engaged in the repair of εA, whereas the role the AlkA glycosylase in this repair is negligible. PMID:21193516

  14. KIAA1530 protein is recruited by Cockayne syndrome complementation group protein A (CSA) to participate in transcription-coupled repair (TCR).

    PubMed

    Fei, Jia; Chen, Junjie

    2012-10-12

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is the major pathway involved in the removal of UV-induced photolesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. Two Cockayne syndrome (CS) complementation group proteins, CSA and CSB, are important for TCR repair. The molecular mechanisms by which CS proteins regulate TCR remain elusive. Here, we report the characterization of KIAA1530, an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in this pathway through its interaction with CSA and the TFIIH complex. We found that UV irradiation led to the recruitment of KIAA1530 onto chromatin in a CSA-dependent manner. Cells lacking KIAA1530 were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and displayed deficiency in TCR. In addition, KIAA1530 depletion abrogated stability of the CSB protein following UV irradiation. More excitingly, we found that a unique CSA mutant (W361C), which was previously identified in a patient with UV(s)S syndrome, showed defective KIAA1530 binding and resulted in a failure of recruiting KIAA1530 and stabilizing CSB after UV treatment. Together, our data not only reveal that KIAA1530 is an important player in TCR but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying UV(s)S syndrome. PMID:22902626

  15. KIAA1530 Protein Is Recruited by Cockayne Syndrome Complementation Group Protein A (CSA) to Participate in Transcription-coupled Repair (TCR)

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Jia; Chen, Junjie

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is the major pathway involved in the removal of UV-induced photolesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. Two Cockayne syndrome (CS) complementation group proteins, CSA and CSB, are important for TCR repair. The molecular mechanisms by which CS proteins regulate TCR remain elusive. Here, we report the characterization of KIAA1530, an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in this pathway through its interaction with CSA and the TFIIH complex. We found that UV irradiation led to the recruitment of KIAA1530 onto chromatin in a CSA-dependent manner. Cells lacking KIAA1530 were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and displayed deficiency in TCR. In addition, KIAA1530 depletion abrogated stability of the CSB protein following UV irradiation. More excitingly, we found that a unique CSA mutant (W361C), which was previously identified in a patient with UVsS syndrome, showed defective KIAA1530 binding and resulted in a failure of recruiting KIAA1530 and stabilizing CSB after UV treatment. Together, our data not only reveal that KIAA1530 is an important player in TCR but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying UVsS syndrome. PMID:22902626

  16. Biochemical and biological characterization of wild-type and ATPase-deficient Cockayne syndrome B repair protein.

    PubMed

    Citterio, E; Rademakers, S; van der Horst, G T; van Gool, A J; Hoeijmakers, J H; Vermeulen, W

    1998-05-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a nucleotide excision repair disorder characterized by sun (UV) sensitivity and severe developmental problems. Two genes have been shown to be involved: CSA and CSB. Both proteins play an essential role in preferential repair of transcription-blocking lesions from active genes. In this study we report the purification and characterization of baculovirus-produced HA-His6-tagged CSB protein (dtCSB), using a highly efficient three-step purification protocol. Microinjection of dtCSB protein in CS-B fibroblasts shows that it is biologically functional in vivo. dtCSB exhibits DNA-dependent ATPase activity, stimulated by naked as well as nucleosomal DNA. Using structurally defined DNA oligonucleotides, we show that double-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA with partial single-stranded character but not true single-stranded DNA act as efficient cofactors for CSB ATPase activity. Using a variety of substrates, no overt DNA unwinding by dtCSB could be detected, as found with other SNF2/SWI2 family proteins. By site-directed mutagenesis the invariant lysine residue in the NTP-binding motif of CSB was substituted with a physicochemically related arginine. As expected, this mutation abolished ATPase activity. Surprisingly, the mutant protein was nevertheless able to partially rescue the defect in recovery of RNA synthesis after UV upon microinjection in CS-B fibroblasts. These results indicate that integrity of the conserved nucleotide-binding domain is important for the in vivo function of CSB but that also other properties independent from ATP hydrolysis may contribute to CSB biological functions. PMID:9565609

  17. Redox Control of the Human Iron-Sulfur Repair Protein MitoNEET Activity via Its Iron-Sulfur Cluster.

    PubMed

    Golinelli-Cohen, Marie-Pierre; Lescop, Ewen; Mons, Cécile; Gonçalves, Sergio; Clémancey, Martin; Santolini, Jérôme; Guittet, Eric; Blondin, Geneviève; Latour, Jean-Marc; Bouton, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Human mitoNEET (mNT) is the first identified Fe-S protein of the mammalian outer mitochondrial membrane. Recently, mNT has been implicated in cytosolic Fe-S repair of a key regulator of cellular iron homeostasis. Here, we aimed to decipher the mechanism by which mNT triggers its Fe-S repair capacity. By using tightly controlled reactions combined with complementary spectroscopic approaches, we have determined the differential roles played by both the redox state of the mNT cluster and dioxygen in cluster transfer and protein stability. We unambiguously demonstrated that only the oxidized state of the mNT cluster triggers cluster transfer to a generic acceptor protein and that dioxygen is neither required for the cluster transfer reaction nor does it affect the transfer rate. In the absence of apo-acceptors, a large fraction of the oxidized holo-mNT form is converted back to reduced holo-mNT under low oxygen tension. Reduced holo-mNT, which holds a [2Fe-2S](+)with a global protein fold similar to that of the oxidized form is, by contrast, resistant in losing its cluster or in transferring it. Our findings thus demonstrate that mNT uses an iron-based redox switch mechanism to regulate the transfer of its cluster. The oxidized state is the "active state," which reacts promptly to initiate Fe-S transfer independently of dioxygen, whereas the reduced state is a "dormant form." Finally, we propose that the redox-sensing function of mNT is a key component of the cellular adaptive response to help stress-sensitive Fe-S proteins recover from oxidative injury.

  18. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology of urinary bladder but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy; Wolf, Douglas C; Sen, Banalata; Knapp, Geremy W; Holladay, Steven D; Huckle, William R; Caceci, Thomas; Robertson, John L

    2009-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In F344 rats, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]) increases transitional cell carcinoma. Arsenic-induced inhibition of DNA repair has been reported in cultured cell lines and in lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed humans, but it has not been studied in urinary bladder. Should inhibition of DNA damage repair in transitional epithelium occur, it may contribute to carcinogenesis or cocarcinogenesis. We investigated morphology and expression of DNA repair genes in F344 rat transitional cells following up to 100 ppm DMA(V) in drinking water for four weeks. Mitochondria were very sensitive to DMA(V), and swollen mitochondria appeared to be the main source of vacuoles in the transitional epithelium. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT PCR) showed the mRNA levels of tested DNA repair genes, ataxia telangectasia mutant (ATM), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), excision repair cross-complementing group 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB), and DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta), were not altered by DMA(V). These data suggested that either DMA(V) does not affect DNA repair in the bladder or DMA(V) affects DNA repair without affecting baseline mRNA levels of repair genes. The possibility remains that DMA(V) may lower damage-induced increases in repair gene expression or cause post-translational modification of repair enzymes.

  19. Yes-associated protein in the liver: Regulation of hepatic development, repair, cell fate determination and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quy; Anders, Robert A; Alpini, Gianfranco; Bai, Haibo

    2015-10-01

    The liver is a vital organ that plays a major role in many bodily functions from protein production and blood clotting to cholesterol, glucose and iron metabolism and nutrition storage. Maintenance of liver homeostasis is critical for these essential bodily functions and disruption of liver homeostasis causes various kinds of liver diseases, some of which have high mortality rate. Recent research advances of the Hippo signalling pathway have revealed its nuclear effector, Yes-associated protein, as an important regulator of liver development, repair, cell fate determination and tumorigenesis. Therefore, a precise control of Yes-associated protein activity is critical for the maintenance of liver homeostasis. This review is going to summarize the discoveries on how the manipulation of Yes-associated protein activity affects liver homeostasis and induces liver diseases and the regulatory mechanisms that determine the Yes-associated protein activity in the liver. Finally, we will discuss the potential of targeting Yes-associated protein as therapeutic strategies in liver diseases.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Two Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genes Encoding Homologs of the Bacterial Hexa and Muts Mismatch Repair Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reenan, R. A.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Homologs of the Escherichia coli (mutL, S and uvrD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (hexA, B) genes involved in mismatch repair are known in several distantly related organisms. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on conserved regions of E. coli MutS protein and its homologs from Salmonella typhimurium, S. pneumoniae and human were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify and clone mutS/hexA homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two DNA sequences were amplified whose deduced amino acid sequences both shared a high degree of homology with MutS. These sequences were then used to clone the full-length genes from a yeast genomic library. Sequence analysis of the two MSH genes (MSH = mutS homolog), MSH1 and MSH2, revealed open reading frames of 2877 bp and 2898 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences predict polypeptides of 109.3 kD and 109.1 kD, respectively. The overall amino acid sequence identity with the E. coli MutS protein is 28.6% for MSH1 and 25.2% for MSH2. Features previously found to be shared by MutS homologs, such as the nucleotide binding site and the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif as well as other highly conserved regions whose function remain unknown, were also found in the two yeast homologs. Evidence presented in this and a companion study suggest that MSH1 is involved in repair of mitochondrial DNA and that MSH2 is involved in nuclear DNA repair. PMID:1459447

  1. Brh2 and Rad51 promote telomere maintenance in Ustilago maydis, a new model system of DNA repair proteins at telomeres.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun Young; Kojic, Milorad; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies implicate a number of DNA repair proteins in mammalian telomere maintenance. However, because several key repair proteins in mammals are missing from the well-studied budding and fission yeast, their roles at telomeres cannot be modeled in standard fungi. In this report, we explored the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis as an alternative model for telomere research. This fungus, which belongs to the phylum Basidiomycota, has a telomere repeat unit that is identical to the mammalian repeat, as well as a constellation of DNA repair proteins that more closely mimic the mammalian collection. We showed that the two core components of homology-directed repair (HDR) in U. maydis, namely Brh2 and Rad51, both promote telomere maintenance in telomerase positive cells, just like in mammals. In addition, we found that Brh2 is localized to telomeres in vivo, suggesting that it acts directly at chromosome ends. We surveyed a series of mutants with DNA repair defects, and found many of them to have short telomeres. Our results indicate that factors involved in DNA repair are probably also needed for optimal telomere maintenance in U. maydis, and that this fungus is a useful alternative model system for telomere research.

  2. The MCM-binding protein ETG1 aids sister chromatid cohesion required for postreplicative homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoki; Quimbaya, Mauricio; Schubert, Veit; Lammens, Tim; Vandepoele, Klaas; Schubert, Ingo; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk; Berx, Geert; De Veylder, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    The DNA replication process represents a source of DNA stress that causes potentially spontaneous genome damage. This effect might be strengthened by mutations in crucial replication factors, requiring the activation of DNA damage checkpoints to enable DNA repair before anaphase onset. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of the evolutionarily conserved minichromosome maintenance helicase-binding protein ETG1 of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a stringent late G2 cell cycle arrest. This arrest correlated with a partial loss of sister chromatid cohesion. The lack-of-cohesion phenotype was intensified in plants without functional CTF18, a replication fork factor needed for cohesion establishment. The synergistic effect of the etg1 and ctf18 mutants on sister chromatid cohesion strengthened the impact on plant growth of the replication stress caused by ETG1 deficiency because of inefficient DNA repair. We conclude that the ETG1 replication factor is required for efficient cohesion and that cohesion establishment is essential for proper development of plants suffering from endogenous DNA stress. Cohesion defects observed upon knockdown of its human counterpart suggest an equally important developmental role for the orthologous mammalian ETG1 protein. PMID:20090939

  3. The Slx5-Slx8 Complex Affects Sumoylation of DNA Repair Proteins and Negatively Regulates Recombination▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Rebecca C.; Rahman, Sadia; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2007-01-01

    Recombination is important for repairing DNA lesions, yet it can also lead to genomic rearrangements. This process must be regulated, and recently, sumoylation-mediated mechanisms were found to inhibit Rad51-dependent recombination. Here, we report that the absence of the Slx5-Slx8 complex, a newly identified player in the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathway, led to increased Rad51-dependent and Rad51-independent recombination. The increases were most striking during S phase, suggesting an accumulation of DNA lesions during replication. Consistent with this view, Slx8 protein localized to replication centers. In addition, like SUMO E2 mutants, slx8Δ mutants exhibited clonal lethality, which was due to the overamplification of 2μm, an extrachromosomal plasmid. Interestingly, in both SUMO E2 and slx8Δ mutants, clonal lethality was rescued by deleting genes required for Rad51-independent recombination but not those involved in Rad51-dependent events. These results suggest that sumoylation negatively regulates Rad51-independent recombination, and indeed, the Slx5-Slx8 complex affected the sumoylation of several enzymes involved in early steps of Rad51-independent recombination. We propose that, during replication, the Slx5-Slx8 complex helps prevent DNA lesions that are acted upon by recombination. In addition, the complex inhibits Rad51-independent recombination via modulating the sumoylation of DNA repair proteins. PMID:17591698

  4. Defective DNA single-strand break repair is responsible for senescence and neoplastic escape of epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nassour, Joe; Martien, Sébastien; Martin, Nathalie; Deruy, Emeric; Tomellini, Elisa; Malaquin, Nicolas; Bouali, Fatima; Sabatier, Laure; Wernert, Nicolas; Pinte, Sébastien; Gilson, Eric; Pourtier, Albin; Pluquet, Olivier; Abbadie, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristic of senescence is its stability which relies on the persistence of DNA damage. We show that unlike fibroblasts, senescent epithelial cells do not activate an ATM-or ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR), but accumulate oxidative-stress-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs). These breaks remain unrepaired because of a decrease in PARP1 expression and activity. This leads to the formation of abnormally large and persistent XRCC1 foci that engage a signalling cascade involving the p38MAPK and leading to p16 upregulation and cell cycle arrest. Importantly, the default in SSB repair also leads to the emergence of post-senescent transformed and mutated precancerous cells. In human-aged skin, XRCC1 foci accumulate in the epidermal cells in correlation with a decline of PARP1, whereas DDR foci accumulate mainly in dermal fibroblasts. These findings point SSBs as a DNA damage encountered by epithelial cells with aging which could fuel the very first steps of carcinogenesis. PMID:26822533

  5. Nuclear translocation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) protein prior to its cytosolic degradation by UV enhances DNA repair and survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Suk; Kim, Joo Young; Sohn, Jeongwon

    2009-12-25

    We previously reported that UV induced rapid proteasomal degradation of p21 protein in an ubiquitination-independent manner. Here, UV-induced p21 proteolysis was found to occur in the cytosol. Before cytosolic degradation, however, p21 protein translocated to and transiently accumulated in the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of p21 was not required for its degradation, but rather promoted DNA repair and cell survival. Overexpression of the wild type p21, but not the one with defective nuclear localization signal (NLS), reduced UV-induced DNA damage and cell death. Some of p21 protein translocated to the nucleus were associated with chromatin-bound PCNA and saved from UV-induced proteolysis. These data together show that p21 translocates to the nucleus to participate in DNA repair, while the rest is rapidly degraded in the cytosol. We propose that our findings reflect a mechanism to facilitate removal of damaged cells, enhancing DNA repair at the same time.

  6. Nuclear translocation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein prior to its cytosolic degradation by UV enhances DNA repair and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Suk; Kim, Joo Young; Sohn, Jeongwon

    2009-12-25

    We previously reported that UV induced rapid proteasomal degradation of p21 protein in an ubiquitination-independent manner. Here, UV-induced p21 proteolysis was found to occur in the cytosol. Before cytosolic degradation, however, p21 protein translocated to and transiently accumulated in the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of p21 was not required for its degradation, but rather promoted DNA repair and cell survival. Overexpression of the wild type p21, but not the one with defective nuclear localization signal (NLS), reduced UV-induced DNA damage and cell death. Some of p21 protein translocated to the nucleus were associated with chromatin-bound PCNA and saved from UV-induced proteolysis. These data together show that p21 translocates to the nucleus to participate in DNA repair, while the rest is rapidly degraded in the cytosol. We propose that our findings reflect a mechanism to facilitate removal of damaged cells, enhancing DNA repair at the same time.

  7. Postexercise Dietary Protein Strategies to Maximize Skeletal Muscle Repair and Remodeling in Masters Endurance Athletes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Doering, Thomas M; Reaburn, Peter R; Phillips, Stuart M; Jenkins, David G

    2016-04-01

    Participation rates of masters athletes in endurance events such as long-distance triathlon and running continue to increase. Given the physical and metabolic demands of endurance training, recovery practices influence the quality of successive training sessions and, consequently, adaptations to training. Research has suggested that, after muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison with younger, similarly trained athletes. Given that these discrepancies in recovery rates are not observed after non-muscle-damaging exercise, it is suggested that masters athletes have impairments of the protein remodeling mechanisms within skeletal muscle. The importance of postexercise protein feeding for endurance athletes is increasingly being acknowledged, and its role in creating a positive net muscle protein balance postexercise is well known. The potential benefits of postexercise protein feeding include elevating muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell activity for muscle repair and remodeling, as well as facilitating muscle glycogen resynthesis. Despite extensive investigation into age-related anabolic resistance in sedentary aging populations, little is known about how anabolic resistance affects postexercise muscle protein synthesis and thus muscle remodeling in aging athletes. Despite evidence suggesting that physical training can attenuate but not eliminate age-related anabolic resistance, masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same postexercise dietary protein dose (approximately 20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes. Given the slower recovery rates of masters athletes after muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, masters athletes may benefit from higher doses of postexercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content of the postexercise bolus.

  8. EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING OF DNA REPLICATION AND REPAIR PROTEINS FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILE SULFOLOBUS SOLFATARICUS

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, S.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; Hammel, M.; Hura, G.L.; Tainer, J.A.; Yannone, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Vital molecular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, and maintenance occur through transient protein interactions. Elucidating the mechanisms by which these protein complexes and interactions function could lead to treatments for diseases related to DNA damage and cell division control. In the recent decades since its introduction as a third domain, Archaea have shown to be simpler models for complicated eukaryotic processes such as DNA replication, repair, transcription, and translation. Sulfolobus solfataricus is one such model organism. A hyperthermophile with an optimal growth temperature of 80°C, Sulfolobus protein-protein complexes and transient protein interactions should be more stable at moderate temperatures, providing a means to isolate and study their structure and function. Here we provide the initial steps towards characterizing three DNA-related Sulfolobus proteins with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): Sso0257, a cell division control and origin recognition complex homolog, Sso0768, the small subunit of the replication factor C, and Sso3167, a Mut-T like protein. SAXS analysis was performed at multiple concentrations for both short and long exposure times. The Sso0257 sample was determined to be either a mixture of monomeric and dimeric states or a population of dynamic monomers in various conformational states in solution, consistent with a fl exible winged helix domain. Sso0768 was found to be a complex mixture of multimeric states in solution. Finally, molecular envelope reconstruction from SAXS data for Sso3167 revealed a novel structural component which may function as a disordered to ordered region in the presence of its substrates and/or protein partners.

  9. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 40/sub 0/C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 40/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40/sup 0/C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G/sub 1/-phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 35/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. A novel protein, Rsf1/Pxd1, is critical for the single-strand annealing pathway of double-strand break repair in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanqian; Zhang, Zhanlu; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Qiuxue; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Yangmin; Wang, Weibu; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The process of single-strand annealing (SSA) repairs DNA double-strand breaks that are flanked by direct repeat sequences through the coordinated actions of a series of proteins implicated in recombination, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Many of the molecular and mechanistic insights gained in SSA repair have principally come from studies in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is little molecular understanding of the SSA pathway in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To further our understanding of this important process, we established a new chromosome-based SSA assay in fission yeast. Our genetic analyses showed that, although many homologous components participate in SSA repair in these species indicating that some evolutionary conservation, Saw1 and Slx4 are not principal agents in the SSA repair pathway in fission yeast. This is in marked contrast to the function of Saw1 and Slx4 in budding yeast. Additionally, a novel genus-specific protein, Rsf1/Pxd1, physically interacts with Rad16, Swi10 and Saw1 in vitro and in vivo. We find that Rsf1/Pxd1 is not required for NER and demonstrate that, in fission yeast, Rsf1/Pxd1, but not Saw1, plays a critical role in SSA recombination.

  11. Recruitment Kinetics of DNA Repair Proteins Mdc1 and Rad52 but Not 53BP1 Depend on Damage Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hable, Volker; Drexler, Guido A.; Brüning, Tino; Burgdorf, Christian; Greubel, Christoph; Derer, Anja; Seel, Judith; Strickfaden, Hilmar; Cremer, Thomas; Friedl, Anna A.; Dollinger, Günther

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment kinetics of double-strand break (DSB) signaling and repair proteins Mdc1, 53BP1 and Rad52 into radiation-induced foci was studied by live-cell fluorescence microscopy after ion microirradiation. To investigate the influence of damage density and complexity on recruitment kinetics, which cannot be done by UV laser irradiation used in former studies, we utilized 43 MeV carbon ions with high linear energy transfer per ion (LET = 370 keV/µm) to create a large fraction of clustered DSBs, thus forming complex DNA damage, and 20 MeV protons with low LET (LET  = 2.6 keV/µm) to create mainly isolated DSBs. Kinetics for all three proteins was characterized by a time lag period T0 after irradiation, during which no foci are formed. Subsequently, the proteins accumulate into foci with characteristic mean recruitment times τ1. Mdc1 accumulates faster (T0 = 17±2 s, τ1 = 98±11 s) than 53BP1 (T0 = 77±7 s, τ1 = 310±60 s) after high LET irradiation. However, recruitment of Mdc1 slows down (T0 = 73±16 s, τ1 = 1050±270 s) after low LET irradiation. The recruitment kinetics of Rad52 is slower than that of Mdc1, but exhibits the same dependence on LET. In contrast, the mean recruitment time τ1 of 53BP1 remains almost constant when varying LET. Comparison to literature data on Mdc1 recruitment after UV laser irradiation shows that this rather resembles recruitment after high than low LET ionizing radiation. So this work shows that damage quality has a large influence on repair processes and has to be considered when comparing different studies. PMID:22860035

  12. The l-Isoaspartyl Protein Repair Methyltransferase Enhances Survival of Aging Escherichia coli Subjected to Secondary Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Visick, Jonathan E.; Cai, Hui; Clarke, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Like its homologs throughout the biological world, the l-isoaspartyl protein repair methyltransferase of Escherichia coli, encoded by the pcm gene, can convert abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in proteins (which form spontaneously from asparaginyl or aspartyl residues) to normal aspartyl residues. Mutations in pcm were reported to greatly reduce survival in stationary phase and when cells were subjected to heat or osmotic stresses (C. Li and S. Clarke, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:9885–9889, 1992). However, we subsequently demonstrated that those strains had a secondary mutation in rpoS, which encodes a stationary-phase-specific sigma factor (J. E. Visick and S. Clarke, J. Bacteriol. 179:4158–4163, 1997). We now show that the rpoS mutation, resulting in a 90% decrease in HPII catalase activity, can account for the previously observed phenotypes. We further demonstrate that a new pcm mutant lacks these phenotypes. Interestingly, the newly constructed pcm mutant, when maintained in stationary phase for extended periods, is susceptible to environmental stresses, including exposure to methanol, oxygen radical generation by paraquat, high salt concentrations, and repeated heating to 42°C. The pcm mutation also results in a competitive disadvantage in stationary-phase cells. All of these phenotypes can be complemented by a functional pcm gene integrated elsewhere in the chromosome. These data suggest that protein denaturation and isoaspartyl formation may act synergistically to the detriment of aging E. coli and that the repair methyltransferase can play a role in limiting the accumulation of the potentially disruptive isoaspartyl residues in vivo. PMID:9573145

  13. Melatonin sensitizes human breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation by downregulating proteins involved in double-strand DNA break repair.

    PubMed

    Alonso-González, Carolina; González, Alicia; Martínez-Campa, Carlos; Gómez-Arozamena, José; Cos, Samuel

    2015-03-01

    Radiation and adjuvant endocrine therapy are nowadays considered a standard treatment option after surgery in breast cancer. Melatonin exerts oncostatic actions on human breast cancer cells. In the current study, we investigated the effects of a combination of radiotherapy and melatonin on human breast cancer cells. Melatonin (1 mm, 10 μm and 1 nm) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Radiation alone inhibited the MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of breast cancer cells with melatonin 1 wk before radiation led to a significantly greater decrease of MCF-7 cell proliferation compared with radiation alone. Melatonin pretreatment before radiation also decreased G2 -M phase arrest compared with irradiation alone, with a higher percentage of cells in the G0 -G1 phase and a lower percentage of cells in S phase. Radiation alone diminished RAD51 and DNA-protein kinase (PKcs) mRNA expression, two main proteins involved in double-strand DNA break repair. Treatment with melatonin for 7 days before radiation led to a significantly greater decrease in RAD51 and DNA-PKcs mRNA expression compared with radiation alone. Our findings suggest that melatonin pretreatment before radiation sensitizes breast cancer cells to the ionizing effects of radiation by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest and downregulating proteins involved in double-strand DNA break repair. These findings may have implications for designing clinical trials using melatonin and radiotherapy. PMID:25623566

  14. Duplex interrogation by a direct DNA repair protein in search of base damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Chengqi; Chen, Baoen; Qi, Bo; Zhang, Wen; Jia, Guifang; Zhang, Liang; Li, Charles J.; Dinner, Aaron R.; Yang, Cai-Guang; He, Chuan

    2012-08-31

    ALKBH2 is a direct DNA repair dioxygenase guarding the mammalian genome against N{sup 1}-methyladenine, N{sup 3}-methylcytosine and 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine damage. A prerequisite for repair is to identify these lesions in the genome. Here we present crystal structures of human ALKBH2 bound to different duplex DNAs. Together with computational and biochemical analyses, our results suggest that DNA interrogation by ALKBH2 has two previously unknown features: (i) ALKBH2 probes base-pair stability and detects base pairs with reduced stability, and (ii) ALKBH2 does not have nor need a damage-checking site, which is critical for preventing spurious base cleavage for several glycosylases. The demethylation mechanism of ALKBH2 insures that only cognate lesions are oxidized and reversed to normal bases, and that a flipped, non-substrate base remains intact in the active site. Overall, the combination of duplex interrogation and oxidation chemistry allows ALKBH2 to detect and process diverse lesions efficiently and correctly.

  15. Acinetobacter baumannii RecA Protein in Repair of DNA Damage, Antimicrobial Resistance, General Stress Response, and Virulence ▿

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Jesús; Bardina, Carlota; Beceiro, Alejandro; Rumbo, Soraya; Cabral, Maria P.; Barbé, Jordi; Bou, Germán

    2011-01-01

    RecA is the major enzyme involved in homologous recombination and plays a central role in SOS mutagenesis. In Acinetobacter spp., including Acinetobacter baumannii , a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide, DNA repair responses differ in many ways from those of other bacterial species. In this work, the function of A. baumannii RecA was examined by constructing a recA mutant. Alteration of this single gene had a pleiotropic effect, showing the involvement of RecA in DNA damage repair and consequently in cellular protection against stresses induced by DNA damaging agents, several classes of antibiotics, and oxidative agents. In addition, the absence of RecA decreased survival in response to both heat shock and desiccation. Virulence assays in vitro (with macrophages) and in vivo (using a mouse model) similarly implicated RecA in the pathogenicity of A. baumannii . Thus, the data strongly suggest a protective role for RecA in the bacterium and indicate that inactivation of the protein can contribute to a combined therapeutic approach to controlling A. baumannii infections. PMID:21642465

  16. Crystal Structure Analysis of the Repair of Iron Centers Protein YtfE and Its Interaction with NO.

    PubMed

    Lo, Feng-Chun; Hsieh, Chang-Chih; Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Chen, Chin-Yu; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Horng, Yih-Chern; Lai, Yei-Chen; Chiang, Yun-Wei; Chou, Chih-Mao; Chiang, Cheng-Hung; Huang, Wei-Ning; Lin, Yi-Hung; Bohle, D Scott; Liaw, Wen-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the repair of nitrosylated [Fe-S] clusters by the microbial protein YtfE remain poorly understood. The X-ray crystal structure of YtfE, in combination with EPR, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), UV, and (17) O-labeling electron spin echo envelope modulation measurements, show that each iron of the oxo-bridged Fe(II) -Fe(III) diiron core is coordinatively unsaturated with each iron bound to two bridging carboxylates and two terminal histidines in addition to an oxo-bridge. Structural analysis reveals that there are two solvent-accessible tunnels, both of which converge to the diiron center and are critical for capturing substrates. The reactivity of the reduced-form Fe(II) -Fe(II) YtfE toward nitric oxide demonstrates that the prerequisite for N2 O production requires the two iron sites to be nitrosylated simultaneously. Specifically, the nitrosylation of the two iron sites prior to their reductive coupling to produce N2 O is cooperative. This result suggests that, in addition to any repair of iron centers (RIC) activity, YtfE acts as an NO-trapping scavenger to promote the NO to N2 O transformation under low NO flux, which precedes nitrosative stress. PMID:27246459

  17. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis.

    PubMed

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia; Altmannova, Veronika; Sebesta, Marek; Pacesa, Martin; Fugger, Kasper; Sorensen, Claus Storgaard; Lee, Marietta Y W T; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-20

    Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits the extent of HR and represents a new potential target for anticancer therapy.

  18. The Cockayne syndrome B protein, involved in transcription-coupled DNA repair, resides in an RNA polymerase II-containing complex.

    PubMed

    van Gool, A J; Citterio, E; Rademakers, S; van Os, R; Vermeulen, W; Constantinou, A; Egly, J M; Bootsma, D; Hoeijmakers, J H

    1997-10-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) defective in Cockayne syndrome A and B (CSA and CSB), is responsible for the preferential removal of DNA lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes, permitting rapid resumption of blocked transcription. Here we demonstrate by microinjection of antibodies against CSB and CSA gene products into living primary fibroblasts, that both proteins are required for TCR and for recovery of RNA synthesis after UV damage in vivo but not for basal transcription itself. Furthermore, immunodepletion showed that CSB is not required for in vitro NER or transcription. Its central role in TCR suggests that CSB interacts with other repair and transcription proteins. Gel filtration of repair- and transcription-competent whole cell extracts provided evidence that CSB and CSA are part of large complexes of different sizes. Unexpectedly, there was no detectable association of CSB with several candidate NER and transcription proteins. However, a minor but significant portion (10-15%) of RNA polymerase II was found to be tightly associated with CSB. We conclude that within cell-free extracts, CSB is not stably associated with the majority of core NER or transcription components, but is part of a distinct complex involving RNA polymerase II. These findings suggest that CSB is implicated in, but not essential for, transcription, and support the idea that Cockayne syndrome is due to a combined repair and transcription deficiency. PMID:9312053

  19. Induction of resistance to alkylating agents in E. coli: the ada+ gene product serves both as a regulatory protein and as an enzyme for repair of mutagenic damage.

    PubMed Central

    Teo, I; Sedgwick, B; Demple, B; Li, B; Lindahl, T

    1984-01-01

    The expression of several inducible enzymes for repair of alkylated DNA in Escherichia coli is controlled by the ada+ gene. This regulatory gene has been cloned into a multicopy plasmid and shown to code for a 37-kd protein. Antibodies raised against homogeneous O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (the main repair activity for mutagenic damage in alkylated DNA) were found to cross-react with this 37-kd protein. Cell extracts from several independently derived ada mutants contain variable amounts of an altered 37-kd protein after an inducing alkylation treatment. In addition, an 18-kd protein identical with the previously isolated O6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase has been identified as a product of the ada+ gene. The smaller polypeptide is derived from the 37-kd protein by proteolytic processing. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6092060

  20. Roles of Nucleoid-Associated Proteins in Stress-Induced Mutagenic Break Repair in Starving Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jessica M; Magnan, David; Mojica, Ana K; Núñez, María Angélica Bravo; Bates, David; Rosenberg, Susan M; Hastings, P J

    2015-12-01

    The mutagenicity of DNA double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli is controlled by DNA-damage (SOS) and general (RpoS) stress responses, which let error-prone DNA polymerases participate, potentially accelerating evolution during stress. Either base substitutions and indels or genome rearrangements result. Here we discovered that most small basic proteins that compact the genome, nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), promote or inhibit mutagenic break repair (MBR) via different routes. Of 15 NAPs, H-NS, Fis, CspE, and CbpA were required for MBR; Dps inhibited MBR; StpA and Hha did neither; and five others were characterized previously. Three essential genes were not tested. Using multiple tests, we found the following: First, Dps, which reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibited MBR, implicating ROS in MBR. Second, CbpA promoted F' plasmid maintenance, allowing MBR to be measured in an F'-based assay. Third, Fis was required for activation of the SOS DNA-damage response and could be substituted in MBR by SOS-induced levels of DinB error-prone DNA polymerase. Thus, Fis promoted MBR by allowing SOS activation. Fourth, H-NS represses ROS detoxifier sodB and was substituted in MBR by deletion of sodB, which was not otherwise mutagenic. We conclude that normal ROS levels promote MBR and that H-NS promotes MBR by maintaining ROS. CspE positively regulates RpoS, which is required for MBR. Four of five previously characterized NAPs promoted stress responses that enhance MBR. Hence, most NAPs affect MBR, the majority via regulatory functions. The data show that a total of six NAPs promote MBR by regulating stress responses, indicating the importance of nucleoid structure and function to the regulation of MBR and of coupling mutagenesis to stress, creating genetic diversity responsively. PMID:26500258

  1. The Cockayne syndrome group B DNA repair protein as an anti-cancer target.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Mani, S; Kandimalla, E R; Yu, D; Agrawal, S; States, J C; Bregman, D B

    2001-12-01

    Cells from individuals with Cockayne syndrome (CS) have a defect in transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR), which rapidly corrects certain DNA lesions located on the transcribed strand of active genes. Despite this DNA repair defect, individuals with CS (of which there are two complementation groups, CSA and CSB) do not demonstrate an elevated incidence of cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that disruption of the CSB gene reduces the spontaneous tumor rate in cancer predisposed Ink4a/ARF-/- mice as well as causing their embryo fibroblasts to proliferate more slowly and be more sensitive to UV-induced apoptosis. In the present study we characterized phosphorothioate backbone antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AOs) that reduced the levels of CSB mRNA in A2780/CP70 ovarian carcinoma cells. The AOs caused the cells to proliferate more slowly and made them more sensitive to either cisplatin or oxaliplatin. The AOs also enhanced the cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide and gamma-radiation, both of which can induce oxidative DNA lesions, which are subject to TCR. The AOs did not potentiate the cytotoxicity of topotecan, which induces DNA strand breaks. Chemically modified () AOs (MBOs) targeting CSB were able to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin against A2780/CP70 tumor xenografts formed in nude mice. The MBOs enabled a non-toxic (3 mg/kg) dose of cisplatin to have the same degree of anti-tumor efficacy as a more toxic (5 mg/kg) cisplatin dose. Collectively, these results suggest that the CSB gene product may be viewed as an anti-cancer target. PMID:11713576

  2. Overexpression of the scaffold WD40 protein WRAP53β enhances the repair of and cell survival from DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Rassoolzadeh, H; Böhm, S; Hedström, E; Gad, H; Helleday, T; Henriksson, S; Farnebo, M

    2016-01-01

    Altered expression of the multifunctional protein WRAP53β (WD40 encoding RNA Antisense to p53), which targets repair factors to DNA double-strand breaks and factors involved in telomere elongation to Cajal bodies, is linked to carcinogenesis. While loss of WRAP53β function has been shown to disrupt processes regulated by this protein, the consequences of its overexpression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of WRAP53β disrupts the formation of and impairs the localization of coilin to Cajal bodies. At the same time, the function of this protein in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks is enhanced. Following irradiation, cells overexpressing WRAP53β exhibit more rapid clearance of phospho-histone H2AX (γH2AX), and more efficient homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining, in association with fewer DNA breaks. Moreover, in these cells the ubiquitylation of damaged chromatin, which is known to facilitate the recruitment of repair factors and subsequent repair, is elevated. Knockdown of the ubiquitin ligase involved, ring-finger protein 8 (RNF8), which is recruited to DNA breaks by WRAP53β, attenuated this effect, suggesting that overexpression of WRAP53β leads to more rapid repair, as well as improved cell survival, by enhancing RNF8-mediated ubiquitylation at DNA breaks. Our present findings indicate that WRAP53β and RNF8 are rate-limiting factors in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and raise the possibility that upregulation of WRAP53β may contribute to genomic stability in and survival of cancer cells. PMID:27310875

  3. Overexpression of the scaffold WD40 protein WRAP53β enhances the repair of and cell survival from DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Rassoolzadeh, H; Böhm, S; Hedström, E; Gad, H; Helleday, T; Henriksson, S; Farnebo, M

    2016-01-01

    Altered expression of the multifunctional protein WRAP53β (WD40 encoding RNA Antisense to p53), which targets repair factors to DNA double-strand breaks and factors involved in telomere elongation to Cajal bodies, is linked to carcinogenesis. While loss of WRAP53β function has been shown to disrupt processes regulated by this protein, the consequences of its overexpression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of WRAP53β disrupts the formation of and impairs the localization of coilin to Cajal bodies. At the same time, the function of this protein in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks is enhanced. Following irradiation, cells overexpressing WRAP53β exhibit more rapid clearance of phospho-histone H2AX (γH2AX), and more efficient homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining, in association with fewer DNA breaks. Moreover, in these cells the ubiquitylation of damaged chromatin, which is known to facilitate the recruitment of repair factors and subsequent repair, is elevated. Knockdown of the ubiquitin ligase involved, ring-finger protein 8 (RNF8), which is recruited to DNA breaks by WRAP53β, attenuated this effect, suggesting that overexpression of WRAP53β leads to more rapid repair, as well as improved cell survival, by enhancing RNF8-mediated ubiquitylation at DNA breaks. Our present findings indicate that WRAP53β and RNF8 are rate-limiting factors in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and raise the possibility that upregulation of WRAP53β may contribute to genomic stability in and survival of cancer cells.

  4. Fertilization stimulates 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine repair and antioxidant activity to prevent mutagenesis in the embryo.

    PubMed

    Lord, Tessa; Aitken, R John

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative DNA damage harbored by both spermatozoa and oocytes at the time of fertilization must be repaired prior to S-phase of the first mitotic division to reduce the risk of transversion mutations occurring in the zygote and subverting the normal patterns of cell differentiation and development. Of the characterised oxidative DNA lesions, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) is particularly mutagenic. The current study reveals for the first time a marked acceleration of 8OHdG repair in the mouse oocyte/zygote by the base excision repair (BER) pathway following fertilization. Specifically, fertilization initiates post-translational modification to BER enzymes such as OGG1 and XRCC1, causing nuclear localisation and accelerated 8OHdG excision. Additionally, both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes appear to benefit from increased protection against further 8OHdG formation by a fertilization-associated increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. The major limitation of the characterised 8OHdG repair system is the relatively low level of OGG1 expression in the oocyte, in contrast to the male germ line where it is the only constituent of the BER pathway. The male and female germ lines therefore collaborate in the repair of oxidative DNA damage, and oocytes are vulnerable to high levels of 8OHdG being carried into the zygote by the fertilizing spermatozoon. PMID:26234752

  5. Base excision repair genes and risk of lung cancer among San Francisco Bay Area Latinos and African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeffrey S.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Hansen, Helen M.; Sison, Jennette D.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Seldin, Michael F.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Wiencke, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the primary DNA damage repair mechanism for repairing small base lesions resulting from oxidation and alkylation damage. This study examines the association between 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to five BER genes (XRCC1, APEX1, PARP1, MUTYH and OGG1) and lung cancer among Latinos (113 cases and 299 controls) and African-Americans (255 cases and 280 controls). The goal was to evaluate the differences in genetic contribution to lung cancer risk by ethnic groups. Analyses of individual SNPs and haplotypes were performed using unconditional logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex and genetic ancestry. Four SNPs among Latinos and one SNP among African-Americans were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with either risk of all lung cancer or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487) and NSCLC among Latinos (odds ratio associated with every copy of Gln = 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–2.28) had a false-positive report probability of <0.5. Arg399Gln is a SNP with some functional evidence and has been shown previously to be an important SNP associated with lung cancer, mostly for Asians. Since the analyses were adjusted for genetic ancestry, the observed association between Arg399Gln and NSCLC among Latinos is unlikely to be confounded by population stratification; however, this result needs to be confirmed by additional studies among the Latino population. This study suggests that there are genetic differences in the association between BER pathway and lung cancer between Latinos and African-Americans. PMID:19029194

  6. Metal binding mediated conformational change of XPA protein:a potential cytotoxic mechanism of nickel in the nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianping; Hu, Ziheng; Zhang, Yan; Gou, Xiaojun; Mu, Ying; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2016-07-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a pivotal life process for repairing DNA nucleotide mismatch caused by chemicals, metal ions, radiation, and other factors. As the initiation step of NER, the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A protein (XPA) recognizes damaged DNA molecules, and recruits the replication protein A (RPA), another important player in the NER process. The stability of the Zn(2+)-chelated Zn-finger domain of XPA center core portion (i.e., XPA98-210) is the foundation of its biological functionality, while the displacement of the Zn(2+) by toxic metal ions (such as Ni(2+), a known human carcinogen and allergen) may impair the effectiveness of NER and hence elevate the chance of carcinogenesis. In this study, we first calculated the force field parameters for the bonded model in the metal center of the XPA98-210 system, showing that the calculated results, including charges, bonds, angles etc., are congruent with previously reported results measured by spectrometry experiments and quantum chemistry computation. Then, comparative molecular dynamics simulations using these parameters revealed the changes in the conformation and motion mode of XPA98-210 Zn-finger after the substitution of Zn(2+) by Ni(2+). The results showed that Ni(2+) dramatically disrupted the relative positions of the four Cys residues in the Zn-finger structure, forcing them to collapse from a tetrahedron into an almost planar structure. Finally, we acquired the binding mode of XPA98-210 with its ligands RPA70N and DNA based on molecular docking and structural alignment. We found that XPA98-210's Zn-finger domain primarily binds to a V-shaped cleft in RPA70N, while the cationic band in its C-terminal subdomain participates in the recognition of damaged DNA. In addition, this article sheds light on the multi-component interaction pattern among XPA, DNA, and other NER-related proteins (i.e., RPA70N, RPA70A, RPA70B, RPA70C, RPA32, and RPA14) based on previously reported

  7. Effect of varying chromophores used in light-activated protein solders on tensile strength and thermal damage profile of repairs.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Grant T; Byrd, Brian D; Soller, Eric C; Heintzelman, Douglas L; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M

    2003-01-01

    Clinical adoption of laser tissue welding (LTW) techniques has been beleaguered by problems associated with thermal damage of tissue and insufficient strength of the resulting tissue bond. The magnitude of these problems has been significantly reduced with the incorporation of indocyanine green (ICG)-doped protein solders into the LTW procedure to form a new technique known as laser tissue soldering (LTS). With the addition of ICG, a secondary concern has arisen relating to the potential harmful effects of the degradation products of the chromophore upon thermal denaturation of the protein solder with a laser. In this study, two different food colorings were investigated, including blue #1 and green consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1, as alternative chromophores for use in LTS techniques. Food coloring has been found to have a suitable stability and safety profile for enteral use when heated to temperatures above 200 degrees C; thus, it is a promising candidate chromophore for LTS which typically requires temperatures between 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C. Experimental investigations were conducted to test the tensile strength of ex vivo repairs formed using solders doped with these alternative chromophores in a bovine model. Two commonly used chromophores, ICG and methylene blue (MB), were investigated as a reference. In addition, the temperature rise, depth of thermal coagulation in the protein solder, and the extent of thermal damage in the surrounding tissue were measured. Temperature rise at the solder/tissue interface, and consequently the degree of solder coagulation and collateral tissue thermal damage, was directly related to the penetration depth of laser light in the protein solder. Variation of the chromophore concentration such that the laser light penetrated to a depth approximately equal to half the thickness of the solder resulted in uniform results between each group of chromophores investigated. Optimal tensile strength of repairs was achieved

  8. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling by Cockayne syndrome protein B and NAP1-like histone chaperones is required for efficient transcription-coupled DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Cho, Iltaeg; Tsai, Pei-Fang; Lake, Robert J; Basheer, Asjad; Fan, Hua-Ying

    2013-04-01

    The Cockayne syndrome complementation group B (CSB) protein is essential for transcription-coupled DNA repair, and mutations in CSB are associated with Cockayne syndrome--a devastating disease with complex clinical features, including the appearance of premature aging, sun sensitivity, and numerous neurological and developmental defects. CSB belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler family, but the extent to which CSB remodels chromatin and whether this activity is utilized in DNA repair is unknown. Here, we show that CSB repositions nucleosomes in an ATP-dependent manner in vitro and that this activity is greatly enhanced by the NAP1-like histone chaperones, which we identify as new CSB-binding partners. By mapping functional domains and analyzing CSB derivatives, we demonstrate that chromatin remodeling by the combined activities of CSB and the NAP1-like chaperones is required for efficient transcription-coupled DNA repair. Moreover, we show that chromatin remodeling and repair protein recruitment mediated by CSB are separable activities. The collaboration that we observed between CSB and the NAP1-like histone chaperones adds a new dimension to our understanding of the ways in which ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones can regulate chromatin structure. Taken together, the results of this study offer new insights into the functions of chromatin remodeling by CSB in transcription-coupled DNA repair as well as the underlying mechanisms of Cockayne syndrome. PMID:23637612

  9. Repair of DNA Alkylation Damage by the Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AlkB as Studied by ESI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Deyu; Delaney, James C.; Page, Charlotte M.; Chen, Alvin S.; Wong, Cintyu; Drennan, Catherine L.; Essigmann, John M.

    2010-01-01

    DNA alkylation can cause mutations, epigenetic changes, and even cell death. All living organisms have evolved enzymatic and non-enzymatic strategies for repairing such alkylation damage. AlkB, one of the Escherichia coli adaptive response proteins, uses an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent mechanism that, by chemical oxidation, removes a variety of alkyl lesions from DNA, thus affording protection of the genome against alkylation. In an effort to understand the range of acceptable substrates for AlkB, the enzyme was incubated with chemically synthesized oligonucleotides containing alkyl lesions, and the reaction products were analyzed by electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Consistent with the literature, but studied comparatively here for the first time, it was found that 1-methyladenine, 1,N 6-ethenoadenine, 3-methylcytosine, and 3-ethylcytosine were completely transformed by AlkB, while 1-methylguanine and 3-methylthymine were partially repaired. The repair intermediates (epoxide and possibly glycol) of 3,N 4-ethenocytosine are reported for the first time. It is also demonstrated that O 6-methylguanine and 5-methylcytosine are refractory to AlkB, lending support to the hypothesis that AlkB repairs only alkyl lesions attached to the nitrogen atoms of the nucleobase. ESI-TOF mass spectrometry is shown to be a sensitive and efficient tool for probing the comparative substrate specificities of DNA repair proteins in vitro. PMID:21048928

  10. ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling by Cockayne Syndrome Protein B and NAP1-Like Histone Chaperones Is Required for Efficient Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Robert J.; Basheer, Asjad; Fan, Hua-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The Cockayne syndrome complementation group B (CSB) protein is essential for transcription-coupled DNA repair, and mutations in CSB are associated with Cockayne syndrome—a devastating disease with complex clinical features, including the appearance of premature aging, sun sensitivity, and numerous neurological and developmental defects. CSB belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 ATP–dependent chromatin remodeler family, but the extent to which CSB remodels chromatin and whether this activity is utilized in DNA repair is unknown. Here, we show that CSB repositions nucleosomes in an ATP–dependent manner in vitro and that this activity is greatly enhanced by the NAP1-like histone chaperones, which we identify as new CSB–binding partners. By mapping functional domains and analyzing CSB derivatives, we demonstrate that chromatin remodeling by the combined activities of CSB and the NAP1-like chaperones is required for efficient transcription-coupled DNA repair. Moreover, we show that chromatin remodeling and repair protein recruitment mediated by CSB are separable activities. The collaboration that we observed between CSB and the NAP1-like histone chaperones adds a new dimension to our understanding of the ways in which ATP–dependent chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones can regulate chromatin structure. Taken together, the results of this study offer new insights into the functions of chromatin remodeling by CSB in transcription-coupled DNA repair as well as the underlying mechanisms of Cockayne syndrome. PMID:23637612

  11. HRR25, a putative protein kinase from budding yeast: Association with repair of damaged DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, M.F.; Ou, A.C.; DeMaggio, A.J.; Burbee, D.G. ); Liskay, R.M. ); Heffron, F. )

    1991-08-30

    In simple eukaryotes, protein kinases regulate mitotic and meiotic cell cycles, the response to polypeptide pheromones, and the initiation of nuclear DNA synthesis. The protein HRR25 from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was defined by the mutation hrr25-1. This mutation resulted in sensitivity to continuous expression of the HO double-strand endonuclease, to methyl methanesulfonate, and to x-irradiation. Homozygotes of hrr25-1 were unable to sporulate and disruption and deletion of HRR25 interfered with mitotic and meiotic cell division. Sequence analysis revealed two distinctive regions in the protein. The NH{sub 2}-terminus of HRR25 contains the hallmark features of protein kinases, whereas the COOH-terminus is rich in proline and glutamine. Mutations in HRR25 at conserved residues found in all protein kinases inactivated the gene, and these mutants exhibited the hrr25 null phenotypes. Taken together, the hrr25 mutant phenotypes and the features of the gene product indicate that HRR25 is a distinctive member of the protein kinase superfamily.

  12. Structural and Functional Interaction Between the Human DNA Repair Proteins DNA ligase IV and XRCC4

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P.; Meesala, S; Dauvillier, S; Modesti, M; Andres, S; Huang, Y; Sekiguchi, J; Calsou, P; Salles, B; Junop, M

    2009-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining represents the major pathway used by human cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks. It relies on the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to reseal DNA strands. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of human XRCC4 bound to the carboxy-terminal tandem BRCT repeat of DNA ligase IV. The structure differs from the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex and reveals an extensive DNA ligase IV binding interface formed by a helix-loop-helix structure within the inter-BRCT linker region, as well as significant interactions involving the second BRCT domain, which induces a kink in the tail region of XRCC4. We further demonstrate that interaction with the second BRCT domain of DNA ligase IV is necessary for stable binding to XRCC4 in cells, as well as to achieve efficient dominant-negative effects resulting in radiosensitization after ectopic overexpression of DNA ligase IV fragments in human fibroblasts. Together our findings provide unanticipated insight for understanding the physical and functional architecture of the nonhomologous end-joining ligation complex.

  13. Molecular Basis for Phosphorylation-dependent SUMO Recognition by the DNA Repair Protein RAP80.

    PubMed

    Anamika; Spyracopoulos, Leo

    2016-02-26

    Recognition and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) involves the targeted recruitment of BRCA tumor suppressors to damage foci through binding of both ubiquitin (Ub) and the Ub-like modifier SUMO. RAP80 is a component of the BRCA1 A complex, and plays a key role in the recruitment process through the binding of Lys(63)-linked poly-Ub chains by tandem Ub interacting motifs (UIM). RAP80 also contains a SUMO interacting motif (SIM) just upstream of the tandem UIMs that has been shown to specifically bind the SUMO-2 isoform. The RAP80 tandem UIMs and SIM function collectively for optimal recruitment of BRCA1 to DSBs, although the molecular basis of this process is not well understood. Using NMR spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the RAP80 SIM binds SUMO-2, and that both specificity and affinity are enhanced through phosphorylation of the canonical CK2 site within the SIM. The affinity increase results from an enhancement of electrostatic interactions between the phosphoserines of RAP80 and the SIM recognition module within SUMO-2. The NMR structure of the SUMO-2·phospho-RAP80 complex reveals that the molecular basis for SUMO-2 specificity is due to isoform-specific sequence differences in electrostatic SIM recognition modules.

  14. Membrane protein damage and repair: removal and replacement of inactivated 32-kilodalton polypeptides in chloroplast membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ohad, I.; Kyle, D.J.; Arntzen, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    Incubation of Chlamydomonas reinhardii cells at light levels that are several times more intense than those at which the cells were grown results in a loss of photosystem II function (termed photoinhibition). The loss of activity corresponded to the disappearance from the chloroplast membranes of a lysine-deficient, herbicide-binding protein of 32,000 daltons which is thought to be the apoprotein of the secondary quinone electron acceptor of photosystem II (the Q/sub B/ protein). In vivo recovery from the damage only occurred following de novo synthesis (replacement) of the chloroplast-encoded Q/sub B/ protein. We believe that the turnover of this protein is a normal consequence of its enzymatic function in vivo and is a physiological process that is necessary to maintain the photosynthetic integrity of the thylakoid membrane. Photoinhibition occurs when the rate of inactivation and subsequent removal exceeds the rate of resynthesis of the Q/sub B/ protein. 22 references, 5 figures.

  15. Role of the DNA base excision repair protein, APE1 in cisplatin, oxaliplatin, or carboplatin induced sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Mark R; Jiang, Yanlin; Guo, Chunlu; Reed, April; Meng, Hongdi; Vasko, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Although chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of platinum drugs, the mechanisms of this toxicity remain unknown. Previous work in our laboratory suggests that cisplatin-induced CIPN is secondary to DNA damage which is susceptible to base excision repair (BER). To further examine this hypothesis, we studied the effects of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin on cell survival, DNA damage, ROS production, and functional endpoints in rat sensory neurons in culture in the absence or presence of reduced expression of the BER protein AP endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1). Using an in situ model of peptidergic sensory neuron function, we examined the effects of the platinum drugs on hind limb capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation. Exposing sensory neurons in culture to the three platinum drugs caused a concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis and cell death, although the concentrations of carboplatin were 10 fold higher than cisplatin. As previously observed with cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin also increased DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-H2AX and reduced the capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP from neuronal cultures. Both cisplatin and oxaliplatin increased the production of ROS as well as 8-oxoguanine DNA adduct levels, whereas carboplatin did not. Reducing levels of APE1 in neuronal cultures augmented the cisplatin and oxaliplatin induced toxicity, but did not alter the effects of carboplatin. Using an in vivo model, systemic injection of cisplatin (3 mg/kg), oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg), or carboplatin (30 mg/kg) once a week for three weeks caused a decrease in capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation, which was delayed in onset. The effects of cisplatin on capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation were attenuated by chronic administration of E3330, a redox inhibitor of APE1 that serendipitously enhances APE1 DNA repair activity in sensory neurons. These outcomes support the importance of the BER pathway, and particularly APE

  16. Role of the DNA Base Excision Repair Protein, APE1 in Cisplatin, Oxaliplatin, or Carboplatin Induced Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mark R.; Jiang, Yanlin; Guo, Chunlu; Reed, April; Meng, Hongdi; Vasko, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Although chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of platinum drugs, the mechanisms of this toxicity remain unknown. Previous work in our laboratory suggests that cisplatin-induced CIPN is secondary to DNA damage which is susceptible to base excision repair (BER). To further examine this hypothesis, we studied the effects of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin on cell survival, DNA damage, ROS production, and functional endpoints in rat sensory neurons in culture in the absence or presence of reduced expression of the BER protein AP endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1). Using an in situ model of peptidergic sensory neuron function, we examined the effects of the platinum drugs on hind limb capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation. Exposing sensory neurons in culture to the three platinum drugs caused a concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis and cell death, although the concentrations of carboplatin were 10 fold higher than cisplatin. As previously observed with cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin also increased DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-H2AX and reduced the capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP from neuronal cultures. Both cisplatin and oxaliplatin increased the production of ROS as well as 8-oxoguanine DNA adduct levels, whereas carboplatin did not. Reducing levels of APE1 in neuronal cultures augmented the cisplatin and oxaliplatin induced toxicity, but did not alter the effects of carboplatin. Using an in vivo model, systemic injection of cisplatin (3 mg/kg), oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg), or carboplatin (30 mg/kg) once a week for three weeks caused a decrease in capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation, which was delayed in onset. The effects of cisplatin on capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation were attenuated by chronic administration of E3330, a redox inhibitor of APE1 that serendipitously enhances APE1 DNA repair activity in sensory neurons. These outcomes support the importance of the BER pathway, and particularly APE

  17. Low expression of MSH2 DNA repair protein is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Camila Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Marcos Vinícius Macedo; BARROS, Lucas Oliveira; BANDEIRA, Gabriela Alencar; SANTOS, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; BASILE, John R.; GUIMARÃES, André Luiz Sena; DE PAULA, Alfredo Maurício Batista

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the expression of the MSH2 DNA repair protein in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in order to analyze its association with clinicopathologic factors and overall survival of patients. Material and Methods Clinical data and primary lesions of HNSSC were collected from 55 patients who underwent surgical resection with postoperative radiotherapy in Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2000 and 2008. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed to analyze MSH2 protein expression. Results Bivariate analysis showed no significant correlation or association between MSH2 expression and clinicopathologic parameters by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Patients with locoregional metastatic disease (OR=4.949, p<0.001) and lower MSH2 immunohistochemical expressions (OR=2.943, p=0.032) presented poorer survival for HNSCC by Cox regression models. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that lower MSH2 expression might contribute to a higher clinic aggressiveness of HNSCC by promoting an unfavorable outcome. PMID:24212987

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human mismatch repair protein MutS[beta

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Quincy; Orans, Jillian; Hast, Michael A.; Iyer, Ravi R.; Changela, Anita; Modrich, Paul L.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-03-16

    MutS{beta} is a eukaryotic mismatch repair protein that preferentially targets extrahelical unpaired nucleotides and shares partial functional redundancy with MutS{alpha} (MSH2-MSH6). Although mismatch recognition by MutS{alpha} has been shown to involve a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif, little is known about the lesion-binding mechanism of MutS{beta}. Combined MSH3/MSH6 deficiency triggers a strong predisposition to cancer in mice and defects in msh2 and msh6 account for roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer mutations. These three MutS homologs are also believed to play a role in trinucleotide repeat instability, which is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The baculovirus overexpression and purification of recombinant human MutS{beta} and three truncation mutants are presented here. Binding assays with heteroduplex DNA were carried out for biochemical characterization. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein bound to a heteroduplex DNA substrate are also reported.

  19. The human actin-related protein hArp5: Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and involvement in DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Kitayama, Kumiko; Kamo, Mariko; Oma, Yukako; Matsuda, Ryo; Uchida, Takafumi; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Winsor, Barbara; Harata, Masahiko

    2009-01-15

    Certain actin-related proteins (Arps) of budding yeast are localized in the nucleus, and have essential roles as stoichiometric components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and chromatin remodeling complexes. On the other hand, identification of vertebrate nuclear Arps and their functional analyses are just beginning. We show that human Arp5 (hArp5) proteins are localized in the nucleus, and that arp5{delta} yeast cells are partially complemented by hArp5. Thus, hArp5 is a novel member of the nuclear Arps of vertebrates, which possess evolutionarily conserved functions from yeast to humans. We show here that hArp5 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Furthermore, after the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), cell growth and the accumulation of phosphorylated histone H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) are impaired by hArp5 depletion. Association of hArp5 with the hIno80 chromatin remodeling enzyme and decrease of chromatin-bound hIno80 by hArp5-depletion indicate that hArp5 may have a role in the recruitment of the hINO80 complex to chromatin. Overexpression of hArp5 and hIno80 enhanced {gamma}-H2AX accumulation. These observations suggest that hArp5 is involved in the process of DSB repair through the regulation of the chromatin remodelling machinery.

  20. Photosystem II recovery in the presence and absence of chloroplast protein repair in the symbionts of corals exposed to bleaching conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R.; Takahashi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Increased seawater temperature causes photoinhibition due to accumulation of photodamaged photosystem II (PSII) in symbiotic algae (genus Symbiodinium) within corals, and it is assumed to be associated with coral bleaching. To avoid photoinhibition, photosynthetic organisms repair the photodamaged PSII through replacing the PSII proteins, primarily the D1 protein, with newly synthesised proteins. However, in experiments using cultured Symbiodinium strains, the PSII repair of Symbiodinium has been suggested not to be related to the synthesis of the D1 protein. In this study, we examined the relationship between the recovery of PSII photochemical efficiency ( F V/ F M) and the content of D1 protein after high-light and high-temperature treatments using the bleaching-sensitive coral species, Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora millepora, and the bleaching-tolerant coral species, Montipora digitata and Pavona decussata. When corals were exposed to strong light (600 µmol photons m-2 s-1) at elevated temperature (32 °C) for 8 h, significant bleaching occurred in bleaching-sensitive coral species although an almost similar extent of reduced PSII function was found across all coral species tested. During a subsequent 15-h recovery under low light (10 µmol photons m-2 s-1) at optimal temperature (22 °C), the reduced F V/ F M recovered close to initial levels in all coral species, but the reduced D1 content recovered only in one coral species ( Pavona decussata). D1 content was therefore not strongly linked to chloroplast protein synthesis-dependent PSII repair. These results demonstrate that the recovery of photodamaged PSII does not always correspond with the recovery of D1 protein content in Symbiodinium within corals, suggesting that photodamaged PSII can be repaired by a unique mechanism in Symbiodinium within corals.

  1. Sites in human nuclei where damage induced by ultraviolet light is repaired: localization relative to transcription sites and concentrations of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the tumour suppressor protein, p53.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D A; Hassan, A B; Errington, R J; Cook, P R

    1994-07-01

    The repair of damage induced in DNA by ultraviolet light involves excision of the damaged sequence and synthesis of new DNA to repair the gap. Sites of such repair synthesis were visualized by incubating permeabilized HeLa or MRC-5 cells with the DNA precursor, biotin-dUTP, in a physiological buffer; then incorporated biotin was immunolabeled with fluorescent antibodies. Repair did not take place at sites that reflected the DNA distribution; rather, sites were focally concentrated in a complex pattern. This pattern changed with time; initially intense repair took place at transcriptionally active sites but when transcription became inhibited it continued at sites with little transcription. Repair synthesis in vitro also occurred in the absence of transcription. Repair sites generally contained a high concentration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen but not the tumour-suppressor protein, p53.

  2. Binding of mismatch repair protein MutS to mispaired DNA adducts of intercalating ruthenium(II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Castellano-Castillo, Maria; Kostrhunova, Hana; Marini, Victoria; Kasparkova, Jana; Sadler, Peter J; Malinge, Jean-Marc; Brabec, Viktor

    2008-08-01

    The present study was performed to examine the affinity of Escherichia coli mismatch repair (MMR) protein MutS for DNA damaged by an intercalating compound. We examined the binding properties of this protein with various DNA substrates containing a single centrally located adduct of ruthenium(II) arene complexes [(eta(6)-arene)Ru(II)(en)Cl][PF(6)] [arene is tetrahydroanthracene (THA) or p-cymene (CYM); en is ethylenediamine]. These two complexes were chosen as representatives of two different classes of monofunctional ruthenium(II) arene compounds which differ in DNA-binding modes: one that involves combined coordination to G N7 along with noncovalent, hydrophobic interactions, such as partial arene intercalation (tricyclic-ring Ru-THA), and the other that binds to DNA only via coordination to G N7 and does not interact with double-helical DNA by intercalation (monoring Ru-CYM). Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we examined the binding properties of MutS protein with various DNA duplexes (homoduplexes or mismatched duplexes) containing a single centrally located adduct of ruthenium(II) arene compounds. We have shown that presence of the ruthenium(II) arene adducts decreases the affinity of MutS for ruthenated DNA duplexes that either have a regular sequence or contain a mismatch and that intercalation of the arene contributes considerably to this inhibitory effect. Since MutS initiates MMR by recognizing DNA lesions, the results of the present work support the view that DNA damage due to intercalation is removed from DNA by a mechanism(s) other than MMR.

  3. Ozone-induced alterations of lamellar body lipid and protein during alveolar injury and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.A.; Paciga, J.E.; Paterson, J.F.; Balis, J.U. )

    1989-09-01

    Alveolar Type II cells in the rat respond to severe, acute ozone injury (3 ppm ozone for eight hours) by increasing their intracellular pool of surfactant; however, the newly stored surfactant is abnormal in composition. Lamellar bodies isolated between 24 and 96 hours after ozone exposure contained significantly more cholesterol in relation to phosphatidylcholine than did controls. By contrast, the cholesterol content of surfactant isolated from alveolar lavage remained unchanged throughout an 8-day post-ozone period. The total protein content of lamellar bodies in relation to phosphatidylcholine was significantly decreased at 24 and 48 hours post-ozone. Analysis of lamellar body proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the amount of a 14 kDa proteolipid was greatly reduced at the end of the eight-hour ozone exposure and remained low for at least 48 hours. This proteolipid appeared to be a specific lamellar body component since it was not detected in extracellular surfactant. The findings indicate that oxidative alveolar stress initiates characteristic alterations in both lipid and protein constituents of stored surfactant, without perturbation in the composition of extracellular surfactant.

  4. Loss of Tau protein affects the structure, transcription and repair of neuronal pericentromeric heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Mansuroglu, Zeyni; Benhelli-Mokrani, Houda; Marcato, Vasco; Sultan, Audrey; Violet, Marie; Chauderlier, Alban; Delattre, Lucie; Loyens, Anne; Talahari, Smail; Bégard, Séverine; Nesslany, Fabrice; Colin, Morvane; Souès, Sylvie; Lefebvre, Bruno; Buée, Luc; Galas, Marie-Christine; Bonnefoy, Eliette

    2016-01-01

    Pericentromeric heterochromatin (PCH) gives rise to highly dense chromatin sub-structures rich in the epigenetic mark corresponding to the trimethylated form of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3) and in heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), which regulate genome expression and stability. We demonstrate that Tau, a protein involved in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), binds to and localizes within or next to neuronal PCH in primary neuronal cultures from wild-type mice. Concomitantly, we show that the clustered distribution of H3K9me3 and HP1α, two hallmarks of PCH, is disrupted in neurons from Tau-deficient mice (KOTau). Such altered distribution of H3K9me3 that could be rescued by overexpressing nuclear Tau protein was also observed in neurons from AD brains. Moreover, the expression of PCH non-coding RNAs, involved in PCH organization, was disrupted in KOTau neurons that displayed an abnormal accumulation of stress-induced PCH DNA breaks. Altogether, our results demonstrate a new physiological function of Tau in directly regulating neuronal PCH integrity that appears disrupted in AD neurons. PMID:27605042

  5. Loss of Tau protein affects the structure, transcription and repair of neuronal pericentromeric heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Mansuroglu, Zeyni; Benhelli-Mokrani, Houda; Marcato, Vasco; Sultan, Audrey; Violet, Marie; Chauderlier, Alban; Delattre, Lucie; Loyens, Anne; Talahari, Smail; Bégard, Séverine; Nesslany, Fabrice; Colin, Morvane; Souès, Sylvie; Lefebvre, Bruno; Buée, Luc; Galas, Marie-Christine; Bonnefoy, Eliette

    2016-01-01

    Pericentromeric heterochromatin (PCH) gives rise to highly dense chromatin sub-structures rich in the epigenetic mark corresponding to the trimethylated form of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3) and in heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), which regulate genome expression and stability. We demonstrate that Tau, a protein involved in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), binds to and localizes within or next to neuronal PCH in primary neuronal cultures from wild-type mice. Concomitantly, we show that the clustered distribution of H3K9me3 and HP1α, two hallmarks of PCH, is disrupted in neurons from Tau-deficient mice (KOTau). Such altered distribution of H3K9me3 that could be rescued by overexpressing nuclear Tau protein was also observed in neurons from AD brains. Moreover, the expression of PCH non-coding RNAs, involved in PCH organization, was disrupted in KOTau neurons that displayed an abnormal accumulation of stress-induced PCH DNA breaks. Altogether, our results demonstrate a new physiological function of Tau in directly regulating neuronal PCH integrity that appears disrupted in AD neurons. PMID:27605042

  6. Anhydrobiosis vs. aging: comparative genomics of protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferases in the sleeping chironomid. .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Kikawada, Takahiro; Shagimardanova, Elena; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ayupov, Rustam

    Origin of anhydrobiosis in the larvae of the sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki represents unique example of set of evolutionary events in a single species, resulted in acquiring new ability allowing survival in extremely changeable environment. Complex comparative analysis of the genome of P. vanderplanki resulted in discovery of a set of features, including existence of the set of unique clusters of genes contributing in desiccation resistance. Surprisingly, in several cases, the genes mainly contributing to the formation of the molecular shield in the larvae are sleeping chironomid-specific and have no homology with genes from other insects, including P. nubifer - a chironomid from the same genus. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) acts on proteins that have been non-enzymatically damaged due to age, and partially restores aspartic residues, extending life of the polypeptides. PIMT a highly conserved enzyme present in nearly all eukaryotes, and microorganisms mostly in a single copy (or in a few isoforms in certain plants and some bacteria). While conducting a comparative analysis of the genomes of two chironomid midge species different in their ability to stand complete water loss, we have noticed that structure and number of PIMT-coding genes in the desiccation resistant (anhydrobiotic) midge (Polypedilum vanderplanki, Pv) is different from those of the common desiccation-sensitive midge (Polypedilum nubifer, Pn) and the rest of insects. Both species have a clear orthologous PIMT shared by all insects. At the same time, in contrast to Pn which has only one PIMT gene (PnPimt-1), the Pv genome contains 12 additional genes paralogous to Pimt1 (PvPimt-2-12) presumably coding functional PIMT proteins, which are arranged in a single cluster. Remarkably, PvPimt-1 location in the Pv is different from the rest of Pimt-like genes. PvPimt-1 gene is ubiquitously expressed during the life cycle, but expression of the PvPimt2-12 is limited to the eggs

  7. The C-terminal Domain (CTD) of Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Is Required for Forming BERosome Repair Complex with DNA Replication Proteins at the Replicating Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Pavana M.; Dutta, Arijit; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Joy; Adhikari, Sanjay; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Li, Guo-Min; Boldogh, Istvan; Hazra, Tapas K.; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L.

    2015-01-01

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 was recently demonstrated to initiate prereplicative base excision repair (BER) of oxidized bases in the replicating genome, thus preventing mutagenic replication. A significant fraction of NEIL1 in cells is present in large cellular complexes containing DNA replication and other repair proteins, as shown by gel filtration. However, how the interaction of NEIL1 affects its recruitment to the replication site for prereplicative repair was not investigated. Here, we show that NEIL1 binarily interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamp loader replication factor C, DNA polymerase δ, and DNA ligase I in the absence of DNA via its non-conserved C-terminal domain (CTD); replication factor C interaction results in ∼8-fold stimulation of NEIL1 activity. Disruption of NEIL1 interactions within the BERosome complex, as observed for a NEIL1 deletion mutant (N311) lacking the CTD, not only inhibits complete BER in vitro but also prevents its chromatin association and reduced recruitment at replication foci in S phase cells. This suggests that the interaction of NEIL1 with replication and other BER proteins is required for efficient repair of the replicating genome. Consistently, the CTD polypeptide acts as a dominant negative inhibitor during in vitro repair, and its ectopic expression sensitizes human cells to reactive oxygen species. We conclude that multiple interactions among BER proteins lead to large complexes, which are critical for efficient BER in mammalian cells, and the CTD interaction could be targeted for enhancing drug/radiation sensitivity of tumor cells. PMID:26134572

  8. Dynamics and Cell-Type Specificity of the DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Protein RecN in the Developmental Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng; Wang, Jinglan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Chen, Wen-Li

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication and repair are two fundamental processes required in life proliferation and cellular defense and some common proteins are involved in both processes. The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is capable of forming heterocysts for N2 fixation in the absence of a combined-nitrogen source. This developmental process is intimately linked to cell cycle control. In this study, we investigated the localization of the DNA double-strand break repair protein RecN during key cellular events, such as chromosome damaging, cell division, and heterocyst differentiation. Treatment by a drug causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced reorganization of the RecN focus preferentially towards the mid-cell position. RecN-GFP was absent in most mature heterocysts. Furthermore, our results showed that HetR, a central player in heterocyst development, was involved in the proper positioning and distribution of RecN-GFP. These results showed the dynamics of RecN in DSB repair and suggested a differential regulation of DNA DSB repair in vegetative cell and heterocysts. The absence of RecN in mature heterocysts is compatible with the terminal nature of these cells.

  9. Dynamics and Cell-Type Specificity of the DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Protein RecN in the Developmental Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sheng; Wang, Jinglan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Chen, Wen-Li

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication and repair are two fundamental processes required in life proliferation and cellular defense and some common proteins are involved in both processes. The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is capable of forming heterocysts for N2 fixation in the absence of a combined-nitrogen source. This developmental process is intimately linked to cell cycle control. In this study, we investigated the localization of the DNA double-strand break repair protein RecN during key cellular events, such as chromosome damaging, cell division, and heterocyst differentiation. Treatment by a drug causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced reorganization of the RecN focus preferentially towards the mid-cell position. RecN-GFP was absent in most mature heterocysts. Furthermore, our results showed that HetR, a central player in heterocyst development, was involved in the proper positioning and distribution of RecN-GFP. These results showed the dynamics of RecN in DSB repair and suggested a differential regulation of DNA DSB repair in vegetative cell and heterocysts. The absence of RecN in mature heterocysts is compatible with the terminal nature of these cells. PMID:26431054

  10. Dynamics and Cell-Type Specificity of the DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Protein RecN in the Developmental Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng; Wang, Jinglan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Chen, Wen-Li

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication and repair are two fundamental processes required in life proliferation and cellular defense and some common proteins are involved in both processes. The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is capable of forming heterocysts for N2 fixation in the absence of a combined-nitrogen source. This developmental process is intimately linked to cell cycle control. In this study, we investigated the localization of the DNA double-strand break repair protein RecN during key cellular events, such as chromosome damaging, cell division, and heterocyst differentiation. Treatment by a drug causing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced reorganization of the RecN focus preferentially towards the mid-cell position. RecN-GFP was absent in most mature heterocysts. Furthermore, our results showed that HetR, a central player in heterocyst development, was involved in the proper positioning and distribution of RecN-GFP. These results showed the dynamics of RecN in DSB repair and suggested a differential regulation of DNA DSB repair in vegetative cell and heterocysts. The absence of RecN in mature heterocysts is compatible with the terminal nature of these cells. PMID:26431054

  11. A High-Throughput Screening Strategy to Identify Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors That Block the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway.

    PubMed

    Voter, Andrew F; Manthei, Kelly A; Keck, James L

    2016-07-01

    Induction of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway is a common mechanism by which tumors evolve resistance to DNA crosslinking chemotherapies. Proper execution of the FA pathway requires interaction between the FA complementation group M protein (FANCM) and the RecQ-mediated genome instability protein (RMI) complex, and mutations that disrupt FANCM/RMI interactions sensitize cells to DNA crosslinking agents. Inhibitors that block FANCM/RMI complex formation could be useful therapeutics for resensitizing tumors that have acquired chemotherapeutic resistance. To identify such inhibitors, we have developed and validated high-throughput fluorescence polarization and proximity assays that are sensitive to inhibitors that disrupt interactions between the RMI complex and its binding site on FANCM (a peptide referred to as MM2). A pilot screen of 74,807 small molecules was performed using the fluorescence polarization assay. Hits from the primary screen were further tested using the proximity assay, and an orthogonal proximity assay was used to assess inhibitor selectivity. Direct physical interaction between the RMI complex and the most selective inhibitor identified through the screening process was measured by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. Observation of direct binding by this small molecule validates the screening protocol.

  12. Upregulation of microRNA-370 facilitates the repair of amputated fingers through targeting forkhead box protein O1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxing; Sun, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is critical to the success of digital replantation. Recent study suggests an important regulatory role of microRNA-370 (miR-370) in ischemia–reperfusion injury. However, its function in digital replantation is poorly understood. In this study, we reported that the expression of miR-370 was upregulated in replantation tissues. miR-370 mimic transfection promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation by regulating the cell cycle and inhibited apoptosis. miR-370 mimic transfection also significantly increased HUVECs migration and induced the formation of capillary-like structures in HUVECs, indicated that miR-370 promoted capillary tube formation in vitro. Furthermore, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) was identified as the functional target of miR-370 by dual-luciferase reporter assay. FOXO1 overexpression vector lacked 3′-UTR together with miR-370 mimic transfection strongly abrogated miR-370-induced cell proliferation and the formation of capillary-like structures in HUVECs. Taken together, our results revealed that the upregulation of miR-370 might facilitate the repair of amputated fingers by regulating angiogenesis through targeting FOXO1. This study provided a potential therapeutic target for the restoration of finger function after replantation. PMID:26316586

  13. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro . E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Migita, Makoto; Hanawa, Hideki; Ito, Hiromoto; Orimo, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

  14. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein acts to regulate the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on rice DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changxun; Chen, Weisi; Li, Chengxun; Jian, Xin; Li, Yingzhe; Lin, Hongmei; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    UVB radiation causes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) to form on the DNA of living organisms. This study found that overexpression of the silicon absorbance gene Lsi1 reduced the accumulation of CPDs in rice, which profited from the reactivation by photolyase. The transcript abundance of deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase (Os10g0167600) was generally correlated with the silicon content of the rice, and the up-regulation of Os10g0167600 was found to be highest in the UVB-treated Lsi1-overexpressed (Lsi1-OX) rice. A trans-acting factor, methyl-CpG binding domain protein (OsMeCP), was found to interact with the cis-element of Os10g0167600. The nucleic location of OsMeCP effectively enabled the transcriptional regulation. Compared with the WT, the level of OsMeCP was lower in the Lsi1-OX rice but higher in the Lsi1-RNAi line. Rice cultured in a high silicate-concentration solution also exhibited less OsMeCP abundance. Overexpression of OsMeCP led to lower Os10g0167600 transcript levels and a higher CPD content than in the WT, but the reverse was true in the OsMeCP-RNAi line. These findings indicate that OsMeCP acts as a negative regulator of silicon, and can mediate the repression of the transcription from Os10g0167600, which inhibits the photoreactivation of the photolyase involved in the repair of CPDs. PMID:27694845

  15. Minor changes in expression of the mismatch repair protein MSH2 exert a major impact on glioblastoma response to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    McFaline-Figueroa, José L.; Braun, Christian J.; Stanciu, Monica; Nagel, Zachary D.; Mazzucato, Patrizia; Sangaraju, Dewakar; Cerniauskas, Edvinas; Barford, Kelly; Vargas, Amanda; Chen, Yimin; Tretyakova, Natalia; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Hemann, Michael T.; White, Forest M.; Samson, Leona D.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is often treated with the cytotoxic drug temozolomide (TMZ) but the disease inevitably recurs in a drug-resistant form after initial treatment. Here we report that in GBM cells even a modest decrease in the mismatch repair (MMR) components MSH2 and MSH6 have profound effects on TMZ sensitivity. RNAi-mediated attenuation of MSH2 and MSH6 showed that such modest decreases provided an unexpectedly strong mechanism of TMZ resistance. In a mouse xenograft model of human GBM, small changes in MSH2 were sufficient to suppress TMZ-induced tumor regression. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas to analyze mRNA expression patterns in tumors from TMZ-treated GBM patients, we found that MSH2 transcripts in primary GBM could predict patient responses to initial TMZ therapy. In recurrent disease, the absence of microsatellite instability (the standard marker for MMR deficiency) suggests a lack of involvement of MMR in the resistant phenotype of recurrent disease. However, more recent studies reveal that decreased MMR protein levels occur often in recurrent GBM. In accordance with our findings, these reported decreases may constitute a mechanism by which GBM evades TMZ sensitivity while maintaining microsatellite stability. Overall, our results highlight the powerful effects of MSH2 attenuation as a potent mediator of TMZ resistance, and argue that MMR activity offers a predictive marker for initial therapeutic response to TMZ treatment. PMID:26025730

  16. Very short patch repair of T:G mismatches in vivo: importance of context and accessory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, M; Rehmat, S

    1995-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, T:G mismatches in specific contexts are corrected by a very short patch (VSP) repair system. Previous studies have shown that the product of gene vsr mediates correction of T:G to C:G in the 5'CTAGG/3'GGTCC context and in some related contexts. Amber mutations that arose in CAG sequences in gene cI of bacteriophage lambda were used to determine the effect of flanking bases on the repair of T:G mispairs arising during phage recombination. The experimental findings were combined with published data on mismatch repair of mutations in lambda gene P and E. coli gene lacI. While VSP repair was most efficient in the context 5'CTAGG, there was very significant correction when either the 5'C or the 3' G was replaced by another base. Some mismatch repair of TAG to CAG occurred in all contexts tested. Reduction in VSP repair caused by the lack of MutL or MutS was fully complemented by the addition of vsr+ plasmids when the T:G mispair was in the 5'CTAGG/3'GGTCC context. VSP repair was decreased in bacteria containing mutS+ on a multicopy plasmid. It is suggested that VSP repair maintains sequences such as the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) and Chi sequences, which have important roles in E. coli and closely related bacteria. PMID:7836300

  17. Post-transcriptional Repair of a Split Heat Shock Protein 90 Gene by mRNA trans-Splicing*♦

    PubMed Central

    Nageshan, Rishi Kumar; Roy, Nainita; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tatu, Utpal

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 participates in diverse biological processes ranging from protein folding, cell cycle, signal transduction and development to evolution in all eukaryotes. It is also critically involved in regulating growth of protozoa such as Dictyostelium discoideum, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Trypanosoma evansi. Selective inhibition of Hsp90 has also been explored as an intervention strategy against important human diseases such as cancer, malaria, or trypanosomiasis. Giardia lamblia, a simple protozoan parasite of humans and animals, is an important cause of diarrheal disease with significant morbidity and some mortality in tropical countries. Here we show that the G. lamblia cytosolic hsp90 (glhsp90) is split in two similar sized fragments located 777 kb apart on the same scaffold. Intrigued by this unique arrangement, which appears to be specific for the Giardiinae, we have investigated the biosynthesis of GlHsp90. We used genome sequencing to confirm the split nature of the giardial hsp90. However, a specific antibody raised against the peptide detected a product with a mass of about 80 kDa, suggesting a post-transcriptional rescue of the genomic defect. We show evidence for the joining of the two independent Hsp90 transcripts in-trans to one long mature mRNA presumably by RNA splicing. The splicing junction carries hallmarks of classical cis-spliced introns, suggesting that the regular cis-splicing machinery may be sufficient for repair of the open reading frame. A complementary 26-nt sequence in the “intron” regions adjacent to the splice sites may assist in positioning the two pre-mRNAs for processing. This is the first example of post-transcriptional rescue of a split gene by trans-splicing. PMID:21209094

  18. Post-transcriptional repair of a split heat shock protein 90 gene by mRNA trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Nageshan, Rishi Kumar; Roy, Nainita; Hehl, Adrian B; Tatu, Utpal

    2011-03-01

    Heat shock protein 90 participates in diverse biological processes ranging from protein folding, cell cycle, signal transduction and development to evolution in all eukaryotes. It is also critically involved in regulating growth of protozoa such as Dictyostelium discoideum, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Trypanosoma evansi. Selective inhibition of Hsp90 has also been explored as an intervention strategy against important human diseases such as cancer, malaria, or trypanosomiasis. Giardia lamblia, a simple protozoan parasite of humans and animals, is an important cause of diarrheal disease with significant morbidity and some mortality in tropical countries. Here we show that the G. lamblia cytosolic hsp90 (glhsp90) is split in two similar sized fragments located 777 kb apart on the same scaffold. Intrigued by this unique arrangement, which appears to be specific for the Giardiinae, we have investigated the biosynthesis of GlHsp90. We used genome sequencing to confirm the split nature of the giardial hsp90. However, a specific antibody raised against the peptide detected a product with a mass of about 80 kDa, suggesting a post-transcriptional rescue of the genomic defect. We show evidence for the joining of the two independent Hsp90 transcripts in-trans to one long mature mRNA presumably by RNA splicing. The splicing junction carries hallmarks of classical cis-spliced introns, suggesting that the regular cis-splicing machinery may be sufficient for repair of the open reading frame. A complementary 26-nt sequence in the "intron" regions adjacent to the splice sites may assist in positioning the two pre-mRNAs for processing. This is the first example of post-transcriptional rescue of a split gene by trans-splicing. PMID:21209094

  19. Pharmacogenetic Study in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Polymorphisms in Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, GSTP1, and DNA Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, David; Salazar, Juliana; Pare, Laia; Pertriz, Lourdes; Targarona, Eduardo; Rio, Elisabeth del; Barnadas, Agusti; Marcuello, Eugenio; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several studies have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment using oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative biomarkers of outcome are lacking. We studied the polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase, epidermal growth factor receptor, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and several DNA repair genes to evaluate their usefulness as pharmacogenetic markers in a cohort of 128 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood nucleated cells, and the genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and automated sequencing techniques or using a 48.48 dynamic array on the BioMark system. The germline polymorphisms studied were thymidylate synthase, (VNTR/5 Prime UTR, 2R G>C single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], 3R G>C SNP), epidermal growth factor receptor (Arg497Lys), GSTP1 (Ile105val), excision repair cross-complementing 1 (Asn118Asn, 8092C>A, 19716G>C), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (Lys751Gln). The pathologic response, pathologic regression, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated according to each genotype. Results: The Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 thymidylate synthase genotype was associated with a greater response rate (pathologic complete remission and microfoci residual tumor, 59% in Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 vs. 35% in Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 3; p = .013). For the thymidylate synthase genotype, the median progression-free survival was 103 months for the Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 patients and 84 months for the Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk

  20. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 and DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Have Equivalent Roles in Double Strand Break Repair Following Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jody; Smith, Graeme; Curtin, Nicola J.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are predominantly repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), involving DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), well characterized for its role in single strand break repair, may also facilitate DSB repair. We investigated the activation of these enzymes by differing DNA ends and their interaction in the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). Methods and Materials: The effect of PARP and DNA-PK inhibitors (KU-0058684 and NU7441) on repair of IR-induced DSBs was investigated in DNA-PK and PARP-1 proficient and deficient cells by measuring gammaH2AX foci and neutral comets. Complementary in vitro enzyme kinetics assays demonstrated the affinities of DNA-PK and PARP-1 for DSBs with varying DNA termini. Results: DNA-PK and PARP-1 both promoted the fast phase of resolution of IR-induced DSBs in cells. Inactivation of both enzymes was not additive, suggesting that PARP-1 and DNA-PK cooperate within the same pathway to promote DSB repair. The affinities of the two enzymes for oligonucleotides with blunt, 3' GGG or 5' GGG overhanging termini were similar and overlapping (K{sub dapp} = 2.6-6.4nM for DNA-PK; 1.7-4.5nM for PARP-1). DNA-PK showed a slightly greater affinity for overhanging DNA and was significantly more efficient when activated by a 5' GGG overhang. PARP-1 had a preference for blunt-ended DNA and required a separate factor for efficient stimulation by a 5' GGG overhang. Conclusion: DNA-PK and PARP-1 are both required in a pathway facilitating the fast phase of DNA DSB repair.

  1. The RSF1 Histone-Remodelling Factor Facilitates DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Recruiting Centromeric and Fanconi Anaemia Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pessina, Fabio; Lowndes, Noel F.

    2014-01-01

    ATM is a central regulator of the cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we identify a biochemical interaction between ATM and RSF1 and we characterise the role of RSF1 in this response. The ATM–RSF1 interaction is dependent upon both DSBs and ATM kinase activity. Together with SNF2H/SMARCA5, RSF1 forms the RSF chromatin-remodelling complex. Although RSF1 is specific to the RSF complex, SNF2H/SMARCA5 is a catalytic subunit of several other chromatin-remodelling complexes. Although not required for checkpoint signalling, RSF1 is required for efficient repair of DSBs via both end-joining and homology-directed repair. Specifically, the ATM-dependent recruitment to sites of DSBs of the histone fold proteins CENPS/MHF1 and CENPX/MHF2, previously identified at centromeres, is RSF1-dependent. In turn these proteins recruit and regulate the mono-ubiquitination of the Fanconi Anaemia proteins FANCD2 and FANCI. We propose that by depositing CENPS/MHF1 and CENPX/MHF2, the RSF complex either directly or indirectly contributes to the reorganisation of chromatin around DSBs that is required for efficient DNA repair. PMID:24800743

  2. Loss of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase in DNA double-strand-break-repair mutant mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S R; Kurimasa, A; Oshimura, M; Dynan, W S; Bradbury, E M; Chen, D J

    1995-04-11

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of three polypeptide components: Ku-70, Ku-80, and an approximately 350-kDa catalytic subunit (p350). The gene encoding the Ku-80 subunit is identical to the x-ray-sensitive group 5 complementing gene XRCC5. Expression of the Ku-80 cDNA rescues both DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination in group 5 mutant cells. The involvement of Ku-80 in these processes suggests that the underlying defect in these mutant cells may be disruption of the DNA-PK holoenzyme. In this report we show that the p350 kinase subunit is deleted in cells derived from the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse and in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line V-3, both of which are defective in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. A centromeric fragment of human chromosome 8 that complements the scid defect also restores p350 protein expression and rescues in vitro DNA-PK activity. These data suggest the scid gene may encode the p350 protein or regulate its expression and are consistent with a model whereby DNA-PK is a critical component of the DSB-repair pathway.

  3. Loss of the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase in DNA double-strand-break-repair mutant mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R. |; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Dynan, W.S.; Bradbury, E.M. |; Chen, D.J.

    1995-04-11

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of three polypeptide components: Ku-70, Ku-80, and an {approx}350-kDa catalytic subunit (p350). The gene encoding the Ku-80 subunit is identical to the x-ray-sensitive group 5 complementing gene XRCC5. Expression of the Ku-80 cDNA rescues both DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination in group 5 mutant cells. The involvement of Ku-80 in these processes suggests that the underlying defect in these mutant cells may be disruption of the DNA-PK holoenzyme. In this report we show that the p350 kinase subunit is deleted in cells derived from the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse and in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line V-3, both of which are defective in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. A centromeric fragment of human chromosome 8 that complements the scid defect also restores p350 protein expression and rescues in vitro DNA-PK activity. These data suggest the scid gene may encode the p350 protein or regulate its expression and are consistent with a model whereby DNA-PK is a critical component of the DSB-repair pathway. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  4. XRCC4 and XLF form long helical protein filaments suitable for DNA end protection and alignment to facilitate DNA double strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Mahaney, Brandi L.; Hammel, Michal; Meek, Katheryn; Tainer, John A.; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by ionizing radiation (IR) and endogenous stress including replication failure, are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage. In human cells, most IR-induced DSBs are repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. One of the most critical steps in NHEJ is ligation of DNA ends by DNA ligase IV (LIG4), which interacts with, and is stabilized by, the scaffolding protein X-ray cross-complementing gene 4 (XRCC4). XRCC4 also interacts with XRCC4-like factor (XLF, also called Cernunnos); yet, XLF has been one of the least mechanistically understood proteins and precisely how XLF functions in NHEJ has been enigmatic. Here, we examine current combined structural and mutational findings that uncover integrated functions of XRCC4 and XLF and reveal their interactions to form long, helical protein filaments suitable to protect and align DSB ends. XLF-XRCC4 provides a global structural scaffold for ligating DSBs without requiring long complementary DNA ends, thus ensuring accurate and efficient ligation and repair. The assembly of these XRCC4-XLF filaments, providing both DNA end protection and alignment, may commit cells to NHEJ with general biological implications for NHEJ and DSB repair processes and their links to cancer predispositions and interventions. PMID:23442139

  5. Recombinational DNA repair: the RecF and RecR proteins limit the extension of RecA filaments beyond single-strand DNA gaps.

    PubMed

    Webb, B L; Cox, M M; Inman, R B

    1997-10-31

    In the presence of both the RecF and RecR proteins, RecA filament extension from a single strand gap into adjoining duplex DNA is attenuated. RecR protein alone has no effect, and RecF protein alone has a reduced activity. The RecFR complexes bind randomly, primarily to the duplex regions of the DNA, and the extension of the RecA filament is halted at the first complex encountered. A very slow lengthening of RecA filaments observed in the presence of RecFR is virtually eliminated when RecF is replaced with an RecF mutant protein that does not hydrolyze ATP. These observations are incorporated into an expanded model for the functions of RecF, RecO, and RecR proteins in the early stages of postreplication DNA repair. PMID:9363943

  6. Replication Protein A: Single-stranded DNA's first responder : Dynamic DNA-interactions allow Replication Protein A to direct single-strand DNA intermediates into different pathways for synthesis or repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ran; Wold, Marc S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Replication Protein A (RPA), the major single-stranded DNA-binding protein in eukaryotic cells, is required for processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates found in replication, repair and recombination. Recent studies have shown that RPA binding to ssDNA is highly dynamic and that more than high-affinity binding is needed for function. Analysis of DNA binding mutants identified forms of RPA with reduced affinity for ssDNA that are fully active, and other mutants with higher affinity that are inactive. Single molecule studies showed that while RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, the RPA complex can rapidly diffuse along ssDNA and be displaced by other proteins that act on ssDNA. Finally, dynamic DNA binding allows RPA to prevent error-prone repair of double-stranded breaks and promote error-free repair. Together, these findings suggest a new paradigm where RPA acts as a first responder at sites with ssDNA, thereby actively coordinating DNA repair and DNA synthesis. PMID:25171654

  7. Reduced expression of DNA repair and redox signaling protein APE1/Ref-1 impairs human pancreatic cancer cell survival, proliferation, and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanlin; Zhou, Shaoyu; Sandusky, George E; Kelley, Mark R; Fishel, Melissa L

    2010-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that is virtually never cured. Understanding the chemoresistance intrinsic to this cancer will aid in developing new regimens. High expression of APE1/Ref-1, a DNA repair and redox signaling protein, is associated with resistance, poor outcome, and angiogenesis; little is known in pancreatic cancer. Immunostaining of adenocarcinoma shows greater APE1/Ref-1 expression than in normal pancreas tissue. A decrease in APE1/Ref-1 protein levels results in pancreatic cancer cell growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, and altered cell cycle progression. Endogenous cell cycle inhibitors increase when APE1/ Ref-1 is reduced, demonstrating its importance to proliferation and growth of pancreatic cancer.

  8. An integrated molecular analysis of lung adenocarcinomas identifies potential therapeutic targets among TTF1-negative tumors including DNA repair proteins and Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Cardnell, Robert J.G.; Behrens, Carmen; Diao, Lixia; Fan, YouHong; Tang, Ximing; Tong, Pan; John D., Minna; Mills, Gordon B.; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Wang, Jing; Byers., Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used clinically to differentiate primary lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD) from squamous lung cancers and metastatic adenocarcinomas from other primary sites. However, a subset of LUAD (15-20%) does not express TTF1 and TTF1-negative patients have worse clinical outcomes. As there are no established targeted agents with activity in TTF1-negative LUAD, we performed an integrated molecular analysis to identify potential therapeutic targets. Experimental Design Using two clinical LUAD cohorts (274 tumors), one from our institution (PROSPECT) and the TCGA, we interrogated proteomic profiles (by reverse-phase protein array (RPPA)), gene expression, and mutational data. Drug response data from 74 cell lines were used to validate potential therapeutic agents. Results Strong correlations were observed between TTF1 IHC and TTF1 measurements by RPPA (Rho=0.57, p<0.001) and gene expression (NKX2-1, Rho=0.61, p<0.001). Established driver mutations (e.g. BRAF and EGFR) were associated with high TTF1 expression. In contrast, TTF1-negative LUAD had a higher frequency of inactivating KEAP1 mutations (p=0.001). Proteomic profiling identified increased expression of DNA repair proteins (e.g., Chk1 and the DNA repair score) and suppressed PI3K/MAPK signaling among TTF1-negative tumors, with differences in total proteins confirmed at the mRNA level. Cell line analysis showed drugs targeting DNA repair to be more active in TTF1-low cell lines. Conclusions Combined genomic and proteomic analyses demonstrated infrequent alteration of validated lung cancer targets (including the absence of BRAF mutations in TTF1-negative LUAD), but identified novel potential targets for TTF1-negative LUAD includingKEAP1/Nrf2 and DNA repair pathways. PMID:25878335

  9. Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Tissue Repair: How a Unique Domain with a Common Structure Controls Diverse Aspects of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani-Alvarez, Lorena; Midwood, Kim S.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Fibrinogen-related proteins (FRePs) comprise an intriguing collection of extracellular molecules, each containing a conserved fibrinogen-like globe (FBG). This group includes the eponymous fibrinogen as well as the tenascin, angiopoietin, and ficolin families. Many of these proteins are upregulated during tissue repair and exhibit diverse roles during wound healing. Recent Advances: An increasing body of evidence highlights the specific expression of a number of FRePs following tissue injury and infection. Upon induction, each FReP uses its FBG domain to mediate quite distinct effects that contribute to different stages of tissue repair, such as driving coagulation, pathogen detection, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Critical Issues: Despite a high degree of homology among FRePs, each contains unique sequences that enable their diversification of function. Comparative analysis of the structure and function of FRePs and precise mapping of regions that interact with a variety of ligands has started to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these proteins play very different roles using their common domain. Future Directions: Fibrinogen has long been used in the clinic as a synthetic matrix serving as a scaffold or a delivery system to aid tissue repair. Novel therapeutic strategies are now emerging that harness the use of other FRePs to improve wound healing outcomes. As we learn more about the underlying mechanisms by which each FReP contributes to the repair response, specific blockade, or indeed potentiation, of their function offers real potential to enable regulation of distinct processes during pathological wound healing. PMID:26005593

  10. Photosystem II Repair and Plant Immunity: Lessons Learned from Arabidopsis Mutant Lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3.

    PubMed

    Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415-425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light.

  11. 3K3A-activated protein C stimulates postischemic neuronal repair by human neural stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhen; Rege, Sanket V; Wang, Min; Si, Gabriel; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Su; Griffin, John H; Goldman, Steven A; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2016-09-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a blood protease with anticoagulant activity and cell-signaling activities mediated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (F2R, also known as PAR1) and F2RL1 (also known as PAR3) via noncanonical cleavage. Recombinant variants of APC, such as the 3K3A-APC (Lys191-193Ala) mutant in which three Lys residues (KKK191-193) were replaced with alanine, and/or its other mutants with reduced (>90%) anticoagulant activity, engineered to reduce APC-associated bleeding risk while retaining normal cell-signaling activity, have shown benefits in preclinical models of ischemic stroke, brain trauma, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sepsis, ischemic and reperfusion injury of heart, kidney and liver, pulmonary, kidney and gastrointestinal inflammation, diabetes and lethal body radiation. On the basis of proof-of-concept studies and an excellent safety profile in humans, 3K3A-APC has advanced to clinical trials as a neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke. Recently, 3K3A-APC has been shown to stimulate neuronal production by human neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in vitro via a PAR1-PAR3-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor 1-Akt pathway, which suggests the potential for APC-based treatment as a strategy for structural repair in the human central nervous (CNS) system. Here we report that late postischemic treatment of mice with 3K3A-APC stimulates neuronal production by transplanted human NSCs, promotes circuit restoration and improves functional recovery. Thus, 3K3A-APC-potentiated neuronal recruitment from engrafted NSCs might offer a new approach to the treatment of stroke and related neurological disorders. PMID:27548576

  12. Photosystem II Repair and Plant Immunity: Lessons Learned from Arabidopsis Mutant Lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3

    PubMed Central

    Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415–425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light. PMID:27064270

  13. Reduction of DNA mismatch repair protein expression in airway epithelial cells of premenopausal women chronically exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Dutta, Anindita; Chowdhury, Saswati; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. This study examined whether chronic inhalation of biomass smoke causes change in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in the airway cells. For this, airway cells exfoliated in sputum were collected from 72 premenopausal nonsmoking rural women (median age 34 years) who cooked with biomass (wood, dung, crop residues) and 68 control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for the past 5 years or more. The levels of particulate matters with diameters less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in indoor air were measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in airway cells were measured by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Immunocytochemical assay revealed lower percentage of airway epithelial cells expressing MMR proteins mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in biomass-using women compared to LPG-using controls. Women who cooked with biomass had 6.7 times higher level of urinary t,t-MA, twofold increase in ROS generation, and 31 % depletion of SOD. Indoor air of biomass-using households had three times more particulate matters than that of controls. ROS, urinary t,t-MA, and particulate pollution in biomass-using kitchen had negative correlation, while SOD showed positive correlation with MSH2 and MLH1 expression. It appears that chronic exposure to biomass smoke reduces MMR response in airway epithelial cells, and oxidative stress plays an important role in the process.

  14. Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival Responses. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Boothman

    1999-08-11

    Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival responses (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed.

  15. Chloroacetaldehyde-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: the role of AlkB protein in repair of 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine and 3,N(4)-alpha-hydroxyethanocytosine.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Agnieszka M; Ruszel, Karol P; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Lewicka, Joanna; Sokołowska, Beata; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Kuśmierek, Jarosław T

    2010-02-01

    Etheno (epsilon) adducts are formed in reaction of DNA bases with various environmental carcinogens and endogenously created products of lipid peroxidation. Chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), a metabolite of carcinogen vinyl chloride, is routinely used to generate epsilon-adducts. We studied the role of AlkB, along with AlkA and Mug proteins, all engaged in repair of epsilon-adducts, in CAA-induced mutagenesis. The test system used involved pIF102 and pIF104 plasmids bearing the lactose operon of CC102 or CC104 origin (Cupples and Miller (1989) [17]) which allowed to monitor Lac(+) revertants, the latter arose by GC-->AT or GC-->TA substitutions, respectively, as a result of modification of guanine and cytosine. The plasmids were CAA-damaged in vitro and replicated in Escherichia coli of various genetic backgrounds. To modify the levels of AlkA and AlkB proteins, mutagenesis was studied in E. coli cells induced or not in adaptive response. Formation of varepsilonC proceeds via a relatively stable intermediate, 3,N(4)-alpha-hydroxyethanocytosine (HEC), which allowed to compare repair of both adducts. The results indicate that all three genes, alkA, alkB and microg, are engaged in alleviation of CAA-induced mutagenesis. The frequency of mutation was higher in AlkA-, AlkB- and Mug-deficient strains in comparison to alkA(+), alkB(+), and microg(+) controls. Considering the levels of CAA-induced Lac(+) revertants in strains harboring the pIF plasmids and induced or not in adaptive response, we conclude that AlkB protein is engaged in the repair of epsilonC and HEC in vivo. Using the modified TTCTT 5-mers as substrates, we confirmed in vitro that AlkB protein repairs epsilonC and HEC although far less efficiently than the reference adduct 3-methylcytosine. The pH optimum for repair of HEC and epsilonC is significantly different from that for 3-methylcytosine. We propose that the protonated form of adduct interact in active site of AlkB protein. PMID:19941873

  16. Interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and aflatoxin B1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jin-Guang; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Long, Xi-Dai

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an important environmental carcinogen and can induce DNA damage and involve in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The deficiency of DNA repair capacity related to the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes might play a central role in the process of HCC tumorigenesis. However, the interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and AFB1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether six polymorphisms (including rs25487, rs861539, rs7003908, rs28383151, rs13181, and rs2228001) in DNA repair genes (XPC, XRCC4, XRCC1, XRCC4, XPD, XRCC7, and XRCC3) interacted with AFB1, and the gene-environmental interactive role in the risk of HCC using hospital-based case-control study (including 1486 HCC cases and 1996 controls). Genotypes of DNA repair genes were tested using TaqMan-PCR technique. Higher AFB1 exposure was observed among HCC patients versus the control group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.08 for medium AFB1 exposure level and OR = 6.52 for high AFB1 exposure level]. Increasing risk of HCC was also observed in these with the mutants of DNA repair genes (risk values were from 1.57 to 5.86). Furthermore, these risk roles would be more noticeable under the conditions of two variables, and positive interactive effects were proved in the followed multiplicative interaction analysis. These results suggested that DNA repair risk genotypes might interact with AFB1 in the risk of HCC. PMID:25337275

  17. Direct and indirect roles of RECQL4 in modulating base excision repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Shepherd H; Hedayati, Mohammad; Wang, ZhengMing; Singh, Dharmendra K; Speina, Elzbieta; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin; Macris, Margaret; Sung, Patrick; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2009-09-15

    RECQL4 is a human RecQ helicase which is mutated in approximately two-thirds of individuals with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), a disease characterized at the cellular level by chromosomal instability. BLM and WRN are also human RecQ helicases, which are mutated in Bloom and Werner's syndrome, respectively, and associated with chromosomal instability as well as premature aging. Here we show that primary RTS and RECQL4 siRNA knockdown human fibroblasts accumulate more H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks than control cells, suggesting that RECQL4 may stimulate repair of H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. RTS primary fibroblasts also accumulate more XRCC1 foci than control cells in response to endogenous or induced oxidative stress and have a high basal level of endogenous formamidopyrimidines. In cells treated with H(2)O(2), RECQL4 co-localizes with APE1, and FEN1, key participants in base excision repair. Biochemical experiments indicate that RECQL4 specifically stimulates the apurinic endonuclease activity of APE1, the DNA strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase beta, and incision of a 1- or 10-nucleotide flap DNA substrate by Flap Endonuclease I. Additionally, RTS cells display an upregulation of BER pathway genes and fail to respond like normal cells to oxidative stress. The data herein support a model in which RECQL4 regulates both directly and indirectly base excision repair capacity.

  18. Human MMH (OGG1) type 1a protein is a major enzyme for repair of 8-hydroxyguanine lesions in human cells.

    PubMed

    Monden, Y; Arai, T; Asano, M; Ohtsuka, E; Aburatani, H; Nishimura, S

    1999-05-19

    8-Hydroxyguanine (8-OH-G) is the site of a frequent mutagenic lesion of DNA, produced by oxidative damage. MutM of E. coli and OGG1 of Saccharomyces cervisiae are known to possess 8-OH-G glycosylase activity and apurinic (AP) site lyase activity to repair 8-OH-G lesions. Recently, cDNA clones of human OGG1 homologues (hMMH) of four isoforms (type 1a, type 1b, type 1c, and type 2) were isolated. However, it is unknown whether expression of endogenous hMMH proteins actually occurs in mammalian cells. Here using hMMH type 1a-specific antibody and cells overexpressing tag-fused hMMH type 1a, we show the expression of hMMH type 1a protein in many types of human cells and show that endogenous hMMH type 1a protein has 8-OH-G glycosylase/AP lyase activity. Furthermore, we show that upon depletion of hMMH type 1a protein in a whole cell extract by its antibody, most of the AP lyase activity is lost, indicating that hMMH type 1a protein is a major enzyme for repair of 8-OH-G lesions in human cells. PMID:10329432

  19. Ubiquitin-specific Protease 7 Regulates Nucleotide Excision Repair through Deubiquitinating XPC Protein and Preventing XPC Protein from Undergoing Ultraviolet Light-induced and VCP/p97 Protein-regulated Proteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinshan; Zhu, Qianzheng; Wani, Gulzar; Sharma, Nidhi; Han, Chunhua; Qian, Jiang; Pentz, Kyle; Wang, Qi-en; Wani, Altaf A.

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin specific protease 7 (USP7) is a known deubiquitinating enzyme for tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream regulator, E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2. Here we report that USP7 regulates nucleotide excision repair (NER) via deubiquitinating xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein, a critical damage recognition factor that binds to helix-distorting DNA lesions and initiates NER. XPC is ubiquitinated during the early stage of NER of UV light-induced DNA lesions. We demonstrate that transiently compromising cellular USP7 by siRNA and chemical inhibition leads to accumulation of ubiquitinated forms of XPC, whereas complete USP7 deficiency leads to rapid ubiquitin-mediated XPC degradation upon UV irradiation. We show that USP7 physically interacts with XPC in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of wild-type USP7, but not its catalytically inactive or interaction-defective mutants, reduces the ubiquitinated forms of XPC. Importantly, USP7 efficiently deubiquitinates XPC-ubiquitin conjugates in deubiquitination assays in vitro. We further show that valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 is involved in UV light-induced XPC degradation in USP7-deficient cells. VCP/p97 is readily recruited to DNA damage sites and colocalizes with XPC. Chemical inhibition of the activity of VCP/p97 ATPase causes an increase in ubiquitinated XPC on DNA-damaged chromatin. Moreover, USP7 deficiency severely impairs the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and, to a lesser extent, affects the repair of 6-4 photoproducts. Taken together, our findings uncovered an important role of USP7 in regulating NER via deubiquitinating XPC and by preventing its VCP/p97-regulated proteolysis. PMID:25118285

  20. Clubfoot repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... release; Talipes equinovarus - repair; Tibialis anterior tendon transfer Images Clubfoot repair - series References Kelly DM. Congenital Anomalies ... provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  1. Tendon repair

    MedlinePlus

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  2. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E protein (XPE/DDB2): purification of various complexes of XPE and analyses of their damaged DNA binding and putative DNA repair properties.

    PubMed

    Kulaksiz, Gülnihal; Reardon, Joyce T; Sancar, Aziz

    2005-11-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is characterized by increased sensitivity of the affected individuals to sunlight and light-induced skin cancers and, in some cases, to neurological abnormalities. The disease is caused by a mutation in genes XPA through XPG and the XP variant (XPV) gene. The proteins encoded by the XPA, -B, -C, -D, -F, and -G genes are required for nucleotide excision repair, and the XPV gene encodes DNA polymerase eta, which carries out translesion DNA synthesis. In contrast, the mechanism by which the XPE gene product prevents sunlight-induced cancers is not known. The gene (XPE/DDB2) encodes the small subunit of a heterodimeric DNA binding protein with high affinity to UV-damaged DNA (UV-damaged DNA binding protein [UV-DDB]). The DDB2 protein exists in at least four forms in the cell: monomeric DDB2, DDB1-DDB2 heterodimer (UV-DDB), and as a protein associated with both the Cullin 4A (CUL4A) complex and the COP9 signalosome. To better define the role of DDB2 in the cellular response to DNA damage, we purified all four forms of DDB2 and analyzed their DNA binding properties and their effects on mammalian nucleotide excision repair. We find that DDB2 has an intrinsic damaged DNA binding activity and that under our assay conditions neither DDB2 nor complexes that contain DDB2 (UV-DDB, CUL4A, and COP9) participate in nucleotide excision repair carried out by the six-factor human excision nuclease. PMID:16260596

  3. UV-induced histone H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage related proteins accumulate and persist in nucleotide excision repair-deficient XP-B cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyu-Seon; Bustin, Michael; Mazur, Sharlyn J; Appella, Ettore; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2011-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) may be caused by ionizing radiation. In contrast, UV exposure forms dipyrimidine photoproducts and is not considered an inducer of DSB. We found that uniform or localized UV treatment induced phosphorylation of the DNA damage related (DDR) proteins H2AX, ATM and NBS1 and co-localization of γ-H2AX with the DDR proteins p-ATM, p-NBS1, Rad51 and FANCD2 that persisted for about 6h in normal human fibroblasts. This post-UV phosphorylation was observed in the absence of nucleotide excision repair (NER), since NER deficient XP-B cells (lacking functional XPB DNA repair helicase) and global genome repair-deficient rodent cells also showed phosphorylation and localization of these DDR proteins. Resolution of the DDR proteins was dependent on NER, since they persisted for 24h in the XP-B cells. In the normal and XP-B cells p53 and p21 was detected at 6h and 24h but Mdm2 was not induced in the XP-B cells. Post-UV induction of Wip1 phosphatase was detected in the normal cells but not in the XP-B cells. DNA DSB were detected with a neutral comet assay at 6h and 24h post-UV in the normal and XP-B cells. These results indicate that UV damage can activate the DDR pathway in the absence of NER. However, a later step in DNA damage processing involving induction of Wip1 and resolution of DDR proteins was not observed in the absence of NER.

  4. Repair of rat cranial bone defect by using bone morphogenetic protein-2-related peptide combined with microspheres composed of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingfeng; Jin, Lin; Wang, Mingbo; Zhu, Shaobo; Xu, Shuyun

    2015-07-08

    The effects of the transplanted bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) -related peptide P24 and rhBMP2 combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/chitosan (CS) microspheres were investigated in promoting the repair of rat cranial bone defect. Forty white rats were selected and equally divided into four groups (group A: 1 μg of rhBMP2/PLGA/CS composite; group B: 3 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group C: 0.5 μg of rhBMP2 + 1.5 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group D: blank PLGA/CS material), and rat cranial bone defect models with a diameter of 5 mm were established. The materials were transplanted to the cranial bone defects. The animals were sacrificed on weeks 6 and 12 post-operation. Radiographic examinations (x-ray imaging and 3D CT scanning) and histological evaluations were performed. The repaired areas of cranial bone defects were measured, and the osteogenetic abilities of various materials were compared. Cranial histology, imaging, and repaired area measurements showed that the osteogenetic effects at two time points (weeks 6 and 12) in group C were better than those in groups A and B. The effects in groups A and B were similar. Group D achieved the worst repair effect of cranial bone defects, where a large number of fibrous connective tissues were observed. The PLGA/CS composite microspheres loaded with rhBMP2 and P24 had optimal concrescence and could mutually increase their osteogenesis capability. rhBMP2 + P24/PLGA/CS composite is a novel material for bone defect repair with stable activity to induce bone formation.

  5. Repair of rat cranial bone defect by using bone morphogenetic protein-2-related peptide combined with microspheres composed of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingfeng; Jin, Lin; Wang, Mingbo; Zhu, Shaobo; Xu, Shuyun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of the transplanted bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) -related peptide P24 and rhBMP2 combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/chitosan (CS) microspheres were investigated in promoting the repair of rat cranial bone defect. Forty white rats were selected and equally divided into four groups (group A: 1 μg of rhBMP2/PLGA/CS composite; group B: 3 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group C: 0.5 μg of rhBMP2 + 1.5 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group D: blank PLGA/CS material), and rat cranial bone defect models with a diameter of 5 mm were established. The materials were transplanted to the cranial bone defects. The animals were sacrificed on weeks 6 and 12 post-operation. Radiographic examinations (x-ray imaging and 3D CT scanning) and histological evaluations were performed. The repaired areas of cranial bone defects were measured, and the osteogenetic abilities of various materials were compared. Cranial histology, imaging, and repaired area measurements showed that the osteogenetic effects at two time points (weeks 6 and 12) in group C were better than those in groups A and B. The effects in groups A and B were similar. Group D achieved the worst repair effect of cranial bone defects, where a large number of fibrous connective tissues were observed. The PLGA/CS composite microspheres loaded with rhBMP2 and P24 had optimal concrescence and could mutually increase their osteogenesis capability. rhBMP2 + P24/PLGA/CS composite is a novel material for bone defect repair with stable activity to induce bone formation. PMID:26154695

  6. Characterization of cDNA encoding mouse DNA repair protein O sup 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and high-level expression of the wild-type and mutant proteins in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Susumu; Tano, Keizo ); von Wronski, M.A.; Brent, T.P. ); Bigner, D.D. ); Mitra, S. )

    1992-02-25

    A mouse cDNA clone encoding O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), responsible for repair of mutagenic O{sup 6}-alkylguanine in DNA, was cloned from a {lambda}gt11 library. On the basis of an open reading frame in cDNA, the mouse protein contains 211 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22 kDa. The size and the predicted N-terminal sequence of the mouse protein were confirmed experimentally. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse MGMT is 70% homologous to that of the human MGMT. Cysteine-149 was shown to be the only alkyl acceptor residue in the mouse protein, in confirmation of the prediction based on conserved sequences of different MGMTs. Mouse MGMT protein is recognized by some monoclonal antibodies specific for human MGMT. Site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to reclone the mouse cDNA in a T7 promoter-based vector for overexpression of the native repair protein in Escherichia coli. The mouse protein has a tetrapeptide sequence, Pro-Glu-Gly-Val at positions 56-59, absent in the human protein. Neither deletion of this tetrapeptide nor substitution of valine-169 with alanine affected the activity of the mutant proteins.

  7. Zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 interacts with histones, DNA repair proteins and recruits NuRD complex to regulate gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihui; Lam, Norris; Thiele, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 has been found to control neural fate-determination in flies, regulate murine and frog cardiac development, control murine retinal cell progenitor expansion and function as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which CASZ1 regulates gene transcription to exert these diverse biological functions has not been described. Here we identify co-factors that are recruited by CASZ1b to regulate gene transcription using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and mass spectrometry assays. We find that CASZ1b binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex, histones and DNA repair proteins. Mutagenesis of the CASZ1b protein assay demonstrates that the N-terminus of CASZ1b is required for NuRD binding, and a poly(ADP-ribose) binding motif in the CASZ1b protein is required for histone H3 and DNA repair proteins binding. The N-terminus of CASZ1b fused to an artificial DNA-binding domain (GAL4DBD) causes a significant repression of transcription (5xUAS-luciferase assay), which could be blocked by treatment with an HDAC inhibitor. Realtime PCR results show that the transcriptional activity of CASZ1b mutants that abrogate NuRD or histone H3/DNA binding is significantly decreased. This indicates a model in which CASZ1b binds to chromatin and recruits NuRD complexes to orchestrate epigenetic-mediated transcriptional programs. PMID:26296975

  8. Biologically engineered protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels: A cell-adhesive and plasmin-degradable biosynthetic material for tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halstenberg, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this dissertation was to create a biomimetic artificial material that exhibits functions of extracellular matrix relevant for improved nerve regeneration. Neural adhesion peptides were photoimmobilized on highly crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol)-based substrates that were otherwise non-adhesive. Neurons adhered in two-dimensional patterns for eleven hours, but no neurites extended. To enable neurite extension and nerve regeneration in three dimensions, and to address the need for specifically cell adhesive and cell degradable materials for clinical applications in tissue repair in general, an artificial protein was recombinantly expressed and purified that consisted of a repeating amino acid sequence based on fibrinogen and anti-thrombin III. The recombinant protein contained integrin-binding RGD sites, plasmin degradation sites, heparin binding sites, and six thiol-containing cysteine residues as grafting sites for poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate via Michael-type conjugate addition. The resulting protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)acrylates were crosslinked by photopolymerization to form hydrogels. Although three-dimensional, RGD mediated and serine protease-dependent ingrowth of human fibroblasts into protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels occurred, only surface neurite outgrowth was observed from chick dorsal root ganglia. Axonal outgrowth depended on the concentration of matrix-bound heparin, suggesting that improved mechanical strength of the hydrogels and possible immobilization of neuroactive factors due to the presence of heparin promoted neurite outgrowth. Together, the above results show that specific biological functions can be harnessed by protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels to serve as matrices for tissue repair and regeneration. In particular, the two design objectives, specific cell adhesion and degradability by cell-associated proteases, were fulfilled by the material. In the future, this and

  9. Human single-stranded DNA binding protein 1 (hSSB1/NABP2) is required for the stability and repair of stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Bolderson, Emma; Petermann, Eva; Croft, Laura; Suraweera, Amila; Pandita, Raj K; Pandita, Tej K; Helleday, Thomas; Khanna, Kum Kum; Richard, Derek J

    2014-06-01

    Aberrant DNA replication is a primary cause of mutations that are associated with pathological disorders including cancer. During DNA metabolism, the primary causes of replication fork stalling include secondary DNA structures, highly transcribed regions and damaged DNA. The restart of stalled replication forks is critical for the timely progression of the cell cycle and ultimately for the maintenance of genomic stability. Our previous work has implicated the single-stranded DNA binding protein, hSSB1/NABP2, in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks via homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate that hSSB1 relocates to hydroxyurea (HU)-damaged replication forks where it is required for ATR and Chk1 activation and recruitment of Mre11 and Rad51. Consequently, hSSB1-depleted cells fail to repair and restart stalled replication forks. hSSB1 deficiency causes accumulation of DNA strand breaks and results in chromosome aberrations observed in mitosis, ultimately resulting in hSSB1 being required for survival to HU and camptothecin. Overall, our findings demonstrate the importance of hSSB1 in maintaining and repairing DNA replication forks and for overall genomic stability.

  10. Distinct Roles of Ape1 Protein, an Enzyme Involved in DNA Repair, in High or Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation-induced Cell Killing*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Xiang; Chen, Guangnan; Zhang, Xiangming; Tang, Xiaobing; Park, Dongkyoo; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Yu, David S.; Deng, Xingming; Dynan, William S.; Doetsch, Paul W.; Wang, Ya

    2014-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation from space heavy charged particles or a heavier ion radiotherapy machine kills more cells than low LET radiation, mainly because high LET radiation-induced DNA damage is more difficult to repair. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is the ratio of the effects generated by high LET radiation to low LET radiation. Previously, our group and others demonstrated that the cell-killing RBE is involved in the interference of high LET radiation with non-homologous end joining but not homologous recombination repair. This effect is attributable, in part, to the small DNA fragments (≤40 bp) directly produced by high LET radiation, the size of which prevents Ku protein from efficiently binding to the two ends of one fragment at the same time, thereby reducing non-homologous end joining efficiency. Here we demonstrate that Ape1, an enzyme required for processing apurinic/apyrimidinic (known as abasic) sites, is also involved in the generation of small DNA fragments during the repair of high LET radiation-induced base damage, which contributes to the higher RBE of high LET radiation-induced cell killing. This discovery opens a new direction to develop approaches for either protecting astronauts from exposure to space radiation or benefiting cancer patients by sensitizing tumor cells to high LET radiotherapy. PMID:25210033

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor/bone morphogenetic protein-2 bone marrow combined modification of the mesenchymal stem cells to repair the avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Da-Ping; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was used to repair avascular necrosis of the femoral head, which can maintain the osteogenic phenotype of seed cells, and effectively secrete VEGF and BMP-2, and effectively promote blood vessel regeneration and contribute to formation and revascularization of tissue engineered bone tissues. To observe the therapeutic effect on the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) modified by VEGF-165 and BMP-2 in vitro. The models were avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbits on right leg. There groups were single core decompression group, core decompression + BMSCs group, core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group. Necrotic bone was cleared out under arthroscope. Arthroscopic observation demonstrated that necrotic bone was cleared out in each group, and fresh blood flowed out. Histomorphology determination showed that blood vessel number and new bone area in the repair region were significantly greater at various time points following transplantation in the core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group compared with single core decompression group and core decompression + BMSCs group (P < 0.05). These suggested that VEGF-165/BMP-2 gene transfection strengthened osteogenic effects of BMSCs, elevated number and quality of new bones and accelerated the repair of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor/bone morphogenetic protein-2 bone marrow combined modification of the mesenchymal stem cells to repair the avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Da-Ping; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was used to repair avascular necrosis of the femoral head, which can maintain the osteogenic phenotype of seed cells, and effectively secrete VEGF and BMP-2, and effectively promote blood vessel regeneration and contribute to formation and revascularization of tissue engineered bone tissues. To observe the therapeutic effect on the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) modified by VEGF-165 and BMP-2 in vitro. The models were avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbits on right leg. There groups were single core decompression group, core decompression + BMSCs group, core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group. Necrotic bone was cleared out under arthroscope. Arthroscopic observation demonstrated that necrotic bone was cleared out in each group, and fresh blood flowed out. Histomorphology determination showed that blood vessel number and new bone area in the repair region were significantly greater at various time points following transplantation in the core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group compared with single core decompression group and core decompression + BMSCs group (P < 0.05). These suggested that VEGF-165/BMP-2 gene transfection strengthened osteogenic effects of BMSCs, elevated number and quality of new bones and accelerated the repair of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:26629044

  13. Influence of XPB helicase on recruitment and redistribution of nucleotide excision repair proteins at sites of UV-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Boyle, Jennifer; Khan, Sikandar G; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2007-09-01

    The XPB DNA helicase, a subunit of the basal transcription factor TFIIH, is also involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). We examined recruitment of NER proteins in XP-B cells from patients with mild or severe xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) having different XPB mutations using local UV-irradiation through filters with 5 microm pores combined with fluorescent antibody labeling. XPC was rapidly recruited to UV damage sites containing DNA photoproducts (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, CPD) in all the XP-B and normal cells, thus reflecting its role in damage recognition prior to the function of XPB. Cells from the mild XP-B patients, with a missense mutation, showed delayed recruitment of all NER proteins except XPC to UV damage sites, demonstrating that this mutation impaired localization of these proteins. Surprisingly, in cells from severely affected patients, with a C-terminal XPB mutation, XPG and XPA proteins were normally recruited to UV damage sites demonstrating that this mutation permits recruitment of XPG and XPA. In marked contrast, in all the XP-B cells recruitment of XPF was absent immediately after UV and was delayed by 0.5 and 3 h in cells from the mild and severely affected XP patients, respectively. Redistribution of NER proteins was nearly complete in normal cells by 3 h but by 24 h redistribution was only partially present in cells from mild patients and virtually absent in cells from the severely affected patients. Ineffectual repair of UV-induced photoproducts resulting from delayed recruitment and impaired redistribution of NER proteins may contribute to the markedly increased frequency of skin cancer in XP patients. PMID:17509950

  14. Influence of XPB helicase on recruitment and redistribution of nucleotide excision repair proteins at sites of UV-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Boyle, Jennifer; Khan, Sikandar G; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2007-09-01

    The XPB DNA helicase, a subunit of the basal transcription factor TFIIH, is also involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). We examined recruitment of NER proteins in XP-B cells from patients with mild or severe xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) having different XPB mutations using local UV-irradiation through filters with 5 microm pores combined with fluorescent antibody labeling. XPC was rapidly recruited to UV damage sites containing DNA photoproducts (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, CPD) in all the XP-B and normal cells, thus reflecting its role in damage recognition prior to the function of XPB. Cells from the mild XP-B patients, with a missense mutation, showed delayed recruitment of all NER proteins except XPC to UV damage sites, demonstrating that this mutation impaired localization of these proteins. Surprisingly, in cells from severely affected patients, with a C-terminal XPB mutation, XPG and XPA proteins were normally recruited to UV damage sites demonstrating that this mutation permits recruitment of XPG and XPA. In marked contrast, in all the XP-B cells recruitment of XPF was absent immediately after UV and was delayed by 0.5 and 3 h in cells from the mild and severely affected XP patients, respectively. Redistribution of NER proteins was nearly complete in normal cells by 3 h but by 24 h redistribution was only partially present in cells from mild patients and virtually absent in cells from the severely affected patients. Ineffectual repair of UV-induced photoproducts resulting from delayed recruitment and impaired redistribution of NER proteins may contribute to the markedly increased frequency of skin cancer in XP patients.

  15. Mouse HORMAD1 is a meiosis i checkpoint protein that modulates DNA double- strand break repair during female meiosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; McGuire, Megan M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    Oocytes in embryonic ovaries enter meiosis I and arrest in the diplonema stage. Perturbations in meiosis I, such as abnormal double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair, adversely affect oocyte survival. We previously discovered that HORMAD1 is a critical component of the synaptonemal complex but not essential for oocyte survival. No significant differences were observed in the number of primordial, primary, secondary, and developing follicles between wild-type and Hormad1(−/−)newborn, 8-day, and 80-day ovaries. Meiosis I progression in Hormad1(−/−) embryonic ovaries was normal through the zygotene stage and in oocytes arrested in diplonema; however, we did not visualize oocytes with completely synapsed chromosomes. We investigated effects of HORMAD1 deficiency on the kinetics of DNA DSB formation and repair in the mouse ovary. We irradiated Embryonic Day 16.5 wild-type and Hormad1(−/−) ovaries and monitored DSB repair using gammaH2AX, RAD51, and DMC1 immunofluorescence. Our results showed a significant drop in unrepaired DSBs in the irradiated Hormad1(−/−) zygotene oocytes as compared to the wild-type oocytes. Moreover, Hormad1 deficiency rescued Dmc1(−/−) oocytes. These results indicate that Hormad1 deficiency promotes DMC1-independent DSB repairs, which in turn helps asynaptic Hormad1(−/−) oocytes resist perinatal loss. PMID:23759310

  16. Radio-adaptive response of base excision repair genes and proteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Sneh M; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2015-09-01

    Radio-adaptive response is a mechanism whereby a low-dose exposure (priming dose) induces resistance to a higher dose (challenging dose) thus significantly reducing its detrimental effects. Radiation-induced DNA damage gets repaired through various DNA repair pathways in human cells depending upon the type of lesion. The base excision repair (BER) pathway repairs radiation-induced base damage, abasic sites and single-strand breaks in cellular DNA. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the involvement of BER genes and proteins in the radio-adaptive response in human resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Venous blood samples were collected from 20 randomly selected healthy male individuals with written informed consent. PBMC were isolated and irradiated at a priming dose of 0.1 Gy followed 4h later with a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy (primed cells). Quantitation of DNA damage was done using the alkaline comet assay immediately and expression profile of BER genes and proteins were studied 30 min after the challenging dose using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. The overall result showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction of DNA damage in terms of percentage of DNA in tail (%T) with a priming dose of 0.1 Gy followed by a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy after 4 h. Twelve individuals showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in %T whereas eight individuals showed marginal reduction in DNA damage that was not statistically significant. However, at the transcriptional level, BER genes such as APE1, FEN1 and LIGASE1 showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) up-regulation in both groups. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) up-regulation was also observed at the protein level for OGG1, APE1, MBD4, FEN1 and LIGASE1 in primed cells. Up-regulation of some BER genes and proteins such as APE1, FEN1 and LIGASE1 in primed cells of resting PBMC is suggestive of active involvement of the BER pathway in radio-adaptive response

  17. Human DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Wood, R D; Mitchell, M; Sgouros, J; Lindahl, T

    2001-02-16

    Cellular DNA is subjected to continual attack, both by reactive species inside cells and by environmental agents. Toxic and mutagenic consequences are minimized by distinct pathways of repair, and 130 known human DNA repair genes are described here. Notable features presently include four enzymes that can remove uracil from DNA, seven recombination genes related to RAD51, and many recently discovered DNA polymerases that bypass damage, but only one system to remove the main DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light. More human DNA repair genes will be found by comparison with model organisms and as common folds in three-dimensional protein structures are determined. Modulation of DNA repair should lead to clinical applications including improvement of radiotherapy and treatment with anticancer drugs and an advanced understanding of the cellular aging process. PMID:11181991

  18. RecFOR proteins target RecA protein to a DNA gap with either DNA or RNA at the 5' terminus: implication for repair of stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Morimatsu, Katsumi; Wu, Yun; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

    2012-10-12

    The repair of single-stranded gaps in duplex DNA by homologous recombination requires the proteins of the RecF pathway. The assembly of RecA protein onto gapped DNA (gDNA) that is complexed with the single-stranded DNA-binding protein is accelerated by the RecF, RecO, and RecR (RecFOR) proteins. Here, we show the RecFOR proteins specifically target RecA protein to gDNA even in the presence of a thousand-fold excess of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The binding constant of RecF protein, in the presence of the RecOR proteins, to the junction of ssDNA and dsDNA within a gap is 1-2 nm, suggesting that a few RecF molecules in the cell are sufficient to recognize gDNA. We also found that the nucleation of a RecA filament on gDNA in the presence of the RecFOR proteins occurs at a faster rate than filament elongation, resulting in a RecA nucleoprotein filament on ssDNA for 1000-2000 nucleotides downstream (5' → 3') of the junction with duplex DNA. Thus, RecA loading by RecFOR is localized to a region close to a junction. RecFOR proteins also recognize RNA at the 5'-end of an RNA-DNA junction within an ssDNA gap, which is compatible with their role in the repair of lagging strand gaps at stalled replication forks. PMID:22902627

  19. Mismatch repair proteins MSH2, MLH1, and EXO1 are important for class-switch recombination events occurring in B cells that lack nonhomologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Eccleston, Jennifer; Yan, Catherine; Yuan, Karen; Alt, Frederick W; Selsing, Erik

    2011-02-15

    In the absence of core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors, Ab gene class-switch recombination (CSR) uses an alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathway to recombine switch (S) region DNA breaks. Previous reports showing decreased S-junction microhomologies in MSH2-deficient mice and an exonuclease 1 (EXO1) role in yeast microhomology-mediated end joining suggest that mismatch repair (MMR) proteins might influence A-EJ-mediated CSR. We have directly investigated whether MMR proteins collectively or differentially influence the A-EJ mechanism of CSR by analyzing CSR in mice deficient in both XRCC4 and individual MMR proteins. We find CSR is reduced and that Igh locus chromosome breaks are reduced in the MMR/XRCC4 double-deficient B cells compared with B cells deficient in XRCC4 alone, suggesting MMR proteins function upstream of double-strand break formation to influence CSR efficiency in these cells. Our results show that MLH1, EXO1, and MSH2 are all important for efficient A-EJ-mediated CSR, and we propose that MMR proteins convert DNA nicks and point mutations into dsDNA breaks for both C-NHEJ and A-EJ pathways of CSR. We also find Mlh1-XRCC4(-) B cells have an increased frequency of direct S junctions, suggesting that MLH1 proteins may have additional functions that influence A-EJ-mediated CSR.

  20. Stabilization of Ultraviolet (UV)-stimulated Scaffold Protein A by Interaction with Ubiquitin-specific Peptidase 7 Is Essential for Transcription-coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair.

    PubMed

    Higa, Mitsuru; Zhang, Xue; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Saijo, Masafumi

    2016-06-24

    UV-sensitive syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light and deficiency in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair that rapidly removes transcription-blocking DNA damage. UV-sensitive syndrome consists of three genetic complementation groups caused by mutations in the CSA, CSB, and UVSSA genes. UV-stimulated scaffold protein A (UVSSA), the product of UVSSA, which is required for stabilization of Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein and reappearance of the hypophosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II after UV irradiation, forms a complex with ubiquitin-specific peptidase 7 (USP7). In this study, we demonstrated that the deubiquitination activity of USP7 is suppressed by its interaction with UVSSA. The interaction required the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor domain of USP7 and the central region of UVSSA and was disrupted by an amino acid substitution in the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-binding motif of UVSSA. Cells expressing mutant UVSSA were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and defective in recovery of RNA synthesis after UV irradiation. These results indicate that the interaction between UVSSA and USP7 is important for TC-NER. Furthermore, the mutant UVSSA was rapidly degraded by the proteasome, and CSB was also degraded after UV irradiation as observed in UVSSA-deficient cells. Thus, stabilization of UVSSA by interaction with USP7 is essential for TC-NER. PMID:27129218

  1. Complex formation in yeast double-strand break repair: participation of Rad51, Rad52, Rad55, and Rad57 proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, S L; Firmenich, A A; Berg, P

    1995-01-01

    The repair of DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires genes of the RAD52 epistasis group, of which RAD55 and RAD57 are members. Here, we show that the x-ray sensitivity of rad55 and rad57 mutant strains is suppressible by overexpression of RAD51 or RAD52. Virtually complete suppression is provided by the simultaneous overexpression of RAD51 and RAD52. This suppression occurs at 23 degrees C, where these mutants are more sensitive to x-rays, as well as at 30 degrees C and 36 degrees C. In addition, a recombination defect of rad55 and rad57 mutants is similarly suppressed. Direct in vivo interactions between the Rad51 and Rad55 proteins, and between Rad55 and Rad57, have also been identified by using the two-hybrid system. These results indicate that these four proteins constitute part of a complex, a "recombinosome," to effect the recombinational repair of double-strand breaks. PMID:7624345

  2. A chloroplast-targeted heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) contributes to the photoprotection and repair of photosystem II during and after photoinhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Schroda, M; Vallon, O; Wollman, F A; Beck, C F

    1999-01-01

    Dark-grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures that were illuminated at low fluence rates before exposure to high-light conditions exhibited a faster rate of recovery from photoinhibition than did dark-grown cells that were directly exposed to photoinhibitory conditions. This pretreatment has been shown to induce the expression of several nuclear heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes, including HSP70B, encoding a chloroplast-localized chaperone. To investigate a possible role of plastidic HSP70B in photoprotection and repair of photosystem II, which is the major target of photoinhibition, we have constructed strains overexpressing or underexpressing HSP70B. The effect of light stress on photosystem II in nuclear transformants harboring HSP70B in the sense or antisense orientation was monitored by measuring variable fluorescence, flash-induced charge separation, and relative amounts of various photosystem II polypeptides. Underexpression of HSP70B caused an increased light sensitivity of photosystem II, whereas overexpression of HSP70B had a protective effect. Furthermore, the reactivation of photosystem II after photoinhibition was enhanced in the HSP70B-overexpressing strain when compared with the wild type, both in the presence or absence of synthesis of chloroplast-encoded proteins. Therefore, HSP70B may participate in vivo both in the molecular protection of the photosystem II reaction centers during photoinhibition and in the process of photosystem II repair. PMID:10368186

  3. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  4. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity. PMID:26472689

  5. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-16

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  6. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    conduits in the field of nerve tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A novel nerve conduit was constructed and applied to repair nerve defect in rats. • Transparent hollow cellulose/soy protein isolate tube was used as conduit matrix. • Pyrroloquinoline quinine was adsorbed into the hollow tube as nerve growth factor. • Schwann cells were cultured into the hollow tube as seed cells. • The new nerve conduit could repair and reconstruct the peripheral nerve defects.

  7. Human ERCC5 cDNA-cosmid complementation for excision repair and bipartite amino acid domains conserved with RAD proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.A.; Dickson, J.A.; Hernandez, R.R.; Lin, G.Y.; Park, M.S.; Schauer, S.; Reynolds, R.J.; Strniste, G.F. ); Learmonth, D. ); Mudgett, J.S. ); Yu, J.Y. )

    1993-10-01

    Several human genes related to DNA excision repair (ER) have been isolated via ER cross-species complementation (ERCC) of UV-sensitive CHO cells. The authors have now isolated and characterized cDNAs for the human ERCC5 gene that complement CHO UV135 cells. The ERCC5 mRNA size is about 4.6 kb. Their available cDNA clones are partial length, and no single clone was active for UV135 complementation. When cDNAs were mixed pairwise with a cosmid clone containing an overlapping 5[prime]-end segment of the ERCC5 gene, DNA transfer produced UV-resistant colonies with 60 to 95% correction of UV resistance relative to either a genomic ERCC5 DNA transformant or the CHO AA8 progenitor cells. cDNA-cosmid transformants regained intermediate levels (20 to 45%) of ER-dependent reactivation of a UV-damaged pSVCATgpt reporter plasmid. Their evidence strongly implicates an in situ recombination mechanism in cDNA-cosmid complementation for ER. The complete deduced amino acid sequence of ERCC5 was reconstructed for several cDNA clones encoding a predicted protein of 1,186 amino acids. The ERCC5 protein has extensive sequence similarities, in bipartite domains A and B, to products of RAD repair genes of two yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD2 and Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad13. Sequence, structural, and functional data taken together indicate that ERCC5 and its relatives are probable functional homologs. A second locus represented by S. cerevisiae YKL510 and S. pombe rad2 genes is structurally distinct from the ERCC5 locus but retains vestigial A and B domain similarities. Their analyses suggest that ERCC5 is a nuclear-localized protein with one or more highly conserved helix-loop-helix segments within domains A and B. 69 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Increased expression of the MGMT repair protein mediated by cysteine prodrugs and chemopreventative natural products in human lymphocytes and tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Niture, Suryakant K; Velu, Chinavenmani S; Smith, Quentin R; Bhat, G Jayarama; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S

    2007-02-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair protein which protects the cellular genome and critical oncogenic genes from the mutagenic action of endogenous and exogenous alkylating agents. An expedited elimination of O6-alkylguanines by increasing MGMT activity levels is likely to be a successful chemoprevention strategy. Here, we report for the first time that cysteine/glutathione enhancing drugs and certain plant antioxidants possess the ability to increase human MGMT expression beyond its steady-state levels that may afford protection. The non-toxic cysteine prodrugs, 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), metabolized, respectively by 5-oxoprolinase and acylases, increased the MGMT protein and its repair activity levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner in several cancer cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes with a maximum of 3-fold increase by 72 h. The natural antioxidants, namely, curcumin, silymarin, sulforaphane and resveratrol were also effective in raising the MGMT levels to different extents. Among the synthetic agents, oltipraz and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) also increased MGMT expression, albeit to a lesser extent. Augmented mRNA levels accounted at least, in part, for the increased activity of MGMT in this setting. However, evidence from cysteine/methionine deprivation, acivicin treatment, and protein synthesis measurements in OTC-treated cells suggested that an increased cysteine flux also contributed significantly to enhanced MGMT expression. Many of these treatments increased the glutathione S-transferase-P1 (GSTP1) levels as well. These findings raise the possibility of MGMT-targeted chemoprevention strategies through dietary supplementation of OTC and herbal antioxidants. Further, the studies reveal the antioxidant responsiveness of the human MGMT gene. PMID:16950796

  9. Increased oxidative DNA damage and decreased expression of base excision repair proteins in airway epithelial cells of women who cook with biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Saha, Hirak; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether biomass burning causes oxidative DNA damage and alters the expression of DNA base excision repair (BER) proteins in airway cells, sputum samples were collected from 80 premenopausal rural biomass-users and 70 age-matched control women who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control the airway cells of biomass-users showed increased DNA damage in alkaline comet assay. Biomass-users showed higher percentage of cells expressing oxidative DNA damage marker 8-oxoguanine and lower percentages of BER proteins OGG1 and APE1 by immunocytochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was doubled and level of superoxide dismutase was depleted significantly among biomass-users. The concentrations of particulate matters were higher in biomass-using households which positively correlated with ROS generation and negatively with BER proteins expressions. ROS generation was positively correlated with 8-oxoguanine and negatively with BER proteins suggesting cooking with biomass is a risk for genotoxicity among rural women in their child-bearing age.

  10. Locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals as detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, C.; Smith, E. G.; Oswald, F.; Burt, J.; Tchernov, D.; Wiedenmann, J.

    2012-12-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are a prevalent group of host pigments responsible for the green, red and purple-blue colours of many reef-building corals. They have been suggested to contribute to the striking coloration changes of different corals species in response to wounding and infestation with epibionts/parasites. In order to elucidate the physiological processes underlying the potentially disease-related colour changes, we have analysed spatial and temporal expression patterns of GFP-like proteins and other biomarkers in corals from the Red Sea, the Arabian/Persian Gulf and Fiji both in their natural habitat and under specific laboratory conditions. The expression of distinct GFP-like proteins and the growth marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen was upregulated in growing branch tips and margins of healthy coral colonies as well as in disturbed colony parts. Furthermore, phenoloxidase activity increased in these proliferating tissues. It is thus demonstrated that locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals and, moreover, these processes can be detected utilizing the excellent biomarker properties of GFP-like proteins. Finally, the results of this work suggest an additional vulnerability of corals in predicted future scenarios of increased ocean acidification, warming and eutrophication that are anticipated to reduce coral growth capacity.

  11. Increased oxidative DNA damage and decreased expression of base excision repair proteins in airway epithelial cells of women who cook with biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Bindhani, Banani; Saha, Hirak; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether biomass burning causes oxidative DNA damage and alters the expression of DNA base excision repair (BER) proteins in airway cells, sputum samples were collected from 80 premenopausal rural biomass-users and 70 age-matched control women who cooked with liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control the airway cells of biomass-users showed increased DNA damage in alkaline comet assay. Biomass-users showed higher percentage of cells expressing oxidative DNA damage marker 8-oxoguanine and lower percentages of BER proteins OGG1 and APE1 by immunocytochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was doubled and level of superoxide dismutase was depleted significantly among biomass-users. The concentrations of particulate matters were higher in biomass-using households which positively correlated with ROS generation and negatively with BER proteins expressions. ROS generation was positively correlated with 8-oxoguanine and negatively with BER proteins suggesting cooking with biomass is a risk for genotoxicity among rural women in their child-bearing age. PMID:25128766

  12. Differential binding kinetics of replication protein A during replication and the pre- and post-incision steps of nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Gourdin, Audrey M; van Cuijk, Loes; Tresini, Maria; Luijsterburg, Martijn S; Nigg, Alex L; Giglia-Mari, Guiseppina; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Vermeulen, Wim; Marteijn, Jurgen A

    2014-12-01

    The ability of replication protein A (RPA) to bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) underlines its crucial roles during DNA replication and repair. A combination of immunofluorescence and live cell imaging of GFP-tagged RPA70 revealed that RPA, in contrast to other replication factors, does not cluster into replication foci, which is explained by its short residence time at ssDNA. In addition to replication, RPA also plays a crucial role in both the pre- and post-incision steps of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Pre-incision factors like XPC and TFIIH accumulate rapidly at locally induced UV-damage and remain visible up to 4h. However, RPA did not reach its maximum accumulation level until 3h after DNA damage infliction and a chromatin-bound pool remained detectable up to 8h, probably reflecting its role during the post-incision step of NER. During the pre-incision steps of NER, RPA could only be visualized at DNA lesions in incision deficient XP-F cells, however without a substantial increase in residence time at DNA damage. Together our data show that RPA is an intrinsically highly dynamic ssDNA-binding complex during both replication and distinct steps of NER. PMID:25453469

  13. The structure of the human ERCC1/XPF interaction domains reveals a complementary role for the two proteins in nucleotide excision repair.

    PubMed

    Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Folkers, Gert; Ab, Eiso; Das, Devashish; Odijk, Hanny; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf

    2005-12-01

    The human ERCC1/XPF complex is a structure-specific endonuclease with defined polarity that participates in multiple DNA repair pathways. We report the heterodimeric structure of the C-terminal domains of both proteins responsible for ERCC1/XPF complex formation. Both domains exhibit the double helix-hairpin-helix motif (HhH)2, and they are related by a pseudo-2-fold symmetry axis. In the XPF domain, the hairpin of the second motif is replaced by a short turn. The ERCC1 domain folds properly only in the presence of the XPF domain, which implies a role for XPF as a scaffold for the folding of ERCC1. The intersubunit interactions are largely hydrophobic in nature. NMR titration data show that only the ERCC1 domain of the ERCC1/XPF complex is involved in DNA binding. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model for the targeting of XPF nuclease via ERCC1-mediated interactions in the context of nucleotide excision repair. PMID:16338413

  14. Craniosynostosis repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be asleep and will not feel pain. Traditional surgery is called open repair. It includes these ... helps keep the swelling down. Talking, singing, playing music, and telling stories may help soothe your child. ...

  15. Combination of Aβ Secretion and Oxidative Stress in an Alzheimer-Like Cell Line Leads to the Over-Expression of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Proteins DDB2 and XPC

    PubMed Central

    Forestier, Anne; Douki, Thierry; De Rosa, Viviana; Béal, David; Rachidi, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Repair of oxidative DNA damage, particularly Base Excision Repair (BER), impairment is often associated with Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Here, we aimed at investigating the complete Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), a DNA repair pathway involved in the removal of bulky DNA adducts, status in an Alzheimer-like cell line. The level of DNA damage was quantified using mass spectrometry, NER gene expression was assessed by qPCR, and the NER protein activity was analysed through a modified version of the COMET assay. Interestingly, we found that in the presence of the Amyloid β peptide (Aβ), NER factors were upregulated at the mRNA level and that NER capacities were also specifically increased following oxidative stress. Surprisingly, NER capacities were not differentially improved following a typical NER-triggering of ultraviolet C (UVC) stress. Oxidative stress generates a differential and specific DNA damage response in the presence of Aβ. We hypothesized that the release of NER components such as DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2) and Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC) following oxidative stress might putatively involve their apoptotic role rather than DNA repair function. PMID:26263968

  16. Expression of DNA repair and metabolic genes in response to a flavonoid-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Fiorini, Laura; Marsala, Rosa; Polidoro, Silvia; Gamberini, Sara; Saletta, Federica; Malaveille, Christian; Talaska, Glenn; Vineis, Paolo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    A diet rich in fruit and vegetables can be effective in the reduction of oxidative stress, through the antioxidant effects of phytochemicals and other mechanisms. Protection against the carcinogenic effects of chemicals may also be exerted by an enhancement of detoxification and DNA damage repair mechanisms. To investigate a putative effect of flavonoids, a class of polyphenols, on the regulation of the gene expression of DNA repair and metabolic genes, a 1-month flavonoid-rich diet was administered to thirty healthy male smokers, nine of whom underwent gene expression analysis. We postulated that tobacco smoke is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species. The expression level of twelve genes (APEX, ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, MGMT, OGG1, XPA, XPC, XRCC1, XRCC3, AHR, CYP1A1) was investigated. We found a significant increase (P < 0.001) in flavonoid intake. Urinary phenolic content and anti-mutagenicity did not significantly change after diet, nor was a correlation found between flavonoid intake and urinary phenolic levels or anti-mutagenicity. Phenolic levels showed a significant positive correlation with urinary anti-mutagenicity. AHR levels were significantly reduced after the diet (P = 0.038), whereas the other genes showed a generalized up regulation, significant for XRCC3 gene (P = 0.038). Also in the context of a generalized up regulation of DNA repair genes, we found a non-significant negative correlation between flavonoid intake and the expression of all the DNA repair genes. Larger studies are needed to clarify the possible effects of flavonoids in vivo; our preliminary results could help to better plan new studies on gene expression and diet.

  17. Influence of DNA repair polymorphisms on biomarkers of genotoxic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zijno, A; Verdina, A; Galati, R; Leopardi, P; Marcon, F; Andreoli, C; Rossi, S; Crebelli, R

    2006-08-30

    DNA repair polymorphisms may represent susceptibility factors affecting DNA integrity, and possibly cancer risk, in human population. In order to elucidate the influence of a few widely studied DNA repair polymorphisms on individual levels of DNA damage and their possible interaction with lifestyle and environmental exposures, 171 subjects from a well-characterized human population enrolled in a previous study on genetic effects of air pollution were genotyped for the XRCC1 Arg280His and Arg399Glu, XRCC3 Thr241Met and ERCC2 Lys751Gln polymorphisms. The association between DNA repair genotype, alone or in combination with metabolic genotype, on the levels of SCE, micronuclei and tail moment values in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated. A significant influence of the ERCC2 genotype on SCE frequency was observed. Subjects with ERCC2 751 Gln/Gln genotype had significantly higher risk of high (above the median) SCE/cell with respect to Lys/Lys referents (OR 4.55, 95% CI 1.48-13.99). A non-significantly elevated OR was also observed in Gln/Lys heterozygotes, suggesting a gene dosage effect. When subjects were categorized by smoking habits and professional exposure, the variant ERCC2 751 Gln/Gln genotype was associated with elevated SCE rates in non-smokers and in exposed subjects, but not in smokers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that some DNA repair polymorphisms exert a modifying effect on individual levels of DNA damage in healthy subjects, possibly also modulating cancer risk.

  18. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway and increased levels of insulin receptor in protein repair-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Christine; Houser, Carolyn R; Clarke, Steven

    2005-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyses the repair of isoaspartyl damage in proteins. Mice lacking this enzyme (Pcmt1-/- mice) have a progressive increase in brain size compared with wild-type mice (Pcmt1+/+ mice), a phenotype that can be associated with alterations in the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway. Here we show that components of this pathway, including Akt, GSK3beta and PDK-1, are more highly phosphorylated in the brains of Pcmt1-/- mice, particularly in cells of the hippocampus, in comparison with Pcmt1+/+ mice. Examination of upstream elements of this pathway in the hippocampus revealed that Pcmt1-/- mice have increased activation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor and/or insulin receptor. Western blot analysis revealed an approximate 200% increase in insulin receptor protein levels and an approximate 50% increase in IGF-I receptor protein levels in the hippocampus of Pcmt1-/- mice. Higher levels of the insulin receptor protein were also found in other regions of the adult brain and in whole tissue extracts of brain, liver, heart and testes of both juvenile and adult Pcmt1-/- mice. There were no significant differences in plasma insulin levels for adult Pcmt1-/- mice during glucose tolerance tests. However, they did show higher peak levels of blood glucose, suggesting a mild impairment in glucose tolerance. We propose that Pcmt1-/- mice have altered regulation of the insulin pathway, possibly as a compensatory response to altered glucose uptake or metabolism or as an adaptive response to a general accumulation of isoaspartyl protein damage in the brain and other tissues.

  19. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation, 53BP1 protein expression and PARP-1 activity as biomarkers of DNA repair deficit in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly(adenosine diphosphate–ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and the balance between BRCA1 and 53BP1 play a key role in the DNA repair and cell stress response. PARP inhibitors show promising clinical activity in metastatic triple negative (TN) or BRCA-mutated breast cancer. However, a comprehensive analysis of PARP-1 activity, BRCA1 promoter methylation and 53BP1 expression in tumours without known BRCA1 mutation has not yet been carried out. Methods We investigated cytosolic PARP-1 activity, 53BP1 protein levels and BRCA1 promoter methylation in 155 surgical breast tumour samples from patients without familial breast cancer history or known BRCA1 mutations who were treated between January 2006 and November 2009 and evaluated their statistical association with classical predictive and prognostic factors. Results The mitotic count score was the only parameter clearly associated with PARP-1 activity. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation (15.4% of all cancers) was significantly associated with uPA and PAI-1 levels, tumour grade, mitotic count score, hormone receptor and HER2 negative status and TN profile (29% of TN tumours showed BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation compared to 5% of grade II-III hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative and 2% of HER2-positive tumours). No statistical association was found between BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation and PARP-1 activity. High 53BP1 protein levels correlated with lymph node positivity, hormone receptor positivity, molecular grouping, unmethylated BRCA1 promoter and PARP-1 activity. In TN tumours, BRCA1 promoter methylation was only marginally associated with age, PARP-1 activity was not associated with any of the tested clinico-pathological factors and high 53BP1 protein levels were significantly associated with lymph node positivity. Only 3 of the 14 TN tumours with BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation presented high 53BP1 protein levels. Conclusions Breast cancers that harbour simultaneously high 53BP1 protein level and BRCA1

  20. Alignment of Homologous Chromosomes and Effective Repair of Programmed DNA Double-Strand Breaks during Mouse Meiosis Require the Minichromosome Maintenance Domain Containing 2 (MCMDC2) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranathan, Ramya; Dereli, Ihsan; Stanzione, Marcello; Tóth, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Orderly chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division requires meiotic recombination to form crossovers between homologous chromosomes (homologues). Members of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase family have been implicated in meiotic recombination. In addition, they have roles in initiation of DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair and mitotic DNA double-strand break repair. Here, we addressed the function of MCMDC2, an atypical yet conserved MCM protein, whose function in vertebrates has not been reported. While we did not find an important role for MCMDC2 in mitotically dividing cells, our work revealed that MCMDC2 is essential for fertility in both sexes due to a crucial function in meiotic recombination. Meiotic recombination begins with the introduction of DNA double-strand breaks into the genome. DNA ends at break sites are resected. The resultant 3-prime single-stranded DNA overhangs recruit RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases that promote the invasion of homologous duplex DNAs by the resected DNA ends. Multiple strand invasions on each chromosome promote the alignment of homologous chromosomes, which is a prerequisite for inter-homologue crossover formation during meiosis. We found that although DNA ends at break sites were evidently resected, and they recruited RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases, these recombinases were ineffective in promoting alignment of homologous chromosomes in the absence of MCMDC2. Consequently, RAD51 and DMC1 foci, which are thought to mark early recombination intermediates, were abnormally persistent in Mcmdc2-/- meiocytes. Importantly, the strand invasion stabilizing MSH4 protein, which marks more advanced recombination intermediates, did not efficiently form foci in Mcmdc2-/- meiocytes. Thus, our work suggests that MCMDC2 plays an important role in either the formation, or the stabilization, of DNA strand invasion events that promote homologue alignment and provide the basis for inter-homologue crossover formation during

  1. Role of Human DNA Glycosylase Nei-like 2 (NEIL2) and Single Strand Break Repair Protein Polynucleotide Kinase 3′-Phosphatase in Maintenance of Mitochondrial Genome*

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Santi M.; Hegde, Muralidhar L.; Chatterjee, Arpita; Hegde, Pavana M.; Szczesny, Bartosz; Banerjee, Dibyendu; Boldogh, Istvan; Gao, Rui; Falkenberg, Maria; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Sarkar, Partha S.; Hazra, Tapas K.

    2012-01-01

    The repair of reactive oxygen species-induced base lesions and single strand breaks (SSBs) in the nuclear genome via the base excision (BER) and SSB repair (SSBR) pathways, respectively, is well characterize, and important for maintaining genomic integrity. However, the role of mitochondrial (mt) BER and SSBR proteins in mt genome maintenance is not completely clear. Here we show the presence of the oxidized base-specific DNA glycosylase Nei-like 2 (NEIL2) and the DNA end-processing enzyme polynucleotide kinase 3′-phosphatase (PNKP) in purified human mitochondrial extracts (MEs). Confocal microscopy revealed co-localization of PNKP and NEIL2 with the mitochondrion-specific protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (MT-CO2). Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed association of NEIL2 and PNKP with the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2 and MT-CO3 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3); importantly, both enzymes also associated with the mitochondrion-specific DNA polymerase γ. In cell association of NEIL2 and PNKP with polymerase γ was further confirmed by proximity ligation assays. PNKP-depleted ME showed a significant decrease in both BER and SSBR activities, and PNKP was found to be the major 3′-phosphatase in human ME. Furthermore, individual depletion of NEIL2 and PNKP in human HEK293 cells caused increased levels of oxidized bases and SSBs in the mt genome, respectively. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the critical role of NEIL2 and PNKP in maintenance of the mammalian mitochondrial genome. PMID:22130663

  2. A sensitive flow cytometry-based nucleotide excision repair assay unexpectedly reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling does not regulate the removal of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Raphael; Auclair, Yannick; Loignon, Martin; Affar, El Bachir; Drobetsky, Elliot A

    2008-02-29

    In response to diverse genotoxic stimuli (e.g. UV and cisplatin), the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38alpha/beta become rapidly phosphorylated and in turn activate multiple downstream effectors that modulate apoptosis and/or growth arrest. Furthermore, previous lines of evidence have strongly suggested that ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 participate in global-genomic nucleotide excision repair, a critical antineoplastic pathway that removes helix-distorting DNA adducts induced by a variety of mutagenic agents, including UV. To rigorously evaluate the potential role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in global-genomic nucleotide excision repair, various human cell strains (primary skin fibroblasts, primary lung fibroblasts, and HCT116 colon carcinoma cells) were treated with highly specific chemical inhibitors, which, following UV exposure, (i) abrogated the capacities of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or p38alpha/beta to phosphorylate specific downstream effectors and (ii) characteristically modulated cellular proliferation, clonogenic survival, and/or apoptosis. A highly sensitive flow cytometry-based nucleotide excision repair assay recently optimized and validated in our laboratory was then employed to directly demonstrate that the kinetics of UV DNA photoadduct repair are highly similar in mock-treated versus mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor-treated cells. These data on primary and tumor cells treated with pharmacological inhibitors were fully corroborated by repair studies using (i) short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1/2 or JNK1/2 in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells and (ii) expression of a dominant negative p38alpha mutant in human primary lung fibroblasts. Our results provide solid evidence for the first time, in disaccord with a burgeoning perception, that mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling does not influence the efficiency of human global-genomic nucleotide excision repair.

  3. Pectus excavatum repair

    MedlinePlus

    Funnel chest repair; Chest deformity repair; Sunken chest repair; Cobbler's chest repair; Nuss repair; Ravitch repair ... There are two types of surgery to repair this condition -- open surgery ... surgery is done while the child is in a deep sleep and pain- ...

  4. Casticin induces DNA damage and inhibits DNA repair-associated protein expression in B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yung-Luen; Chou, Jason; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Chou, Hsiao-Min; Chou, Hsiu-Chen; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Shang, Hung-Sheng; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chu, Yung-Lin; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-10-01

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, has been demonstrated to possess anticancer activities, yet no study has shown in detail that casticin induces DNA damage in lung cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of casticin which induce DNA damage and nuclear condensation in murine melanoma cancer B16F10 cells. In this study, by examining and capturing images using phase contrast microscopy, we found that casticin induced cell morphological changes. Moreover, it decreased the total number of viable cells which was measured by flow cytometry. Casticin-induced DNA damage and nuclear DNA condensation were measured by DAPI staining, respectively. Western blotting indicated that casticin decreased the protein levels of O6‑methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) but increased phospho-p53 tumor suppressor protein (p-p53), phospho-ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (p-ATM), phospho-histone H2A.X (Ser139) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in the B16F10 cells. Furthermore, we used confocal laser system microscopy to examine the protein expression levels and we found that casticin increased the expression of p-p53 and p-H2A.X in the B16F10 cells. Collectively, casticin induced DNA damage and affected DNA repair proteins in the B16F10 cells in vitro.

  5. Casticin induces DNA damage and inhibits DNA repair-associated protein expression in B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yung-Luen; Chou, Jason; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Chou, Hsiao-Min; Chou, Hsiu-Chen; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Shang, Hung-Sheng; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chu, Yung-Lin; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-10-01

    Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, has been demonstrated to possess anticancer activities, yet no study has shown in detail that casticin induces DNA damage in lung cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of casticin which induce DNA damage and nuclear condensation in murine melanoma cancer B16F10 cells. In this study, by examining and capturing images using phase contrast microscopy, we found that casticin induced cell morphological changes. Moreover, it decreased the total number of viable cells which was measured by flow cytometry. Casticin-induced DNA damage and nuclear DNA condensation were measured by DAPI staining, respectively. Western blotting indicated that casticin decreased the protein levels of O6‑methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) but increased phospho-p53 tumor suppressor protein (p-p53), phospho-ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (p-ATM), phospho-histone H2A.X (Ser139) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in the B16F10 cells. Furthermore, we used confocal laser system microscopy to examine the protein expression levels and we found that casticin increased the expression of p-p53 and p-H2A.X in the B16F10 cells. Collectively, casticin induced DNA damage and affected DNA repair proteins in the B16F10 cells in vitro. PMID:27572101

  6. Role of intercalation and redox potential in DNA photosensitization by ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: assessment using DNA repair protein tests.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Etienne; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Magnusson, Fay; Chemaly, Jad; Calsou, Patrick; Vicendo, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Here we report that the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleobases may not only be modulated by their photoredox properties but also by their DNA binding mode. The damage resulting from photolysis of synthetic oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA by [Ru(bpz)3](2+), [Ru(bipy)3](2+) and the two DNA intercalating agents [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) and [Ru(bipy)2dppz](2+) has been monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tests using proteins involved in DNA repair processes (DNA-PKCs, Ku80, Ku70, and PARP-1). The data show that intercalation controls the nature of the DNA damage photo-induced by ruthenium(II) complexes reacting with DNA via an electron transfer process. The intercalating agent [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is a powerful DNA breaker inducing the formation of both single and double (DSBs) strand breaks which are recognized by the PARP-1 and DNA-PKCs proteins respectively. [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is the first ruthenium(II) complex described in the literature that is able to induce DSBs by an electron transfer process. In contrast, its non-intercalating parent compound, [Ru(bpz)3](2+), is mostly an efficient DNA alkylating agent. Photoadducts are recognized by the proteins Ku70 and Ku80 as with cisplatin adducts. This result suggests that photoaddition of [Ru(bpz)2dppz](2+) is strongly affected by its DNA intercalation whereas its photonuclease activity is exalted. The data clearly show that DNA intercalation decreases drastically the photonuclease activity of ruthenium(II) complexes oxidizing guanine via the production of singlet oxygen. Interestingly, the DNA sequencing data revealed that the ligand dipyridophenazine exhibits on single-stranded oligonucleotides a preference for the 5'-TGCGT-3' sequence. Moreover the use of proteins involved in DNA repair processes to detect DNA damage was a powerful tool to examine the photoreactivity of ruthenium(II) complexes with nucleic acids. PMID:23835850

  7. Femoral hernia repair

    MedlinePlus

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  8. Undescended testicle repair

    MedlinePlus

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  9. Smoking and selected DNA repair gene polymorphisms in controls: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M. Elizabeth; Poole, Charles; Olshan, Andrew F.; North, Kari E.; Zeng, Donglin; Millikan, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Background When the case-only study design is used to estimate statistical interaction between genetic (G) and environmental (E) exposures, G and E must be independent in the underlying population, or the case-only estimate of interaction (COR) will be biased. Few studies have examined the occurrence of G-E association in published control group data. Methods To examine the assumption of G-E independence in empirical data, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of G-E associations in controls for frequently investigated DNA repair genes (XRCC1 Arg399Gln, Arg194Trp, or Arg280His, XPD Lys751Gln, and Asp312Asn, and XRCC3 Thr241Met) and smoking (ever/never smoking, current/not current smoker, smoking duration, smoking intensity and pack-years). Results Across the 55 included studies, SNP-smoking associations in controls (ORz) were not reliably at the null value of 1.0 for any SNP-smoking combinations. Two G-E combinations were too heterogeneous for summary estimates: XRCC1 399 and ever-never smoking (N=21), and XPD 751 and pack-years (N=12). ORz ranges for these combinations were: [ORz (95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) – 1.9 (1.2, 2.8) and 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) – 2.3 (0.8, 6.1), respectively). Estimates for studies considered homogeneous (Cochran’s Q p-value <0.10) varied 2- to 5-fold. No study characteristics were identified that could explain heterogeneity. Conclusions We recommend the independence assumption be evaluated in the population underlying any potential case-only study, rather than in a proxy control group(s) or pooled controls. Impact These results suggest that G-E association in controls may be population-specific. Increased access to control data would improve evaluation of the independence assumption. PMID:20935063

  10. Visualization of DNA double-strand break repair in live bacteria reveals dynamic recruitment of Bacillus subtilis RecF, RecO and RecN proteins to distinct sites on the nucleoids.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Dawit; Sanchez, Humberto; Alonso, Juan C; Graumann, Peter L

    2004-06-01

    We have found that SMC-like RecN protein, RecF and RecO proteins that are involved in DNA recombination play an important role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in Bacillus subtilis. Upon induction of DNA DSBs, RecN, RecO and RecF localized as a discrete focus on the nucleoids in a majority of cells, whereas two or three foci were rarely observed. RecN, RecO and RecF co-localized to the induced foci, with RecN localizing first, while RecO localized later, followed by RecF. Thus, three repair proteins were differentially recruited to distinct sites on the nucleoids, potentially constituting active DSB repair centres (RCs). RecF did not form regular foci in the absence of RecN and failed to form any foci in recO cells, demonstrating a central role for RecN and RecO in initializing the formation of RCs. RecN/O/F foci were detected in recA, recG or recU mutant cells, indicating that the proteins act upstream of proteins involved in synapsis or post-synapsis. In the absence of exogenous DNA damage, RCs were rare, but they accumulated in recA and recU cells, suggesting that DSBs occur frequently in the absence of RecA or RecU. The results suggest a model in which RecN that forms multimers in solution and high-molecular-weight complexes in cells containing DSBs initiates the formation of RCs that mediate DSB repair with the homologous sister chromosome, which presents a novel concept for DSB repair in prokaryotes. PMID:15186413

  11. DNA Methyltransferase 1-associated Protein (DMAP1) Is a Co-repressor That Stimulates DNA Methylation Globally and Locally at Sites of Double Strand Break Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun E.; Kim, Joo Hee; Taylor, Michael; Muller, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Correction of double strand DNA breaks proceeds in an error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR), which can result in gene silencing of half of the DNA molecules caused by action by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) (Cuozzo, C., Porcellini, A., Angrisano, T., Morano, A., Lee, B., Di Pardo, A., Messina, S., Iuliano, R., Fusco, A., Santillo, M. R., Muller, M. T., Chiariotti, L., Gottesman, M. E., and Avvedimento, E. V. (2007) PLoS Genet. 3, e110). To explore the mechanism that leads to HR-induced silencing, a genetic screen was carried out based on the silencing of a GFP reporter to identify potential partners. DMAP1, a DNMT1 interacting protein, was identified as a mediator of this process. DMAP1 is a potent activator of DNMT1 methylation in vitro, suggesting that DMAP1 is a co-repressor that supports the maintenance and de novo action of DNMT1. To examine critical roles for DMAP1 in vivo, lentiviral shRNA was used to conditionally reduce cellular DMAP1 levels. The shRNA transduced cells grew poorly and eventually ceased their growth. Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene p16 methylation status revealed a clear reduction in methylated CpGs in the shRNA cells, suggesting that reactivation of a tumor suppressor gene pathway caused the slow growth phenotype. Analysis of HR, using a fluorescence-based reporter, revealed that knocking down DMAP1 also caused hypomethylation of the DNA repair products following gene conversion. DMAP1 was selectively enriched in recombinant GFP chromatin based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. The picture that emerges is that DMAP1 activates DNMT1 preferentially at sites of HR repair. Because DMAP1 depleted cells display enhanced HR, we conclude that it has additional roles in genomic stability. PMID:20864525

  12. DNA methyltransferase 1-associated protein (DMAP1) is a co-repressor that stimulates DNA methylation globally and locally at sites of double strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun E; Kim, Joo Hee; Taylor, Michael; Muller, Mark T

    2010-11-26

    Correction of double strand DNA breaks proceeds in an error-free pathway of homologous recombination (HR), which can result in gene silencing of half of the DNA molecules caused by action by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) (Cuozzo, C., Porcellini, A., Angrisano, T., Morano, A., Lee, B., Di Pardo, A., Messina, S., Iuliano, R., Fusco, A., Santillo, M. R., Muller, M. T., Chiariotti, L., Gottesman, M. E., and Avvedimento, E. V. (2007) PLoS Genet. 3, e110). To explore the mechanism that leads to HR-induced silencing, a genetic screen was carried out based on the silencing of a GFP reporter to identify potential partners. DMAP1, a DNMT1 interacting protein, was identified as a mediator of this process. DMAP1 is a potent activator of DNMT1 methylation in vitro, suggesting that DMAP1 is a co-repressor that supports the maintenance and de novo action of DNMT1. To examine critical roles for DMAP1 in vivo, lentiviral shRNA was used to conditionally reduce cellular DMAP1 levels. The shRNA transduced cells grew poorly and eventually ceased their growth. Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene p16 methylation status revealed a clear reduction in methylated CpGs in the shRNA cells, suggesting that reactivation of a tumor suppressor gene pathway caused the slow growth phenotype. Analysis of HR, using a fluorescence-based reporter, revealed that knocking down DMAP1 also caused hypomethylation of the DNA repair products following gene conversion. DMAP1 was selectively enriched in recombinant GFP chromatin based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. The picture that emerges is that DMAP1 activates DNMT1 preferentially at sites of HR repair. Because DMAP1 depleted cells display enhanced HR, we conclude that it has additional roles in genomic stability. PMID:20864525

  13. Conjugational hyperrecombination achieved by derepressing the LexA regulon, altering the properties of RecA protein and inactivating mismatch repair in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Lanzov, Vladislav A; Bakhlanova, Irina V; Clark, Alvin J

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of recombinational exchanges (FRE) that disrupt co-inheritance of transferred donor markers in Escherichia coli Hfr by F(-) crosses differs by up to a factor of two depending on physiological factors and culture conditions. Under standard conditions we found FRE to be 5.01 +/- 0.43 exchanges per 100-min units of DNA length for wild-type strains of the AB1157 line. Using these conditions we showed a cumulative effect of various mutations on FRE. Constitutive SOS expression by lexA gene inactivation (lexA71::Tn5) and recA gene mutation (recA730) showed, respectively, approximately 4- and 7-fold increases of FRE. The double lexA71 recA730 combination gave an approximately 17-fold increase in FRE. Addition of mutS215::Tn10, inactivating the mismatch repair system, to the double lexA recA mutant increased FRE to approximately 26-fold above wild-type FRE. Finally, we showed that another recA mutation produced as much SOS expression as recA730 but increased FRE only 3-fold. We conclude that three factors contribute to normally low FRE under standard conditions: repression of the LexA regulon, the properties of wild-type RecA protein, and a functioning MutSHL mismatch repair system. We discuss mechanisms by which the lexA, recA, and mutS mutations may elevate FRE cumulatively to obtain hyperrecombination. PMID:12702672

  14. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protein interacts with ATM, impairs DNA repair and enhances sensitivity to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chao-Kuen; Jeng, King-Song; Machida, Keigo; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Lai, Michael M.C.

    2008-01-20

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinomas and non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas. Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of HCV possesses serine protease, nucleoside triphosphatase, and helicase activities, while NS4A functions as a cofactor for the NS3 serine protease. Here, we show that HCV NS3/4A interacts with the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), a cellular protein essential for cellular response to irradiation. The expression of NS3/4A caused cytoplasmic translocation of either endogenous or exogenous ATM and delayed dephosphorylation of the phosphorylated ATM and {gamma}-H2AX following ionizing irradiation. As a result, the irradiation-induced {gamma}-H2AX foci persisted longer in the NS3/4A-expressing cells. Furthermore, these cells showed increased comet tail moment in single-cell electrophoresis assay, indicating increased double-strand DNA breaks. The cells harboring an HCV replicon also exhibited cytoplasmic localization of ATM and increased sensitivity to irradiation. These results demonstrate that NS3/4A impairs the efficiency of DNA repair by interacting with ATM and renders the cells more sensitive to DNA damage. This effect may contribute to HCV oncogenesis.

  15. Intestinal obstruction repair

    MedlinePlus

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  16. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  17. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  18. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  19. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  20. DNA repair in Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genome stability in all living beings. Genome size as well as the repertoire and abundance of DNA repair components may vary among prokaryotic species. The bacteria of the Mollicutes class feature a small genome size, absence of a cell wall, and a parasitic lifestyle. A small number of genes make Mollicutes a good model for a “minimal cell” concept. Results In this work we studied the DNA repair system of Mycoplasma gallisepticum on genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic levels. We detected 18 out of 22 members of the DNA repair system on a protein level. We found that abundance of the respective mRNAs is less than one per cell. We studied transcriptional response of DNA repair genes of M. gallisepticum at stress conditions including heat, osmotic, peroxide stresses, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin treatment, stationary phase and heat stress in stationary phase. Conclusions Based on comparative genomic study, we determined that the DNA repair system M. gallisepticum includes a sufficient set of proteins to provide a cell with functional nucleotide and base excision repair and mismatch repair. We identified SOS-response in M. gallisepticum on ciprofloxacin, which is a known SOS-inducer, tetracycline and heat stress in the absence of established regulators. Heat stress was found to be the strongest SOS-inducer. We found that upon transition to stationary phase of culture growth transcription of DNA repair genes decreases dramatically. Heat stress does not induce SOS-response in a stationary phase. PMID:24148612

  1. In vitro binding kinetics of DNA double strand break repair proteins Ku70/80 and DNA-PKcs quantified by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdisalaam, Salim; Chen, David J.; Alexandrakis, George

    2012-02-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal types of DNA damage that occurs in eukaryotic cells. There are two distinct pathways of repairing DSBs, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In the NHEJ repairing pathway, DSB recognition and repair initiation is directed by the interaction of DNAbinding subunit Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-PK protein catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). Mutations in these proteins result in repair stalling and eventual DNA misrepair that may lead to genomic instability. Studying the binding kinetics of these repair proteins is therefore important for understanding the conditions under which DSB repair stalls. Currently open questions are, what is the minimum DNA length that this complex needs to get a foothold onto a DSB and how tightly does DNA-PKcs bind onto the DNA-Ku70/80 complex. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS) techniques have the potential to give information about the binding kinetics of DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions at the single-molecule level. In this work, FCS/FCCS measurements were performed to explore the minimum DNA base-pair (bp) length that Ku70/80 needed as a foothold to bind effectively onto the tips of different lengths of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) fragments that mimic DSBs. 25 bp, 33 bp and 50 bp of dsDNA were used for these experiments and binding was studied as a function of salt concentration in solution. It was found that the 25 bp binding was weak even at physiological salt concentrations while the dissociation constant (Kd) remained constant for 33 and 50 bp dsDNA strand lengths. These studies indicated that the minimum binding length for the Ku70/8 is in the vicinity of 25 bp. The specificity of binding of Ku70/80 was proven by competitive binding FCCS experiments between Cy5-labeled DNA, GFP-Ku70/80 and titrations of unlabeled Ku70/80. Finally, using FCCS it was possible to estimate

  2. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  3. Mismatch repair mRNA and protein expression in intestinal adenocarcinoma in sika deer (Cervus nippon) resembling heritable non-polyposis colorectal cancer in man.

    PubMed

    Jahns, H; Browne, J A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas seen in an inbred herd of farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) morphologically resembled human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Features common to both included multiple de novo sites of tumourigenesis in the proximal colon, sessile and non-polyposis mucosal changes, the frequent finding of mucinous type adenocarcinoma, lymphocyte infiltration into the neoplastic tubules and Crohn's-like lymphoid follicles at the deep margin of the tumour. HNPCC is defined by a germline mutation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes resulting in their inactivation and loss of expression. To test the hypothesis that similar MMR gene inactivation occurs in the deer tumours, the expression of the four most important MMR genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2, was examined at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (n = 12) and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (n = 40) in tumour and control tissues. All four genes were expressed equally in normal and neoplastic tissues, so MMR gene inactivation could not be implicated in the carcinogenesis of this tumour in sika deer. PMID:25678423

  4. Genetic analysis of the Replication Protein A large subunit family in Arabidopsis reveals unique and overlapping roles in DNA repair, meiosis and DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Aklilu, Behailu B.; Soderquist, Ryan S.; Culligan, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that binds single-stranded DNA. In plants, multiple genes encode the three RPA subunits (RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3), including five RPA1-like genes in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests two distinct groups composed of RPA1A, RPA1C, RPA1E (ACE group) and RPA1B, RPA1D (BD group). ACE-group members are transcriptionally induced by ionizing radiation, while BD-group members show higher basal transcription and are not induced by ionizing radiation. Analysis of rpa1 T-DNA insertion mutants demonstrates that although each mutant line is likely null, all mutant lines are viable and display normal vegetative growth. The rpa1c and rpa1e single mutants however display hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and combination of rpa1c and rpa1e results in additive hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents. Combination of the partially sterile rpa1a with rpa1c results in complete sterility, incomplete synapsis and meiotic chromosome fragmentation, suggesting an early role for RPA1C in promoting homologous recombination. Combination of either rpa1c and/or rpa1e with atr revealed additive hypersensitivity phenotypes consistent with each functioning in unique repair pathways. In contrast, rpa1b rpa1d double mutant plants display slow growth and developmental defects under non-damaging conditions. We show these defects in the rpa1b rpa1d mutant are likely the result of defective DNA replication leading to reduction in cell division. PMID:24335281

  5. Nuclear compartmentalization of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Kalousi, Alkmini; Soutoglou, Evi

    2016-04-01

    The continuous threats on genome integrity by endogenous and exogenous sources have rendered cells competent to overcome these challenges by activating DNA repair pathways. A complex network of proteins and their modifications participate in orchestrated signaling cascades, which are induced in response to DNA damage and may determine the choice of repair pathway. In this review, we summarize recent findings in the field of DNA Double Strand Break repair with regard to the positioning of the break in the highly compartmentalized nucleus. We aim to highlight the importance of chromatin state along with the nuclear position of the DNA lesions on the choice of DNA repair pathway and maintenance of genome integrity. PMID:27266837

  6. Roles of the major, small, acid-soluble spore proteins and spore-specific and universal DNA repair mechanisms in resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to ionizing radiation from X rays and high-energy charged-particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Setlow, Peter; Horneck, Gerda; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Rettberg, Petra; Doherty, Aidan J; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2008-02-01

    The role of DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination, spore photoproduct lyase, and DNA polymerase I and genome protection via alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) in Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to accelerated heavy ions (high-energy charged [HZE] particles) and X rays has been studied. Spores deficient in NHEJ and alpha/beta-type SASP were significantly more sensitive to HZE particle bombardment and X-ray irradiation than were the recA, polA, and splB mutant and wild-type spores, indicating that NHEJ provides an efficient DNA double-strand break repair pathway during spore germination and that the loss of the alpha/beta-type SASP leads to a significant radiosensitivity to ionizing radiation, suggesting the essential function of these spore proteins as protectants of spore DNA against ionizing radiation.

  7. Effects of temozolomide (TMZ) on the expression and interaction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and DNA repair proteins in human malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Castro, Gisela Natalia; Cayado-Gutiérrez, Niubys; Zoppino, Felipe Carlos Martín; Fanelli, Mariel Andrea; Cuello-Carrión, Fernando Darío; Sottile, Mayra; Nadin, Silvina Beatriz; Ciocca, Daniel Ramón

    2015-03-01

    We previously reported the association of HSPA1A and HSPB1 with high-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that these proteins might be involved in disease outcome and response to treatment. With the aim to better understand the resistance/susceptibility processes associated to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, the current study was performed in three human malignant glioma cell lines by focusing on several levels: (a) apoptotic index and senescence, (b) DNA damage, and (c) interaction of HSPB1 with players of the DNA damage response. Three human glioma cell lines, Gli36, U87, and DBTRG, were treated with TMZ evaluating cell viability and survival, apoptosis, senescence, and comets (comet assay). The expression of HSPA (HSPA1A and HSPA8), HSPB1, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), MLH1, and MSH2 was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Immunoprecipitation was used to analyze protein interaction. The cell lines exhibited differences in viability, apoptosis, and senescence after TMZ administration. We then focused on Gli36 cells (relatively unstudied) which showed very low recovery capacity following TMZ treatment, and this was related to high DNA damage levels; however, the cells maintained their viability. In these cells, MGMT, MSH2, HSPA, and HSPB1 levels increased significantly after TMZ administration. In addition, MSH2 and HSPB1 proteins appeared co-localized by confocal microscopy. This co-localization increased after TMZ treatment, and in immunoprecipitation analysis, MSH2 and HSPB1 appeared interacting. In contrast, HSPB1 did not interact with MGMT. We show in glioma cells the biological effects of TMZ and how this drug affects the expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs), MGMT, MSH2, and MLH1. In Gli36 cells, the results suggest that interactions between HSPB1 and MSH2, including co-nuclear localization, may be important in determining cell sensitivity to TMZ. PMID:25155585

  8. The E144 residue of Scherffelia dubia centrin discriminates between the DNA repair protein XPC and the centrosomal protein Sfi1☆

    PubMed Central

    Grecu, Dora; Blouquit, Yves; Assairi, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    Centrins are members of the EF-hand family of calcium-binding proteins, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Centrins bind to several cellular targets, through a hydrophobic triad. However, the W1xxL4xxxL8 triad in XPC (Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C protein) is found in the reverse orientation, as in the L8xxxL4xxW1 triad in Sfi1 (Suppressor of Fermentation-Induced loss of stress resistance protein 1). As shown by previous NMR studies of human centrin 2 in complex with XPC or Sfi1, the E148 residue of human centrin 2 is in contact with XPC but is pushed away from the triad of Sfi1. We corroborated these findings using site-directed mutagenesis to generate mutations in Scherffelia dubia centrin (SdCen) and by using isothermal titration calorimetry to analyze the binding affinity of these mutants to XPC and Sfi1. We mutated the F109 residue, which is the main residue involved in target binding regardless of triad orientation, and the E144 residue, which was thought to be involved only in XPC binding. The F109L mutation reduced the binding of SdCen to XPC and Sfi1 and the negative effect was greater upon temperature increase. By contrast, the E144A mutation reduced the binding to XPC but had no effect on Sfi1 binding. The F109L-E144A mutation enhanced the negative effect of the two single mutations on XPC binding. Sfi1 proteins from Ostreococcus lucimarinus and Ostreococcus tauri, which belong to the same clade as S. dubia, were also investigated. A comparative analysis shows that the triad residues are more conserved than those in human Sfi1. PMID:24371720

  9. The E144 residue of Scherffelia dubia centrin discriminates between the DNA repair protein XPC and the centrosomal protein Sfi1.

    PubMed

    Grecu, Dora; Blouquit, Yves; Assairi, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    Centrins are members of the EF-hand family of calcium-binding proteins, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Centrins bind to several cellular targets, through a hydrophobic triad. However, the W(1)xxL(4)xxxL(8) triad in XPC (Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C protein) is found in the reverse orientation, as in the L(8)xxxL(4)xxW(1) triad in Sfi1 (Suppressor of Fermentation-Induced loss of stress resistance protein 1). As shown by previous NMR studies of human centrin 2 in complex with XPC or Sfi1, the E148 residue of human centrin 2 is in contact with XPC but is pushed away from the triad of Sfi1. We corroborated these findings using site-directed mutagenesis to generate mutations in Scherffelia dubia centrin (SdCen) and by using isothermal titration calorimetry to analyze the binding affinity of these mutants to XPC and Sfi1. We mutated the F109 residue, which is the main residue involved in target binding regardless of triad orientation, and the E144 residue, which was thought to be involved only in XPC binding. The F109L mutation reduced the binding of SdCen to XPC and Sfi1 and the negative effect was greater upon temperature increase. By contrast, the E144A mutation reduced the binding to XPC but had no effect on Sfi1 binding. The F109L-E144A mutation enhanced the negative effect of the two single mutations on XPC binding. Sfi1 proteins from Ostreococcus lucimarinus and Ostreococcus tauri, which belong to the same clade as S. dubia, were also investigated. A comparative analysis shows that the triad residues are more conserved than those in human Sfi1.

  10. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage and DNA Repair in Female Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Grindel, Annemarie; Guggenberger, Bianca; Eichberger, Lukas; Pöppelmeyer, Christina; Gschaider, Michaela; Tosevska, Anela; Mare, George; Briskey, David; Brath, Helmut; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is associated with oxidative stress which in turn can lead to DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to analyze oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA repair in regard to hyperglycemic state and diabetes duration. Methods Female T2DM patients (n = 146) were enrolled in the MIKRODIAB study and allocated in two groups regarding their glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (HbA1c≤7.5%, n = 74; HbA1c>7.5%, n = 72). In addition, tertiles according to diabetes duration (DD) were created (DDI = 6.94±3.1 y, n = 49; DDII = 13.35±1.1 y, n = 48; DDIII = 22.90±7.3 y, n = 49). Oxidative stress parameters, including ferric reducing ability potential, malondialdehyde, oxidized and reduced glutathione, reduced thiols, oxidized LDL and F2-Isoprostane as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Damage to DNA was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and whole blood with single cell gel electrophoresis. DNA base excision repair capacity was tested with the modified comet repair assay. Additionally, mRNA expressions of nine genes related to base excision repair were analyzed in a subset of 46 matched individuals. Results No significant differences in oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to DNA and base excision repair capacity, neither between a HbA1c cut off />7.5%, nor between diabetes duration was found. A significant up-regulation in mRNA expression was found for APEX1, LIG3 and XRCC1 in patients with >7.5% HbA1c. Additionally, we observed higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL/HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, Framingham risk score, systolic blood pressure, BMI and lower HDL-cholesterol in the hyperglycemic group. Conclusion BMI, blood pressure and blood lipid status were worse in hyperglycemic individuals. However, no major disparities regarding oxidative stress, damage to DNA and DNA repair were present which

  11. RhoA/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling after growth arrest-specific protein 6/mer receptor tyrosine kinase engagement promotes epithelial cell growth and wound repair via upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Hyun-Jung; Woo, So-Youn; Park, Eun-Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) signaling modulates cytokine secretion and helps to regulate the immune response and apoptotic cell clearance. Signaling pathways that activate an epithelial growth program in macrophages are still poorly defined. We report that Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling can induce the production of epithelial growth factor hepatic growth factor (HGF) in macrophages, which ultimately promotes epithelial cell proliferation and wound repair. The RhoA/protein kinase B (Akt)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, including p38 MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase axis in RAW 264.7 cells, was identified as Gas6/Mer downstream signaling pathway for the upregulation of HGF mRNA and protein. Conditioned medium from RAW 264.7 cells that had been exposed to Gas6 or apoptotic cells enhanced epithelial cell proliferation of the epithelial cell line LA-4 and wound closure. Cotreatment with an HGF receptor-blocking antibody or c-Met antagonist downregulated this enhancement. Inhibition of Mer with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by RhoA siRNA or Rho kinase pharmacologic inhibitor suppressed Gas6-induced HGF mRNA and protein expression in macrophages and blocked epithelial cell proliferation and wound closure induced by the conditioned medium. Our data provide evidence that macrophages can be reprogrammed by Gas6 to promote epithelial proliferation and wound repair via HGF, which is induced by the Mer/RhoA/Akt/MAP kinase pathway. Thus, defects in Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling in macrophages may delay tissue repair after injury to the alveolar epithelium.

  12. Polymorphisms in metabolism and repair genes affects DNA damage caused by open-cast coal mining exposure.

    PubMed

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; León-Mejía, Grethel; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Brango, Hugo; Kvitko, Katia; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggest that occupational exposure to open-cast coal mining residues like dust particles, heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause a wide range of DNA damage and genomic instability that could be associated to initial steps in cancer development and other work-related diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate if key polymorphisms in metabolism genes CYP1A1Msp1, GSTM1Null, GSTT1Null and DNA repair genes XRCC1Arg194Trp and hOGG1Ser326Cys could modify individual susceptibility to adverse coal exposure effects, considering the DNA damage (Comet assay) and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes (CBMN) and buccal mucosa cells (BMNCyt) as endpoints for genotoxicity. The study population is comprised of 200 healthy male subjects, 100 open-cast coal-mining workers from "El Cerrejón" (world's largest open-cast coal mine located in Guajira - Colombia) and 100 non-exposed referents from general population. The data revealed a significant increase of CBMN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed workers carrying the wild-type variant of GSTT1 (+) gene. Exposed subjects carrying GSTT1null polymorphism showed a lower micronucleus frequency compared with their positive counterparts (FR: 0.83; P=0.04), while BMNCyt, frequency and Comet assay parameters in lymphocytes: Damage Index (DI) and percentage of DNA in the tail (Tail % DNA) were significantly higher in exposed workers with the GSTM1Null polymorphism. Other exfoliated buccal mucosa abnormalities related to cell death (Karyorrhexis and Karyolysis) were increased in GSTT/M1Null carriers. Nuclear buds were significantly higher in workers carrying the CYP1A1Msp1 (m1/m2, m2/m2) allele. Moreover, BMNCyt frequency and Comet assay parameters were significantly lower in exposed carriers of XRCC1Arg194Trp (Arg/Trp, Trp/Trp) and hOGG1Ser326Cys (Ser/Cys, Cys/Cys), thereby providing new data to the increasing evidence about the protective role of these polymorphisms

  13. Polymorphisms in metabolism and repair genes affects DNA damage caused by open-cast coal mining exposure.

    PubMed

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Sosa, Milton Quintana; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; León-Mejía, Grethel; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; Brango, Hugo; Kvitko, Katia; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-09-15

    Increasing evidence suggest that occupational exposure to open-cast coal mining residues like dust particles, heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause a wide range of DNA damage and genomic instability that could be associated to initial steps in cancer development and other work-related diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate if key polymorphisms in metabolism genes CYP1A1Msp1, GSTM1Null, GSTT1Null and DNA repair genes XRCC1Arg194Trp and hOGG1Ser326Cys could modify individual susceptibility to adverse coal exposure effects, considering the DNA damage (Comet assay) and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes (CBMN) and buccal mucosa cells (BMNCyt) as endpoints for genotoxicity. The study population is comprised of 200 healthy male subjects, 100 open-cast coal-mining workers from "El Cerrejón" (world's largest open-cast coal mine located in Guajira - Colombia) and 100 non-exposed referents from general population. The data revealed a significant increase of CBMN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed workers carrying the wild-type variant of GSTT1 (+) gene. Exposed subjects carrying GSTT1null polymorphism showed a lower micronucleus frequency compared with their positive counterparts (FR: 0.83; P=0.04), while BMNCyt, frequency and Comet assay parameters in lymphocytes: Damage Index (DI) and percentage of DNA in the tail (Tail % DNA) were significantly higher in exposed workers with the GSTM1Null polymorphism. Other exfoliated buccal mucosa abnormalities related to cell death (Karyorrhexis and Karyolysis) were increased in GSTT/M1Null carriers. Nuclear buds were significantly higher in workers carrying the CYP1A1Msp1 (m1/m2, m2/m2) allele. Moreover, BMNCyt frequency and Comet assay parameters were significantly lower in exposed carriers of XRCC1Arg194Trp (Arg/Trp, Trp/Trp) and hOGG1Ser326Cys (Ser/Cys, Cys/Cys), thereby providing new data to the increasing evidence about the protective role of these polymorphisms

  14. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  15. Differential repair responses in the coronal and radicular areas of the exposed rat molar pulp induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (osteogenic protein 1).

    PubMed

    Six, Ngampis; Lasfargues, Jean-Jacques; Goldberg, Michel

    2002-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP 7), also termed osteogenic protein 1, a member of the transforming growth-factor superfamily, was examined for its efficacy in inducing reparative dentinogenesis in the exposed pulps of rat molars. To determine if the reaction was dose-dependent, collagen pellets containing 1, 3 or 10 microgram of recombinant BMP 7 were inserted in intentionally perforated pulps (10-12 pulps per group) in the deepest part of half-moon class V-like cavities cut in the mesial aspect of upper first molars. As controls, the collagen carrier (CC group) alone and calcium hydroxide (Ca group) were used as capping agents. All cavities were then restored with a glass-ionomer cement. Half of the animals were killed after 8 days and the other half after 28 days, by intracardiac perfusion of fixative. The molars were processed for histological evaluation by light microscopy. No difference in effect could be detected between the three concentrations of BMP 7 groups at either time interval. After 8 days, all groups showed varying inflammation, from mild of severe, and the Ca group demonstrated early formation of a reparative dentine bridge. At 28 days the CC group displayed irregular osteodentine formation, leaving some unmineralized areas at the exposure site and interglobular unmineralized areas containing pulp remnants. In the Ca-treated pulps, the initial formation of thick reparative osteodentine bridges that sealed more or less completely the pulp perforation was followed, in the deeper part, by irregular tubular dentine. In most BMP 7-treated specimens, the initial inflammation has resolved at 8 days and at 28 days heterogeneous mineralization or osteodentine filled the mesial coronal pulp. They also had complete filling of the radicular pulp by homogenous mineralization in the mesial root; this reaction was found in 11 teeth in the BMP 7 group, one tooth in the CC group an none of the Ca group. These results emphasize the biological differences the

  16. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) expression in esophageal cancers and response to cisplatin and irinotecan based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bharthuar, Anubha; Black, Jennifer D.; Levea, Charles; Malhotra, Usha; Mashtare, Terry L.; Iyer, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer patients face a dismal outcome despite tri-modality management and median survival remains 15-18 months. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is an ATP-dependent efflux protein associated with chemotherapy resistance. The role of BCRP expression in esophageal cancer and normal esophageal cells is not known. Excision repair cross complement-1 (ERCC1) overexpression has been correlated with poorer response to cisplatin based chemotherapy. We examined the expression of BCRP and ERCC1 in patients with esophageal cancer and correlated it with survival in patients receiving irinotecan and cisplatin based chemotherapy. Methods With IRB approval, 40 cases of esophageal cancer diagnosed from 2004-2008, were stained for BCRP and ERCC1 expression by immunohistochemistry and scored by a pathologist blinded to clinical data. Baseline demographics, therapy given and survival data were collected and correlated with BCRP and ERCC1 expression. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine association between BCRP and ERCC1 expression and demographics. Cox proportional hazards model was used for association of BCRP and ERCC1 with survival. Results On immunohistochemistry, 30/40 cancers (75%) expressed BCRP. Interestingly, down-regulation of BCRP expression in tumor compared with normal cells was seen in 40% of patients. ERCC1 positivity was seen in 15/30 cases (50%). Median overall survival (OS) was 19 months with no difference in survival between BCRP positive and negative patients (P=0.13) or ERCC1 positive and negative patients (P=0.85). Estimated hazard ratio (HR) of death for BRCP positive patients was 2.29 (95% CI: 0.79-6.64) and for ERCC1 positive patients was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.46-2.56). There was no association of BCRP and ERCC1 expression with disease stage, age, gender or histology. For patients who received cisplatin and irinotecan as first line chemotherapy, there was no difference in survival based on BCRP or ERCC1 status. Conclusions BCRP

  17. Production of truncated MBD4 protein by frameshift mutation in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cells enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity that is independent of hMLH1 status.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie; Hamaya, Yasushi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Kanaoka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Ken; Carethers, John M

    2016-07-01

    Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) is a DNA glycosylase that can remove 5-fluorodeoxyuracil from DNA as well as repair T:G or U:G mismatches. MBD4 is a target for frameshift mutation with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, creating a truncated MBD4 protein (TruMBD4) that lacks its glycosylase domain. Here we show that TruMBD4 plays an important role for enhancing 5-fluorouracil (5FU) sensitivity in MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cells. We found biochemically that TruMBD4 binds to 5FU incorporated into DNA with higher affinity than MBD4. TruMBD4 reduced the 5FU affinity of the MMR recognition complexes that determined 5FU sensitivity by previous reports, suggesting other mechanisms might be operative to trigger cytotoxicity. To analyze overall 5FU sensitivity with TruMBD4, we established TruMBD4 overexpression in hMLH1-proficient or -deficient colorectal cancer cells followed by treatment with 5FU. 5FU-treated TruMBD4 cells demonstrated diminished growth characteristics compared to controls, independently of hMLH1 status. Flow cytometry revealed more 5FU-treated TruMBD4 cells in S phase than controls. We conclude that patients with MMR-deficient cancers, which show characteristic resistance to 5FU therapy, may be increased for 5FU sensitivity via secondary frameshift mutation of the base excision repair gene MBD4.

  18. Mutations of the Huntington's disease protein impact on the ATM-dependent signaling and repair pathways of the radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks: corrective effect of statins and bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, Mélanie L; Sonzogni, Laurène; Granzotto, Adeline; Bodgi, Larry; Lartin, Océane; Devic, Clément; Vogin, Guillaume; Pereira, Sandrine; Foray, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative syndrome caused by mutations of the IT15 gene encoding for the huntingtin protein. Some research groups have previously shown that HD is associated with cellular radiosensitivity in quiescent cells. However, there is still no mechanistic model explaining such specific clinical feature. Here, we examined the ATM-dependent signaling and repair pathways of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), the key damage induced by ionizing radiation, in human HD skin fibroblasts. Early after irradiation, quiescent HD fibroblasts showed an abnormally low rate of recognized DSB managed by non-homologous end-joining reflected by a low yield of nuclear foci formed by phosphorylated H2AX histones and by 53BP1 protein. Furthermore, HD cells elicited a significant but moderate yield of unrepaired DSB 24 h after irradiation. Irradiated HD cells also presented a delayed nucleo-shuttling of phosphorylated forms of the ATM kinase, potentially due to a specific binding of ATM to mutated huntingtin in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that HD belongs to the group of syndromes associated with a low but significant defect of DSB signaling and repair defect associated with radiosensitivity. A combination of biphosphonates and statins complements these impairments by facilitating the nucleo-shuttling of ATM, increasing the yield of recognized and repaired DSB. PMID:24277524

  19. Activated RecA protein may induce expression of a gene that is not controlled by the LexA repressor and whose function is required for mutagenesis and repair of UV-irradiated bacteriophage lambda

    SciTech Connect

    Calsou, P.; Villaverde, A.; Defais, M.

    1987-10-01

    The activated form of the RecA protein (RecA) is known to be involved in the reactivation and mutagenesis of UV-irradiated bacteriophage lambda and in the expression of the SOS response in Escherichia coli K-12. The expression of the SOS response requires cleavage of the LexA repressor by RecA and the subsequent expression of LexA-controlled genes. The evidence presented here suggests that RecA induces the expression of a gene(s) that is not under LexA control and that is also necessary for maximal repair and mutagenesis of damaged phage. This conclusion is based on the chloramphenicol sensitivity of RecA -dependent repair and mutagenesis of damaged bacteriophage lambda in lexA(Def) hosts.

  20. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  1. Human mismatch-repair protein MutL homologue 1 (MLH1) interacts with Escherichia coli MutL and MutS in vivo and in vitro: a simple genetic system to assay MLH1 function.

    PubMed Central

    Quaresima, Barbara; Alifano, Pietro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Avvedimento, Enrico V; Costanzo, Francesco S; Venuta, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    A simple genetic system has been developed to test the effect of over-expression of wild-type or mutated human MutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) proteins on methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) in Escherichia coli. The system relies on detection of Lac(+) revertants using MMR-proficient or MMR-deficient E. coli strains carrying a lac +1 frameshift mutation expressing hMLH1 proteins. We report that expression of wild-type hMLH1 protein causes an approx. 19-fold increase in mutation rates. The mutator phenotype was due to the ability of hMLH1 protein to interact with bacterial MutL and MutS proteins, thereby interfering with the formation of complexes between MMR proteins and mismatched DNA. Conversely, expression of proteins encoded by alleles deriving from hereditary-non-polyposis-colon-cancer (HNPCC) families decreases mutation rates, depending on the specific amino acid substitutions. These effects parallel the MutL-and MutS-binding and ATP-binding/hydrolysis activities of the mutated proteins. PMID:12513688

  2. The conserved Cockayne syndrome B-piggyBac fusion protein (CSB-PGBD3) affects DNA repair and induces both interferon-like and innate antiviral responses in CSB-null cells.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Arnold D; Gray, Lucas T; Pavelitz, Thomas; Newman, John C; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Weiner, Alan M

    2012-05-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a segmental progeria most often caused by mutations in the CSB gene encoding a SWI/SNF-like ATPase required for transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR). Over 43Mya before marmosets diverged from humans, a piggyBac3 (PGBD3) transposable element integrated into intron 5 of the CSB gene. As a result, primate CSB genes now generate both CSB protein and a conserved CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein in which the first 5 exons of CSB are alternatively spliced to the PGBD3 transposase. Using a host cell reactivation assay, we show that the fusion protein inhibits TCR of oxidative damage but facilitates TCR of UV damage. We also show by microarray analysis that expression of the fusion protein alone in CSB-null UV-sensitive syndrome (UVSS) cells induces an interferon-like response that resembles both the innate antiviral response and the prolonged interferon response normally maintained by unphosphorylated STAT1 (U-STAT1); moreover, as might be expected based on conservation of the fusion protein, this potentially cytotoxic interferon-like response is largely reversed by coexpression of functional CSB protein. Interestingly, expression of CSB and the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein together, but neither alone, upregulates the insulin growth factor binding protein IGFBP5 and downregulates IGFBP7, suggesting that the fusion protein may also confer a metabolic advantage, perhaps in the presence of DNA damage. Finally, we show that the fusion protein binds in vitro to members of a dispersed family of 900 internally deleted piggyBac elements known as MER85s, providing a potential mechanism by which the fusion protein could exert widespread effects on gene expression. Our data suggest that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein is important in both health and disease, and could play a role in Cockayne syndrome. PMID:22483866

  3. Selenium compounds activate ATM-dependent DNA damage responses via the mismatch repair protein hMLH1 in colorectal cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that selenium supplementation suppresses risk of colorectal and other cancers. The majority of colorectal cancers are characterized by a defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) process. Here, we have employed the MMR-deficient HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells ...

  4. Functional analysis of the interaction between the mismatch repair protein MutS and the replication processivity factor β clamp in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Monti, Mariela R; Miguel, Virginia; Borgogno, Maria V; Argaraña, Carlos E

    2012-05-01

    Interaction between MutS and the replication factor β clamp has been extensively studied in a Mismatch Repair context; however, its functional consequences are not well understood. We have analyzed the role of the MutS-β clamp interaction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by characterizing a β clamp binding motif mutant, denominated MutSβ, which does not interact with the replication factor. A detailed characterization of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 harboring a chromosomal mutSβ allele demonstrated that this mutant strain exhibited mutation rates to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin resistance comparable to that of the parental strain. mutSβ PAO1 was as proficient as the parental strain for DNA repair under highly mutagenic conditions imposed by the adenine base analog 2-aminopurine. In addition, using a tetracycline resistance reversion assay to assess the repair