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Sample records for repeat criminal offenders

  1. A criminal offender introspective report.

    PubMed

    Barnett, O; Barnett, D J

    1975-08-01

    The development of a new scale suitable for research with the criminal offender was described. Based on the factor analysis of an item pool delineating sociopathic personality traits, five factors were derived to compose an 80-item criminal offender introspective report (COIR). PMID:1195092

  2. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-01-01

    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  3. Empathy and Socialization in Repeat Offenders, First Offenders, and Normals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, P. A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    To determine the relationship between empathy and socialization in criminal and noncriminal behavior patterns, two studies were conducted. Hogan's model of moral development and implications for future research in terms of differentiating between first and repeat offenders in prison groups are discussed. (Author)

  4. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually. PMID:15974425

  5. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

  6. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    PubMed

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.

  7. Profiling high-range speeding offenders: investigating criminal history, personal characteristics, traffic offences, and crash history.

    PubMed

    Watson, B; Watson, A; Siskind, V; Fleiter, J; Soole, D

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports profiling information for speeding offenders and is part of a larger project that assessed the deterrent effects of increased speeding penalties in Queensland, Australia, using a total of 84,456 speeding offences. The speeding offenders were classified into three groups based on the extent and severity of an index offence: once-only low-rang offenders; repeat high-range offenders; and other offenders. The three groups were then compared in terms of personal characteristics, traffic offences, crash history and criminal history. Results revealed a number of significant differences between repeat high-range offenders and those in the other two offender groups. Repeat high-range speeding offenders were more likely to be male, younger, hold a provisional and a motorcycle licence, to have committed a range of previous traffic offences, to have a significantly greater likelihood of crash involvement, and to have been involved in multiple-vehicle crashes than drivers in the other two offender types. Additionally, when a subset of offenders' criminal histories were examined, results revealed that repeat high-range speeding offenders were also more likely to have committed a previous criminal offence compared to once only low-range and other offenders and that 55.2% of the repeat high-range offenders had a criminal history. They were also significantly more likely to have committed drug offences and offences against order than the once only low-range speeding offenders, and significantly more likely to have committed regulation offences than those in the other offenders group. Overall, the results indicate that speeding offenders are not an homogeneous group and that, therefore, more tailored and innovative sanctions should be considered and evaluated for high-range recidivist speeders because they are a high-risk road user group. PMID:25463948

  8. The Characteristics of Repeat Offenders Referred for Mental Health Evaluation in the Juvenile Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kenneth M.; Powell, Elaine; Camp, Patti

    This study examined demographic, clinical, and criminal histories as they related to whether 244 youth (ages 12-18) referred for mental health services at a juvenile corrections facility were repeat or first-time offenders. The population of 244 patients included 144 first-time offenders and 100 repeat offenders. Results of the study found that…

  9. Criminal Recidivism Among Homicide Offenders.

    PubMed

    Liem, Marieke; Zahn, Margaret A; Tichavsky, Lisa

    2014-01-16

    Homicide offenders are released to communities in large numbers. Little is known, however, about how these offenders fare after release. The aim of this study is threefold: to examine recidivism patterns among released homicide offenders, to assess to what extent predictors for recidivism are similar to those for other violent offenders, and to study whether the degree of recidivism differs by type of homicide. Using data from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, we extracted all individuals who committed a homicide in Philadelphia between 1977 and 1983 and who were paroled. Data were supplemented with court documents, police department data, and newspaper articles. We examined frequency and severity of recidivism, and used logistic regression analyses and survival analyses to examine the likelihood and time to recidivism. Of the 92 paroled homicide offenders, 54% recidivated; 15% recidivated with a violent offense. Race and original conviction for a financially motivated homicide were significant predictors of recidivism. While socio-demographic predictors of recidivism have theoretical and practical significance, focusing on factors associated with the motive of the original homicide may prove highly beneficial for intervention strategies and post-release planning.

  10. Young Offenders' Diagnoses as Predictors of Subsequent Adult Criminal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevc, Irene; Duchesne, Thierry; Rosenthal, Jeffrey; Rossman, Lianne; Theodor, Frances; Sowa, Edward

    This longitudinal study of 248 male offenders examined the relationship between psychiatric disorders, diagnosed in adolescence, and subsequent adult criminal activity. Criminal offences were tracked for an average of 8.7 years from age 18-33. Cox Proportional Intensity regression analyses were conducted to predict the rates of adult offending of…

  11. The Developmentally Disabled Offender in the Illinois Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Services for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Reported are findings from five studies which explored the special problems and needs of the developmentally disabled offender in the Illinois criminal justice system. Introductory information includes a discussion of the problem, goals of the present study, and a review of programs for retarded offenders throughout the U.S. Presented are five…

  12. Violent offender research and implications for the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Rice, M E

    1997-04-01

    Some offenders are at very high risk to reoffend. Research conducted at the author's institution and elsewhere shows that psychopathic offenders are especially likely to be violent, that future violence can be predicted with considerable accuracy among men who have committed at least 1 violent offense, and that treatment programs to reduce dangerousness do not always have the intended effects (i.e., they may actually increase the dangerousness of some individuals). Implications for the criminal justice system pertain to release following insanity acquittal, offender sentencing and parole, preventive detention, offender treatment, and program evaluation.

  13. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  14. INSANITY AND CRIMINAL OFFENDERS. SOME COMMENTS ON THE REPORT OF GOVERNOR'S SPECIAL COMMISSIONS ON INSANITY AND CRIMINAL OFFENDERS.

    PubMed

    MCGAUGHEY, W M

    1963-11-01

    The definition proposed by the Commissions on Insanity and Criminal Offenders for determining criminal responsibility will not resolve the issue between offenders who are considered blameworthy and regarded as criminals and those who are not. No formula is satisfactory for differentiating responsibility and irresponsibility. Determinism, which is the fundamental tenet of all science, is violated by the assumption that an individual can wilfully elect to commit an act which, in fact, is the result of causal antecedents. This concept is in conflict with the basic premise of criminal law that an individual is considered criminally responsible unless it can be proved to the contrary. Since it is unlikely that any proposal to abolish the concept of criminal responsibility would be even considered, it is suggested that no definition be used at all. Laws similar to those for the disposition of the mentally ill could be enacted, with emphasis not on the concept of criminal responsibility and moral blameworthiness but on the offender's dangerousness to others, the disposition then being planned to fit the offender rather than the offense.

  15. HIV-positive repeat offenders not entitled to leniency.

    PubMed

    1997-09-19

    A three-judge panel of the 4th Circuit Louisiana Appeals Court ruled that HIV infection is not a mitigating factor for a prison sentence reduction in cases of repeat offenders. Therefore, the State's Habitual Offender Law requiring mandatory life sentencing for a fourth conviction will apply to [name removed], charged with possession of cocaine and intent to distribute. While this law can be waived in certain cases, the court would not grant leniency in this instance. [Name removed] was previously convicted of rape, drug offenses, and firearms charges. The appeals court ruled that [name removed]'s long and serious history of criminal offenses and anti-social behavior did not warrant leniency. PMID:11364684

  16. Criminal recidivism of incarcerated male nonviolent offenders in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong

    2015-02-01

    Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed.

  17. Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harris, V; Koepsell, T D

    1996-01-01

    Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders, In the context of a county jail, has not been extensively studied. This study compares the rate of criminal recidivism between those who suffered from a mental illness at the time of arrest and those who did not. In addition, the length of incarceration between these two groups was compared. Using survival analysis, a risk assessment model describing the key features involved in criminal recidivism among the mentally ill may be built. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind and will suggest areas of intervention that could prevent criminal recidivism among mentally ill offenders. Due to the lack of literature on the subject, this pilot study provides estimates of key parameters, such as types of crimes and frequency of incarceration, needed to undertake a definitive study. Furthermore, the pilot study provides an opportunity to develop and field test a data abstraction form and computer matching methods.

  18. Race and Criminal Deviance: A Study of Youthful Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony R.; Lewis, Michael

    In order to examine empirically the impact of race on aspects of the nature and etiology of criminal deviance, questionnaires were administered to 234 predominantly lower class black and white inmates in a prison for youthful offenders. The data thus provided indicated that the different experiences associated with race in contemporary America…

  19. Doing Justice? Criminal Offenders with Developmental Disabilities. Detailed Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersilia, Joan

    People with cognitive, intellectual, or developmental disabilities are a small but increasing portion of offenders in the criminal justice system. People with developmental disabilities are estimated to comprise 2-3% of the general population, but 4-10% of the prison population, and an even higher percentage of those in juvenile facilities and in…

  20. The Self-Stigma Process in Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly E.; Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Upon conviction, individuals receive the stigmatizing label “criminal offender.” Existing stereotypes about criminal offenders may be integrated into the self-concept, a phenomenon known as self-stigma. In many stigmatized groups, self-stigma is a robust predictor of poor functioning (Livingston & Boyd, 2010; Schomerus et al., 2011). However, little is known about how self-stigma occurs (Corrigan et al., 2006), and there has been limited research with criminal offenders. This study examines a theoretical model of self-stigma in which perceived stigma leads to stereotype agreement, internalized stigma, and then to anticipated stigma. A sample of 203 male jail inmates completed assessments of these constructs just prior to release. Results show a significant indirect path from perceived stigma to stereotype agreement to internalized stigma, but not to anticipated stigma. However, perceived stigma was directly related to anticipated stigma. In conclusion, perceived stigma affects the self through two processes: it indirectly leads to internalized stigma through one avenue, and directly leads to anticipated stigma through a separate avenue. Race, criminal identity, and attitudes toward criminals were examined as moderators. PMID:27761521

  1. Mock jurors' perceptions of facial hair on criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Conti, Richard P; Conti, Melanie A

    2004-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to measure whether mock jurors would stereotype criminal offenders as having facial hair. In Study 1, participants were asked which photograph belonged to a defendant in a rape case and which photograph belonged to a plaintiff in a head-injury case after they were "accidentally" dropped. The photographs were similar in appearance except one had facial hair. 78% of 63 participants (or 49) identified the photograph with facial hair as being involved in the rape case. In Study 2, 371 participants were asked to sketch the face of a criminal offender. 82% of the sketches (or 249) contained some form of facial hair. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that criminal defendants are perceived as having facial hair.

  2. Criminal offenders residing in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Wes

    2006-01-01

    As a result of its investigative analysis, A Perfect Cause is attempting to heighten awareness of this significant issue confronting the disabled and elderly living in America's long-term facilities. This includes confronting the many related myths such as the belief that elderly offenders and disabled and incapacitated offenders do not pose a threat, that child molesters do not pose a threat to disabled adults or elderly residents, that only sex offenders pose a threat, and that nursing homes are not capable of housing criminal offenders with nonoffenders. Additional awareness and investigation is urgently needed to facilitate policy changes at all levels. Such action will help ensure the safety of facility residents who are currently at ongoing risk.

  3. What Professionals Think about Offenders with Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…

  4. Music Exposure and Criminal Behavior: Perceptions of Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Gardstrom

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine young offenders' perceptions of the relationship between exposure to music and their criminal behavior. Using a tool designed for the study, male felony offenders ages 12 to 17 were questioned about their music listening patterns and the perceived influence of listening on their offending fantasies and behavior. Rap music was the predominant choice across all participant profiles. While 72% of respondents believed that music influenced the way they feel at least some of the time, only 4% perceived a connection between music listening and their deviant behavior. Narrative comments provided by the youths were largely consistent with objective data. Most respondents believed in the reflection-rejection theory, in which music is perceived as a mirror of the adolescents' lives rather than a causative factor in their behavior. Two additional theoretical perspectives were espoused: drive reduction theory, which states that music serves as an expressive vehicle (thus reducing the likelihood of emotional and physical outburst); and excitation-transfer theory, wherein residual physiological arousal affects subsequent behavior. In the latter, music was perceived as harmful only when applied to preexisting states of negative arousal.

  5. Is psychopathy elevated among criminal offenders who are under preventive detention pursuant to Section 66 of the German Penal Code?

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, Elmar; Passow, Daniel; Vohs, Knut

    2010-01-01

    In Germany, preventive detention can be imposed if a repeat offender shows a proclivity to commit further significant criminal acts. The courts require expert opinion to provide information about personality traits relevant for this disposition. However, currently, consensus about this topic is lacking. On the basis of a standardized examination, the relevance of Hare's concept of "psychopathy" for expert opinion is discussed in the context of preventive detention.

  6. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  7. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.

  8. Missing Out: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whilst there has been an increase in research and clinical attention relating to the accused person or offender with a learning disability in the criminal justice system, some major areas require further inter-agency effort. These areas include: better identification of this group, increased education and training for criminal justice personnel,…

  9. The impact of choice on retributive reactions: how observers' autonomy concerns shape responses to criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Kerpershoek, Emiel F P

    2013-06-01

    The present research examined the psychological origins of retributive reactions, which are defined as independent observers' anger-based emotions, demonized perceptions, and punishment intentions in response to criminal offenders. Based on the idea that society's justice system has an autonomy-protective function, we reason that chronic autonomy interacts with situational autonomy cues (i.e., opportunities to make choices) to predict retributive reactions to criminal offenders. More specifically, we hypothesized that choice opportunities in an unrelated decision-making context would prompt people to display stronger retributive reactions to offenders than no-choice opportunities, and that these effects of choice would be particularly pronounced among people who chronically experience deprivation of autonomy needs. Results from two experiments supported this hypothesis. It is concluded that retributive reactions to criminal offenders originate from a desire to regulate basic autonomy needs.

  10. The Criminal Attribution Inventory: A Measure of Offender Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.

    2004-01-01

    The Criminal Attribution Inventory (CRAI), drawing upon attribution theory and criminally-related domains, measures criminal responsibility and blame. The CRAI's six scales measure criminal responsibility (Psychopathology, Personality), external criminal blame (Victim, Alcohol, Society) and the attribution of crime to random factors (Random). The…

  11. How often and how consistently do symptoms directly precede criminal behavior among offenders with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jillian K; Skeem, Jennifer; Kennealy, Patrick; Bray, Beth; Zvonkovic, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Although offenders with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, psychiatric symptoms relate weakly to criminal behavior at the group level. In this study of 143 offenders with mental illness, we use data from intensive interviews and record reviews to examine how often and how consistently symptoms lead directly to criminal behavior. First, crimes rarely were directly motivated by symptoms, particularly when the definition of symptoms excluded externalizing features that are not unique to Axis I illness. Specifically, of the 429 crimes coded, 4% related directly to psychosis, 3% related directly to depression, and 10% related directly to bipolar disorder (including impulsivity). Second, within offenders, crimes varied in the degree to which they were directly motivated by symptoms. These findings suggest that programs will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits. PMID:24730388

  12. 34 CFR 403.102 - What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders? 403.102 Section 403.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  13. 34 CFR 403.101 - How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders? 403.101 Section 403.101 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  14. 78 FR 74162 - Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion Documents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    .... SUMMARY: In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion...

  15. A Survival Time Analysis of Criminal Sanctions for Misdemeanor Offenders: A Case for Alternatives to Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Gerald R; Hissong, Rodney V.

    1988-01-01

    A 3-year study of 505 misdemeanor offenders in Houston (Texas) was conducted to assess the feasibility of adopting a policy of sanctions alternative to prison sentences for this class of criminal. The most salient finding was the emergence of probation as a superior sanction. (TJH)

  16. Criminal Offending and Learning Disabilities in New Zealand Youth: Does Reading Comprehension Predict Recidivism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; McLean, Anthony P.; Bateup, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sixty youth (16-19 years) from two youth prison sites participate in a prospective study examining criminal offending and learning disabilities (LD), completing measures of estimated IQ, attention, reading, and mathematical and oral language abilities. Prevalence rates of LDs exceed those of international studies, with 91.67% of the offenders…

  17. Learning and Thinking: A Behavioral Treatise on Abuse and Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding abuse and the teaching and learning of antisocial or criminal behavior in young offenders. This article examines social learning theory and the quality of parent-child relationships from the perspective of behavioral analysis, and provides a rationale for a…

  18. 34 CFR 403.102 - What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders? 403.102 Section 403.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  19. 34 CFR 403.101 - How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders? 403.101 Section 403.101 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  20. Update on Vocational Education for Criminal Offenders in Hawaii's Correctional System. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Russell

    Hawaii's system of vocational education (VE) for criminal offenders in its correctional system was reviewed. This report updates a prior study done in 1989 on vocational education in corrections and thus contains comparative information and recommendations based on the latest research findings. Fourteen specialists and administrators involved in…

  1. [White-collar criminals--a homogenous offender population? Reflections on typical and atypical "white-collar criminals"].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Little has been written in German scientific literature on the personality structure of white-collar criminals. Often, the relevance of this level of investigation has downright been denied. Conventional psychopathology does not seem to be an appropriate approach to these character problems since there are not only deficits but also competences to be found which are useful while making a professional career. The author points out the inhomogeneity of this offender population and presents a case report of an atypical white-collar criminal. Over and above that, he introduces two psychological concepts which are apt to better describe the peculiarities of these individuals: Machiavellian intelligence is often the core competence when it comes to rising in hierarchies, whereas the newly defined psychopathy concept according to R. D. Hare makes plausible the moral and ethical failure of these offenders in their professional settings.

  2. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed. PMID:27182003

  3. The Association Between P3 Amplitude at Age 11 and Criminal Offending at Age 23

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced P3 amplitude to targets is an information-processing deficit associated with adult antisocial behavior and may reflect dysfunction of the temporal-parietal junction. This study aims to examine whether this deficit precedes criminal offending. From a birth cohort of 1,795 children, 73 individuals who become criminal offenders at age 23 and 123 noncriminal individuals were assessed on P3 amplitude. The two groups did not differ on gender, ethnicity, and social adversity. P3 amplitude was measured over the temporal-parietal junction during a visual continuous performance task at age 11, together with antisocial behavior. Criminal convictions were assessed at age 23. Reduced P3 amplitude at age 11 was associated with increased antisocial behavior at age 11. Criminal offenders showed significantly reduced P3 amplitudes to target stimuli compared to controls. Findings remained significant after controlling for antisocial behavior and hyperactivity at age 11 and alcoholism at age 23. P3 deficits at age 11 are associated with adult crime at age 23, suggesting that reduced P3 may be an early neurobiological marker for cognitive and affective processes subserved by the temporal-parietal junction that place a child at risk for adult crime. PMID:22963083

  4. Relationships among Moral Reasoning, Empathy, and Distorted Cognitions in Men with Intellectual Disabilities and a History of Criminal Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Peter E.; Murphy, Glynis H.; Clare, Isabel C. H.; Steverson, Tom; Palmer, Emma J.

    2011-01-01

    Eighty men, spread equally across 4 groups, were recruited, including men with and without intellectual disabilities. The men were either criminal offenders or nonoffenders. Participants completed measures of moral reasoning, empathy, and distorted cognitions. The results indicated that the moral reasoning abilities of offenders with intellectual…

  5. Mentally disordered criminal offenders: legal and criminological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Moa Kindström; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Torstensson-Levander, Marie; Svensson, Lupita; Radovic, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Legal research in Sweden has traditionally focused on a systematization of the legal rules and their practical application, while the task of studying the effects of the application of the laws has been handed over to other branches of the social sciences. In contrast, new legal theories focusing on proactive and therapeutic dimensions in law have gained increasing attention in the international arena. These approaches may be better suited for evaluating legislation governing compulsory psychiatric care. Theoretical discussions and studies of causal mechanisms underlying criminal behaviour, as well as the implementation and value of instruments for predicting behaviour, are relevant to contemporary criminological research. Criminal behaviour varies across different groups of perpetrators, and the causes can be sought in the interplay between the individual and social factors. Multi-disciplinary efforts, integrating research from forensic psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and criminology, would be beneficial in leading to a better understanding of the causes underlying criminal behaviour.

  6. Proceedings of the Conference on Juvenile Repeat Offenders (College Park, MD, December 8, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Rebecca P., Ed.

    These proceedings were published to interpret and disseminate research findings to operational personnel working with juvenile repeat offenders; to share information among researchers and practitioners regarding prevention, intervention, and treatment program models and strategies for juvenile repeat offenders; to explore the impact of juvenile…

  7. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  8. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  9. How can forensic systems improve justice for victims of offenders found not criminally responsible?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2013-01-01

    Controversy has arisen surrounding findings of not criminally responsible (NCR) or not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) in recent years. In some countries, the debate has been driven by the concerns of victims, who are seeking greater information on discharge, accountability on the part of the offender, and involvement in the disposition of NCR or NGRI perpetrators. Their demands raise questions about proportionality between the seriousness of the index offense and the disposition imposed, the place of retribution in the NCR regimen, and the ethics-related challenges that emerge from this tension. We conducted a literature review focused on the relationship of victims to NCR and NGRI processes. The literature is limited. However, theoretical reasoning suggests that interventions based on restorative justice principles reduce persistently negative feelings and increase a sense of justice for victims of criminally responsible defendants. Opportunities and problems with extending such processes into the area of mentally abnormal offenders are discussed.

  10. How can forensic systems improve justice for victims of offenders found not criminally responsible?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jason; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2013-01-01

    Controversy has arisen surrounding findings of not criminally responsible (NCR) or not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) in recent years. In some countries, the debate has been driven by the concerns of victims, who are seeking greater information on discharge, accountability on the part of the offender, and involvement in the disposition of NCR or NGRI perpetrators. Their demands raise questions about proportionality between the seriousness of the index offense and the disposition imposed, the place of retribution in the NCR regimen, and the ethics-related challenges that emerge from this tension. We conducted a literature review focused on the relationship of victims to NCR and NGRI processes. The literature is limited. However, theoretical reasoning suggests that interventions based on restorative justice principles reduce persistently negative feelings and increase a sense of justice for victims of criminally responsible defendants. Opportunities and problems with extending such processes into the area of mentally abnormal offenders are discussed. PMID:24335331

  11. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking.

  12. Reactions to mandatory sentences in relation to the ethnic identity and criminal history of the offender.

    PubMed

    Feather, N T; Souter, Jacqueline

    2002-08-01

    This study investigated the responses of 181 participants (87 men, 94 women), from Adelaide, South Australia, to scenarios describing mandatory sentences for perpetrators of a property offense committed in the Northern Territory, Australia. Four scenarios that were randomly distributed varied ethnic identity (White Australian, Aboriginal Australian) and criminal history (first-time offender, third-time offender). Participants completed attitude measures for both mandatory sentencing and capital punishment, a right-wing authoritarianism scale, and a scale concerned with sentencing goals (retribution, deterrence, protection of society, and rehabilitation). Results showed strong effects of attitude toward mandatory sentencing on scenario responses for variables such as perceived responsibility, deservingness, leniency, seriousness, anger and pleasure, and weaker effects of ethnic identity and criminal history. Participants were generally more sympathetic when the offender was an Aboriginal Australian. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that attitude toward mandatory sentence was predicted by right-wing authoritarianism and by sentencing goals relating to deterrence and the protection of society.

  13. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. PMID:23813492

  14. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal.

  15. Soldier, civilian, criminal: identifying pathways to offending of ex-armed forces personnel in prison

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about why some ex-armed forces personnel become involved in the criminal justice system, however, they represent the largest known occupational group in prison. In-depth interviews were employed to explore possible pathways to offending. Twenty ex-armed forces personnel in prison were recruited from five prisons in England. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic analysis and constant comparison methods rooted in grounded theory. Four predominant themes were identified: experiences of trauma and adversity; belonging; impulsivity and creating a soldier. Participants had experienced a number of traumatic incidents and adversity in their lives, encompassing pre, during and post-service but felt a sense of belonging in the armed forces. Participants demonstrated impulsivity in a number of areas with links to both their service in the armed forces and offending behaviour. The creation of the identity of ‘soldier’ was perceived to impact participants’ lives in a number of ways, including their offending, alcohol use and coping with trauma. The interplay of these themes and their potential impact on participants’ pathways to offending are discussed. PMID:27570440

  16. The Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory: Development, Reliability, and Initial Validation of a New Scale for Assessing Criminal Thinking in a Japanese Offender Population.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Kaori; Takeda, Fumi; Nagata, Yuko; Suzuki, Junko; Monma, Takafumi; Asanuma, Tohru

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 116 Japanese men who had been placed under parole/probationary supervision or released from prison, the present study examined standardization, reliability, and validation of the Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory (JCTI) that was based on the short form of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), a self-rating instrument designed to evaluate cognitive patterns specific to criminal conduct. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that four dimensions adequately captured the structure of the JCTI, and the resultant 17-item JCTI demonstrated high internal consistency. Compared with the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), the JCTI showed a favorable pattern of criterion-related validity. Prior criminal environment and drug abuse as the most recent offense also significantly correlated with the JCTI total score. Overall, the JCTI possesses an important implication for offender rehabilitation as it identifies relevant cognitive targets and assesses offender progress.

  17. Treating criminal offenders in correctional contexts: identifying interests and distributing responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    In Panetti v. Quarterman, three professional associations advocated commutation of capital sentences for offenders who are incompetent to face execution. Some judicial opinions deny that convicted offenders have any protected interest in avoiding a legally imposed sentence, and other opinions have found that the Eighth Amendment requires treatment for prisoners with serious mental health needs. This article examines some circumstances in which health care providers in the context of criminal punishment encounter apparent conflicts among the treatment interests of the individuals, the comprehensive interests of these individuals, legally protected interests, and the public interest. This analysis pursues clarification of these interests and of potential tensions among legal and professional obligations of health care providers. This article does not provide comprehensive resolution of this tension. Rather, it is intended to promote rigorous ongoing inquiry by clarifying the relevant interests at stake and the responsibilities of various participants in the complex interaction of health care and corrections.

  18. Disparities in the moral intuitions of criminal offenders: The role of psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Antonenko, Olga; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether and in what ways psychopathy is associated with abnormal moral intuitions among criminal offenders. Using Haidt et al.’s Moral Foundations Questionnaire, 222 adult male offenders assessed for clinical psychopathy reported their degree of support for five moral domains: Harm Prevention, Fairness, Respect for Authority, Ingroup Loyalty, and Purity/Sanctity. As predicted, psychopathy total score explained a substantial proportion of the variance in reduced support for Harm Prevention and Fairness, but not the other domains. These results confirm that psychopathy entails a discrete set of moral abnormalities and suggest that these abnormalities could potentially help to explain the characteristic antisocial behavior of individuals with psychopathy. PMID:21647247

  19. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  20. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  1. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  2. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... enrolls in, or is hired by, your program on or after October 1, 2009. (b) The National Sex Offender...

  3. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O’Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers’ perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently. PMID:22368214

  4. Recidivism and rehabilitation of criminal offenders: a carrot and stick evolutionary game.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Bijan; Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of "carrot and stick" intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications.

  5. Recidivism and rehabilitation of criminal offenders: a carrot and stick evolutionary game.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Bijan; Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of "carrot and stick" intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications. PMID:24454884

  6. Recidivism and Rehabilitation of Criminal Offenders: A Carrot and Stick Evolutionary Game

    PubMed Central

    Berenji, Bijan; Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of “carrot and stick” intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications. PMID:24454884

  7. The Criminal Corpse, Anatomists and the Criminal Law: Parliamentary Attempts to Extend the Dissection of Offenders in Late Eighteenth-Century England

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In the later eighteenth century two schemes were introduced in Parliament for extending the practice of handing over the bodies of executed offenders to anatomists for dissection. Both measures were motivated by the needs of anatomy — including the improvement of surgical skill, the development of medical teaching in the provinces, and for conducting public anatomical demonstrations. Yet both failed to pass into law due to concerns about the possibly damaging effects in terms of criminal justice. Through a detailed analysis of the origins and progress of these two parliamentary measures — a moment when the competing claims of anatomy and criminal justice vied for supremacy over the criminal corpse — the following article sheds light on judicial attitudes to dissection as a method of punishment and adds to our understanding of why the dread of dissection would come to fall upon the dead poor (rather than executed offenders) in the nineteenth century. PMID:25821241

  8. Adjudicating mentally disordered offenders in Ghana: The criminal and mental health legislations.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mensah Agboli, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) in the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently a major public health concern. This has culminated in several empirical researches over the years, with a particular focus on addressing the problem. The present study examines the criminal and the mental health legislations available to offenders raising fitness to stand trial issues, as well as those pleading insanity at the time of the offense (insanity defense) in Ghana. The legislations are examined within a framework of reducing the overrepresentation of MDOs in the CJS. In doing so, comparisons are made to similar legislations in other commonwealth jurisdictions, when necessary. Regarding fitness to stand trial, it is evident that the Ghanaian legislation does not contain discrete fitness indicators, relative to, for instance, Canada. Yet, it is interesting that the terminologies 'unsound mind' and 'incapable of making a defence' used in the proviso convey similar meaning and requirements to those used in other jurisdictions. The insanity defense standard, on the other hand, is also heavily influenced by the M'Naughton Rules in England. The defense consists of two separate cognitive tests, each of which can result in an acquittal. One of the tests strictly emphasizes knowledge of the nature and consequences of the act while knowledge of the wrongness of the criminal act is implied in the other. However, none of the tests takes into consideration uncontrollable impulse arising from mental disorder. The study proposes some revisions and amendments to the insanity legislation in its current formulation. Recommendations are also offered for critical areas that warrant research attention in relation to MDOs in Ghana, and in Africa as a whole.

  9. Adjudicating mentally disordered offenders in Ghana: The criminal and mental health legislations.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mensah Agboli, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) in the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently a major public health concern. This has culminated in several empirical researches over the years, with a particular focus on addressing the problem. The present study examines the criminal and the mental health legislations available to offenders raising fitness to stand trial issues, as well as those pleading insanity at the time of the offense (insanity defense) in Ghana. The legislations are examined within a framework of reducing the overrepresentation of MDOs in the CJS. In doing so, comparisons are made to similar legislations in other commonwealth jurisdictions, when necessary. Regarding fitness to stand trial, it is evident that the Ghanaian legislation does not contain discrete fitness indicators, relative to, for instance, Canada. Yet, it is interesting that the terminologies 'unsound mind' and 'incapable of making a defence' used in the proviso convey similar meaning and requirements to those used in other jurisdictions. The insanity defense standard, on the other hand, is also heavily influenced by the M'Naughton Rules in England. The defense consists of two separate cognitive tests, each of which can result in an acquittal. One of the tests strictly emphasizes knowledge of the nature and consequences of the act while knowledge of the wrongness of the criminal act is implied in the other. However, none of the tests takes into consideration uncontrollable impulse arising from mental disorder. The study proposes some revisions and amendments to the insanity legislation in its current formulation. Recommendations are also offered for critical areas that warrant research attention in relation to MDOs in Ghana, and in Africa as a whole. PMID:26923137

  10. HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Ketamine and Non-Ketamine Using Criminal Offenders Prior to Prison Entry

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie; Havens, Jennifer; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Wong, Conrad; Leukefeld, Carl; Prendergast, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to examine ketamine use and its association with HIV sexual risk behaviors among a criminal offending population in the United States. Data were collected from 716 inmates as part of the Transitional Case Management (TCM) protocol within the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative agreement. Bivariate analyses were used to identify differences between ketamine users (n=44) and non-ketamine users (n=672). Three Poisson regression models were used to identify the significant correlates of high risk sexual behaviors in the 30 days prior to incarceration-- (1) number of times had unprotected sex while high, (2) number of times had unprotected vaginal sex, and (3) number of times had unprotected anal sex. Results indicate that ketamine was a significant correlate in all of the Poisson regression models. Findings add to the literature and indicate that ketamine use may be a marker for engaging in HIV risk behaviors among criminal offenders. PMID:19287506

  11. The mentally disordered criminal offender: a description based on demographic, clinical, and MMPI data.

    PubMed

    Roman, D D; Gerbing, D W

    1989-11-01

    From 340 MMPIs of male forensic state hospital patients, seven disjoint clusters were obtained by an innovative cluster strategy that combined Ward's hierarchical clustering with a partitioning method. The cluster groups differed on racial composition and DSM-III Axis II diagnoses. The lack of differences among the cluster groups on other clinically relevant variables may be due to the choice of measures and the homogeneous nature of the sample. Two-point code frequencies are presented for these 340 profiles. Demographic variables available on 434 subjects suggested considerable similarities between this group and prison populations. The analysis further suggested that factors such as sociopathy, substance abuse, psychosis with paranoid features, and a history of criminal activities distinguish these offenders from the benign mentally ill.

  12. Predictors of Offense Severity, Prosecution, Incarceration and Repeat Violations for Adolescent Male and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun

    2006-01-01

    We examined factors predicting severity of first offense, adjudication, incarceration, and repeat offenses for first time juvenile offenders. The sample consisted of 12,468 juveniles, all born in 1985. Each of the juveniles had been assigned to the South Carolina Juvenile Justice System (SCDJJ) on at least one occasion ("referral"). Analysis on…

  13. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools.

  14. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  15. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  16. An investigation of the validity and reliability of the Criminal Sentiments Scale in a sample of treated sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Witte, Treena D; Di Placido, Chantal; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2006-07-01

    The Criminal Sentiments Scale (CSS) purports to measure attitudes and values pertaining to and in support of criminal conduct (Andrews & Bonta, 2003). A sample of 72 sex offenders treated in a high intensity sex offender program completed the CSS pre- and post-treatment and was followed up for approximately 3 years. The CSS demonstrated high internal consistency. Correlational and ROC analyses indicated that the CSS is a robust predictor of non-sexual violent and non-violent recidivism. The CSS also correlated significantly with the General Statistical Information on Recidivism Scale which assesses non-sexual recidivism risk. Similar analyses showed that the CSS did not predict sexual recidivism nor did it correlate with a tool that assesses sexual recidivism risk-the Static 99. The CSS scores changed significantly in the predicted direction following treatment. The present results suggest that the CSS is an internally consistent tool for the assessment of criminal sentiments among sex offenders and that it predicts non-sexual but not sexual recidivism. PMID:16988891

  17. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T

    2016-06-01

    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Schulze, Lars; Rossmann, Sabine; Berger, Christoph; Vohs, Knut; Fleischer, Monika; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Keiper, Peter; Domes, Gregor; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of concurrently presented emotional stimuli on cognitive task processing in violent criminal offenders primarily characterized by affective instability. METHODS. Fifteen male criminal offenders with antisocial and borderline personality disorder (ASPD and BPD) and 17 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a working memory task with low and high working memory load. In a second experimental run, to investigate the interaction of emotion and cognition, we presented emotionally neutral, low, or high salient social scenes in the background of the task. RESULTS. During the memory task without pictures, both groups did not differ in general task performance and neural representation of working memory processes. During the memory task with emotional background pictures, however, ASPD-BPD subjects compared to healthy controls showed delayed responses and enhanced activation of the left amygdala in the presence of emotionally high salient pictures independent of working memory load. CONCLUSIONS. These results illustrate an interaction of emotion and cognition in affective instable individuals with enhanced reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli which might be an important factor regarding the understanding of aggressive and violent behaviour in these individuals.

  19. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  20. Effects of comorbid psychopathy on criminal offending and emotion processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Lorenz, Amanda R; Newman, Joseph P

    2006-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are two syndromes with substantial construct validity. To clarify relations between these syndromes, the authors evaluated 3 possibilities: (a) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy reflect a common underlying pathophysiology; (b) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy identify 2 distinct syndromes, similar in some respects; and (c) that most correlates of ASPD reflect its comorbidity with psychopathy. Participants were 472 incarcerated European American men who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for ASPD and Psychopathy Checklist criteria for psychopathy, who met the criteria for ASPD but not for psychopathy, or who did not meet diagnostic criteria for either ASPD or psychopathy (controls). Both individuals with ASPD only and those with ASPD and psychopathy were characterized by more criminal activity than were controls. In addition, ASPD with psychopathy was associated with more severe criminal behavior and weaker emotion facilitation than ASPD alone. Group differences in the association between emotion dysfunction and criminal behavior suggest tentatively that ASPD with and ASPD without prominent psychopathic features may be distinct syndromes.

  1. Criminal behavior and cognitive processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without comorbid psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Riser, Rebecca E; Kosson, David S

    2013-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are 2 important syndromes with substantial utility in predicting antisocial behavior. Although prior studies have identified correlations between various factors and the presence of psychopathy or ASPD, most studies have focused on 1 syndrome or the other. Consequently, it is unclear whether the 2 syndromes reflect similar pathophysiologies, whether they are in fact 2 distinct syndromes, or whether the correlates of ASPD reflect its high comorbidity with psychopathy. The present study addressed this issue by examining the impact of ASPD with and without comorbid psychopathy (as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) on criminal offending and cognitive processing in 674 adult male inmates at a county jail in Illinois. Participants exhibited either ASPD and comorbid psychopathy, ASPD but not psychopathy, or neither ASPD nor psychopathy. Participants with and without comorbid psychopathy were characterized by more criminal behavior than controls, and inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited more severe criminal behavior than those with ASPD only. In addition, inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited a different pattern of cognitive task performance impairment than those with ASPD alone. Results replicate the findings of Kosson, Lorenz, and Newman (2006) and provide new evidence suggesting that men with ASPD and comorbid psychopathy are characterized by cognitive processing anomalies different from those seen in ASPD without comorbid psychopathy.

  2. Learning Disabilities and Criminal Justice: Custody Sergeants' Perceptions of Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…

  3. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function.

  4. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function. PMID:25655653

  5. Postcollege Criminal Convictions: A Comparison of Greek, Athlete, and Other Student Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin; Hein, Ella

    2014-01-01

    This article examines postcollege criminal convictions among students who recorded a substance use-related arrest while attending college from 1996-99. Specifically, this study assesses whether Greek or athletic membership offered protective or elevated odds of a conviction over the next 14-17 years, relative to non-Greeks and non-athletes. The…

  6. The relationship of pathological gambling to criminality behavior in a sample of Polish male offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Severe problem gambling is most often related to income producing offences such as larceny and embezzlement. In addition, the high rate of relapse to gambling problems and the link between gambling debts and crime have clinical, forensic and penitentiary implications. Considering the data from the literature presented here I decided to form and empirically verify a hypothesis that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. Material/Methods The groups of participants encompassed 90 men 26–52 years of age, serving a criminal sentence. All participants had to fulfil the following clinical criteria: a) be interviewed by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with pathological gambling and/or antisocial personality disorders b) obtain a result in the PCL-R test; c) estimate the relationship between gambling problems and crime. Taking into consideration the abovementioned criteria three patient test groups were formed: Group 1, which included those for whom gambling had led to crime; Group 2, where gambling was a part of a criminal lifestyle, and Group 3, in which the mutual relationship between gambling and crime was unclear. Results The participants were diagnosed as pathological gamblers (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10) and psychopaths (PCL-R). Those tested differed with regard to the intensification of the personality disturbance tested, the co-occurrence of other disturbances, particularly psychoactive addictions, the motivations for taking up gambling, and the type of criminal activity. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. PMID:22037748

  7. Elaborating on the construct validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure in a criminal offender sample.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jennifer H; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Patrick, Fowles, and Krueger (2009) developed the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy in an effort to integrate historical theories and contemporary measurement models. The model proposes 3 phenotypic domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Patrick (2010) developed the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), a 58-item self-report measure, to index these 3 domains. This study examined the construct validity of the TriPM in a sample of incarcerated offenders (N = 141) and found evidence of good construct validity in that the scales were related to conceptually relevant normal-range and dysfunctional personality trait criteria, as well as narcissism and deficits in empathy. PMID:23113864

  8. Changes to the Criminal Code provisions for mentally disordered offenders and their implications for Canadian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1993-03-01

    Bill C-30, implemented in February 1992, made a number of significant changes to the Criminal Code provisions concerning the assessment, treatment and disposition of mentally disordered persons charged with a crime, including persons considered to be unfit to stand trial or pleading insanity. The changes deal mainly with procedural law and the civil rights of persons being assessed or held in custody, and put limits on where, how long and for what purpose persons may be detained. The new law abolishes the automatic, indeterminate detention of persons found unfit to stand trial or not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder. The changes may mean that the forensic psychiatric route is now a more "attractive option" for defendants. The new law may create administrative problems for clinicians by leading to increased requests for psychiatric assessments while at the same time constraining the assessment process.

  9. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in affective theory of mind deficits in criminal offenders with psychopathic tendencies.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Harari, Hagai; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2010-05-01

    Individuals with psychopathy show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as lack of emotional responsiveness to others and deficient empathy. However, there are controversies regarding these individuals theory of mind (ToM) abilities and the neuroanatomical basis of their aberrant social behavior. The present study tested the hypothesis that impairment in the emotional aspects of ToM (affective ToM) rather than general ToM abilities may account for the impaired social behavior observed in psychopathy and that this pattern of performance may be associated with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. To assess the emotional and cognitive aspects of ToM we used a task that examines affective versus cognitive ToM processing in separate conditions. ToM abilities of criminal offender diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder with high psychopathy features were compared to that of participants with localized lesions in the OFC or dorsolateral, participants with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Individuals with psychopathy and those with OFC lesions were impaired on the 'affective ToM' conditions but not in cognitive ToM conditions, compared to the control groups. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in psychopathy resembles remarkably that seen in participants with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with OFC damage, providing support for the notion of amygdala-OFC dysfunction in psychopathy. PMID:19501818

  10. Comparison of drugs used by nightclub patrons and criminal offenders in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Nordfjærn, Trond; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line; Edland-Gryt, Marit; Furuhaugen, Håvard; Karinen, Ritva; Øiestad, Elisabeth L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate psychoactive drug use among nightclub patrons by analysing samples of oral fluid and compare with findings in blood samples from criminal suspects. We hypothesized that the profile of illicit drug use among nightclub patrons is different from what we observe in those forensic cases. Research stations were established outside nine popular nightclubs with different profiles and patron-characteristics in downtown Oslo. Data and sample collection was conducted on Fridays and Saturdays in March and May 2014. Individuals and groups who entered defined recruitment zones from 23:00 to 03:30 were invited to participate in this voluntary and anonymous study. Oral fluid was collected using the Intercept Oral Fluid Sampling Device. Methanol was added to increase the recovery of cannabinoids from the device. Sample preparation was performed using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate/heptane (4:1) after adding internal standards, ammonium carbonate buffer pH 9.3 and Triton X100. The first 80 samples were analysed for 122 substances, which included psychoactive medicinal drugs, classical illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS). Based on the findings and discussions with police and customs authorities, the remaining oral fluid samples were analysed for 46 substances. Among the 500 samples collected during the study period, we found illicit drugs in 25.4% and medicinal drugs in 4.2% of the samples. The most prevalent substances were: cocaine 14.6%, THC 12.4%, amphetamine/methamphetamine 2.8%, diazepam 1.2% and clonazepam 1.0%. Various NPS were found in 1.4% of the samples. The prevalence of drugs in blood samples from criminal suspects were for cocaine 3.4%, THC 34.7%, amphetamine/methamphetamine 37.0%, diazepam 12.0%, and clonazepam 29.3%. Multi-drug use was more common among criminal suspects (41.3%) than among club patrons (6.8%). The results showed that the drug use pattern among nightclub patrons was substantially

  11. A 14- to 24-year longitudinal study of a comprehensive sexual health model treatment program for adolescent sex offenders: predictors of successful completion and subsequent criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, William; Seabloom, Mary E; Seabloom, Eric; Barron, Robert; Hendrickson, Sharon

    2003-08-01

    The study determines the effectiveness of a sexuality-positive adolescent sexual offender treatment program and examines subsequent criminal recidivism in the three outcome groups (completed, withdrawn, referred). The sample consists of 122 adolescent males and their families (491 individuals). Of the demographic variables, only living situation was significant, such that patients living with parents were more likely to graduate. None of the behavioral variables were found to be significant. Of the treatment variables, length of time in the program and participation in the Family Journey Seminar were included in the final model. When they were included in the model, no other treatment variable were significantly related to probability of graduation. There were no arrests or convictions for sex-related crimes in the population of participants that successfully completed the program. This group was also less likely than the other groups to be arrested (p = 0.014) or convicted (p = 0.004) across all crime categories.

  12. Effects of alcohol on the offender's sanity-Issues of criminal law and psychiatry in light of findings of research.

    PubMed

    Golonka, Anna Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The present report is the result of research on the causes of insanity or issuing opinions about the causes of insanity or diminished sanity perpetrators in criminal proceedings conducted in Poland (CEE). Research has shown the impact that has, in fact, use or abuse of alcohol and other alcoholic diseases on the status of the accused in criminal proceedings. This publication presents not only the results but also the basic regulations - valid in Poland and in other European countries - with respect to the responsibility of the perpetrators insane, with diminished sanity and being in a state of inebriation at the time of committing a criminal act.

  13. Effects of alcohol on the offender's sanity-Issues of criminal law and psychiatry in light of findings of research.

    PubMed

    Golonka, Anna Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The present report is the result of research on the causes of insanity or issuing opinions about the causes of insanity or diminished sanity perpetrators in criminal proceedings conducted in Poland (CEE). Research has shown the impact that has, in fact, use or abuse of alcohol and other alcoholic diseases on the status of the accused in criminal proceedings. This publication presents not only the results but also the basic regulations - valid in Poland and in other European countries - with respect to the responsibility of the perpetrators insane, with diminished sanity and being in a state of inebriation at the time of committing a criminal act. PMID:27086845

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Effects on Youth Social Ecology and Criminal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borduin, Charles M.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Heiblum, Naamith

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) versus usual community services (UCS) for 48 juvenile sexual offenders at high risk of committing additional serious crimes. Results from multiagent assessment batteries conducted before and after treatment showed that MST was more effective than UCS in improving key…

  15. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  16. General Characteristics of Child Sexual Offenders in Hatay, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, M. Mustafa; Demirkiran, D. Sumeyra; Akcan, Ramazan; Zeren, Cem; Kokacya, M. Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Child sexual offenders are a poorly studied and relatively neglected population in our country. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between criminal behavior and socio-demographic characteristics of a series of child sexual offenders. Materials and Methods: The records of social worker interviews with 48 child sexual offenders between 2009 and 2013 were used. The reports issued by social workers regarding child sexual offenders were retrospectively examined, since these reports were relatively the most thorough documents including offenders’ personal and familial characteristics, and criminal event information. Cases were investigated in terms of socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results: There were 48 children interviewed based on an alleged sexual crime, during four-year of study period. All of the cases were male and their ages ranged between 12 and 17 years. Of these, 50% were students at any grade of school. Five cases were living in social service facilities. Only two cases involved incest. Of all, three offenders were accused of repeated sexual crimes. Type of sexual assault was anal penetration in 20 (41.7%) cases. Of all cases, 19 were cigarette smoker, while 4 were drug abusers. The families of 12 (25%) cases suffered from low socio-economic status, while 23 (47.9%) offenders were members of broken families. According to social worker reports, 47 cases had criminal responsibility based on their psychosocial development. Out of all cases, 7 children were suspected of suffering from impulse control disorder and one was suspected to be mentally retarded. Twelve cases were reported to need consulting and social protective services. Conclusion: The rate of offenders with interrupted education was considerably high. Interestingly the number of male victims and the frequency of cases involving anal penetration were high. Obtained results suggest that male children of broken and scattered families, and particularly those

  17. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Konstenius, Maija; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Guterstam, Joar; Beck, Olof; Philips, Björn; Franck, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Aim To test the efficacy and safety of osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) in doses up to 180 mg/day to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevent any drug relapse in individuals with a co-diagnosis of ADHD and amphetamine dependence. Design Randomized placebo-controlled 24-week double-blind trial with parallel groups design. Setting Participants were recruited from medium security prisons in Sweden. The medication started within 2 weeks before release from prison and continued in out-patient care with twice-weekly visits, including once-weekly cognitive behavioural therapy. Participants Fifty-four men with a mean age of 42 years, currently incarcerated, meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and amphetamine dependence. Measurements Change in self-reported ADHD symptoms, relapse to any drug use (amphetamine and other drugs) measured by urine toxicology, retention to treatment, craving and time to relapse. Findings The MPH-treated group reduced their ADHD symptoms during the trial (P = 0.011) and had a significantly higher proportion of drug-negative urines compared with the placebo group (P = 0.047), including more amphetamine-negative urines (P = 0.019) and better retention to treatment (P = 0.032). Conclusions Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence. PMID:24118269

  18. Identifying personality subtypes based on the five-factor model dimensions in male prisoners: implications for psychopathy and criminal offending.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Tavernier, Geert; Roose, Annelore; Bijttebier, Patricia; Smith, Sarah Francis; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to identify personality subtypes on the basis of the five-factor model dimensions in male prisoners. Participants included 110 Flemish male prisoners assessed by means of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory and different symptom, personality, and coping measures. We found two clusters: an emotionally stable/resilient cluster and an aggressive/undercontrolled cluster. Prisoners within the aggressive/undercontrolled cluster scored significantly higher on almost all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 basic scales, (in)direct aggression measures, and depressive coping scales compared with resilients. They also scored higher on drug abuse and committed more sexual offenses than resilient prisoners. These two personality subtypes bear theoretically and practically important implications for psychopathy subtypes and different pathways to criminal offenses.

  19. Feature-Based Attention and Conflict Monitoring in Criminal Offenders: Interactive Relations of Psychopathy with Anxiety and Externalizing

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Joshua D.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    As predicted by the response modulation model, psychopathic offenders are insensitive to potentially important inhibitory information when it is peripheral to their primary focus of attention. To date, the clearest tests of this hypothesis have manipulated spatial attention to cue the location of goal-relevant versus inhibitory information. However, the theory predicts a more general abnormality in selective attention. In the current study male prisoners performed a conflict-monitoring task, which included a feature-based manipulation (i.e., color) that biased selective attention toward goal-relevant stimuli and away from inhibitory distracters on some trials but not others. Paralleling results for spatial cuing, feature-based cuing resulted in less distracter interference, particularly for participants with primary psychopathy (i.e., low anxiety). This study also investigated the moderating effect of externalizing on psychopathy. Participants high in psychopathy but low in externalizing performed similarly to primary psychopathic individuals. These results demonstrate that the abnormal selective attention associated with primary psychopathy is not limited to spatial attention but, instead, applies to diverse methods for establishing attentional focus. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel method of investigating psychopathic subtypes using continuous analyses. PMID:24016017

  20. Feature-based attention and conflict monitoring in criminal offenders: interactive relations of psychopathy with anxiety and externalizing.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Joshua D; Newman, Joseph P

    2013-08-01

    As predicted by the response modulation model, psychopathic offenders are insensitive to potentially important inhibitory information when it is peripheral to their primary focus of attention. To date, the clearest tests of this hypothesis have manipulated spatial attention to cue the location of goal-relevant versus inhibitory information. However, the theory predicts a more general abnormality in selective attention. In the current study, male prisoners performed a conflict-monitoring task, which included a feature-based manipulation (i.e., color) that biased selective attention toward goal-relevant stimuli and away from inhibitory distracters on some trials but not others. Paralleling results for spatial cuing, feature-based cuing resulted in less distracter interference, particularly for participants with primary psychopathy (i.e., low anxiety). This study also investigated the moderating effect of externalizing on psychopathy. Participants high in psychopathy but low in externalizing performed similarly to primary psychopathic individuals. These results demonstrate that the abnormal selective attention associated with primary psychopathy is not limited to spatial attention but, instead, applies to diverse methods for establishing attentional focus. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel method of investigating psychopathic subtypes using continuous analyses.

  1. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. PMID:25285642

  2. [Temporality and trauma: Towards an articulation between the judicial, educational and psychological times in repeat teenage offenders].

    PubMed

    Kermarrec, S; Mougli, K

    2015-09-01

    Within the past few years, the problem of repeat teenage offenders has raised troubling questions among the various institutions in charge of this population. The temporalities of these adolescents are marked by immediacy, urgency, and repetition that circumvent a linear view of time and the programs set up to handle them. Studies on repeat teenage aggressors (notably, sexual aggressors) have shown that these young people often have a history of an acknowledged or unacknowledged trauma. The fact of having been a victim of abuse during childhood is thought to be a factor leading to later acting out. Our objective is to inquire into these juvenile delinquents and their treatment using a temporal framework of their life pathway that will influence the ways in which they are treated by professionals. By tracing back through the lives of these young authors of violence, we can find out whether they were themselves victims. Repeated acts of violence by a youth could then be seen not as isolated acts but as expressions of ill-being, of having been a victim, whether recognized or not. The act thus represents a link between the present and the past that can be analyzed by looking at occurrences of acting out. It would be interesting, moreover, to reflect upon how continuity could be created there where disruption strikes the youth and often the institutions too. We provide a detailed description of the notion of trauma by recalling its definition and its possible immediate and deferred effects on these youths. In the immediate time frame, the subject may present a physical reaction to the trauma. The psychological reaction will determine a psychic time frame expressed in several ways, whether immediately or at a distance from the traumatic event. Posttraumatic reactions may hamper the development of the teenager's personality. Some traumatized adolescents will express their ill-being by aggressiveness, as they replay the traumatic scene by staging violent and dangerous

  3. [Temporality and trauma: Towards an articulation between the judicial, educational and psychological times in repeat teenage offenders].

    PubMed

    Kermarrec, S; Mougli, K

    2015-09-01

    Within the past few years, the problem of repeat teenage offenders has raised troubling questions among the various institutions in charge of this population. The temporalities of these adolescents are marked by immediacy, urgency, and repetition that circumvent a linear view of time and the programs set up to handle them. Studies on repeat teenage aggressors (notably, sexual aggressors) have shown that these young people often have a history of an acknowledged or unacknowledged trauma. The fact of having been a victim of abuse during childhood is thought to be a factor leading to later acting out. Our objective is to inquire into these juvenile delinquents and their treatment using a temporal framework of their life pathway that will influence the ways in which they are treated by professionals. By tracing back through the lives of these young authors of violence, we can find out whether they were themselves victims. Repeated acts of violence by a youth could then be seen not as isolated acts but as expressions of ill-being, of having been a victim, whether recognized or not. The act thus represents a link between the present and the past that can be analyzed by looking at occurrences of acting out. It would be interesting, moreover, to reflect upon how continuity could be created there where disruption strikes the youth and often the institutions too. We provide a detailed description of the notion of trauma by recalling its definition and its possible immediate and deferred effects on these youths. In the immediate time frame, the subject may present a physical reaction to the trauma. The psychological reaction will determine a psychic time frame expressed in several ways, whether immediately or at a distance from the traumatic event. Posttraumatic reactions may hamper the development of the teenager's personality. Some traumatized adolescents will express their ill-being by aggressiveness, as they replay the traumatic scene by staging violent and dangerous

  4. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  5. Commentary: sex offenders and insanity.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders with a psychotic illness present challenges in the determination of criminal responsibility, risk assessment, and psychiatric treatment. Novak et al. present data that raise concerns regarding how forensic psychiatrists could conclude sex offenders were not responsible for their offenses in the absence of clear evidence of psychotic symptoms at the time of assessment and/or offense. They also highlight issues of risk assessment and management of psychotic sex offenders that have not been adequately studied. We require further research of psychotic sex offenders to be able to offer scientifically supported opinions on risk assessment to courts and decision-makers.

  6. An international comparative overview on the rehabilitation of offenders and effective measures for the prevention of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Someda, Kei

    2009-04-01

    The prevention of recidivism has long been a central issue in criminal justice policy. This is justified because an offender who repeatedly commits crime inflicts far greater damage on society than an offender who commits a crime just once in his/her lifetime. For instance, research by the Ministry of Justice of Japan (2007) reveals that only approximately 30% of repeat offenders were responsible for around 60% of the crime committed in Japan from 1948 to 2006. It has been proven that the realization of the rehabilitation of offenders contributes to the reduction of recidivism. The successful rehabilitation of offenders depends in large part upon the effectiveness of the community-based treatment given to offenders based upon an appropriate assessment of multidimensional risk factors and a multidisciplinary approach. In exploring effective community-based treatment of offenders using a multidisciplinary approach, the author touches upon several effective programs from an international comparative view, including: intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP), Drug Court, cognitive behavioral treatment programs and some recent developments related to this field in Japan.

  7. The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes of 494 sex offenders. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, victim being intoxicated, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and…

  8. Female sexual offenders in the educational system: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P

    2012-01-01

    Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors.

  9. Criminal Careers and Cognitive Scripts: An Investigation into Criminal Versatility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen; Hockey, David

    2010-01-01

    "Criminal careers" denotes ways in which offenders develop specialisms and versatility, but studies linking delinquency to social skills deficits have not attempted to explore cognitive, internalised processes by which such "careers" might be chosen. This study investigated criminal minds via script theory: "internal" scripts are used to guide…

  10. Trends in Offender Vocational and Education Programs: A Literature Search with Program Development Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sylvia D.

    The American penal system of placing criminal offenders in institutions has evolved from two major goals: (1) to punish offenders as an example to the rest of the community, and (2) to rehabilitate offenders into the community. Since the mid-1960's there has been a trend toward placing offenders in the community and away from isolating them in…

  11. Identifying Risk and Protective Factors in Recidivist Juvenile Offenders: A Decision Tree Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Campos, Elena; García-García, Juan; Gil-Fenoy, Maria José; Zaldívar-Basurto, Flor

    2016-01-01

    Research on juvenile justice aims to identify profiles of risk and protective factors in juvenile offenders. This paper presents a study of profiles of risk factors that influence young offenders toward committing sanctionable antisocial behavior (S-ASB). Decision tree analysis is used as a multivariate approach to the phenomenon of repeated sanctionable antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders in Spain. The study sample was made up of the set of juveniles who were charged in a court case in the Juvenile Court of Almeria (Spain). The period of study of recidivism was two years from the baseline. The object of study is presented, through the implementation of a decision tree. Two profiles of risk and protective factors are found. Risk factors associated with higher rates of recidivism are antisocial peers, age at baseline S-ASB, problems in school and criminality in family members. PMID:27611313

  12. Identifying Risk and Protective Factors in Recidivist Juvenile Offenders: A Decision Tree Approach.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Campos, Elena; García-García, Juan; Gil-Fenoy, Maria José; Zaldívar-Basurto, Flor

    2016-01-01

    Research on juvenile justice aims to identify profiles of risk and protective factors in juvenile offenders. This paper presents a study of profiles of risk factors that influence young offenders toward committing sanctionable antisocial behavior (S-ASB). Decision tree analysis is used as a multivariate approach to the phenomenon of repeated sanctionable antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders in Spain. The study sample was made up of the set of juveniles who were charged in a court case in the Juvenile Court of Almeria (Spain). The period of study of recidivism was two years from the baseline. The object of study is presented, through the implementation of a decision tree. Two profiles of risk and protective factors are found. Risk factors associated with higher rates of recidivism are antisocial peers, age at baseline S-ASB, problems in school and criminality in family members. PMID:27611313

  13. Enduring Risk? Old Criminal Records and Predictions of Future Criminal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlychek, Megan C.; Brame, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.

    2007-01-01

    It is well accepted that criminal records impose collateral consequences on offenders. Such records affect access to public housing, student financial aid, welfare benefits, and voting rights. An axiom of these policies is that individuals with criminal records--even old criminal records--exhibit significantly higher risk of future criminal…

  14. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning.

  15. Dangerous mentally disordered criminals: unresolvable societal fear?

    PubMed

    Leong, G B; Silva, J A; Weinstock, R

    1991-01-01

    The average person fears dangerous criminals, especially those suffering from mental illness. Existing mental health and criminal justice systems provide social control for some of these dangerous individuals, but may be inadequate to deal with those mentally disordered offenders who were not found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGI). In California, innovative laws have attempted to address this problem. However, putative lack of efficacious treatment of mentally ill criminals, insufficient economic support, and individual liberty concerns loom as limiting factors in solving the criminal and psychiatric recidivism problem posed by non-NGI dangerous mentally disordered offenders.

  16. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  17. [Selected problems in the forensic-psychiatric evaluation of persons posing a likelihood of repeating a criminal act].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Nowacka, Agata; Strójwas, Krzysztof; Flinik-Jankowska, Magdalena; Konopa, Aleksandra; Łacisz, Joanna; Wierzbiński, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    In the current penal code, compared to previous regulations, there have been alterations concerning medical security measures. These amendments have been prompted by socio-politic circumstances in Poland as well as implementation of Mental Health Act. According to the current law the court, on the request of expert psychiatrists, can pronounce a sentence of obligatory stay in psychiatric institution for perpetrator of criminal act who has been deemed not sane due to 31 subsection 1 of penal code and who is predictably able of recidivism. In legal-medical practice those less experienced expert psychiatrists may encounter difficulties producing expertise for the court, especially evaluating probability of recurrence of committing a criminal act and resulting request for psychiatric detention. In order to make this issue more acquainted we present a review of literature concerning it.

  18. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  19. Predicting Trajectories of Offending over the Life Course: Findings from a Dutch Conviction Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersani, Bianca E.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Laub, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Distinguishing trajectories of criminal offending over the life course, especially the prediction of high-rate offenders, has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Motivated by a recent study by Sampson and Laub (2003), this study uses longitudinal data on conviction histories from the Dutch Criminal Career and Life-Course…

  20. No One Knows: Offenders with Learning Difficulties and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…

  1. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

  2. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  3. Variables Affecting Successful Reintegration as Perceived by Offenders and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graffam, Joe; Shinkfield, Alison; Lavelle, Barbara; McPherson, Wenda

    2004-01-01

    Six broad domains were identified as influencing reintegration of ex-offenders including personal conditions, social network/environment, accommodation, criminal justice system, rehabilitation and counselling support, and employment and training support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 offenders and 22 professionals from criminal…

  4. Organized Crime Offenders in Canada: Risk, Reform, and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick

    2013-01-01

    This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…

  5. A Description of Sexual Offending Committed by Canadian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulden, Heather M.; Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A.; Wexler, Audrey F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim…

  6. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  7. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  8. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women.

  9. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women. PMID:8714337

  10. Asperger's disorder and the criminal law.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Asperger's Disorder has the potential to be relevant to many aspects of the functioning of the criminal justice system. However, its mere presence does not excuse or justify all offending. The inquiry into its potential relevance to criminal offending and sentencing must be both contextual and informed by suitably qualified expert evidence. This column reviews court decisions in respect of offences of physical violence, sexual violence, arson, stalking/harassing and computer offences across a range of jurisdictions to evaluate how courts have latterly incorporated Asperger's Disorder into decisions about criminal responsibility and culpability.

  11. Drug treatments in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, Benjamin R; Williams, A R

    2012-06-01

    The available evidence suggests that drug treatment can lead to modest, but real, reductions in criminal offending for drug-using criminal offenders. Considering the scope of the problem of drug-related crime and the expense of dealing with these issues, even marginal improvements can lead to important aggregate savings in both economic and humanitarian terms. More randomized, controlled trials of drug treatment in criminal justice programs will lead to a more sophisticated understanding of what kind of treatment works best for this group.

  12. Continuity and Changes in the Developmental Trajectories of Criminal Career: Examining the Roles of Timing of First Arrest and High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Wenk, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Early onset of criminal career is one of the most robust predictors of persistence in offending. However, many antisocial children do not become chronic adult offenders. Using longitudinal data of young male offenders in the California Youth Authority, we examined trajectories of criminal behavior from childhood to adulthood. We particularly…

  13. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  14. Applying inoculation theory to the study of recidivism reduction in criminal prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald-Mark

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the authors through this study is to establish inoculation theory as a viable method in the prevention or reduction of recidivism in criminal prison inmate populations in the United States. The authors begin with a detailed literature review on inoculation. They also describe, in detail, recidivism in prisons. In doing so, they provide a series of interconnected topics, such as the total number of inmates in U.S. prisons, statistical displays of repeat offenders or subjects of recidivism, and the types of crimes often times repeated by convicted criminals. What comes afterwards is an explication of how inoculation theory can be applied in the context of reducing prisoner recidivism. The authors conclude this study with a discussion section that offers suggestions for future research. PMID:24066635

  15. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders.

  16. The Development of Criminal Style in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Separating the Lemmings from the Loners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldweber, Asha; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite broad consensus that most juvenile crimes are committed with peers, many questions regarding developmental and individual differences in criminal style (i.e., co-offending vs. solo offending) remain unanswered. Using prospective 3-year longitudinal data from 937 14- to 17-year-old serious male offenders, the present study investigates…

  17. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

  18. [Criminal acts leading to commitment according to psychiatric jurisprudence].

    PubMed

    Jöckel, D; Müller-Isberner, R

    1997-05-01

    The analysis of the delinquency bringing disordered offenders into a hospital order institution reveals a lot of very conscious and well organized behavior during the criminal activity. This must be taken into account in therapy and prognosis.

  19. Rapid identification of anonymous subjects in large criminal databases: problems and solutions in IAFIS III/FBI subject searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzleb, C. D.

    1997-02-01

    The high incidence of recidivism (repeat offenders) in the criminal population makes the use of the IAFIS III/FBI criminal database an important tool in law enforcement. The problems and solutions employed by IAFIS III/FBI criminal subject searches are discussed for the following topics: (1) subject search selectivity and reliability; (2) the difficulty and limitations of identifying subjects whose anonymity may be a prime objective; (3) database size, search workload, and search response time; (4) techniques and advantages of normalizing the variability in an individual's name and identifying features into identifiable and discrete categories; and (5) the use of database demographics to estimate the likelihood of a match between a search subject and database subjects.

  20. Transfer of Juvenile Cases to Criminal Court.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kraus, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    The first juvenile court was founded in 1899 with the focus on rehabilitation of a juvenile offender as opposed to punishment in adult court. Determining culpability and disposition for adolescents has become a source of much discussion. With serious crimes, juvenile delinquents may be transferred from juvenile court to adult criminal court; this practice became more prevalent in the past century. However, growing knowledge of adolescent development has mitigated the culpability of youth offenders and resulted in judicial decisions influential to juvenile dispositions.

  1. Cognitive distortions about sex and sexual offending: a comparison of sex offending girls, delinquent girls, and girls from the community.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Elizabeth K; Hecker, Jeffrey E

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual of non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes varied with respect to the sexual contact portrayed and the victim's response. Girls who had sexually offended were more likely to endorse statements reflecting the belief that the offender in a sexually aggressive vignette was not responsible for initiating the sexual contact. In addition, when the victim's response to the sexual contact was clearly negative, and the degree of contact was more serious, girls who had sexually offended demonstrated more distorted beliefs about the victim than the other two groups. Similarities and differences between the current findings and studies of distorted thinking in male sexual offenders are discussed.

  2. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  3. Public attitudes about the culpability and punishment of young offenders.

    PubMed

    Scott, Elizabeth S; Reppucci, N Dickon; Antonishak, Jill; DeGennaro, Jennifer T

    2006-01-01

    Opinions of 789 community adults were individually assessed, using a video-clip of an actual armed robbery and other measures, to determine whether attitudes toward the culpability and appropriate punishment of young offenders were linked to offenders' age, race, and physical appearance. Three major findings emerged: (1) community adults endorse the view that criminal choices of young offenders are influenced by their developmental immaturity and attribute more responsibility for the criminal act as the actor gets older; (2) the public has a relatively strong preference for differential treatment of juvenile and adult offenders; and (3) attitudes about culpability and punishment are not influenced by the culprit's race, physical maturity, or appearance of "toughness." Indications that punitive public opinion toward youth crime may be changing and implications for juvenile justice policy of the study's findings are discussed.

  4. The Relationship of Sex-Role Orientation, Self-Concept and Self-Control to Female Criminality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Mary M.; Mueller, Charles W.

    Research on the female offender has produced two explanations of the female criminal personality: the female offender either as a masculinated women or as an anguished woman possessing low self-esteem and poor self-control. To investigate the applicability of each position, 144 black male and female criminals and noncriminals completed the Bem Sex…

  5. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  6. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  7. Invited Address: James Joyce, Alice in Wonderland, the Rolling Stones, and Criminal Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of criminal careers generally, and patterns of continuity and change in criminal offending in particular, has been a long-standing interest to social scientists across many disciplines. This article provides readers with an overview of this line of research. After an introduction to the criminal career perspective, the article presents…

  8. Homelessness and the mentally ill offender.

    PubMed

    Richman, B J; Convit, A; Martell, D

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective analysis of the discharge summaries of 69 mentally ill offenders. The subjects were patients in a New York State Psychiatric Hospital for a two-year period between January 1988 and December 1989 who were referred by the courts under New York State Criminal Procedure Law (CPL). The subjects were further compared as to homelessness at the time of the instant offense to study the association of this variable and criminal behavior among the mentally ill. Statistical analyses demonstrated significant relationships between variables of homelessness, prior offense history, and substance abuse.

  9. Alcohol Abuse and the Young Offender: Alcohol Education as an Alternative to Custodial Sentencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problem of how to address relationship between alcohol abuse and criminal offending. Suggests that Alcohol Education Courses (AECs) offer workable alternative to custodial sentencing. AECs offer various techniques that target abusive alcohol consumption level of the population, the problem of offending, or both. Asserts that evaluation…

  10. One More Chance: The Pursuit of Promising Intervention Strategies for Chronic Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; Zimring, Franklin E.

    This document gives the findings and recommendations of a study designed to identify interventions which can reduce the criminality of chronic juvenile offenders. The findings presented should be of interest to researchers and practitioners who are attempting to devise methods of reducing the crimes of chronic offenders that are more effective and…

  11. Sexual offender containment: use of the postconviction polygraph.

    PubMed

    English, Kim; Jones, Linda; Patrick, Diane; Pasini-Hill, Diane

    2003-06-01

    Victims of sexual assault are unlikely to report the crime. For many sexual offenders, then, their sexually deviant behavior remains largely unknown except for crimes that result in arrest or notification to social services. Little is known about the offender's past behavior and little will be known about the offender's future abusive behavior. It is within this context that the containment approach for managing sexual offenders becomes critical to protecting future victimization by known offenders. This paper describes the need to incorporate information learned from the postconviction polygraph examination into intense treatment and criminal justice supervision. Age of onset and frequency and variety of deviant behavior are known risk factors, probably because they reflect the extent to which deviancy is part of the offender's lifestyle. Treatment and supervision plans must incorporate this information, along with the risk presented by these offenders to very specific age and gender groups. This study of data collected on disclosures made by 180 convicted sexual offenders (most were convicted of crimes against children) during the course of four different treatment/polygraph programs found that 39% had a history of sexually assaulting adults, 31% had sexually assaulted both male and female victims, 36% had engaged in bestiality, and two-thirds of the incest offenders had assaulted victims outside the family. Complete information is necessary for treatment providers and supervising officers to develop meaningful and relevant treatment and supervision plans, and for imminent, situational risk factors to be managed and contained.

  12. Psychiatric diagnosis and differential risks of offending following discharge.

    PubMed

    Coid, Jeremy W; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Hickey, Nicole; Kahtan, Nadji; Freestone, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis is not considered a risk factor for offending following discharge. However, treatment interventions and aftercare are strongly influenced by clinical primary diagnosis. We compared differential risks of reoffending of patients falling into six primary diagnostic categories following discharge from Medium Secure Units in the UK: schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder; delusional disorder; mania/hypomania; depressive disorder; organic brain syndrome; personality disorder. We followed up 1344 patients, on average 6.2 years (SD=2.1) at risk, discharged from 7 of 14 Regional Medium Secure services in England and Wales. Outcomes were period prevalence, incidence, and cumulative probability of criminal conviction. Established demographic and criminal history predictors of reoffending were observed across different diagnostic categories. Risks of all offending were increased for personality disorder, violence/acquisitive offending for delusional disorder, sexual offending for mania/hypomania and violence/acquisitive offending for organic brain syndrome. Patterns of risk over time differed markedly between categories of mental disorder. Most patients with personality disorder who offended violently did so within 4 years of discharge. A subgroup with delusional disorder demonstrated increased risk of violent offending 5 years after discharge. Differential risks of reoffending are observed between different diagnostic groups. Clinical diagnosis should be included together with established risk measures in risk management following discharge. Close supervision of patients with personality disorder should begin immediately after discharge when risks of reoffending are greatest. For delusional disorder further investigation is needed into the marked increase in risk of violence after 5 years.

  13. King's theory of goal attainment applied in group therapy for inpatient juvenile sexual offenders, maximum security state offenders, and community parolees, using visual aids.

    PubMed

    Laben, J K; Dodd, D; Sneed, L

    1991-01-01

    Group psychotherapy has been considered the treatment of choice by many therapists working with offenders within the criminal justice system. However, there has been little written by nurses regarding this special population. This article's purpose is to illustrate how King's theory of goal attainment may be used in conducting group psychotherapy with offender populations. The application of King's model is demonstrated in three milieus: an inpatient setting for juvenile sexual offenders, a state maximum security prison, and a halfway house for offenders involved in a work-release program. The methodology and use of visual aids in actualizing King's theory of mutual goal setting and goal attainment are discussed.

  14. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. PMID:26593121

  15. Some perspectives on criminalization.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    In recently published articles, there has been an underemphasis on the role serious mental illness (SMI) plays in causing persons to be in the criminal justice system. Increasing attention has been paid to other factors, including criminogenic needs. While these needs may be present and contribute to criminal behavior, persons with SMI who are at greatest risk of criminalization are those who are not receiving adequate treatment, structure, social control, and, when necessary, 24-hour care in the mental health system. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used to reduce recidivism for prisoners, including those with SMI, but persons impaired by their untreated psychotic symptoms may not be able to profit from it. The importance of psychiatric treatment must not be underestimated. Moreover, given their current constraints, correctional systems may not be able to continue accepting large numbers of persons with SMI. Many offenders with serious mental illness pose difficult and expensive problems in treatment and management, such as nonadherence to medication, potential for violence, and substance abuse. The mental health system needs to be given more funding and to take more responsibility for these challenging individuals. PMID:23771942

  16. Drug-Related Disorders and the Criminal and Clinical Background of the Prison Population of São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Maíra Mendes; Quintana, Maria Ines; Moreira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between drug (DAD) and alcohol (AAD) abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. Method Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD) were combined into a single category. Results The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women). Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17), to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85), and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18). Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18). Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39), a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24), a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09), another health problem (OR 3.04), and violent crime (OR 2.5). Conclusion The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for prison

  17. Neurocriminology: implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Criminal behaviour and violence are increasingly viewed as worldwide public health problems. A growing body of knowledge shows that criminal behaviour has a neurobiological basis, and this has intensified judicial interest in the potential application of neuroscience to criminal law. It also gives rise to important questions. What are the implications of such application for predicting future criminal behaviour and protecting society? Can it be used to prevent violence? And what are the implications for the way offenders are punished?

  18. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24556314

  19. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.

  20. Serving Mentally Ill Offenders through Community Corrections: Joining Two Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, K. Michael; Dziegielewski, Sophia F.; Sharp, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the policy of deinstitutionalization has resulted in the closing of many federal and state mental health facilities. This has caused many criminal justice professionals and social workers to question where the mentally ill are placed when they are no longer in a treatment facility. With the abundance of offenders with mental health…

  1. Restitution Programs for Juvenile Offenders. Technical Assistance Bulletin 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Resource Network, Washington, DC.

    Restitution programs have been organized in many areas of the country to make juvenile offenders more accountable for their criminal behavior, more aware of the consequences to themselves, their victims, and the community, and thus, less likely to continue committing crimes. The programs also provide direct compensation for victims of crime.…

  2. Parent-Child Relations and Offending during Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family…

  3. Working in the Community with Young People Who Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Alice; Themelis, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the "at risk" and "what works" approach that drives the management of youth criminal justice systems produces little knowledge that informs practitioners how best to work with young people who offend and how to design effective crime prevention programmes. An alternative approach that is more informative for the…

  4. Current Status of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    An emerging literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and offending has highlighted that these disorders are at times associated with criminal behaviour. Ghaziuddin et al. (1991) reviewed the published literature on this topic from 1944 to 1990 and concluded that there was no clear link between Asperger syndrome (AS) and violent crime. They…

  5. Criminal law as a response to medical malpractice: pluses and minuses--comparing Italian and U.S. experiences.

    PubMed

    Di Landro, Andrea R

    2012-06-01

    The paper is divided into three parts. The first part sets out the comparative differences between the tort of malpractice in common law and the criminal negligence in civil law: while the common law takes for mens rea only the "gross" negligence, and rarely medical negligence, other law systems instead (and particularly Italian law) criminalize also ordinary negligence, frequently in medical malpractice cases. The second part of the paper addresses the pluses of using criminal law as response to medical malpractice: inadequate medical self-policing and "repeat offenders" problems are analysed, in the perspective of the patient, of the doctor, of the insurance company, and of the community. The third part addresses the minuses of the criminal law as response: medical "shame and blame" mentality, criminal stigma and culture of fear are disincentives to incident reporting and to system analysis (the most important means of prevention); "defensive medicine" and "courts-abiding medicine" are managed not yet in the patient's exclusive interest, but in the egoistic/utilitarian aim to avoid denunciations; finally, the uncertainty of the medicine, the accusatory system and the proof "beyond a reasonable doubt" seem hardly compatible with each other.

  6. Predictors of the sex offender civil commitment trial outcomes in New York State.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunmei; Freeman, Naomi J; Sandler, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    The present study analyzed sex offender civil management (i.e., civil commitment) legal proceedings in New York State and identified factors that predict trial results. Specifically, the current study compared a sample of 38 sex offenders who were released to the community after winning their civil management trials to 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials. Additionally, for the 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials, the current study compared 146 offenders who were ordered to inpatient civil commitment to 37 offenders who were deemed fit for civil management in the community. Results of the analyses indicated that sexual criminality, sexual deviance, and criminality involving child victims increased the likelihood of offenders both losing their civil management trial and being found to be in need of inpatient care, while the presence of variables associated with nonsexual criminality increased the likelihood of offenders both winning their civil management trials and being deemed fit for management in the community. The findings of this study provide guidance for psychiatric examiners who testify in civil management legal proceedings, as well as for legal professionals specializing in civil management cases.

  7. Sexualization and lifestyle impulsivity: clinically valid discriminators in sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Eher, Reinhard; Neuwirth, Wolfgang; Fruehwald, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    Following clinical observations in this study a comparison was undertaken between nonsexualized rapists, sexualized rapists, and pedophilic child molesters in terms of psychometric measures, criminological data, and DSM-IV diagnoses following the authors' hypotheses that nonsexualized and sexualized rapists differ in respect of psychiatric comorbidity and criminal history and sexualized rapists and pedophilic child molesters are more similar as regards to psychiatric comorbidity (anxiety, depression, and aggression) and criminal history variables than nonsexualized and sexualized rapists are. Preliminary findings confirmed the hypotheses: the authors found significant differences between paraphilic and sexualized sex offenders on one hand--regardless whether they had offended against minors or adults--and a group of sex offenders exhibiting a history of high lifestyle impulsivity on the other hand. From a psychiatric clinical point of view, paraphilic or sexualized rapists could be shown to resemble more the pedophilic child molesters. Therapeutic approaches should take these findings into account. PMID:12971185

  8. Patterns of prior offending by child abductors: a comparison of fatal and non-fatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James Oliver; Hayne, Anita S; Beyer, Kristen; Cramer, Gary L; Berson, Sarah Bradley; Muirhead, Yvonne; Warren, Janet I

    2009-01-01

    Our study examines the prior offending of 750 individuals who are known to be responsible for the abduction of a child under the age of 18 years. The first group comprised of 311 offenders (42%) who had abducted a child that was later located alive (found alive, referred to as FA). The second group was comprised of 439 offenders (58%) who had abducted a child that was either found murdered or was still missing and presumed dead (found murdered, referred to as FM). While males perpetrated the majority of the abductions, women perpetrated 31 (10%) of the offenses in the FA group and 10 (2%) of the offenses in the FM group. The average number of prior offenses as reflected in the NCIC criminal history of each offender was seven with these occurring over an average of 12 years. Seventy-five percent of the offenders had prior arrests for an assortment of different crimes while 25% had no known criminal history, a finding that was consistent across both the FA and FM groups. Of those with a criminal history, 41% had been arrested for assault, 40% for larceny, 35% for burglary/breaking and entering, 33% for forcible sex offenses, 25% for drug/narcotic offenses, 21% for weapons law violations, 17% for motor vehicle thefts, 15% for robbery, and 14% for kidnapping. Our findings are congruent with the theme of criminal diversity among child abductors and argue against the specificity in offending that is often assumed with this type of sexual offender. This information is relevant to our understanding of the progression in criminal offending that is manifested by offenders who abduct children and will hopefully be used by law enforcement in helping to direct and focus their investigations.

  9. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  10. People with an Intellectual Disability and the Criminal Justice System: The Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockram, Judith; Jackson, Robert; Underwood, Rod

    1998-01-01

    An Australian study interviewed 20 family caregivers for individuals with intellectual disabilities who were offenders in the criminal justice system. Caregivers expressed concern for the lack of sentencing options and the inadequate level of services for this population. It is argued that these offenders require legal representation from the…

  11. Onset and Desistance in Criminal Careers: Neurobiology and the Age-Crime Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Raymond E.

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, attempts to understand and explain criminal offending have been grounded in theories from sociological, legal, and psychological perspectives. In the preceding twenty years, or so, however, some research in the field has endeavored to look at offending from a psychobiological viewpoint. This research concerns the potential…

  12. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  13. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L.; Moore, Simon C.; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Methods Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Results Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. Conclusions The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending. PMID:26121148

  14. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.

  15. Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: investigating the role of sentence length and time served.

    PubMed

    Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined.

  16. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  17. Criminal responsibility in amphetamine psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, A

    1994-01-01

    Historical changes in forensic psychiatric evaluation on criminal responsibility and proceedings in psychopathological findings of amphetamine psychosis are reviewed at first. The classification of amphetamine related mental disorders are proposed in 6 types. Among them, the clinical characteristics and psychopathological features of "Anxiety-situational reaction type" (Fukushima) are described. According to some reasonable grounds, offenders diagnosed as anxiety-situational reaction type should be evaluated as diminished responsibility in place of irresponsibility. Finally, two cases of murder committed under the influence of amphetamine, are reported in detail.

  18. Linking Specialization and Seriousness in Criminal Careers

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, John M.; Haviland, Amelia; Ramchand, Rajeev; Morral, Andrew R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Some research suggests that recidivistic criminal offending patterns typically progress in a stepping-stone manner from less to more serious forms of offending from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Whether the progression into more serious types of offending reflects patterns of crime specialization is a matter of debate. Using data from 449 adolescent offenders who were interviewed at six time points between adolescence and adulthood, we present a new method for measuring crime specialization and apply it to an assessment of the link between specialization and offense seriousness. We measure specialization by constructing an empirical measure of how similar crimes are from each other based on the rate at which crimes co-occur within individual crime pathways over a given offender population. We then use these empirically-based population-specific offense similarities to assign a specialization score to each subject at each time period based on the set of crimes they self-report at that time. Finally, we examine how changes over time in specialization, within individuals, is correlated with changes in the seriousness of the offenses they report committing. Results suggest that the progression of crime into increasingly serious forms of offending does not reflect a general pattern of offense specialization. Implications for life course research are noted. PMID:25422597

  19. Linking Specialization and Seriousness in Criminal Careers.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, John M; Haviland, Amelia; Ramchand, Rajeev; Morral, Andrew R; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Some research suggests that recidivistic criminal offending patterns typically progress in a stepping-stone manner from less to more serious forms of offending from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Whether the progression into more serious types of offending reflects patterns of crime specialization is a matter of debate. Using data from 449 adolescent offenders who were interviewed at six time points between adolescence and adulthood, we present a new method for measuring crime specialization and apply it to an assessment of the link between specialization and offense seriousness. We measure specialization by constructing an empirical measure of how similar crimes are from each other based on the rate at which crimes co-occur within individual crime pathways over a given offender population. We then use these empirically-based population-specific offense similarities to assign a specialization score to each subject at each time period based on the set of crimes they self-report at that time. Finally, we examine how changes over time in specialization, within individuals, is correlated with changes in the seriousness of the offenses they report committing. Results suggest that the progression of crime into increasingly serious forms of offending does not reflect a general pattern of offense specialization. Implications for life course research are noted. PMID:25422597

  20. Journey "during" crime: predicting criminal mobility patterns in sexual assaults.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Busina, Irina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between situational and modus operandi characteristics and criminal mobility during the sexual assault event. Data collected from both police files and semistructured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who have committed 361 sexual assaults have been used. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationships between the situational and modus operandi characteristics and the criminal mobility exhibited during the sexual assault. Events that involved child or adolescent victims, those where the offender did not use pornography prior to crime, and those where victim resistance was observed exhibited more criminal mobility. Moreover, crimes in which the victim was selected, the victim was alone when approached by the offender, and the assault was characterized by sexual penetration and a lack of premeditation exhibited more criminal mobility. Results seem to suggest that criminal mobility is a goal-oriented action taken by serial sex offenders to successfully complete their crime and to avoid detection and apprehension. PMID:23300197

  1. Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Wood, J Michael; Babchishin, Kelly M; Flynn, Sheri

    2012-08-01

    The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs.

  2. Victim-induced criminality.

    PubMed

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-01

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  3. Drug-associated psychoses and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Andrew; McSherry, Bernadette; Wood, Debra; Yannoulidis, Steven

    2008-01-01

    At present, the law draws a distinction when assigning criminal responsibility to those who commit offences while experiencing psychotic symptoms: if the symptoms are believed to arise because of ingesting drugs (an external cause), the offender is generally convicted of the offence; if the symptoms arise from a mental illness (an internal cause), the offender may be afforded a defence of insanity. In practice, drawing such a distinction can be problematic. There are difficulties for example in determining criminal responsibility when the use of drugs is followed by the emergence of a psychotic illness process that then continues to have an independent existence even in the absence of the ongoing substance use. This article analyses legal, policy, and expert witness perspectives relating to liberal, conservative, and intermediate approaches to this problematic area of jurisprudence.

  4. Mentally disordered offenders. Patterns in the relationship between mental disorder and crime.

    PubMed

    Dietz, P E

    1992-09-01

    Five patterns among mentally disordered offenders are distinguished by the relationship between mental disorder, on the one hand, and criminality, on the other. Pattern 1 offenders are those for whom crime is a response to psychotic symptoms, most often delusions or hallucinations. Pattern 2 offenders commit crimes motivated by compulsive desires, such as sex offenses by paraphiles and offenses regarded as evidence of disorders of impulse control. Pattern 3 offenders are those with personality disorder for whom the crime is merely one example of a maladaptive pattern of voluntary and knowing behavior. Pattern 4 offenders have coincidental mental illness that is unrelated to the crime. Pattern 5 offenders are those who become mentally disordered or feign mental disorder as a result of their crimes, such as those who dissociate upon seeing what they have done, those who become depressed in prison, those who become psychotic on death row, and those who malinger mental illness. Although these categories do not determine whether offenders are responsible for their behavior, some unknown proportion of Pattern 1 offenders do meet legal criteria for insanity, depending on the facts of each case and the applicable legal standards. It is arguable whether or not Pattern 2 offenders ever meet legal criteria of insanity. Offenders evidencing only Patterns 3, 4, or 5 are not candidates for an insanity defense.

  5. Potential and Dunkelfeld offenders: two neglected target groups for prevention of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Gerard A; Mundt, Ingrid A; Feelgood, Steven; Hupp, Elena; Neutze, Janina; Ahlers, Christoph J; Goecker, David; Beier, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about men who have not yet committed child sexual abuse but may be at risk of doing so (potential offenders) and the factors that distinguish these men from undetected child sexual abuse offenders with a sexual interest in children (Dunkelfeld offenders). The present study describes and compares potential and Dunkelfeld offenders, which can be viewed as ideal target groups for (primary) prevention efforts with respect to child sexual abuse. Also, this study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using a telephone screening procedure to conduct research with these groups. Using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), data on demographics, mental health, sexuality, criminal history, and victim characteristics were collected from respondents in a nation-wide media campaign, which informed potential (re-)offenders of child sexual abuse of a research and treatment project. Many participants reported recurrent sexual fantasies involving minors, as well as related distress, suggesting a high prevalence of pedophilia and hebephilia. More than half feared they would sexually abuse a minor, and Dunkelfeld offenders reported 3.2 victims on average. Group comparisons revealed that Dunkelfeld offenders were, for example, more likely to perceive themselves being at risk of offending, compared to potential offenders. The results suggest that targeting potential and Dunkelfeld offenders could prove a worthwhile approach in the prevention of child sexual abuse. PMID:20466423

  6. Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  7. Childhood predictors and age 48 outcomes of self-reports and official records of offending

    PubMed Central

    DUBOW, ERIC F.; HUESMANN, L. ROWELL; BOXER, PAUL; SMITH, CATHY

    2014-01-01

    Background The key question is: are self-reports and official records equally valid indicators of criminal offending? Aims We examine the correspondence between self-reports and official records of offending, the similarity of childhood and adolescent individual and contextual predictors of both measures of offending, and the similarity of age 48 correlates of both measures of offending. Methods Men (N = 436) from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study, a sample of all 3rd graders in Columbia County, New York, in 1959–60, participated. The youth, their peers and their parents were interviewed when the youth were age 8; the youth were later interviewed at ages 19, 30 and 48. Results We found moderate to high correspondence between self-reports of having been in trouble with the law and official arrest records. Lifetime self-reports and official records of offending were generally predicted by the same childhood and adolescent variables, and were correlated with many of the same adult outcome measures. By age 48, life-course non-offenders defined by either self-reports or official records had better outcomes than offenders. Conclusions The results validate the use of adolescent and adult self-reports of offending, and the early identification of individuals at risk for adult criminal behaviour through childhood parent and peer reports and adolescent self and peer reports. PMID:25294162

  8. Short-Term Criminal Pathways: Type and Seriousness of Offense and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wientjes, Jacqueline A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors investigated short-term criminal pathways of children and early adolescents starting under the age of 14 years and the extent to which characteristics of the 1st crime influenced criminal pathways. Participants were 387 juvenile offenders with a mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 2.05 years). The authors followed…

  9. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  10. A review of the amendments to the Criminal Code of Canada (Mental Disorder).

    PubMed

    Swaminath, R S; Norris, P D; Komer, W J; Sidhu, G

    1993-10-01

    On February 4, 1992, Bill C-30, an Act to Amend the Criminal Code of Canada (Mental Disorder), the National Defence Act and the Young Offenders Act, was officially proclaimed. The authors provide an overview of this legislation and raise some concerns regarding certain sections of the Criminal Code.

  11. 24 CFR 5.901 - To what criminal records and searches does this subpart apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Records and Information § 5.901 To what criminal records and searches does this subpart apply? (a) General... not apply to criminal conviction information or sex offender information searches by a PHA or others... searches does this subpart apply? 5.901 Section 5.901 Housing and Urban Development Office of the...

  12. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder: A New Approach for the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, David S.

    2007-01-01

    As a judge, the author was continually confronted with offenders whose behavior was unexpected and surprising. This was observed not only during their criminal activity but during their travel through the criminal process. This behavior did not appear to be intentional, but rather an inappropriate response to the circumstances that existed at the…

  13. The Marginally Employed Offender: A Unique Phenomenon among Released Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nally, John; Lockwood, Susan; Knutson, Katie; Ho, Taiping

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to explore the characteristics of marginally employed (earnings less than $5,000 per year) ex-offenders. Findings from this study include the following: (1) The number of employed offenders varied from 47.7 percent of recently released offenders in 2006 to 49.8 percent of recently released offenders in 2009; (2)…

  14. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  15. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  16. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood. PMID:27222141

  17. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo.

  18. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. PMID:27302706

  19. Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not.

  20. Does mandating offenders to treatment improve completion rates?

    PubMed

    Coviello, Donna M; Zanis, Dave A; Wesnoski, Susan A; Palman, Nicole; Gur, Arona; Lynch, Kevin G; McKay, James R

    2013-04-01

    While it is known that community-based outpatient treatment for substance abusing offenders is effective, treatment completion rates are low and much of the prior research has been conducted with offenders in residential treatment or therapeutic communities. The aim of the present study was to assess whether offenders who are mandated to community-based outpatient treatment have better completion rates compared to those who enter treatment voluntarily. The 160 research participants were a heterogeneous group of substance abusers who were under various levels of criminal justice supervision (CJS) in the community. The participants were enrolled in an intensive outpatient program and were recruited into the study between July 2007 and October 2010. All offenders received weekly therapy sessions using a cognitive problem solving framework and 45% completed the 6 month treatment program. Interestingly, those who were mandated demonstrated less motivation at treatment entry, yet were more likely to complete treatment compared to those who were not court-ordered to treatment. While controlling for covariates known to be related to treatment completion, the logistic regression analyses demonstrated that court-ordered offenders were over 10 times more likely to complete treatment compared to those who entered treatment voluntarily (OR=10.9, CI=2.0-59.1, p=.006). These findings demonstrate that stipulated treatment for offenders may be an effective way to increase treatment compliance.

  1. An overview of psychiatric treatment approaches to three offender groups.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J D; Bradford, J M; Kofoed, L

    1988-02-01

    The chances for successful management of three groups of mentally ill offenders--insanity acquittees, sexual offenders, and offenders with alcohol problems--can be maximized by using specific diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for each group. The recommended model for treatment of insanity acquittees is based on a single administrative organization to oversee treatment programs, which include clearly defined inpatient and outpatient components and careful monitoring of conditional release to the community. Techniques for the diagnosis of sexual offenders include bioimpedance and physiological measures of sex hormone levels and penile tumescence. Medication with antiandrogens and cognitive behavioral treatment using covert sensitization and operant aversion are among the appropriate therapeutic modalities. Treatment of persons charged with alcohol-related crimes should be matched to the severity of the alcohol problem. Legal intervention supplemented by brief treatment programs may be effective for offenders with lesser degrees of alcohol abuse. For offenders with more serious alcohol problems, longer group treatment or detoxification may be necessary. Treatment of alcoholic criminals may be most effective in peer groups in institutional settings, where legal coercion can be used to encourage compliance.

  2. Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Together with Additional, Minority and Supplemental Views To Accompany S. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    Finding that violent crimes perpetrated by juvenile offenders has increased dramatically in this century, the Committee on the Judiciary recommended and forwarded this bill for enaction by the Senate. The bill revises federal court procedures, addresses the problem of violent crime and controlled substance offenses by youth gangs, and encourages…

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives?

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, James A; Looman, Jan; Franco, Kristina A; Rojas, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research associated with the Kaiser Permanente and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study has demonstrated that ACE are associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including physical and mental health disorders and aggressive behavior. Methods: Subjects from 4 different offender groups (N = 151) who were referred for treatment at an outpatient clinic in San Diego, CA, subsequent to conviction in criminal court, completed the ACE Questionnaire. Groups (nonsexual child abusers, domestic violence offenders, sexual offenders, and stalkers) were compared on the incidence of ACE, and comparisons were made between the group offenders and a normative sample. Results: Results indicated that the offender group reported nearly four times as many adverse events in childhood than an adult male normative sample. Eight of ten events were found at significantly higher levels among the criminal population. In addition, convicted sexual offenders and child abusers were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse in childhood than other offender types. Conclusions: On the basis of a review of the literature and current findings, criminal behavior can be added to the host of negative outcomes associated with scores on the ACE Questionnaire. Childhood adversity is associated with adult criminality. We suggest that to decrease criminal recidivism, treatment interventions must focus on the effects of early life experiences. PMID:23704843

  4. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  5. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.

  6. 24 CFR 982.553 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under a State sex offender registration program. In this screening of applicants, the PHA must perform... lifetime sex offender registration requirement in the State where the housing is located and in other... is “currently engaged in” criminal activity if the person has engaged in the behavior recently...

  7. 24 CFR 982.553 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under a State sex offender registration program. In this screening of applicants, the PHA must perform... lifetime sex offender registration requirement in the State where the housing is located and in other... is “currently engaged in” criminal activity if the person has engaged in the behavior recently...

  8. Every Door Closed: Barriers Facing Parents with Criminal Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Amy E.; Dietrich, Sharon M.; Landau, Rue; Schneider, Peter D.; Ackelsberg, Irv; Bernstein-Baker, Judith; Hohenstein, Joseph

    This report examines the civil consequences of criminal records on ex-offender parents and their long-term ability to reintegrate into the community, resume parental responsibilities, and be productive members of the society. Many of the barriers described in this report are the results of policies intended to reduce crime, yet they have the…

  9. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  10. Enhancing the Career Development of Individuals Who Have Criminal Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cummings, Devon L.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are involved in the criminal justice system. Upon release, most have difficulty finding employment and stabilizing economic resources, which contribute to recidivism. To date, the role of work in the lives of ex-offenders has virtually been ignored in the vocational literature. The purpose of this article is to…

  11. The Use of Phallometric Evidence in Canadian Criminal Law.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Michael S; Chandler, Jennifer A; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-06-01

    The use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts has steadily increased since the early 1980s. Phallometry was initially considered by courts to be a potentially useful tool in the determination of accused persons' culpability; however, its contemporary use is limited to the postconviction contexts of sentencing and dangerous and long-term offender applications, as one of several means of diagnosing offenders, determining recidivism risk, and assessing treatment prospects. We provide an overview and assessment of the use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts and conclude that its contemporary application appears to be consistent with the expert psychiatric consensus on its proper role and function in the forensic context. We further identify potential difficulties associated with the adequacy of offenders' consent and the occasional divergence of expert opinion about the reliability and validity of phallometry for diagnosis and risk assessment.

  12. Commentary: older offenders--no place to go?

    PubMed

    Yorston, Graeme A; Taylor, Pamela J

    2006-01-01

    For offender groups, difficulties in definition of 'elderly' and 'older' are considerable. Adoption of chronological age cutoffs gives little indication of service need. Contrary to popular belief, there has been no upsurge of offending among people of 60 and over, but there has been an increase in their representation in the prison population. Older prisoners tend to have more mental and physical health care needs than younger prisoners and than their similarly aged peers in the community. Their needs may be more appropriately met in health care rather than criminal justice services. Neither health care nor criminal justice services, however, have yet made adequate specific provision for this group. Our commentary reviews current evidence for more appropriate and safer service responses. PMID:17032957

  13. Imprisoned drug offenders in Taiwan: a gender-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Furjen; Vaughn, Michael S; Lee, Lou-Jou

    2003-06-01

    Using data collected from a 1999 nationwide survey of 700 incarcerated drug users in Taiwan, this article compares gender differences with respect to childhood experiences, family characteristics, drug use patterns, and criminal histories. The results from both bivariate and logistic regression analyses document some gender differences and offer tentative support for feminist views. Overall, female drug offenders in Taiwan were more likely to have spouses with alcohol or drug use-associated problems, experience physical or sexual abuse, grow up in non-two-parent households, and hold temporary and stereotypical female jobs, including prostitution. Compared to men, although female drug offenders reported earlier involvement in criminal activities, they were less violent and had fewer prior arrests. As for sources, women relied on friends or acquaintances to procure their drugs. No gender differences were identified with respect to illicit drug type or duration and frequency of use. PMID:12801150

  14. Shame, Guilt and Remorse: Implications for Offender Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Hafez, Logaina

    2011-01-01

    The emotions shame and guilt may represent a critical stepping stone in the rehabilitation process. Often referred to as “moral” emotions owing to their presumed role in promoting altruistic behavior and inhibiting antisocial behaviors, shame and guilt provide potentially exciting points of intervention with offenders. In this article, we describe current psychological theory and research that underscores important differences between shame and guilt. We note parallels between psychologists’ conceptions of guilt and shame, and criminologists’ conceptions of reintegrative and disintegrative shaming. We summarize recent research investigating the implications of these moral emotions for criminal and risky behavior, with special emphasis on the handful of studies conducted with actual offenders. We conclude with a discussion of implications for treatment in criminal justice settings. PMID:22523475

  15. Domestic Violence Courts: A Multisite Test of Whether and How They Change Offender Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cissner, Amanda B; Labriola, Melissa; Rempel, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Findings are from an investigation of 24 criminal domestic violence courts (DVCs) across New York, testing their effect on recidivism, case processing, and case resolutions. Overall, we found a small positive impact on recidivism among convicted offenders. We further found that the sex of defendants moderated the court impact on case resolutions; that is, among male defendants only, DVCs increased conviction rates and sentences involving jail or prison. In addition, multi-level, multivariate analyses found that court policies specifically designed to increase victim safety, hold offenders accountable, and reduce offender recidivism (through deterrence or rehabilitation) were instrumental in reducing recidivism.

  16. Domestic Violence Courts: A Multisite Test of Whether and How They Change Offender Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cissner, Amanda B; Labriola, Melissa; Rempel, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Findings are from an investigation of 24 criminal domestic violence courts (DVCs) across New York, testing their effect on recidivism, case processing, and case resolutions. Overall, we found a small positive impact on recidivism among convicted offenders. We further found that the sex of defendants moderated the court impact on case resolutions; that is, among male defendants only, DVCs increased conviction rates and sentences involving jail or prison. In addition, multi-level, multivariate analyses found that court policies specifically designed to increase victim safety, hold offenders accountable, and reduce offender recidivism (through deterrence or rehabilitation) were instrumental in reducing recidivism. PMID:26056163

  17. Postcode Criminals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  18. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder show attentional bias for violence-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Domes, Gregor; Mense, Julia; Vohs, Knut; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-08-30

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be characterized by a lack in emotional functioning that manifests in irritability and a lack of remorse. The proposed link between ASPD and negative emotionality led to the question of emotional processing anomalies in ASPD. Furthermore, the effect of childhood maltreatment/abuse on emotional processing was tested in the present study. Violent and sexual offenders with ASPD (n=35), without ASPD (n=34), and healthy non-criminal controls (n=24) were compared in an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) using neutral, negative, and violence-related words. Secondary analyses focused on the effect of psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatment. Offenders with ASPD showed a stronger attentional bias to violence-related and negative words as compared to controls. Comparable results were obtained when grouping offenders to high, medium, and low psychopathic subgroups. Offenders with childhood maltreatment specifically showed stronger violence-related attentional bias than non-maltreated offenders. The data suggest that enhanced attention to violence-related stimuli in adult criminal offenders is associated with adverse developmental experiences and delinquency but to a lesser extent with antisocial or psychopathic traits.

  19. [History of psychiatry and the criminally insane in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates how insane offenders were perceived and treated at the turn of the 20th century, focusing on legal reforms. In accordance with overall reorganization of legal systems after the Meiji Restoration in 1968, the Criminal Law of 1880 stipulated criminal responsibility, ruling that "a person, who was unable to discriminate right and wrong because of loss of mental capacity at the time of committing crime, shall not be punished." Article 39 of the current Criminal Law, which was enacted in 1907, redefined criminal responsibility, to say that "an incompetent person shall not be punished; a person with diminished competence shall be given a mitigation of punishment." Meanwhile, the Law for the Custody for Insane Persons of 1900, which was the first law dealing with the mentally ill, aimed to establish strict regulations with regard to the custody of the insane. However, neither of these laws did not provide any procedures for subsequent management of persons acquitted because of insanity. Under the social changes in the early decades of the 20th century, concern about dangerousness of the criminally insane was intensified. In connection with reform of the Criminal Law, several plans for the management of the criminally insanes were formulated. The author examines these circumstances, referring to the current debate on the management of mentally ill offenders.

  20. Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending.

  1. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  2. Public attitudes toward sexual offenders and sex offender registration.

    PubMed

    Kernsmith, Poco D; Craun, Sarah W; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As part of a telephone survey, 733 participants answered questions about fear of sex offenders and agreement with requirements about registration for offenders convicted of incest, statutory rape, marital rape, pedophilia, date rape, and an offense committed more than 10 years prior. Results indicated that all types of sexual offenders elicited some fear from respondents, and fear was related to support of registration requirements.

  3. Offenders and Post-Release Jobs: Variables Influencing Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Byron; Schehr, Robert Carl

    2004-01-01

    Nonviolent adult repeat offenders between the ages of 18 and 35 face nearly insurmountable obstacles to successful reintegration into dominant culture. Upon release from prison ex-offenders receive an average of $69 from their state department of corrections, or between $100-$500 from the Federal Bureau of Prisons to aid their transition back into…

  4. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent.

  5. Child pornography possessors: trends in offender and case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2011-03-01

    This article describes trends in child pornography (CP) possession cases that ended in arrest in 2000 and in 2006, using data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, a two-wave longitudinal survey of a national sample of more than 2,500 U.S. law enforcement agencies. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,672 arrests for CP possession, compared with 1,713 arrests in 2000. Many characteristics of the offenders and the offense remained stable. In both 2006 and 2000, most offenders were White, non-Hispanic males and socioeconomically diverse. Few were known to have committed previous sex crimes. Most had CP that depicted preteen children and serious sexual abuse. In 2006, however, a higher proportion of offenders were aged 18 to 25 years, used peer-to-peer (p2p) networks, had images of children younger than 3 years, and had CP videos. P2p users had more extreme images (e.g., younger victims, sexual violence) and larger numbers of images than those who did not use p2p networks. Findings reflect heightened efforts in the criminal justice system to combat CP crimes. More cases originated with investigations of CP possession and involved proactive investigations aimed at detecting CP. The great majority of cases were successfully prosecuted, with more offenders sentenced to incarceration and serving longer sentences than in 2000. As in 2000, one in six cases that began with investigations of CP possession detected offenders who had molested children. PMID:21349830

  6. The perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders.

    PubMed

    Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.

  7. Child pornography possessors: trends in offender and case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2011-03-01

    This article describes trends in child pornography (CP) possession cases that ended in arrest in 2000 and in 2006, using data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, a two-wave longitudinal survey of a national sample of more than 2,500 U.S. law enforcement agencies. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,672 arrests for CP possession, compared with 1,713 arrests in 2000. Many characteristics of the offenders and the offense remained stable. In both 2006 and 2000, most offenders were White, non-Hispanic males and socioeconomically diverse. Few were known to have committed previous sex crimes. Most had CP that depicted preteen children and serious sexual abuse. In 2006, however, a higher proportion of offenders were aged 18 to 25 years, used peer-to-peer (p2p) networks, had images of children younger than 3 years, and had CP videos. P2p users had more extreme images (e.g., younger victims, sexual violence) and larger numbers of images than those who did not use p2p networks. Findings reflect heightened efforts in the criminal justice system to combat CP crimes. More cases originated with investigations of CP possession and involved proactive investigations aimed at detecting CP. The great majority of cases were successfully prosecuted, with more offenders sentenced to incarceration and serving longer sentences than in 2000. As in 2000, one in six cases that began with investigations of CP possession detected offenders who had molested children.

  8. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. The puzzle of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: a meta-analysis comparing intrafamilial and extrafamilial offenders with child victims.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Babchishin, Kelly M; Pullman, Lesleigh E; McPhail, Ian V

    2015-07-01

    Intrafamilial child sexual abuse is a serious social and health problem, yet explanations of sexual offending against children that emphasize antisocial tendencies and atypical sexual interests do not adequately explain intrafamilial offending. In this meta-analysis, we tested other explanations of intrafamilial child sexual abuse by examining 78 independent samples that compared a total of 6605 intrafamilial offenders to a total of 10,573 extrafamilial offenders, in studies disseminated between 1978 and 2013 (Mdn=2000). Intrafamilial offenders were significantly lower on variables reflecting antisocial tendencies (e.g., criminal history, juvenile delinquency, impulsivity, substance use, and psychopathy) and atypical sexual interests (e.g., pedophilia, other paraphilias, and excessive sexual preoccupation). Contrary to other explanations that have been proposed, intrafamilial offenders scored lower on offense-supportive attitudes and beliefs, emotional congruence with children, and interpersonal deficits; intrafamilial offenders also did not differ from extrafamilial offenders on most indicators of psychopathology. Intrafamilial offenders were, however, more likely to have experienced sexual abuse, family abuse or neglect, and poor parent-child attachments. There were too few studies to examine family dynamics - spousal relationship quality, parent-child victim relationship, and family functioning more generally - even though these factors have been frequently mentioned in the clinical and theoretical literatures. Implications for theories of intrafamilial sexual offending, treatment, and future directions for research are discussed.

  10. What is so special about male adolescent sexual offending? A review and test of explanations through meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L

    2010-07-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies), childhood abuse, exposure to violence, family problems, interpersonal problems, sexuality, psychopathology, and cognitive abilities. The results did not support the notion that adolescent sexual offending can be parsimoniously explained as a simple manifestation of general antisocial tendencies. Adolescent sex offenders had much less extensive criminal histories, fewer antisocial peers, and fewer substance use problems compared with non-sex offenders. Special explanations suggesting a role for sexual abuse history, exposure to sexual violence, other abuse or neglect, social isolation, early exposure to sex or pornography, atypical sexual interests, anxiety, and low self-esteem received support. Explanations focusing on attitudes and beliefs about women or sexual offending, family communication problems or poor parent-child attachment, exposure to nonsexual violence, social incompetence, conventional sexual experience, and low intelligence were not supported. Ranked by effect size, the largest group difference was obtained for atypical sexual interests, followed by sexual abuse history, and, in turn, criminal history, antisocial associations, and substance abuse. We discuss the implications of the findings for theory development, as well as for the assessment, treatment, and prevention of adolescent sexual offending.

  11. Trauma changes everything: examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Perez, Nicholas; Cass, Elizabeth; Baglivio, Michael T; Epps, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Among juvenile offenders, those who commit the greatest number and the most violent offenses are referred to as serious, violent, and chronic (SVC) offenders. However, current practices typically identify SVC offenders only after they have committed their prolific and costly offenses. While several studies have examined risk factors of SVCs, no screening tool has been developed to identify children at risk of SVC offending. This study aims to examine how effective the adverse childhood experiences index, a childhood trauma-based screening tool developed in the medical field, is at identifying children at higher risk of SVC offending. Data on the history of childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, criminal behavior, and other criminological risk factors for offending among 22,575 delinquent youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice are analyzed, with results suggesting that each additional adverse experience a child experiences increases the risk of becoming a serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offender by 35, when controlling for other risk factors for criminal behavior. These findings suggest that the ACE score could be used by practitioners as a first-line screening tool to identify children at risk of SVC offending before significant downstream wreckage occurs. PMID:25703485

  12. The good practice of the police: an alternative approach in dealing with offenders who abuse/misuse alcohol.

    PubMed

    Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    The office of constable is taken by declaration and specifically says '... prevent all offences against the persons and properties ...'. The police service, like many hospitals and particularly casualty units, comes into initial contact with a high proportion of society's problems, including those related to people who cannot handle alcohol. This results directly or indirectly in a significant number of issues affecting social life detrimentally and at a tremendous cost to the public purse. These points at some time or another have been adequately illustrated by articles or television documentaries. The police service has a duty to prevent crime. The author maintains that, through the collaboration of the criminal justice agencies and health services, and using a simple approach, behaviour could be altered significantly enough to contribute towards a reduction in repeat offending and a consequent decline in the use of public funds. The author believes that a great number of people, too large to even contemplate quantifying, would have a better quality of life, a goal sought by many, and that the police service is well placed to participate constructively in the rehabilitation of offenders who have a 'drink' problem. PMID:9539180

  13. Mentally disordered offenders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lidberg, L; Belfrage, H

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the laws in Sweden concerning mentally disordered offenders. It also contains some figures on the relationship between mentally disordered offenders and other offenders sentenced to prison. The rules in Sweden are very different from other countries in that the responsibility concept has been abolished and thus there is no acquittal on a psychiatric basis.

  14. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  15. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to repeal extant…

  16. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

  17. Development and Legal Regulation of Coercive Behavior Modification Techniques with Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzgebel, Ralph K.

    This monograph provides information about behavior change techniques of relevance to the treatment and handling of offenders. Since behavior modification techniques focus on behavior and since most offenses involve observable behavior, these techniques are remarkably well-suited for integration into the criminal justice system. The author…

  18. Understanding the Relationship between Onset Age and Subsequent Offending during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Sarah; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the well-documented relationship between early initiation or onset of criminal behavior and a heightened risk of involvement in offending. Previous research examining this question conducted by Nagin and Farrington ("Criminology" 30:235-260, 1992a; "Criminology" 30:501-523, 1992b) used data from the Cambridge Study in…

  19. Desistance from Crime: Reflections on the Transitional Experiences of Young People with a History of Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the complexities involved in young people's attempts to move away from criminal activity. This paper draws on qualitative data from a study that aimed to identify how young people negotiate transitions away from offending. The paper argues that an analysis of the subtle shifts in young people's perceptions…

  20. Counseling Female Offenders and Victims: A Strengths-Restorative Approach. Springer Series on Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    This books considers the many aspects of how the criminal justice system can be reshaped to address the needs of victims of violence and offenders who themselves are often the victims of abuse. It presents a new model that offers an integrated framework to combine tenets of social work's strengths framework with the restorative justice model. It…

  1. Juvenile First Offenders: Characteristics of At-Risk Families and Strategies for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation undertaken to develop a family-based intervention model designed to address problems of juvenile offenders and reduce effects of delinquency. Risk factors investigated included age at first court referral, seriousness of offenses, parental supervision, school functioning, peer group, alcohol and drug use, and criminality in…

  2. Using Technology-Based Strategies to Change Drug-Related Attitudes and First-Time Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ben; Roblyer, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that a solid pre-trial drug intervention program is a vital first step in educating first-time offenders about the seriousness of drug abuse and criminal behavior, staff at the Intervention Program for Substance Abusers in Montgomery County, Maryland's Department of Correction and Rehabilitation decided that better strategies were…

  3. Response Distortion in Applications of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The MMPI-2 continues to be widely used in many areas of professional forensic psychology, including the evaluation of criminal offenders for rehabilitation purposes. While many possible applications of the MMPI exist, not all are well-supported by strong empirical evidence. The origins of the scale among psychiatric populations suggest some…

  4. Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders over Periods Ranging from One to Twenty Years following Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMackin, Robert A.; Tansi, Robert; Lafratta, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the recidivism data for juvenile offenders discharged from a Massachusetts residential treatment center between 1976 and 1995. The criminal histories, juvenile and adult, of 162 delinquent youth referred through the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services who left the program were reviewed. Recidivism was defined as any…

  5. Brief Report: Judicial Attitudes Regarding the Sentencing of Offenders with High Functioning Autism.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    2016-08-01

    This brief report presents preliminary data on the attitudes of judges on the sentencing of offenders with High Functioning Autism (HFA). Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with twenty-one California Superior Court Judges. Interviews were qualitatively coded and constant comparative analysis was utilized. Findings revealed that judges consider HFA as both a mitigating and aggravating factor in sentencing, and knowledge of an offender's disorder could potentially help judges understand why a criminal action might have been committed. Judges voiced concerns about the criminal justice system being able to effectively help or offer sentencing options for offenders with HFA. Finally, judges reported that they are focused on using their judicial powers and influence to provide treatment and other resources during sentencing. PMID:27106568

  6. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  7. Disentangling criminal profiling: accuracy, homology, and the myth of trait-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Palermo, George B

    2015-03-01

    The scholarly literature over the past decade has chronicled a growing problem in the forensic technique colloquially called criminal profiling. The basis of this conundrum appears to originate from a concept referred to as "offender homology," which presumes an inherent uniformity among offenders that is believed to underpin the analytic process incumbent to criminal profiling. Studies thus far conducted have apparently struggled to find evidence of offender homology, and based upon these findings arguments have been promulgated that various approaches to criminal profiling imputably labeled as "trait-based" are therefore not viable. Indirectly contradicting these arguments, however, have been studies testing profiler accuracy that have found evidence of individuals who appear to use trait-based methods but can nonetheless proficiently predict the characteristics of unknown offenders. Against this backdrop, the present article examines a number of tenets and disjunctions that appear to have arisen from research into offender homology and imputed to the practices of so-called trait-based profiling. The notion of whether trait-based profiling is, in fact, representative of profiling methods is examined and an integrative hypothesis proposed that attempts to resolve the quandary between offender homology and profiler accuracy.

  8. The legal definition of hate crime and the hate offender's distorted cognitions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Key

    2006-07-01

    The legal definition of hate crime (i.e., the offender attacks the victim because of the victim's actual or perceived race, color, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or national origin) tends to be viewed as a causality description for the offense. This paper maintains that the "because" statement in the legal definition refers to the offender's criminal intent and distorted cognitions (e.g., blaming the victim and using different group memberships to justify and rationalize their hate crimes), rather than suggests that the different group memberships for the offender and the victim cause hate crime. Clarifying the distinction between the offender's mental state and reality has implications for understanding and conducting research on hate crime and clinical interventions with the victims.

  9. Parent-Child Relations and Offending During Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents and later as young adults is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N=1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults’ criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being. PMID:20865307

  10. Parent--child relations and offending during young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-07-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents (mean age of 15 years), and later as young adults (mean age of 20 years), is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N = 1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults' criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being.

  11. [Relationship between schizophrenia and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Baran, Brigitta; Gazdag, Gabor

    2011-12-01

    Referring to the scientific literature the authors analyze the correlation between criminal offense and psychiatric disorders. Frequency of violent behaviour in schizophrenia together with the risk factors are reviewed. The issue of violent offense is separately discussed. Impact of deinstitutionalization on offense is also analyzed. Results regarding the genetic correlations are also reviewed. Finally the question of re-offending is discussed. In summary the importance of this issue in stigmatization and in the development of the mental health care system is highlighted. PMID:22184195

  12. Criminal psychological profiling: validities and abilities.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N

    2003-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has attained unprecedented recognition despite little empirical evidence to support its validity and the absence of any thorough exposition of the skills involved with the technique. This article reports on the empirically derived conclusions of studies that sought to examine the accuracy and skill of various groups performing a profiling task. The conclusions provide some support for the contention that professional profilers can produce a more accurate prediction of an unknown offender in comparison to other studied groups. The results also give an indication of the type of skills required for proficient profiling.

  13. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243360

  15. [Method and empirical results from expert opinions on 90 offenders concerning the question of complete intoxication].

    PubMed

    Mitterauer, Bernhard; Griebnitz, Ernst; Rothuber, Helfried

    2010-01-01

    Based on a 3-year sample of expert opinions concerning the question of complete intoxication (n = 90), methodology and results are presented. Since more than half of the offenders (n = 53) claim amnesia regarding the circumstances of the offence, this subjective amnesia is considered methodologically. If the file contains observations on the offender's behaviour, it is generally possible to assess if the offender was still able to self-reflect and act in a purposeful way. If so, complete intoxication must be negated independent of the objective degree of alcohol or drug intoxication, and the subjective amnesia claimed by the offender is implausible. In the assessment procedure of complete intoxication a decision tree is used. 37/90 offenders showed no significant memory impairment as well as no psychiatric diagnosis, thus excluding both criminal irresponsibility and complete intoxication. The assessment of subjective amnesia and total intoxication was based on the following information from the decision tree: in 51 (47 males, 4 females) of the 53 offenders claiming subjective amnesia the file contained behavioural observations at the time of the offence. Only in two cases, a considerable lack of information prevented a clear decision regarding the question of complete intoxication. Despite the fact that only in about 50% of the offenders claiming subjective amnesia evidence of alcohol or drug influence was demonstrated according to the files, the question of complete intoxication could be successfully evaluated in all but two cases according to the decision tree.

  16. Sex offender punishment and the persistence of penal harm in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Leon, Chrysanthi S

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically revised its approach to punishment in the last several decades. In particular, people convicted of sex crimes have experienced a remarkable expansion in social control through a wide-range of post-conviction interventions. While this expansion may be largely explained by general punishment trends, there appear to be unique factors that have prevented other penal reforms from similarly modulating sex offender punishment. In part, this continuation of a "penal harm" approach to sex offenders relates to the past under-valuing of sexual victimization. In the "bad old days," the law and its agents sent mixed messages about sexual violence and sexual offending. Some sexual offending was mere nuisance, some was treatable, and a fraction "deserved" punishment equivalent to other serious criminal offending. In contrast, today's sex offender punishment schemes rarely distinguish formally among gradations of harm or dangerousness. After examining incarceration trends, this article explores the historical context of the current broad brush approach and reviews the unintended consequences. Altogether, this article reinforces the need to return to differentiation among sex offenders, but differentiation based on science and on the experience-based, guided discretion of experts in law enforcement, corrections, and treatment.

  17. Protective factors and recidivism in accused juveniles who sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Klein, Verena; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Köhler, Nora; Briken, Peer

    2015-02-01

    To date, research on juvenile sexual offender recidivism has tended to focus on risk factors rather than protective factors. Therefore, very little is known about protective factors in the population of juveniles who sexually offended. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of protective factors on non-recidivism in a sample of accused juveniles who sexually offended (N = 71) in a mean follow-up period of 47.84 months. Protective factors were measured with the Protective Factor Scale of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF). Criminal charges served as recidivism data. The internal scale of the SAPROF, in particular, yielded moderate predictive accuracy for the absence of violent and general recidivism, though not for the absence of sexual recidivism. No protective factor of the SAVRY did reveal predictive accuracy regarding various types of the absence of recidivism. Furthermore, protective factors failed to achieve any significant incremental predictive accuracy beyond that captured by the SAVRY risk factors alone. The potential therapeutic benefit of protective factors in juvenile sexual offender treatment is discussed. PMID:25351199

  18. Protective factors and recidivism in accused juveniles who sexually offended.

    PubMed

    Klein, Verena; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Köhler, Nora; Briken, Peer

    2015-02-01

    To date, research on juvenile sexual offender recidivism has tended to focus on risk factors rather than protective factors. Therefore, very little is known about protective factors in the population of juveniles who sexually offended. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of protective factors on non-recidivism in a sample of accused juveniles who sexually offended (N = 71) in a mean follow-up period of 47.84 months. Protective factors were measured with the Protective Factor Scale of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF). Criminal charges served as recidivism data. The internal scale of the SAPROF, in particular, yielded moderate predictive accuracy for the absence of violent and general recidivism, though not for the absence of sexual recidivism. No protective factor of the SAVRY did reveal predictive accuracy regarding various types of the absence of recidivism. Furthermore, protective factors failed to achieve any significant incremental predictive accuracy beyond that captured by the SAVRY risk factors alone. The potential therapeutic benefit of protective factors in juvenile sexual offender treatment is discussed.

  19. An empirical assessment of content in criminal psychological profiles.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N

    2003-02-01

    Although criminal psychological profiling has been in use by law enforcement agencies for almost three decades, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the technique. A fundamental issue that has received little attention is the empirical evaluation of information contained in profiles composed by professional profilers. In this study, a group of profilers, police officers, psychologists, college students, and self-declared psychics were given information from a solved murder investigation, after which the participants composed a written profile predicting the probable offender. Professional profilers tended to write more lengthy profiles that contained more information about the nonphysical attributes of the offender and more information about the crime scene or the offender's behavior before, during, and after the crime. These results are discussed in terms of their implication for our broader understanding of the technique of profiling and future directions for research into profiling.

  20. The relationship between female criminality and drug use.

    PubMed

    James, J; Gosho, C; Wohl, R W

    1979-02-01

    A 2-year study of four groups of women (N = 268)--addicts, prostitute-addicts, prostitutes, and female offenders--reveals that the link between female criminal activity and female drug involvement is significant. All four groups report "drug costs" as a major percentage of their monthly expenses. Prostitutes and female offenders report purchasing drugs mainly for resale. Female offenders report most of their income as coming from drugs sales, shoplifting, and larceny. For all of the women addicted to heroin, reselling drugs and prostitution were the usual means of support. There is insufficient evidence at this point in the research to link the use of a specific category of drugs to specific types of offenses. The main determinants in choice of crime for these subjects were skill and opportunity.

  1. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelu; Prakash, Om; Sengar, K. S.; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Singh, Amool R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI) may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII). The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal awareness (others emotions), intrapersonal management (own emotions) and interpersonal management (others emotions), and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions. PMID:26257484

  2. Mental disorder and criminality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Moran, James E

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between mental disorder and criminality in Canada from the colonial period to the landmark 1992 Mental Disorder Amendments that followed the passing of Bill C-30. The history of this relationship has been shaped by longstanding formal and informal systems of social regulation, by the contests of federal-provincial jurisdiction, by changing trends in the legal and psychiatric professions, and by amendments to the federal Criminal Code. A study of these longer-term features demonstrates that there has been no linear path of progress in Canada's response to mentally unwell offenders. Those caught in the web of crime and mental disorder have been cast and recast over the past 150 years by the changing dynamics of criminal law, psychiatry, and politics. A long historical perspective suggests how earlier and more contemporary struggles over mental disorder and criminality are connected, how these struggles are bound by historical circumstance, and how a few relatively progressive historical moments emerging from these struggles might be recovered, and theorized to advantage.

  3. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

  4. Trajectories of desistance and continuity in antisocial behavior following court adjudication among serious adolescent offenders

    PubMed Central

    MULVEY, EDWARD P.; STEINBERG, LAURENCE; PIQUERO, ALEX R.; BESANA, MICHELLE; FAGAN, JEFFREY; SCHUBERT, CAROL; CAUFFMAN, ELIZABETH

    2010-01-01

    Because many serious adolescent offenders reduce their antisocial behavior after court involvement, understanding the patterns and mechanisms of the process of desistance from criminal activity is essential for developing effective interventions and legal policy. This study examined patterns of self-reported antisocial behavior over a 3-year period after court involvement in a sample of 1,119 serious male adolescent offenders. Using growth mixture models, and incorporating time at risk for offending in the community, we identified five trajectory groups, including a “persister” group (8.7% of the sample) and a “desister” group (14.6% of the sample). Case characteristics (age, ethnicity, antisocial history, deviant peers, a criminal father, substance use, psychosocial maturity) differentiated the five trajectory groups well, but did not effectively differentiate the persisting from desisting group. We show that even the most serious adolescent offenders report relatively low levels of antisocial activity after court involvement, but that distinguishing effectively between high-frequency offenders who desist and those who persist requires further consideration of potentially important dynamic factors related to this process. PMID:20423553

  5. Sexual Offending Theories and Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There have been limited theoretical developments with respect to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities [Lindsay (2005) Mental Retardation, Vol. 43, pp. 428-441], especially when compared with the development of theories for mainstream sexual offenders. This paper aims at examining a range of theories in their…

  6. On the relationships between commercial sexual exploitation/prostitution, substance dependency, and delinquency in youthful offenders.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have consistently linked commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of youth and involvement in prostitution with substance dependency and delinquency. Yet, important questions remain regarding the directionality and mechanisms driving this association. Utilizing a sample of 114 CSE/prostituted youth participating in the Pathways to Desistance study-a longitudinal investigation of the transition from adolescence to adulthood among serious adolescent offenders-the current study examined key criminal career parameters of CSE/prostitution including age of onset and rate of recurrence. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore concurrent associations and causal links between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement. Findings show a general sequential pattern of the ages of onset with substance use and selling drugs occurring prior to CSE/prostitution, evidence that a small group with chronic CSE/prostitution account for the majority of CSE/prostitution occurrences, and high rates of repeated CSE/prostitution. SEM results suggest CSE/prostituted youth persist in drug involvement from year to year but infrequently experience perpetuation of CSE/prostitution from year to year. Concurrent associations between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement were found across the length of the study. Additionally, drug involvement at one year was linked to CSE/prostitution during the subsequent year during early years of the study.

  7. On the relationships between commercial sexual exploitation/prostitution, substance dependency, and delinquency in youthful offenders.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have consistently linked commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of youth and involvement in prostitution with substance dependency and delinquency. Yet, important questions remain regarding the directionality and mechanisms driving this association. Utilizing a sample of 114 CSE/prostituted youth participating in the Pathways to Desistance study-a longitudinal investigation of the transition from adolescence to adulthood among serious adolescent offenders-the current study examined key criminal career parameters of CSE/prostitution including age of onset and rate of recurrence. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore concurrent associations and causal links between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement. Findings show a general sequential pattern of the ages of onset with substance use and selling drugs occurring prior to CSE/prostitution, evidence that a small group with chronic CSE/prostitution account for the majority of CSE/prostitution occurrences, and high rates of repeated CSE/prostitution. SEM results suggest CSE/prostituted youth persist in drug involvement from year to year but infrequently experience perpetuation of CSE/prostitution from year to year. Concurrent associations between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement were found across the length of the study. Additionally, drug involvement at one year was linked to CSE/prostitution during the subsequent year during early years of the study. PMID:24920248

  8. Mental disorders in abnormal offenders in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pal, S

    1997-01-01

    The case notes of all 64 referred abnormal offenders (mental patients with criminal records) sent to a psychiatric hospital between January 1971 to May 1996 were examined. It was found that severe mental disorder like schizophrenia (27 out of 64) was the most common cause of violent crimes such as homicide. Epilepsy 10.9 (n = 7) was another important neuropsychiatric condition related to violence. Alcohol and cannabis abuse were an associated factor in 21 (32.8%) referred cases. Culture bound syndromes like "Amok Syndrome" and "Spirit Possession Syndrome" were also found as a cause of violent behavior.

  9. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders: a legitimate role for clinicians?

    PubMed

    Rogers, R; Bagby, R M

    1992-01-01

    Consultations to the courts often extend beyond criminal competencies and may include implicit statements regarding the diversion of mentally disordered offenders to treatment facilities. Arguments for diversion are based on humanitarian interests and treatment needs. Arguments opposing diversion recommendations emphasize (a) the variability of opinions regarding treatability, (b) the lack of sufficient outcome data, and (c) the potential for negative consequences in offering unsolicited opinions on diversion. Initial data from 271 pretrial evaluations underscore the range in psychiatric use of diversion recommendations, although inpatient referrals in particular appear to be based on clinical status.

  10. Court-ordered treatment for serious offenders with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, Russ

    2008-12-01

    The insanity defence was elaborated upon through case authority which paralleled the development of phenomenology and treatment of serious mental illnesses, particularly psychotic disorders. In 1843, the rules in McNaughton's Case established a clear formulation for determining whether a person with a mental illness may be held to have been not criminally responsible at the time of an offence. The current legislative scheme in Queensland incorporates the most modern application of the defence of insanity and diminished responsibility and provides the most efficient mechanism by which mentally ill offenders are diverted into care and treatment.

  11. Criminal homicide in northern Sweden 1970-1981: alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse and mental disease.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, P

    1986-01-01

    All cases of criminal homicide in northern Sweden between 1970-81 were studied, 71 cases altogether (64 offenders). Homicide was a rare event and more infrequent compared with Sweden as a whole. The offenders were predominantly males, ages 20 to 40. Half of the victims were females. Mutual intoxication was a feature in 44% of the cases and in 34% both participants were sober. The majority of the victims were related by blood or marriage to the offender. Sharp instruments, blunt instruments and use of firearms were, in this order, the most common methods of killing. Almost one-third of the offenders had no former conviction, minor trespasses excluded. Sixty-three percent of the offenders had previously been subjected to psychiatric care, 31% were considered mentally diseased at the trial and another 22% had also a coexisting abuse or personality disorder. Three-quarters of the offenders were transferred to closed psychiatric care. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism were prevalent among 30% of the offenders and another 27% were also mentally diseased or had a personality disorder. The shares of mentally diseased and abusers/alcoholics outnumbered the prevalence of these conditions in the general population as well as in many international studies. Ten subjects committed suicide before trial; these persons were relatively more often sober at the act and fewer were alcoholics. Eight had previously received psychiatric treatment. They were more prone to kill a member of their nuclear family. Only two subjects had a previous criminal record; both concerned convictions of manslaughter. Nineteen offenders were sober at the act; 15 of these were mentally diseased. The sober offenders hardly ever attacked a person outside their family. Their motives were frequently premeditated. The killings were usually by quick, certain methods, such as firearms. No sober offender attacked an intoxicated person. The sober offenders usually had no criminal records and the homicides were often

  12. Coronary artery disease in offender populations: incarceration as a risk factor and a point of intervention.

    PubMed

    Donahue, John

    2014-10-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant health problem and global burden. Research on antisocial behaviors has identified some groups of offenders as vulnerable to the development of cardiovascular disorders. This article reviews the relationship between criminal offending and CAD, with a particular emphasis on incarcerated populations. Existing research supports this link, with incarceration demonstrating substantial associations with numerous cardiac risk factors, development of cardiac problems, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Comprehensive multicomponent prevention programs, while often available in the community, have received little research attention in prison settings. In addition to clarifying the relationship between incarceration and heart disease, this article reviews various treatment and management responses made by prison officials.

  13. Psychosocial profile of Swiss sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Curtin, F; Niveau, G

    1998-07-01

    Background data on psychosocial characteristics of sexual offenders are sparse in Europe. From 67 experts' reports done between 1982 and 1995 in Geneva, Switzerland, demographic, criminological and psychiatric characteristics were collected for three groups of sexual offenders: offenders against adults, offenders against non-relative minors (< 18 yr), and offenders against minors with incest. The results showed that the offenders against adults were younger (p = 0.02), more frequently single (p = 0.0007) and with a lower educational level (p = 0.05) than the offenders against minors. Incest offenders had no prior conviction compared with 50% of the other offenders. Violence was more often used by offenders against adults (86%) than by offenders against minors (45%) (p = 0.005). About two-thirds of the sexual offenders had no psychiatric history, but a personality disorder (mainly borderline) was diagnosed in half of the offenders. A history of sexual abuse during childhood was reported by a third of the offenders against minors and by 5% of the offenders against adults (p = 0.04). It is concluded that a low socio-economic status and social isolation characterized offenders against adults, whereas offenders against minors had a relatively normal psychosocial profile. PMID:9670495

  14. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  15. Treating the Juvenile Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Robert D., Ed.; Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Boxer, Paul, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative, highly readable reference and text is grounded in the latest knowledge on how antisocial and criminal behavior develops in youth and how it can effectively be treated. Contributors describe proven ways to reduce juvenile delinquency by targeting specific risk factors and strengthening young people's personal, family, and…

  16. Disrupting the Pipeline: The Role of School Leadership in Mitigating Exclusion and Criminalization of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the effects of school exclusion and criminalization of youth misbehavior has garnered much attention from the research community. The process associated with school exclusion and criminalization has been described popularly as a school to prison pipeline (STPP). Studies of school exclusion and criminalization repeatedly report evidence…

  17. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  18. Empathic competencies in violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Eva-Maria; Pfabigan, Daniela Melitta; Keckeis, Katinka; Wucherer, Anna Maria; Jahn, Thomas; Lamm, Claus; Derntl, Birgit

    2013-12-30

    Violent offending has often been associated with a lack of empathy, but experimental investigations are rare. The present study aimed at clarifying whether violent offenders show a general empathy deficit or specific deficits regarding the separate subcomponents. To this end, we assessed three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking, affective responsiveness) as well as skin conductance response (SCR) in a sample of 30 male violent offenders and 30 healthy male controls. Data analysis revealed reduced accuracy in violent offenders compared to healthy controls only in emotion recognition, and that a high number of violent assaults was associated with decreased accuracy in perspective taking for angry scenes. SCR data showed reduced physiological responses in the offender group specifically for fear and disgust stimuli during emotion recognition and perspective taking. In addition, higher psychopathy scores in the violent offender group were associated with reduced accuracy in affective responsiveness. This is the first study to show that mainly emotion recognition is deficient in violent offenders whereas the other components of empathy are rather unaffected. This divergent impact of violent offending on the subcomponents of empathy suggests that all three empathy components can be targeted by therapeutic interventions separately. PMID:24035702

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  20. Brain Dysfunction in Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galski, Thomas; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to establish the connection between disordered sexuality and brain impairment by using newly developed techniques of neuropsychological investigation with sex offenders (n=35). Results indicated a major portion of the sex offenders showed impaired brain functioning on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. (Author/ABL)

  1. Status Offenders and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mason P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews recent changes in North Carolina law and policy affecting compulsory school attendance and status offenders. Status offenders are children who commit offenses that are unique to children--such as being truant, running away from home, or being beyond the disciplinary control of their parents. (Author/IRT)

  2. Substance Abuse Treatment For Adults in the Criminal Justice System. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Catalina; Dinsmore, Janet; Gilbert, J. Max; Kornblum, Annette; Latham, Joyce; Oliff, Helen; Paisner, Susan; Sutton, David

    2005-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) provides guidelines for counselors and criminal justice personnel who treat offenders with substance use disorders. TIPs are best-practice guidelines that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts in the…

  3. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  4. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  5. 28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States...

  6. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disabilities in the Importance of Static and Dynamic Risk Factors for Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Put, C. E.; Asscher, J. J.; Stams, G. J. J. M.; Moonen, X. M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Juvenile offenders with intellectual disability (ID) have been largely ignored in the literature of risk assessment, while they are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, and ID is a risk factor for juvenile delinquency and recidivism. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences between juvenile…

  7. Preparing Ex-Offenders for Work: Applying the Self-Determination Theory to Social Cognitive Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2013-01-01

    Ex-offenders, persons with criminal and limited job histories, are being released into communities every year. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) focuses on several cognitive-person variables and on the interaction effect with the environment. Conceptually, the author views the integration of SCCT and the self-determination theory as a…

  8. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  9. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  10. Exploring Race Based Differences in Patterns of Life-Course Criminality

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Michael W.; Salvatore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A persistent issue facing criminologists is the challenge of developing theoretical models that provide comprehensive explanations of the onset and persistence of criminality. One promising theory to develop over the last 30 years has been life-course theory. Using multivariate analysis of variance the main question posed in this research, do elements of social development shape the trajectory of persistent offending in a race-neutral fashion, or are the dynamics shaping life-course criminality unique for people of color, was examined. The results provide a number of useful insights into the relationship between race, life-course transition factors, and longitudinal patterns of criminality. PMID:23436952

  11. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974365

  12. Psychosocial characteristics of criminals committing incest and other sex offenses: a survey in a Taiwanese prison.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Huang, Shu-Fen

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial characteristics of criminals who had committed incest or other sexual offenses. The participants, 240 criminals serving sentences for sex offenses in a Taiwanese prison, were divided into two groups: incest offenders (20.4%) and other sex offenders (79.6%). The psychosocial characteristics taken into consideration included age, parental survival, education, marital status, previous crime records, drug and alcohol abuse, diagnosed mental disorders, and victim abuse at the time of the offense. After an analysis of the data, the authors concluded that even though incest offenders showed fewer mental disorders, they needed psychiatric treatment and that this treatment should be focused not only on their mental disorder and related symptoms but especially to correct their abnormal behavior. Also, attention should be given to their psychosocial characteristics.

  13. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  15. Community Maintenance Programs for Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Carollyne

    2013-01-01

    While optimism regarding the treatment of sexual offenders has increased over the past couple of decades, research into the factors that assist offenders in maintaining therapeutic changes remains in the dark. Maintenance programs for offenders, while theoretically appearing to have a solid place in offender rehabilitation, surprisingly have not…

  16. Youth Offender Demonstration Project Technical Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Lois

    The Youth Offender Demonstration Project (YODP) combined oversight of youth offenders with services to support youth offenders' passage into the word of work by providing recommended social development strategies for youth offenders. YODP demonstration projects were funded in the following categories: (1) model community projects; (2) education…

  17. Back on the streets: Maturation and risk factors for recidivism among serious juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Leverso, John; Bielby, William; Hoelter, Lynette F

    2015-06-01

    This study examines how social and cognitive factors shape future criminal activity among serious juvenile offenders and assesses how adolescents' cognitive development affects the relative impact of those factors over time. The sample, from the Pathways to Desistance Study, is comprised of youth (aged 14-18 years) in the United States convicted of serious criminal offenses, and the outcome measure is self-reported crime. We rely on data collected when the youth were first interviewed (n = 1088) and 18-24 months later (n = 904). Logistic regression analyses reveal a strong relationship between impulsiveness and criminal behavior, regardless of age. Susceptibility to peer pressure and perceived risk that friends would be arrested were found to predict future criminal activity among younger adolescents, but have little impact at later ages. External factors such as amount of social support and gang membership have varying effects over time. PMID:25828549

  18. No One Knows: Offenders with learning disabilities and learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Talbot, J

    2009-01-01

    No One Knows is concerned about people with learning disabilities and difficulties who get into trouble with the police and who enter the criminal justice system. The terms 'learning difficulties' and 'learning difficulties' are often used interchangeably to describe people with an intellectual disability, excluding those who, for example, have dyslexia or Asperger syndrome. No One Knows, however, has adopted a more inclusive approach and has included in its remit offenders with learning disabilities as defined by the World Health Organization as well as those with a broader range of learning difficulties. Although there is some discrepancy on prevalence, it is clear that high numbers of people with learning disabilities and difficulties are caught up in the criminal justice system. Once in the criminal justice system it is unlikely that an individual with learning disabilities or difficulties will be identified or that their support needs will be met. This causes difficulties for the individual concerned and for the staff who work with them, who receive little or no training for working with this group of people. The question of whether people with learning disabilities (meaning intellectual disabilities) should be diverted from the criminal justice system is considered.

  19. A combination strategy for tracking the serial criminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuan; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Wan, Jiadi; Yu, Wenjing

    2010-08-01

    We build a Geographic Profiling Model to generate the criminal's geographical profile, by combining two complementary strategies: the Spatial Distribution Strategy and the Probability Distance Strategy. In the first strategy, we designate the mean of all the known crime sites as the anchor point, and build a Standard Deviational Ellipse Model, considering the effect of landscape. In the second strategy, we take many factors such as the buffer zone and distance decay theory into consideration and calculate the probability of the offender's residence in a certain area by using the Bayesian Theorem and the Rossmo Algorithm. Then, we combine the result of two strategies and get three search areas suit different conditions of the police to track the serial criminal. Apply the model to the English serial killer Peter Sutcliffe's case, the calculation result shows that the model can effectively be used to track serial criminal.

  20. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: can diminished responsibility diminish criminal behaviour?

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Luther, Glen

    2013-01-01

    This text examines how current scientific knowledge has the potential of fulfilling one of the major functions of the criminal justice system. Scientific knowledge should be used to ensure that the criminal justice system's functioning results in maximizing societal protection and crime reduction. Abnormal states of the mind contribute to criminal behaviour and are considered in exculpatory defences. The failure of the long standing insanity defence and its utility among cognitively impaired offenders, provided impetus to this work. In estimating the success rates (or lack thereof) of raised defences for the cases of the 'invisible disorder', fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), coming before the Canadian Courts, we sought to expound on the reasons, from knowledge and pragmatic perspectives. We propose that a diminished responsibility defence and verdict that recognizes the 'grey zone' between 'knowing' and 'not knowing' based on neurocognitive disparities in FASD serves the individual, legal system and the society better than the current practice.

  1. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories. PMID:26715046

  2. Hazardous waste crime: a contextual analysis of the offense and the offender

    SciTech Connect

    Rebovich, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze hazardous waste offense and offender characteristics. Criminal case data were collected from four sample states (Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania). Files of disposed criminal cases charged between 1977 and 1984 were content-analyzed, and interviews were conducted with prominent hazardous waste crime enforcement personnel from the sample states. Areas of analysis include methods of crime commission, skills required for crime commission, patterns of criminal network relationships, and degree of syndicate crime influence. While there has been some previous speculation that hazardous waste criminal behavior is directed through centralized racketeering, the present study of known offenders found little evidence of syndicate crime family infiltration. Crimes occurred within small, informal networks of waste generators, waste transporters, the employees of treatment/storage/disposal (TSD) facilities and certain non-industry peripheral actors. The study concludes that, while attempts have been made by syndicate crime operatives to infiltrate, these attempts have failed largely due to features of criminal commission methods and to the inherent fragmentation of hauling and TSD firm interests.

  3. Criminal justice responses to drug related crime in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Malloch, Margaret; McIvor, Gill

    2013-01-01

    This article examines contemporary developments in criminal justice responses to drug related crime. Drawing on evaluations of initiatives which have been introduced in Scotland along with published statistical data, it considers the expansion of drug treatment through the criminal justice system and the implications this has for increasing access to services. Importantly, it considers the potential consequences of implementing 'treatment' requirements, underpinned by potential sanctions for non-compliance, at different stages of the criminal justice process. It is argued that the introduction of interventions at different points in the criminal justice process may have increased access to treatment services, though the extent of engagement with services is called into question, especially where treatment is voluntary or less obviously 'coerced'. Moreover, there is evidence that extending treatment through the criminal justice system may have had the effect of drawing some individuals further into the criminal justice process than would previously have been the case, despite limited evidence of the effectiveness of many such interventions on drug use, associated offending and wider aspects of individuals' lives.

  4. Interactions between factors related to the decision of sex offenders to confess during police interrogation: a classification-tree approach.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Eric; Deslauriers-Varin, Nadine; St-Yves, Michel

    2010-09-01

    Most studies of confessions have looked at the influence of individual factors, neglecting the potential interactions between these factors and their impact on the decision to confess or not during an interrogation. Classification and regression tree analyses conducted on a sample of 624 convicted sex offenders showed that certain factors related to the offenders (e.g., personality, criminal career), victims (e.g., sex, relationship to offender), and case (e.g., time of day of the crime) were related to the decision to confess or not during the police interrogation. Several interactions were also observed between these factors. Results will be discussed in light of previous findings and interrogation strategies for sex offenders.

  5. Restorative justice for sexual violence: repairing victims, building community, and holding offenders accountable.

    PubMed

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince

    2003-06-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.

  6. RCT of a Promising Vocational/Employment Program for High-Risk Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Ford, Julian D.; Mann, Marc; Chang, Rocio; Chapman, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile offenders with substance use problems are at high risk for deleterious long-term outcomes. This study evaluated the capacity of a promising vocational and employment training program in the building sector (i.e., Community Restitution Apprenticeship-Focused Training, CRAFT) to mitigate such outcomes through enhanced employment and education. Participants were 97 high-risk juvenile offenders (mean age = 15.8 years) randomized to CRAFT versus education as usual (EAU) intervention conditions. Multi-method procedures measured employment, education, substance use, mental health, and criminal outcomes through a 30-month post-baseline follow-up. CRAFT was significantly more effective than EAU at increasing rates of youth employment and GED attendance. Intervention effects were not observed, however, for months employed, hours worked, or hourly wage. Measures of youth substance use, mental health symptoms, and criminal activity showed no favorable or iatrogenic effects. The potential of CRAFT was modestly supported, and suggestions were made for future research. PMID:23958035

  7. A forensic-psychiatric study of sexual offenders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Freire, Rafael; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-04-01

    Sexual violence is defined as any sexual act forced upon a person who did not give his or her consent. Our objective is to investigate the socio-demographic features, clinical correlates, criminal behaviour characteristics, and the level of penal responsibility of sexual offenders who were referred to forensic psychiatric assessment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All written reports made in the year of 2008 by court-appointed psychiatric experts on individuals charged with having committed sexual crimes and referred to the main forensic hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for assessment were reviewed. Forty-four expert reports were identified. All alleged offenders were male. Nineteen (43.2%) offenders did not receive any psychiatric diagnostic. Nine offenders (20.4%) were diagnosed with mental retardation. In 16 cases (36.4%), some form of mental or neurological disorder was diagnosed. Thirty-one (70.4%) offenders were considered fully responsible, eight (18.2%) partially responsible, and five (11.4%) not responsible by reason of insanity. The sexual crimes allegedly perpetrated by the offenders were rape (n=14, 32%), attempted rape (n=4, 9%), indecent assault (n=26, 59%), and indecent exposure (n=5, 11.4%). In 10 cases (22.7%), the offender was under alcohol influence at the moment of the crime. The profile of Brazilian sex offenders subject to forensic psychiatric assessment were male, caucasian, single, working part time, with no mental disorder, who perpetrated indecent assault.

  8. A forensic-psychiatric study of sexual offenders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Alexandre Martins; Meyer, Leonardo Fernandez; Freire, Rafael; Mendlowicz, Mauro Vitor; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-04-01

    Sexual violence is defined as any sexual act forced upon a person who did not give his or her consent. Our objective is to investigate the socio-demographic features, clinical correlates, criminal behaviour characteristics, and the level of penal responsibility of sexual offenders who were referred to forensic psychiatric assessment in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All written reports made in the year of 2008 by court-appointed psychiatric experts on individuals charged with having committed sexual crimes and referred to the main forensic hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for assessment were reviewed. Forty-four expert reports were identified. All alleged offenders were male. Nineteen (43.2%) offenders did not receive any psychiatric diagnostic. Nine offenders (20.4%) were diagnosed with mental retardation. In 16 cases (36.4%), some form of mental or neurological disorder was diagnosed. Thirty-one (70.4%) offenders were considered fully responsible, eight (18.2%) partially responsible, and five (11.4%) not responsible by reason of insanity. The sexual crimes allegedly perpetrated by the offenders were rape (n=14, 32%), attempted rape (n=4, 9%), indecent assault (n=26, 59%), and indecent exposure (n=5, 11.4%). In 10 cases (22.7%), the offender was under alcohol influence at the moment of the crime. The profile of Brazilian sex offenders subject to forensic psychiatric assessment were male, caucasian, single, working part time, with no mental disorder, who perpetrated indecent assault. PMID:25735780

  9. Ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses ethical issues in forensic psychiatric research on mentally disordered offenders, especially those detained in the psychiatric treatment system. The idea of a 'dual role' dilemma afflicting forensic psychiatry is more complicated than acknowledged. Our suggestion acknowledges the good of criminal law and crime prevention as a part that should be balanced against familiar research ethical considerations. Research aiming at improvements of criminal justice and treatment is a societal priority, and the total benefit of studies has to be balanced against the risks for research subjects inferred by almost all systematic studies. Direct substantial risks must be balanced by health benefits, and normal informed consent requirements apply. When direct risks are slight, as in register-based epidemiology, lack of consent may be counter-balanced by special measures to protect integrity and the general benefit of better understanding of susceptibility, treatment and prevention. Special requirements on consent procedures in the forensic psychiatric context are suggested, and the issue of the relation between decision competence and legal accountability is found to be in need of further study. The major ethical hazard in forensic psychiatric research connects to the role of researchers as assessors and consultants in a society entertaining strong prejudices against mentally disordered offenders. PMID:20017746

  10. Without thinking: impulsive aggression and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Shuman, Daniel W; Gold, Liza H

    2008-01-01

    In the U.S. the decision to impose criminal responsibility rests on an assumption about the defendant's decision to engage in proscribed conduct. We punish only those who we believe had the capacity to make a choice. In an increasingly violent world, the criminal law and the assumptions upon which it rests are relentlessly tested. A new generation of neuro-imaging technologies offers to provide insights into structural and functional abnormalities in the brain that may limit the autonomy of many dangerous offenders and unravel the fabric of the criminal justice system. How will the results of these technologies be received by the courts--are they relevant to existing formulations of the prima facie case, the insanity defense, or mitigation of sentence; will changes in the science or the law be required to accommodate this knowledge? The new generation of technologies may appropriately play a role in assessing culpable mental states only if they are also reliable. This short article takes on these and a host of other related questions at the intersection between science, law, and science fiction.

  11. Female sexual homicide offenders: an analysis of the offender racial profiles in offending process.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Frei, Autumn M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-12-10

    Despite the recent effort by Chan and Frei in studying female sexual homicide offenders (SHOs), much is still unknown about this underresearched offender population. One largely unexplored area is how female SHOs of different races commit their killings. Using FBI Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR) data (1976-2007), 105 White and 94 Black female SHOs (N=204) were examined for their differential offending patterns. Most female SHOs, regardless of race, killed victims of the opposite gender (i.e., heterosexual offenses). Most frequently targeted by female SHOs of both races (44% of Whites and 57% of Blacks) were known victims (e.g., friends, acquaintances) who were not intimate partners or family members. Firearms were the most common weapons used by female SHOs (60% of Whites and 48% of Blacks). The second most common weapon type used by Black offenders was an edged weapon (32%), whereas for White offenders it was a personal weapon (17%). Black female SHOs normally perpetrated their offense in large cities (69%), while White female SHOs most often committed their crime in suburban areas (40%). This study underscores importance of considering the offender racial group in female sexual murder investigations. Hence, several implications for offender profiling are offered.

  12. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only. PMID:22925126

  13. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only.

  14. Serial and single-victim rapists: differences in crime-scene violence, interpersonal involvement, and criminal sophistication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jisun; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J; Davis, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    Three categories of crime-scene behaviors (violence, interpersonal involvement, and criminal sophistication) among a group of 22 serial and 22 single-victim rapists were studied. Findings indicate that serial rapists were more likely to display a higher level of criminally sophisticated behaviors to avoid detection, whereas single-victim rapists were more likely to behave violently and engage in some form of interpersonal involvement with their victims. Implications of these findings for investigation and for understanding offenders' behavior are discussed.

  15. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  16. Developing employment services for criminal justice clients enrolled in drug user treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kathleen; Savitz, Barry; Thompson, William; Zanis, David A

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 80% of parolees have a history of substance abuse and nearly all are unemployed following release from prison. Common stipulations of parole require offenders to obtain employment and to not use mood-altering substances. This article explores a series of strategies implemented from 1999 to 2001 to help offenders paroled to substance user treatment to gain employment. A total of 245 paroled offenders enrolled in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program voluntarily agreed to participate in one of four different vocational intervention programs (Job Skill Development and Supported Work, Life Skill Development, Job Training, and Welfare to Work). Programmatic data (e.g., attendance, completion, job acquisition, and wage) were collected and reported for each of the vocational programs. Additionally, a 12-month pilot study examined criminal justice, substance use, and employment outcomes of 36 offenders referred to the job skill development and supported work project. Overall, 78% of the offenders enrolled in the vocational services completed the program and 134/245 (55%) were able to obtain employment. The data showed that completion of vocational services was strongly associated with obtaining employment 12 months postenrollment. Offenders identified the employment services as an integral part of their improved overall functioning. A series of practice recommendations and policy suggestions is offered to develop and manage vocational services for substance-using offenders. Employment services for parolees require considerable coordination of activities with parole officers, vocational programs, substance abuse treatment professionals, and funding systems.

  17. Outcomes in a community sex offender treatment program: a comparison between polygraphed and matched non-polygraphed offenders.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Robert J; Cumming, Georgia F; Hoke, Stephen E; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2007-12-01

    This study compared a group of 104 adult male sex offenders who received community cognitive-behavioral treatment, correctional supervision, and periodic polygraph compliance exams with a matched group of 104 sex offenders who received the same type of treatment and supervision services but no polygraph exams. Polygraph exams focused on whether participants were following their conditions of community supervision and treatment and had avoided committing new sexual offenses. The two groups were exact pair-wise matched on three variables: (1) Static-99 risk score (Hanson & Thornton 2000, Law and Human Behavior, 24, 119-136), (2) status as a completer of prison sex offender treatment, and (3) date placed in the community. At fixed 5-year follow-up periods, the number of individuals in the polygraph group charged with committing a new non-sexual violent offense was significantly lower than in the no polygraph group (2.9% versus 11.5%). However, there were no significant between-group differences for the number of individuals charged for new sexual (5.8% versus 6.7%), any sexual or violent (8.7% versus 16.3%), or any criminal offense (39.4% versus 34.6%). The results are discussed in terms of their clinical and research implications. PMID:17914673

  18. [Criminality in a birth cohort].

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, M E

    1975-01-01

    Beginning with a group of approximately 10,000 boys born in 1945 who lived in Philadelphia from at least ages ten through seventeen, the Center for Studies in Criminology and Criminal Law, University of Pennsylvania has engaged in a longitudinal analysis of the delinquency of the birth cohort. The first publication which examines the dynamic flow of delinquency committed by 3500 of the boys was published by the University of Chicago Press in 1972 and is entitled Delinquency in a Birth Cohort. This study is the first in the United States to establish a base line of delinquency probabilities and to analyze the types of delinquency committed over time, with the recording of the seriousness of each of the 10,000 acts committed by the 3500 boys. The seriousness scores were derived from the earlier work by Sellin and Wolfgang, entitle The Measurement of Delinquency. A stochastic model was used to analyze the delinquent patterns and one of the major conclusions, at least up to age eighteen, was that there was no specific delinquency specialization by type of offense. Moreover, after the third offense, the probabilities of desistence, or refraining from further delinquent acts, remained stable, thus indicating that the most propitious point for social intervention would be after the third offense rather than at some time prior to the onset of delinquency or even after the first or second offense-offenses which are usually of a very minor character. The Center for Studies in Criminology and Criminal Law has continued to follow up a ten per cent sample of the original birth cohort by interviewing them to obtain additional social psychological dynamic features of their background, of the situations involving their first and last delinquencies, and of their adult careers. The follow-up indicates thus far that approximately 12 per cent new cases of criminality appeared, thus adding to the original 35 per cent of the birth cohort who had a delinquency record. The study will

  19. Rational Choice and Developmental Influences on Recidivism Among Adolescent Felony Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent case law and social science both have claimed that the developmental limitations of adolescents affect their capacity for control and decision making with respect to crime, diminishing their culpability and reducing their exposure to punishment. Social science has focused on two concurrent adolescent developmental influences: the internalization of legal rules and norms that regulate social and antisocial behaviors, and the development of rationality to frame behavioral choices and decisions. The interaction of these two developmental processes, and the identification of one domain of socialization and development as the primary source of motivation or restraint in adolescence, is the focus of this article. Accordingly, we combine rational choice and legal socialization frameworks into an integrated, developmental model of criminality. We test this framework in a large sample of adolescent felony offenders who have been interviewed at six-month intervals for two years. Using hierarchical and growth curve models, we show that both legal socialization and rational choice factors influence patterns of criminal offending over time. When punishment risks and costs are salient, crime rates are lower over time. We show that procedural justice is a significant antecedent of legal socialization, but not of rational choice. We also show that both mental health and developmental maturity moderate the effects of perceived crime risks and costs on criminal offending. PMID:20148123

  20. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  1. [Analysis of criminal acts and forensic evaluation of psychiatric deviance].

    PubMed

    Janzarik, W

    2000-03-01

    The psycho-scientific diagnosis transposed to legal terms defines and limits the extent of the psychic disturbances that have to be considered in the test of criminal responsibility. The analysis of the criminal act that has to be carried out on this basis is of decisive importance. It must place particular emphasis on the automatic nature of structural orientations and their regulation by de-actualization. The psychopathological reference system proposed by Sass can be used to measure the severity of psychic deviance ("abnormality")--the different forms its manifestation can take are treated separately in detail--against acute psychosis and against delusion as two basic patterns of psychopathology. If a severe abnormality is confirmed the analysis of the offence that has to be undertaken independently of psychopathological comparisons must be centred on orientations that are contrary to automatically criminal action. These can be respected or overcome by decisions for which the perpetrator can bear the responsibility, or restricted or negated by psychic impairment. Before the author's concluding remarks on the place of such considerations in the enforcement of disciplinary proceedings, some examples of severe psychic abnormality are treated in detail. They are found more frequently in sexual offenders and those involved in drug-related crimes than in other groups of offenders.

  2. Offenders with Cognitive Deficits in a Canadian Prison Population: Prevalence, Profile, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lynn A; Wilton, Geoff; Sapers, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Impaired cognitive function has been associated with criminal behavior. In Canada it is unknown the extent to which this disorder affects federal inmates or its impact on key correctional outcomes. In this study, 488 incoming male offenders were assessed on the Cognistat, a neuropsychological screening tool. Twenty-five percent of offenders were found to have some level of cognitive deficit. Lower levels of educational achievement, unstable employment history, learning disability, serious alcohol problems, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were significantly associated with the presence of cognitive deficits in this sample. Although there was a significant trend for offenders with cognitive deficits to have more admissions to segregation, level of cognitive deficit was not consistently related to rates of institutional charges or rates of completion of required correctional programs. On release, cognitive deficits were not related to returns to custody or returns to custody with an offence. These results indicate that while offenders with cognitive deficits may require assistance with educational upgrading and employment to improve their reintegration potential, they do not pose a particular management problem in the community after release relative to offenders without cognitive deficits.

  3. Perceptions of sex offenders about treatment: satisfaction and engagement in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Macgowan, Mark J; Morin, John W; Cotter, Leo P

    2009-03-01

    Surveying the views of sex offender clients can help ensure that treatment is relevant and responsive to client needs. The purpose of this exploratory study is to elicit sex offender clients' perceptions of their experiences in treatment in order to better understand the components of treatment perceived to be helpful in preventing reoffense. Samples (N = 338) of male sex offenders in outpatient group therapy are found to be generally satisfied with treatment services and have positive perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Offenders in treatment value the role of group therapy, and they find accountability, victim empathy, relapse prevention, and "good lives" concepts to be most helpful in managing their behavior. Their engagement in group therapy is assessed using the Group Engagement Measure, and a positive correlation is found between engagement and treatment satisfaction. Eliciting client opinions about the helpfulness of program content and process, and adjusting treatment protocols accordingly, is consistant with the principles of risk, need, and responsivity, a model recommended for therapeutic interventions with criminal offenders.

  4. Potential Implications of Research on Genetic or Heritable Contributions to Pedophilia for the Objectives of Criminal Law

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing scientific research on possible genetic or heritable influences to the etiology of pedophilia, driven by national and public concerns about better understanding the disorder in order to reduce children’s vulnerabilities to pedophilic and child sex offenders. This research has corresponded to growing academic dialogue on how advances in genetic research, especially concerning the causes and development of particular mental disorders or behaviors, may affect traditional practices of criminal law and how the justice system views, manages, and adjudicates different types of criminal behavior and offenders. This paper strives to supplement this dialogue by exploring several of the many possible effects and implications of research surrounding genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the five widely accepted objectives that enforce and regulate the punishment of criminal law. These include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration. Although still currently in early stages, genetic and heritability research on the etiology of pedophilia may have the potential moving forward to influence the current and established punitive methods and strategies of how the justice system perceives, adjudicates, regulates, and punishes pedophilic and sex offenders, as well as how to best prevent sexual offending against children by pedophilic offenders in the future. PMID:25557668

  5. REHABILITATING CRIMINAL SELVES: Gendered Strategies in Community Corrections

    PubMed Central

    WYSE, JESSICA J. B.

    2013-01-01

    As the community corrections system has moved away from a focus on rehabilitation, it has been suggested that criminal offenders are no longer understood psychologically, but rather as rational actors for whom criminality is a choice. Rehabilitative efforts thus aim to guide these choices. Utilizing mixed methodology that draws on observational, interview, and case note data collected within the probation/parole system of a western U.S. state, I suggest that both officers' conceptualizations of the criminal self and the rehabilitative strategies they use are gendered. I find that officers view the male criminal self as flawed or underdeveloped and the female as permeable and amorphous, that is, lacking firm boundaries. In response to these constructions, officers aim to rehabilitate men largely by encouraging economic roles and responsibilities, while for women, rehabilitation aims to solidify boundaries: discouraging relationship formation and containing emotions. The differences identified point to ways in which gendered concepts of the criminal self contribute to gender disparities in contemporary supervision. PMID:24385681

  6. 24 CFR 960.204 - Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in” the criminal activity if the person has engaged in the behavior recently enough to justify a reasonable belief that the behavior is current); or (ii) The PHA determines that it has reasonable cause to...) Persons subject to sex offender registration requirement. The PHA must establish standards that...

  7. 24 CFR 960.204 - Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in” the criminal activity if the person has engaged in the behavior recently enough to justify a reasonable belief that the behavior is current); or (ii) The PHA determines that it has reasonable cause to...) Persons subject to sex offender registration requirement. The PHA must establish standards that...

  8. Post-Prison Analysis of Criminal Behavior and Longitudinal Follow-up Evaluation of Institutional Treatment. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, W. O.; And Others

    This report describes an eighteen-month postrelease followup of 142 young male offenders released from Draper Correctional Center in Elmore, Alabama. The basic objectives of the study were the analysis of criminal behavior and the evaluation of institutional treatment programs. Men who had participated in Manpower Development and Training (MDT)…

  9. Violent and Nonviolent Youth Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Violet; Chu, Chi Meng

    2015-01-01

    Youth violence is a costly social problem. This study compared the risk and needs of nonviolent youth offenders, with those who had committed violent offenses only (violent only) and those who had committed violent and nonviolent offenses (violent plus) to determine whether violent youth were a different “type” from nonviolent youth. The case files of 3,744 youth offenders (3,327 males and 417 females, between 12 and 18 years old) were retrospectively coded, before official recidivism records were obtained. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), χ2, and Cox regressions were conducted. Violent-plus youth were younger; higher in their total risk and all criminogenic needs; more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs; and at higher risk of any reoffending, violent reoffending, and nonviolent reoffending than nonviolent youth. Violent-only youth had the same total risk and risk of general and violent recidivism as nonviolent offenders but presented different criminogenic and noncriminogenic needs and risk of nonviolent recidivism. Compared to violent-only youth, violent-plus youth were younger, had higher total risk and criminogenic needs on five domains, were more likely to have several noncriminogenic needs, and were at higher risk of all types of reoffending (except sexual reoffending), suggesting subtypes of violent youth offenders. The implication is that nonviolent and violent youth offenders require different dosage and types of intervention. PMID:27274714

  10. Brain self-regulation in criminal psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Konicar, Lilian; Veit, Ralf; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Barth, Beatrix; Tonin, Paolo; Strehl, Ute; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals are characterized by impaired affective processing, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, poor planning skills and heightened aggressiveness with poor self-regulation. Based on brain self-regulation studies using neurofeedback of Slow Cortical Potentials (SCPs) in disorders associated with a dysregulation of cortical activity thresholds and evidence of deficient cortical functioning in psychopathy, a neurobiological approach seems to be promising in the treatment of psychopathy. The results of our intensive brain regulation intervention demonstrate, that psychopathic offenders are able to gain control of their brain excitability over fronto-central brain areas. After SCP self-regulation training, we observed reduced aggression, impulsivity and behavioral approach tendencies, as well as improvements in behavioral-inhibition and increased cortical sensitivity for error-processing. This study demonstrates improvements on the neurophysiological, behavioral and subjective level in severe psychopathic offenders after SCP-neurofeedback training and could constitute a novel neurobiologically-based treatment for a seemingly change-resistant group of criminal psychopaths. PMID:25800672

  11. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... requirements relating to periodic verification of registration information for sex offenders. The proposed rule, if finalized, would permit CSOSA to verify addresses of sex offenders by conducting home visits...

  12. Three Years of Teen Court Offender Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby

    2008-01-01

    Since 1983, Teen Courts have offered a judicial alternative for many adolescent offenders. In the first year of the Whatcom County Teen Court Program, a small sample of Teen Court offenders had more favorable outcomes than did Court Diversion offenders. In the current study, the results are based on a three-year sample of 84 Whatcom County…

  13. Assessing Treatment Readiness in Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Andrew; Howells, Kevin; Casey, Sharon; Ward, Tony; Chambers, Jemma C.; Birgden, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Although violent offenders are widely considered to be difficult to engage in therapeutic change, few methods of assessing treatment readiness currently exist. In this article the validation of a brief self-report measure designed to assess treatment readiness in offenders who have been referred to violent offender treatment programs is described.…

  14. Altruism, Empathy, and Sex Offender Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Durrant, Russil

    2013-01-01

    Treatment programs for serious offenders such as sex offenders typically include an empathy training component as part of a comprehensive intervention package. The reasons for doing so are partly based on research evidence indicating that social disconnection and relationship ruptures related to empathy failures often trigger offending, and also…

  15. Trajectories of Offending and Their Relation to Life Failure in Late Middle Age: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that over the life course, criminal offending varies with problems in other domains, including life failure and physical and mental health. To examine this issue, the authors use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8…

  16. Evidence-Based Interventions for Juvenile Offenders and Juvenile Justice Policies that Support Them. Social Policy Report. Volume 25, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2011-01-01

    In a context where more than 1,000,000 American adolescents are processed by juvenile courts annually and approximately 160,000 are sent to residential placements, this paper examines "what works" and "what doesn't work" in reducing the criminal behavior of juvenile offenders and presents examples of government initiatives that have successfully…

  17. Intimacy, loneliness and sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W L

    1989-01-01

    As part of a general theory of sexual offending, it is suggested that the failure to achieve intimacy in relations with adults produces emotional loneliness, which leads to an aggressive disposition, and a tendency to pursue sex with diverse partners in the hope of finding intimacy through sexuality or through less threatening partners. The development of intimacy and its benefits are described, as are the consequences that befall those who fail to achieve it. The history of sexual offenders illustrates why they fail to develop the attitudes and skills necessary to attain intimacy, and why this failure leads to sexual abuse. Finally, suggestions are made for the modification of programs for the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders, in order to include problems of intimacy and loneliness.

  18. ESTIMATING A DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF STAY AND FUTURE RECIDIVISM IN SERIOUS JUVENILE OFFENDERS.

    PubMed

    Loughran, Thomas A; Mulvey, Edward P; Schubert, Carol A; Fagan, Jeffrey; Piquero, Alex R; Losoya, Sandra H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of sanctions on subsequent criminal activity is of central theoretical importance in criminology. A key question for juvenile justice policy is the degree to which serious juvenile offenders respond to sanctions and/or treatment administered by the juvenile court. The policy question germane to this debate is finding the level of confinement within the juvenile justice system that maximizes the public safety and therapeutic benefits of institutional confinement. Unfortunately, research on this issue has been limited with regard to serious juvenile offenders. We use longitudinal data from a large sample of serious juvenile offenders from two large cities to 1) estimate a causal treatment effect of institutional placement, as opposed to probation, on future rate of rearrest and 2) investigate the existence of a marginal effect (i.e., benefit) for longer length of stay once the institutional placement decision had been made. We accomplish the latter by determining a dose-response relationship between the length of stay and future rates of rearrest and self-reported offending. The results suggest that an overall null effect of placement exists on future rates of rearrest or self-reported offending for serious juvenile offenders. We also find that, for the group placed out of the community, it is apparent that little or no marginal benefit exists for longer lengths of stay. Theoretical, empirical, and policy issues are outlined.

  19. When a smile becomes a fist: the perception of facial and bodily expressions of emotion in violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Kret, M E; de Gelder, B

    2013-08-01

    Previous reports have suggested an enhancement of facial expression recognition in women as compared to men. It has also been suggested that men versus women have a greater attentional bias towards angry cues. Research has shown that facial expression recognition impairments and attentional biases towards anger are enhanced in violent criminal male offenders. Bodily expressions of anger form a more direct physical threat as compared to facial expressions. In four experiments, we tested how 29 imprisoned aggressive male offenders perceive body expressions by other males. The performance of all participants in a matching-to-sample task dropped significantly when the distracting image showed an angry posture. Violent offenders misjudged fearful body movements as expressing anger significantly more often than the control group. When violent offenders were asked to categorize facial expressions and ignore the simultaneously presented congruent or incongruent posture, they performed worse than the control group, specifically, when a smile was combined with an aggressive posture. Finally, violent offenders showed a greater congruency effect than controls when viewing postures as part of an emotionally congruent social scene and did not perform above chance when categorizing a happy posture presented in a fight scene. The results suggest that violent offenders have difficulties in processing emotional incongruence when aggressive stimuli are involved and a possible bias towards aggressive body language.

  20. Ethics and the treatment of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs always encounter the need to balance the best interests of sex offenders and the safety needs of the community. The protection of the community often takes primacy, resulting in violation of traditional mental health codes of ethics. These ethical dilemmas have generated debates in the academic community. To minimize ethical dilemmas, clinicians in sex offender treatment programs need to acknowledge the conflicts, adhere to safeguards, and thoughtfully address the challenges with profession-specific ethical values and codes. This article reviews ethical principles in relation to conceptualization of sex offenders and their assessment and treatment and research involving sex offenders.

  1. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  2. Criminal deterrence as a public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J P

    2001-11-17

    Deterrence is an established theme in criminal justice, but its role in prevention of assault has been treated with ambivalence and even hostility in medicine. The extent to which offenders can be persuaded, through knowledge of criminal and health risks, not to injure others is emerging from studies of the health effects of firearm and other crime legislation, and from macro-level studies and controlled experiments of police interventions. There is convincing evidence that motorists can be deterred from alcohol-impaired driving, and recognition that specific, targeted, and visible police work and increasing certainty of punishment are effective interventions. By contrast, duration of imprisonment and generic police initiatives such as blanket increases in police numbers seem to have little effect on deterrence, at least in the context of the decline in US homicide rates since 1991, to which demographic and economic factors seem to have contributed little. Together with established and cost-effective preschool education and early family support, targeted policing and increasing rates of conviction should be integrated into strategies for injury prevention.

  3. Prevention and intervention programs for juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade researchers have identified intervention strategies and program models that reduce delinquency and promote pro-social development. Preventing delinquency, says Peter Greenwood, not only saves young lives from being wasted, but also prevents the onset of adult criminal careers and thus reduces the burden of crime on its victims and on society. It costs states billions of dollars a year to arrest, prosecute, incarcerate, and treat juvenile offenders. Investing in successful delinquency-prevention programs can save taxpayers seven to ten dollars for every dollar invested, primarily in the form of reduced spending on prisons. According to Greenwood, researchers have identified a dozen "proven" delinquency-prevention programs. Another twenty to thirty "promising" programs are still being tested. In his article, Greenwood reviews the methods used to identify the best programs, explains how program success is measured, provides an overview of programs that work, and offers guidance on how jurisdictions can shift toward more evidence-based practices The most successful programs are those that prevent youth from engaging in delinquent behaviors in the first place. Greenwood specifically cites home-visiting programs that target pregnant teens and their at-risk infants and preschool education for at-risk children that includes home visits or work with parents. Successful school-based programs can prevent drug use, delinquency, anti-social behavior, and early school drop-out. Greenwood also discusses community-based programs that can divert first-time offenders from further encounters with the justice system. The most successful community programs emphasize family interactions and provide skills to the adults who supervise and train the child. Progress in implementing effective programs, says Greenwood, is slow. Although more than ten years of solid evidence is now available on evidence-based programs, only about 5 percent of youth who should be eligible

  4. Characteristics of females who sexually offend: a comparison of solo and co-offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Steven M; Williams, Rebecca; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J; Ashfield, Sherry; Beech, Anthony R

    2015-06-01

    Although recent typologies of female sexual offenders have recognized the importance of having a co-offender, the clinical characteristics of solo and co-female sexual offenders remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare solo (n = 20) and co- (n = 20) female sexual offenders on a variety of clinical characteristics. It was found that although solo and co-offenders reported similar developmental experiences and psychological dispositions, differences were found in environmental niche, offense preceding, and positive factors. Specifically, solo offenders demonstrated a greater presence of personal vulnerabilities including mental health and substance abuse difficulties. Co-offenders reported a greater presence of environmentally based factors, including a current partner who was a known sex offender and involvement with antisocial peers. It is suggested that these results have implications for understanding assessment and intervention needs for these groups of sexual offenders.

  5. Effects of offender motivation, victim gender, and participant gender on perceptions of rape victims and offenders.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D J; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-09-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171 men and women from a small Northeastern college exposed to a stimulus in which a rapist's motivation was varied as either sexual or violent. Participants were more certain that the stimulus described a rape, recommended a longer prison sentence for the offender, and assigned less blame to the victim when exposed to an offender motivated by violence as opposed to an offender motivated by sex. Offender motivation also interacted with participant gender and victim gender on participants' perceptions of victim blame and offender responsibility. The results suggest that an offender's motivation for rape can influence perceptions of the offender's and victim's responsibility for the assault.

  6. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  7. Implicit cognitive distortions and sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Mihailides, Stephen; Devilly, Grant J; Ward, Tony

    2004-10-01

    This work develops and tests the semantic-motivation hypothesis of sexual offenders' implicit cognitions. This hypothesis posits that sexual offenders' cognitive distortions emerge at the interface between implicit motivation and cognition. The semantic-motivation hypothesis is used to guide the development of 3 implicit association tests (IATs). These IATs were used to test for the existence of 3 expected child sexual offender implicit cognitive distortions in child sexual offenders ("children as sexual beings," "uncontrollability of sexuality," and "sexual entitlement-bias"). Results showed that child sexual offenders had larger IAT effects than did mainstream offenders and male and female nonoffenders for the "children as sexual beings" and the "uncontrollability of sexuality" implicit theories. Child sexual offenders also had a larger IAT effect than male and female nonoffenders for the "sexual entitlement-bias" implicit theory. Implications for the semantic-motivation hypothesis are discussed.

  8. Psychiatry and the criminal justice system: testing the myths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Wolf, A S; Coons, D J

    1988-05-01

    Several states are changing legislation and treatment programs for mentally ill offenders without knowing how current laws and programs operate. To address this problem the authors linked data from police records, court reports, and clinical files for 2,735 psychiatric referrals from the criminal justice system of Alaska from 1977 through 1981. They found that only 0.2%-2.0% of all schizophrenic persons in the community were arrested for violent crimes each year, accounting for 1.1%-2.3% of all arrests for violent crimes; that psychiatrists agreed about competency and responsibility in 79% of the cases evaluated by more than one clinician; and that a successful insanity defense occurred in 0.1% or less of all criminal cases.

  9. Criminality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Rob

    2016-08-01

    The impacts of climate change imply a reconceptualization of environment-related criminality. Criminology can offer insight into the definitions and dynamics of this behaviour, and outline potential areas of redress.

  10. [Craniosynostosis and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Fehlow, P

    1988-11-01

    Among 100 patients with turricephalus we found 37 with disorders of social adaption, 54% of them has been punishable, 22% even relapsing. Sexual offenders were dominating. Dysplasia of front cranial fossa with dominating exhibition of radiologic signs of craniostenosis frontal and frontotemporal let consider frontal cortex dysfunctions as basic disorder of psychic maldevelopment and delinquency of turricephalus persons.

  11. Personal Space of Incarcerated Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the proxemic test and a psychometric test battery to 49 incarcerated offenders on two occasions, with a three-year follow-up. The Behind distance was largest on both occasions. There were no changes in the four distance measures over time. An algebraic formula was devised to calculate personal space area. (JAC)

  12. Supervising Prerelease Offenders: Clarifying Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benekos, Peter J.

    1986-01-01

    Presents and discusses a conceptual model of the concerns of prerelease offenders and community supervisors. The conceptualization suggests that "perceptual differences" of the concerns of prerelease status is one alternative for examining the supervisorial relationship. Attempts to identify and confront the different expectations of supervisors…

  13. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness-based relapse prevention with relapse prevention for women offenders at a residential addiction treatment center.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Warner, Kaitlin; Sully, Betsy; Barricks, Adria; Stauffer, Connie; Thompson, Brian L; Luoma, Jason B

    2014-04-01

    Reincarceration rates are high among substance-involved criminal offenders. This study (conducted during 2010-2011 in an urban area and funded by a Washington State University-Vancouver mini-grant) used a randomized design to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) as compared to relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addictions treatment program for women referred by the criminal-justice system (N = 105). At 15-week follow up, regression analyses found women in MBRP, compared to RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days and fewer legal and medical problems. Study limitations and future research directions for studying the efficacy of MBRP are discussed.

  14. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    PubMed

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room. PMID:26011040

  15. What makes sex offenders confess? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Faller, K C; Birdsall, W C; Henry, J; Vandervort, F; Silverschanz, P

    2001-01-01

    This study examines correlates of offender confession in criminal sexual conduct cases involving children. The cases consist of all closed court files (N=318), spanning the last 10 years from a single jurisdiction. This jurisdiction has a community-wide protocol for handling child sexual abuse cases, a high rate of charging (69%), a high rate of confession (64%), and high rates of pleas to sex crimes (77%). To determine what factors were associated with suspect confession before adjudication, we examined characteristics of the suspect, the child, the abuse, and the system using bi-variate and multi-variate analysis. The following four variables are associated with suspect confession: (1) having the state police conducting the law enforcement part of the investigation, (2) more serious abuse, (3) younger age of the suspect, and (4) having a court appointed (as opposed to a retained) attorney. PMID:16221625

  16. Interrogations, confessions, and adolescent offenders' perceptions of the legal system.

    PubMed

    Arndorfer, Andrea; Malloy, Lindsay C; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    The potential consequences of interrogations and false confessions have been discussed primarily in terms of the risk for wrongful conviction, especially among adolescents and other vulnerable populations. However, it is possible that such experiences influence adolescents' perceptions of the legal system more generally. In the present study, we examined whether incarcerated male juvenile offenders' (n = 193) perceptions of police and the courts were related to their confession and interrogation experiences. High-pressure interrogation experiences and self-reported false confessions to police were associated with more negative perceptions of police. However, self-reported true confessions were not significantly associated with youths' perceptions of the police. Neither interrogation nor confession experiences (true or false) were related to youths' perceptions of the courts. Results provide additional support for policy reform of interrogation practices with young suspects. A more developmentally appropriate approach to criminal interrogations with youth may simultaneously improve police-youth relations and protect vulnerable suspects in the interrogation room.

  17. The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders.

    PubMed

    James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether NPAP was effective in decreasing cognitive distortions and criminal thinking patterns and increasing prosocial skills of the juveniles compared with TAU. No direct intervention effects were found on any of the outcome measures. Moderator analyses, however, showed several interaction effects of ethnicity and coping skills for both NPAP and TAU youths. Furthermore, NPAP dropouts displayed significantly more indirect aggression at posttest compared with youths dropping out from TAU. Possible explanations for the mostly null effects are discussed, including implications for further research, policy, and practice.

  18. Offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use: affective psychopathic personality traits as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions.

    PubMed

    Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse is related to re-offending, and treatment of substance abuse may reduce criminal recidivism. Offender characteristics including problem severity, violence risk and psychopathic personality traits may be positively or negatively associated with participation in substance abuse treatment. We explored the relationships between such characteristics and participation in substance abuse interventions among Swedish offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Our analyses revealed that problem severity regarding drugs, employment, and family/social situations predicted intervention participation, and that affective psychopathic personality traits were negatively associated with such participation. Thus, affective psychopathic personality traits could be considered as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions. Among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use, such personality traits should be taken into account in order to optimize treatment participation and treatment outcome. Approaches used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) could be applicable for these patients.

  19. Characteristics of facilities with specialized programming for drinking drivers and for other criminal justice involved clients: analysis of a national database

    PubMed Central

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott

    2007-01-01

    Background Offering specialized programming at substance abuse treatment facilities can help diversify clientele and funding sources, potentially enhancing the facilities' ability to survive and/or expand. Past research has shown that facilities only offering specialized programming for driving under the influence/driving while intoxicated offenders (DUI) are predominately private-for-profit owned. As criminal justice populations, both DUI and other criminal justice offenders, comprise a large proportion of those in community-based substance abuse treatment knowing facilities' characteristics would be important for administrators and policymakers to consider when updating programming, training staff or expanding capacity to ensure efficient use of scarce resources. However, while such characteristics are known for DUI programs, they are not known for facilities offering specialized programming for other criminal justice offenders. Methods Analysis of the 2004 US National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. Results Almost half the facilities (48.2%) offered either DUI or other criminal justice specialized programming. These facilities were divided between those offering DUI specialized programming (17.7%), other criminal justice specialized programming (16.6%) and both types of programming (13.9%). Certain characteristics were independently associated with offering DUI specialized programming (private ownership, rural location, for profit status) or other criminal justice specialized programming (receiving public funds, urban location, region of country). Conclusion Offering specialized programming for DUI or other criminal justice offenders was common and associated with distinct characteristics. These observed associations may reflect the positioning of the facility to increase visibility, or diversify clientele and possibly funding streams or the decision of policymakers. As the criminal justice populations show no sign of decreasing and resources are

  20. The effect of organisational context variables on employer attitudes toward employability of ex-offenders.

    PubMed

    Lukies, John; Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J

    2011-05-01

    The authors tested the premise that organisational context variables (i.e., size of organisation, industry type, location, and respondent's position in organisation) had significant effects on employer (N = 596) attitudes toward employability of ex-offenders. They also examined whether organisational context variables had an equivalent effect on employer attitudes to that of job-seeker criminal history and employer personal characteristics (e.g., respondent age and gender). Using linear regression (HLM 6.02a), organisational context variables were shown to have a significant effect on employer attitudes. In addition, organisational context variables had a significantly greater effect on employer attitudes than did employer personal characteristics. However, job-seeker criminal history contributed more to respondent ratings of ex-offender employability than did organisational context variables. The finding that judgements of employability are influenced by organisational context variables has implications for future research relevant to reintegration. Stakeholder attitudes toward the reintegration success of ex-offenders may be generally influenced by context variables.

  1. Review of psychiatric services to mentally disordered offenders around the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Brink, Johann; Chern, Tor P; Choi, Wing-Kit; Hern-Yee, Jerome Goh; Green, Bob; Heffernan, Ed; Johnson, Sarah B; Kachaeva, Margarita; Shiina, Akihiro; Walker, David; Wu, Kevin; Wang, Xiaoping; Mellsop, Graham

    2014-03-01

    This article was commissioned to collate and review forensic psychiatric services provided in a number of key Pacific Rim locations in the hope that it will assist in future dialogue about service development. The Board of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists identified experts in forensic psychiatry from Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. Each contributor provided an account of issues in their jurisdiction, including mental health services to mentally disordered offenders in prison, competence or fitness to stand trial, legal insanity as a defense at trial, diminished responsibility, and special forensic services available, including forensic hospitals and community forensic mental health services. Responses have been collated and are presented topic by topic and country by country within the body of this review. The availability of mental health screening and psychiatric in-reach or forensic liaison services within prisons differed considerably between countries, as did provisioning of community forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders to forensic, state, or hybrid hospitals was common. Legal constructs of criminal responsibility (insanity defense) and fitness to stand trial ("disability") are almost universally recognized, although variably used. Disparities between unmet needs and resourcing available were common themes. The legislative differences between contributing countries with respect to the mental health law and criminal law relating to mentally disordered offenders are relatively subtle. The major differences lie in operationalizing and resourcing forensic services.

  2. Review of psychiatric services to mentally disordered offenders around the Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Brink, Johann; Chern, Tor P; Choi, Wing-Kit; Hern-Yee, Jerome Goh; Green, Bob; Heffernan, Ed; Johnson, Sarah B; Kachaeva, Margarita; Shiina, Akihiro; Walker, David; Wu, Kevin; Wang, Xiaoping; Mellsop, Graham

    2014-03-01

    This article was commissioned to collate and review forensic psychiatric services provided in a number of key Pacific Rim locations in the hope that it will assist in future dialogue about service development. The Board of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists identified experts in forensic psychiatry from Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. Each contributor provided an account of issues in their jurisdiction, including mental health services to mentally disordered offenders in prison, competence or fitness to stand trial, legal insanity as a defense at trial, diminished responsibility, and special forensic services available, including forensic hospitals and community forensic mental health services. Responses have been collated and are presented topic by topic and country by country within the body of this review. The availability of mental health screening and psychiatric in-reach or forensic liaison services within prisons differed considerably between countries, as did provisioning of community forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders to forensic, state, or hybrid hospitals was common. Legal constructs of criminal responsibility (insanity defense) and fitness to stand trial ("disability") are almost universally recognized, although variably used. Disparities between unmet needs and resourcing available were common themes. The legislative differences between contributing countries with respect to the mental health law and criminal law relating to mentally disordered offenders are relatively subtle. The major differences lie in operationalizing and resourcing forensic services. PMID:24249353

  3. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  4. Juvenile Offenders with and without Disabilities: Risks and Patterns of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dalun; Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2011-01-01

    Youth with disabilities are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system and tend to be repeat offenders. Current intervention strategies have produced differential effects between those with and without disabilities. Yet, little research has been done to examine the differences between these two populations regarding risks for and patterns of…

  5. Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

  6. Criminal undercover agents or "bad people" doing "good things".

    PubMed

    Amir, Menachem

    2003-08-01

    Information and intelligence have always been, and will remain, the most essential components of policing and indeed all law enforcement and security work, including the variety of drug control efforts. Sources of information are varied, ranging from everyday interactions of officers of the law with the public, anonymous reports, the use of paid and unpaid informants from the criminal underworld to law enforcement's and security services' use of agents. This presentation, based on interviews with "handlers" of informants who are offenders, who supply information and evidence against other criminals, and who may have been former comrades of the criminals, explores the dilemmas that informers and their handlers face at each stage of the operation from recruitment to operation in the field, until they "finger" their targets and become state witnesses. During each stage of the operation, agents' motivations, fears, sense of betrayal (being betrayed and betraying others), being snitches, the need to protect their identities, as well as their dependency upon their handlers, are the primary issues to be considered and resolved. Handlers may have to tolerate agents' commission of crimes during operations and often may also have to "treat" the informant's spouse. Borrowed identity, which is the main meaning and dynamic of the informants' actions and of any undercover work, will also be analyzed. This presentation, designed to allow for a presentation of relevant parameters so as to permit the comparative study and classification of undercover work by criminals, will also note critical unresolved issues in this area as well as suggest future needed research.

  7. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms.

  8. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms. PMID:22518048

  9. Model underpinning treatment for sex offenders with mild intellectual disability: current theories of sex offending.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, William R

    2005-12-01

    Although many writers have provided a theoretical framework for treatment of mainstream sex offenders, this research has not been extended to sex offenders with mild intellectual disability. My purpose here is to bring together several research strands to provide a theoretical model for working in this field, including theories of sex offending, developmental theories for offending, and work on quality of life. In addition to dealing with issues of sex offending, researchers should also investigate developmental and societal issues crucial in the genesis of sex offending and offending in general. Because societal issues are also important for treatment, engagement and identification with society are suggested. Quality of life and issues directly related to sex offending are of central importance. PMID:16266211

  10. Long-term recovery from heroin use among female ex-offenders: Marisol's story.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose

    2008-01-01

    Ex-offenders experience various difficulties in successfully reentering communities post-incarceration. For those with a history of opioid misuse, despite various interventions, long-term recovery rates are relatively low. Additionally, the difficulties ex-offenders experience reintegrating with their families and communities are further compounded by the stigma and structural barriers posed by prior criminal and drug use histories. This qualitative study, using in-depth interviews conducted during an 18-month period between mid 2004 and late 2005 examines the process of creating and maintaining abstinence among 25 former heroin users, mostly Latino and African American New York City ex-offenders who have remained abstinent from heroin use for a period of 5 yr or longer. Focusing primarily on the story of one female respondent and in participants' own words, the factors that they found to be most salient in enhancing their recovery efforts (positive peer support, motivational tools, exercise, meditation, skills enhancement) are examined. The study findings suggest that reentry programs and policies can help ex-offenders sustain long-term abstinence and prosocial lifestyles by supporting the various coping strategies that they identify as being particularly valuable.

  11. Relationship influence and health risk behavior among re-entering women offenders

    PubMed Central

    Frisman, Linda; Lin, Hsui-Ju; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie; Havens, Jennifer R.; Prendergast, Michael; Surratt, Hilary L.; Clarke, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that relationships can influence health risk behaviors such as drug use among women offenders. This study takes an exploratory look at the positive and negative influences of parents, peers, and partners for women prisoners to better understand their health risk behavior for HIV, including risky sex and drug use. Methods The current study includes secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from women offenders enrolled in three protocols of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS) cooperative agreement. Baseline interviews were completed with incarcerated women preparing for community re-entry and focused on behaviors during the 6 months prior to incarceration. Relationship influences during the 6 months before prison were categorized as “positive” or “negative” for the women offenders. Findings Multivariate regression models suggested that positive parental influence was significantly associated with reduced HIV risk and reduced drug use in the 6 months prior to incarceration. However, negative peer influence increased drug use including both risky needle behavior and any drug use in the 6 months prior to incarceration. Conclusions These data suggest that, while relationships are generally important to women, particular types of relationship influences may be related to risky behavior. Implications for targeting re-entry interventions for women offenders are discussed. PMID:21315617

  12. The characteristics of online sex offenders: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Hermann, Chantal A

    2011-03-01

    There is much debate as to whether online offenders are a distinct group of sex offenders or if they are simply typical sex offenders using a new technology. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the extent to which online and offline offenders differ on demographic and psychological variables. Online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian and were slightly younger than offline offenders. In terms of psychological variables, online offenders had greater victim empathy, greater sexual deviancy, and lower impression management than offline offenders. Both online and offline offenders reported greater rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse than the general population. Additionally, online offenders were more likely to be Caucasian, younger, single, and unemployed compared with the general population. Many of the observed differences can be explained by assuming that online offenders, compared with offline offenders, have greater self-control and more psychological barriers to acting on their deviant interests.

  13. The criminal careers of incident cases of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wessely, S C; Castle, D; Douglas, A J; Taylor, P J

    1994-05-01

    We present a population-based, longitudinal study of all incident cases (N = 538) of schizophrenia in the London Borough of Camberwell between 1964 and 1984. Cases were selected from the Camberwell Cumulative Psychiatric Case Register. Case-notes were obtained, and further classified using a computerized operational check list for rating psychotic illness. Cases are not restricted to hospital discharges, as in previous studies, and account is taken of time at liberty to offend. In order to test the hypothesis that schizophrenia makes an independent contribution to criminality over other mental disorders, controls were chosen to be representative of nonschizophrenic mental disorders matched for age, sex and period. The rate of conviction is increased in women with schizophrenia compared to other mental disorders for most offence categories (rate ratio = 3.3). In men overall rates do not differ (rate ratio = 1.03), although there is an interaction between gender, schizophrenia and ethnicity, with young black men with schizophrenia being most at risk. The rate ratio for violent offences in men with schizophrenia is 3.8, confirming recent studies from Sweden. Subjects with schizophrenia were more likely to acquire any criminal record than those with other mental disorders. The rate of lifetime conviction was greater in those with schizophrenia than either a sample of working-class boys from the same area followed by Farrington & West, or National data. The risk of first conviction is increased by schizophrenia, unemployment, ethnic group, substance abuse and low social class, and decreased by being employed, married, female and older age of onset. Adjustment using survival analysis showed that schizophrenia made a small independent contribution to the risk of acquiring a criminal record (hazard ratio = 1.4) but gender, substance abuse, ethnicity and age of onset were more substantial. Previous criminality was the strongest independent association of post

  14. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:25504258

  15. A Comparison of Anger in Offenders and Non-Offenders Who Have Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Matthew; Beail, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy to treat anger in offenders with intellectual disabilities. The aim is to lower anger levels; the rationale is that this will reduce recidivism. However, the hypothesis that anger levels amongst offenders are higher than non-offenders has not been tested.…

  16. Frequency and Seriousness of Parental Offending and Their Impact on Juvenile Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent the frequency and seriousness of parental offending were related to their offspring offending. Police officers in one Dutch province completed a form to register risk factors and the actions undertaken when they came into contact with offenders aged 8-14 years. These juveniles were followed for 18…

  17. A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group.

  18. A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group. PMID:24088813

  19. Psychological profiling of offender characteristics from crime behaviors in serial rape offences.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W; Irwin, Harvey J

    2002-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a dearth of empirical research. Indeed, in the study of serial violent crimes for the purpose of psychological profiling, very few original, quantitative, academically reviewed studies actually exist. This article reports on the analysis of 62 incidents of serial sexual assault. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed in the analysis of this data, which in turn produced a five-cluster model of serial rapist behavior. First, a central cluster of behaviors were identified that represent common behaviors to all patterns of serial rape. Second, four distinct outlying patterns were identified as demonstrating distinct offence styles, these being assigned the following descriptive labels brutality, intercourse, chaotic, and ritual. Furthermore, analysis of these patterns also identified distinct offender characteristics that allow for the use of empirically robust offender profiles in future serial rape investigations. PMID:12113160

  20. Psychological profiling of offender characteristics from crime behaviors in serial rape offences.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W; Irwin, Harvey J

    2002-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a dearth of empirical research. Indeed, in the study of serial violent crimes for the purpose of psychological profiling, very few original, quantitative, academically reviewed studies actually exist. This article reports on the analysis of 62 incidents of serial sexual assault. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed in the analysis of this data, which in turn produced a five-cluster model of serial rapist behavior. First, a central cluster of behaviors were identified that represent common behaviors to all patterns of serial rape. Second, four distinct outlying patterns were identified as demonstrating distinct offence styles, these being assigned the following descriptive labels brutality, intercourse, chaotic, and ritual. Furthermore, analysis of these patterns also identified distinct offender characteristics that allow for the use of empirically robust offender profiles in future serial rape investigations.

  1. Sex offender registration and community notification challenges: the Supreme Court continues its trend.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Gerbasi, Joan B

    2003-01-01

    All states and the District of Columbia have passed sex offender registration and community notification laws. While the specific provisions of these statutes vary, all have public safety as a primary goal. The authors discuss two recent cases heard by the United States Supreme Court that challenged the constitutionality of Alaska's and Connecticut's statutes. The laws were challenged as violations of the United States Constitution's prohibition on ex post facto laws and its Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of procedural due process. In both cases, the statutes were upheld. As it has found in challenges to sexually violent predator statutes, the Court emphasized that the registration and community notification schemes are civil and not criminal in nature. The article concludes with a discussion of possible implications for clinicians involved in evaluating or treating sex offenders. PMID:14974805

  2. Evaluating Alternative Aftercare Models for Ex-Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Olson, Bradley D.; Harvey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role played by aftercare following (mainly) inpatient community-based treatment in the outcomes of criminal ex-offenders with substance use disorders. Two hundred and seventy individuals who had been released from the criminal justice system were randomly assigned to either a Therapeutic Community (TC), recovery homes called Oxford Houses (OHs), or usual care settings (UA). The OHs and TCs are residential settings that emphasized socialization and abstinence from drugs and alcohol, but OHs do not include the formal therapeutic change interventions common to TCs, nor did they include any on-site access to drug abuse or health care professionals. UA involved what occurred naturally after completing treatment, which included staying with friends or family members, their own house or apartment, homeless shelters, or other settings. Longer lengths of stay in either the TCs or OHs were associated with increased employment, and reduced alcohol and drug use. Those assigned to the OH condition received more money from employment, worked more days, achieved higher continuous alcohol sobriety rates, and had more favorable cost-benefit ratios. PMID:25641984

  3. Establishing a compulsory drug treatment prison: Therapeutic policy, principles, and practices in addressing offender rights and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Birgden, Astrid; Grant, Luke

    2010-01-01

    A Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Center (CDTCC) was established in Australia in 2006 for repeat drug-related male offenders. Compulsory treatment law is inconsistent with a therapeutic jurisprudence approach. Despite the compulsory law, a normative offender rehabilitation framework has been established based on offender moral rights. Within moral rights, the offender rehabilitation framework addresses the core values of freedom (supporting autonomous decision-making) and well-being (supporting support physical, social, and psychological needs). Moral rights are underpinned by a theory or principle which, in this instance, is a humane approach to offender rehabilitation. While a law that permits offenders to choose drug treatment and rehabilitation is preferable, the article discusses the establishment of a prison based on therapeutic policy, principles, and practices that respond to participants as both rights-violators and rights-holders. The opportunity for accelerated community access and a therapeutic alliance with staff has resulted in offenders actively seeking to be ordered into compulsory drug treatment and rehabilitation.

  4. Marital relations in incest offenders.

    PubMed

    Lang, R A; Langevin, R; van Santen, V; Billingsley, D; Wright, P

    1990-01-01

    The study compared 92 incest perpetrators to 40 (noncriminal) married males on two marital inventories, the Clarke Martial Relations Questionnaire (CMRQ), and the Sexual Behavior and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (SBMSQ). Results showed that marital disharmony, in the form of mistrustfullness, lack of mutual friends and time together, emotional instability (in both partners), but not sexual relations, were predominant factors in incest perpetrators' profiles. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 91.3% of incest offenders, but only 30.0% of controls, into their a priori group. Incest perpetrators reported less mutual give-and-take in disagreements with their spouses, a trend to confide less in their wives, and being more lonely in their marriage. Incest offenders reported they knew their spouses less well prior to marriage, despite the lack of any between-group differences in length of marriage or number of prior marriages. No differences emerged with respect to the range of sexual behaviors experienced or the degree of satisfaction with them. There were no group differences in the frequency of coitus nor in sexual dysfunction. In general, the lack of a satisfying emotional relationship between the incest offenders and their wives appeared as the most prominent factor in their marital relationships. The prominent aspects of their marital disharmony and sexual relations identified in the study reflect, in part, the inherent treatment goals needed for the incest perpetrator. PMID:2079705

  5. Marital relations in incest offenders.

    PubMed

    Lang, R A; Langevin, R; van Santen, V; Billingsley, D; Wright, P

    1990-01-01

    The study compared 92 incest perpetrators to 40 (noncriminal) married males on two marital inventories, the Clarke Martial Relations Questionnaire (CMRQ), and the Sexual Behavior and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (SBMSQ). Results showed that marital disharmony, in the form of mistrustfullness, lack of mutual friends and time together, emotional instability (in both partners), but not sexual relations, were predominant factors in incest perpetrators' profiles. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 91.3% of incest offenders, but only 30.0% of controls, into their a priori group. Incest perpetrators reported less mutual give-and-take in disagreements with their spouses, a trend to confide less in their wives, and being more lonely in their marriage. Incest offenders reported they knew their spouses less well prior to marriage, despite the lack of any between-group differences in length of marriage or number of prior marriages. No differences emerged with respect to the range of sexual behaviors experienced or the degree of satisfaction with them. There were no group differences in the frequency of coitus nor in sexual dysfunction. In general, the lack of a satisfying emotional relationship between the incest offenders and their wives appeared as the most prominent factor in their marital relationships. The prominent aspects of their marital disharmony and sexual relations identified in the study reflect, in part, the inherent treatment goals needed for the incest perpetrator.

  6. Personality, Delinquency, and Criminal Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dam, Coleta; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between PEN profiles, delinquency, and recidivism in young offenders. According to Eysenck, personality is based on three basic Dimensions: Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism (PEN-model). Eysenck states that delinquents score high on all three dimensions. A group of young male offenders in a juvenile…

  7. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  8. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism. PMID:26299601

  9. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT PRACTICES FOR DRUG-INVOLVED ADULTS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the extent and organizational correlates of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in correctional facilities and community-based substance abuse treatment programs that manage drug-involved adult offenders. METHODS Correctional administrators and treatment program directors affiliated with a national sample of 384 criminal justice and community-based programs providing substance abuse treatment to adult offenders in the United States were surveyed in 2004. Correctional administrators reported the availability of up to 13 specified EBPs and treatment directors up to 15. The sum total of EBPs indicates their extent. Linear models regress the extent of EBPs on variables measuring structure and leadership, culture and climate, administrator attitudes and network connectedness of the organization. RESULTS Most programs offer fewer than 60% of the specified EBPs to drug-involved offenders. In multiple regression models, offender treatment programs that provided more EBPs were community-based, accredited, and network-connected; with a performance-oriented, non-punitive culture, more training resources; and leadership with a background in human services, a high regard for the value of substance abuse treatment and an understanding of EBPs. CONCLUSIONS The use of EBPs among facility- and community-based programs that serve drug-involved adult offenders has room for improvement. Initiatives to disseminate EBPs might target these institutional and environmental domains, but further research is needed to determine whether such organization interventions can promote the uptake of EBPs. PMID:17383551

  10. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation.

  11. Sexual Offending in Adolescence: A Comparison of Sibling Offenders and Nonsibling Offenders across Domains of Risk and Treatment Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…

  12. Quality of life in relation to future mental health problems and offending: Testing the good lives model among detained girls.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Hoeve, Machteld; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Colins, Olivier F

    2016-06-01

    Detained girls bear high levels of criminal behavior and mental health problems that are likely to persist into young adulthood. Research with these girls began primarily from a risk management perspective, whereas a strength-based empowering perspective may increase knowledge that could improve rehabilitation. This study examines detained girls' quality of life (QoL) in relation to future mental health problems and offending, thereby testing the strength-based good lives model of offender rehabilitation (GLM). At baseline, 95 girls (Mage = 16.25) completed the World Health Organization QoL instrument to assess their QoL prior to detention in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Six months after discharge, mental health problems and offending were assessed by self-report measures. Structural equation models were conducted to test GLM's proposed (in)direct pathways from QoL (via mental health problems) toward offending. Although we could not find support for GLM's direct negative pathway from QoL to offending, our findings did provide support for GLM's indirect negative pathway via mental health problems to future offending. In addition, we found a direct positive pathway from detained girls' satisfaction with their social relationships to offending after discharge. The current findings support the potential relevance of addressing detained girls' QoL, pursuing the development of new skills, and supporting them to build constructive social contacts. Our findings, however, also show that clinicians should not only focus on strengths but that detecting and modifying mental health problems in this vulnerable group is also warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844913

  13. Confusing the terms "guilty" and "not guilty": implications for alleged offenders with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A

    1993-10-01

    Evaluations of competency to stand trial of 45 alleged offenders with mental retardation were inspected to examine their understanding of "guilty" and "not guilty." Seven defendants (16%) had virtually no knowledge of "guilty" and were judged not competent after a thorough evaluation. None received a jail sentence. Although the criminal justice system served well this group with mental retardation, questions remain about the fate of those not identified. Are some pleading guilty when actually meaning "I did not do it" and being surprised by an unexpected jail sentence?

  14. Unguided clinical and actuarial assessment of re-offending risk: a direct comparison with sex offenders in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Susanne; Långström, Niklas

    2007-06-01

    Meta-analyses suggest that actuarial risk assessments outperform unguided clinical judgment for prediction of recidivism in criminal offenders. However, there is a lack of direct comparisons of the predictive accuracy of clinical judgment and actuarial risk scales for sexual offenders. We followed up 121 male sex offenders (> or =18 years) subjected to pre-trial forensic psychiatric assessment in Denmark in 1978-1992 (mean post-detainment time = 16.4 years) to compare the predictive validity of unstructured clinical judgment of recidivism risk with that of the well-established Static-99 (Hanson and Thornton, Law and Human Behavior 24:119-136, 2000) and an extension of the Static-99, the Static-2002 (Hanson and Thornton, Notes on the development of Static-2002 (Rep. No. 2003-01), Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 2003). The predictive accuracy of unguided judgment did not exceed chance for any sexual, severe sexual or any violent (sexual or non-sexual) reconviction (AUCs of the ROC curve = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.41-0.63; 0.50, 95%CI = 0.34-0.67; and 0.57, 95%CI = 0.40-0.73, respectively). In contrast, all three outcomes were predicted significantly better than chance by the Static-99 (AUC = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.52-0.72; 0.72, 95%CI = 0.59-0.84; and 0.71, 95%CI = 0.56-0.86) and the Static-2002 (AUC = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.57-0.77; 0.69, 95%CI = 0.56-0.83; and 0.70, 95%CI = 0.55-0.86). Static-99 outperformed clinical judgment for sexual recidivision (chi(2) = 5.11, df = 1, p < .05). The Static-2002 was significantly more accurate for the prediction of any sexual recidivism as compared to unguided clinical judgment but its advantage fell just short of statistical significance for severe sexual recidivism (chi(2) = 3.56, df = 1, p = 0.06). When tested for recidivism within 2 years, none of the three prediction methods yielded results significantly better than chance for any outcome. This direct trial of the unguided clinical method argues against its

  15. Police Attitudes toward Domestic Violence Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…

  16. Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Alcoholic Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…

  17. Offending Behaviour in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Evans, Carys; Hider, Andrew; Hawkins, Sarah; Peckett, Helen; Morgan, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Considerable speculation is evident both within the scientific literature and popular media regarding possible links between Asperger syndrome and offending. A survey methodology that utilised quantitative data collection was employed to investigate the prevalence of offending behaviour amongst adults with Asperger Syndrome in a large geographical…

  18. Danger and the Decision to Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2005-01-01

    Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…

  19. 78 FR 23835 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... it can be found at 77 FR 73558. The proposed rule was published to allow CSOSA to better meet the... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 28 CFR Part 811 RIN 3225-AA10 Sex Offender Registration... verification of registration information for sex offenders. Furthermore, the rule permits CSOSA to...

  20. Risk Assessment with Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…

  1. Sex Offender Treatment: The Case for Manualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out the case for the manualization of sex offender treatment. The movement towards evidence-based practice in psychotherapy has led to strongly voiced opposing views on the value of manualization. However, "what works" evidence, i.e. the meta-analytical research behind the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation,…

  2. Moral Development of Solo Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vugt, Eveline; Stams, Geert Jan; Dekovic, Maja; Brugman, Daan; Rutten, Esther; Hendriks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral orientation in sexual and non-sexual situations. Moral…

  3. Validating the Attitudes toward Sex Offenders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Charmeka

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor…

  4. Juvenile Sex Offenders: Development and Correction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gail; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three case histories elucidate a discussion of the developmental nature of the behaviors of juvenile male sexual offenders. The sexual assault cycle is defined in the stages of negative self-image, predicting rejection, isolation, fantasies, planning the offense, and committing the offense. Tools for treating the offender are outlined. (Author/JDD)

  5. Probation's role in offender mental health.

    PubMed

    Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy.

  6. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  7. Probation's role in offender mental health.

    PubMed

    Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy. PMID:27548020

  8. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  9. Types of Empathy and Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…

  10. Sentencing Outcomes of Convicted Child Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the sentencing outcomes of convicted child sexual offenders from data collected over an eight year period. Multiple regression and nominal log linear regression are used to examine length of prison sentence, length of probation sentence, and whether the convicted offender is actually sent to prison or to probation. While…

  11. Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

  12. Drug use and criminal activity among rural probationers with DUI histories.

    PubMed

    Webster, J Matthew; Oser, Carrie B; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Cline, Virginia Depp; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2009-12-01

    The present study examined whether ever being arrested for driving under the influence (DUI) was associated with higher levels of substance use and criminal activity in a sample of 800 probationers. Lifetime and 30-day histories of substance use and criminal activity were compared across three groups of probationers from rural Kentucky: those with a single DUI arrest, those with two or more DUI arrests, and those with no DUI arrests. A larger percentage of probationers with a DUI arrest reported lifetime and 30-day substance use than non-DUI offenders in almost all drug and alcohol categories. Higher prevalence of criminal activity was limited primarily to the multiple DUI arrest group. Findings add to the literature on rural substance abusers and indicate that DUI may be used as a marker to help identify opportunities for targeted substance abuse interventions.

  13. Violent offenders in a deaf prison population.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katrina R; Vernon, McCay; Capella, Michele E

    2005-01-01

    Previous research suggested an unexplained difference in the patterns of offending behaviors among deaf people when compared to hearing people. This study, conducted in Texas, compares the incidence and types of violent offenses of a deaf prison population in comparison to the hearing prison population. Sixty-four percent of deaf prisoners were incarcerated for violent offenses in comparison to 49% of the overall state prison offender population. This finding is consistent with previous research. The most significant difference between the populations was found in the category of sexual assault, which represented 32.3% of deaf offenders in contrast to 12.3% of hearing state prison inmates overall. Factors potentially impacting violent offending by deaf persons are their vulnerability to child sexual abuse, use of chemicals, educational histories, and development of language and communication skills. Additionally, there is a widespread lack of accessible intervention and treatment services available to deaf sex offenders across the nation.

  14. Neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information in criminal cases in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    de Kogel, C.H.; Westgeest, E.J.M.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a ‘genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression’, the expectation was expressed that such ‘genetic defenses’ would appear in the Netherlands too. To assess how neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information are used in criminal justice practice in the Netherlands, we systematically collect Dutch criminal cases in which neuroscientific or behavioral genetic information is introduced. Data and case law examples are presented and discussed. Although cases are diverse, several themes appear, such as prefrontal brain damage in relation to criminal responsibility and recidivism risk, and divergent views of the implications of neurobiological knowledge about addiction for judging criminal responsibility. Whereas in the international ‘neurolaw literature’ the emphasis is often on imaging techniques, the Dutch findings also illustrate the role of neuropsychological methods in criminal cases. Finally, there appears to be a clear need of practice oriented instruments and guidelines. PMID:27774213

  15. Sexual criminality and hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Bliss, E L; Larson, E M

    1985-09-01

    Thirty-three sexual offenders, 18 of whom had been convicted of rape, nine of pedophilia, and six of incest, were studied. Two thirds of the subjects had histories of "spontaneous self-hypnotic" experiences (dissociations); seven of these were DSM-III multiples and six were probable multiples. This group had very high hypnotizability scores. The other one third without histories of "spontaneous self-hypnosis" had normal scores. It was concluded that spontaneous self-hypnosis contributed to the perpetration of the crimes in many of these cases, although other factors also directed the antisocial behaviors.

  16. Epilepsy and criminal law.

    PubMed

    Paul, G M; Lange, K W

    1992-04-01

    Automatic episodes of aggressive or violent behaviour may occur during or after an epileptic fit. Epileptic automatisms are regarded by the law as 'insane automatisms'. A person who commits a crime during the course of a seizure is therefore legally insane and must be committed to a psychiatric hospital. The law of insanity is inappropriate when applied to epileptic automatisms. A change in the law is therefore necessary to remove epileptic offenders from the legal ambit of insanity, and to save them the threat of detention in a mental hospital as a consequence of their crime.

  17. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  18. Personality, delinquency, and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Coleta; De Bruyn, Eric E J; Janssens, Jan M A M

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between PEN profiles, delinquency, and recidivism in young offenders. According to Eysenck, personality is based on three basic Dimensions: Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism (PEN-model). Eysenck states that delinquents score high on all three dimensions. A group of young male offenders in a juvenile detention center in The Netherlands were studied to test Eysenck's hypothesis, which was partially confirmed. From a cluster analysis it appear that only a small group of offenders had high scores on all three PEN dimensions. Finally, it was concluded that the PEN profiles were not able to differentiate between recidivists and nonrecidivists.

  19. Remediating the Deficit: Social Skills Training with Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Sharon L.; Sherer, Mark

    Assessment and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders has been enhanced by the identification of several cognitive and behavioral dimensions on which offenders differ from non-offenders. To investigate the influence of social skills training on locus of control, self-esteem, and observed behavior, 27 adolescent male offenders, aged 12-17,…

  20. Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    This bulletin summarizes the latest and most comprehensive research and serious and violent juvenile (SJV) offenders taken from a report by the Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. It describes characteristics of SVJ offenders and predictors of SVJ offending. Some interventions to prevent offenses by SVJs are reviewed. Recently…

  1. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Victim-Offender Overlap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Higgins, George E.; Tewksbury, Richard; Gover, Angela R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has established an offending/victimization overlap and that offenders and victims share similar characteristics, much less work has examined the longitudinal sequencing of victimization and offending in the same developmental period and whether key risk/protective factors significantly distinguish both offenders and victims. This…

  2. The use of neuroscientific evidence in Canadian criminal proceedings

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered. Canadian courts consider neuroscientific evidence of many types, particularly evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure, traumatic brain injury, and neuropsychological testing. The majority of the cases are sentencing decisions, which is useful given that it offers an opportunity to observe how judges wrestle with the tension that evidence of diminished capacity due to brain damage tends to reduce moral blameworthiness, while it also tends to increase perceptions of risk and dangerousness. This so-called double-edged sword of the biological explanation of criminal behavior was reflected in this study, and raises questions about whether and when the pursuit of such evidence is advisable from the defense perspective. PMID:27774212

  3. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  4. Mental health assessment of rape offenders

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243

  5. Behavioral and neural impairments of frontotemporal dementia: Potential implications for criminal responsibility and sentencing.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stages of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder marked by atrophy to the brain's frontal regions, exhibit severe disturbances to social and moral processing and decision-making after the onset of the disorder. These behavioral impairments, underlain by the neural deficits associated with the disorder, can often lead individuals with bvFTD to criminally offend. As such, behavioral and frontotemporal lobe abnormalities exhibited by offenders with bvFTD potentially represent several complex challenges for the legal system. This paper examines some of the ways in which the behavioral and neural impairments associated with bvFTD may influence issues surrounding the criminal responsibility, specifically legal insanity, and sentencing of offenders with bvFTD in the U.S. legal system. As there is very little literature in these areas concerning bvFTD, the existing academic dialogue on psychopathy, a disorder with similar behavioral symptoms and neural deficits, is used to frame the discussion on these issues.

  6. Behavioral and neural impairments of frontotemporal dementia: Potential implications for criminal responsibility and sentencing.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stages of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder marked by atrophy to the brain's frontal regions, exhibit severe disturbances to social and moral processing and decision-making after the onset of the disorder. These behavioral impairments, underlain by the neural deficits associated with the disorder, can often lead individuals with bvFTD to criminally offend. As such, behavioral and frontotemporal lobe abnormalities exhibited by offenders with bvFTD potentially represent several complex challenges for the legal system. This paper examines some of the ways in which the behavioral and neural impairments associated with bvFTD may influence issues surrounding the criminal responsibility, specifically legal insanity, and sentencing of offenders with bvFTD in the U.S. legal system. As there is very little literature in these areas concerning bvFTD, the existing academic dialogue on psychopathy, a disorder with similar behavioral symptoms and neural deficits, is used to frame the discussion on these issues. PMID:27039661

  7. Pornography use and sexual aggression: the impact of frequency and type of pornography use on recidivism among sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Drew A; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Curry, Susan; Bradford, John M

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the unique contribution of pornography consumption to the longitudinal prediction of criminal recidivism in a sample of 341 child molesters. We specifically tested the hypothesis, based on predictions informed by the confluence model of sexual aggression that pornography will be a risk factor for recidivism only for those individuals classified as relatively high risk for re-offending. Pornography use (frequency and type) was assessed through self-report and recidivism was measured using data from a national database from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Indices of recidivism, which were assessed up to 15 years after release, included an overall criminal recidivism index, as well as subcategories focusing on violent (including sexual) recidivism and sexual recidivism alone. Results for both frequency and type of pornography use were generally consistent with our predictions. Most importantly, after controlling for general and specific risk factors for sexual aggression, pornography added significantly to the prediction of recidivism. Statistical interactions indicated that frequency of pornography use was primarily a risk factor for higher-risk offenders, when compared with lower-risk offenders, and that content of pornography (i.e., pornography containing deviant content) was a risk factor for all groups. The importance of conceptualizing particular risk factors (e.g., pornography), within the context of other individual characteristics is discussed.

  8. Legal, ethical, and methodological considerations in the Internet-based study of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Donoghue, Christine

    2010-01-01

    With its ever-growing penetration of remote regions of the world, the Internet provides great opportunity for conducting research. Beyond clear advantages such as increased cost-effectiveness and efficiency in collecting large samples, Internet-based research has proven particularly useful in reaching hidden or marginalized populations who engage in illegal or deviant behaviors. However, this new medium for research raises important and complex legal, ethical, and methodological/technological issues that researchers must address, particularly when studying undetected criminal behaviors. The current paper chronicles various issues that were encountered in the implementation of an active Internet-based pilot research study of child pornography (CP) users. Moreover, this study was undertaken to address a critical gap in the existing research on CP offending, which has to date primarily focused on incarcerated or convicted samples. The Internet provides the optimal medium for studying community populations of CP users, given that it has become the primary market for CP distribution. This paper is designed to serve as a guide for researchers interested in conducting Internet-based research studies on criminal and sexually deviant populations, particularly CP offenders. Several recommendations are offered based on our own experiences in the implementation of this study.

  9. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue.

  10. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue. PMID:25377376

  11. Recidivism risk factors are correlated with a history of psychiatric hospitalization among sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung C; Hanson, R Karl

    2016-08-01

    Sexual offenders are more likely to have a history of psychiatric hospitalization compared with the general population. This finding suggests that a history of psychiatric hospitalization is a plausible risk factor for the initiation of sexual crimes. It is less clear, however, whether psychiatric hospitalization is associated with risk factors for criminal recidivism. Consequently, the current study examined the correlates of psychiatric hospitalization and its relevance for risk assessment in a sample of sexual offenders on community supervision (N = 947). In this sample, a history of psychiatric hospitalization significantly increased the rate of sexual recidivism (hazard ratio = 1.95). After controlling for well-established risk factors, however, the association was no longer statistically significant. Consequently, this study supported an indirect effect of a history of psychiatric hospitalization, such that the association between psychiatric symptoms and recidivism was mediated by criminogenic needs (e.g., poor general self-regulation, loneliness, and social rejection). Replication studies are needed to confirm this association, and to further understand the link between mental illness and recidivism for sexual offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504645

  12. Recidivism risk factors are correlated with a history of psychiatric hospitalization among sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung C; Hanson, R Karl

    2016-08-01

    Sexual offenders are more likely to have a history of psychiatric hospitalization compared with the general population. This finding suggests that a history of psychiatric hospitalization is a plausible risk factor for the initiation of sexual crimes. It is less clear, however, whether psychiatric hospitalization is associated with risk factors for criminal recidivism. Consequently, the current study examined the correlates of psychiatric hospitalization and its relevance for risk assessment in a sample of sexual offenders on community supervision (N = 947). In this sample, a history of psychiatric hospitalization significantly increased the rate of sexual recidivism (hazard ratio = 1.95). After controlling for well-established risk factors, however, the association was no longer statistically significant. Consequently, this study supported an indirect effect of a history of psychiatric hospitalization, such that the association between psychiatric symptoms and recidivism was mediated by criminogenic needs (e.g., poor general self-regulation, loneliness, and social rejection). Replication studies are needed to confirm this association, and to further understand the link between mental illness and recidivism for sexual offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Multiple Service System Involvement and Later Offending Behavior: Implications for Prevention and Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated patterns of childhood and adolescent experiences that correspond to later justice system entry, including persistence into adulthood, and explored whether timing of potential supports to the child or onset of family poverty, according to developmental periods and gender, would distinguish among latent classes. Methods. We constructed a database containing records for 8587 youths from a Midwestern metropolitan region, born between 1982 and 1991, with outcomes. We used data from multiple publicly funded systems (child welfare, income maintenance, juvenile and criminal justice, mental health, Medicaid, vital statistics). We applied a latent class analysis and interpreted a 7-class model. Results. Classes with higher rates of offending persisting into adulthood were characterized by involvement with multiple publicly funded systems in childhood and adolescence, with the exception of 1 less-urban, predominantly female class that had similarly high system involvement coupled with lower rates of offending. Conclusions. Poverty and maltreatment appear to play a critical role in offending trajectories. Identifying risk factors that cluster together may help program and intervention staff best target those most in need of more intensive intervention. PMID:25973802

  14. Juvenile group sex offenders: a comparison of group leaders and followers.

    PubMed

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Jansen, Lucres M C; Doreleijers, Theo A H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child protection agency were examined. Psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics were assessed by means of standardized instruments, and criminal careers of the participants were ascertained from official judicial records. Although leaders and followers were similar on many characteristics, some remarkable differences were found. During their sexual acts, followers reported using excessive force more frequently than leaders. Furthermore, leaders reported more emotional problems, whereas followers were characterized by higher levels of problems in the social relational domain. As the findings indicate that juvenile group sex offenders constitute a group with specific mental health needs, diagnostic investigation is important to recognize risk factors and (treatable) problems. The absence of some expected differences between leaders and followers could be due to the method of classification or because group offending constitutes a dynamic process without clearly defined roles for individuals.

  15. Risk reduction treatment of psychopathy and applications to mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen C P; Olver, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic nihilism on treating psychopathy is widespread and is largely based on many outdated and poorly designed studies. Important recent advances have been made in assessing psychopathy and recidivism risks, as well as in offender rehabilitation to reduce reoffending, all of which are now well supported by a considerable literature based on credible empirical research. A 2-component model to guide risk reduction treatment of psychopathy has been proposed based on the integration of key points from the 3 bodies of literature. Treatment programs in line with the model have been in operation, and the results of early outcome evaluations are encouraging. Important advances also have been made in understanding the possible etiology of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia and history of criminality and violence, some with significant features of psychopathy. This article presents a review of recent research on risk reduction treatment of psychopathy with the additional aim to extend the research to the treatment of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia, violence, and psychopathy. PMID:25997606

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed. PMID:25411986

  18. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation.

  19. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Lee A.; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  20. Health needs of young offenders.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lisa; Vostanis, Panos; Spencer, Nick

    2004-06-01

    Health services' input to the Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) is an integral component of the YOTs' philosophy. Fifty young people aged 14-18 years, who attended two representative YOTs consecutively, completed a health checklist and a strengths and difficulties questionnaire. They were interviewed on the health of the nation outcome scales for children and adolescents and their perceptions of health needs and services. The young people reported high rates of accidents and injuries, admissions to hospital, emotional and peer relationships difficulties. Their perceptions of what mental illness means varied between stigma, aggression, lack of coping, previous experiences and physical ill-health. Only five young people expressed a wish to receive mental health help. The findings are discussed in relation to health services provision to the YOTs. PMID:15157370

  1. [Empirical findings with arson offenders].

    PubMed

    Rechlin, T; Weis, M

    1992-11-01

    Forensic, psychological and psychopathological findings on 40 arsonists, who were investigated in our psychiatric department between 1980 and 1990, are presented. The findings indicate that arsonists represent a diagnostically heterogeneous group of offenders. On the other hand, some common psychodynamic patterns can be seen; in particular, a high degree of suicidal and autoaggressive behaviour. As reported by other authors, arsonists appear to suffer from a disorder of impulse control. A historical review illustrates that since the mid-19th century a purely psychopathological model of pyromania has been found unsatisfactory, and suggests that psychodynamic aspects should not be over-emphasized. Analysis of the different motivation and abnormalities of arsonists could render the term pyromania obsolete. This requires however a radical reappraisal of the significance of psychiatric diagnosis within an anthropological framework.

  2. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-18

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided.

  3. Mental Illness and Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lee A; Washington, Aryssa

    2016-02-01

    Within the past decade, reliance on the juvenile justice system to meet the needs of juvenile offenders with mental health concerns has increased. Due to this tendency, research has been conducted on the effectiveness of various intervention and treatment programs/approaches with varied success. Recent literature suggests that because of interrelated problems involved for youth in the juvenile justice system with mental health issues, a dynamic system of care that extends beyond mere treatment within the juvenile justice system is the most promising. The authors provide a brief overview of the extent to which delinquency and mental illness co-occur; why treatment for these individuals requires a system of care; intervention models; and the juvenile justice systems role in providing mental health services to delinquent youth. Current and future advancements and implications for practitioners are provided. PMID:26901213

  4. [The Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)].

    PubMed

    Rossegger, A; Gerth, J; Urbaniok, F; Laubacher, A; Endrass, J

    2010-11-01

    In North America, the use of actuarial instruments is considered to be state of the art in the assessment of offender recidivism risk. One of these instruments is the "Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide" (SORAG), which was developed specifically for the use in sex offender risk assessment. The present review investigates the current state of knowledge regarding the instrument's validity specifically for its use in German-speaking countries. Overall the results speak for the instrument's good discriminatory power. However, this is not true to the same degree for all types of sex offender populations. The discriminatory power is especially good in the subpopulation of child molesters. Part of the present review is a German translation of the instrument authorised by the developers of the SORAG.

  5. [The pedophilic criminal].

    PubMed

    Heim, M; Morgner, J

    1985-02-01

    After a review of the literature dealing with pedophilia, the results of an analysis of 100 forensic psychiatric reports dealing with pedophile criminals are described. They show that, except for a few homosexual pedophiles, pedophilia is a pseudoperversion originating from different developmental conditions and, in individual cases, verifiable personality traits. The authors discuss problems involved in the forensic-psychiatric assessment of these delinquents. Attention is drawn to the necessity of purposeful, coordinated further education in this respect to enable the existing considerable discrepancies between forensic-psychiatric evaluation of these and other sexual deviants to be overcome.

  6. The sentence and Kyukei in Japanese criminal procedure, especially in domestic homicide cases.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Saori; Nishimura, Akiyoshi; Nishimura, Shigeru; Nasu, Ayako; Aoyagi, Taeko; Sawaguchi, Yui; Koide, Kohei; Fujiwara, Satoshi

    2009-04-01

    Kyukei is the prosecutor's suggestion of punishment for the accused in the closing argument in the Japanese criminal court. It is rumored that the court sentence is foreseeable in 8 out of 10 of Kyukei. In this study, the ratio of the average sentence against the Kyukei for Oyako-shinju cases was confirmed to be 0.85 for male offenders and 0.71 for female offenders. Although there is a somewhat lenient tendency observed for female offenders, the ratio may almost be found around 0.8. To make a comparative study, we referred to the Kyukei and sentences of out-of-home murder cases and fatal child abuse cases. In the murder case, the ratio of the average sentence against the Kyukei is 0.83, whereas in the child abuse case it is 0.73. What is called the "myth of 8 out of 10" is more applicable for the male offenders who commit the majority of crimes, than for the females. Most of the crimes committed by women are domestic in nature. Indeed, because most women's domestic cases are due to husbands who are absent, behave violently, or are irresponsible, their circumstances of committing the crimes may be taken into account by the judge.

  7. Sex Offenders in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric J; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renee L

    2016-09-01

    With most youths now using the Internet and social networking sites (SNSs), the public has become increasingly concerned about risks posed by online predators. In response, lawmakers have begun to pass laws that ban or limit sex offenders' use of the Internet and SNSs. At the time of this article, 12 states and the federal government have passed legislation attempting to restrict or ban the use of SNSs by registered sex offenders. These laws have been successfully challenged in 4 states. In this article, we discuss examples of case law that illustrate evolving trends regarding Internet and social networking site restrictions on sex offenders on supervised release, as well as those who have already completed their sentences. We also review constitutional questions and empirical evidence concerning Internet and social networking use by sex offenders. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the psychiatric literature that addresses the evolving legal landscape in reference to sex offenders and their use of the Internet and SNSs. This article is intended to help inform forensic mental health professionals who work with sex offenders on current concerns in this rapidly evolving legal landscape. PMID:27644871

  8. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555

  9. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  10. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)

  11. Sexual Abuse History among Adult Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jespersen, Ashley F.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Seto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis states there is a specific relationship between sexual abuse history and sexual offending, such that individuals who experience sexual abuse are significantly more likely to later engage in sexual offenses. Therefore, samples of adult sex offenders should contain a disproportionate number of…

  12. The Experiences of Registered Sex Offenders with Internet Offender Registries in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Alissa R.; Sacks, Meghan; Osier, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    For over two decades, U.S. state and federal governments have enacted broad legislation in an effort to keep communities aware about and safe from sex offenders living nearby. The current study qualitatively analyzes unsolicited responses from sex offenders regarding their feelings, attitudes, and experiences living under the auspices of such…

  13. Childhood Predictors of Desistance and Level of Persistence in Offending in Early Onset Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Domburgh, L.; Loeber, R.; Bezemer, D.; Stallings, R.; Stouthamer-Loeber, M.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood predictors of adolescent offending careers were studied in 310 boys from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study who started offending prior to age 12. Three main groups were distinguished: serious persisters (n = 95), moderately serious persisters (n = 117), desisters (n = 63), and an intermittent group (n = 35). Group membership was…

  14. Effects of Offender Motivation, Victim Gender, and Participant Gender on Perceptions of Rape Victims and Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…

  15. Identification With a Violent and Sadistic Aggressor: A Rorschach Study of Criminal Debt Collectors.

    PubMed

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Grønnerød, Cato; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined personality functioning in a group of 27 incarcerated criminal debt collectors as assessed by the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ). To explore whether these individuals represent a distinct subgroup within the violent offender population, we compared them to a group of incarcerated homicide offenders (n = 23) without a previous history of significant violence and a group who had committed less serious violent crimes (n = 21). Results revealed significantly more Rorschach indicators of past trauma (Trauma Content Index), aggressive urges (Aggressive Potential) and identification (Aggressive Content) among the debt collectors than the 2 other groups. In addition, debt collectors displayed significantly more interpersonal interest (Sum Human content), and significantly higher scores on the PCL-R. Our findings suggest that the debt collector might be viewed as a hostile variant of psychopathy. PMID:26226052

  16. The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

  17. Craziness and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Morse, S J

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses why mental disorder is relevant to criminal responsibility. It begins by considering the meaning of criminal responsibility because it is impossible to understand the relevance of mental disorder unless one understands responsibility clearly. The next section provides a theoretical account of responsibility and excuse in general and addresses common misconceptions about these topics. The third section examines in detail why mental disorder can sometimes produce either a complete or partial excusing condition, such as legal insanity or "partial responsibility," and whether the U.S. Constitution requires the provision of an excuse based on mental disorder. The section proposes that mental disorder should produce an excusing condition in appropriate cases. The next section considers the relation of mental disorder to mens rea, the mental state "element" that is a definitional criterion of most crimes, and whether the U.S. Constitution requires that defendants be permitted to use evidence of mental disorder to negate mental state elements of the crime charged. This section argues that mental disorder rarely negates mens rea, but in those cases in which a plausible claim for negation could be made, defendants should be allowed to make this claim.

  18. Avoiding criminal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, J.W. ); Bramble, G.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Armed with more than 120 investigative agents, the US Environmental Protection Agency, through its attorneys at the Dept. of Justice, charges 5 to 10 engineers and business people with criminal violations of the nation's environmental regulations in any given week. There are some 10,000 pages of federal (let alone state) environmental regulations. The rules apply to large and small companies alike. As a practical matter, the sheer scope and complexity of environmental regulatory programs make 100% compliance virtually unattainable for most industrial enterprises. Where it is no longer a defense to claim lack of knowledge of one's regulatory obligations, and where courts allow the inference of criminal knowledge based on what the defendant should have known, what is a company to do The environmental audit provides a solution to this problem. Progressive audit programs are established with three goals in mind: to ensure that programs and practices at facilities are in compliance with applicable rules and regulations; to affirm that management systems are in place at the facilities to support ongoing compliance; and to identify needs or opportunities where it may be desirable to go beyond compliance to protect human health and the environment. This paper discusses the implementation of an audit program.

  19. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS. PMID:19731365

  20. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS.

  1. The role and experiences of family members during the rehabilitation of mentally ill offenders.

    PubMed

    Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'.

  2. New legislation for offenders with mental disorders in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji; Kojimoto, Miwa; Matsubara, Saburo; Takayanagi, Isao

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the recent law reform on forensic mental health and its background in Japan, focusing on the enactment of the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act in 2005. The new system-under which a person who commits a serious criminal offence in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the District Court-aims to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. The court panel, which consists of a judge and a specially qualified psychiatrist, plays a key role in the treatment procedure. Upon the agreement of the two panel members, the panel delivers a verdict that takes into account the outcome of psychiatric evaluation; possible verdicts are inpatient treatment order, outpatient treatment order (mental health supervision), and no treatment order. Designated facilities are currently being established for inpatient and outpatient treatment. Referring to the published data on outcomes of enforcement, this article discusses particularities, current problems, and future prospects of the system, drawing comparisons between the German and Japanese systems.

  3. Factors associated with the diversion of mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1994-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of pre-trial diversion, in which prosecutors use their discretion to drop criminal proceedings against mentally disordered persons on the condition that such persons be certified and detained for treatment in a hospital setting. An attempt was made to uncover the factors relevant to understanding why mentally disordered offenders are diverted in some instances but not in others. Using data from the forensic psychiatric system of a Canadian province, it was found that accused persons were diverted into the mental health system in 13.4 percent of cases over a three-year period. Three factors were found to be significantly associated with the diversion decision: 1) offense seriousness, with persons facing less serious charges being diverted in a greater proportion of cases; 2) court jurisdiction, with courts in smaller centres and outlying areas being more likely to divert; and 3) psychiatrist, with considerable variability between psychiatrists in their use of the diversion mechanism. The significance of these results and implications for forensic psychiatric policy-making are discussed.

  4. [Treatment of offenders with mental disorders: focusing on prison psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoji

    2011-01-01

    Forensic mental health services exist in a nebulous space at the intersection of two different systems-criminal justice and mental health-and the entanglement of these systems poses intricate problems for psychiatrists. This article discusses the present circumstances of forensic mental health services in Japan, focusing on trends in prison psychiatry. In the traditional Japanese system, offenders with mental disorders were treated within general psychiatry as involuntarily admitted patients, or within the prison system as mentally ill inmates. As a consequence of recent legal reform, however, this situation has radically changed. The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act of 2005 aimed to provide intensive psychiatric treatment to offenders with mental disorders, attaching great importance to their reintegration into society. Under the new system, a person who commits a serious criminal offense in a state of insanity or diminished capacity shall be referred by the public prosecutor to the district court; following a treatment order of the court, the person shall be treated in psychiatric facilities established by the law. While the new system is expected to play a role in the context of specialist forensic psychiatry, its distinction from general psychiatry remains unclear. For example, persons who commit serious crimes, such as assault, in an acute psychotic state are occasionally admitted to general psychiatric hospitals, even if they meet the criteria for a treatment order under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act. The relationship between prison psychiatry and specialist forensic psychiatry is still more problematic. Compared to the intensive, rehabilitation-oriented care provided under the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act, mental health services in penal institutions have a number of disadvantages, and it is unlikely that mentally ill prisoners have benefited from the recent progress in forensic psychiatry. Statistics show that the number of

  5. Reliability of repeated forensic evaluations of legal sanity.

    PubMed

    Kacperska, Iwona; Heitzman, Janusz; Bąk, Tomasz; Leśko, Anna Walczyna; Opio, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Criminal responsibility evaluation is a very complex and controversial issue due to the gravity of its consequences. Polish legislation allows courts to request multiple sanity evaluations. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of agreement on sanity evaluations in written evidence provided by experts of criminal cases in Poland. A total of 381 forensic evaluation reports addressing 117 criminal defendants were analysed. In sixty eight cases, there was more than one forensic evaluation report containing an assessment of legal sanity, including forty one cases containing two assessments of criminal responsibility, seventeen containing three assessments, eight containing four assessments and two containing five assessments. We found that in 47% of the cases containing more than one sanity assessment, the initial criminal responsibility assessment was changed after a subsequent forensic evaluation. The agreement between repeated criminal responsibility evaluations was found to be fair. This study found a strong correlation between the number of forensic reports and the number of contradictory sanity assessments. There were fewer forensic opinions involved in the cases in which the same conclusion regarding criminal responsibility was reached in subsequent forensic evaluation reports compared to the cases in which more forensic opinions were involved. There is a clear need for further research in this area, and it is necessary to standardise criminal responsibility evaluations in order to improve their reliability and to shorten the legal proceedings. PMID:26346685

  6. Reliability of repeated forensic evaluations of legal sanity.

    PubMed

    Kacperska, Iwona; Heitzman, Janusz; Bąk, Tomasz; Leśko, Anna Walczyna; Opio, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Criminal responsibility evaluation is a very complex and controversial issue due to the gravity of its consequences. Polish legislation allows courts to request multiple sanity evaluations. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of agreement on sanity evaluations in written evidence provided by experts of criminal cases in Poland. A total of 381 forensic evaluation reports addressing 117 criminal defendants were analysed. In sixty eight cases, there was more than one forensic evaluation report containing an assessment of legal sanity, including forty one cases containing two assessments of criminal responsibility, seventeen containing three assessments, eight containing four assessments and two containing five assessments. We found that in 47% of the cases containing more than one sanity assessment, the initial criminal responsibility assessment was changed after a subsequent forensic evaluation. The agreement between repeated criminal responsibility evaluations was found to be fair. This study found a strong correlation between the number of forensic reports and the number of contradictory sanity assessments. There were fewer forensic opinions involved in the cases in which the same conclusion regarding criminal responsibility was reached in subsequent forensic evaluation reports compared to the cases in which more forensic opinions were involved. There is a clear need for further research in this area, and it is necessary to standardise criminal responsibility evaluations in order to improve their reliability and to shorten the legal proceedings.

  7. A review of offenders remanded in a State Psychiatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lim, L E; Chan, K L; Tan, L L; Sung, M; Loh, M I; Straughan, P T

    2000-03-01

    Patients remanded over a two-year period to Woodbridge Hospital by Court Order were studied retrospectively. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis, theft and robbery the most prevalent offences. Males greatly outnumbered females. There were important gender differences, with males tending to commit sexual offences and females, theft and mischief. Males were less likely to be acquainted with their victims but those who caused hurt were more likely to know their victims. Outrage of modesty and theft were more likely to be committed against strangers. The reconviction rate was 26%, with repeat offenders more likely to commit sexual offences and theft. Patients who had previous psychiatric hospitalisation were more likely to be attending follow-up prior to and after release from remand and were more likely to have schizophrenia. Those assessed to be fit to plead were either fined or given jail sentences. Unsoundness of mind and unfitness to plead were associated with further remand in this hospital.

  8. Reinforcement sensitivity of sex offenders and non-offenders: an experimental and psychometric study of reinforcement sensitivity theory.

    PubMed

    Leue, Anja; Brocke, Burkhard; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2008-08-01

    This study tested predictions of Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) in subgroups of sex offenders and male non-offenders using an experimental choice task consisting of a reward and a non-reward phase. In addition, RST-related psychometric measures were used. Both experimental and psychometric data were of interest to determine whether sex offenders could be reliably differentiated from non-offenders. Paraphilic (N=50) and impulse control-disordered (N=48) sex offenders showed greater sensitivity to continuous reward than male non-offenders (N=51). Impulse control-disordered sex offenders showed less behavioural adaptation under non-reward than both paraphilic sex offenders and male non-offenders. In addition, reward sensitivity, rash-spontaneous impulsivity, and anxiety measures discriminated sex offenders from male non-offenders. The results suggest that reinforcement sensitivity is a promising personality trait for differentiating subgroups of sex offenders from non-offenders. The experimental and psychometric results illustrate that predictive accuracy in forensic settings could be improved by combining several types of data.

  9. A comparison of sex offenders against female and male minors.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Rienzo, D

    1987-01-01

    Male sex offenders against minors were grouped according to age and sex of victims, and according to whether they had offended against one or more than one minor. Cases of incest or courtship disorder were not included in the study. Among offenders against female children, the number of one-case offenders was substantially larger than that of multicase offenders. The opposite was true of offenders against male children, and there was no significant difference between one-case and multicase offenders against female or male early adolescents. If these counts reflect corresponding prevalences within sex offenders against minors in a Western cultural setting, some inferences can be made from these comparisons. PMID:3694689

  10. Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R

    2005-04-01

    With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.

  11. Poly-victimization among girls in the justice system: trajectories of risk and associations to juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Dana D; Moran, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Life History Calendars and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were used to collect data from 100 delinquent girls to (a) examine range and co-occurrence of different types of violence over the life span, (b) examine independent and cumulative trajectories of risk for varied types of victimization, and (c) examine the relationship of victimization to girls' offending. Risk trajectories demonstrate critical risk periods for different forms of violence exposure. Cox regression was used to examine the predictive value of different forms of violence exposure for the onset of delinquent and criminal behavior. Findings illuminate the need for programs addressing substance use and alternative coping mechanisms.

  12. Poly-victimization among girls in the justice system: trajectories of risk and associations to juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Dana D; Moran, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Life History Calendars and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire were used to collect data from 100 delinquent girls to (a) examine range and co-occurrence of different types of violence over the life span, (b) examine independent and cumulative trajectories of risk for varied types of victimization, and (c) examine the relationship of victimization to girls' offending. Risk trajectories demonstrate critical risk periods for different forms of violence exposure. Cox regression was used to examine the predictive value of different forms of violence exposure for the onset of delinquent and criminal behavior. Findings illuminate the need for programs addressing substance use and alternative coping mechanisms. PMID:25680799

  13. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  14. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts. PMID:25708001

  15. Social desirability and sexual offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Grace, Randolph C

    2008-03-01

    Social desirability--the desire to make a favorable impression on others-poses a significant threat to the validity of self-reports. This review examines research on social desirability in both forensic and nonforensic populations with the goal of identifying how best to minimize threats to the validity of research with sexual offenders. Although social desirability has long been a major research topic in personality, consensus has not been reached on key questions such as its dimensional structure and whether social desirability constitutes a trait or a response bias. Research with offenders has shown that social desirability is negatively related to recidivism and that different offender subtypes vary in the degree to which social desirability appears to influence self-reports, with child molesters exhibiting the strongest tendency to "fake good." Several methods of controlling for social desirability have been proposed, but the effectiveness of these methods in increasing validity of offender self reports is questionable. Given the lack of consensus in the personality literature, a fresh start is needed in which basic questions regarding social desirability are revisited with respect to offender populations. PMID:18420557

  16. THE OFFENDER PERSONALITY DISORDER PATHWAY: RISKING REHABILITATION?

    PubMed

    McRae, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Following over a decade of treatment refusal by 'risky' offenders preventively detained in Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder hospital and prison units, the coalition government now aims to improve treatment engagement in high secure prisons by clarifying pathways out of detention. This article asks whether the reconfiguration will end reliance upon preventive detention for public protection. Drawing on original empirical data collected by the author, it is argued that the government is unaware that offenders with 'severe personality disorder' appear to engage with treatment only if it increases their chances of achieving expedited parole. Hitherto, this incentive was provided by the Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection; its replacement with determinate sentences under the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 will worsen treatment engagement, because they provide offenders with a prison release date. The troubling result may be increased reliance by the Secretary of State for Justice on his inherent jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 to transfer offenders due for prison release to secure psychiatric hospitals. To counter this limitation of risk-focused decision-making, it is proposed that judges be able to impose a new hybrid order combining a custodial term with a subsequent community mental health treatment requirement.

  17. Meeting the health needs of young offenders.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    A recent review of health care for young people who offend recommended that youth offending teams should include healthcare provision. The type of provision that is common may not be meeting the general health needs of this vulnerable group who are known to have multiple health needs that can influence their offending behaviour An advanced nurse practitioner/general health nurse piloted onsite general health provision, working alongside a multidisciplinary team supporting the young people attending a youth offending team in London. An audit of the first 70 clients confirmed the complex family, social, health and other factors affecting the lives of these young people. There was a significant amount of general health care needed among this group that was not being addressed and more than three quarters of the young people whose records were audited required follow-up by the general health nurse. A nurse who is trained to work with young people and able to deliver holistic health care complements the roles of the youth offending team's extended support team and enables young people to receive general health care and follow up onsite. PMID:19006944

  18. Tracking and location technologies for the criminal justice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1995-05-01

    Electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-release prgrams, on parole, and on probation. State-of-the-art electronic monitoring systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the clients leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the clients are behaving properly. As a result, electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of cases of low risk criminal offenders. There is a growing need for community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the safety and security provided by the electronic monitoring systems, and to expand the number of cliets monitored by these systems. In this paper, a review is made of the tracking and location technologies that are currently available or under development. Also presented is a brief overview of Westinghouse's program with the National Institute of Justice. This program aims to demonstrate the practicality of one possible tracking and location technology, spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems, for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  19. Perceived parental care and supervision: relations with cognitive representations of future offending in a sample of young offenders.

    PubMed

    Kiriakidis, Stavros P

    2006-04-01

    This article focuses on the relations of two dimensions of perceived child-rearing practices, care and protection, as measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument and on cognitive representations of future offending in a sample of 152 young offenders. The relations of two different models, predictive of juvenile delinquency, are explored. Parental influences are thought to represent distal factors affecting juvenile delinquency, whereas cognitive representations, formulating the decisions of young offenders, are proximally related with juvenile delinquency. The focus of the research is the young offenders'intentions to reoffend, and it was found that intentions to reoffend in the future were predicted by attitudes toward offending and perceived behavioural control of future offending, whereas parental variables were redundant in predicting behavioural intentions of reoffending. Any effects of parental variables on behavioural intentions were mediated by the young offenders' attitudes toward offending. PMID:16510889

  20. Cognitive schemas and sexual offending: differences between rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters, and nonsexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2015-02-01

    Empirical research has primarily focused on the differences between rapists and child molesters. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of specific needs of specific subtypes of sex offenders is necessary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the early maladaptive schemas and different types of sexual offending behavior. Fifty rapists, 59 child molesters (19 pedophilic and 40 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Data were analyzed using sets of multinomial logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic variables, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to hold the defectiveness and subjugation schemas compared to the other three groups. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were more likely to hold the social isolation, enmeshment, and unrelenting standards schemas compared to rapists. Additionally, rapists were more likely to hold the vulnerability to harm, approval-seeking, and punitiveness schemas compared to nonpedophiles and/or nonsex offenders. Overall, our findings suggest that cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending and corroborate the need to distinguish between the two subtypes of child molesters. Despite the need for further investigation, findings may have important implications for the treatment of sex offenders and for the prevention of sexual crimes. PMID:25455215

  1. Cognitive schemas and sexual offending: differences between rapists, pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters, and nonsexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2015-02-01

    Empirical research has primarily focused on the differences between rapists and child molesters. Nonetheless, a greater understanding of specific needs of specific subtypes of sex offenders is necessary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the early maladaptive schemas and different types of sexual offending behavior. Fifty rapists, 59 child molesters (19 pedophilic and 40 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure. Data were analyzed using sets of multinomial logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic variables, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that pedophilic offenders were more likely to hold the defectiveness and subjugation schemas compared to the other three groups. Likewise, nonpedophilic child molesters were more likely to hold the social isolation, enmeshment, and unrelenting standards schemas compared to rapists. Additionally, rapists were more likely to hold the vulnerability to harm, approval-seeking, and punitiveness schemas compared to nonpedophiles and/or nonsex offenders. Overall, our findings suggest that cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending and corroborate the need to distinguish between the two subtypes of child molesters. Despite the need for further investigation, findings may have important implications for the treatment of sex offenders and for the prevention of sexual crimes.

  2. 28 CFR 2.45 - Same; youth offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same; youth offenders. 2.45 Section 2.45..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.45 Same; youth... Commission or a member thereof, when of the opinion that a youth offender will be benefited by...

  3. 28 CFR 2.45 - Same; youth offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same; youth offenders. 2.45 Section 2.45..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.45 Same; youth... Commission or a member thereof, when of the opinion that a youth offender will be benefited by...

  4. 28 CFR 2.45 - Same; youth offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same; youth offenders. 2.45 Section 2.45..., YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.45 Same; youth... Commission or a member thereof, when of the opinion that a youth offender will be benefited by...

  5. Comparison of Measures of Risk for Recidivism in Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…

  6. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a) The... entities, exclude violent offenders from programs authorized and funded under this part. (b) No recipient of a grant made under the authority of this part shall permit a violent offender to participate...

  7. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a) The... entities, exclude violent offenders from programs authorized and funded under this part. (b) No recipient of a grant made under the authority of this part shall permit a violent offender to participate...

  8. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a) The... entities, exclude violent offenders from programs authorized and funded under this part. (b) No recipient of a grant made under the authority of this part shall permit a violent offender to participate...

  9. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a) The... entities, exclude violent offenders from programs authorized and funded under this part. (b) No recipient of a grant made under the authority of this part shall permit a violent offender to participate...

  10. 28 CFR 93.5 - Exclusion of violent offenders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 Drug Courts § 93.5 Exclusion of violent offenders. (a) The... entities, exclude violent offenders from programs authorized and funded under this part. (b) No recipient of a grant made under the authority of this part shall permit a violent offender to participate...

  11. Female Juvenile Offending: A Review of Characteristics and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ann K.; Huber, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed current literature on female juvenile offending including the scope and nature of offending by female adolescents and the risk and protective factors across ecological contexts. We suggested that female juvenile offending is best viewed within a multidimensional framework in which female adolescent developmental characteristics as well…

  12. Employment of Ex-Offenders during the Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nally, John M.; Lockwood, Susan R.; Ho, Taiping

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have rarely examined post-release employment among offenders during a period of economic recession. However, studies on employment issues among post-release offenders have showed that released offenders would likely have a higher unemployment rate due to their inadequate education and job skills (Batiuk, 1997; Harlow, 2003; Vacca,…

  13. Financial Literacy Curriculum: The Effect on Offender Money Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    Offenders involved in this study lacked basic financial knowledge which presented a barrier to their success upon release. The researcher modified existing curriculum and created a course in financial literacy for offenders within a medium security correctional facility based upon their personal experiences. The offenders gained financial…

  14. From punishment to education--juvenile delinquency in Romanian criminal law.

    PubMed

    Ioan, Beatrice; Damian, Simona; Scripcaru, C; Neagu, M; Chirilă, B

    2015-01-01

    For centuries children were considered "mini-adults". Together with expressing the need to educate children and putting a stop to their integration in the work field from the earliest years the 19th century also displayed a new image of the child, which clearly separates him from the adults. In this paper the authors analyze the Romanian legislation addressing juvenile delinquency in criminal temporal evolution. On the one hand the minority age limits are sought and modulation of legislative provisions according to these, and on the other hand, types of penalties for minors are discussed. The authors conclude that the approach to juvenile delinquency in the current Romanian Criminal Code is the result of a long process of reflection of the legislators on adopting a different system of sanctions for juvenile offenders and on creating special regulations concerning the prosecution, trial and enforcement of the decisions regarding them.

  15. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report.

  16. The legal aspects of conditional release in the criminal and civil court system.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Naomi M

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the legal implications of conditional release in both the civil and criminal parts of the law. In the criminal context, conditional release takes the form of probation and parole. It also involves persons who are found to be incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity. In the civil context, conditional release exists for persons with mental illness and sex offenders who face mandatory outpatient treatment. The public policy behind conditional release is to allow certain persons the least restrictive alternative with proper oversight that will prevent the person from recidivating or being re-hospitalized. Conditional release is also used as a cost-saving mechanism in response to the overwhelming costs of incarceration and hospitalization. This article explores the issues of professional liability, third party liability, and individual rights in relation to conditional release. This article also addresses public policy concerns with conditional release and examines conditional release from a therapeutic jurisprudence perspective.

  17. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report. PMID:24268458

  18. The legal aspects of conditional release in the criminal and civil court system.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Naomi M

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the legal implications of conditional release in both the civil and criminal parts of the law. In the criminal context, conditional release takes the form of probation and parole. It also involves persons who are found to be incompetent to stand trial or not guilty by reason of insanity. In the civil context, conditional release exists for persons with mental illness and sex offenders who face mandatory outpatient treatment. The public policy behind conditional release is to allow certain persons the least restrictive alternative with proper oversight that will prevent the person from recidivating or being re-hospitalized. Conditional release is also used as a cost-saving mechanism in response to the overwhelming costs of incarceration and hospitalization. This article explores the issues of professional liability, third party liability, and individual rights in relation to conditional release. This article also addresses public policy concerns with conditional release and examines conditional release from a therapeutic jurisprudence perspective. PMID:25328072

  19. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness-based relapse prevention with relapse prevention for women offenders at a residential addiction treatment center.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Warner, Kaitlin; Sully, Betsy; Barricks, Adria; Stauffer, Connie; Thompson, Brian L; Luoma, Jason B

    2014-04-01

    Reincarceration rates are high among substance-involved criminal offenders. This study (conducted during 2010-2011 in an urban area and funded by a Washington State University-Vancouver mini-grant) used a randomized design to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) as compared to relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addictions treatment program for women referred by the criminal-justice system (N = 105). At 15-week follow up, regression analyses found women in MBRP, compared to RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days and fewer legal and medical problems. Study limitations and future research directions for studying the efficacy of MBRP are discussed. PMID:24611849

  20. PREDICTING RECIDIVISM FOR RELEASED STATE PRISON OFFENDERS

    PubMed Central

    Stahler, Gerald J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Belenko, Steven; Welsh, Wayne N.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Zajac, Gary

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics and spatial contagion in predicting reincarceration on a sample of 5,354 released Pennsylvania state prisoners. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, offense type, drug involvement, various neighborhood variables (e.g., concentrated disadvantage, residential mobility), and spatial contagion (i.e., proximity to others who become reincarcerated). Using geographic information systems (GIS) and logistic regression modeling, our results showed that the likelihood of reincarceration was increased with male gender, drug involvement, offense type, and living in areas with high rates of recidivism. Older offenders and those convicted of violent or drug offenses were less likely to be reincarcerated. For violent offenders, drug involvement, age, and spatial contagion were particular risk factors for reincarceration. None of the neighborhood environment variables were associated with increased risk of reincarceration. Reentry programs need to particularly address substance abuse issues of ex-offenders as well as take into consideration their residential locations. PMID:24443612