Science.gov

Sample records for repeat criminal offenders

  1. Criminality and continued DUI offense: criminal typologies and recidivism among repeat offenders.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Richard A; Kidman, Rachel C; Albanese, Mark; Peller, Allyson J; Shaffer, Howard J

    2007-01-01

    We examined over 20,000 arraignment records to define criminal typologies and post-treatment driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) convictions for a select cohort of 1,281 repeat DUI offenders who were offered and elected treatment as an alternative to incarceration; we compared this information with a similar data analysis collected 20 years previously. Analyses of 8,600 prior-to-treatment convictions defined four basic crime profiles: only DUI and other substance-related offenses (60%), plus crimes against property (18%), plus crimes against people (8%), plus crimes against both property and people (13%). During the six years after inpatient treatment, 15.5% of the cohort was convicted of another DUI. The reoffense rate was significantly different across criminal types and was not related to the time post treatment years at risk. The findings show there has been no significant improvement in treatment outcome over the last 20 years. New and innovative DUI offender policies and practices are needed to better engage the heterogeneous offender population, and reduce the incidence of repeat DUI.

  2. [Criminal recidivism among sexual offenders].

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Susanne; Lund, Jens

    2008-12-01

    No previous reports have been published on the rate, frequency and nature of long-term sexual recidivism for a large cohort of Danish sexual offenders who have been through a forensic psychiatric evaluation. A retrospective follow-up study of all male sexual offenders evaluated between 1st January 1978 and 31st December 1992 at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, or at the Clinic of Forensic Psychiatry, Ministry of Justice, Copenhagen (n = 441). Of the followed cohort (n = 342) 30% were sentenced for a new sexual criminal offence (including severe sexual acts), 17% for severe sexual acts, 32% for nonsexual violence and 61% for general crime during follow-up (average 16.5 years). There was a low rate of repeated sexual recidivism (12%) and severe sexual recidivism (6%). Extra-familial child molesters and exhibitionists had the highest risk of sexual recidivism and repeated sexual offences. Rapists had the highest risk of severe sexual recidivism and re-offended more rapidly than the other offender subgroups. Intra-familial child molesters had a low recidivism rate. Young offenders had a higher recidivism risk than older offenders. Severely mentally ill or retarded had a statistically lower rate of sexual recidivism than less disturbed offenders. The sexual recidivism rate varies across sexual offender types. The management and prevention of sexual recidivism need to focus on treatment of sexual offenders with the highest risk of severe and repeated sexual offences.

  3. Evaluating Criminal Justice Programs Designed to Reduce Crime by Targeting Repeat Gang Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Douglas R.; Donaldson, Stewart I.; Wyrick, Phelan A.; Smith, Peggy J.

    2000-01-01

    Used a theory-driven approach to evaluate a gang crime reduction program over 7 years. Data for 237 repeat juvenile offenders admitted to the program indicate a strong relationship between incarceration and gang crime trends and an overall reduction of 47% in gang crime. Discusses implications of the approach for program evaluation. (SLD)

  4. Predicting Adult Offenders' Criminal Trajectories from Their Juvenile Criminal Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David M.; Bevc, Irene; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Duchesne, Thierry; Rossman, Lianne; Theodor, Frances

    This study examined the relationship between adolescent (10-17 years) criminal offending and adult (18-33 years) offending. The sample comprised 378 Canadian male offenders whose criminal trajectory was tracked for an average of 12.1 years, from adolescence into adulthood. Their man age at the time of the most recent follow-up was 27.5 years. The…

  5. A Comparison of First Time and Repeat Rural DUI Offenders.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Megan F; Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Webster, J Matthew

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the differences found between first time and repeat rural DUI offenders were the same as those found previously in urban samples. A total of 118 rural DUI offenders were interviewed, approximately half (51.7%) of which were repeat offenders. Although demographic and mental health characteristics were similar across the two groups, repeat offenders reported more extensive substance use and criminal histories. Results suggest that the pattern of differences between rural first time and repeat DUI offenders may be different from the pattern found in prior urban-based studies. Treatment implications are discussed.

  6. A Comparison of First Time and Repeat Rural DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Megan F.; Wasarhaley, Nesa E.; Webster, J. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the differences found between first time and repeat rural DUI offenders were the same as those found previously in urban samples. A total of 118 rural DUI offenders were interviewed, approximately half (51.7%) of which were repeat offenders. Although demographic and mental health characteristics were similar across the two groups, repeat offenders reported more extensive substance use and criminal histories. Results suggest that the pattern of differences between rural first time and repeat DUI offenders may be different from the pattern found in prior urban-based studies. Treatment implications are discussed. PMID:26225118

  7. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    PubMed

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.

  8. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

  9. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms.

  10. Profiling high-range speeding offenders: investigating criminal history, personal characteristics, traffic offences, and crash history.

    PubMed

    Watson, B; Watson, A; Siskind, V; Fleiter, J; Soole, D

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports profiling information for speeding offenders and is part of a larger project that assessed the deterrent effects of increased speeding penalties in Queensland, Australia, using a total of 84,456 speeding offences. The speeding offenders were classified into three groups based on the extent and severity of an index offence: once-only low-rang offenders; repeat high-range offenders; and other offenders. The three groups were then compared in terms of personal characteristics, traffic offences, crash history and criminal history. Results revealed a number of significant differences between repeat high-range offenders and those in the other two offender groups. Repeat high-range speeding offenders were more likely to be male, younger, hold a provisional and a motorcycle licence, to have committed a range of previous traffic offences, to have a significantly greater likelihood of crash involvement, and to have been involved in multiple-vehicle crashes than drivers in the other two offender types. Additionally, when a subset of offenders' criminal histories were examined, results revealed that repeat high-range speeding offenders were also more likely to have committed a previous criminal offence compared to once only low-range and other offenders and that 55.2% of the repeat high-range offenders had a criminal history. They were also significantly more likely to have committed drug offences and offences against order than the once only low-range speeding offenders, and significantly more likely to have committed regulation offences than those in the other offenders group. Overall, the results indicate that speeding offenders are not an homogeneous group and that, therefore, more tailored and innovative sanctions should be considered and evaluated for high-range recidivist speeders because they are a high-risk road user group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Prospective Study of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Recidivism Among Repeat DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Sarah E.; Belkin, Katerina; LaPlante, Debi A.; Bosworth, Leslie; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity has emerged as a key element distinguishing DUI offenders from others, and, in some cases, distinguishing repeat offenders from first-time offenders. This paper utilizes a prospective design to determine whether the comorbid disorders identified among repeat DUI offenders can predict recidivism. Seven hundred forty-three repeat DUI offenders were recruited from a two-week inpatient treatment program at which they received a standardized mental health assessment and followed across five years post-treatment to track DUI offense, motor vehicle-related offenses, and general criminal offenses. Psychiatric comorbidity, though it did not predict DUI recidivism specifically, predicted criminal re-offense more generally. In addition, there was a specific relationship between lifetime attention deficit disorder and repeated motor vehicle-related offenses. These findings suggest that for many repeat offenders, DUI is one outlet in a constellation of criminal behavior, and that psychiatric comorbidity increases vulnerability for criminal re-offense. PMID:26539339

  12. A Prospective Study of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Recidivism Among Repeat DUI Offenders.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah E; Belkin, Katerina; LaPlante, Debi A; Bosworth, Leslie; Shaffer, Howard J

    2015-04-13

    Psychiatric comorbidity has emerged as a key element distinguishing DUI offenders from others, and, in some cases, distinguishing repeat offenders from first-time offenders. This paper utilizes a prospective design to determine whether the comorbid disorders identified among repeat DUI offenders can predict recidivism. Seven hundred forty-three repeat DUI offenders were recruited from a two-week inpatient treatment program at which they received a standardized mental health assessment and followed across five years post-treatment to track DUI offense, motor vehicle-related offenses, and general criminal offenses. Psychiatric comorbidity, though it did not predict DUI recidivism specifically, predicted criminal re-offense more generally. In addition, there was a specific relationship between lifetime attention deficit disorder and repeated motor vehicle-related offenses. These findings suggest that for many repeat offenders, DUI is one outlet in a constellation of criminal behavior, and that psychiatric comorbidity increases vulnerability for criminal re-offense.

  13. Children's Sense of Justice for Criminal Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sametz, Lynn

    This study explored the relationship between children's sense of justice for a criminal offender and their cognitive level. Subjects were 60 children, 10 boys and 10 girls at each of the following developmental or cognitive levels: preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Each child was individually pretested for cognitive…

  14. 78 FR 74162 - Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion Documents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... of Justice Programs Draft Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard and Companion Documents... draft documents: (1) A draft standard entitled, ``Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Standard''; (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``Criminal Justice Offender Tracking System Certification...

  15. Early criminal recidivism among mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Lund, Christina; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Criminal recidivism was studied during 2 years in a Swedish population-based cohort (N = 318) of mentally disordered male offenders who had undergone a pretrial forensic psychiatric investigation, been convicted in subsequent trials, and been sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment (FPT; n = 152), prison (n = 116), or noncustodial sanctions (n = 50). Recidivism was analysed in relation to index sanctions, levels of supervision, diagnoses, and criminological factors. Significantly lower recidivism in the FPT group was related to lower crime rates during periods at conditional liberty in this group alone, and recidivism was significantly more common among offenders with at least one of the two diagnoses of substance abuse disorder and personality disorder than among those with psychotic or other mental disorders alone. Age at index crime and number of previous crimes emerged as significant predictors of recidivism. The results of this study suggest that the relapse rates depend as much on level of supervision as on individual characteristics.

  16. Young Offenders' Diagnoses as Predictors of Subsequent Adult Criminal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevc, Irene; Duchesne, Thierry; Rosenthal, Jeffrey; Rossman, Lianne; Theodor, Frances; Sowa, Edward

    This longitudinal study of 248 male offenders examined the relationship between psychiatric disorders, diagnosed in adolescence, and subsequent adult criminal activity. Criminal offences were tracked for an average of 8.7 years from age 18-33. Cox Proportional Intensity regression analyses were conducted to predict the rates of adult offending of…

  17. Criminal Offenders and "Mainstream" Outpatient Mental Health Care: Emerging Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathaniel J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses inconsistencies in societal responses to criminal behavior. Maintains that some offenders who are both guilty of criminal behavior and psychiatrically (or biochemically) disordered are being diverted from the criminal justice system into the mental health system. Suggests that clinical neuropsychology and psychopharmacology can…

  18. Criminal Offenders and "Mainstream" Outpatient Mental Health Care: Emerging Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathaniel J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses inconsistencies in societal responses to criminal behavior. Maintains that some offenders who are both guilty of criminal behavior and psychiatrically (or biochemically) disordered are being diverted from the criminal justice system into the mental health system. Suggests that clinical neuropsychology and psychopharmacology can…

  19. Understanding criminal behavior: Empathic impairment in criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Peretti, Sara; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica

    2016-05-09

    Criminal offenders (CO) are characterized by antisocial and impulsive lifestyles and reduced empathy competence. According to Zaki and Ochsner, empathy is a process that can be divided into three components: mentalizing, emotional sharing and prosocial concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate these competences in 74 criminal subjects compared to 65 controls. The CO group demonstrated a lower ability in measures of mentalizing and sharing, especially in recognizing the mental and emotional states of other people by observing their eyes and sharing other people's emotions. Conversely, CO subjects showed better abilities in prosocial concern measures, such as judging and predicting the emotions and behavior of other people, but they were not able to evaluate the gravity of violations of social rules as well as the control group. In addition, logistic regression results show that the higher the deficits in the mentalizing component are, the higher the probability of committing a crime against another person. Taken together, our results suggest that criminal subjects are able to judge and recognize other people's behavior as right or wrong in a social context, but they are not able to recognize and share the suffering of other people.

  20. The criminal activity of sexual offenders in adulthood: revisiting the specialization debate.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    Two major hypotheses have been put forward to describe the criminal activity of sexual offenders in adulthood. The first hypothesis states that sexual offenders are specialists who tend to repeat sexual crimes. The second hypothesis describes sexual offenders as generalists who do not restrict themselves to one particular type of crime. The current state of knowledge provides empirical support for both the specialization and the generality hypothesis. The presence of both generality and specialization in the offending behavior of sexual offenders is not as contradictory as it may first appear. However, methodological problems limit the possibility of drawing firm conclusions. Indeed, the specialization hypothesis is based on just one parameter of criminal activity, that is, recidivism, which only takes into account two consecutive crimes. The generality hypothesis is focused mainly on two criminal activity parameters, participation and variety, which do not take into account the dynamic nature of criminal activity over time. Developmental criminology provides a new paradigm to explore the issue of generality and specialization in the offending behavior of sexual offenders.

  1. Bipolar disorder and criminal offending: a data linkage study.

    PubMed

    Daff, Elizabeth; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2014-12-01

    The current study explored criminal offending among people diagnosed with bipolar disorder with and without comorbid substance use and compared this with a community sample with no history of bipolar disorder. A case-linkage design was used to compare patterns of officially recorded criminal offending between 1,076 people with bipolar disorder drawn from a state-wide psychiatric case register with a community comparison group. Those with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely than community members to be charged with, convicted of, and be found guilty of, violent, non-violent and intermediate level criminal offences. Those with a comorbid substance use disorder were two times more likely than those without a substance use disorder to offend; both groups had a significantly higher chance of offending than the community sample. Females with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely to have been convicted of violent offences, irrespective of substance use. Significant interactions were found between bipolar disorder and substance use for males and females with respect to violent offending and for males with respect to non-violent offending. There is a statistically significant association between bipolar disorder and the likelihood of having a criminal history. Co-occurring substance use differentially impacts on the likelihood of criminal offending for males and females.

  2. The Developmentally Disabled Offender in the Illinois Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Services for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Reported are findings from five studies which explored the special problems and needs of the developmentally disabled offender in the Illinois criminal justice system. Introductory information includes a discussion of the problem, goals of the present study, and a review of programs for retarded offenders throughout the U.S. Presented are five…

  3. The Effects of Children's Criminality on Mothers of Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Judith E.; Hanrahan, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to understand the effects of criminality on mothers of offenders. Semistructured in-depth interviews were used to gather data from 27 mothers. Respondents reported that their children's criminality leads to a series of complications and stressors in mothers' lives, including physical, psychological, relational,…

  4. Regret in the context of unobtained rewards in criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Melissa A; Dolan, Mairead C; Stout, Julie C

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether differences in the experience of regret may be a potential explanation for damaging behaviours associated with psychopathy and criminal offending. Participants were incarcerated offenders (n = 60) and non-incarcerated controls (n = 20). Psychopathic traits were characterised with the Psychopathic Checklist: Screening Version. Regret was assessed by responses to outcomes on a simulated gambling task. Incarcerated offenders experienced a reduced sense of regret as compared to non-incarcerated controls. We obtained some evidence that specific psychopathic factors and facets could differentially relate to the experience and use of emotions. Our data provide initial evidence of important associations between negative emotions and decision behaviour in the context of criminal offending.

  5. Predicting Presence of Offender's Criminal Record From Antisocial Lifestyle Indicators of Homicide Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santtila, Pekka; Runtti, Markus; Mokros, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the possibility of predicting the presence of a criminal record in the background of a homicide offender on the basis of victim characteristics. Eight victim characteristics, as well as the presence or absence of offender criminal record and offender violent criminal record, were coded for 502 Finnish…

  6. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  7. Contagion and Repeat Offending among Urban Juvenile Delinquents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennis, Jeremy; Harris, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the role of repeat offending and spatial contagion in juvenile delinquency recidivism using a database of 7166 male juvenile offenders sent to community-based programs by the Family Court of Philadelphia. Results indicate evidence of repeat offending among juvenile delinquents, particularly for drug offenders. The…

  8. Criminal recidivism of incarcerated male nonviolent offenders in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Lo, T Wing; Zhong, Lena Y; Chui, Wing Hong

    2015-02-01

    Criminal recidivism of the incarcerated population in Hong Kong has rarely been studied. The purpose of this study is to explore the recidivism rates and to identify significant predictors of reoffending among incarcerated male offenders convicted of a nonviolent offense in Hong Kong. Using a self-reported methodological design, 278 offenders were sampled. These offenders' immediate past incarceration is used as the benchmark for this recidivism study. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year recidivism rates are 21%, 68%, and 87%, respectively. The findings denote that offending history, psychological attributes, interpersonal relationships, and environmental influences are significant reoffending risk factors. These findings, especially the alarming failure rates, highlight the need to seriously assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies used by the Hong Kong correctional system in preventing future offending. Implications for intervention strategies with emphasis on the risk factors for recidivism are discussed.

  9. Race and Criminal Deviance: A Study of Youthful Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony R.; Lewis, Michael

    In order to examine empirically the impact of race on aspects of the nature and etiology of criminal deviance, questionnaires were administered to 234 predominantly lower class black and white inmates in a prison for youthful offenders. The data thus provided indicated that the different experiences associated with race in contemporary America…

  10. Doing Justice? Criminal Offenders with Developmental Disabilities. Detailed Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersilia, Joan

    People with cognitive, intellectual, or developmental disabilities are a small but increasing portion of offenders in the criminal justice system. People with developmental disabilities are estimated to comprise 2-3% of the general population, but 4-10% of the prison population, and an even higher percentage of those in juvenile facilities and in…

  11. The Self-Stigma Process in Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly E.; Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Upon conviction, individuals receive the stigmatizing label “criminal offender.” Existing stereotypes about criminal offenders may be integrated into the self-concept, a phenomenon known as self-stigma. In many stigmatized groups, self-stigma is a robust predictor of poor functioning (Livingston & Boyd, 2010; Schomerus et al., 2011). However, little is known about how self-stigma occurs (Corrigan et al., 2006), and there has been limited research with criminal offenders. This study examines a theoretical model of self-stigma in which perceived stigma leads to stereotype agreement, internalized stigma, and then to anticipated stigma. A sample of 203 male jail inmates completed assessments of these constructs just prior to release. Results show a significant indirect path from perceived stigma to stereotype agreement to internalized stigma, but not to anticipated stigma. However, perceived stigma was directly related to anticipated stigma. In conclusion, perceived stigma affects the self through two processes: it indirectly leads to internalized stigma through one avenue, and directly leads to anticipated stigma through a separate avenue. Race, criminal identity, and attitudes toward criminals were examined as moderators. PMID:27761521

  12. Childhood abuse and harmful substance use among criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; Conner, Kenneth R; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with substance use consequences, even after taking into account substance type and frequency of use. No gender by childhood abuse interactions were found. Symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety partially mediated relationships between childhood abuse and substance use consequences. Findings underscore the importance of assessing childhood abuse and treating anxiety and depression among offenders who exhibit harmful substance use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with substance use consequences, even after taking into account substance type and frequency of use. No gender by childhood abuse interactions were found. Symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety partially mediated relationships between childhood abuse and substance use consequences. Findings underscore the importance of assessing childhood abuse and treating anxiety and depression among offenders who exhibit harmful substance use. PMID:21872997

  14. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and criminal offending among adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2011-12-01

    Although a number of previous studies have reported an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and externalising behaviour problems among offspring, it has been suggested that this relationship is spurious due to the failure of these studies to properly account for important confounding factors. The relationship between MSP and adult criminal offending was examined using data from 3766 members of the Providence, Rhode Island, cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on MSP and most potential confounders was collected prospectively throughout pregnancy. In 1999-2000 all offspring had reached 33 years of age and an adult criminal record check was performed. Because previous research has been criticised for not properly accounting for confounding influences, our primary aim was to determine whether the MSP-criminal offending relationship held after efficiently adjusting for a wide range of sociodemographic and family background characteristics using propensity score methods. The association between MSP and adult criminal offending remained after controlling for propensity scores. Offspring of mothers who smoked heavily during pregnancy (≥20 cigarettes per day) had the greatest odds of an adult arrest record (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.62). Findings also suggest that MSP may be an independent risk factor for adult criminal histories marked by multiple arrests. Lastly, our findings show that the impact of MSP operates similarly across both genders. Results from this study provide evidence of an association between heavy MSP and long-term criminal offending. Any causal association is likely to be weak to moderate in strength.

  15. Childhood physical abuse, aggression, and suicide attempts among criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Swogger, Marc T; You, Sungeun; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; Conner, Kenneth R

    2011-02-28

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) has numerous short and long-term negative effects. One of the most serious consequences of CPA is an increased risk for suicide attempts. Clarifying the mechanisms by which CPA increases risk for suicidal behavior may enhance preventive interventions. One potential mechanism is a tendency toward aggression. In a sample of 266 criminal offenders, ages 18-62, we examined the relationships among CPA, lifetime aggression, and suicide attempts and tested lifetime history of aggression as a mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts. Results indicated that CPA and aggression were associated with suicide attempts. Consistent with our hypothesis, lifetime aggression mediated the CPA and suicide attempts relationship. Findings suggest that aggression may be an important mediator of the relationship between CPA and suicide attempts among criminal offenders, and are consistent with the possibility that treating aggression may reduce risk for suicide attempts.

  16. Criminal justice system contact and mortality among offenders with mental illness in British Columbia: an assessment of mediation.

    PubMed

    McCandless, Lawrence C; Stewart, Lauren C; Rempel, Emily S; Venners, Scott A; Somers, Julian M

    2015-05-01

    Persons with mental illness are over-represented in prison populations around the world. They are more vulnerable to arrest and more likely to experience repeated encounters with the criminal justice system. Whether criminal justice involvement, in and of itself, is associated with higher mortality, particularly among offenders with mental illness, is unknown. The authors conducted a mediation analysis of mortality rates in a cohort of 79,088 offenders from British Columbia using administrative records spanning 2001-2010, where the mediating variable was the individual-level rate of criminal sentencing. During 339,506 person-years of follow-up, there were 1841 deaths. The diagnosis of mental illness had no direct association with higher mortality after adjustment for confounders (HR=0.98, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). However, mental illness had an indirect association with mortality that was mediated through more frequent criminal justice involvement (HR=1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04). These findings support the hypothesis that offenders with mental illness experience higher mortality that is mediated by higher rates of criminal justice contact. The results of our study indicate that criminal justice diversion programmes are further warranted because they may contribute to the prevention of mortality among offenders with mental illness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. What Professionals Think about Offenders with Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…

  18. What Professionals Think about Offenders with Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…

  19. Understanding Criminals' Thinking: Further Examination of the Measure of Offender Thinking Styles-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Morgan, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The Measure of Offender Thinking Styles (MOTS) was originally developed to examine the structure of dysfunctional thinking exhibited by criminal offenders. In the initial investigation, a three-factor model of criminal thinking was obtained using the MOTS. These factors included dysfunctional thinking characterized as Control, Cognitive…

  20. Understanding Criminals' Thinking: Further Examination of the Measure of Offender Thinking Styles-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Morgan, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The Measure of Offender Thinking Styles (MOTS) was originally developed to examine the structure of dysfunctional thinking exhibited by criminal offenders. In the initial investigation, a three-factor model of criminal thinking was obtained using the MOTS. These factors included dysfunctional thinking characterized as Control, Cognitive…

  1. Similarities and Differences between the Criminal Careers of Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders and Non-Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullens, Ruud; van Wijk, Anton; Mali, Bas

    2006-01-01

    Research was undertaken on the criminal careers of a large group of juvenile sexual and non-sexual offenders (of violence and property) in the Netherlands. Data from police records over a 6-year period from 1996 to 2002 were analysed. Results show that, with the exception of those in the exhibitionist subgroup, young sexual offenders start their…

  2. National study of suicide method in violent criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Webb, R T; Qin, P; Stevens, H; Shaw, J; Appleby, L; Mortensen, P B

    2013-09-05

    Gaining a greater knowledge of the mechanisms and means by which violent offenders die by suicide can inform tailored preventive strategies. Using interlinked national Danish registry data we constructed a nested case-control study dataset of all adult suicides during 1994-2006: N=9708 cases and N=188,134 age and gender matched living controls. Completely ascertained International Classification of Diseases 10th revision cause-specific mortality codes were examined, with all criminal charges since 1980, and covariate information on psychiatric treatment and socio-demographics. Self-poisonings were classified as 'nonviolent' suicide and all other methods as being 'violent' ones. Compared with the general population, risk among male and female violent offenders was strongly and significantly elevated for suicide by either a violent or a nonviolent method, although the relative risk was greater for nonviolent suicide. These patterns were also observed among nonviolent offenders, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Risk was especially raised for self-poisoning with narcotics & hallucinogens. We could only examine the full range of suicide methods in male violent offenders. In these men, hanging was the most frequently used method, although risk was markedly and significantly elevated virtually across the entire range of regularly used suicide methods. We lacked sufficient statistical power for undertaking a detailed profiling of specific suicide methods among female violent offenders. Our findings indicate that comprehensive and broadly-based preventive approaches are needed for tackling the markedly raised risk of suicide by both violent and nonviolent means in this population. Their high relative risk for self-poisoning by illicit or illegal drugs underlines the importance of access to means and of prevailing subculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Music Exposure and Criminal Behavior: Perceptions of Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Gardstrom

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine young offenders' perceptions of the relationship between exposure to music and their criminal behavior. Using a tool designed for the study, male felony offenders ages 12 to 17 were questioned about their music listening patterns and the perceived influence of listening on their offending fantasies and behavior. Rap music was the predominant choice across all participant profiles. While 72% of respondents believed that music influenced the way they feel at least some of the time, only 4% perceived a connection between music listening and their deviant behavior. Narrative comments provided by the youths were largely consistent with objective data. Most respondents believed in the reflection-rejection theory, in which music is perceived as a mirror of the adolescents' lives rather than a causative factor in their behavior. Two additional theoretical perspectives were espoused: drive reduction theory, which states that music serves as an expressive vehicle (thus reducing the likelihood of emotional and physical outburst); and excitation-transfer theory, wherein residual physiological arousal affects subsequent behavior. In the latter, music was perceived as harmful only when applied to preexisting states of negative arousal.

  4. The interaction of mental illness, criminal behavior and culture: native Alaskan mentally ill criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M R; Inui, T S

    1986-06-01

    The rapid changes experienced by non-Western ethnic groups as they become "acculturated" to Western life-styles are frequently associated with disintegration of the traditional cultures and psychosocial dysfunction of the groups' members. How culture changes lead to maladaptation remains a mystery. As a first step in clarifying this relationship, this paper proposes a method for analyzing the interaction of cultural change and psychosocial maladjustment. It uses Native Alaskans as a paradigmatic example of a group that is undergoing rapid changes and describes in detail a maladjusted subgroup of Native Alaskans--mentally ill criminal offenders. It compares 567 Native Alaskan criminal offenders who were referred to mental health professionals (from 1977 thru 1981) to 939 White Alaskan offenders. We find that alcohol abuse, the dominant social problem for Native Alaskans, is not clearly associated with the degree of sociocultural change. Residence in larger communities and higher educational achievement are associated with greater psychosocial maladjustment. The region of residence (i.e., Native Corporation) has a stronger influence on the rate and type of maladjustment than the ethnic group (i.e., Eskimo, Indian, or Aleut) or the "ethnic density" of the community of residence (i.e., the proportion of Native Alaskans in the population). We emphasize the importance of using such quantitative findings to focus the questions that should be addressed by ethnographic research.

  5. Is psychopathy elevated among criminal offenders who are under preventive detention pursuant to Section 66 of the German Penal Code?

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, Elmar; Passow, Daniel; Vohs, Knut

    2010-01-01

    In Germany, preventive detention can be imposed if a repeat offender shows a proclivity to commit further significant criminal acts. The courts require expert opinion to provide information about personality traits relevant for this disposition. However, currently, consensus about this topic is lacking. On the basis of a standardized examination, the relevance of Hare's concept of "psychopathy" for expert opinion is discussed in the context of preventive detention.

  6. The Will of the People? The Public's Opinion of the Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Soler, Mark

    The Violent and Repeat Juvenile Offender Act of 1997 (S-10) contains provisions that would affect youths arrested for criminal offenses and status offenses (acts that are not crimes if committed by adults). A telephone survey was conducted by Opinion Research Corporation to determine public opinions about the provisions of S-10. A national…

  7. INSANITY AND CRIMINAL OFFENDERS—Some Comments on the Report of Governor's Special Commissions on Insanity and Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    McGaughey, W. M.

    1963-01-01

    The definition proposed by the Commissions on Insanity and Criminal Offenders for determining criminal responsibility will not resolve the issue between offenders who are considered blameworthy and regarded as criminals and those who are not. No formula is satisfactory for differentiating responsibility and irresponsibility. Determinism, which is the fundamental tenet of all science, is violated by the assumption that an individual can wilfully elect to commit an act which, in fact, is the result of causal antecedents. This concept is in conflict with the basic premise of criminal law that an individual is considered criminally responsible unless it can be proved to the contrary. Since it is unlikely that any proposal to abolish the concept of criminal responsibility would be even considered, it is suggested that no definition be used at all. Laws similar to those for the disposition of the mentally ill could be enacted, with emphasis not on the concept of criminal responsibility and moral blameworthiness but on the offender's dangerousness to others, the disposition then being planned to fit the offender rather than the offense. PMID:14081776

  8. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  9. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  10. PTSD among a treatment sample of repeat DUI offenders.

    PubMed

    Peller, Allyson J; Najavits, Lisa M; Nelson, Sarah E; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric comorbidities among driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders in treatment. Investigation of DUI offenders' PTSD and clinical characteristics could have important implications for prevention and treatment. This prospective study examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of repeat DUI offenders with PTSD symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Seven hundred twenty-nine DUI offenders admitted to a 2-week inpatient program participated in the study. Participants with PTSD evidenced more severe psychiatric comorbidity and reported a higher DUI recidivism rate at 1-year than those without PTSD. This study suggests a need to address PTSD among DUI offenders, as well as to further develop methodologies for accurately reporting DUI recidivism.

  11. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.

  12. Missing Out: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whilst there has been an increase in research and clinical attention relating to the accused person or offender with a learning disability in the criminal justice system, some major areas require further inter-agency effort. These areas include: better identification of this group, increased education and training for criminal justice personnel,…

  13. Missing Out: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whilst there has been an increase in research and clinical attention relating to the accused person or offender with a learning disability in the criminal justice system, some major areas require further inter-agency effort. These areas include: better identification of this group, increased education and training for criminal justice personnel,…

  14. Understanding the relationship between self-reported offending and official criminal charges across early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Amanda B.; Hill, Karl G.; Kim, B.K. Elizabeth; Nevell, Alyssa; Hawkins, J. David; Farrington, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been very little research examining criminal careers in adulthood using both self-report data and official records. Aims The aims of this paper are to use self-reports and official criminal records to explore (1) the prevalences and frequencies of offending behaviour in adulthood; (2) continuity in offending behaviour across the life course; and (3) predictors of official court charges in adulthood. Method Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a longitudinal study of 808 participants followed from childhood into early adulthood. Data from ages 21 through 33 are used to examine criminal careers. Results Prevalences of offending behaviour decreased with age, while frequency among offenders remained stable or increased. There was significant continuity in offending from adolescence to adulthood in both self-reports and official records, especially for violence. Violent offences were most likely to result in a court charge. Even after controlling for self-reported frequency of offending, demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, and poverty) were significantly related to a court charge. Conclusions Self-report and official records, both separately and together, provide valuable information for understanding criminal careers in adulthood, especially with regard to offending continuity across the life course and predicting the likelihood of a court charge. PMID:25294157

  15. Understanding the relationship between self-reported offending and official criminal charges across early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Kim, B K Elizabeth; Nevell, Alyssa; Hawkins, J David; Farrington, David P

    2014-10-01

    There has been very little research examining criminal careers in adulthood using both self-report data and official records. The aims of this paper are to use self-reports and official criminal records to explore (1) the prevalences and frequencies of offending behaviour in adulthood; (2) continuity in offending behaviour across the life course; and (3) predictors of official court charges in adulthood. Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 participants followed from childhood into early adulthood. Data from ages 21 through 33 are used to examine criminal careers. Prevalences of offending behaviour decreased with age, whilst frequency amongst offenders remained stable or increased. There was significant continuity in offending from adolescence to adulthood in both self-reports and official records, especially for violence. Violent offences were most likely to result in a court charge. Even after controlling for self-reported frequency of offending, demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, and poverty) were significantly related to a court charge. Self-report and official records, both separately and together, provide valuable information for understanding criminal careers in adulthood, especially with regard to offending continuity across the life course and predicting the likelihood of a court charge. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Juvenile sex-only and sex-plus offenders: an exploratory study on criminal profiles.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, A Ph; Mali, S R F; Bullens, R A R

    2007-08-01

    In this study, research was done on the criminal profiles of a large group of juvenile sex-only and sex-plus (sex and other offenses) delinquents (N = 4,430) in the Netherlands. Use was made of information from police records. Results show that sex-plus offenders start their careers earlier, that more of these offenders are of non-Dutch origin, that they commit more crimes, and will partly continue their criminal career after their adolescence. Juvenile sex-only offenders rarely go on committing crimes. In sex-plus offenders, sexual crimes play only a minor role in their total crime repertory. As time goes by, their criminal career will develop into the direction of property crimes. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study will be discussed.

  17. The impact of choice on retributive reactions: how observers' autonomy concerns shape responses to criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Kerpershoek, Emiel F P

    2013-06-01

    The present research examined the psychological origins of retributive reactions, which are defined as independent observers' anger-based emotions, demonized perceptions, and punishment intentions in response to criminal offenders. Based on the idea that society's justice system has an autonomy-protective function, we reason that chronic autonomy interacts with situational autonomy cues (i.e., opportunities to make choices) to predict retributive reactions to criminal offenders. More specifically, we hypothesized that choice opportunities in an unrelated decision-making context would prompt people to display stronger retributive reactions to offenders than no-choice opportunities, and that these effects of choice would be particularly pronounced among people who chronically experience deprivation of autonomy needs. Results from two experiments supported this hypothesis. It is concluded that retributive reactions to criminal offenders originate from a desire to regulate basic autonomy needs.

  18. The Criminal Attribution Inventory: A Measure of Offender Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.

    2004-01-01

    The Criminal Attribution Inventory (CRAI), drawing upon attribution theory and criminally-related domains, measures criminal responsibility and blame. The CRAI's six scales measure criminal responsibility (Psychopathology, Personality), external criminal blame (Victim, Alcohol, Society) and the attribution of crime to random factors (Random). The…

  19. The Criminal Attribution Inventory: A Measure of Offender Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.

    2004-01-01

    The Criminal Attribution Inventory (CRAI), drawing upon attribution theory and criminally-related domains, measures criminal responsibility and blame. The CRAI's six scales measure criminal responsibility (Psychopathology, Personality), external criminal blame (Victim, Alcohol, Society) and the attribution of crime to random factors (Random). The…

  20. Multiple murder and criminal careers: a latent class analysis of multiple homicide offenders.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; DeLisi, Matt; Beaver, Kevin M; Howard, Matthew O

    2009-01-10

    To construct an empirically rigorous typology of multiple homicide offenders (MHOs). The current study conducted latent class analysis of the official records of 160 MHOs sampled from eight states to evaluate their criminal careers. A 3-class solution best fit the data (-2LL=-1123.61, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)=2648.15, df=81, L(2)=1179.77). Class 1 (n=64, class assignment probability=.999) was the low-offending group marked by little criminal record and delayed arrest onset. Class 2 (n=51, class assignment probability=.957) was the severe group that represents the most violent and habitual criminals. Class 3 (n=45, class assignment probability=.959) was the moderate group whose offending careers were similar to Class 2. A sustained criminal career with involvement in versatile forms of crime was observed for two of three classes of MHOs. Linkages to extant typologies and recommendations for additional research that incorporates clinical constructs are proffered.

  1. Childhood Predictors of Criminal Offending: Results From a 19-Year Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Boys.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Taylor, Eric; Gudjonsson, Gisli

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relative contribution of hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems in predicting criminal offending. In all, 173 boys aged 6 to 8 years (assessed for hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems) were followed up 19 years later by examining criminal offense histories. Significant main effects for total and violent convictions were found, the strongest being for violent criminal offenses. Conduct problems predicted general offending (irrespective of the type of conviction), whereas emotional problems were the single best predictor of violent convictions. Hyperactivity was not a significant predictor in the models. The findings provide insight into the developmental mechanisms that mediate criminal behavior by showing that childhood emotional problems independently contribute to the risk of violent offending in later life. © The Author(s) 2012.

  2. Detained Male Adolescent Offender's Emotional, Physical and Sexual Maltreatment Profiles and Their Associations to Psychiatric Disorders and Criminal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Bessler, Cornelia; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Plattner, Belinda

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse patterns of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment in detained male juvenile offenders using latent class analysis (LCA). The association of maltreatment related LCA profiles with psychopathology and criminal behaviors was also studied. LCA based on the items of the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was performed in a sample of 260 male adolescent offenders (mean age = 16.5 years, SD = 1.29 years). Chi square tests and general linear models were performed to assess the associations of CTQ profiles with categorical interview-based psychiatric disorders, dimensional Youth Self-Report problem scales, and officially registered offenses. LCA suggested a three class solution: (1) a no/mild trauma (NM; 76 %) (2) emotional and physical trauma (EP; 18 %) and (3) emotional, physical, and sexual trauma (EPS; 8 %). The classes EP and EPS were related to a variety of psychiatric disorders and self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, EPS showed higher presence of a subsequent re-incarceration compared to NM. A majority of sexually abused juveniles also experienced emotional and physical abuse reflecting gravely disturbed family systems. Multiple abuse in childhood was associated with a broad variety of disorders including externalizing disorders and repeated criminal offending. Such findings indicate that trauma assessment is also relevant in externalizing youth. A comprehensive treatment approach for detained boys with multiple abuse experiences is required targeting both mental health needs and the reduction of criminal behaviors.

  3. Callous-Unemotional Traits Robustly Predict Future Criminal Offending in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Byrd, Amy L.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of empathy, deficient guilt/remorse, and shallow affect) are a circumscribed facet of the adult psychopathic personality. Although several studies have found that adult psychopathy is a robust predictor of future criminal offending, research exploring the predictive utility of CU traits and future offending are lacking. Moreover, empirical studies examining the predictive utility of psychopathic features often neglect to account for other well-documented risk factors (e.g., prior offending, delinquent peers, marital status), and thus the incremental predictive utility of CU traits remains uncertain. To address these limitations, the current study examined the unique contribution of CU traits in the prediction of future criminal offending in a large ethnically diverse community sample of young adult males (Mean Age = 25.76, SD = .95). Official criminal record information was collected approximately 3.5 years later using multiple sources. Results indicated that after controlling for several other well-established predictors of future offending, men with elevated CU traits had a greater number of arrests and criminal charges and were more likely to be charged with a serious offense and obstruction of justice. CU traits also predicted future theft for Caucasian men, but not African American men. Overall, the results support the notion that CU traits significantly add to the prediction of future offending, even after controlling for several other risk factors. PMID:22731505

  4. Child maltreatment victimization by type in relation to criminal recidivism in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; de Ruiter, Corine

    2016-02-05

    This study aimed to examine the relation between different types of child abuse victimization and criminal recidivism among juvenile offenders. Secondary analyses were conducted on data collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment and general recidivism. The sample consisted of female (n = 3502) and male (n = 10,111) juvenile offenders. For male juvenile offenders, neglect and physical abuse victimization were significantly but rather weakly associated with both general and violent recidivism. For female juvenile offenders, neglect and physical abuse were weakly associated with general recidivism, but not with violent recidivism. Sexual abuse was not related to either general or violent recidivism in both male and female juvenile offenders. Most associations between dynamic (treatable) risk domains and recidivism were stronger in male juvenile offenders than in female juvenile offenders. In addition, most risk domains were more strongly related to general recidivism than to violent felony recidivism. For male juvenile offenders, neglect victimization was uniquely related to general recidivism whereas physical abuse victimization was uniquely related to violent recidivism, over and above dynamic risk factors for recidivism. For female juvenile offenders none of the maltreatment variables were uniquely related to general or violent felony recidivism. Childhood experiences of neglect and physical abuse predict reoffending in male juvenile offenders, pointing at a possible need to address these in risk management interventions.

  5. Sex offender risk assessment: the need to place recidivism research in the context of attrition in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Jurisdictions in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia now have laws that enable preventive detention of post-sentence sex offenders based on an assessment of the offender's likely recidivism. Measures of recidivism, or risk assessments, rely on the criminal justice process to produce the "pool" of sex offenders studied. This article argues that recidivism research needs to be placed in the context of attrition studies that document the disproportionate and patterned attrition of sexual offenses and sexual offenders from the criminal justice process. Understanding the common biases that affect criminal prosecution of sex offenses would improve sexual violence prevention policies.

  6. How often and how consistently do symptoms directly precede criminal behavior among offenders with mental illness?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jillian K; Skeem, Jennifer; Kennealy, Patrick; Bray, Beth; Zvonkovic, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Although offenders with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, psychiatric symptoms relate weakly to criminal behavior at the group level. In this study of 143 offenders with mental illness, we use data from intensive interviews and record reviews to examine how often and how consistently symptoms lead directly to criminal behavior. First, crimes rarely were directly motivated by symptoms, particularly when the definition of symptoms excluded externalizing features that are not unique to Axis I illness. Specifically, of the 429 crimes coded, 4% related directly to psychosis, 3% related directly to depression, and 10% related directly to bipolar disorder (including impulsivity). Second, within offenders, crimes varied in the degree to which they were directly motivated by symptoms. These findings suggest that programs will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits.

  7. The effects of criminal justice contact on employment stability for white-collar and street-level offenders.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Kent R; Copes, Heith

    2004-02-01

    Criminologists increasingly have studied the effects of criminal justice contact on a broad range of offenders' adult outcomes. However, virtually all of this research focuses exclusively on street-level offenders. With the use of a unique data set that includes street-level and white-collar offenders, we investigated the odds of regaining steady employment following criminal justice contact by offender type. Specifically, we investigated the effects of age of onset, number of prior arrests, total time sentenced, timing of first arrest, and timing of first incarceration on employment stability for both types of offenders, while controlling for family background factors, race, educational attainment, and age. Overall, we found that white-collar offenders are better able to rebound following contact with the criminal justice system. However, when the accrue multiple arrests and are arrested or incarcerated before the age of 24, white-collar offenders face the same obstacles to employment stability as their street-level counterparts.

  8. Attention, reward, and inhibition: symptomatic features of ADHD and issues for offenders in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    2017-03-01

    Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system. Symptoms of ADHD, specifically reward deficiency, behavioral inhibition, and attention deficits, may affect whether individuals will be successful in their experiences in court, with probation, and during incarceration. This is especially true for individuals whose ADHD diagnoses are unknown to the criminal justice system or have never been formally diagnosed. Actors in the criminal justice need to be aware of the symptomatic features and behavioral patterns of offenders with ADHD in order to recognize and identify these offenders, and correspondingly, to refer them to mental health services. Recognizing that at least some of an offender's behavior may be related to symptoms of ADHD will help the criminal justice system better provide recommendations regarding sentencing, probation, and treatment provisions, as well as better ensure that offenders with ADHD have a more successful and just experience in their interactions with the criminal justice system.

  9. Socio-neuro risk factors for suicidal behavior in criminal offenders with psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Harenski, Carla L; Brook, Michael; Kosson, David S; Bustillo, Juan R; Harenski, Keith A; Caldwell, Michael F; Van Rybroek, Gregory J; Koenigs, Michael; Decety, Jean; Thornton, David M; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2017-01-01

    Relative to the general population, individuals with psychotic disorders have a higher risk of suicide. Suicide risk is also elevated in criminal offenders. Thus, psychotic-disordered individuals with antisocial tendencies may form an especially high-risk group. We built upon prior risk analyses by examining whether neurobehavioral correlates of social cognition were associated with suicidal behavior in criminal offenders with psychotic disorders. We assessed empathic accuracy and brain structure in four groups: (i) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and past suicide attempts, (ii) incarcerated offenders with psychotic disorders and no suicide attempts, (iii) incarcerated offenders without psychotic disorders and (iv) community non-offenders without psychotic disorders. Established suicide risk variables were examined along with empathic accuracy and gray matter in brain regions implicated in social cognition. Relative to the other groups, offenders with psychotic disorders and suicide attempts had lower empathic accuracy and smaller temporal pole volumes. Empathic accuracy and temporal pole volumes were significantly associated with suicide attempts independent of other risk variables. The results indicate that brain and behavioral correlates of social cognition may add incremental value to models of suicide risk. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders.

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2013-02-01

    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [White-collar criminals--a homogenous offender population? Reflections on typical and atypical "white-collar criminals"].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Little has been written in German scientific literature on the personality structure of white-collar criminals. Often, the relevance of this level of investigation has downright been denied. Conventional psychopathology does not seem to be an appropriate approach to these character problems since there are not only deficits but also competences to be found which are useful while making a professional career. The author points out the inhomogeneity of this offender population and presents a case report of an atypical white-collar criminal. Over and above that, he introduces two psychological concepts which are apt to better describe the peculiarities of these individuals: Machiavellian intelligence is often the core competence when it comes to rising in hierarchies, whereas the newly defined psychopathy concept according to R. D. Hare makes plausible the moral and ethical failure of these offenders in their professional settings.

  12. 34 CFR 403.101 - How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders? 403.101 Section 403.101 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  13. 34 CFR 403.102 - What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders? 403.102 Section 403.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  14. 34 CFR 403.102 - What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders? 403.102 Section 403.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  15. 34 CFR 403.101 - How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders? 403.101 Section 403.101 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  16. A Validation of the Legal Dangerousness Scale With Released Criminally Insane Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppin, Mary K.

    This study proposes a method for reporting findings that combines true positives and true negatives to measure total accuracy of predictions. A retrospective study of dangerous behavior among criminally insane offenders in Colorado confirmed the findings of Cocozza and Steadman (1974) regarding the predictive validity of the Legal Dangerousness…

  17. Learning and Thinking: A Behavioral Treatise on Abuse and Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Social learning theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding abuse and the teaching and learning of antisocial or criminal behavior in young offenders. This article examines social learning theory and the quality of parent-child relationships from the perspective of behavioral analysis, and provides a rationale for a…

  18. Criminal Offending and Learning Disabilities in New Zealand Youth: Does Reading Comprehension Predict Recidivism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; McLean, Anthony P.; Bateup, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sixty youth (16-19 years) from two youth prison sites participate in a prospective study examining criminal offending and learning disabilities (LD), completing measures of estimated IQ, attention, reading, and mathematical and oral language abilities. Prevalence rates of LDs exceed those of international studies, with 91.67% of the offenders…

  19. Criminal Behavior as a Function of Clinical and Actuarial Variables in a Sexual Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    1988-01-01

    Investigated ability of clinical and actuarial variables to predict criminal behavior of 342 sexual offenders previously studied in 1987. Results suggested linear combination of actuarial variables was significantly predictive of sexual reoffenses against adults and of nonsexual reoffending. Clinical judgment was not significantly predictive of…

  20. Criminal Offending and Learning Disabilities in New Zealand Youth: Does Reading Comprehension Predict Recidivism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; McLean, Anthony P.; Bateup, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sixty youth (16-19 years) from two youth prison sites participate in a prospective study examining criminal offending and learning disabilities (LD), completing measures of estimated IQ, attention, reading, and mathematical and oral language abilities. Prevalence rates of LDs exceed those of international studies, with 91.67% of the offenders…

  1. 34 CFR 403.101 - How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders? 403.101 Section 403.101 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  2. 34 CFR 403.101 - How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders? 403.101 Section 403.101 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  3. 34 CFR 403.102 - What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders? 403.102 Section 403.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  4. 34 CFR 403.102 - What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders? 403.102 Section 403.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  5. 34 CFR 403.102 - What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What other requirements apply to the Program for Criminal Offenders? 403.102 Section 403.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  6. 34 CFR 403.101 - How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Programs for Criminal Offenders? 403.101 Section 403.101 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  7. The Relationship Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Criminality in Juvenile Offenders.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wayne A; Spielman, Lisa A; Hahn-Ketter, Amanda E; Sy, Karla Therese L

    2017-01-05

    To examine the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and criminal behavior in youth who are incarcerated or on probation in Texas. Seven juvenile justice facilities. Juvenile offenders in state or county correctional facilities or on probation. Screening for TBI was conducted among adolescents at 7 juvenile justice centers. Participants were administered the Brain Injury Screening Questionnaire, and results were linked to participants' offense history and psychiatric diagnoses. One in 4 juvenile offenders met criteria for TBI, and the majority of injuries occurred prior to the adolescents' criminal offenses. A history of TBI was related to more violent crimes, as well as more mental health diagnoses and symptoms. The high rates of TBI and levels of distress found in juvenile offenders suggest a need for preventive actions, interventions to compensate for challenges related to TBI, and programs to assist individuals' transitions into the community.

  8. Offender types and criminality dimensions in male juveniles convicted of sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Vogt, Gunnar; Plattner, Belinda; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have described juveniles who sexually offended (JSO) as a rather heterogeneous population. In consequence, different typologies of JSO have been proposed for a better understanding of the causes and interventional needs of JSO. Three previously described types have received support in previous studies, namely, the victim age type (JSO offending against children vs. adolescents or adults), the co-offender status type (JSO offending as singles vs. in groups), and the crime history type (JSO with vs. without a previous history of crime). The validity of these types is tested in a consecutive sample of 223 criminal male adolescents, who had been convicted of a sexual offense between 2000 and 2008 in the Canton of Zurich (Switzerland). By analyzing nine offender characteristics, four victim characteristics and six offense characteristics, the best evidence is found for the victim age-based type. The co-offender status and the crime history types are less well supported. However, all three types are related to each other and do not provide a comprehensive characterization of JSO. Therefore, an additional principal component analyses is performed searching for basic dimensions of juvenile sexual delinquency and leading to the following factors: "single offender with severe molestation of a related child," "persistent general delinquent with migrant background," "older offender with alcohol use and familial constraints," "multiple and aggressive offender with social adversities," and "offender with unselected and multiple victims." These five dimensions reflect different relevant factors of sexual offending behavior in male juveniles and may have further impact on forensic and clinical practice.

  9. Assessment of psychiatric disorders among sex offenders: Prevalence and associations with criminal history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung Y; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hung, Daisy L

    2016-02-01

    Much of the research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among sex offenders has been conducted in the USA or Europe. Less is known about it in other regions, particularly in Asia. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among sex offenders in Taiwan and their associations with offender characteristics and criminal history. Participants were randomly selected from men serving sentences in Taiwan's prison for serious sex offenders. Consenting men were assessed using the structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV-TR Axis I and II disorders. Demographics and criminal history were also recorded. Over two-thirds of the 68 participants met criteria for one or more lifetime Axis I disorders, and nearly 60% met criteria for one or more Axis II disorder. The higher the number of Axis I and cluster B personality disorders, the higher was the total number of convictions. Our study adds to the literature that suggests that psychiatric assessment is likely to have an important role in the management and treatment of sex offenders. The finding that multiple disorders are common in this group and associated with more convictions for sex offences suggests that failure to include psychiatric assessment in planning the management of sex offenders may increase the risk of recidivism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Predicting general criminal recidivism in mentally disordered offenders using a random forest approach.

    PubMed

    Pflueger, Marlon O; Franke, Irina; Graf, Marc; Hachtel, Henning

    2015-03-29

    Psychiatric expert opinions are supposed to assess the accused individual's risk of reoffending based on a valid scientific foundation. In contrast to specific recidivism, general recidivism has only been poorly considered in Continental Europe; we therefore aimed to develop a valid instrument for assessing the risk of general criminal recidivism of mentally ill offenders. Data of 259 mentally ill offenders with a median time at risk of 107 months were analyzed and combined with the individuals' criminal records. We derived risk factors for general criminal recidivism and classified re-offences by using a random forest approach. In our sample of mentally ill offenders, 51% were reconvicted. The most important predictive factors for general criminal recidivism were: number of prior convictions, age, type of index offence, diversity of criminal history, and substance abuse. With our statistical approach we were able to correctly identify 58-95% of all reoffenders and 65-97% of all committed offences (AUC = .90). Our study presents a new statistical approach to forensic-psychiatric risk-assessment, allowing experts to evaluate general risk of reoffending in mentally disordered individuals, with a special focus on high-risk groups. This approach might serve not only for expert opinions in court, but also for risk management strategies and therapeutic interventions.

  11. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed.

  12. Effectiveness of criminal justice liaison and diversion services for offenders with mental disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Scott, David A; McGilloway, Sinead; Dempster, Martin; Browne, Fred; Donnelly, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The authors reviewed studies of the effectiveness of criminal justice liaison and diversion (CJLD) services in which outcomes of participants in these services were compared with those of offenders with mental illness who received no intervention or a standard intervention. The authors synthesized existing evidence with respect to changes in mental health status or criminal recidivism. A comprehensive search (1980-2012) of more than 30 generic and specialist databases identified 6,571 published and unpublished studies. The studies, which varied considerably in methodological approach and overall quality, were systematically appraised according to Campbell-Cochrane guidelines. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Key outcomes included a reduction in offending and postintervention changes in mental health. Synthesized findings indicated that CJLD services appeared to be effective in identifying offenders with mental disorders and that participation in CJLD services had a positive impact on criminal justice and mental health outcomes. Although the methodologies of existing studies are only moderately rigorous, the overall findings suggest that CJLD services can be beneficial. Their effectiveness depends on the model of service delivery, the availability of community services, and the engagement of offenders with mental disorders in treatment. The successful implementation of CJLD services requires a clearer recognition of the importance of systems-of-care principles.

  13. The association between p3 amplitude at age 11 and criminal offending at age 23.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2013-01-01

    Reduced P3 amplitude to targets is an information-processing deficit associated with adult antisocial behavior and may reflect dysfunction of the temporal-parietal junction. This study aims to examine whether this deficit precedes criminal offending. From a birth cohort of 1,795 children, 73 individuals who become criminal offenders at age 23 and 123 noncriminal individuals were assessed on P3 amplitude. The two groups did not differ on gender, ethnicity, and social adversity. P3 amplitude was measured over the temporal-parietal junction during a visual continuous performance task at age 11, together with antisocial behavior. Criminal convictions were assessed at age 23. Reduced P3 amplitude at age 11 was associated with increased antisocial behavior at age 11. Criminal offenders showed significantly reduced P3 amplitudes to target stimuli compared to controls. Findings remained significant after controlling for antisocial behavior and hyperactivity at age 11 and alcoholism at age 23. P3 deficits at age 11 are associated with adult crime at age 23, suggesting that reduced P3 may be an early neurobiological marker for cognitive and affective processes subserved by the temporal-parietal junction that place a child at risk for adult crime.

  14. The Association Between P3 Amplitude at Age 11 and Criminal Offending at Age 23

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced P3 amplitude to targets is an information-processing deficit associated with adult antisocial behavior and may reflect dysfunction of the temporal-parietal junction. This study aims to examine whether this deficit precedes criminal offending. From a birth cohort of 1,795 children, 73 individuals who become criminal offenders at age 23 and 123 noncriminal individuals were assessed on P3 amplitude. The two groups did not differ on gender, ethnicity, and social adversity. P3 amplitude was measured over the temporal-parietal junction during a visual continuous performance task at age 11, together with antisocial behavior. Criminal convictions were assessed at age 23. Reduced P3 amplitude at age 11 was associated with increased antisocial behavior at age 11. Criminal offenders showed significantly reduced P3 amplitudes to target stimuli compared to controls. Findings remained significant after controlling for antisocial behavior and hyperactivity at age 11 and alcoholism at age 23. P3 deficits at age 11 are associated with adult crime at age 23, suggesting that reduced P3 may be an early neurobiological marker for cognitive and affective processes subserved by the temporal-parietal junction that place a child at risk for adult crime. PMID:22963083

  15. Understanding criminals' thinking: further examination of the Measure of Offender Thinking Styles-Revised.

    PubMed

    Mandracchia, Jon T; Morgan, Robert D

    2011-12-01

    The Measure of Offender Thinking Styles (MOTS) was originally developed to examine the structure of dysfunctional thinking exhibited by criminal offenders. In the initial investigation, a three-factor model of criminal thinking was obtained using the MOTS. These factors included dysfunctional thinking characterized as Control, Cognitive Immaturity, and Egocentrism. In the present investigation, the stability of the three-factor model was examined with a confirmatory factor analysis of the revised version of the MOTS (i.e., MOTS-R). In addition, the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity of the MOTS-R were examined. Results indicated that the three-factor model of criminal thinking was supported. In addition, the MOTS-R demonstrated reliability and convergent validity with other measures of criminal thinking and attitudes. Overall, it appears that the MOTS-R may prove to be a valuable tool for use with an offender population, particularly because of the simple, intuitive structure of dysfunctional thinking that it represents.

  16. “Recovery Came First”: Desistance versus Recovery in the Criminal Careers of Drug-Using Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Charlotte; Vander Laenen, Freya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our paper is to gain insight in the desistance process of drug-using offenders. We explore the components of change in the desistance process of drug-using offenders by using the cognitive transformation theory of Giordano et al. as a theoretical framework. The desistance process of drug-using offenders entails a two-fold process: desistance of criminal offending and recovery. The results however indicate that desistance is subordinate to recovery because of the fact that drug-using offenders especially see themselves as drug users and not as “criminals.” Their first goal was to start recovery from drug use. They were convinced that recovery from drug use would lead them to a stop in their offending. In the discussion, we explore the implications of this result for further research. PMID:23346020

  17. Suicidal and criminal behavior among female offenders: the role of abuse and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Skeem, Jennifer L; Edens, John F; Douglas, Kevin S; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Poythress, Norman G

    2010-10-01

    Childhood abuse is relatively prevalent among women and is an important risk factor for both criminal behavior and suicide-related behavior (SRB). Based on a sample of 266 female offenders, we address one theoretical and one practical issue. First, from a theoretical perspective, we assess whether internalizing (depression and anxiety) and externalizing (substance abuse and antisocial behavior) psychopathology mediate the relation between abuse on the one hand, and SRB or criminal behavior, on the other. Results indicate that externalizing problems mediate the relation between childhood abuse and both lifetime SRB (fully) and lifetime criminality (partially). Second, at a practical level, results indicate that a subscale of the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; Hare, 1991) that assesses lifetime criminal behavior adds incremental utility to postdicting SRB, beyond the variance accounted for by self-report measures of abuse and externalizing problems. However, none of the measures-including the PCL-R-predicted future recidivism.

  18. Criminal offending and the family environment: Swedish national high-risk home-reared and adopted-away co-sibling control study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Morris, Nancy A; Ohlsson, Henrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-10-01

    Criminal offending is strongly transmitted across generations. To clarify the contribution of rearing environment to cross-generational transmission of crime. Using Swedish national registries, we identified 1176 full-sibling and 3085 half-sibling sets from high-risk families where at least one sibling was adopted and the other raised by the biological parents. Risk for criminal conviction was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v. home-reared (hazard ratios (HR) = 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64 and 0.60, 95% CI 0.56-0.65, respectively). The protective effect of adoption was significantly stronger in sibships with two v. one high-risk parent. Using matched high-risk full- and half-siblings, we found replicated evidence that (a) rearing environment has a strong impact on risk for criminal conviction, (b) high-quality rearing environments have especially strong effects in those at high familial risk for criminal offending and (c) the protective effects of adoption are stronger for more severe crimes and for repeated offending. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  19. The potential use of genetics to increase the effectiveness of treatment programs for criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Jackson, Dylan B; Flesher, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    During the past couple of decades, the amount of research examining the genetic underpinnings to antisocial behaviors, including crime, has exploded. Findings from this body of work have generated a great deal of information linking genetics to criminal involvement. As a partial result, there is now a considerable amount of interest in how these findings should be integrated into the criminal justice system. In the current paper, we outline the potential ways that genetic information can be used to increase the effectiveness of treatment programs designed to reduce recidivism among offenders. We conclude by drawing attention to how genetic information can be used by rehabilitation programs to increase program effectiveness, reduce offender recidivism rates, and enhance public safety.

  20. Suicide Risk among Violent and Sexual Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Roger T.; Shaw, Jenny; Stevens, Hanne; Mortensen, Preben B.; Appleby, Louis; Qin, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Risk of suicide in people who have perpetrated specific forms of violent or sexual criminal offenses has not been quantified accurately or precisely. Also, gender comparisons have not been possible due to sparse data problems in the smaller studies that have been conducted to date. We therefore aimed to estimate these effects in the whole Danish…

  1. Suicide Risk among Violent and Sexual Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Roger T.; Shaw, Jenny; Stevens, Hanne; Mortensen, Preben B.; Appleby, Louis; Qin, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Risk of suicide in people who have perpetrated specific forms of violent or sexual criminal offenses has not been quantified accurately or precisely. Also, gender comparisons have not been possible due to sparse data problems in the smaller studies that have been conducted to date. We therefore aimed to estimate these effects in the whole Danish…

  2. The relationship of problem gambling to criminal behavior in a sample of Canadian male federal offenders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E; Preston, Denise L; Saunders, Crystal; McAvoy, Steven; Jain, Umesh

    2009-06-01

    This article examines the prevalence of moderate and severe problem gambling in a sample of 254 incarcerated Canadian male federal offenders (completion rate of 39.0%). The prevalence of disordered gambling was measured using the PGSI, DSM-IV-TR, and SOGS that yielded estimates of 9.4%, 6.3%, and 13.0%, respectively. Severe problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have committed income producing offences, but were neither more nor less likely than other offenders to have committed violent offences. The majority of severe problem gamblers (65.2%) and a fifth of the moderate problem gamblers (20.0%) reported that their criminal activity was a result of their gambling (e.g., to pay off debts). Based on these findings there appears to be a need to offer problem gambling treatment services to offenders in order to help them break the cycle of gambling, debt and crime.

  3. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Mentally disordered non-psychotic criminal offenders--treatment instead of punishment.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex; Stølan, Liv Os

    2013-12-01

    By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures as sanctions in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant. To describe a sample of offenders falling under §69 and the use of the section in sentencing offenders to treatment instead of punishment. All 298 opinions given by the Medico-Legal Council between April 1, 2005 and December 31, 2007 of defendants definitely or possibly falling under §69 of the Danish Penal Code were rated together with the psychiatric assessment reports and the final verdicts on socio-demographic, health and criminal items, and the data were computerized. The sample was characterized by severe criminality and mental disorder. Forty-six percent (138/298) were sentenced by the court to a psychiatric measure instead of punishment. The results document that §69 of the Danish Penal Code is used as intended by the law.

  5. Attachment representations of personality-disordered criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    van IJzendoorn, M H; Feldbrugge, J T; Derks, F C; de Ruiter, C; Verhagen, M F; Philipse, M W; van der Staak, C P; Riksen-Walraven, J M

    1997-07-01

    The relation between attachment representations and personality disorders was examined in a sample of 40 Dutch men held in a forensic psychiatric hospital for the commission of serious crimes. Secure attachment representations were virtually absent in the sample; separation from attachment figures in childhood was related to current insecure attachment as well as to personality disorders. Use of attachment theory in research and clinical work with criminals is discussed.

  6. Recent victimization experiences and continued criminal behaviors: what are the links for adult drug-involved offenders?

    PubMed

    Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the multi-site adult drug court evaluation (MADCE), we examined the relationship between recent victimization experiences and the likelihood of subsequent criminal behavior among a sample of adult drug-involved offenders. The MADCE data used in this study involved interviews with 674 men and 284 women at baseline and then, 18 months later. Multilevel modeling showed that physical victimizations in the year before baseline, but not sexual victimization experiences, were associated with self-reported criminal offending behavior 18 months later. All relationships held true despite controlling for respondents' demographic, criminal history, prior drug-related characteristics, and their participation in a drug court or comparison site program.

  7. Prevalence of criminal offending by men and women with intellectual disability and the characteristics of offenders: implications for research and service development.

    PubMed

    Holland, T; Clare, I C H; Mukhopadhyay, T

    2002-05-01

    The investigation of the relationship between criminal offending and the presence of an intellectual disability (ID) is problematic for two main reasons. First, because of problems associated with the definition of 'ID' and secondly, because much criminal offending goes undetected or unreported, and studies can only investigate those already involved with the criminal justice process. Studies using IQ as a continuous variable indicate that significantly below-average intellectual ability is an independent predictor of future offending. Whilst people with ID may be over-represented in parts of the criminal justice system, given the intellectual and other psychosocial disadvantages which they experience, the level of offending behaviour in this particularly vulnerable group is strikingly low. The present authors propose that two broad groups of people can be identified. The first, broader, group is one of people for whom social disadvantage and mental ill health (particularly substance abuse), coupled with a significant intellectual impairment, are the main characteristics. Secondly, there is a smaller group of people, usually already known to ID services as service users, but for whom the process whereby what might have been conceptualized as 'challenging behaviour' becomes 'offending' is far from clear. The distinction the present authors make between challenging behaviour and offending is important for understanding how 'difficult' behaviour becomes identified as 'antisocial/criminal behaviour'. They argue that research needs to move from prevalence and descriptive studies to investigating the processes which determine movement in and out the criminal justice system. The present political emphasis on public protection and proposals for significantly broader mental health legislation raise the danger of a re-expansion of institutional models of care, rather than the development of multi-agency support networks. The present paper underscores a note of caution

  8. Older criminals: a descriptive study of psychiatrically examined offenders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Grann, Martin

    2002-10-01

    We retrospectively examined psychiatric diagnoses of older offenders referred by court for psychiatric assessment in Sweden, and compared them with younger offenders. In Sweden, structured court-ordered forensic psychiatric evaluations are undertaken by a forensic psychiatric team. Data on age, sex, citizenship, psychiatric diagnoses, offences, and legal insanity declarations were obtained for the years 1988-2000 (n = 7297). There were 210 forensic psychiatric evaluations in those aged 60 and over. 7% had a diagnosis of dementia, 32% psychotic illness, 8% depressive or anxiety disorder, 15% substance abuse or dependence, and 20% personality disorder. Older offenders were significantly less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia or a personality disorder, and more likely to have dementia or an affective psychosis compared to younger ones. Logistic regression analyses suggested that of the studied factors, the ones most typical of older offenders were a diagnosis of dementia and being charged with a sexual offence. There appear to be important differences in psychiatric morbidity between older offenders and younger ones who come into contact with forensic psychiatric services. This research may assist in the planning of forensic and therapeutic services for the increasing number of older adults passing through the criminal justice system. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. IsTeen Court effective for repeat offenders? A test of the restorative justice approach.

    PubMed

    Forgays, Deborah Kirby; DeMilio, Lisa

    2005-02-01

    Teen Courts are an effective judicial alternative for many youth offenders. The majority of youth courts deal solely with first-time offenders. However, repeat offenders are at a greater risk for future crime. Is Teen Court effective with more experienced offenders? In this study, the authors examine the outcomes of 26 Whatcom County Teen Court offenders with at least one prior conviction. The sentence completion rate was higher and the recidivism was lower for the Teen Court offenders when compared with a sample of first-time Court Diversion offenders. This objective evidence of program success is augmented by an offender's perspective on his or her court experience. These perspectives as well as the continued voluntary involvement with Teen Court are discussed in relation to empowerment theory.

  10. Psychopathology in adolescent and young adult criminal offenders (15-21 years) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Mina; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Fazel, Seena

    2008-04-01

    This study examined rates of psychopathology among adolescent and young adult serious offenders referred to pre-sentence forensic psychiatric services and compared patterns of psychiatric morbidity with adult forensic referrals and age-matched general psychiatric inpatients. In Sweden, criminal offenders can be referred for an extensive court-ordered pre-sentence inpatient forensic psychiatric examination (FPE). Data on all 3,058 of these offenders (90% male, mean age = 35.3 years) during 1997-2001 were obtained from the National Board of Forensic Medicine. We compared DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses across age bands 15-17 years (N = 60), 18-21 years (N = 300) and 22 years and older (N = 2,698). Comparative data by age bands were also obtained for inpatient diagnoses among individuals admitted to general psychiatric hospitals. Compared with the adult forensic psychiatric examinees, those aged 15-17 years and 18-21 years had higher rates of depression, and childhood and developmental disorders but lower rates of psychosis, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders. Compared with general psychiatric inpatients, offenders aged 15-17 years had higher prevalences of depression and attention-deficit or disruptive disorders and lower ones of alcohol and drug misuse disorders. There are significant differences in patterns of psychiatric morbidity in adolescent and young adult offenders that come into contact with psychiatric services compared with older offenders and adolescent psychiatric inpatients. This suggests that the development of health services addressing the psychiatric needs of younger offenders needs to draw on information on their specific mental health needs.

  11. Recent criminal offending and suicide attempts: a national sample.

    PubMed

    Cook, Thomas Bradley

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the risk of suicide and suicidal behavior among the community-residing population with recent criminal justice involvement despite evidence of high rates of suicide in jails and prisons. This study assessed the association between recent arrest history and a suicide attempt in the previous year including multiple arrests and specific offense categories using a national representative sample of adults. Data were derived from 2 years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2008 and 2010), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized US adults. Suicide attempts in the previous year based on self-report were assessed in relation to recent arrest history while accounting for socio-demographic factors, mental and physical health status and substance use. Suicide attempts in the previous year are relatively common among those with recent arrests (2.3 %) compared to the general US population (0.4 %), with much higher prevalence among those with multiple recent arrests or charges (4.5 %). The prevalence of recent suicide attempts among those with multiple recent arrests was highest among adults aged 25-34 (5.7 %), with similar risks between men and women, and across racial and ethnic subgroups. There was no association between arrests prior to the most recent year and recent suicide attempts. Suicide attempts are common among the non-institutionalized population of US adults with recent criminal justice involvement. Suicide prevention efforts in the criminal justice system should extend to clients who remain in the community both during and immediately following periods of court-processing. Future research is needed to better identify case and client characteristics indicating the highest suicide risk.

  12. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  13. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  14. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  15. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  16. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal.

  17. Reactions to mandatory sentences in relation to the ethnic identity and criminal history of the offender.

    PubMed

    Feather, N T; Souter, Jacqueline

    2002-08-01

    This study investigated the responses of 181 participants (87 men, 94 women), from Adelaide, South Australia, to scenarios describing mandatory sentences for perpetrators of a property offense committed in the Northern Territory, Australia. Four scenarios that were randomly distributed varied ethnic identity (White Australian, Aboriginal Australian) and criminal history (first-time offender, third-time offender). Participants completed attitude measures for both mandatory sentencing and capital punishment, a right-wing authoritarianism scale, and a scale concerned with sentencing goals (retribution, deterrence, protection of society, and rehabilitation). Results showed strong effects of attitude toward mandatory sentencing on scenario responses for variables such as perceived responsibility, deservingness, leniency, seriousness, anger and pleasure, and weaker effects of ethnic identity and criminal history. Participants were generally more sympathetic when the offender was an Aboriginal Australian. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that attitude toward mandatory sentence was predicted by right-wing authoritarianism and by sentencing goals relating to deterrence and the protection of society.

  18. Psychopathy and affect consciousness in young criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-02-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize and tolerate the feeling and describe how they believe it is expressed in their posture and verbal expressions). Psychopathy is assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, and affect consciousness is assessed with a semistructured interview. Additionally, risk for criminal behavior, moral reasoning, cognitive distortions, and attachment style in the participants was assessed. The participants are 47 adolescent boys who were treated at juvenile delinquency homes. The results indicate that boys with higher ratings of psychopathy had lower consciousness of shame feelings and lower empathy scores. The results in combination with qualitative analyses of the interview answers are interpreted as indicating that consciousness of shame is specifically problematic for psychopathic adolescents.

  19. Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Cale, Jesse; Smallbone, Stephen; Rayment-McHugh, Sue; Dowling, Chris

    2016-12-01

    The current study examines offending trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders (ASOs). Until recently, classification frameworks have not been designed to account for the heterogeneity of offending patterns in adolescence, how these are associated with the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity, and whether and to what extent they are related to the characteristics of sex offenses in adolescence. The current study takes a longitudinal view of offending in adolescence by examining retrospective longitudinal data of 217 ASOs referred for treatment to a clinical service between 2001 and 2009 in Australia. General offending trajectories in adolescence were examined using semi-parametric group-based modeling, and compared according to non-violent non-sexual, violent-non-sexual, and sex offending criminal activity parameters (e.g., participation, onset, frequency, specialization/versatility) and the characteristics of the referral sexual offense. The results show distinct differences in the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity along different offending trajectories of ASOs, and further, that these trajectories were differentially associated with the characteristics of the sexual offenses they committed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory: Development, Reliability, and Initial Validation of a New Scale for Assessing Criminal Thinking in a Japanese Offender Population.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Kaori; Takeda, Fumi; Nagata, Yuko; Suzuki, Junko; Monma, Takafumi; Asanuma, Tohru

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 116 Japanese men who had been placed under parole/probationary supervision or released from prison, the present study examined standardization, reliability, and validation of the Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory (JCTI) that was based on the short form of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), a self-rating instrument designed to evaluate cognitive patterns specific to criminal conduct. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that four dimensions adequately captured the structure of the JCTI, and the resultant 17-item JCTI demonstrated high internal consistency. Compared with the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), the JCTI showed a favorable pattern of criterion-related validity. Prior criminal environment and drug abuse as the most recent offense also significantly correlated with the JCTI total score. Overall, the JCTI possesses an important implication for offender rehabilitation as it identifies relevant cognitive targets and assesses offender progress.

  1. Soldier, civilian, criminal: identifying pathways to offending of ex-armed forces personnel in prison

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about why some ex-armed forces personnel become involved in the criminal justice system, however, they represent the largest known occupational group in prison. In-depth interviews were employed to explore possible pathways to offending. Twenty ex-armed forces personnel in prison were recruited from five prisons in England. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic analysis and constant comparison methods rooted in grounded theory. Four predominant themes were identified: experiences of trauma and adversity; belonging; impulsivity and creating a soldier. Participants had experienced a number of traumatic incidents and adversity in their lives, encompassing pre, during and post-service but felt a sense of belonging in the armed forces. Participants demonstrated impulsivity in a number of areas with links to both their service in the armed forces and offending behaviour. The creation of the identity of ‘soldier’ was perceived to impact participants’ lives in a number of ways, including their offending, alcohol use and coping with trauma. The interplay of these themes and their potential impact on participants’ pathways to offending are discussed. PMID:27570440

  2. Soldier, civilian, criminal: identifying pathways to offending of ex-armed forces personnel in prison.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Verity; McDonnell, Sharon; Lennox, Charlotte; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2016-09-13

    Little is known about why some ex-armed forces personnel become involved in the criminal justice system, however, they represent the largest known occupational group in prison. In-depth interviews were employed to explore possible pathways to offending. Twenty ex-armed forces personnel in prison were recruited from five prisons in England. Data were analysed using a combination of thematic analysis and constant comparison methods rooted in grounded theory. Four predominant themes were identified: experiences of trauma and adversity; belonging; impulsivity and creating a soldier. Participants had experienced a number of traumatic incidents and adversity in their lives, encompassing pre, during and post-service but felt a sense of belonging in the armed forces. Participants demonstrated impulsivity in a number of areas with links to both their service in the armed forces and offending behaviour. The creation of the identity of 'soldier' was perceived to impact participants' lives in a number of ways, including their offending, alcohol use and coping with trauma. The interplay of these themes and their potential impact on participants' pathways to offending are discussed.

  3. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  4. Treatment outcome and criminal offending by youth with sexual behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Chapman, Jason E; Schoenwald, Sonja K

    2008-05-01

    Children and adolescents treated for general delinquency problems and rated by caregivers as having sexual behavior problems (SBP; N = 696) were compared with youth from the same sample with no sexual behavior problems (NSBP; N = 1,185). Treatment outcome through 12-months posttreatment and criminal offending through an average 48-month posttreatment were compared for both groups. It was hypothesized that both groups would improve over time; however, the SBP group would evidence greater psychopathology at follow-up, and these hypotheses were supported. It was further hypothesized that youth with SBP would not differ from youth with NSBP in rates of future sexual or nonsexual offenses. These hypotheses were also supported. SBP group membership was not a significant predictive factor in analyses modeling future offending (any) or future person offenses. Few youth in either group had sexual offenses. The importance of these findings for clinical and policy decision making is discussed.

  5. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O'Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers' perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently.

  6. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O’Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers’ perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently. PMID:22368214

  7. Recidivism and rehabilitation of criminal offenders: a carrot and stick evolutionary game.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Bijan; Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of "carrot and stick" intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications.

  8. Recidivism and Rehabilitation of Criminal Offenders: A Carrot and Stick Evolutionary Game

    PubMed Central

    Berenji, Bijan; Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of “carrot and stick” intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications. PMID:24454884

  9. Validity of self-reported criminal offences and traffic violations in screening of driving-while-intoxicated offenders.

    PubMed

    Chang, I; Lapham, S C

    1996-11-01

    Many jurisdictions in the USA, Canada and some European countries use diagnostic methods to assess substance abuse problems of driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders, to address the concern that, during DWI screening, offenders may not give accurate information on their criminal history and traffic violations to avoid referral to treatment. This study was designed to validate self-reported data, to assess the need for DWI agencies to access court records, and to obtain an offence profile for this population. DWI offenders (n = 274, mostly first-time) were randomly selected from those who attended the Lovelace Comprehensive Screening Program (LCSP). The self-reported data were compared with records retrieved from the Metropolitan Court in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Three-quarters of the offenders had had at least one offence or traffic violation before this DWI arrest. Sixty-five per cent of the offenders with court records underreported their records. The high percentage of false self-reporting for a primarily first-time offender population indicates the need to use court records to verify self-reported data. For multiple offenders, who have a much higher rate of criminal offences and traffic violations, checking self-reported data against court records becomes more important. In addition, a questionnaire based on offence information could be used to obtain a more complete history of those offences.

  10. The Criminal Corpse, Anatomists and the Criminal Law: Parliamentary Attempts to Extend the Dissection of Offenders in Late Eighteenth-Century England

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In the later eighteenth century two schemes were introduced in Parliament for extending the practice of handing over the bodies of executed offenders to anatomists for dissection. Both measures were motivated by the needs of anatomy — including the improvement of surgical skill, the development of medical teaching in the provinces, and for conducting public anatomical demonstrations. Yet both failed to pass into law due to concerns about the possibly damaging effects in terms of criminal justice. Through a detailed analysis of the origins and progress of these two parliamentary measures — a moment when the competing claims of anatomy and criminal justice vied for supremacy over the criminal corpse — the following article sheds light on judicial attitudes to dissection as a method of punishment and adds to our understanding of why the dread of dissection would come to fall upon the dead poor (rather than executed offenders) in the nineteenth century. PMID:25821241

  11. Effects of early prevention programs on adult criminal offending: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deković, Maja; Slagt, Meike I; Asscher, Jessica J; Boendermaker, Leonieke; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; Prinzie, Peter

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the long term effects of prevention programs conducted during early and middle childhood on criminal offending during adulthood. The analyses included 3611 participants in 9 programs. The effect size for adult criminal offending was significant, but small in magnitude (OR=1.26; 95% CI=1.06-1.50, p=.011). The effects of the programs on positive outcomes (academic attainment and involvement in productive activity, such as being engaged in school or work) were somewhat larger and more consistent than effects on crime (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.20-1.55, p<.001). Several participant and program characteristics moderated the effectiveness of (early) prevention. Children who were more at-risk and those from a lower SES benefited more. Shorter, but more intensive programs, and programs that focus on social and behavioral skills, rather than on academic skills or family support, tend to produce larger effects. Taken together, these results indicate that early prevention programs can help put children on a more positive developmental trajectory that is maintained into adulthood, but there is still no convincing evidence that they can prevent adult crime. Implications of the findings for research, policy and clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Prison and Drug Treatment Commitments for Criminal Offenders in California

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, John; Arkes, Jeremy; Nicosia, Nancy; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo

    2014-01-01

    Blacks convicted of drug-related offenses in the U.S. have higher prison-commitment rates than Whites. Studies have been largely unsuccessful in explaining these disparities. This study uses administrative data from a random sample of individuals arrested for drug offenses in California to examine this issue. We use a decomposition model to estimate whether Black-White disparities in commitments to prison or diversions to drug treatment are attributable to differences in the characteristics of criminal cases and whether case characteristics are weighed differently by race. We also examine whether the influence of case characteristics changes after California implemented Proposition 36, which was a mandatory prison diversion program for eligible drug offenders. Our results suggest that Black-White differences in prison commitments are fully explained by criminal case characteristics, but that a significant portion of the differences in treatment diversions remain unexplained. The unexplained variation in drug treatment also does not change after Proposition 36. These findings suggest that case characteristics play a larger role in explaining prison commitments for drug offenders than the discretion of prosecutors and judges. By contrast, diversion to drug treatment appears to be driven more by the discretion of court officials and Black-White disparities remain prominent. PMID:25382877

  13. Adjudicating mentally disordered offenders in Ghana: The criminal and mental health legislations.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Mensah Agboli, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) in the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently a major public health concern. This has culminated in several empirical researches over the years, with a particular focus on addressing the problem. The present study examines the criminal and the mental health legislations available to offenders raising fitness to stand trial issues, as well as those pleading insanity at the time of the offense (insanity defense) in Ghana. The legislations are examined within a framework of reducing the overrepresentation of MDOs in the CJS. In doing so, comparisons are made to similar legislations in other commonwealth jurisdictions, when necessary. Regarding fitness to stand trial, it is evident that the Ghanaian legislation does not contain discrete fitness indicators, relative to, for instance, Canada. Yet, it is interesting that the terminologies 'unsound mind' and 'incapable of making a defence' used in the proviso convey similar meaning and requirements to those used in other jurisdictions. The insanity defense standard, on the other hand, is also heavily influenced by the M'Naughton Rules in England. The defense consists of two separate cognitive tests, each of which can result in an acquittal. One of the tests strictly emphasizes knowledge of the nature and consequences of the act while knowledge of the wrongness of the criminal act is implied in the other. However, none of the tests takes into consideration uncontrollable impulse arising from mental disorder. The study proposes some revisions and amendments to the insanity legislation in its current formulation. Recommendations are also offered for critical areas that warrant research attention in relation to MDOs in Ghana, and in Africa as a whole.

  14. Self reported rates of criminal offending and victimization in young people at-risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, R; Harrigan, S; Glozier, N; Amminger, G P; Yung, A R

    2015-08-01

    A significant relationship exists between experiencing psychosis and both engaging in criminal offending and being a victim of crime. A substantial proportion of violence and offending occurs during the first episode of psychosis, but it is unclear whether such behaviour is also evident in the earlier pre-psychotic stage of illness. As part of a prospective study of young people who were seeking help for mental health problems, we enquired about participants' experiences of being charged and/or convicted of a criminal offence and being a victim of crime. This paper uses cross-sectional baseline data to compare the rates of these forensic outcomes in participants at-risk of psychosis (n=271) with those not at-risk (n=440). Univariate logistic regression showed that the at-risk for psychosis group was significantly more likely than the not at-risk participants to report having been charged by police (11.1% vs 5.9%; p=.015) and convicted by the courts (4.4% vs. 1.6%; p=0.028) with a non-violent offence, as well as to have been convicted of any criminal offence (6.3% vs. 3.0%; p=0.037). The at-risk were also more likely to report having been a victim of crime (23.7% vs 14.0%; p=.002), particularly violent victimization (16.5% vs 8.2%; p=.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, being at-risk for psychosis remained a significant predictor of three of the four outcome measures after controlling for other known covariates such as gender, age, substance misuse and unemployment. This is the first study to demonstrate that, relative to their non-psychotic help-seeking counterparts, young people at-risk for psychosis are at higher risk of forensic outcomes, particularly violent crime victimization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  16. Repeat Offending and Repeat Victimization: Assessing Similarities and Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Mazerolle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The overlap between victims and offenders is increasingly being recognized, with mounting evidence that victims and offenders have similar demographic characteristics, that victimization increases the likelihood of offending, and that offenders are at high risk for becoming victims of crime. Despite this evidence, there is limited research…

  17. Parsing apart the persisters: Etiological mechanisms and criminal offense patterns of moderate- and high-level persistent offenders.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Jamie; Vanderhei, Susan; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2016-07-15

    Longitudinal investigations that have applied Moffitt's dual taxonomic framework to criminal offending have provided support for the existence of adolescent-limited and life-course persistent antisocial individuals, but have also identified additional trajectories. For instance, rather than a single persistent trajectory, studies have found both high-level and moderate-level persistent offenders. To inform theory and progress our understanding of chronic antisocial behavior, the present study used a sample of serious adolescent offenders (N =1,088) followed from middle adolescence to early adulthood (14-25 years), and examined how moderate-level persistent offenders differed from low-rate, desisting, and high-level persistent offenders. Results indicated that moderate-level persisters' etiology and criminal offense patterns were most similar to high-level persisters, but there were notable differences. Specifically, increasing levels of contextual adversity characterized both moderate-level and high-level persisting trajectories, but moderate-level persisters reported consistently lower levels of environmental risk. While both high- and moderate-level persisters committed more drug-related offenses in early adulthood compared to adolescence, moderate-level persisters engaged in lower levels of antisocial behavior across all types of criminal offenses. Taken cumulatively, the findings of this study suggest that sociocontextual interventions may be powerful in reducing both moderate- and high-level persistence in crime.

  18. Criminal recidivism in offenders with personality disorders and substance use disorders over 8 years of time at risk.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Dittmann, Volker; Graf, Marc

    2011-04-30

    Personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) lead to high violent criminality. The influence of co-morbidity on recidivism remains unclear. Recidivism of 379 offenders was assessed at 8 years of follow-up. Sixty-nine percent of PD+SUD, 45% of SUD- and 33% of PD- subjects showed any recidivism. However, violent recidivism was highest in the PD- group.

  19. Risk Assessment in Offenders With Mental Disorders. Relative Efficacy of Personal Demographic, Criminal History, and Clinical Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Helen K.; Gray, Nicola S.; MacCulloch, Sophie I.; Taylor, John; Moore, Simon C.; Huckle, Phil; MacCulloch, Malcolm J.

    2005-01-01

    Following the meta-analysis by Bonta, Law, and Hanson, (1998) this study examined the ability of personal demographic, criminal history, and clinical variables to predict reoffending in offenders in the United Kingdom who had mental disorders. The efficacy of each variable in predicting rate of general reoffending and violent reoffending was…

  20. Is treatment for alcohol use disorder associated with reductions in criminal offending? A national data linkage cohort study in England.

    PubMed

    Willey, Helen; Eastwood, Brian; Gee, Ivan L; Marsden, John

    2016-04-01

    This is the first English national study of change in criminal offending following treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). All adults treated for AUD by all publicly funded treatment services during April 2008-March 2009 (n=53,017), with data linked to the Police National Computer (April 2006-November 2011). Pre-treatment offender sub-populations were identified by Latent Profile Analysis. The outcome measure was the count of recordable criminal offences during two-year follow-up after admission. A mixed-effects, Poisson regression modelled outcome, adjusting for demographics and clinical information, the latent classes, and treatment exposure covariates. Twenty-two percent of the cohort committed one or more offences in the two years pre-treatment (n=11,742; crude rate, 221.5 offenders per 1000). During follow-up, the number of offenders and offences fell by 23.5% and 24.0%, respectively (crude rate, 69.4 offenders per 1000). During follow-up, a lower number of offences was associated with: completing treatment (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.85); receiving inpatient detoxification (IRR 0.84; CI 0.80-0.89); or community pharmacological therapy (IRR 0.89; CI 0.84-0.96). Reconviction was reduced in the sub-population characterised by driving offences (n=1,140; 11.7%), but was relatively high amongst acquisitive (n=768; 58.3% reconvicted) and violent offending sub-populations (n=602; 77.6% reconvicted). Reduced offending was associated with successful completion of AUD treatment and receiving inpatient and pharmacological therapy, but not enrolment in psychological and residential interventions. Treatment services (particularly those providing psychological therapy and residential care) should be alert to offending, especially violent and acquisitive crime, and enhance crime reduction interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders

    PubMed Central

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621

  2. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Psychopathy in adolescence and criminal recidivism in young adulthood: longitudinal results from a multiethnic sample of youthful offenders.

    PubMed

    Edens, John F; Cahill, Melissa A

    2007-03-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16 years of age. Neither total scores nor factor scores of the PCL: YV predicted general or violent reconvictions throughout this time frame. These modest effects underscore recent concerns raised about the utility of psychopathy as a risk factor for future criminality, particularly among multiethnic offender samples.

  4. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... Web site check must be conducted on an individual who is serving, or applies to serve, as a...

  5. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... Web site check must be conducted on an individual who is serving, or applies to serve, as a...

  6. 45 CFR 2540.203 - When must I conduct a State criminal registry check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... check and a National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? 2540.203... National Sex Offender Public Web site check on an individual in a covered position? (a) The State criminal... Web site check must be conducted on an individual who is serving, or applies to serve, as a...

  7. The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders accepting a treatment-sentencing option.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Howard J; Nelson, Sarah E; LaPlante, Debi A; LaBrie, Richard A; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-10-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week inpatient treatment facility for court-sentenced repeat DUI offenders (i.e., offenders electing treatment in place of prison time) from April 17, 2005, to April 23, 2006. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which assessed the following disorders using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): alcohol use and drug use, bipolar, generalized anxiety, posttraumatic stress, intermittent explosive, conduct, attention deficit, nicotine dependence, pathological gambling, and major depressive. Repeat DUI offenders evidenced higher lifetime and 12-month prevalence of alcohol use and drug use disorders, conduct disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder compared with the general population. Almost half qualified for lifetime diagnoses of both addiction (i.e., alcohol, drug, nicotine, and/or gambling) and a psychiatric disorder. Lifetime and past-year comorbidity rates were higher among participants than in the general population. These results suggest that clinicians should consider multimorbidity within DUI treatment protocols.

  8. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-02-18

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  10. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  11. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Virkkunen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis. PMID:17662159

  12. Reduced CAG repeats length in androgen receptor gene is associated with violent criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Pandu, Guguluth; Sharma, J D; Gandhi, K P C; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-09-01

    Androgens mediate their functions through androgen receptors (AR). The two triplet repeats in the AR gene (CAG and GGN) are highly polymorphic among various populations and have been extensively studied in diverse clinical conditions and antisocial personality disorders. Several studies have reported either higher levels of testosterone among rapists or the correlation of shorter CAG repeats with criminal activities. However, to date, no study has analyzed AR gene in rapists worldwide, and no study has been conducted on criminals from Indian subcontinent. Therefore, we have analyzed the AR-CAG repeat length in 645 men, of which 241 were convicted for rape, 107 for murder, 26 for both murder and rape, and 271 were control males. The aim was to explore if there was any correlation between CAG repeat length and criminal behavior. The study revealed significantly shorter CAG repeats in the rapists (mean 18.44 repeats) and murderers (mean 17.59 repeats) compared to the control men (mean 21.19 repeats). The criminals who committed murder after rape had a far shorter mean repeat length (mean 17.31 repeats) in comparison to the controls or those convicted of rape or murder alone. In short, our study suggests that the reduced CAG repeats in the AR gene are associated with criminal behavior. This, along with other studies, would help in understanding the biological factors associated with the antisocial or criminal activities.

  13. Gender differences in homicide offenders' criminal career, substance abuse and mental health care. A nationwide register-based study of Finnish homicide offenders 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Lindberg, Nina; Rovamo, Tuija; Häkkänen-nyholm, Helinä

    2011-02-01

    It is generally considered that women who kill are more likely to have a psychiatric disorder than their male counterparts, but as a relatively small group, women are much less often studied than men in this context. To explore gender differences in the psychosocial history of homicide offenders. In this nationwide register-based study, data were extracted from the forensic psychiatric examination and crime reports of all 91 women prosecuted for homicide in Finland between 1995 and 2004 and from those of the next adjacent man convicted of a separate homicide (n = 91). Both female and male homicide offenders had a troubled childhood, but more women had witnessed or experienced family violence; more women had failed to complete their primary education. Men, however, were more likely to have had an offending history. Although there were no differences between the men and women in the frequencies of psychiatric diagnoses or of substance abuse, the women had more often received prior mental health treatment. The women were also more likely to have had a history of suicidal behaviour. Both female and male homicide offenders are a troubled group of people, with slightly different criminal careers. Many use mental health services and therefore prevention could be improved. The suggestion of a special sub-group of women characterised by early educational and behavioural difficulties needs replication, as it may have implications for service development. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua D; Friedmann, Peter D; Kinlock, Timothy W; Nunes, Edward V; Boney, Tamara Y; Hoskinson, Randall A; Wilson, Donna; McDonald, Ryan; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N; Gordon, Michael; Fishman, Marc; Chen, Donna T; Bonnie, Richard J; Cornish, James W; Murphy, Sean M; O'Brien, Charles P

    2016-03-31

    Extended-release naltrexone, a sustained-release monthly injectable formulation of the full mu-opioid receptor antagonist, is effective for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence. Data supporting its effectiveness in U.S. criminal justice populations are limited. In this five-site, open-label, randomized trial, we compared a 24-week course of extended-release naltrexone (Vivitrol) with usual treatment, consisting of brief counseling and referrals for community treatment programs, for the prevention of opioid relapse among adult criminal justice offenders (i.e., persons involved in the U.S. criminal justice system) who had a history of opioid dependence and a preference for opioid-free rather than opioid maintenance treatments and who were abstinent from opioids at the time of randomization. The primary outcome was the time to an opioid-relapse event, which was defined as 10 or more days of opioid use in a 28-day period as assessed by self-report or by testing of urine samples obtained every 2 weeks; a positive or missing sample was computed as 5 days of opioid use. Post-treatment follow-up occurred at weeks 27, 52, and 78. A total of 153 participants were assigned to extended-release naltrexone and 155 to usual treatment. During the 24-week treatment phase, participants assigned to extended-release naltrexone had a longer median time to relapse than did those assigned to usual treatment (10.5 vs. 5.0 weeks, P<0.001; hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.68), a lower rate of relapse (43% vs. 64% of participants, P<0.001; odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.65), and a higher rate of opioid-negative urine samples (74% vs. 56%, P<0.001; odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.54). At week 78 (approximately 1 year after the end of the treatment phase), rates of opioid-negative urine samples were equal (46% in each group, P=0.91). The rates of other prespecified secondary outcome measures--self-reported cocaine, alcohol, and intravenous drug use

  15. Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua D.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Boney, Tamara Y.; Hoskinson, Randall A.; Wilson, Donna; McDonald, Ryan; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N.; Gordon, Michael; Fishman, Marc; Chen, Donna T.; Bonnie, Richard J.; Cornish, James W.; Murphy, Sean M.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extended-release naltrexone, a sustained-release monthly injectable formulation of the full mu-opioid receptor antagonist, is effective for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence. Data supporting its effectiveness in U.S. criminal justice populations are limited. METHODS In this five-site, open-label, randomized trial, we compared a 24-week course of extended-release naltrexone (Vivitrol) with usual treatment, consisting of brief counseling and referrals for community treatment programs, for the prevention of opioid relapse among adult criminal justice offenders (i.e., persons involved in the U.S. criminal justice system) who had a history of opioid dependence and a preference for opioid-free rather than opioid maintenance treatments and who were abstinent from opioids at the time of randomization. The primary outcome was the time to an opioid-relapse event, which was defined as 10 or more days of opioid use in a 28-day period as assessed by self-report or by testing of urine samples obtained every 2 weeks; a positive or missing sample was computed as 5 days of opioid use. Post-treatment follow-up occurred at weeks 27, 52, and 78. RESULTS A total of 153 participants were assigned to extended-release naltrexone and 155 to usual treatment. During the 24-week treatment phase, participants assigned to extended-release naltrexone had a longer median time to relapse than did those assigned to usual treatment (10.5 vs. 5.0 weeks, P<0.001; hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.68), a lower rate of relapse (43% vs. 64% of participants, P<0.001; odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.65), and a higher rate of opioid-negative urine samples (74% vs. 56%, P<0.001; odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.54). At week 78 (approximately 1 year after the end of the treatment phase), rates of opioid-negative urine samples were equal (46% in each group, P = 0.91). The rates of other prespecified secondary outcome measures — self-reported cocaine

  16. Neural correlates of risk taking in violent criminal offenders characterized by emotional hypo- and hyper-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Schulze, Lars; Berger, Christoph; Vohs, Knut; Fleischer, Monika; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Keiper, Peter; Domes, Gregor; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-01-01

    Recent approaches suggest that emotional reactivity can be used to differentiate between subgroups of individuals who are at risk for showing elevated levels of aggression and violence. In this study, we examined how emotion governs decision making within two subgroups of antisocial criminal offenders with either emotional hypo- or hyper-reactivity compared with healthy, noncriminal controls. Offenders were recruited from high-security forensic treatment facilities and penal institutions and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a financial decision-making task. In this task, participants were required to choose between low-risk (bonds) and high-risk alternatives (stocks). Bonds were always the safe choice; stocks could win or lose, with a varying degree of uncertainty. We found that emotionally hypo-reactive offenders differed most from healthy controls by showing diminished neural activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in response to uncertainty as well as decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex when trying to regulate their behavior accordingly (i.e., when consistently choosing "safe alternatives"). Hence, the data indicate that emotionally hypo-reactive offenders (with psychopathic traits) constitute a special subgroup within antisocial offenders characterized in particular by a limited capacity to emotionally represent uncertainty and to anticipate punishment.

  17. Predictors of Offense Severity, Prosecution, Incarceration and Repeat Violations for Adolescent Male and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun

    2006-01-01

    We examined factors predicting severity of first offense, adjudication, incarceration, and repeat offenses for first time juvenile offenders. The sample consisted of 12,468 juveniles, all born in 1985. Each of the juveniles had been assigned to the South Carolina Juvenile Justice System (SCDJJ) on at least one occasion ("referral"). Analysis on…

  18. Predictors of Offense Severity, Adjudication, Incarceration, and Repeat Referrals for Juvenile Offenders: A Multicohort Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of offense severity, judicial disposition (e.g., diversion, prosecution, incarceration), and repeat offending. Data were obtained on approximately 100,000 individuals from the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice. Whites and females were more likely to be prosecuted than Blacks and males, particularly for…

  19. Psychiatric disorders in a sample of repeat impaired-driving offenders.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Sandra C; C'de Baca, Janet; McMillan, Garnett P; Lapidus, Jodi

    2006-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess alcohol- and drug-use disorders and other psychiatric disorders in a sample of repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders. We interviewed offenders to estimate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders as designated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence, major depressive or dysthymic disorder, bipolar disorder, post- traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and obsessive-compulsive disorder). The offenders interviewed (385 men, 74 women) were those who had been adjudicated in the Multnomah County, OR, Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants Intensive Supervision Program. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of respondents (53.8%) were alcohol dependent. Sixty-five percent of men and 79.7% of women had at least one lifetime disorder comorbid with alcohol abuse or dependence. The most prevalent lifetime non-substance-use disorder was major depressive or dysthymic disorder (30.9%) followed by PTSD (15.3%). Approximately 40% of subjects reported meeting criteria for lifetime nonalcohol drug abuse for at least one drug type, and 30% were drug dependent for at least one drug type; overall, 54% of all offenders had drug abuse or dependence disorders. Assessment and treatment services for repeat alcohol-impaired driving offenders should be sufficiently comprehensive to provide care for drug-use disorders and other psychiatric problems.

  20. Background, offence characteristics, and criminal outcomes of Aboriginal youth who sexually offend: a closer look at Aboriginal youth intervention needs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Erika Y; Gretton, Heather M

    2007-09-01

    Canada's Aboriginal peoples face a number of social and health issues. Research shows that Aboriginal youths are over-represented in the criminal justice system and youth forensic psychiatric programmes. Within the literature on sex offending youth, there appears to be no published data available to inform clinicians working with adjudicated Aboriginal youth. Therefore, the present study examines the background, offence characteristics, and criminal outcomes of Aboriginal (n = 102) and non-Aboriginal (n = 257) youths who engaged in sexual offending behaviour and were ordered to attend a sexual offender treatment programme in British Columbia between 1985 and 2004. Overall, Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to have background histories of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), substance abuse, childhood victimization, academic difficulties, and instability in the living environment. Both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youths had a tendency to target children under 12-years-old, females, and non-strangers. Aboriginal youths were more likely than non-Aboriginal youths to use substances at the time of their sexual index offence. Outcome data revealed that Aboriginal youths were more likely than their non-Aboriginal counterparts to recidivate sexually, violently, and non-violently during the 10-year follow-up period. Furthermore, the time between discharge and commission of all types of re-offences was significantly shorter for Aboriginal youths than for non-Aboriginal youths. Implications of these findings are discussed with regards to the needs of Aboriginal youth and intervention.

  1. Racial differences in the associations of neighborhood disadvantage, exposure to violence, and criminal recidivism among female juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Preeti; Reppucci, N Dickon; Turkheimer, Eric N

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of exposure to violence and neighborhood disadvantage on criminal recidivism among Black (n = 69) and White (n = 53) female juvenile offenders. Participants were girls between the ages of 13 and 19 (M = 16.8; SD = 1.2) who were sentenced to secure custody. Using a multi-method research design, the study assessed neighborhood disadvantage through census level data, exposure to violence through self-report, and criminal recidivism through official records. Results indicated that Black girls were significantly more likely than White girls to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, but both reported similar levels of parental physical abuse and witnessing neighborhood violence. In structural equation models, neighborhood disadvantage and witnessing neighborhood violence were indicative of future recidivism for the group as a whole. However, multiple group analyses indicated the existence of race specific pathways to recidivism. Witnessing neighborhood violence was associated with recidivism for Black girls while parental physical abuse was associated with recidivism for White girls. Results suggest that characteristics within the neighborhood play a considerable role in recidivism among female juvenile offenders generally and Black female juvenile offenders, specifically. Race specific risk models warrant further investigation, and may help lawmakers and clinicians in addressing racial disparities in the justice system.

  2. Differences between juvenile offenders with and without substance use problems in the prevalence and impact of risk and protective factors for criminal recidivism.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia E; Creemers, Hanneke E; Hoeve, Machteld

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs of substance-using juveniles in treatment aimed at reducing criminal recidivism. Therefore, we aimed to examine treatment needs of substance-using juvenile offenders. Differences were examined between juvenile offenders who abstain from substance use (ASU; n=1974) and substance-using juvenile offenders without (SU; n=7000) and with substance use problems (SUP; n=3317), in the prevalence of risk/protective factors for criminal recidivism and strength of associations between risk/protective factors and criminal recidivism. We conducted secondary data analysis on recidivism risk assessments, collected with the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment, and re-offending data. Analyses of variance and Partial correlations, adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity were applied, as well as Fisher's z tests and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that substance-using offenders, especially those with substance use problems, had more risk factors and less protective factors than ASU youths in the domains of school, use of free time, relationships, family, attitude, aggression and skills. The associations between most of the risk/protective factors and recidivism were stronger in the ASU group than in the SUP group. Substance use uniquely predicted recidivism, net of risk factors. These results suggest that general interventions for juvenile offenders addressing risk and protective factors with the aim to reduce recidivism may be less effective for offenders with substance use problems, and that substance use (problems) should be addressed, too. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T

    2016-06-01

    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Barriers and facilitators to a criminal justice tobacco control coordinator: an innovative approach to supporting smoking cessation among offenders.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Douglas; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Baybutt, Michelle

    2012-12-01

    To examine the barriers and facilitators to effective operation of a regional tobacco control coordinator working within and across criminal justice and public health, whose goal was to raise tobacco control awareness and support the development of smoking cessation treatment for offenders. A reflexive, mixed-methods case study approach using in-depth interviews, project reports and observation of advisory board meetings. The coordinator worked with prisons, probation and police custody, where there are high levels of social disadvantage and smoking. Interviews (n = 34) at different stages of project with the coordinator, project advisers and local stakeholders from criminal justice and public health. Analysis of facilitators and barriers and the coordinator role from different perspectives. Readiness to develop cessation services was a critical predictor of different criminal justice settings' engagement with the coordinator role. The coordinator enhanced cessation service delivery in individual prisons where there was a requirement and infrastructure in place to provide such services. In police custody, where there was no central guidance or pre-existing requirements, efforts to establish smoking cessation on the local agenda proved ineffective. In probation settings, the coordinator documented examples of good practice and supported brief intervention training. Variability in willingness to engage limited the project's ability to create joined-up working across criminal justice settings. In the English criminal justice system, the prison service appears to provide a favourable context for development of smoking cessation support and a means of accessing hard-to-reach groups. Other criminal justice settings, most specifically police custody, appear less responsive to such activity. A coordinator role can improve smoking cessation support in the prison setting, and develop local improvements in tobacco control interventions in other settings such as probation, but

  5. On intelligence and crime: a comparison of incarcerated sex offenders and serious non-sexual violent criminals.

    PubMed

    Guay, Jean-Pierre; Ouimet, Marc; Proulx, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The impact of low IQ on crime has been a focus of debate for several decades now. Although sociologists have virtually removed it from the list of possible factors influencing crime, the impact of IQ on crime continues to generate a significant amount of scientific research and a substantial number of publications. The purpose of this study is to assess intellectual levels and to compare two groups of incarcerated criminals. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA procedures, 261 sex offenders and 150 non-sexual violent criminals were compared on IQ subscales. The results show significant differences on vocabulary, comprehension, arithmetic, mental math computations, object assembly, letter-number sequencing, and perception subscales, as well as on performance IQ and total IQ. The impacts of penal filtering and sample composition are hypothesized to explain differences between the two subgroups. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Driving themselves to drink: qualitative perspectives from "hardcore" DUI repeat offenders in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert G; Sexton, Rocky; Hammar, Lawrence; Reese, Tamara Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Despite the continuing problem of repeat drunk driving (DUI) offenders, little is known of the characteristics of this population. This article reports findings from qualitative interviews with 12 incarcerated men who had been convicted for 5 or more DUIs. Participants' sociodemographic characteristics, patterns of substance abuse, treatment history, attitudes toward positive behavioral change, and recommendations for improving treatment are described. Three groups were identified in regard to the degree of recognition of substance abuse and level of motivation to engage in treatment and post-release rehabilitation. Participants also offered suggestions to improve treatment strategies for repeat DUI offenders by tailoring diverse educational and counseling programs that target the differing types of DUI recidivists. The findings provide preliminary qualitative insight into a unique population that may be used to inform future studies.

  7. Differences among Youthful Criminal Offenders Based on Their Perceptions of Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streit, Fred

    1981-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parental behavior (parental control, maternal love and control, and maternal hostility and autonomy) was shown to discriminate among juvenile offenders and nonoffenders. (Author/CM)

  8. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  9. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  10. Offending Behavior, Drug Use, and Mental Health Among Foreign-Born versus U.S. Born Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Agudo, Michelle; Martin, Steve S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Auf, Rehab; Sheehan, Diana M

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the offending behavior and recidivism factors of Latinos by nativity (U.S. born, foreign-born). The present study focused on Latinos in community corrections (n = 201) in Miami, Florida, and examined differences in criminal activity, drug use, and mental health by nativity. Data were collected utilizing convenience sampling between June 2014 and December 2015. The research question was: what are the offending, drug use, and mental health histories of Latinos involved in community corrections? Participants were mostly male (n = 120; 59.7%), White (n = 105; 52.2%), and Cuban (n = 97; 48.3%). U.S. born community corrections clients (n = 141) were more likely to report more lifetime and recent criminal activity; and more likely to report lifetime and recent drug use behavior than foreign-born Latinos (n = 60). No differences were found in recent mental health. Correctional healthcare should tailor services such as substance abuse treatment differently toward U.S. born and foreign-born Latinos.

  11. Effects of emotional stimuli on working memory processes in male criminal offenders with borderline and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Schulze, Lars; Rossmann, Sabine; Berger, Christoph; Vohs, Knut; Fleischer, Monika; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Keiper, Peter; Domes, Gregor; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of concurrently presented emotional stimuli on cognitive task processing in violent criminal offenders primarily characterized by affective instability. METHODS. Fifteen male criminal offenders with antisocial and borderline personality disorder (ASPD and BPD) and 17 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a working memory task with low and high working memory load. In a second experimental run, to investigate the interaction of emotion and cognition, we presented emotionally neutral, low, or high salient social scenes in the background of the task. RESULTS. During the memory task without pictures, both groups did not differ in general task performance and neural representation of working memory processes. During the memory task with emotional background pictures, however, ASPD-BPD subjects compared to healthy controls showed delayed responses and enhanced activation of the left amygdala in the presence of emotionally high salient pictures independent of working memory load. CONCLUSIONS. These results illustrate an interaction of emotion and cognition in affective instable individuals with enhanced reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli which might be an important factor regarding the understanding of aggressive and violent behaviour in these individuals.

  12. Effects of comorbid psychopathy on criminal offending and emotion processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Lorenz, Amanda R; Newman, Joseph P

    2006-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are two syndromes with substantial construct validity. To clarify relations between these syndromes, the authors evaluated 3 possibilities: (a) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy reflect a common underlying pathophysiology; (b) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy identify 2 distinct syndromes, similar in some respects; and (c) that most correlates of ASPD reflect its comorbidity with psychopathy. Participants were 472 incarcerated European American men who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for ASPD and Psychopathy Checklist criteria for psychopathy, who met the criteria for ASPD but not for psychopathy, or who did not meet diagnostic criteria for either ASPD or psychopathy (controls). Both individuals with ASPD only and those with ASPD and psychopathy were characterized by more criminal activity than were controls. In addition, ASPD with psychopathy was associated with more severe criminal behavior and weaker emotion facilitation than ASPD alone. Group differences in the association between emotion dysfunction and criminal behavior suggest tentatively that ASPD with and ASPD without prominent psychopathic features may be distinct syndromes.

  13. Under-diagnosis of comorbid mental illness in repeated DUI offenders mandated to treatment

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Garnett P.; Timken, David S.; Lapidus, Jodi; C'de Baca, Janet; Lapham, Sandra C.; McNeal, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Repeated offenders for driving under the influence (DUI) offenders are routinely mandated to alcohol treatment. These individuals have been shown to have high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, which can be important for the conduct and outcomes of alcohol treatment. The extent to which treatment providers are aware of these disorders and modify treatment accordingly is unknown. As part of a larger study to investigate the impact of sanction conditions on probation outcomes, we screened 233 subjects for psychiatric conditions and compared those findings to the psychiatric conditions identified during mandatory treatment by independent treatment providers. Adjusted rates of under-diagnosis were commonly high: 97.2% of bipolar, 67.5% of major depression, 100% of obsessive-compulsive, and 37.3% of drug use disorders remained undiagnosed during treatment. Rates of over-diagnosis were low for all disorders, with the exception of drug use disorders. These rates of under-diagnosis represent missed opportunities to improve treatment outcomes among repeat DUI offenders. PMID:17614243

  14. The Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale as a screening instrument for personality disorders in substance-dependent criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Brigitte P M; Damen, Katinka F M; Hoffman, Tonko O; Vellema, Sietske L

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are considered to be potential predictors of treatment outcome in substance-dependent patients and potential treatment matching variables. There is a need for a brief and simple screening instrument for PDs that can be used in routine psychological assessment, especially in a treatment setting for previously substance-dependent criminal offenders, where a high prevalence of PDs is expected. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), a commonly used screening interview for PDs, in a population of inpatient criminal offenders with a history of substance dependence. Various statistical procedures were used to establish reliability and validity measures, such as Kuder-Richardson 20, confirmative factor analysis, receiver operating characteristic analysis and multitrait multimethod matrix. The SAPAS was administered to 101 inpatient criminal offenders with a history of substance dependence at baseline. Within three weeks, participants were administered the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality in order to assess the presence of PDs. Results show limited evidence to make firm conclusions on the psychometric qualities of the SAPAS as a screening instrument for comorbid PDs in a substance dependence treatment setting for criminal offenders. Suggestions for improvement concerning the psychometric qualities of the SAPAS as a screening instrument for this population are noted.

  15. Lifetime criminal history of sex offenders seen for psychological assessment in five decades.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    A sample of 2,190 sex offenders seen between 1966 and 2009 was compared on lifetime sexual and all offending, using charges, convictions, court appearances, and self-report as criteria. Of these various criteria, between 47.4% and 81.1% reoffended. Canadian child abuse reporting laws, which came into effect in the 1980s, were associated with increased charges and convictions for offenders, who victimized children, and with a reduction in their longer term reoffense rates. Immigration and population mobility, use of aliases, study follow-up time, and self-reported undetected sex crimes influenced reoffense rates. Results indicate that sex offenders continued to have short prison sentences and/or spend little or no time incarcerated during the latter part of the 20th century.

  16. Criminal behavior and cognitive processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without comorbid psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Riser, Rebecca E; Kosson, David S

    2013-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are 2 important syndromes with substantial utility in predicting antisocial behavior. Although prior studies have identified correlations between various factors and the presence of psychopathy or ASPD, most studies have focused on 1 syndrome or the other. Consequently, it is unclear whether the 2 syndromes reflect similar pathophysiologies, whether they are in fact 2 distinct syndromes, or whether the correlates of ASPD reflect its high comorbidity with psychopathy. The present study addressed this issue by examining the impact of ASPD with and without comorbid psychopathy (as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) on criminal offending and cognitive processing in 674 adult male inmates at a county jail in Illinois. Participants exhibited either ASPD and comorbid psychopathy, ASPD but not psychopathy, or neither ASPD nor psychopathy. Participants with and without comorbid psychopathy were characterized by more criminal behavior than controls, and inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited more severe criminal behavior than those with ASPD only. In addition, inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited a different pattern of cognitive task performance impairment than those with ASPD alone. Results replicate the findings of Kosson, Lorenz, and Newman (2006) and provide new evidence suggesting that men with ASPD and comorbid psychopathy are characterized by cognitive processing anomalies different from those seen in ASPD without comorbid psychopathy.

  17. Learning Disabilities and Criminal Justice: Custody Sergeants' Perceptions of Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…

  18. Assessing the Relationship between Violent and Nonviolent Criminal Activity among Serious Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Haviland, Amelia; Morral, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal activity remains a matter of theoretical debate. In the present study, the authors build on criminological theory and assess the extent to which the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal behaviors follows different trajectories. The authors rely on semiparametric mixture…

  19. Learning Disabilities and Criminal Justice: Custody Sergeants' Perceptions of Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…

  20. Alcohol misuse and criminal offending: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the associations between measures of alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD) and several classifications of offending behaviour to age 30 in a New Zealand birth cohort. Outcomes included: assault; use of a weapon; theft/burglary/vehicle conversion; property damage/vandalism/arson; and fraud/embezzlement/misappropriation of funds. The study also used measures of AAD symptoms; and time-dynamic covariate factors including life stress, other substance use, mental health status, peer and partner substance use and offending, and unemployment. Data were analysed using conditional fixed effects regression modelling augmented by time-dynamic covariate factors to control for confounding. Those with five or more AAD symptoms had unadjusted odds of offending that ranged from 6.23 to 21.25 times higher than those with no symptoms, with little evidence to suggest these associations varied with age. Adjustment for both unobserved fixed effects and time-dynamic covariate factors reduced the magnitude of the associations between AAD and offending, with those with five or more AAD symptoms having odds of offending that were 0.88-4.10 times higher than those with no symptoms. After adjustment, only the associations between AAD and: a) assault (OR=4.10; 95% CI=1.91-8.62; p<0.0001); and b) property damage/vandalism/arson (OR=3.87; 95% CI=1.30-11.39; p<0.0001); remained statistically significant. The results suggest a causal association between alcohol misuse and "impulsive" crimes such as assault and property damage/vandalism/arson, with estimates suggesting that AAD accounted for approximately 9.6-9.9% of these types of reported offending in the cohort. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Varenicline and risk of psychiatric conditions, suicidal behaviour, criminal offending, and transport accidents and offences: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Zetterqvist, Johan; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Fazel, Seena

    2015-06-02

    To examine associations between varenicline and the incidence of a range of adverse outcomes. Population based cohort study using within person analyses to control for confounding by indication. Whole population of Sweden. 7,917,436 people aged 15 and over, of whom 69,757 were treated with varenicline between 2006 and 2009. Incidence of new psychiatric conditions, suicidal behaviour, suspected and convicted criminal offending, transport accidents, and suspected and convicted traffic offences. In the whole population, 337,393 new psychiatric conditions were diagnosed during follow-up. In addition, 507,823 suspected and 338,608 convicted crimes, 40,595 suicidal events, 124,445 transport accidents, and 99,895 suspected and 57,068 convicted traffic crimes were recorded. Within person analyses showed that varenicline was not associated with significant hazards of suicidal behaviour, criminal offending, transport accidents, traffic offences, or psychoses. However, varenicline was associated with a small increase in the risk of anxiety conditions (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.51) and mood conditions (1.31, 1.06 to 1.63), which was only seen in people with pre-existing psychiatric disorders. Concerns that varenicline is associated with an increased risk of many adverse outcomes, including suicidality and accidents, are not supported in this observational study. The small increase in risk of two psychiatric conditions in people with pre-existing psychiatric disorders needs to be confirmed using other research designs. © Molero et al 2015.

  2. Underdiagnosis of comorbid mental illness in repeat DUI offenders mandated to treatment.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Garnett P; Timken, David S; Lapidus, Jodi; C'de Baca, Janet; Lapham, Sandra C; McNeal, Megan

    2008-04-01

    Repeat offenders for DUI are routinely mandated to undergo alcohol treatment. These individuals have been shown to have high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, which can be important for the conduct and outcomes of alcohol treatment. The extent to which treatment providers are aware of these disorders and modify treatment accordingly is unknown. As part of a larger study to investigate the impact of sanction conditions on probation outcomes, we screened 233 patients for psychiatric conditions and compared the findings with the psychiatric conditions identified during mandatory treatment by independent treatment providers. Adjusted rates of underdiagnosis were commonly high: 97.2% of bipolar disorder cases, 67.5% of major depression cases, 100% of obsessive-compulsive disorder cases, and 37.3% of drug use disorder cases remained undiagnosed during treatment. Rates of overdiagnosis were low for all disorders, with the exception of drug use disorders. These rates of underdiagnosis represent missed opportunities to improve treatment outcomes among repeat DUI offenders.

  3. Portraits of Dysfunction: Criminal, Education, and Family Profiles of Juvenile Female Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 40 incarcerated juvenile female offenders found they typically reported failing 1 or more grades; more than having serious arrest; using drugs prior to crimes and as part of their lifestyle; and acting intentionally, and most often with others, to commit crimes. Critical factors included academic deficiencies, siblings who were…

  4. Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Fear and Anger on Criminal Decision Making Among Known Offenders.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Jeff A

    2015-12-01

    Deterrence represents the central theoretical core of the American criminal justice system, yet relatively little attention has been paid to how emotions like fear and anger may relate to deterrence. Psychological research has debated whether negative emotions each have similar impacts on decision making (valence approaches) or if distinct emotions have unique impacts (appraisal tendency approaches). This study explores the direct and indirect influences of fear and anger on hypothetical drunk driving likelihood, including their impact on cost perceptions. Surveys were administered to 1,013 male and female incarcerated felony offenders in the Southwestern United States. Using a multivariate path model and controlling for a number of other individual factors, current fear related to increased cost perceptions and anger to decreased costs. Anger also maintained a direct influence on drunk driving, whereas fear did not. Despite their shared negative valence, fear and anger appear to have dissimilar influences on cost perceptions and criminal decision making. A better understanding of these processes may lead to improved crime prevention approaches. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Racial Differences in HIV/AIDS Discussion Strategies and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Drug Abusing Female Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Havens, Jennifer R.; Mooney, Jennifer L.; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Duvall, Jamieson L.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2009-01-01

    African American female inmates are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), with heterosexual contact as the primary mode of transmission. This could be the result of racial differences in the strategies used by women to persuade a potential sexual partner to discuss AIDS and engage in condom use. Data were collected from 336 female inmates in three correctional institutions as part of the Reducing Risky Relationships for HIV (RRR-HIV) protocol within the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) cooperative agreement. Bivariate analyses indicated that African American drug using women were more likely than Whites to use the rational, withdrawal, and persistence approaches to discuss AIDS with an intimate sexual partner. Negative binomial regression models were used to identify which interpersonal discussion strategies were significant correlates of the number of the times White participants and African American participants had unprotected vaginal sex in the 30 days prior to incarceration. Results from the multivariate model indicate that White women who are more likely to use the rational discussion strategy were 15% less likely to engage in vaginal sex without a condom; however, these findings were not replicated in the African American sample. Findings add to the literature on racial differences in HIV/AIDS discussion strategies and sexual risk behaviors among drug abusing female criminal offenders. PMID:19283952

  6. Facets of psychopathy among mentally disordered offenders: clinical comorbidity patterns and prediction of violent and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Wallinius, Märta; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Stålenheim, Gunilla

    2012-07-30

    The complexity and consequences of psychopathy are still debated, and its relation to other mental disorders, pathological personality traits, and criminality needs to be further investigated by clinical, longitudinal studies using structured diagnostic instruments. The present study used two groups of mentally disordered offenders (N=153) investigated with in-depth clinical assessments and prospective long-term follow-up to identify the convergence between 1) the four facets of psychopathy defined by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial), 2) mental disorders according to SCID I and II interviews, 3) personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and 4) criminal recidivism. The Interpersonal facet differed substantially from the other three facets by not being significantly associated with substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder (the other facets at P≤0.001 level), or personality traits involving impulsive and aggressive antisocial behaviors (the other facets at P<0.01 level). Furthermore, the interpersonal facet could not predict violent recidivism better than random. The Antisocial facet outperformed not only the other facets but also the total PCL-R score in the prediction of violent recidivism, P<0.001.The findings confirm psychopathy as a heterogeneous phenomenon and have clinical implications for assessments of psychopathy and violence risk assessments in clinical and forensic contexts.

  7. New Approaches to Diversion and Treatment of Juvenile Offenders. Criminal Justice Monograph. Selections from National Symposium on Law Enforcement Science and Technology (4th, May 1-3, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This monograph presents a variety of approaches to the handling of juvenile offenders, with an emphasis on diverting the juvenile from the criminal justice system. Papers cover the community-based treatment of juveniles in Massachusetts, diversion of juvenile offenders--as a new term used for new directions, human development and treatment…

  8. Score Metric Equivalence of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) across Criminal Offenders in North America and the United Kingdom. A Critique of Cooke, Michie, Hart, and Clark (2005) and New Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Hare, Robert D.; Neumann, Craig S.

    2007-01-01

    David Cooke and colleagues have published a series of item response theory (IRT) studies investigating the equivalence of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for European versus North American (NA) male criminal offenders. They have consistently concluded that PCL-R scores are not equivalent, with European offenders receiving scores up to…

  9. [On the outcome of the treatment of mentally disordered criminal offenders (according to section 64 German Penal Code) suffering from addictive disorders].

    PubMed

    Gericke, Bjørn; Kallert, Thomas W

    2007-04-01

    To provide an overview on the increase of forensic psychiatric hospitalizations in Saxony, and present findings on criminal conviction and recidivism rates of 277 criminal offenders ordered to a forensic psychiatric facility caring for addictive disorders between 1996 and 2001. Cluster- and regression-analytic procedures identified predictive variables for declaring the forensic psychiatric hospitalization as useless, and for relevant criminal offences after discharge. About 85 % of the study sample showed more than four offences and more than 1.5 years of imprisonment before admission to the index-treatment episode. About half of the patients was successfully treated as indicated by being released on licence. Socialization in institutions, social disintegration before admission, and absconding during the index-treatment episode are important factors increasing the probability of declaring the hospitalization as useless. In the 2-year observation period, the criminal recidivism rate was 40.0 %. Social reintegration of this group of mentally disordered criminal offenders is as difficult as important. Findings on recidivism rates indicate a need for extending the number of specialized forensic outpatient departments and a need to focus on primary prevention.

  10. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    PubMed

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function.

  11. Endorsement of Criminal Behavior Amongst Offenders: Implications for DSM-5 Gambling Disorder.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E; Stinchfield, Randy; McCready, John; McAvoy, Steven; Ferentzy, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) has changed the scoring threshold for a gambling disorder (GD) from five criteria to four and eliminated the illegal acts criterion. The impact of these changes was examined with data from a correctional population (N = 676) in Ontario, Canada. The offenders completed a self-report survey that included the Canadian problem gambling index, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and the DSM-IV criteria. Changing the threshold from 5 to 4 improved the convergent validity for GD and resulted in an increase in the percentage of offenders diagnosed with a GD from 7.4 to 10.2 %. The results also indicate that the illegal acts criterion contributes to the convergent validity of GD. The evidence supports the change in the threshold from five to four, but also reinforces the importance of examining illegal acts when dealing with an offender population. The incorporation of illegal acts into the "lying to others" criteria appears to make up, to some extent, for the removal of the illegal acts criterion.

  12. Postcollege Criminal Convictions: A Comparison of Greek, Athlete, and Other Student Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin; Hein, Ella

    2014-01-01

    This article examines postcollege criminal convictions among students who recorded a substance use-related arrest while attending college from 1996-99. Specifically, this study assesses whether Greek or athletic membership offered protective or elevated odds of a conviction over the next 14-17 years, relative to non-Greeks and non-athletes. The…

  13. Postcollege Criminal Convictions: A Comparison of Greek, Athlete, and Other Student Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin; Hein, Ella

    2014-01-01

    This article examines postcollege criminal convictions among students who recorded a substance use-related arrest while attending college from 1996-99. Specifically, this study assesses whether Greek or athletic membership offered protective or elevated odds of a conviction over the next 14-17 years, relative to non-Greeks and non-athletes. The…

  14. The relationship of pathological gambling to criminality behavior in a sample of Polish male offenders

    PubMed Central

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Severe problem gambling is most often related to income producing offences such as larceny and embezzlement. In addition, the high rate of relapse to gambling problems and the link between gambling debts and crime have clinical, forensic and penitentiary implications. Considering the data from the literature presented here I decided to form and empirically verify a hypothesis that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. Material/Methods The groups of participants encompassed 90 men 26–52 years of age, serving a criminal sentence. All participants had to fulfil the following clinical criteria: a) be interviewed by a psychiatrist and diagnosed with pathological gambling and/or antisocial personality disorders b) obtain a result in the PCL-R test; c) estimate the relationship between gambling problems and crime. Taking into consideration the abovementioned criteria three patient test groups were formed: Group 1, which included those for whom gambling had led to crime; Group 2, where gambling was a part of a criminal lifestyle, and Group 3, in which the mutual relationship between gambling and crime was unclear. Results The participants were diagnosed as pathological gamblers (DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10) and psychopaths (PCL-R). Those tested differed with regard to the intensification of the personality disturbance tested, the co-occurrence of other disturbances, particularly psychoactive addictions, the motivations for taking up gambling, and the type of criminal activity. Conclusions The hypothesis was confirmed that incarcerated men with a diagnosis of pathological gambling are characterized by psychopathic personality disorders, alcohol problems and criminality. PMID:22037748

  15. Long-term prevention of criminality in siblings of serious and violent juvenile offenders: a 25-year follow-up to a randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David V; Borduin, Charles M; Sawyer, Aaron M; Dopp, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Family-based treatment models that have shown effectiveness with juvenile offenders may also lead to reduced criminality in siblings of those offenders. However, the lasting effects of such treatments on siblings have not been evaluated. In the present study, the authors examined criminal outcomes for siblings of serious and violent juvenile offenders who had participated on average 25.0 years earlier in a clinical trial of multisystemic therapy (MST; Borduin et al., 1995). Participants were 129 closest-in-age siblings of individuals who were originally randomized to MST or individual therapy (IT) during adolescence. Arrest and incarceration data were obtained in middle adulthood when siblings were on average 38.4 years old. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that arrest rates were significantly lower for siblings in the MST condition than in the IT condition (43.3% vs. 72.0%, respectively). In addition, siblings in the IT condition were about 3 times as likely to be convicted of a felony and more than twice as likely to be sentenced to incarceration and probation. The present study represents the longest follow-up to date of sibling participants in an MST clinical trial and demonstrates that the positive impact of an evidence-based treatment for serious and violent juvenile offenders can extend to other family members. Implications of the authors' findings for policymakers and service providers are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Witnessing domestic violence during childhood is associated with psychopathic traits in adult male criminal offenders.

    PubMed

    Dargis, Monika; Koenigs, Michael

    2017-04-01

    While there is growing evidence that suffering physical abuse during childhood is subsequently associated with psychopathic traits in both juvenile and adult offenders, there is considerably less research on whether exposure to domestic violence as a witness, rather than as a direct victim, influences the subsequent presentation of psychopathic traits in adulthood. Accordingly, the current study examined the relationship between witnessing domestic violence during childhood (i.e., witnessing, hearing, or intervening in abuse against a parent/sibling) and psychopathic traits in adulthood in a sample of n = 127 incarcerated male offenders. As predicted, witnessing domestic violence was significantly associated with overall level of psychopathy, with a particularly strong relationship to the interpersonal/affective features of psychopathy. Importantly, this relationship held when controlling for the experience of domestic violence as a direct victim. These results add to the growing body of literature linking adverse and traumatic events during childhood with psychopathic traits later in life, and suggest that domestic violence exposure may be one factor contributing to the manipulative, interpersonal style exhibited by individuals high in psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Psychopathy (PCL-R) as a predictor of violent recidivism among criminal offenders with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tengström, A; Grann, M; Långström, N; Kullgren, G

    2000-02-01

    Hare's Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R) was used to test the hypothesis that psychopathy predicts violent recidivism in a cohort subjected to forensic psychiatric investigation and consisting of male violent offenders with schizophrenia (N = 202). Psychopathy was assessed with retrospective file-based ratings. Mean follow-up time after detainment was 51 months. Twenty-two percent of the offenders had a PCL-R score > or = 26 (cutoff), and the base rate for violent recidivism (reconvictions) during follow-up was 21%. Survival analysis revealed that psychopathy was strongly associated to violent recidivism (log-rank = 17.71, df = 1, p < 0.0001). The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of PCL-R total score to predict violent recidivism varied between different time frames from .64 to .75. Cox regression analyses revealed that other potential risk factors could not equally well or better explain violent recidivism in the cohort than psychopathy as measured by PCL-R.

  18. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and violent re-offending in adult offenders in the community

    PubMed Central

    Grann, Martin; Danesh, John; Fazel, Seena

    2008-01-01

    Background High rates of repeat offending are common across nations that are socially and culturally different. Although psychiatric disorders are believed to be risk factors for violent reoffending, the available evidence is sparse and liable to bias. Method We conducted a historical cohort study in Sweden of a selected sample of 4828 offenders given community sentences who were assessed by a psychiatrist during 1988–2001, and followed up for an average of 5 years for first violent offence, death, or emigration, using information from national registers. Hazard ratios for violent offending were calculated by Cox regression models. Results Nearly a third of the sample (n = 1506 or 31.3%) offended violently during follow-up (mean duration: 4.8 years). After adjustment for socio-demographic and criminal history variables, substance use disorders (hazard ratio 1.97, 95% CI, 1.40–2.77) and personality disorders (hazard ratio 1.71, 1.20–2.44) were significantly associated with an increased risk of violent offending. No other diagnoses were related to recidivism risk. Adding information on diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders to data recorded on age, sex, and criminal history improved only minimally the prediction of violent offending. Conclusion Diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders are associated with the risk of subsequent violent offending in community offenders about as strongly as are its better documented demographic and criminal history risk factors. Despite this, assessment of such disorders in addition to demographic and criminal history factors enhances only minimally the prediction of violent offending in the community. PMID:19032787

  19. Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Grann, M; Långström, N; Tengström, A; Kullgren, G

    1999-04-01

    Psychopathy as conceptualized with Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised, PCL-R, has attracted much research during the 1990s. In the Scandinavian countries, few studies that empirically support the validity of North American risk assessment techniques in our regional context have been published. The purpose of this paper is to explore the predictive power of the PCL-R in a population of personality-disordered violent offenders subjected to forensic psychiatric evaluation in Sweden. Following release from prison (n = 172), discharge from forensic psychiatric treatment (n = 129), or probation (n = 51), a total of 352 individuals were followed for up to 8 years (mean = 3.7 years) with reconviction for violent crime as endpoint variable (base rate 34%). As the estimate of predictive power, the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic (AUC of ROC) analysis was calculated. For PCL-R scores to predict 2-year violent recidivism, AUC of ROC was .72 (95% CI: .66-.78). In addition, the personality dimension of psychopathy (Factor 1) and the behavioral component (Factor 2) both predicted 2-year recidivism significantly better than random: AUC of ROC .64 (95% CI: .57-.70) and .71 (95% CI: .65-.77), respectively. We conclude that psychopathy is probably as valid a predictor of violent recidivism in Swedish forensic settings as seen in previous North American studies.

  20. Changing approaches of prosecutors towards juvenile repeated sex-offenders: A Bayesian evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Debajyoti; Lipsitz, Stuart; Letourneau, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Summary Existing state-wide data bases on prosecutors’ decisions about juvenile offenders are important, yet often un-explored resources for understanding changes in patterns of judicial decisions over time. We investigate the extent and nature of change in judicial behavior towards juveniles following the enactment of a new set of mandatory registration policies between 1992 and 1996 via analyzing the data on prosecutors’ decisions of moving forward for youths repeatedly charged with sexual violence in South Carolina. We use a novel extension of random effects logistic regression model for longitudinal binary data via incorporating an unknown change-point year. For convenient physical interpretation, our models allow the proportional odds interpretation of effects of the explanatory variables and the change-point year with and without conditioning on the youth-specific random effects. As a consequence, the effects of the unknown change-point year and other factors can be interpreted as changes in both within youth and population averaged odds of moving forward. Using a Bayesian paradigm, we consider various prior opinions about the unknown year of the change in the pattern of prosecutors’ decision. Based on the available data, we make posteriori conclusions about whether a change-point has occurred between 1992 and 1996 (inclusive), evaluate the degree of confidence about the year of change-point, estimate the magnitude of the effects of the change-point and other factors, and investigate other provocative questions about patterns of prosecutors’ decisions over time. PMID:20729988

  1. The Adoption of Wraparound Services among Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations Serving Criminal Offenders: The Role of a Women-Specific Program

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Women’s substance abuse treatment outcomes are improved when women-specific needs are addressed through wraparound services, such as the provision of child care, employment assistance, or mental health counseling. Despite a higher prevalence of pre-incarceration drug use, women in prison report receiving fewer services than their male counterparts, suggesting they likely have greater service needs upon release. It is unknown whether community-based treatment organizations with a women-specific program offer more wraparound services than programs without a focus on women. This study uses data from the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) research cooperative’s National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey (NCJTPS), a nationally representative sample of community-based treatment programs serving predominantly criminal offenders (n = 217). First, bivariate analyses identified differences between organizations with and without a women-specific program on the number of wraparound services adopted as well as organizational-level characteristics (i.e., organizational structure, personnel characteristics, culture, sources of information, and systems integration) related to their adoption. Second, Poisson regression was used to identify the organizational characteristics associated with the number of adopted wraparound services, with having a women-specific program being the primary covariate of interest. Results indicate larger organizations that utilized a greater number of treatment approaches and believed that treatment could reduce crime were more likely to offer a greater assortment of wraparound services. In an effort to improve behavioral treatment outcomes, it is imperative to examine organizational-level contextual factors that shape the availability of wraparound services for female offenders in community-based substance abuse treatment settings. PMID:19181457

  2. The adoption of wraparound services among substance abuse treatment organizations serving criminal offenders: The role of a women-specific program.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie; Knudsen, Hannah; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl

    2009-08-01

    Women's substance abuse treatment outcomes are improved when women-specific needs are addressed through wraparound services, such as the provision of child care, employment assistance, or mental health counseling. Despite a higher prevalence of pre-incarceration drug use, women in prison report receiving fewer services than their male counterparts, suggesting they likely have greater service needs upon release. It is unknown whether community-based treatment organizations with a women-specific program offer more wraparound services than programs without a focus on women. This study uses data from the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) research cooperative's National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey (NCJTPS), a nationally representative sample of community-based treatment programs serving predominantly criminal offenders (n=217). First, bivariate analyses identified differences between organizations with and without a women-specific program on the number of wraparound services adopted as well as organizational-level characteristics (i.e., organizational structure, personnel characteristics, culture, sources of information, and systems integration) related to their adoption. Second, Poisson regression was used to identify the organizational characteristics associated with the number of adopted wraparound services, with having a women-specific program being the primary covariate of interest. Results indicate larger organizations that utilized a greater number of treatment approaches and believed that treatment could reduce crime were more likely to offer a greater assortment of wraparound services. In an effort to improve behavioral treatment outcomes, it is imperative to examine organizational-level contextual factors that shape the availability of wraparound services for female offenders in community-based substance abuse treatment settings.

  3. A longitudinal examination of sex offender recidivism prior to and following the implementation of SORN.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, Richard; Jennings, Wesley G; Zgoba, Kristen M

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine the recidivism rates of two matched samples of sexual offenders, those released prior to and after sex offender registration and notification (SORN) in New Jersey. The pre-SORN group (1990-1994) included 247 offenders, while the post-SORN group (1996-2000) included 248 offenders. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that for sex offenders released from prison both prior to and after implementation of SORN, there are clearly two distinguishable groups of sex offenders in relation to patterns of recidivism. More than three-quarters of sex offenders were identified as at low risk of recidivism, with low rates of repeat criminal offenses. By contrast, the high-risk group of offenders was not only more likely to commit future criminal offenses, including sex offenses, but they were also more likely to commit significantly more offenses and to do so fairly quickly following release. Analyses also include an examination of the influence of demographics, substance abuse and mental health issues, treatment history, sex offense incident characteristics, and criminal history on recidivism. Finally, SORN status was not a significant predictor of sex or general recidivism. The study limitations and policy implications are discussed.

  4. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Criminal Careers of Intimate Partner Violence Offender Subtypes: Results From a Prospective Survey of Males.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-12-01

    Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 years to age 48 years, we investigated the role of Cluster B personality traits and the association with violent offending groups based on a typology theory of male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators: those who committed family-only violence and the generally violent offender. We also considered whether offending/violent groups could be predicted using risk factors measured in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our findings suggest that those men who are violent both within and outside the home (the generally violent men) are distinguished from those who are involved in IPV within the home only. The differences appear to be more in degree than in kind. We discuss these findings in relation to the idea of specific interventions and policy.

  5. Connectedness to the criminal community and the community at large predicts 1-year post-release outcomes among felony offenders

    PubMed Central

    Folk, Johanna B.; Mashek, Debra; Tangney, June; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Moore, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    Connectedness to one's community relates to positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. But what implications do connectedness to distinct communities—the criminal community and the community at large—have for inmates about to be released from jail? This study (N = 383) prospectively examined connectedness to the criminal community and community at large prior to release from jail, and functioning at one-year post-release. Connectedness to the community at large positively predicted community adjustment whereas connectedness to the criminal community positively predicted recidivism. Targeting both types of community connectedness may enhance interventions intended to undermine recidivism and increase positive outcomes for inmates. PMID:27524842

  6. Connectedness to the criminal community and the community at large predicts 1-year post-release outcomes among felony offenders.

    PubMed

    Folk, Johanna B; Mashek, Debra; Tangney, June; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Moore, Kelly E

    2016-04-01

    Connectedness to one's community relates to positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. But what implications do connectedness to distinct communities-the criminal community and the community at large-have for inmates about to be released from jail? This study (N = 383) prospectively examined connectedness to the criminal community and community at large prior to release from jail, and functioning at one-year post-release. Connectedness to the community at large positively predicted community adjustment whereas connectedness to the criminal community positively predicted recidivism. Targeting both types of community connectedness may enhance interventions intended to undermine recidivism and increase positive outcomes for inmates.

  7. Open-label pilot study of extended-release naltrexone to reduce drinking and driving among repeat offenders.

    PubMed

    Lapham, Sandra C; McMillan, Garnett P

    2011-09-01

    A high proportion of persons convicted of driving while impaired repeat the offense. Many continue drinking and driving, even when faced with long jail terms. Hence, they pose a serious public health threat. This preliminary study evaluated extended-release, injectable naltrexone suspension (XR-NTX) and supportive therapy in reducing (1) drinking and (2) attempts to drive after drinking among repeat driving while impaired offenders with an ignition interlock device installed in their vehicles. Treatment-seeking volunteers received medical management therapy and 3 monthly injections of XR-NTX. We compared data on alcohol consumption, alcohol biomarkers, and interlock information before, during, and after treatment using summary measures and Sign tests. Of 12 consented subjects, 10 received at least 1 injection, and 7 received all 3 injections. All subjects receiving medication reported a decrease in average drinks per day (P < 0.01) and abstinent days (P = 0.02) while on treatment versus pretreatment levels. Average daily drinks decreased by 77%, from 3.0 to 0.69 (P < 0.01), during treatment with XR-NTX. Average drinks per drinking day also declined by 39% during treatment, from 6.6 to 4.0 (P = 0.04). Percent days abstinent increased by 31%, from 56.8 to 81.96 (P = 0.02), which persisted after treatment completion. Biomarkers were consistent with reduced drinking. The percentage of vehicular failures to start due to elevated breath alcohol decreased from 3.1% of tests to 1.29% of tests. A randomized, controlled clinical trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of this promising treatment regimen for repeat offenders.

  8. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Effects on Youth Social Ecology and Criminal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borduin, Charles M.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Heiblum, Naamith

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) versus usual community services (UCS) for 48 juvenile sexual offenders at high risk of committing additional serious crimes. Results from multiagent assessment batteries conducted before and after treatment showed that MST was more effective than UCS in improving key…

  9. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  10. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  11. Parental Psychiatric Disease and Risks of Attempted Suicide and Violent Criminal Offending in Offspring: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mok, Pearl L H; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Springate, David; Astrup, Aske; Kapur, Nav; Antonsen, Sussie; Mors, Ole; Webb, Roger T

    2016-10-01

    Self-directed and interpersonal violence share some common risk factors such as a parental history of mental illness. However, relationships between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and these 2 related outcomes are unclear. To examine associations between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and risks of attempted suicide and violent offending among offspring. Population-based cohort study of all persons born in Denmark 1967 through 1997, followed up from their 15th birthday until occurrence of adverse outcome or December 31, 2012, whichever came first. Array of parental psychiatric disorders and parental suicide attempt, delineated from records of secondary care treatments. Using survival analyses techniques, incidence rate ratios were estimated for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending. We examined 1 743 525 cohort members (48.7% female; total follow-up, 27.2 million person-years). Risks for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending were elevated across virtually the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease. Incidence rate ratios were the most elevated for parental diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (suicide attempt, 3.96; 95% CI, 3.72-4.21; violent offending, 3.62; 95% CI, 3.41-3.84) and cannabis misuse (suicide attempt, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.25-3.92; violent offending, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.72-4.39), and for parental suicide attempt (suicide attempt, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.29-3.55; violent offending, 3.31; 95% CI, 3.19-3.44). Parental mood disorders (and bipolar disorder in particular) conferred more modest risk increases. A history of mental illness or suicide attempt in both parents was associated with double the risks compared with having just 1 affected parent. Associations between parental psychiatric disease and offspring violent offending were stronger for female than for male offspring, whereas little sex difference in risk was found for offspring suicide attempt. The similarities in risk patterns observed

  12. General Characteristics of Child Sexual Offenders in Hatay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslan, M Mustafa; Demirkiran, D Sumeyra; Akcan, Ramazan; Zeren, Cem; Kokacya, M Hanifi

    2016-02-01

    Child sexual offenders are a poorly studied and relatively neglected population in our country. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between criminal behavior and socio-demographic characteristics of a series of child sexual offenders. The records of social worker interviews with 48 child sexual offenders between 2009 and 2013 were used. The reports issued by social workers regarding child sexual offenders were retrospectively examined, since these reports were relatively the most thorough documents including offenders' personal and familial characteristics, and criminal event information. Cases were investigated in terms of socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics. There were 48 children interviewed based on an alleged sexual crime, during four-year of study period. All of the cases were male and their ages ranged between 12 and 17 years. Of these, 50% were students at any grade of school. Five cases were living in social service facilities. Only two cases involved incest. Of all, three offenders were accused of repeated sexual crimes. Type of sexual assault was anal penetration in 20 (41.7%) cases. Of all cases, 19 were cigarette smoker, while 4 were drug abusers. The families of 12 (25%) cases suffered from low socio-economic status, while 23 (47.9%) offenders were members of broken families. According to social worker reports, 47 cases had criminal responsibility based on their psychosocial development. Out of all cases, 7 children were suspected of suffering from impulse control disorder and one was suspected to be mentally retarded. Twelve cases were reported to need consulting and social protective services. The rate of offenders with interrupted education was considerably high. Interestingly the number of male victims and the frequency of cases involving anal penetration were high. Obtained results suggest that male children of broken and scattered families, and particularly those lacking father's supervision were more likely to commit a

  13. Engaging the Serious Youth Offender in Employment and Training: CSS/Project REAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Service Society of New York, NY.

    This report summarizes and assesses Project REAL (Return to Employment and Learning), which attempted to attack the high rate of youth crime by focusing on youth offenders who, because they committed repeated serious offenses, were likely to become career criminals. Following a brief introduction, the report describes typical Project REAL clients…

  14. A longitudinal study of risk factors for repeated sexual coercion and assault in U.S. College men.

    PubMed

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Thompson, Martie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to understand the prevalence, severity, and predictors of repeated sexual coercion and assault (SCA) in a non-criminal sample. Participants were 795 college men who were surveyed at the end of each of their 4 years in college. Participants completed self-report inventories once per year for 4 years. Measures assessed demographics, adverse childhood experiences, offense characteristics, antisocial personality characteristics, attitudes towards women and forced sex, perceived social norms, sexual behavior, and substance use. Results indicated that, among the 238 participants who reported at least once incident of SCA, 68 % engaged in repeated SCA, with repeat offenders engaging in aggressive acts of higher severity that began at an earlier age. A multinomial logistic regression model compared single and repeat offenders to non-perpetrators. Both single and repeat offenders endorsed more risky behaviors and sexually aggressive beliefs than non-perpetrators. Single offenders were higher on childhood adversity than non-perpetrators and repeat offenders were higher on antisocial personality traits than non-perpetrators. A second multivariate model compared single offenders to repeat offenders. Repeat offenders scored higher than single offenders on risky behaviors, sexually aggressive beliefs, and antisocial traits. Findings highlight the high prevalence of repeated SCA in young adults, the need for interventions that decrease rape supportive attitudes and risky substance use, and the importance of expanding models of sexual recidivism to include multiple risk factors.

  15. General Characteristics of Child Sexual Offenders in Hatay, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, M. Mustafa; Demirkiran, D. Sumeyra; Akcan, Ramazan; Zeren, Cem; Kokacya, M. Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Child sexual offenders are a poorly studied and relatively neglected population in our country. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between criminal behavior and socio-demographic characteristics of a series of child sexual offenders. Materials and Methods: The records of social worker interviews with 48 child sexual offenders between 2009 and 2013 were used. The reports issued by social workers regarding child sexual offenders were retrospectively examined, since these reports were relatively the most thorough documents including offenders’ personal and familial characteristics, and criminal event information. Cases were investigated in terms of socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results: There were 48 children interviewed based on an alleged sexual crime, during four-year of study period. All of the cases were male and their ages ranged between 12 and 17 years. Of these, 50% were students at any grade of school. Five cases were living in social service facilities. Only two cases involved incest. Of all, three offenders were accused of repeated sexual crimes. Type of sexual assault was anal penetration in 20 (41.7%) cases. Of all cases, 19 were cigarette smoker, while 4 were drug abusers. The families of 12 (25%) cases suffered from low socio-economic status, while 23 (47.9%) offenders were members of broken families. According to social worker reports, 47 cases had criminal responsibility based on their psychosocial development. Out of all cases, 7 children were suspected of suffering from impulse control disorder and one was suspected to be mentally retarded. Twelve cases were reported to need consulting and social protective services. Conclusion: The rate of offenders with interrupted education was considerably high. Interestingly the number of male victims and the frequency of cases involving anal penetration were high. Obtained results suggest that male children of broken and scattered families, and particularly those

  16. Temporal Alcohol Availability Predicts First-Time Drunk Driving, but Not Repeat Offending

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Denson, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense) and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense) charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges, but were not associated with felony drunk driving charges. The per capita density of on-premises alcohol outlets did not affect misdemeanor or felony drunk driving charges. The results suggest that temporal alcohol availability may be an impelling factor for first-time drunk driving, but other factors likely influence repeat drunk driving behaviors. PMID:23940711

  17. Temporal alcohol availability predicts first-time drunk driving, but not repeat offending.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Timothy P; Denson, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense) and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense) charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges, but were not associated with felony drunk driving charges. The per capita density of on-premises alcohol outlets did not affect misdemeanor or felony drunk driving charges. The results suggest that temporal alcohol availability may be an impelling factor for first-time drunk driving, but other factors likely influence repeat drunk driving behaviors.

  18. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Konstenius, Maija; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Guterstam, Joar; Beck, Olof; Philips, Björn; Franck, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Aim To test the efficacy and safety of osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) in doses up to 180 mg/day to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevent any drug relapse in individuals with a co-diagnosis of ADHD and amphetamine dependence. Design Randomized placebo-controlled 24-week double-blind trial with parallel groups design. Setting Participants were recruited from medium security prisons in Sweden. The medication started within 2 weeks before release from prison and continued in out-patient care with twice-weekly visits, including once-weekly cognitive behavioural therapy. Participants Fifty-four men with a mean age of 42 years, currently incarcerated, meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and amphetamine dependence. Measurements Change in self-reported ADHD symptoms, relapse to any drug use (amphetamine and other drugs) measured by urine toxicology, retention to treatment, craving and time to relapse. Findings The MPH-treated group reduced their ADHD symptoms during the trial (P = 0.011) and had a significantly higher proportion of drug-negative urines compared with the placebo group (P = 0.047), including more amphetamine-negative urines (P = 0.019) and better retention to treatment (P = 0.032). Conclusions Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence. PMID:24118269

  19. Offending, custody and opioid substitution therapy treatment utilisation among opioid-dependent people in contact with the criminal justice system: comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    PubMed

    Gisev, Natasa; Gibson, Amy; Larney, Sarah; Kimber, Jo; Williams, Megan; Clifford, Anton; Doyle, Michael; Burns, Lucy; Butler, Tony; Weatherburn, Don J; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2014-09-06

    Although Indigenous Australians are over-represented among heroin users, there has been no study examining offending, time in custody, and opioid substitution therapy (OST) treatment utilisation among Indigenous opioid-dependent (including heroin) people at the population level, nor comparing these to non-Indigenous opioid-dependent people. The aims of this study were to compare the nature and types of charges, time in custody and OST treatment utilisation between opioid-dependent Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in contact with the criminal justice system. This was a population-based, retrospective data linkage study using records of OST entrants in New South Wales, Australia (1985-2010), court appearances (1993-2011) and custody episodes (2000-2012). Charge rates per 100 person-years were compared between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians by sex, age and calendar year. Statistical comparisons were made for variables describing the cumulative time and percentage of follow-up time spent in custody, as well as characteristics of OST initiation and overall OST treatment utilisation. Of the 34,962 people in the cohort, 6,830 (19.5%) were Indigenous and 28,132 (80.5%) non-Indigenous. Among the 6,830 Indigenous people, 4,615 (67.6%) were male and 2,215 (32.4%) female. The median number of charges per person against Indigenous people (25, IQR 31) was significantly greater than non-Indigenous people (9, IQR 16) (p < 0.001). Overall, Indigenous people were charged with 33.2% of the total number of charges against the cohort and 44.0% of all violent offences. The median percentage of follow-up time that Indigenous males and females spent in custody was twice that of non-Indigenous males (21.7% vs. 10.1%, p < 0.001) and females (6.0% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001). The percentage of Indigenous people who first commenced OST in prison (30.2%) was three times that of non-Indigenous people (11.2%) (p < 0.001). Indigenous males spent less time in OST compared to non

  20. Risk-taking behaviour and criminal offending: an investigation of sensation seeking and the Eysenck personality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Knust, Sonja; Stewart, Anna L

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated relationships between hostility, Zuckerman's sensation seeking, and Eysenck and Eysenck's personality scales within a prison population, to explore whether they could be conceptualized in terms of two socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking factors. Participants included 79 incarcerated adult male offenders (age range = 18-62). Findings support the distinction between socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking and suggest that these factors represent more overarching personality factors. Psychoticism was a clear marker of the more broad impulsive, unsocialized sensation seeking factor, rather than representing a supertrait in its own right. This factor was also represented by lie, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility scales. Findings relating to hostility also supported such a reformulation, as unsocialized scales did cluster together to predict the unsocialized hostility factor, whereas unsocialized scales did not. The results demonstrate the need for a theoretical reformulation of the two given theories of personality.

  1. Recidivism among sex offenders: a follow-up study of 541 Norwegian sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Grünfeld, B; Noreik, K

    1986-01-01

    A study of recidivism to sexual offences was conducted among Norwegian males who had received their first conviction for a sexual crime during the years 1970-1974. Five hundred and forty-one out of a total of 1,071 offenders were randomly selected and followed by means of official and public register systems until the end of August 1983. No one was contacted personally by the investigators. The recidivism rate was 12.8%, with the rapists having the highest tendency to commit new sexual crimes. Acts like incest, exploitation of someone in the custody of the perpetrator or similar felonies against so-called public morals were least likely to be repeated. Most of the repeat offenders only had one single subsequent offence, either of the same type of crime as at the first or to a less severe crime. Only a handful committed more than one repeat offence. A large number of the sexual offenders had committed others types of crimes, some prior to their first conviction for the sexual crime and some subsequent. Most of our criminally convicted males had a record of mixed criminality, in which crimes of profit and violence dominated.

  2. The Handicapped Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, W. Donald; Kravitz, Marjorie

    The bibliography on handicapped adult offenders covers all aspects of the criminal justice process--arrest, pretrial evaluation, determination of competency to stand trial, civil vs. criminal proceedings, and community and institutional treatment. An introduction discusses the number of offenders who are mentally retarded or physically…

  3. Criminal recidivism among juvenile offenders: testing the incremental and predictive validity of three measures of psychopathic features.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kevin S; Epstein, Monica E; Poythress, Norman G

    2008-10-01

    We studied the predictive, comparative, and incremental validity of three measures of psychopathic features (Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Antisocial Process Screening Device [APSD]; Childhood Psychopathy Scale [CPS]) vis-à-vis criminal recidivism among 83 delinquent youth within a truly prospective design. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Cox proportional hazard analyses) showed that of the three measures, the CPS was most consistently related to most types of recidivism in comparison to the other measures. However, incremental validity analyses demonstrated that all of the predictive effects for the measures of psychopathic features disappeared after conceptually relevant covariates (i.e., substance use, conduct disorder, young age, past property crime) were included in multivariate predictive models. Implications for the limits of these measures in applied juvenile justice assessment are discussed.

  4. Identifying personality subtypes based on the five-factor model dimensions in male prisoners: implications for psychopathy and criminal offending.

    PubMed

    Claes, Laurence; Tavernier, Geert; Roose, Annelore; Bijttebier, Patricia; Smith, Sarah Francis; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to identify personality subtypes on the basis of the five-factor model dimensions in male prisoners. Participants included 110 Flemish male prisoners assessed by means of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory and different symptom, personality, and coping measures. We found two clusters: an emotionally stable/resilient cluster and an aggressive/undercontrolled cluster. Prisoners within the aggressive/undercontrolled cluster scored significantly higher on almost all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 basic scales, (in)direct aggression measures, and depressive coping scales compared with resilients. They also scored higher on drug abuse and committed more sexual offenses than resilient prisoners. These two personality subtypes bear theoretically and practically important implications for psychopathy subtypes and different pathways to criminal offenses.

  5. Federal Offenders Rehabilitation Collaboration Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    This paper gives the specifics of a federal offenders rehabilitation program implementation and evaluation which will test and demonstrate the effects of providing intensive vocational rehabilitation services to federal offenders. The authors note that criminal offenders have difficulty in vocational adjustment, and this is exacerbated by their…

  6. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder does not predict criminal recidivism in young adult offenders: Results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Lena; Hosser, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    As the state of research on the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and recidivism can be considered controversial, our prospective study investigated whether ADHD predicts recidivism in a sample of 283 male, German, young adult prisoners. Currently existing ADHD symptoms and symptoms that were present in childhood were screened according to the DSM-IV checklist criteria. Information on general and violent recidivism was gathered using government records with a follow-up period of up to five years. The prevalence of adult ADHD was six times greater than in the general population, and the number of participants who retrospectively met the criteria for a diagnosis with ADHD in childhood was ten times greater than found in community samples. Survival analyses did not identify ADHD as a predictor of recidivism. Controlling for conduct disorder, substance dependence, and other relevant variables did not alter results. However, among individuals who were released from prison and then reconvicted for a new crime, offenders diagnosed with ADHD were found to reoffend sooner after release. These findings stress the necessity of differentiating between risk factors for delinquency and risk factors for recidivism.

  8. Feature-Based Attention and Conflict Monitoring in Criminal Offenders: Interactive Relations of Psychopathy with Anxiety and Externalizing

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Joshua D.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    As predicted by the response modulation model, psychopathic offenders are insensitive to potentially important inhibitory information when it is peripheral to their primary focus of attention. To date, the clearest tests of this hypothesis have manipulated spatial attention to cue the location of goal-relevant versus inhibitory information. However, the theory predicts a more general abnormality in selective attention. In the current study male prisoners performed a conflict-monitoring task, which included a feature-based manipulation (i.e., color) that biased selective attention toward goal-relevant stimuli and away from inhibitory distracters on some trials but not others. Paralleling results for spatial cuing, feature-based cuing resulted in less distracter interference, particularly for participants with primary psychopathy (i.e., low anxiety). This study also investigated the moderating effect of externalizing on psychopathy. Participants high in psychopathy but low in externalizing performed similarly to primary psychopathic individuals. These results demonstrate that the abnormal selective attention associated with primary psychopathy is not limited to spatial attention but, instead, applies to diverse methods for establishing attentional focus. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel method of investigating psychopathic subtypes using continuous analyses. PMID:24016017

  9. Both self-report and interview-based measures of psychopathy predict attention abnormalities in criminal offenders

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Joshua D.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, psychopathy has been viewed as a clinical syndrome with a unitary etiology, assessed via clinical interview. However factor analytic studies suggest that psychopathy may also be understood as a combination of two subfactors consisting of (a) interpersonal-affective and (b) lifestyle-antisocial traits. Further, evidence supports the use of self-report measures to assess psychopathy and these sub-factors. This investigation employed a Stroop-like task to determine the relationship of the two psychopathy factors, as assessed by both interview-based and self-report measures, to attention-related abnormalities in psychopathy. For both instruments, the factors interacted to predict performance (i.e., interference), though the unique main effects were non-significant. The results suggest that the anomalous selective attention of psychopathic offenders is specific to individuals with high scores on both factors. Moreover, these results have important implications for the two-factor model of psychopathy, and provide preliminary support for the functional similarity of self-report and interview-based measures of psychopathy. PMID:21784752

  10. Feature-based attention and conflict monitoring in criminal offenders: interactive relations of psychopathy with anxiety and externalizing.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Joshua D; Newman, Joseph P

    2013-08-01

    As predicted by the response modulation model, psychopathic offenders are insensitive to potentially important inhibitory information when it is peripheral to their primary focus of attention. To date, the clearest tests of this hypothesis have manipulated spatial attention to cue the location of goal-relevant versus inhibitory information. However, the theory predicts a more general abnormality in selective attention. In the current study, male prisoners performed a conflict-monitoring task, which included a feature-based manipulation (i.e., color) that biased selective attention toward goal-relevant stimuli and away from inhibitory distracters on some trials but not others. Paralleling results for spatial cuing, feature-based cuing resulted in less distracter interference, particularly for participants with primary psychopathy (i.e., low anxiety). This study also investigated the moderating effect of externalizing on psychopathy. Participants high in psychopathy but low in externalizing performed similarly to primary psychopathic individuals. These results demonstrate that the abnormal selective attention associated with primary psychopathy is not limited to spatial attention but, instead, applies to diverse methods for establishing attentional focus. Furthermore, they demonstrate a novel method of investigating psychopathic subtypes using continuous analyses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Score Metric Equivalence of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) across criminal offenders in North America and the United Kingdom: a critique of Cooke, Michie, Hart, and Clark (2005) and new analyses.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Daniel M; Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S

    2007-03-01

    David Cooke and colleagues have published a series of item response theory (IRT) studies investigating the equivalence of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for European versus North American (NA) male criminal offenders. They have consistently concluded that PCL-R scores are not equivalent, with European offenders receiving scores up to five points lower than those in NA when matched according to the latent trait. In this article, the authors critique the Cooke et al. analyses and demonstrate how their anchor item selection method is responsible for their final conclusions concerning the apparent lack of equivalence. The authors provide a competing IRT analysis using an iterative purification strategy for anchor item selection and show how this more justifiable approach leads to very different conclusions regarding the equivalence of the PCL-R. More generally, it is argued that strong interpretations of IRT analyses in the presence of uncorroborated anchor items can be highly misleading when evaluating score metric equivalence.

  12. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Konstenius, Maija; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Guterstam, Joar; Beck, Olof; Philips, Björn; Franck, Johan

    2014-03-01

    To test the efficacy and safety of osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) in doses up to 180 mg/day to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevent any drug relapse in individuals with a co-diagnosis of ADHD and amphetamine dependence. Randomized placebo-controlled 24-week double-blind trial with parallel groups design. Participants were recruited from medium security prisons in Sweden. The medication started within 2 weeks before release from prison and continued in out-patient care with twice-weekly visits, including once-weekly cognitive behavioural therapy. Fifty-four men with a mean age of 42 years, currently incarcerated, meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and amphetamine dependence. Change in self-reported ADHD symptoms, relapse to any drug use (amphetamine and other drugs) measured by urine toxicology, retention to treatment, craving and time to relapse. The MPH-treated group reduced their ADHD symptoms during the trial (P = 0.011) and had a significantly higher proportion of drug-negative urines compared with the placebo group (P = 0.047), including more amphetamine-negative urines (P = 0.019) and better retention to treatment (P=0.032). Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Intervening to prevent repeat offending among moderate- to high-risk domestic violence offenders: a second-responder program for men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katreena; Heslop, Lisa; Kelly, Tim; Wiggins, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Clear directions about best strategies to reduce recidivism among domestic violence offenders have remained elusive. The current study offers an initial evaluation of an RNR (Risk, Needs, and Responsivity)-focused second-responder program for men accused of assaulting their intimate partners and who were judged as being at moderate to high risk for re-offending. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare police outcomes for 40 men attending a second-responder intervention program to 40 men with equivalent levels of risk for re-offense who did not attend intervention (comparison group). Results showed that there were significant, substantial, and lasting differences across groups in all outcome domains. In terms of recidivism, rates of subsequent domestic-violence-related changes were more than double for men in the comparison group as compared with the intervention group in both 1-year (65.9% vs. 29.3%) and 2-year (41.5% vs. 12.2%) follow-up. Changes in the rates of arrest were consistent with reductions in men's general involvement with police, with men in the intervention group receiving fewer charges for violent offenses, administrative offenses, and property offenses over the 2 years following intervention than men in the comparison group. Not surprisingly, these differences result in a much lower estimated amount of police time with intervention men than for comparison men. Results are discussed with reference to the possible impact of sharing information with men about their assessed risk for re-offending within a therapeutic justice context.

  14. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  15. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  16. [Temporality and trauma: Towards an articulation between the judicial, educational and psychological times in repeat teenage offenders].

    PubMed

    Kermarrec, S; Mougli, K

    2015-09-01

    Within the past few years, the problem of repeat teenage offenders has raised troubling questions among the various institutions in charge of this population. The temporalities of these adolescents are marked by immediacy, urgency, and repetition that circumvent a linear view of time and the programs set up to handle them. Studies on repeat teenage aggressors (notably, sexual aggressors) have shown that these young people often have a history of an acknowledged or unacknowledged trauma. The fact of having been a victim of abuse during childhood is thought to be a factor leading to later acting out. Our objective is to inquire into these juvenile delinquents and their treatment using a temporal framework of their life pathway that will influence the ways in which they are treated by professionals. By tracing back through the lives of these young authors of violence, we can find out whether they were themselves victims. Repeated acts of violence by a youth could then be seen not as isolated acts but as expressions of ill-being, of having been a victim, whether recognized or not. The act thus represents a link between the present and the past that can be analyzed by looking at occurrences of acting out. It would be interesting, moreover, to reflect upon how continuity could be created there where disruption strikes the youth and often the institutions too. We provide a detailed description of the notion of trauma by recalling its definition and its possible immediate and deferred effects on these youths. In the immediate time frame, the subject may present a physical reaction to the trauma. The psychological reaction will determine a psychic time frame expressed in several ways, whether immediately or at a distance from the traumatic event. Posttraumatic reactions may hamper the development of the teenager's personality. Some traumatized adolescents will express their ill-being by aggressiveness, as they replay the traumatic scene by staging violent and dangerous

  17. Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders

    PubMed Central

    Ozolins, Andrejs; Westling, Sofie; Westrin, Åsa; Billstedt, Eva; Hofvander, Björn; Wallinius, Märta

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person’s quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18–25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders. PMID:28817578

  18. Deliberate self-harm behavior among young violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Natalie; Ozolins, Andrejs; Westling, Sofie; Westrin, Åsa; Billstedt, Eva; Hofvander, Björn; Wallinius, Märta

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders. Data were collected from a nationally representative cohort of 270 male violent offenders, 18-25 years old, imprisoned in Sweden. Participants were interviewed and investigated neuropsychologically, and their files were reviewed for psychosocial background, criminal history, mental disorders, lifetime aggressive antisocial behaviors, and DSH. A total of 62 offenders (23%) had engaged in DSH at some point during their lifetime, many on repeated occasions, yet without suicidal intent. DSH was significantly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, various substance use disorders, being bullied at school, and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and being bullied at school remained significant predictors of DSH in a total regression model. Violent offenders direct aggressive behaviors not only toward other people, but also toward themselves. Thus, DSH must be assessed and prevented in correctional institutions as early as possible, and more knowledge is needed of the function of DSH among offenders.

  19. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Criminal Careers and Cognitive Scripts: An Investigation into Criminal Versatility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen; Hockey, David

    2010-01-01

    "Criminal careers" denotes ways in which offenders develop specialisms and versatility, but studies linking delinquency to social skills deficits have not attempted to explore cognitive, internalised processes by which such "careers" might be chosen. This study investigated criminal minds via script theory: "internal"…

  1. Distinguishing among weapons offenders, drug offenders, and weapons and drug offenders based on childhood predictors and adolescent correlates.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Skye; Day, David M

    2013-07-01

    Weapons and drug offences incur a large cost to society and tend to be strongly associated. Improved understanding of their antecedents could inform targeted early intervention and prevention programmes. This study aimed to examine differences in criminal careers, childhood predictors and adolescent correlates among weapons-only offenders, drugs-only offenders and a versatile group of weapons + drugs offenders. We conducted a longitudinal records study of 455 young Canadians charged with drug and/or weapons offences who started their offending in late childhood/early adolescence. Consistent with expectation, differences emerged in their criminal careers as the versatile group had a longer criminal career and desisted from offending at a later age than weapons-only offenders. Against prediction, weapons-only offenders experienced the greatest number of childhood predictors and adolescent correlates. The three offending groups could be differentiated on offending trajectories and developmental factors.In making links between past events and later behaviour, life-course criminology may inform development of effective early intervention and prevention strategies.As weapons-only offenders experience the greatest level of adversity in childhood and adolescence, they may benefit most (of these three groups) from early intervention and prevention programmes.A reduction in weapon carrying and use might be achieved by early identification of children risk factors (e.g. family adversity) and appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Offender and victim characteristics of registered female sexual offenders in Texas: a proposed typology of female sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen

    2004-04-01

    Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.

  3. Women don't do such things! Characteristics of female sex offenders and offender types.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2010-06-01

    The authors studied offender, offense, and victim characteristics in a cohort of 111 adult female sex offenders comprising all female sex offenders known to the criminal justice authorities in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2005. In 77% of the cases, the female sex offenders had abused children; almost two thirds of the women had co-offended with a male co-offender. Their backgrounds are on average problematic with sexual abuse being prominent (31%); mental disorders were also prominent (59%). Using multiple correspondence analysis, the authors distinguished four prototypical offender types. They identified the young assaulter and the rapist who are relatively young solo offenders. Two prototypes, the psychologically disturbed co-offender and the passive mother, comprise older women. They mostly abused their own children together with their male/intimate partner. These prototypes partly overlap with previous typologies. The authors discuss implications for theory and treatment.

  4. An international comparative overview on the rehabilitation of offenders and effective measures for the prevention of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Someda, Kei

    2009-04-01

    The prevention of recidivism has long been a central issue in criminal justice policy. This is justified because an offender who repeatedly commits crime inflicts far greater damage on society than an offender who commits a crime just once in his/her lifetime. For instance, research by the Ministry of Justice of Japan (2007) reveals that only approximately 30% of repeat offenders were responsible for around 60% of the crime committed in Japan from 1948 to 2006. It has been proven that the realization of the rehabilitation of offenders contributes to the reduction of recidivism. The successful rehabilitation of offenders depends in large part upon the effectiveness of the community-based treatment given to offenders based upon an appropriate assessment of multidimensional risk factors and a multidisciplinary approach. In exploring effective community-based treatment of offenders using a multidisciplinary approach, the author touches upon several effective programs from an international comparative view, including: intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP), Drug Court, cognitive behavioral treatment programs and some recent developments related to this field in Japan.

  5. Mental illness and criminal violence.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, J A; Brennan, P A; Hodgins, S; Mednick, S A

    1998-12-01

    This article examines the relationship between criminal violence and mental illness. Our data suggest that mentally ill persons tend to have an increased risk for committing violent offenses, and that the violent offending by these individuals tends to be recidivistic. Our findings suggest that parents who have both committed violent offenses and experienced a psychiatric hospitalization increase the risk of violent offending among their offspring. We propose the hypothesis that mentally ill parents transmit a biological characteristic which may genetically predispose their child towards criminal violence. Prenatal disturbances during critical periods of fetal development may provide clues regarding the etiology of criminal violence.

  6. From Convict to Citizen: Programs for the Woman Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Virginia A.

    Women offenders have needs that can be met through concerted action by individuals or community groups. To familiarize community groups with the problems of women offenders and to describe some programs to assist them, the booklet begins with a brief description of the criminal justice process and describes the place of women offenders in this…

  7. Co-Offending and the Age-Crime Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2008-01-01

    It is proffered rather frequently that co-offending is the dominate form of criminal offending among juveniles because of the enhanced salience of peer pressure during adolescence, and that this enhanced propensity to co-offend is pivotal for understanding the age-crime curve. Using National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data for 2002,…

  8. Co-Offending and the Age-Crime Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2008-01-01

    It is proffered rather frequently that co-offending is the dominate form of criminal offending among juveniles because of the enhanced salience of peer pressure during adolescence, and that this enhanced propensity to co-offend is pivotal for understanding the age-crime curve. Using National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data for 2002,…

  9. The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kim; Retzlaff, Paul; Kleinsasser, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Documents the development of an adult sex offender risk assessment tool. A risk scale was developed based upon criminal and therapeutic outcomes of 494 sex offenders. The final risk scale included prior juvenile felony convictions, prior adult felony convictions, victim being intoxicated, denial in therapy, sexual deviance in therapy, and…

  10. Treating the Adolescent Victim-Turned-Offender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muster, Nori J.

    1992-01-01

    Many juvenile sex offenders are also victims of sexual abuse. Treatment primarily focuses on juvenile's criminal acts in confrontational, nonsympathetic manner. Surveyed 18 professionals in sexual abuse treatment field to assess attitudes toward juvenile sex offender treatment. Those in corrections field were greatest supporters of confrontational…

  11. Female sexual offenders in the educational system: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P

    2012-01-01

    Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors.

  12. Time Orientation of Young Male First Offenders as a Function of Period of Imprisonment and Race. Criminal Justice Monograph Volume VI, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Paul J.

    This research attempted to identify differences, or lack of them, in time orientation of Caucasian, Black and Chicano young male first offenders at various periods of imprisonment; beginning, middle, and end. The instrument that was chosen to measure time orientation was a combination of two questionnaires--the Time Competence scale of the…

  13. Trends in Offender Vocational and Education Programs: A Literature Search with Program Development Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Sylvia D.

    The American penal system of placing criminal offenders in institutions has evolved from two major goals: (1) to punish offenders as an example to the rest of the community, and (2) to rehabilitate offenders into the community. Since the mid-1960's there has been a trend toward placing offenders in the community and away from isolating them in…

  14. Examining Specialization Among Sex Offenders Released From Prison.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeffrey; Simon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    A prevailing cultural stereotype about sex offenders is that they tend to specialize in sexual offending. Many recent policy developments-mainly aimed to restrict the liberties of sex offenders-are rooted in this idea. We examined the correctional and arrest records of a sample of 312 sex offenders released on parole in Colorado to determine the prevalence of sexual specialization among these offenders, and to compare the legal and social characteristics of specialists and versatile sex offenders. Overall we found that very few participants officially classified as sex offenders fit the specialist stereotype. Study participants generally displayed versatile histories of criminal offending. We also found that specialists were distinguishable from versatile offenders on certain indices of social integration and mental health, and they were more likely to have had a history of offending against children.

  15. Enduring Risk? Old Criminal Records and Predictions of Future Criminal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlychek, Megan C.; Brame, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.

    2007-01-01

    It is well accepted that criminal records impose collateral consequences on offenders. Such records affect access to public housing, student financial aid, welfare benefits, and voting rights. An axiom of these policies is that individuals with criminal records--even old criminal records--exhibit significantly higher risk of future criminal…

  16. Enduring Risk? Old Criminal Records and Predictions of Future Criminal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlychek, Megan C.; Brame, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.

    2007-01-01

    It is well accepted that criminal records impose collateral consequences on offenders. Such records affect access to public housing, student financial aid, welfare benefits, and voting rights. An axiom of these policies is that individuals with criminal records--even old criminal records--exhibit significantly higher risk of future criminal…

  17. Identifying Risk and Protective Factors in Recidivist Juvenile Offenders: A Decision Tree Approach.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Campos, Elena; García-García, Juan; Gil-Fenoy, Maria José; Zaldívar-Basurto, Flor

    2016-01-01

    Research on juvenile justice aims to identify profiles of risk and protective factors in juvenile offenders. This paper presents a study of profiles of risk factors that influence young offenders toward committing sanctionable antisocial behavior (S-ASB). Decision tree analysis is used as a multivariate approach to the phenomenon of repeated sanctionable antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders in Spain. The study sample was made up of the set of juveniles who were charged in a court case in the Juvenile Court of Almeria (Spain). The period of study of recidivism was two years from the baseline. The object of study is presented, through the implementation of a decision tree. Two profiles of risk and protective factors are found. Risk factors associated with higher rates of recidivism are antisocial peers, age at baseline S-ASB, problems in school and criminality in family members.

  18. Identifying Risk and Protective Factors in Recidivist Juvenile Offenders: A Decision Tree Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Campos, Elena; García-García, Juan; Gil-Fenoy, Maria José; Zaldívar-Basurto, Flor

    2016-01-01

    Research on juvenile justice aims to identify profiles of risk and protective factors in juvenile offenders. This paper presents a study of profiles of risk factors that influence young offenders toward committing sanctionable antisocial behavior (S-ASB). Decision tree analysis is used as a multivariate approach to the phenomenon of repeated sanctionable antisocial behavior in juvenile offenders in Spain. The study sample was made up of the set of juveniles who were charged in a court case in the Juvenile Court of Almeria (Spain). The period of study of recidivism was two years from the baseline. The object of study is presented, through the implementation of a decision tree. Two profiles of risk and protective factors are found. Risk factors associated with higher rates of recidivism are antisocial peers, age at baseline S-ASB, problems in school and criminality in family members. PMID:27611313

  19. [Offender's health state and his typing process].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Sygit, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The problem of offender typing has been repeatedly discussed in criminalistic literature. The inference about physical health or psychophysical health of an unknown offender may significantly accelerate his identification. To achieve this objective, both serological as well as bacteriological tests have been used. The considerable progress in natural sciences indicates a possibility of employing genetic research to define the offender's health state.

  20. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  1. [Selected problems in the forensic-psychiatric evaluation of persons posing a likelihood of repeating a criminal act].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Nowacka, Agata; Strójwas, Krzysztof; Flinik-Jankowska, Magdalena; Konopa, Aleksandra; Łacisz, Joanna; Wierzbiński, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    In the current penal code, compared to previous regulations, there have been alterations concerning medical security measures. These amendments have been prompted by socio-politic circumstances in Poland as well as implementation of Mental Health Act. According to the current law the court, on the request of expert psychiatrists, can pronounce a sentence of obligatory stay in psychiatric institution for perpetrator of criminal act who has been deemed not sane due to 31 subsection 1 of penal code and who is predictably able of recidivism. In legal-medical practice those less experienced expert psychiatrists may encounter difficulties producing expertise for the court, especially evaluating probability of recurrence of committing a criminal act and resulting request for psychiatric detention. In order to make this issue more acquainted we present a review of literature concerning it.

  2. Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20 years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in

  3. Towards a neurobiological model of offending.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ian J; Beech, Anthony R

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we consider how disturbances in the neurobiological/neurochemical processes at a young age lead to problematic attachment styles in later life, and which can potentiate probability of offending behavior. In particular, we will contrast attachment and offending patterns of the more generalist type of offender (i.e., those who have a varied criminal career, committing both violent and non-violent offenses, in extremis the psychopathic type of offender), with the more specialist sexual offender (prototypically, the fixated pedophile), in the light of a preliminary neurobiological model. Here, we will argue that these two extremes of offenders show, or are predicted to show, differential patterns of neurochemical/neurobiological functioning.

  4. Prevalence of criminal thinking among state prison inmates with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert D; Fisher, William H; Duan, Naihua; Mandracchia, Jon T; Murray, Danielle

    2010-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of criminal thinking in mentally disordered offenders, incarcerated male (n = 265) and female (n = 149) offenders completed measures of psychiatric functioning and criminal thinking. Results indicated 92% of the participants were diagnosed with a serious mental illness, and mentally disordered offenders produced criminal thinking scores on the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) similar to that of non-mentally ill offenders. Collectively, results indicated the clinical presentation of mentally disordered offenders is similar to that of psychiatric patients and criminals. Implications are discussed with specific focus on the need for mental health professionals to treat co-occurring issues of mental illness and criminality in correctional mental health treatment programs.

  5. Prevalence of Criminal Thinking among State Prison Inmates with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William H.; Duan, Naihua; Mandracchia, Jon T.; Murray, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of criminal thinking in mentally disordered offenders, incarcerated male (n = 265) and female (n = 149) offenders completed measures of psychiatric functioning and criminal thinking. Results indicated 92% of the participants were diagnosed with a serious mental illness, and mentally disordered offenders produced criminal thinking scores on the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) similar to that of non-mentally ill offenders. Collectively, results indicated the clinical presentation of mentally disordered offenders is similar to that of psychiatric patients and criminals. Implications are discussed with specific focus on the need for mental health professionals to treat co-occurring issues of mental illness and criminality in correctional mental health treatment programs. PMID:19551496

  6. Intellectual abilities and motivation toward substance abuse treatment in drug-involved offenders: a pilot study in the Belgian criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Vandevelde, Stijn; Broekaert, Eric; Schuyten, Gilberte; Van Hove, Geert

    2005-06-01

    A sample of Belgian drug-involved inmates (N=116) completed the European Addiction Severity Index, the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness Scales. The pilot results demonstrate that nearly 50% of the participating drug-involved offenders display low intellectual abilities (SPM score definitely below average). Legal difficulties, drug abuse, and psychological problems are identified as the most severe problem areas for the total group. The participants display low to moderately low scores regarding motivation, readiness, and external reasons to stay in or leave treatment. No to very limited correlations between motivational attributes and other variables such as the length of the prison sentence and the number of violent crimes are found. Participants with high intellectual abilities are less motivated to enter substance abuse treatment compared to their counterparts with average and low intellectual abilities. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  7. Criminal Children and Teenagers: Psychopathological Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiller, Bernard; Couraud-Barnoud, Simone

    1994-01-01

    Examined the psychopathological morbidity of criminal children and teenagers from a diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventative point of view. Studied the young offenders' histories, their behavior patterns and personalities at the time the actual criminal act took place, and how subjects coped with the judicial procedure during the following…

  8. Drug-related disorders and the criminal and clinical background of the prison population of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes dos Santos, Maíra; Quintana, Maria Ines; Moreira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the association between drug (DAD) and alcohol (AAD) abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD) were combined into a single category. The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women). Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17), to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85), and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18). Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18). Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39), a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24), a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09), another health problem (OR 3.04), and violent crime (OR 2.5). The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for prison populations.

  9. Drug treatments in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, Benjamin R; Williams, A R

    2012-06-01

    The available evidence suggests that drug treatment can lead to modest, but real, reductions in criminal offending for drug-using criminal offenders. Considering the scope of the problem of drug-related crime and the expense of dealing with these issues, even marginal improvements can lead to important aggregate savings in both economic and humanitarian terms. More randomized, controlled trials of drug treatment in criminal justice programs will lead to a more sophisticated understanding of what kind of treatment works best for this group.

  10. 77 FR 33489 - Draft Offender Tracking System Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... documents is open to industry technical representatives, criminal justice agencies and organizations... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Draft Offender Tracking System Standard AGENCY: National Institute of Justice...

  11. Offense history and recidivism in three victim-age-based groups of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A

    2007-12-01

    This study compared subgroups of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who victimized children (child offenders), peers (peer offenders), or both children and peers (mixed offenders) on sexual and nonsexual offense history, treatment outcomes, and recidivism to determine if these are distinct and valid subgroups. Though the group of mixed offenders was small, results showed that they exhibited a more diverse and more physically intrusive sexual offense history than the other JSOs and were less likely to successfully complete treatment. Sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of mixed offenders did not differ from the other subgroups despite subgroup differences in juvenile sexual and nonsexual criminal records. However, differences in sexual recidivism rates of child versus peer offenders were found when the mixed offenders were either excluded from the sample or combined with child offenders. The results highlight the need to include mixed offenders in future research examining the etiology of sexual offending, treatment, and recidivism of JSOs.

  12. Predicting Trajectories of Offending over the Life Course: Findings from a Dutch Conviction Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersani, Bianca E.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Laub, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Distinguishing trajectories of criminal offending over the life course, especially the prediction of high-rate offenders, has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Motivated by a recent study by Sampson and Laub (2003), this study uses longitudinal data on conviction histories from the Dutch Criminal Career and Life-Course…

  13. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  14. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  15. Postrelease specialization and versatility in sexual offenders referred for civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A; Smallbone, Stephen; Dennison, Susan

    2011-06-01

    Offense specialization and versatility has been explored previously in the prior criminal records of sexual offenders. The present study expanded these findings by examining offense specialization and versatility in the postrelease offending of a sample of sexual offenders referred for civil commitment and released. Criminal versatility (not limiting one's offending to sexual crime) both before and after commitment was the most commonly observed offending pattern in the sample. Specialist offenders (those for whom sexual offenses constituted more than half of their total number of previous arrests) were more likely than versatile offenders to specialize in sexual offending on release, perhaps indicating that specialization is a stable offending tendency. When compared by referral status, recidivism records indicated that offenders who were committed for treatment were more likely than observed, noncommitted offenders to specialize in sexual offending on release. When compared by offender classification, child molesters and offenders with mixed aged victims were much more likely than rapists and incest offenders to specialize in sexual offending on release.

  16. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  17. Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  18. Toward a Clinically Meaningful Taxonomy of Violent Offenders: The Role of Anger and Thinking Styles.

    PubMed

    Low, Kyra; Day, Andrew

    2015-05-22

    Violent offender rehabilitation programs aim to reduce the risk of re-offending in known offenders by addressing a range of different treatments needs, often with core intervention targets of improving anger regulation and altering antisocial beliefs and thinking styles. Such programs have proven efficacy in reducing recidivism for some, but not all, violent offenders, and little is known about the effects of these programs on different offender types. This study investigates whether subtypes of violent offenders can be meaningfully identified and considers how this influences short-term treatment outcomes. Cluster analysis identified three distinctive violent offender groups within a sample of 305 male offenders who had been assessed for participation in a violent offender rehabilitation program. An "unregulated" group had high levels of anger experience and expression and low levels of anger control, and held beliefs that were strongly supportive of a criminal lifestyle. A "regulated" group demonstrated levels of anger and beliefs supporting criminal activity that were not in a range that warranted treatment. Finally, an "overregulated" group was assessed as the group at highest risk of violent re-offending and had low levels of anger experience and expression and an absence of beliefs supporting criminal activity. The unregulated group appeared to gain the most benefit from treatment, although it had the highest levels of criminal thinking and problematic anger. These findings nonetheless offer support for the hypothesis that violent offender treatment programs may be optimally effective when targeted at particular types of offenders.

  19. Organized Crime Offenders in Canada: Risk, Reform, and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick

    2013-01-01

    This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…

  20. Offenders' Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jamie S.; Hanrahan, Kate; Bowers, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence. Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a)…

  1. No One Knows: Offenders with Learning Difficulties and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…

  2. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

  3. Perceptions of Punishment: How Registered Sex Offenders View Registries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewksbury, Richard; Lees, Matthew B.

    2007-01-01

    Sex offender registries (SORs) are a societal response to serious and presumably dangerous criminal offenders. Existing research on registries has focused on demographic overviews of registrants, assessments of registrants' recidivism, accuracy and completeness of listed information, and collateral consequences for registrants. The present…

  4. A Description of Sexual Offending Committed by Canadian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulden, Heather M.; Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A.; Wexler, Audrey F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim…

  5. Variables Affecting Successful Reintegration as Perceived by Offenders and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graffam, Joe; Shinkfield, Alison; Lavelle, Barbara; McPherson, Wenda

    2004-01-01

    Six broad domains were identified as influencing reintegration of ex-offenders including personal conditions, social network/environment, accommodation, criminal justice system, rehabilitation and counselling support, and employment and training support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 offenders and 22 professionals from criminal…

  6. Organized Crime Offenders in Canada: Risk, Reform, and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick

    2013-01-01

    This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…

  7. A Description of Sexual Offending Committed by Canadian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulden, Heather M.; Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A.; Wexler, Audrey F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim…

  8. Variables Affecting Successful Reintegration as Perceived by Offenders and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graffam, Joe; Shinkfield, Alison; Lavelle, Barbara; McPherson, Wenda

    2004-01-01

    Six broad domains were identified as influencing reintegration of ex-offenders including personal conditions, social network/environment, accommodation, criminal justice system, rehabilitation and counselling support, and employment and training support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 offenders and 22 professionals from criminal…

  9. Tracking Offenders: The Child Victim. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…

  10. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  11. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318

  12. Women offenders and reentry issues.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S D

    1996-01-01

    Women parallel men in their profile of physical disease, psychosocial configuration, addictive patterns, and criminal deviance. For women offenders in particular, the prison environment reinforces a victim role that originated in childhood and adolescence. In addition, such settings discourage both emotional expression (except for aggression) and responsibility, since basic needs such as food, lodging, and clothing are provided. Incarcerated women have significant treatment issues, including the lack of social and vocational role definition, psychological dependence and psychic craving, poorly developed social skills, and conflicts in social, family, and intimate relationships. This article describes the unique psychoeducational and skills-training needs of women offenders as they adjust to community living, and outlines specific treatment interventions that have proven to effect successful patient outcomes. Case studies are used to illustrate the reentry experiences of three women offenders with distinct backgrounds. One example illustrates how a woman who had been involved in the criminal justice system for 24 years overcame her addiction and self-confidence issues. A second case study profiles an offender with three children who had experienced sexual trauma during her childhood and adult years. A third case reports on an African-American woman whose crack-cocaine addiction resulted in the birth of a drug-exposed son. The treatment model tested in all three cases emphasized the practical and often overlooked treatment issues of incarcerated women.

  13. Continuity and Changes in the Developmental Trajectories of Criminal Career: Examining the Roles of Timing of First Arrest and High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Wenk, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Early onset of criminal career is one of the most robust predictors of persistence in offending. However, many antisocial children do not become chronic adult offenders. Using longitudinal data of young male offenders in the California Youth Authority, we examined trajectories of criminal behavior from childhood to adulthood. We particularly…

  14. Mental disorders of male parricidal offenders: a study of offenders in forensic psychiatric examination in Finland during 1973-2004.

    PubMed

    Liettu, Anu; Säävälä, Hannu; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Joukamaa, Matti

    2009-02-01

    Information on parricidal offenders is mainly derived from selective samples of hospitalized patients. According to literature, a substantial proportion of parricidal offenders suffers from major mental disorders and is found to be not guilty by reason of insanity. The aim of this study was to examine and compare diagnoses and criminal responsibilities of matricidal and patricidal offenders in detail using a comprehensive national data set. Forensic psychiatric examination statements of 86 matricidal and 106 patricidal male offenders evaluated in a forensic psychiatric examination during 1973-2004 in Finland were reviewed retrospectively. Matricidal offenders suffered more commonly from a psychotic disorder than did patricidal offenders, whereas a greater proportion of patricidal offenders had a personality disorder. Among schizophrenic offenders the paranoid subtype was more common in the group of matricidal offenders than in the group of patricidal offenders. Of personality disorders, borderline personality disorder was more frequently found among patricidal offenders than among matricidal offenders. Matricidal offenders were more commonly found not guilty by reason of insanity than patricidal offenders. For matricidal offences the most common motive was a mental disorder, whereas patricidal offences were most often motivated by a long-term conflict. In addition, patricidal acts were more likely to be preceded by threat by the victim than matricidal acts. This study supports the hypothesis that matricidal offenders suffer from psychotic disorders more often than patricidal offenders, even though both groups seem to be characterized by a high level of psychopathology. Rarely reported in the literature, personality disorders show up frequently among parricidal offenders, particularly among patricidal offenders. Recognition and treatment of mental disorders underlying parricidal acts may prevent these offences, at least in some cases.

  15. The Isotopologue Record of Repeat Vital Effect Offenders: Tracking (Dis)equilibrium Effects in Sea Urchins and Nannofossil Using Clumped Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, C. M.; Davies, A.; Drury, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vital effects vary between species and affect various isotopic systems in unequal proportion. The magnitude of the response of different isotopic systems might thus be key in understanding biologically-mediated disequilibrium, especially in groups that show a tendency to be "repeat offenders" with regards to vital effects. Here we present carbon, oxygen, and clumped isotope data from echinoderm calcite and nannofossil ooze, both of which exhibit strong vital effects in bulk isotopes. Our study is the first to investigate the clumped isotope (dis)equilibrium of echinoids. Results from two echinoids, three marine gastropods and a bivalve mollusk from modern beach deposits of Bali, Indonesia, highlight a significant offset in clumped isotopes of a regular echinoid test from expected values, interpreted as evidence of a similar "vital effect" as observed in surface corals. This is in contrast to the test of an irregular "sand dollar" echinoid, with clumped isotope values within error of expected sea surface temperature. Furthermore, data on the inter-skeletal variability in the clumped isotopic composition of two regular echinoid species shows that the spines of the echinoids are in equilibrium with seawater with respect to clumped isotopes, but the test is not. For the nannofossil material, no clumped isotope vital effects are observed, consistent with previously published studies but at odds with strong vital effects in carbon and oxygen isotopes, often correlated with cell-size. In addition, we reveal that the <63 micron fraction of deep-sea ooze could constitute useful material for clumped isotope studies. An intriguing result of our study is that vital effects are mostly absent in clumped isotopes, even in phylums known for important isotopic effects. It remains to be explained why some parts of the echinoids show clear vital effects, notably enrichment in clumped isotopes of urchin tests. Mechanisms that could explain this include pH effects during calcification

  16. Sex offender registration and recidivism risk in juvenile sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael F; Dickinson, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders are increasingly included in sex offender registration laws, based, in part, on the assumption that they pose a distinctively high risk for future sexual violence and registration may help to mitigate this risk. To test this assumption, the current study compares risk scores on the static scales of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (JSOAP-II; Prentky & Righthand, 2003) and the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI; Hoge, Andrews, & Leschied, 2002), between samples of 106 registered and 66 unregistered juvenile sex offenders. New criminal charges, including sexually based crimes, were examined over a mean follow-up of 49.2 months (SD = 29.6 months). Results indicated that registered youth had lower risk scores on scales that most accurately predicted recidivism and registered youth were charged with new crimes at rates similar to those of unregistered youth. Reoffense risk, as measured by the risk scales, was not moderated by registration. The findings did not support the assumption that registration can effectively lower the risk for reoffense in juvenile offenders.

  17. Applying inoculation theory to the study of recidivism reduction in criminal prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald-Mark

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the authors through this study is to establish inoculation theory as a viable method in the prevention or reduction of recidivism in criminal prison inmate populations in the United States. The authors begin with a detailed literature review on inoculation. They also describe, in detail, recidivism in prisons. In doing so, they provide a series of interconnected topics, such as the total number of inmates in U.S. prisons, statistical displays of repeat offenders or subjects of recidivism, and the types of crimes often times repeated by convicted criminals. What comes afterwards is an explication of how inoculation theory can be applied in the context of reducing prisoner recidivism. The authors conclude this study with a discussion section that offers suggestions for future research.

  18. Criminal Justice System Involvement and Continuity of Youth Crime: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lee Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of criminal careers reveal several possible factors associated with persistent offending. This analysis examines the part that criminal justice system involvement plays in persistent offending. Seven waves of data collected on 153 boys as part of the Iowa Youth and Families Project were used to test a structural equation model…

  19. Comparison of Offender and Non-offender Young Men to Setting Goals for Life and Attributing Meaning to Life.

    PubMed

    Eryılmaz, Ali

    2017-08-14

    The main goal of the present study is to compare male offenders and non-offenders in terms of how they attribute meaning to life and set life goals. The samples were chosen from among offenders (n = 50) and non-offenders (n = 50) who were between ages 19-26. Mixed method was used in this study. The scale of setting life goals and interview form were used to collect data. To analysis of the data, the content analysis technique and t test and were used. Findings of the present study show that offenders tend to have troubles setting life goals when compared to non-offenders. Furthermore, the results of this study could be used in rehabilitating offenders and preventing those at risk of committing criminal acts from doing so.

  20. The Development of Criminal Style in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Separating the Lemmings from the Loners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldweber, Asha; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite broad consensus that most juvenile crimes are committed with peers, many questions regarding developmental and individual differences in criminal style (i.e., co-offending vs. solo offending) remain unanswered. Using prospective 3-year longitudinal data from 937 14- to 17-year-old serious male offenders, the present study investigates…

  1. The Development of Criminal Style in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Separating the Lemmings from the Loners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldweber, Asha; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite broad consensus that most juvenile crimes are committed with peers, many questions regarding developmental and individual differences in criminal style (i.e., co-offending vs. solo offending) remain unanswered. Using prospective 3-year longitudinal data from 937 14- to 17-year-old serious male offenders, the present study investigates…

  2. Intervening with Convicted Serious Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Dale

    Juveniles who commit such serious offenses as nonnegligent homicide, rape, assault, and robbery constitute an increasing concern for the criminal justice system. Persons who commit these offenses force a balancing of conflicting demands for offender rehabilitation and community protection. This report, the result of a comprehensive effort…

  3. The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

  4. The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

  5. Planning to meet the needs of offenders with mental disorders in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Badger, D; Vaughan, P; Woodward, M; Williams, P

    1999-12-01

    During the last decade the planning of services for offenders with mental disorders in the United Kingdom has been geared toward diverting them from the criminal justice system to appropriate levels of psychiatric and social care. Although a seamless service system is yet to be developed, the central government has made a concerted effort to promote a better understanding of the needs of offenders with mental disorders and encourage collaboration between the relevant agencies. A major program of research has been initiated, and local health authorities have been encouraged to use a consortium approach to planning and delivery of specialist services. The authors discuss the activities of the Wessex consortium, composed of five local health authorities and a social services department serving a catchment area with a population of 2.5 million in southern England. The consortium has commissioned needs assessments for all offenders with mental illness from the catchment area and a survey of the resources for secure residential treatment in the region. Based on data from this research, the consortium is planning the development of two long-stay secure units to accommodate offenders with a history of repeated inpatient and prison stays and poor response to previous treatment and rehabilitation efforts.

  6. A description of sexual offending committed by Canadian teachers.

    PubMed

    Moulden, Heather M; Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A; Wexler, Audrey F

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to describe teachers who sexually offend against youth and the circumstances related to these offenses. Archival Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System reports were obtained from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and demographic and criminal characteristics for the offender, as well as information about the victim and offense, were selected for analyses. A descriptive approach was used to analyze the qualitative reports for a group of 113 Canadian sexual offenders between 1995 and 2002. The results provide a description of adult male teachers who offended within their position of trust as well as offense and victim characteristics.

  7. Rapid identification of anonymous subjects in large criminal databases: problems and solutions in IAFIS III/FBI subject searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzleb, C. D.

    1997-02-01

    The high incidence of recidivism (repeat offenders) in the criminal population makes the use of the IAFIS III/FBI criminal database an important tool in law enforcement. The problems and solutions employed by IAFIS III/FBI criminal subject searches are discussed for the following topics: (1) subject search selectivity and reliability; (2) the difficulty and limitations of identifying subjects whose anonymity may be a prime objective; (3) database size, search workload, and search response time; (4) techniques and advantages of normalizing the variability in an individual's name and identifying features into identifiable and discrete categories; and (5) the use of database demographics to estimate the likelihood of a match between a search subject and database subjects.

  8. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  9. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between maltreatment victimisation and sexual and violent offending: differences between adolescent offenders with and without intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    van der Put, C E; Asscher, J J; Wissink, I B; Stams, G J J M

    2014-11-01

    Juveniles with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more often victims of maltreatment and more often perpetrators of abuse than juveniles without ID. Because previous research on the relationship between maltreatment victimisation and subsequent offending behaviour was primarily performed in non-disabled samples, the present study aimed to examine differences between juvenile offenders with and without ID in the relationship between maltreatment victimisation and sexual and violent offending. The sample consisted of juvenile offenders with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court Assessment (WSJCA) was completed. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the strength of the relationship between maltreatment and offending, Fisher's z tests were calculated to assess the significance of the differences between the two groups in the strength of the correlations, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the unique contribution of maltreatment victimisation to the prediction of violent and sexual offending. Seventy per cent of the juvenile offenders with ID and 42% of the juvenile offenders without ID had experienced abuse and/or neglect. Both sexual and violent offending were more common in juvenile offenders with ID than in juvenile offenders without ID. Moreover, the relationship between different forms of maltreatment and sexual offending was stronger in juvenile offenders with ID than in juvenile offenders without ID. Given the high rates of abuse and neglect victimisation and the strength of the association between victimisation and sexual offending, especially in juvenile offenders with ID, treatment should focus on potential trauma and other problems associated with the abuse. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  11. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Denial of risk: The effects of positive impression management on risk assessments for psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Nathan D; Rogers, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments for offenders often combine past records with current clinical findings from observations, interviews, and test data. Conclusions based on these risk assessments are highly consequential, sometimes resulting in increased criminal sentences or prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, many offenders are motivated to intentionally minimize risk factors and their negative consequences. Positive impression management (PIM) is especially likely to occur in offenders with high psychopathic traits because goal-directed deception is reflected in several of psychopathy's core traits of the disorder, such as manipulativeness, glibness, and superficial charm. However, this connection appears to be based on the conceptual understanding of psychopathy, and has rarely been examined empirically for either frequency of or success at deception. The current study examined the ability of a jail sample to intentionally minimize risk factors and related criminal attributes using a repeated measures, simulation design. In general, offenders were able to effectively use PIM to lower scores on the HCR-20 and the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), while the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), as a measure of cognitive styles, was more resistant to such minimization. Psychopathic traits, especially high Factor 1 scores (i.e., affective/interpersonal), were associated with greater PIM. Important differences in the willingness and ability to use deception were found based on the (a) mode of administration (i.e., interview vs. self-report) and (b) level of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). The important implications of this research are discussed for risk assessment procedures regarding likely areas of deception and its detection. The current research also informs the growing literature on the connection between psychopathic traits and deception.

  13. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    PubMed

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity.

  14. Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved.

  15. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  16. Identifying drug-abusing criminals.

    PubMed

    Wish, E D

    1988-01-01

    In a criminal justice setting, urine testing is the most feasible and accurate method now available for screening large numbers of drug-using offenders. Self-report and record information can be effectively used to verify and extend information about the seriousness of use for those who test positive. The newer RIAH methods offer promise for delineating patterns of drug use over time if the method is valid, can be standardized, and gains acceptance from the scientific and judicial communities.

  17. Risk Assessment in Criminal Sentencing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, John; Skeem, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The past several years have seen a surge of interest in using risk assessment in criminal sentencing, both to reduce recidivism by incapacitating or treating high-risk offenders and to reduce prison populations by diverting low-risk offenders from prison. We begin by sketching jurisprudential theories of sentencing, distinguishing those that rely on risk assessment from those that preclude it. We then characterize and illustrate the varying roles that risk assessment may play in the sentencing process. We clarify questions regarding the various meanings of "risk" in sentencing and the appropriate time to assess the risk of convicted offenders. We conclude by addressing four principal problems confronting risk assessment in sentencing: conflating risk and blame, barring individual inferences based on group data, failing adequately to distinguish risk assessment from risk reduction, and ignoring whether, and if so, how, the use of risk assessment in sentencing affects racial and economic disparities in imprisonment.

  18. Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, and Cortical Thickness in White-Collar Criminals

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S.; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared to controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals It is hypothesized that white collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. PMID:22002326

  19. Increased executive functioning, attention, and cortical thickness in white-collar criminals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-12-01

    Very little is known on white-collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white-collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared with offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white-collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White-collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared with controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals. It is hypothesized that white-collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings.

  20. The Relationship of Sex-Role Orientation, Self-Concept and Self-Control to Female Criminality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Mary M.; Mueller, Charles W.

    Research on the female offender has produced two explanations of the female criminal personality: the female offender either as a masculinated women or as an anguished woman possessing low self-esteem and poor self-control. To investigate the applicability of each position, 144 black male and female criminals and noncriminals completed the Bem Sex…

  1. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  2. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  3. Invited Address: James Joyce, Alice in Wonderland, the Rolling Stones, and Criminal Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of criminal careers generally, and patterns of continuity and change in criminal offending in particular, has been a long-standing interest to social scientists across many disciplines. This article provides readers with an overview of this line of research. After an introduction to the criminal career perspective, the article presents…

  4. Invited Address: James Joyce, Alice in Wonderland, the Rolling Stones, and Criminal Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of criminal careers generally, and patterns of continuity and change in criminal offending in particular, has been a long-standing interest to social scientists across many disciplines. This article provides readers with an overview of this line of research. After an introduction to the criminal career perspective, the article presents…

  5. Evaluating shame transformation in group treatment of domestic violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R

    2010-08-01

    Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.

  6. The development of criminal style in adolescence and young adulthood: separating the lemmings from the loners.

    PubMed

    Goldweber, Asha; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-03-01

    Despite broad consensus that most juvenile crimes are committed with peers, many questions regarding developmental and individual differences in criminal style (i.e., co-offending vs. solo offending) remain unanswered. Using prospective 3-year longitudinal data from 937 14- to 17-year-old serious male offenders, the present study investigates whether youths tend to offend alone, in groups, or a combination of the two; whether these patterns change with age; and whether youths who engage in a particular style share distinguishing characteristics. Trajectory analyses examining criminal styles over age revealed that, while most youth evinced both types of offending, two distinct groups emerged: an increasingly solo offender trajectory (83%); and a mixed style offender trajectory (17%). Alternate analyses revealed (5.5%) exclusively solo offenders (i.e., only committed solo offenses over 3 years). There were no significant differences between groups in individuals' reported number of friends, quality of friendships, or extraversion. However, the increasingly solo and exclusively solo offenders reported more psychosocial maturity, lower rates of anxiety, fewer psychopathic traits, less gang involvement and less self reported offending than mixed style offenders. Findings suggest that increasingly and exclusively solo offenders are not loners, as they are sometimes portrayed, and that exclusively solo offending during adolescence, while rare and previously misunderstood, may not be a risk factor in and of itself.

  7. The Development of Criminal Style in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Separating the Lemmings from the Loners

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Despite broad consensus that most juvenile crimes are committed with peers, many questions regarding developmental and individual differences in criminal style (i.e., co-offending vs. solo offending) remain unanswered. Using prospective 3-year longitudinal data from 937 14- to 17-year-old serious male offenders, the present study investigates whether youths tend to offend alone, in groups, or a combination of the two; whether these patterns change with age; and whether youths who engage in a particular style share distinguishing characteristics. Trajectory analyses examining criminal styles over age revealed that, while most youth evinced both types of offending, two distinct groups emerged: an increasingly solo offender trajectory (83%); and a mixed style offender trajectory (17%). Alternate analyses revealed (5.5%) exclusively solo offenders (i.e., only committed solo offenses over 3 years). There were no significant differences between groups in individuals’ reported number of friends, quality of friendships, or extraversion. However, the increasingly solo and exclusively solo offenders reported more psychosocial maturity, lower rates of anxiety, fewer psychopathic traits, less gang involvement and less self reported offending than mixed style offenders. Findings suggest that increasingly and exclusively solo offenders are not loners, as they are sometimes portrayed, and that exclusively solo offending during adolescence, while rare and previously misunderstood, may not be a risk factor in and of itself. PMID:20405187

  8. Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical

  9. Nursing in prisons: developing the specialty of offender health care.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jane

    This article, the first in a five-part series, examines offender health care as a specialty. It explores the role of the nurse and the developments that have occurred over the last ten years in this field. In later articles, the authors discuss leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system, assessment of the acutely ill patient, management of long-term conditions, and the future of nursing in offender health care.

  10. Developmental trajectories of offenders convicted of fraud: A follow-up to age 50 in a Dutch conviction cohort

    PubMed Central

    van der Geest, Victor R.; Weisburd, David; Blokland, Arjan A. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the criminal careers of offenders convicted of fraud, distinguishing different career dimensions such as intermittency, versatility and specialization. Results indicate that most fraud offenders are versatile in the sense that they also have significant criminal records for other serious offending (that is, not fraud). At the same time they are also specialized in fraud. When we examine developmental trajectories of serious offending and next explore patterns of fraud for the groups identified, we find that offenders in our sample represent a heterogeneous group and that the classic divide between typical financial (for example, white-collar) offenders and common criminals does not apply to the majority of our sample. PMID:28989326

  11. Methamphetamine use and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gizzi, Michael C; Gerkin, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    This research seeks to broaden our understanding of methamphetamine's (meth's) place within the study of drugs and crime. Through extensive court records research and interviews with 200 offenders in local jails in western Colorado, this research contributes to the creation of a meth user profile and begins to identify the place of meth in the drug-crime nexus. The study compares the criminal behavior of meth users with other drug users, finding that meth users are more likely than other drug users to be drunk or high at the time of arrest and claim their crimes were related to drug use in other ways. A content analysis of criminal records demonstrates that meth users have more extensive criminal records and are more likely than other drug users to commit property crimes.

  12. An Examination of Escalation in Burglaries Committed by Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Pedneault, Amelie; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A

    2015-10-01

    Research in the field of sexual aggression often assumes escalation in the criminal careers of sexual offenders. Sexual offenders are thought to begin their criminal careers with non-contact sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses and then escalate to more serious crimes, specifically sexual violence. The commission of one crime in particular--burglary--has been found to be a predictor of future violence in sexual offenders. The present study investigated the nature and extent of escalation in the criminal histories of 161 sex offenders who committed at least two burglaries. Six types of escalations were considered: type of burglary, occupancy, violence, weapon, frequency, and the victim-offender relationship. Escalators and non-escalators were compared, differences between the groups were reviewed, and the cumulative effect of various forms of escalation was analyzed. Results indicated that escalators and non-escalators could be differentiated on a number of important dimensions that might assist in the earlier detection of subsequently more dangerous offenders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Sexual and general offending trajectories of men referred for civil commitment.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brian; Harris, Danielle Arlanda; Wallace, Stephanie; Knight, Raymond A; Soothill, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Policies aimed at managing high-risk offenders, which include sex offenders, often assume they are a homogeneous population. These policies also tend to assume the pattern of offending is the same for all sex offenders, and is stable. This study challenges these assumptions by examining the life course offending trajectories of 780 convicted adult male sexual offenders. The men were referred to the Massachusetts Treatment Center for civil commitment between 1959 and 1984. The changing number of both sexual and any offenses were examined by age using Group-Based Trajectory Modeling. We identified a four-trajectory model for all offending and a four-trajectory model for sexual offending. The identified groups varied in several offending patterns including criminal onset, length of criminal careers, age of peak offending, and time of entry into the treatment center. Late adult onset of sex offending was found to be associated with child molestation, whereas early-onset trajectories were associated with rape. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  14. Adolescent Sexual Offender Recidivism: Success of Specialized Treatment and Implications for Risk Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worling, James R.; Curwen, Tracey

    2000-01-01

    Recidivism data (criminal charges) were collected for 58 adolescent sexual offenders participating in at least 12 months of specialized treatment and compared with other groups. Recidivism rates for treated adolescents were 5.17 percent compared to 17.8 percent for similar non-treated offenders. Sexual recidivism was predicted by sexual interest…

  15. Mentally Ill Offenders in Community Based Programs: Attitudes of Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuehring, Elane M.; Raybin, Linda

    1986-01-01

    Examined the feasibility of community-based care for mentally ill offenders and defendants by surveying criminal justice professionals (n=36), mental health and forensic professionals (n=38), and social service representatives (n=21). Findings indicated that mentally ill offenders and defendants were seen as manageable in the community but needing…

  16. Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio and Impulsivity: A Comparison between Offenders and Nonoffenders

    PubMed Central

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Gummerum, Michaela; Rolison, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Personality characteristics, particularly impulsive tendencies, have long been conceived as the primary culprit in delinquent behavior. One crucial question to emerge from this line of work is whether impulsivity has a biological basis. To test this possibility, 44 male offenders and 46 nonoffenders completed the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, and had their 2D∶4D ratio measured. Offenders exhibited smaller right hand digit ratio measurements compared to non-offenders, but higher impulsivity scores. Both impulsivity and 2D∶4D ratio measurements significantly predicted criminality (offenders vs. nonoffenders). Controlling for education level, the 2D∶4D ratio measurements had remained a significant predictor of criminality, while impulsivity scores no longer predicted criminality significantly. Our data, thus, indicates that impulsivity but not 2D∶4D ratio measurements relate to educational attainment. As offenders varied in their number of previous convictions and the nature of their individual crimes, we also tested for differences in 2D∶4D ratio and impulsivity among offenders. Number of previous convictions did not correlate significantly with the 2D∶4D ratio measurements or impulsivity scores. Our study established a link between a biological marker and impulsivity among offenders (and lack thereof among non-offenders), which emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between biological markers, impulsivity and criminal behavior. PMID:23082144

  17. Offenders, Judges, and Officers Rate the Relative Severity of Alternative Sanctions Compared to Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nathan T.; May, David C.; Wood, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work suggests that offenders rate several alternatives as more severe than imprisonment. We build on this literature by comparing punishment exchange rates generated by criminal court judges with rates generated by offenders and their supervising officers. Findings reveal that none of the three groups rates prison as the most severe…

  18. Second-to-fourth digit ratio and impulsivity: a comparison between offenders and nonoffenders.

    PubMed

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Gummerum, Michaela; Rolison, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Personality characteristics, particularly impulsive tendencies, have long been conceived as the primary culprit in delinquent behavior. One crucial question to emerge from this line of work is whether impulsivity has a biological basis. To test this possibility, 44 male offenders and 46 nonoffenders completed the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, and had their 2D∶4D ratio measured. Offenders exhibited smaller right hand digit ratio measurements compared to non-offenders, but higher impulsivity scores. Both impulsivity and 2D∶4D ratio measurements significantly predicted criminality (offenders vs. nonoffenders). Controlling for education level, the 2D∶4D ratio measurements had remained a significant predictor of criminality, while impulsivity scores no longer predicted criminality significantly. Our data, thus, indicates that impulsivity but not 2D∶4D ratio measurements relate to educational attainment. As offenders varied in their number of previous convictions and the nature of their individual crimes, we also tested for differences in 2D∶4D ratio and impulsivity among offenders. Number of previous convictions did not correlate significantly with the 2D∶4D ratio measurements or impulsivity scores. Our study established a link between a biological marker and impulsivity among offenders (and lack thereof among non-offenders), which emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between biological markers, impulsivity and criminal behavior.

  19. Ethnicity, violent offending, and vulnerability to schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mason, O J; Medford, S; Peters, E R

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has highlighted increased risk for schizophrenia in Afro-Caribbeans as well as over-representation in the prison population. This small-scale study examined the relationship between criminality, ethnicity, and psychosis-proneness in a male prison sample. Twenty British Caucasian and 20 Afro-Caribbean prisoners were divided into equal sub-groups of violent and non-violent offenders. Participants completed measures of schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hostility. Afro-Caribbean offenders scored more highly on negative schizotypy and delusional ideation than their Caucasian counterparts. Violent offenders scored more highly on the positive symptoms of schizotypy than non-violent prisoners. Both ethnicity and violent offending may be relevant factors when considering vulnerability to psychosis in the offending population.

  20. Sexual offender containment: use of the postconviction polygraph.

    PubMed

    English, Kim; Jones, Linda; Patrick, Diane; Pasini-Hill, Diane

    2003-06-01

    Victims of sexual assault are unlikely to report the crime. For many sexual offenders, then, their sexually deviant behavior remains largely unknown except for crimes that result in arrest or notification to social services. Little is known about the offender's past behavior and little will be known about the offender's future abusive behavior. It is within this context that the containment approach for managing sexual offenders becomes critical to protecting future victimization by known offenders. This paper describes the need to incorporate information learned from the postconviction polygraph examination into intense treatment and criminal justice supervision. Age of onset and frequency and variety of deviant behavior are known risk factors, probably because they reflect the extent to which deviancy is part of the offender's lifestyle. Treatment and supervision plans must incorporate this information, along with the risk presented by these offenders to very specific age and gender groups. This study of data collected on disclosures made by 180 convicted sexual offenders (most were convicted of crimes against children) during the course of four different treatment/polygraph programs found that 39% had a history of sexually assaulting adults, 31% had sexually assaulted both male and female victims, 36% had engaged in bestiality, and two-thirds of the incest offenders had assaulted victims outside the family. Complete information is necessary for treatment providers and supervising officers to develop meaningful and relevant treatment and supervision plans, and for imminent, situational risk factors to be managed and contained.

  1. [From victim to offender: characteristics of sexually abused violent and sex offenders].

    PubMed

    Rossegger, A; Endrass, J; Urbaniok, F; Vetter, S; Maercker, A

    2011-07-01

    Prospective studies on victims of sexual abuse and retrospective studies on offender populations have indicated a connection between experiences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and delinquency in adulthood. Using a representative sample of violent and sex offenders from the Canton of Zurich (Switzerland; N=354), the aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of offenders who have experienced CSA. Two multivariable models for CSA were generated. CSA was documented for 13% of the sex offenders and 5.8% of the violent offenders. Child molesters displayed the highest prevalence rate with 18.9%. Multivariable analyses identified Swiss nationality, having stayed in a foster home and violence in the nuclear family as the strongest risk factors for CSA. In a second model, only offender characteristics from adulthood were taken into account as predictors: child molesters, offenders who prostituted themselves and repeat violent and sex offenders had a significantly higher risk of belonging to the group of offenders who had experienced CSA. The results suggest that the experience of CSA leads to an elevated and chronic risk for committing child abuse.

  2. Neurocriminology: implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Andrea L; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Criminal behaviour and violence are increasingly viewed as worldwide public health problems. A growing body of knowledge shows that criminal behaviour has a neurobiological basis, and this has intensified judicial interest in the potential application of neuroscience to criminal law. It also gives rise to important questions. What are the implications of such application for predicting future criminal behaviour and protecting society? Can it be used to prevent violence? And what are the implications for the way offenders are punished?

  3. Criminal law as a response to medical malpractice: pluses and minuses--comparing Italian and U.S. experiences.

    PubMed

    Di Landro, Andrea R

    2012-06-01

    The paper is divided into three parts. The first part sets out the comparative differences between the tort of malpractice in common law and the criminal negligence in civil law: while the common law takes for mens rea only the "gross" negligence, and rarely medical negligence, other law systems instead (and particularly Italian law) criminalize also ordinary negligence, frequently in medical malpractice cases. The second part of the paper addresses the pluses of using criminal law as response to medical malpractice: inadequate medical self-policing and "repeat offenders" problems are analysed, in the perspective of the patient, of the doctor, of the insurance company, and of the community. The third part addresses the minuses of the criminal law as response: medical "shame and blame" mentality, criminal stigma and culture of fear are disincentives to incident reporting and to system analysis (the most important means of prevention); "defensive medicine" and "courts-abiding medicine" are managed not yet in the patient's exclusive interest, but in the egoistic/utilitarian aim to avoid denunciations; finally, the uncertainty of the medicine, the accusatory system and the proof "beyond a reasonable doubt" seem hardly compatible with each other.

  4. Drug-Related Disorders and the Criminal and Clinical Background of the Prison Population of São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Maíra Mendes; Quintana, Maria Ines; Moreira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between drug (DAD) and alcohol (AAD) abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. Method Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD) were combined into a single category. Results The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women). Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17), to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85), and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18). Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18). Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39), a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24), a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09), another health problem (OR 3.04), and violent crime (OR 2.5). Conclusion The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for prison

  5. Gender differences in re-offending among psychiatrically examined Swedish offenders.

    PubMed

    Alm, Charlotte; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Lindqvist, Per; Palmstierna, Tom; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2010-12-01

    The gender gap for violent offending is narrowing in the general population. Substance abuse and mental health problems are known risk factors for criminality. While substance abuse treatment has been associated with reduced risk of re-offending, women seem less likely to engage than men. People misusing substances tend to be high users of emergency room (ER) services. Such use may be an indicator both of treatment failure for substance misuse and offending. Little is known about gender differences in this respect. This study aims to test for gender differences in re-offending, use of substance abuse treatment, and hospital ER visits among offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden. The study used a longitudinal retrospective design. Data on all 31 women from a 2-year (2000-2001) cohort of serious offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Stockholm county, and 31 men from the same cohort, were extracted from forensic service and national records. Selection of the men was by initial random sampling followed by matching on age and substance misuse. The two resulting samples were compared on health service use and re-offending data between release and the census date (30 April 2004). There were no gender differences for violent re-offending or for engagement in planned substance abuse treatment, in spite of longer time at risk for the men. Re-offending was reduced for women but not men who did not present in the ER with physical health problems. Our study is limited by sample size, although it included all women referred to the specialist forensic psychiatric service over 2 years, but it does indicate that differences between men and women in this situation are likely, and worthy of further study. The only way of achieving adequate sample sizes is likely to be through multi-centre collaboration. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Race and Gender Effects on Perception of Criminal Events: Testing Hypotheses from Black's "The Behavior of Law."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Leroy C.; Gertz, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Descriptions of criminal events were rated by 611 college students randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in which race and gender of offenders and victims were varied. Race and gender did not affect perception of the seriousness of criminal events. Although students perceived sex differences in the criminal justice system, this did not affect…

  7. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration... Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§ 20.3(d). The definition of criminal history record information is intended to include the basic offender-based...

  8. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration... Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§ 20.3(d). The definition of criminal history record information is intended to include the basic offender-based...

  9. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration... Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§ 20.3(d). The definition of criminal history record information is intended to include the basic offender-based...

  10. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Appendix to Part 20 Judicial Administration... Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems Subpart A-§ 20.3(d). The definition of criminal history record information is intended to include the basic offender-based...

  11. Substance Use Treatment Outcomes in a Sample of Male Serious Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Knight, George; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino; Losoya, Sandra H.; Naranjo, Diana

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined drug treatment-related reductions in alcohol and marijuana use, cigarette smoking, and non-drug offending among male adolescents who had been adjudicated of a serious (almost exclusively felony) offense. Results indicated that the “real world” drug treatments that these adolescents experienced had significant effects on substance use, which could not be explained solely by incarceration in controlled environments. However, effects on cigarette smoking and criminal offending were found only for treatments that included family involvement. Results suggest that involving families in adolescents’ treatment may be useful for promoting desistence from criminal offending in this population. PMID:18657942

  12. Alcohol Use and Delinquency among Black, White and Hispanic Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Russell L.; Dawkins, Marvin P.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between drinking and criminal behavior among 342 adolescent offenders. Results showed drinking is strongly associated with minor offenses. Relative to background and behavioral factors, drinking is the strongest single predictor of serious criminal offenses among Blacks, with less importance for whites and little…

  13. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P

    2016-01-01

    Public policy has tended to treat juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) as adult sex offenders in waiting, despite research that contradicts this notion. Although as a group, JSOs are more similar to general delinquents than to adult sex offenders, atypical sexual interests and sexual victimization during childhood may be a pathway for sexual offending that differentiates some JSOs from their nonsexually delinquent peers. Developmental considerations must be considered in risk assessment evaluations of these youth. This article reviews theories of sexual offending in youth, risk factors for juvenile offending and reoffending, psychopathology in JSOs, risk assessment, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can we distinguish juvenile violent sex offenders, violent non-sex offenders, and versatile violent sex offenders based on childhood risk factors?

    PubMed

    Wanklyn, Sonya G; Ward, Ashley K; Cormier, Nicole S; Day, David M; Newman, Jennifer E

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the developmental precursors of juvenile violent sex offending can contribute to the promotion of effective early intervention and prevention programs for high-risk children and youth. However, there is currently a lack of research on the early characteristics of adolescents who commit violent sex offenses. Drawing on the literature regarding the generalist and specialist positions of criminal behavior, the aim of the present study was to compare childhood risk factors for three groups of juvenile offenders: (a) pure sex offenders (PSO; n = 28); (b) violent non-sex offenders (VNSO; n = 172); and (c) versatile violent sex offenders (VVSO; n = 24). Nineteen risk factors comprising four life domains (individual, family, peer, and school) were identified from a file review. Three hierarchical logistic regression analyses examined associations between risk factors and offender groups. The results reflected the underlying heterogeneity of the sample, offering support for both the specialist and generalist positions of criminal behavior. PSOs differed from VNSOs on the basis of higher odds for precocious sexual behavior. Second, VVSOs differed from VNSOs on the basis of higher odds for precocious sexual behavior, criminal family members, and an adolescent mother, as well as lower odds for poor school behavior. Third, PSOs were marginally more likely to have engaged in early overt antisocial behavior compared with VVSOs. Fourth, many of the childhood risk factors examined were not associated with any offender group. In conclusion, VVSOs appeared to differ on the greatest number of risk factors from VNSOs, suggesting that VVSOs share a more similar developmental pathway with PSOs. The prevention and future research implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Mental Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward Offenders With Mental Illness (Insanity Acquittees) in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua

    2016-09-02

    Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.

  16. Transfer of Juvenile Cases to Criminal Court.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kraus, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    The first juvenile court was founded in 1899 with the focus on rehabilitation of a juvenile offender as opposed to punishment in adult court. Determining culpability and disposition for adolescents has become a source of much discussion. With serious crimes, juvenile delinquents may be transferred from juvenile court to adult criminal court; this practice became more prevalent in the past century. However, growing knowledge of adolescent development has mitigated the culpability of youth offenders and resulted in judicial decisions influential to juvenile dispositions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.

  18. Restitution Programs for Juvenile Offenders. Technical Assistance Bulletin 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Resource Network, Washington, DC.

    Restitution programs have been organized in many areas of the country to make juvenile offenders more accountable for their criminal behavior, more aware of the consequences to themselves, their victims, and the community, and thus, less likely to continue committing crimes. The programs also provide direct compensation for victims of crime.…

  19. Working in the Community with Young People Who Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Alice; Themelis, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the "at risk" and "what works" approach that drives the management of youth criminal justice systems produces little knowledge that informs practitioners how best to work with young people who offend and how to design effective crime prevention programmes. An alternative approach that is more informative for the…

  20. Current Status of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    An emerging literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and offending has highlighted that these disorders are at times associated with criminal behaviour. Ghaziuddin et al. (1991) reviewed the published literature on this topic from 1944 to 1990 and concluded that there was no clear link between Asperger syndrome (AS) and violent crime. They…

  1. Treating offenders with mental illness: a research synthesis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert D; Flora, David B; Kroner, Daryl G; Mills, Jeremy F; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender's ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted.

  2. Working in the Community with Young People Who Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Alice; Themelis, Spyros

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the "at risk" and "what works" approach that drives the management of youth criminal justice systems produces little knowledge that informs practitioners how best to work with young people who offend and how to design effective crime prevention programmes. An alternative approach that is more informative for the…

  3. Current Status of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders and Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    An emerging literature on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and offending has highlighted that these disorders are at times associated with criminal behaviour. Ghaziuddin et al. (1991) reviewed the published literature on this topic from 1944 to 1990 and concluded that there was no clear link between Asperger syndrome (AS) and violent crime. They…

  4. An evaluation of classification criteria for juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A

    2010-06-01

    Victim age is commonly used in the classification of juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). However, the results of studies comparing JSOs who offend peers (peer offenders) with those who offend children (child molesters) are variable and inconclusive. Reasons for this variability include the lack of attention to JSOs who offend both children and peers (mixed offenders) and the variability across studies in the classification criteria used to assign JSOs to subgroups. Some studies use victim age, others use offender-victim age discrepancies, and still others use a combination of victim age and age discrepancies to classify JSOs. These variations may result in samples of JSOs that are not comparable across studies. The primary purpose of the present research was to examine the strength of the relationship between JSO subgroup membership (child, peer, and mixed offenders) and personal, criminal history, and offense history variables using several different classification methods commonly used in JSO research. Patterns of relationships between subgroup membership and the dependent variables were then compared across the classification methods to determine whether changes in classification criteria changed the pattern of results. The results indicated that the pattern of relationships between subgroups and the dependent variables changed little when classification criteria varied. Consequently, variation in classification criteria is unlikely to be contributing to the inconsistencies of the findings when comparing victim age based subgroups of JSOs.

  5. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.

  6. Predictors of the sex offender civil commitment trial outcomes in New York State.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunmei; Freeman, Naomi J; Sandler, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    The present study analyzed sex offender civil management (i.e., civil commitment) legal proceedings in New York State and identified factors that predict trial results. Specifically, the current study compared a sample of 38 sex offenders who were released to the community after winning their civil management trials to 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials. Additionally, for the 183 sex offenders who lost their civil management trials, the current study compared 146 offenders who were ordered to inpatient civil commitment to 37 offenders who were deemed fit for civil management in the community. Results of the analyses indicated that sexual criminality, sexual deviance, and criminality involving child victims increased the likelihood of offenders both losing their civil management trial and being found to be in need of inpatient care, while the presence of variables associated with nonsexual criminality increased the likelihood of offenders both winning their civil management trials and being deemed fit for management in the community. The findings of this study provide guidance for psychiatric examiners who testify in civil management legal proceedings, as well as for legal professionals specializing in civil management cases.

  7. An exploration of criminal thinking styles among civil psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Carr, William Amory; Rosenfeld, Barry; Magyar, Melissa; Rotter, Merrill

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have found a relationship between psychiatric illness and criminal behaviour. Despite this, few studies have examined the presence of criminal thinking among civil psychiatric patients. The aim of this study is to explore the patterns and correlates of criminal thinking, using the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), in a sample of civil psychiatric patients. The PICTS (Layperson Edition) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (Anchored Version; BPRS) were administered to 76 civil psychiatric patients. PICTS scores were compared with those of offenders from a previously published study. Bivariate tests were conducted between selected PICTS scales, BPRS factors, demographic and criminal history variables. Stepwise multiple regressions were performed to assess those variables that predicted the general criminal thinking, proactive and reactive composite scales of the PICTS. Independent samples t-tests revealed that five PICTS thinking styles were significantly higher in the psychiatric sample compared with the comparison sample of criminal offenders. Bivariate correlations revealed that the PICTS proactive composite scale was significantly related to and predicted by substance abuse and arrest history. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Thinking styles which are typically associated with criminality were found in this sample of civil psychiatric patients. Cognitive remediation strategies targeting these may help to prevent criminal activity in psychiatric patients.

  8. Patterns of prior offending by child abductors: a comparison of fatal and non-fatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James Oliver; Hayne, Anita S; Beyer, Kristen; Cramer, Gary L; Berson, Sarah Bradley; Muirhead, Yvonne; Warren, Janet I

    2009-01-01

    Our study examines the prior offending of 750 individuals who are known to be responsible for the abduction of a child under the age of 18 years. The first group comprised of 311 offenders (42%) who had abducted a child that was later located alive (found alive, referred to as FA). The second group was comprised of 439 offenders (58%) who had abducted a child that was either found murdered or was still missing and presumed dead (found murdered, referred to as FM). While males perpetrated the majority of the abductions, women perpetrated 31 (10%) of the offenses in the FA group and 10 (2%) of the offenses in the FM group. The average number of prior offenses as reflected in the NCIC criminal history of each offender was seven with these occurring over an average of 12 years. Seventy-five percent of the offenders had prior arrests for an assortment of different crimes while 25% had no known criminal history, a finding that was consistent across both the FA and FM groups. Of those with a criminal history, 41% had been arrested for assault, 40% for larceny, 35% for burglary/breaking and entering, 33% for forcible sex offenses, 25% for drug/narcotic offenses, 21% for weapons law violations, 17% for motor vehicle thefts, 15% for robbery, and 14% for kidnapping. Our findings are congruent with the theme of criminal diversity among child abductors and argue against the specificity in offending that is often assumed with this type of sexual offender. This information is relevant to our understanding of the progression in criminal offending that is manifested by offenders who abduct children and will hopefully be used by law enforcement in helping to direct and focus their investigations.

  9. Differences in interpersonal distance among nonoffenders as a function of perceived violence of offenders.

    PubMed

    Skorjanc, A D

    1991-10-01

    A group of 39 female and 15 male undergraduate students took part in a study of the relationship between perceived violence of criminal offenders and interpersonal distance preferred by nonoffenders. Preferred interpersonal distance, measured for subjects informed that the person with whom they would be sitting in a room was either a violent offender, nonviolent offender, or nonoffender, was the number of seats subjects chose to sit from the person. Analysis of variance shows subjects preferred significantly less mean distance in the nonoffender condition versus either the nonviolent or violent offender conditions.

  10. Offenders: Characteristics and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Judith V.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews what is known about child sex offenders and their treatment. The author discusses the role of paraphilia in child molestation and reviews what is known about juvenile and incest offenders and recidivism rates. What is known about recidivism of untreated offenders and treatment practices is also summarized. Recommendations conclude the…

  11. Victim-induced criminality.

    PubMed

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  12. The Gottfredson-Hirschi critiques revisited: reconciling self-control theory, criminal careers, and career criminals.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G

    2008-10-01

    Revisiting Gottfredson and Hirschi's critiques of criminal career research, the current study views low self-control as being analogous to criminal propensity and examines its predictive validity of career criminality among 723 incarcerated delinquent youths. Four key findings emerged. Compared to noncareer offenders, career criminals had significantly lower levels of self-control. Second, youths scoring one standard deviation above the mean on the Self-Control Scale had an odds ratio of 5.36 of becoming a career criminal. Third, self-control predicted career criminal membership with receiver operator characteristic-area under the curve sensitivity accuracies between 74% and 87%, suggesting that self-control is a potentially useful screening device for chronic criminality. Fourth, low self-control was overwhelmingly the strongest predictor of career criminality and far exceeded the impact of age, race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, mental illness, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, and trauma experience. Further integration between self-control and criminal career research is urged.

  13. Linking Specialization and Seriousness in Criminal Careers

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, John M.; Haviland, Amelia; Ramchand, Rajeev; Morral, Andrew R.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Some research suggests that recidivistic criminal offending patterns typically progress in a stepping-stone manner from less to more serious forms of offending from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Whether the progression into more serious types of offending reflects patterns of crime specialization is a matter of debate. Using data from 449 adolescent offenders who were interviewed at six time points between adolescence and adulthood, we present a new method for measuring crime specialization and apply it to an assessment of the link between specialization and offense seriousness. We measure specialization by constructing an empirical measure of how similar crimes are from each other based on the rate at which crimes co-occur within individual crime pathways over a given offender population. We then use these empirically-based population-specific offense similarities to assign a specialization score to each subject at each time period based on the set of crimes they self-report at that time. Finally, we examine how changes over time in specialization, within individuals, is correlated with changes in the seriousness of the offenses they report committing. Results suggest that the progression of crime into increasingly serious forms of offending does not reflect a general pattern of offense specialization. Implications for life course research are noted. PMID:25422597

  14. Crime, criminals, and cures: medical model revisited.

    PubMed

    Sampson, R J

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's target article assesses the causes of crime and advocates a controversial "cure"--parental licensure. Although Lykken gets many of the facts about criminals right, ultimately the disease metaphor breaks down. Crime requires three things--motivated offenders ("criminals"), suitable targets or victims, and the absence of capable guardians to prevent the act. Typical of medical model approaches, failure to consider the convergence in time and space of the three necessary elements for crime results in a misdiagnosis. In this invited commentary, I briefly note three reasons why Lykken's cure, along with the medical model in general, is unlikely to bear fruit.

  15. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  16. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  17. Juvenile offender recidivism: an examination of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Calley, Nancy G

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and seventy three male juvenile offenders were followed two years postrelease from a residential treatment facility to assess recidivism and factors related to recidivism. The overall recidivism rate was 23.9%. Logistic regression with stepwise and backward variable selection methods was used to examine the relationship between recidivism and nine specific variables: offense type, age at initial involvement in juvenile justice, child welfare system involvement, termination of parental rights, parental criminal history, family support, program completion status, length of treatment stay, and discharge placement. Offender type was the only factor found to have a significant impact on recidivism with general and substance-involved offenders more likely to recidivate than sex offenders. Implications for future research are discussed.

  18. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  19. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  20. The cycle of violence: examining the impact of maltreatment early in life on adult offending.

    PubMed

    Reckdenwald, Amy; Mancini, Christina; Beauregard, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable scholarly attention has been directed toward explaining the "cycle of violence"-a phenomenon whereby victimization and offending appear inexorably linked to one another. Extant work has greatly contributed to our understanding of this cycle for different types of abuse and different types of offending, such as sex offending. The link between sexual abuse and later offending cannot be overstated, with research suggesting the impact of sexual abuse on sex offending to be more pronounced than any other type of abuse. However, in the literature, questions remain regarding sex offenders' patterns of offending. Specifically, it remains unclear whether type of abuse experienced has a differential impact on type of offending in adulthopd. Using retrospective data from sexual offenders in a Canadian penitentiary, we address this research gap by examining the impact of abuse experienced during childhood and adolescence on various types of offending in adulthood. Results indicate partial support for the cycle of violence hypothesis-the extent of criminal involvement can be explained as being a consequence of prior maltreatment; however, findings also suggest refinements to the theory, because the influence of type of abuse varies depending on the type of offending examined. Research and policy implications are discussed.

  1. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder: A New Approach for the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, David S.

    2007-01-01

    As a judge, the author was continually confronted with offenders whose behavior was unexpected and surprising. This was observed not only during their criminal activity but during their travel through the criminal process. This behavior did not appear to be intentional, but rather an inappropriate response to the circumstances that existed at the…

  2. Short-Term Criminal Pathways: Type and Seriousness of Offense and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wientjes, Jacqueline A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors investigated short-term criminal pathways of children and early adolescents starting under the age of 14 years and the extent to which characteristics of the 1st crime influenced criminal pathways. Participants were 387 juvenile offenders with a mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 2.05 years). The authors followed…

  3. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  4. 24 CFR 5.901 - To what criminal records and searches does this subpart apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... not apply to criminal conviction information or sex offender information searches by a PHA or others... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false To what criminal records and..., Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Access to...

  5. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  6. Short-Term Criminal Pathways: Type and Seriousness of Offense and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wientjes, Jacqueline A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors investigated short-term criminal pathways of children and early adolescents starting under the age of 14 years and the extent to which characteristics of the 1st crime influenced criminal pathways. Participants were 387 juvenile offenders with a mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 2.05 years). The authors followed…

  7. [Relationship between schizophrenia and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Baran, Brigitta; Gazdag, Gabor

    2011-12-01

    Referring to the scientific literature the authors analyze the correlation between criminal offense and psychiatric disorders. Frequency of violent behaviour in schizophrenia together with the risk factors are reviewed. The issue of violent offense is separately discussed. Impact of deinstitutionalization on offense is also analyzed. Results regarding the genetic correlations are also reviewed. Finally the question of re-offending is discussed. In summary the importance of this issue in stigmatization and in the development of the mental health care system is highlighted.

  8. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L; Moore, Simon C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending.

  9. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L.; Moore, Simon C.; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Methods Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Results Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. Conclusions The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending. PMID:26121148

  10. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  11. Does Watching a Play about the Teenage Brain Affect Attitudes toward Young Offenders?

    PubMed

    Blakey, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscience is increasingly used to infer the cognitive capacities of offenders from the activity and volume of different brain regions, with the resultant findings receiving great interest in the public eye. This field experiment tested the effects of public engagement in neuroscience on attitudes toward offenders. Brainstorm is a play about teenage brain development. Either before or after watching this play, 728 participants responded to four questions about the age of criminal responsibility, and the moral responsibility and dangerousness of a hypothetical young or adult offender. After watching the play, participants perceived the young offender as less likely to reoffend than the adult offender and the young, but not adult, offender as less morally responsible for his actions, especially on the first offense. Therefore, public engagement in the newest arrival to the criminological scene - neuroscience - may shift support for different youth justice responses.

  12. Does Watching a Play about the Teenage Brain Affect Attitudes toward Young Offenders?

    PubMed Central

    Blakey, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscience is increasingly used to infer the cognitive capacities of offenders from the activity and volume of different brain regions, with the resultant findings receiving great interest in the public eye. This field experiment tested the effects of public engagement in neuroscience on attitudes toward offenders. Brainstorm is a play about teenage brain development. Either before or after watching this play, 728 participants responded to four questions about the age of criminal responsibility, and the moral responsibility and dangerousness of a hypothetical young or adult offender. After watching the play, participants perceived the young offender as less likely to reoffend than the adult offender and the young, but not adult, offender as less morally responsible for his actions, especially on the first offense. Therefore, public engagement in the newest arrival to the criminological scene – neuroscience – may shift support for different youth justice responses. PMID:28649215

  13. Are the mentally retarded and learning disordered overrepresented among sex offenders and paraphilics?

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2008-08-01

    A sample of 2,286 male sex offenders and paraphilics and 241 nonsex offenders was evaluated for the prevalence of mental retardation and learning disorders, using the full Wechsler IQ scales. The sex offenders were generally of average intelligence, and the mentally retarded were not overrepresented among them, but the learning disordered were. There were no differences among sex offenders and controls in overall IQ or in the percentage of mentally retarded or learning-disordered cases, suggesting that the learning difficulties are not peculiar to sex offenders. There was a bias in referral source, with more mentally retarded, borderline-retarded, and/or learning-disordered cases being referred by the Children's Aid Society, prisons, and the Crown, suggesting that referral source may play a significant role in evaluating intelligence and mental retardation among sex offenders; but the overrepresentation of learning disorders among criminals appears to be a significant phenomenon, regardless of referral source.

  14. Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: investigating the role of sentence length and time served.

    PubMed

    Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined.

  15. Treatment entry barriers among California’s Proposition 36 offenders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    To explore why some Proposition 36 offenders do not enter drug treatment, we analyzed self-reported and administrative data to compare the characteristics, perceptions, and re-arrest rates of 124 untreated and 1,335 treated offenders assessed by thirty sites in five California counties. Offenders were comparable in many domains at assessment, however untreated offenders were younger, not employed, more criminally severe, and less motivated for treatment. To avoid incarceration was the primary reason for choosing Proposition 36, but fewer untreated offenders felt treatment-ready (12.9% vs. 35.7%) and more accepted the Proposition 36 program only upon recommendation by others (37.9% vs. 11.7%). Reasons for not entering treatment included re-arrest (31.6%), no desire for treatment (23.9%), and assignment to a program that was too far away (11.1%). Both groups had fewer total arrests after assessment, but recidivism was higher among untreated offenders. Understanding untreated Proposition 36 offenders can aid efforts to improve treatment entry rates and related outcomes. PMID:18514474

  16. Visual attention in violent offenders: Susceptibility to distraction.

    PubMed

    Slotboom, Jantine; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Bouman, Yvonne H A; In 't Hout, Willem; Sergiou, Carmen; van der Stigchel, Stefan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-02-16

    Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention. We expected offenders to have impaired visual attention, as revealed by increased attentional capture, compared to healthy controls. When comparing the performance of 62 offenders to 69 healthy community controls, we found our hypothesis to be partly confirmed. Offenders were more accurate overall, more accurate in the absence of distracting information, suggesting superior attention. In the presence of distracting information offenders were significantly less accurate compared to when no distracting information was present. Together, these findings indicate that violent offenders may have superior attention, yet worse control over attention. As such, violent offenders may have trouble adjusting to unexpected, irrelevant stimuli, which may relate to failures in self-regulation and inhibitory control.

  17. Female sexual abuse and criminal justice intervention: a comparison of child protective service and criminal justice samples.

    PubMed

    Bader, Shannon M; Scalora, Mario J; Casady, Thomas K; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Cases were drawn from a Midwestern state's child abuse registry, law enforcement records, and sex offender registry. The CPS sample consisted of 179 women, and the criminal justice system sample consisted of 57 women. All cases were reported to the agencies between 1994 and 2004. Victims ranged in age from 1 to 18 years old (M=9.98, SD=4.37). As hypothesized, there were statistically significant differences between the CPS and criminal justice samples. Specifically, the CPS sample had a majority of victims under age 12 (74.9%), while the criminal justice sample had a majority of victims between ages 13 and 19 (73.8%). The CPS sample had predominantly intrafamilial victims (97.8%), while the criminal justice sample had a majority of extrafamilial victims (63.3%). The CPS sample also showed significantly more female victims (63.7%), while the criminal justice sample had mostly male victims (62.1%). There were significant differences in the victim's age, the victim's gender and the perpetrator-victim relationship between cases managed in the CPS and the criminal justice system. The results highlight the need for further research into child welfare and law enforcement collaboration.

  18. Actuarial assessment of risk among sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E

    2003-06-01

    The appraisal of risk among sex offenders has seen recent advances through the advent of actuarial assessments. Statistics derived from Relative Operating Characteristics (ROCs) permit the comparison of predictive accuracies achieved by different instruments even among samples that exhibit different base rates of recidivism. Such statistics cannot, however, solve problems introduced when items from actuarial tools are omitted, when reliability is low, or when there is high between-subject variability in the duration of the follow-up. We present empirical evidence suggesting that when comprehensive actuarial tools (VRAG and SORAG) are scored with high reliability, without missing items, and when samples of offenders have fixed and equal opportunity for recidivism, predictive accuracies are maximized near ROC areas of 0.90. Although the term "dynamic" has not been consistently defined, such accuracies leave little room for further improvement in long-term prediction by dynamic risk factors. We address the mistaken idea that long-term, static risk levels have little relevance for clinical intervention with sex offenders. We conclude that highly accurate prediction of violent criminal recidivism can be achieved by means of highly reliable and thorough scoring of comprehensive multi-item actuarial tools using historical items (at least until potent therapies are identified). The role of current moods, attitudes, insights, and physiological states in causing contemporaneous behavior notwithstanding, accurate prediction about which sex offenders will commit at least one subsequent violent offense can be accomplished using complete information about past conduct.

  19. [Criminal behavior and police records: self-reports from elderly individuals].

    PubMed

    Kunz, F

    2011-02-01

    As a consequence of demographic changes the crime rates of our society are increasingly influenced by the behavior of older age groups in the population. Hence, both the description and explanation of crime at advanced ages are gaining in importance. As almost no relevant self-report data are available, a regionally representative mail survey among 49 to 81-years-olds was conducted which gathered self-reports on criminal behavior, potentially explanatory variables and previous police records. Almost 50% of respondents reported that they had committed at least 1 out of 14 types of offences at least once since turning 50 years old. Younger cohorts were noticeably more crime prone than older ones, both at the present and in the past. Out of all offences asked about, driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) was the primary behavior that showed up among the respondents. Apart from the DUI offence crime committed by the elderly is mainly characterized by fraud and property crimes in situations of everyday life by people who are well integrated and economically secure. Main predictors of criminal behavior at advanced ages are the individual sex and social learning mechanisms. The vast majority of people who have been repeatedly recorded by the police throughout their lives perpetuate criminal activities until higher ages. The proportion of offenders whose first police record took place after their 50(th) birthday is 56% which is much lower than estimates derived from official crime data.

  20. Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not.

  1. Postcode Criminals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  2. Postcode Criminals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  3. Cognitive and Behavioral Preoccupation With Alcohol in Recidivist DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A high proportion of individuals convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) are repeat offenders. Efforts have sought to identify specific factors underlying DUI recidivism. Of particular interest is the role that alcohol-related cognitions might play in the development and escalation of alcohol use. The present study investigated the degree to which preoccupation with, and attentional bias to, alcohol are heightened among repeat DUI offenders. Method: Three groups of participants (recidivist DUI offenders, first-time offenders, and controls; n = 20 per group) performed a visual probe task to measure attentional bias and completed questionnaires regarding their cognitive and emotional preoccupation with alcohol and drinking habits. Results: Recidivist offenders displayed a significantly heightened alcohol attentional bias and reported greater preoccupation with alcohol compared with both first-time offenders and controls. By contrast, none of the groups differed with regard to the self-reported quantity and frequency of their consumption. Conclusions: Factors reflecting preoccupation with alcohol have utility for differentiating recidivist offenders from both first-time offenders and nonoffenders. These findings highlight the value of moving beyond self-reported assessments of drinking patterns toward assessing specific cognitive and behavioral characteristics that can improve our understanding, assessment, and treatment of the problem of DUI recidivism. PMID:25343660

  4. Elderly Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brad D

    2016-04-01

    With the ever-aging population, the number of elderly sexual offenders are also on the rise. The courts and correctional system are increasingly faced with older individuals who have offended sexually. Previously, these older offenders were thought to be similar to younger sexual offenders. However, closer analysis suggests that many of these individuals pose a much lower risk to recidivate than the risk to recidivate of their younger counterparts. Still, an individualized approach to manage the risk of older offenders is required, as some may have particular risk factors relevant for their treatment and future stability, such as dementia or other mental health issues. Further, this population often has particular physical health issues and requires special consideration when being placed in the community. Assessment, treatment, and risk management in this special population of sexual offenders are discussed.

  5. 28 CFR 90.15 - Filing costs for criminal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prosecution of any misdemeanor or felony domestic violence offense, that the victim bear the costs associated with the filing of criminal charges against the domestic violence offender, or the costs associated... Section 90.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP...

  6. 28 CFR 90.15 - Filing costs for criminal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prosecution of any misdemeanor or felony domestic violence offense, that the victim bear the costs associated with the filing of criminal charges against the domestic violence offender, or the costs associated... Section 90.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP...

  7. 28 CFR 90.15 - Filing costs for criminal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosecution of any misdemeanor or felony domestic violence offense, that the victim bear the costs associated with the filing of criminal charges against the domestic violence offender, or the costs associated... Section 90.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP...

  8. 28 CFR 90.15 - Filing costs for criminal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prosecution of any misdemeanor or felony domestic violence offense, that the victim bear the costs associated with the filing of criminal charges against the domestic violence offender, or the costs associated... Section 90.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP...

  9. 28 CFR 90.15 - Filing costs for criminal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prosecution of any misdemeanor or felony domestic violence offense, that the victim bear the costs associated with the filing of criminal charges against the domestic violence offender, or the costs associated... Section 90.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP...

  10. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  11. Enhancing the Career Development of Individuals Who Have Criminal Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cummings, Devon L.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are involved in the criminal justice system. Upon release, most have difficulty finding employment and stabilizing economic resources, which contribute to recidivism. To date, the role of work in the lives of ex-offenders has virtually been ignored in the vocational literature. The purpose of this article is to…

  12. Women, Crime and the Male Dominated Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    Our society has long adhered to a double standard of justice, one for male offenders and another for females. This system survived with little controversy mainly due to the small female prison population. But recent events have drawn attention to not only the issue of female criminality, but to the treatment of women while incarcerated. Female…

  13. Enhancing the Career Development of Individuals Who Have Criminal Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cummings, Devon L.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are involved in the criminal justice system. Upon release, most have difficulty finding employment and stabilizing economic resources, which contribute to recidivism. To date, the role of work in the lives of ex-offenders has virtually been ignored in the vocational literature. The purpose of this article is to…

  14. Every Door Closed: Barriers Facing Parents with Criminal Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Amy E.; Dietrich, Sharon M.; Landau, Rue; Schneider, Peter D.; Ackelsberg, Irv; Bernstein-Baker, Judith; Hohenstein, Joseph

    This report examines the civil consequences of criminal records on ex-offender parents and their long-term ability to reintegrate into the community, resume parental responsibilities, and be productive members of the society. Many of the barriers described in this report are the results of policies intended to reduce crime, yet they have the…

  15. Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Robert D.; Flora, David B.; Kroner, Daryl G.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Varghese, Femina; Steffan, Jarrod S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12,154 research documents. Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Although meta-analytic results are based on a small sample of available studies, results suggest interventions with offenders with mental illness effectively reduced symptoms of distress, improving offender’s ability to cope with their problems, and resulted in improved behavioral markers including institutional adjustment and behavioral functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism. Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies (e.g., use of homework), which produced the most positive benefits. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems (e.g., psychiatric hospitals) as well as community settings by informing treatment strategies for the first time, which are based on empirical evidence. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted. PMID:22471384

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives?

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, James A; Looman, Jan; Franco, Kristina A; Rojas, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research associated with the Kaiser Permanente and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study has demonstrated that ACE are associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including physical and mental health disorders and aggressive behavior. Methods: Subjects from 4 different offender groups (N = 151) who were referred for treatment at an outpatient clinic in San Diego, CA, subsequent to conviction in criminal court, completed the ACE Questionnaire. Groups (nonsexual child abusers, domestic violence offenders, sexual offenders, and stalkers) were compared on the incidence of ACE, and comparisons were made between the group offenders and a normative sample. Results: Results indicated that the offender group reported nearly four times as many adverse events in childhood than an adult male normative sample. Eight of ten events were found at significantly higher levels among the criminal population. In addition, convicted sexual offenders and child abusers were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse in childhood than other offender types. Conclusions: On the basis of a review of the literature and current findings, criminal behavior can be added to the host of negative outcomes associated with scores on the ACE Questionnaire. Childhood adversity is associated with adult criminality. We suggest that to decrease criminal recidivism, treatment interventions must focus on the effects of early life experiences. PMID:23704843

  17. Substance use disorders in forensic psychiatry: differences among different types of offenders.

    PubMed

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Scholing, Agnes; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2012-12-01

    This is the first study that compared different types of offenders in forensic outpatient treatment (i.e., offenders of general violence [GV], intimate partner violence [IPV], sex crimes, and "other offenses" such as drug smuggling and property crimes) regarding the prevalence of substance use disorders at the time of the offense. In total, 35.8% of participants (n = 187) were diagnosed with any substance use disorder. Specifically, 61.5% of GV perpetrators, 30.9% of IPV perpetrators, 9.1% of sex offenders, and 26.7% of "other offenders" were diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence. More GV offenders and less sex offenders fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder. Furthermore, 29.9% of the offenders were intoxicated by substances at the moment they committed the offense (48.5% of GV perpetrators, 25.0% of IPV perpetrators, 17.4% of sex offenders, and 21.0% of other offenders). More GV perpetrators were intoxicated during the offense. As there is a clear association between substance abuse and criminal behavior, substance abuse in offenders should be assessed and, if present, be treated.

  18. An Attitudinal Explanation of Biases in the Criminal Justice System: An Empirical Testing of Defensive Attribution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives, supported by empirical evidence, have consistently argued that the judicial treatment of offenders by criminal justice agents is sometimes biased by extralegal factors, such as offenders' sociodemographic characteristics. According to defensive attribution theory, individuals tend to protect themselves against unfortunate…

  19. An Attitudinal Explanation of Biases in the Criminal Justice System: An Empirical Testing of Defensive Attribution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives, supported by empirical evidence, have consistently argued that the judicial treatment of offenders by criminal justice agents is sometimes biased by extralegal factors, such as offenders' sociodemographic characteristics. According to defensive attribution theory, individuals tend to protect themselves against unfortunate…

  20. [Adolescents engaging in sexually offending behavior].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents.

  1. The Use of Phallometric Evidence in Canadian Criminal Law.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Michael S; Chandler, Jennifer A; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-06-01

    The use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts has steadily increased since the early 1980s. Phallometry was initially considered by courts to be a potentially useful tool in the determination of accused persons' culpability; however, its contemporary use is limited to the postconviction contexts of sentencing and dangerous and long-term offender applications, as one of several means of diagnosing offenders, determining recidivism risk, and assessing treatment prospects. We provide an overview and assessment of the use of phallometric evidence by Canadian criminal courts and conclude that its contemporary application appears to be consistent with the expert psychiatric consensus on its proper role and function in the forensic context. We further identify potential difficulties associated with the adequacy of offenders' consent and the occasional divergence of expert opinion about the reliability and validity of phallometry for diagnosis and risk assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  2. In your face: the biased judgement of fear-anger expressions in violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Martin; Westphal, Sina; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-05-12

    Why is it that certain violent criminals repeatedly find themselves engaged in brawls? Many inmates report having felt provoked or threatened by their victims, which might be due to a tendency to ascribe malicious intentions when faced with ambiguous social signals, termed hostile attribution bias. The present study presented morphed fear-anger faces to prison inmates with a history of violent crimes, a history of child sexual abuse, and to matched controls form the general population. Participants performed a fear-anger decision task. Analyses compared both response frequencies and measures derived from psychophysical functions fitted to the data. In addition, a test to distinguish basic facial expressions and questionnaires for aggression, psychopathy and personality disorders were administered. Violent offenders present with a reliable hostile attribution bias, in that they rate ambiguous fear-anger expressions as more angry, compared to both the control population and perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Psychometric functions show a lowered threshold to detect anger in violent offenders compared to the general population. This effect is especially pronounced for male faces, correlates with self-reported aggression and presents in absence of a general emotion recognition impairment. The results indicate that a hostile attribution, related to individual level of aggression and pronounced for male faces, might be one mechanism mediating physical violence.

  3. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  4. The path from childhood behavioural disorders to felony offending: Investigating the role of adolescent drinking, peer marginalisation and school failure.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W Alex; Bolen, Jonathan D; Chmelka, Mary B; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Nordström, Tanja; Taanila, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Although a pathway from childhood behavioural disorders to criminal offending is well established, the aetiological processes remain poorly understood. Also, it is not clear if attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is predictive of crime in the absence of comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD). We examined two research questions: (1) Does ADHD have a unique effect on the risk of criminal offending, independently of DBD? (2) Is the effect of childhood behavioural disorders on criminal offending direct or mediated by adolescent processes related to school experience, substance misuse and peers? Structural equation modelling, with latent variables, was applied to longitudinally collected data on 4644 men from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study. Both ADHD and DBD separately predicted felony conviction risk. Most of these effects were mediated by adolescent alcohol use and low academic performance. The effect of DBD was stronger and included a direct pathway to criminal offending. Findings were more consistent with the life course mediation hypothesis of pathways into crime than the behavioural continuity path, in that the effects of each disorder category were mediated by heavy drinking and educational failure. Preventing these adolescent risk outcomes may be an effective approach to closing pathways to criminal behaviour amongst behaviourally disordered children. However, as there was some evidence of a direct pathway from DBD, effective treatments targeting this disorder are also expected to reduce criminal offending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Path from Childhood Behavioural Disorders to Felony Offending: Investigating the Role of Adolescent Drinking, Peer Marginalization, and School Failure

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W. Alex; Bolen, Jonathan D.; Chmelka, Mary B.; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Nordström, Tanja; Taanila, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a pathway from childhood behavioural disorders to criminal offending is well-established, the aetiological processes remain poorly understood. Also, it is not clear if attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is predictive of crime in the absence of comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD). Hypothesis We examined two research questions: (1) Does ADHD have a unique effect on the risk of criminal offending, independently of DBD? (2) Is the effect of childhood behavioural disorders on criminal offending direct or mediated by adolescent processes related to school experience, substance misuse, and peers? Method Structural equation modelling, with latent variables, was applied to longitudinally collected data on 4,644 males from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study. Results Both ADHD and DBD separately predicted felony conviction risk. Most of these effects were mediated by adolescent alcohol use and low academic performance. The effect of DBD was stronger and included a direct pathway to criminal offending. Conclusion Findings were more consistent with the life course mediation hypothesis of pathways into crime, in that the effects of each disorder category were mediated by heavy drinking and educational failure. Preventing these adolescent risk outcomes may be an effective approach to closing pathways to criminal behaviour among behaviourally disordered children. However, as there was some evidence of a direct pathway from DBD, effective treatments targeting this disorder are also expected to reduce criminal offending. PMID:25250918

  6. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  7. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  8. Offender Rehabilitation Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we offer an overview of reintegration policies in both Australia and New Zealand. We describe the rehabilitative practices of both countries, and their basis in the Risk-Needs-Responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, before outlining the recently developed Good Lives Model of offender rehabilitation. Our conclusion is that the…

  9. Does mandating offenders to treatment improve completion rates?

    PubMed

    Coviello, Donna M; Zanis, Dave A; Wesnoski, Susan A; Palman, Nicole; Gur, Arona; Lynch, Kevin G; McKay, James R

    2013-04-01

    While it is known that community-based outpatient treatment for substance abusing offenders is effective, treatment completion rates are low and much of the prior research has been conducted with offenders in residential treatment or therapeutic communities. The aim of the present study was to assess whether offenders who are mandated to community-based outpatient treatment have better completion rates compared to those who enter treatment voluntarily. The 160 research participants were a heterogeneous group of substance abusers who were under various levels of criminal justice supervision (CJS) in the community. The participants were enrolled in an intensive outpatient program and were recruited into the study between July 2007 and October 2010. All offenders received weekly therapy sessions using a cognitive problem solving framework and 45% completed the 6 month treatment program. Interestingly, those who were mandated demonstrated less motivation at treatment entry, yet were more likely to complete treatment compared to those who were not court-ordered to treatment. While controlling for covariates known to be related to treatment completion, the logistic regression analyses demonstrated that court-ordered offenders were over 10 times more likely to complete treatment compared to those who entered treatment voluntarily (OR=10.9, CI=2.0-59.1, p=.006). These findings demonstrate that stipulated treatment for offenders may be an effective way to increase treatment compliance.

  10. Does Mandating Offenders to Treatment Improve Completion Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Coviello, Donna M.; Zanis, Dave A.; Wesnoski, Susan A.; Palman, Nicole; Gur, Arona; Lynch, Kevin G.; McKay, James R.

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that community-based outpatient treatment for substance abusing offenders is effective, treatment completion rates are low and much of the prior research has been conducted with offenders in residential treatment or therapeutic communities. The aim of the present study was to assess whether offenders who are mandated to community-based outpatient treatment have better completion rates compared to those who enter treatment voluntarily. The 160 research participants were a heterogeneous group of substance abusers who were under various levels of criminal justice supervision (CJS) in the community. The participants were enrolled in an intensive outpatient program and were recruited into the study between July 2007 and October 2010. All offenders received weekly therapy sessions using a cognitive problem solving framework and 45% completed the six month treatment program. Interestingly, those who were mandated demonstrated less motivation at treatment entry, yet were more likely to complete treatment compared to those who were not court-ordered to treatment. While controlling for covariates known to be related to treatment completion, the logistic regression analyses demonstrated that court-ordered offenders were over ten times more likely to complete treatment compared to those who entered treatment voluntarily (OR = 10.9, CI = 2.0–59.1, p = .006). These findings demonstrate that stipulated treatment for offenders may be an effective way to increase treatment compliance. PMID:23192219

  11. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  12. The differences between sex offenders who victimise older women and sex offenders who offend against children.

    PubMed

    Browne, K D; Hines, Morag; Tully, Ruth J

    2016-07-01

    Within the literature on sex offending, much attention is paid to the distinction between those sex offenders who offend against adults and those who offend against children. In contrast, there is a paucity of research into sex offenders who offend specifically against elderly or older victims. A detailed interview and psychometric tests were conducted with a sample of 28 sex offenders who had been convicted of a sexually motivated offence against an older female. These data were compared to a sample of 23 child sex offenders. Results indicate that amongst other significant differences between these sub-groups, men who offend against older women are generally younger, are more violent, and are more likely to use a weapon and cause injury and death compared to child sex offenders. The men who offended against children were more likely to think about and plan their offending, spend more time with the victim pre and post offence, admit sexual arousal during the offence, and admit to a sexual motivation for the offence. This study suggests that men who sexually offend against older women and men who sexually offend against children are distinct groups. Treatment and risk management strategies should take this into account. Further exploration of this sub-group of offenders is recommended to help inform treatment and risk management strategies for sex offenders who offend against older people.

  13. Using child advocacy center tracking data to examine criminal disposition times.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Jones, Lisa M; Swiecicki, Carole C

    2014-01-01

    Given the difficulty of obtaining criminal justice data on child abuse cases, information from child advocacy centers could be an important resource for answering questions about criminal justice outcomes for child abuse cases. In this exploratory study, we use data from one child advocacy center (N = 632) to examine the feasibility of using NCAtrak, a national computerized, Web-based case tracking system, to examine criminal disposition timeframes in child abuse cases. The system data indicated that the time frame for the cases to be criminally resolved varied widely. About one in four child physical and sexual abuse cases with adult offenders took more than one year to reach a final disposition. About 11% of child sexual abuse cases with juvenile offenders took more than one year to reach a criminal disposition. We encourage child advocacy centers using computer-based data systems to think of additional ways they might use this potentially rich source of data.

  14. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  16. Shame, Guilt and Remorse: Implications for Offender Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Hafez, Logaina

    2011-01-01

    The emotions shame and guilt may represent a critical stepping stone in the rehabilitation process. Often referred to as “moral” emotions owing to their presumed role in promoting altruistic behavior and inhibiting antisocial behaviors, shame and guilt provide potentially exciting points of intervention with offenders. In this article, we describe current psychological theory and research that underscores important differences between shame and guilt. We note parallels between psychologists’ conceptions of guilt and shame, and criminologists’ conceptions of reintegrative and disintegrative shaming. We summarize recent research investigating the implications of these moral emotions for criminal and risky behavior, with special emphasis on the handful of studies conducted with actual offenders. We conclude with a discussion of implications for treatment in criminal justice settings. PMID:22523475

  17. 45 CFR 2551.42 - What types of criminal convictions or other adjudications disqualify an individual from serving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of criminal convictions or other..., and Cost Reimbursements § 2551.42 What types of criminal convictions or other adjudications disqualify... individual who is registered, or who is required to be registered, on a State sex offender registry, or...

  18. Exploring the longitudinal offending pathways of child sexual abuse victims: A preliminary analysis using latent variable modeling.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Very little research has been conducted to show the way in which criminal behavior unfolds over the life-course in children who have been sexually abused, and whether it differs from the 'age-crime' patterns consistently documented in the criminology literature. This study investigated the temporal pathways of criminal offending between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed cases of child sexual abuse (CSA), and considered whether abuse variables, offense variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in offending pathways among CSA survivors. This study utilized data gathered as part of a large-scale study involving the linkage of forensic examinations on 2759 cases of medically ascertained CSA between 1964 and 1995, to criminal justice and public psychiatric databases 13-44 years following abuse, together with a matched comparison sample of 2677 individuals. We used the subsample of 283 offending individuals (191 victims; 92 comparisons) for whom complete offending data were available. We compared the aggregate age-crime curves for CSA victims and comparisons, and applied longitudinal latent class analysis to identify distinct subgroups of offending pathways between ages 10-25 years within the abuse sample. Four latent pathways emerged among sexually abused offenders, labeled: Early-Onset/High-Risk/Adolescence-Limited; Intermediate-Onset/Low-Risk/Adolescence-Limited; Late-Onset/Low-Risk/Slow-Declining; and Early-Onset/High-Risk/Persistent offenders. Age at abuse, the nature and frequency of offending, and mental health problems, were associated with the offending pathway followed by CSA victims. Consistent with criminological literature, findings indicate considerable heterogeneity in the longitudinal offending patterns of offenders exposed to CSA. Implications for clinical practice and directions for research are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Castration of sex offenders: prisoners' rights versus public safety.

    PubMed

    Scott, Charles L; Holmberg, Trent

    2003-01-01

    Sexual victimization of children and adults is a significant treatment and public policy problem in the United States. To address increasing concerns regarding sex offender recidivism, nine states have passed legislation since 1996 authorizing the use of either chemical or physical castration. In most statutes, a repeat offender's eligibility for probation or parole is linked to acceptance of mandated hormonal therapy. Future legal challenges to this wave of legislation will probably include arguments that such laws violate constitutional rights guaranteed to the offender by the First, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments. When the promise of freedom is predicated on mandated treatment, the clinician must carefully assess the validity of informed consent.

  20. "Police Wouldn't Give You No Help": Female Offenders on Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.

    PubMed

    Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Slocum, Lee Ann; Kruttschnitt, Candace

    2016-03-01

    Sexual assault remains one of the most underreported violent crimes. When victims report, they often are dissatisfied with the police response. The factors influencing one's decision to invoke the law have been widely examined. However, less research examines (a) how the victim's criminality affects this decision and (b) women offenders' characterization of their reporting decisions. We use mixed methods to explore the factors related to an offender's decision to report sexual victimization to police and consider their descriptions of police response when they do report the crime. Our findings provide insight into the gendered relations between offenders and police. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Risk, Resource, Redemption? The Parenting and Custodial Experiences of Young Offender Fathers.

    PubMed

    Ladlow, Linzi; Neale, Bren

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on an ESRC funded qualitative longitudinal study of young fatherhood, this article explores the experiences of young offender fathers, the complex intersection of offender and fatherhood pathways for young men and the impact of professional support and tailored intervention programmes on these processes. The article challenges the axiom of young offender fathers as inherently 'risky', and suggests the utility of a dynamic, life course approach to criminal policy and practice that recognises the fluidity of their life journeys, and brings ideas of redemption more centrally into the picture.

  2. Domestic Violence Courts: A Multisite Test of Whether and How They Change Offender Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cissner, Amanda B; Labriola, Melissa; Rempel, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Findings are from an investigation of 24 criminal domestic violence courts (DVCs) across New York, testing their effect on recidivism, case processing, and case resolutions. Overall, we found a small positive impact on recidivism among convicted offenders. We further found that the sex of defendants moderated the court impact on case resolutions; that is, among male defendants only, DVCs increased conviction rates and sentences involving jail or prison. In addition, multi-level, multivariate analyses found that court policies specifically designed to increase victim safety, hold offenders accountable, and reduce offender recidivism (through deterrence or rehabilitation) were instrumental in reducing recidivism.

  3. Adolescent sexual offenders: the relationship between typology and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2010-06-01

    Adolescent sexual offending represents an ongoing social, judicial, clinical, and policy issue for services. The current study investigated the characteristics, criminal versatility, and rates of recidivism of a cohort of 156 male adolescent sexual offenders who were referred for psychological assessments by the courts between 1996 and 2007 in Singapore. Analyses revealed that specialists (sex-only offenders; n = 71, M(follow-up) = 56.99 months, SD(follow-up) = 31.33) and generalists (criminally versatile offenders; n = 77, M (follow-up) = 67.83 months, SD(follow-up) = 36.55) differed with respect to offense characteristics (e.g., sexually assaulting familial victims) and recidivistic outcomes. Although both groups sexually reoffended at roughly the same rate (14.3% vs. 9.9%), consistent with their typology, significantly more of the generalists reoffended violently (18.2% vs. 1.4%), sexually and/or violently (27.3% vs. 11.3%), nonviolently (37.7% vs. 16.9%), and engaged in any further criminal behaviors (45.5% vs. 23.9%) during follow-up. Adjusting for total number of offenses and age at first sexual offense, Cox regression analyses showed that generalists were significantly more likely than specialists to reoffend violently (hazard ratio = 9.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-76.39). The differences between generalists and specialists suggest a valid typological distinction with a higher risk trajectory for the generalists. These findings therefore have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for adolescent sexual offenders.

  4. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed.

  5. [Outcome assessment in the Spanish young offenders' law. Recidivism and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Amaia; Sierra, María Jesús; del Valle, Jorge F

    2009-11-01

    The present study aims to assess the impact of the Spanish young offenders law (LO/2000). Recidivism and its associated risk factors were used as indicators of impact. Data were collected from young offenders' reports opened after 2001 and closed before 2005. The final sample consisted of 382 young offenders (327 males and 55 females). Results indicated that 70% had not re-offended in an average period of 1.6 years. Most of the youngsters with fewer risk factors, usually start their criminal careers with less serious offences and the interventions seemed to be fairly effective. In the cases of young offenders with a higher number of risk factors, the interventions (custodial and non-custodial) were less effective, as recidivism rates were higher. Interventions must focus on family and community contexts in order to achieve adequate social integration of young delinquents.

  6. Careers of offenders with an intellectual disability: the probabilities of rearrest.

    PubMed

    Cockram, J

    2005-07-01

    BACKGROUND This paper reports results from a total population of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Western Australia arrested for the first time since 1 April 1984. It is part of a longitudinal study that 'tracked' offenders with ID through the criminal justice system over an 11-year period to compare their experiences at each stage of the justice process with a sample of the general offending population. The research draws on an analysis of the Western Australian Police Services Apprehension records and the Disability Services Commission database. METHOD The data collected provided the opportunity to calculate base rates of the probability of rearrest of offenders with ID in comparison to mainstream offenders. RESULTS The study found that people with ID had a significantly higher rate of rearrest than general population offenders and the study canvasses some possible reasons for this finding.

  7. Victim Age and the Generalist Versus Specialist Distinction in Adolescent Sexual Offending.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Elisabeth J; Pullman, Lesleigh E; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    More knowledge is needed about the etiology and treatment needs of adolescent sex offenders. The current study compared adolescents who had offended against children (defined as below the age of 12 and at least 5 years younger than the adolescent), adolescents who have offended against peers or adults, and adolescents who had victims in both age groups. Based on Seto and Lalumière's meta-analytic findings, participants were compared on theoretically derived factors, including childhood sexual abuse, atypical sexual interests, sexual experience, social competence, psychiatric history, and general delinquency factors (past criminal history, substance abuse history, and offense characteristics). The study sample consisted of 162 court-referred male adolescent sexual offenders aged 12 to 17 years. Of the six identified domains, groups significantly differed on five of them; the exceptions were variables reflecting social competence. The results further support the validity of distinguishing adolescent sex offenders by victim age. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Juvenile sex offenders and institutional misconduct: the role of thought psychopathology.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Beaver, Kevin M; Wright, John Paul; Hochstetler, Andy; Kosloski, Anna E; Drury, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the institutional behaviour of incarcerated sex offenders. To study the relationships between juvenile sex offending, thought psychopathology and institutional misconduct. We applied negative binomial regression and Area Under Curve Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC-ROC) analyses to self-report and records data from institutionalised delinquents (N = 813) committed to the California Youth Authority to explore the links between sex offending and institutional misconduct, controlling for offender demographics, institution, index offence, and self-reported and official criminal history. Juvenile sex offending was associated with six forms of institutional misconduct (sexual, general and total misconduct as reviewed by parole board) over 12 and 24 months prior to rating. Two measures of thought psychopathology, which were related to psychosis-like thought, were significantly associated with juvenile sex offender status. These constructs did not, however, mediate the independent predictive effects of adolescent sex offending on institutional misconduct. Interventions to help incarcerated young offenders are likely to be particularly important for those with a sex offending history as they are otherwise likely to persist with antisocial behaviours of all kinds within and beyond the institution. Attention to their thought processes may be particularly useful. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Offenders' crime narratives as revealed by the Narrative Roles Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Youngs, Donna; Canter, David V

    2013-03-01

    The study of narrative processes as part of the immediate factors that shape criminal action is limited by the lack of a methodology for differentiating the narrative themes that characterise specific crime events. The current study explores how the roles offenders see themselves as playing during an offence encapsulate their underlying crime narratives and thus provide the basis for a quantitative methodology. To test this possibility, a 33-item Narrative Roles Questionnaire (NRQ) was developed from intensive interviews with offenders about their experience of committing a recent offence. A multidimensional analysis of the NRQ completed by 71 convicted offenders revealed life narrative themes similar to those identified in fiction by Frye and with noncriminals by McAdams, labelled The Professional, Victim, Hero, and Revenger offence roles. The NRQ thus is a first step in opening up the possibility of empirical studies of the narrative aetiological perspective in criminology.

  10. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder show attentional bias for violence-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Domes, Gregor; Mense, Julia; Vohs, Knut; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-08-30

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be characterized by a lack in emotional functioning that manifests in irritability and a lack of remorse. The proposed link between ASPD and negative emotionality led to the question of emotional processing anomalies in ASPD. Furthermore, the effect of childhood maltreatment/abuse on emotional processing was tested in the present study. Violent and sexual offenders with ASPD (n=35), without ASPD (n=34), and healthy non-criminal controls (n=24) were compared in an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) using neutral, negative, and violence-related words. Secondary analyses focused on the effect of psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatment. Offenders with ASPD showed a stronger attentional bias to violence-related and negative words as compared to controls. Comparable results were obtained when grouping offenders to high, medium, and low psychopathic subgroups. Offenders with childhood maltreatment specifically showed stronger violence-related attentional bias than non-maltreated offenders. The data suggest that enhanced attention to violence-related stimuli in adult criminal offenders is associated with adverse developmental experiences and delinquency but to a lesser extent with antisocial or psychopathic traits.

  11. Mental health provision for young offenders: service use and cost.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Barbara; Byford, Sarah; Chitsabesan, Prathiba; Kenning, Cassandra

    2006-06-01

    The full costs of accommodating and supporting young people in the criminal justice system are unknown. There is also concern about the level of mental health needs among young offenders and the provision of appropriate mental health services. To estimate the full cost of supporting young people in the criminal justice system in England and Wales and to examine the relationship between needs, service use and cost. Cross-sectional survey of 301 young offenders, 151 in custody and 150 in the community, conducted in six geographically representative areas of England and Wales. Mental health service use was low despite high levels of need, particularly in the community. Monthly costs were significantly higher among young people interviewed in secure facilities than in the community (pound 4645 v. pound 1863; P<0.001). Younger age and a depressed mood were associated with greater costs. Young people in the criminal justice system are a significant financial burden not only on that system but also on social services, health and education. The relationship between cost and depressed mood indicates a role for mental health services in supporting young offenders, particularly those in the community.

  12. The evaluation of violent thinking in adult offenders and non-offenders using the Maudsley Violence Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Walker, Julian; Bowes, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The Maudsley Violence Questionnaire (MVQ) was designed to measure explicit rules and beliefs associated with violence. Previous studies with young people and offenders with mental disorder found the MVQ to be a valid and reliable measure of violent thinking. This study explores the use of the MVQ with a 'normal' (non-offender) population and an offender population without mental illness in order to evaluate how the MVQ's subscales related to violence within these groups. The MVQ was given to 78 adult male participants along with a measure of self-reported violence; demographic information and criminal history were also recorded. Thirty-five of the participants were convicted adult male offenders resident of an adult male closed prison in South Wales; 43 were volunteers from the staff group in the same prison. The MVQ factors were compared with self-reported violence and with officially recorded violent convictions. Although both subscales of the MVQ related to self-reported violence, 'Machismo' showed a stronger relationship to both self-reported and officially recorded violence. Violent thinking, specifically beliefs measured by the Machismo subscale of the MVQ, was robustly associated with self-reported and officially recorded violence in this study with offender and non-offender adults. The MVQ is a valid and feasible measure for use with adult populations. Violent thinking (specifically Machismo thinking styles) should be included in the assessments of violent offenders. Work on violent thinking and reducing 'macho' thinking could be a useful adjunct to anger management work with violent offenders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Invited address: James Joyce, Alice in Wonderland, The Rolling Stones, and criminal careers.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R

    2011-07-01

    The study of criminal careers generally, and patterns of continuity and change in criminal offending in particular, has been a long-standing interest to social scientists across many disciplines. This article provides readers with an overview of this line of research. After an introduction to the criminal career perspective, the article presents several 'facts' that have emerged from criminal career studies. This material segues into a discussion of theories based on criminal careers research as well as a related discussion of the emerging methods and trends in the area. The article closes with some observations about public policy with respect to criminal careers knowledge and identifies some neglected research needs. A key summary conclusion is that the processes associated with continuity and change are not mutually exclusive, but instead are important and complimentary aspects of criminal careers research.

  14. Breaking the addictive cycle of the system: improving US criminal justice practices to address substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Kopak, Albert M

    2015-01-01

    Recent political commentary in the USA has suggested that there is great potential for current criminal justice practices designed for drug-involved offenders to be significantly overhauled in the near future. It is imperative to plan for these changes by assessing how well current programs serve drug-involved criminal justice populations. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This critical assessment begins with an overview of the most recent research on the prevalence and impact that substance use disorders have within the criminal justice system. Although the evidence demonstrates that relying on incarceration as a crime control method for drug-involved offenders has many shortcomings, there are innovative new programs being adopted across the country. Two of these promising programs are discussed, as well as the potential results that could be realized from integrating medication assisted treatment into appropriate criminal justice programs designed for drug-involved offenders. Incarceration is a failed practice for attending to the underlying reasons why many drug-involved offenders become involved in criminal activities. There are encouraging new programs emerging in different parts of the USA, but the inclusion of supplemental treatment options could further promote positive outcomes. The impending expansion of criminal justice programs for drug-involved offenders must consider how innovative new programs can be fused with supplemental treatment options to achieve the best results.

  15. Criminal diversity and paraphilic interests among adult males convicted of sexual offenses against children.

    PubMed

    Smallbone, Stephen W; Wortley, Richard K

    2004-04-01

    Official demographic and offense history data (n = 362) and confidential self-report data on paraphilic interests and behavior (n = 221) obtained on adult males convicted of sexual offenses against children were analyzed. Considerable criminal diversity was observed, with all standard categories of offenses represented in offenders' criminal histories. Most (86%) of the offenders' previous convictions were for nonsexual offenses, and most (92%) of the recidivist offenders had previously been convicted of at least one nonsexual offense. The prevalence of diagnosable paraphilias was low, with only 5% meeting formal diagnostic criteria for multiple (two or more) paraphilias other than pedophilia. Sexual offenders' paraphilic interests were unrelated to the extent of their sexual offense convictions but were significantly related to the extent of their nonsexual offense convictions. The results are better explained by a general theory of crime than by traditional clinical conceptions linking sexual offenses specifically with sexual psychopathology.

  16. Criminal social identity and suicide ideation among Pakistani young prisoners.

    PubMed

    Shagufta, Sonia; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola-Palmer, Derrol

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a common in prisoners, yet little is known about the factors that may protect against thoughts of ending one's life. The purpose of this paper is to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationship between three criminal social identity (CSI) dimensions (in-group affect, in-group ties, and cognitive centrality) and suicide ideation while controlling for period of confinement, age, criminal friends, and offense type (violent vs non-violent). Participants were 415 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A structural model was specified and tested using Mplus to examine the relationships between the three factors of CSI and suicidal thoughts, while controlling for age, offender type, period of confinement, and substance dependence. The model provided an adequate fit for the data, explaining 22 per cent of variance in suicidal thoughts. In-group affect (the level of personal bonding with other criminals) was found to exert a strong protective effect against suicide ideation. The research contributes important information on suicide ideation in Pakistan, an Islamic country in which suicide is considered a sin and subsequently a criminal offence. Results indicate that Juvenile offenders' sense of shared identity may help to prevent the development of thoughts of death by suicide. Consequently, separating and isolating young prisoners may be ill advised.

  17. Mentally Retarded Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jill; Hoover, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Critically reviews data about the behavioral characteristics of mentally retarded sexual offenders. Discusses possible interactions between mental retardation and the provision of services and directions for future research. (Author)

  18. Stopping the revolving door: effectiveness of mental health court in reducing recidivism by mentally ill offenders.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Joye C; Carbonell, Joyce L

    2014-09-01

    This study compared recidivism outcomes among criminal offenders with mental illness who were assigned to a mental health court (MHC) or a traditional criminal court. It also explored potential differences in outcomes between subgroups of offenders, including felony and misdemeanor offenders and violent and nonviolent offenders. Data were obtained from court databases. Offenders in the MHC (N=198) and the traditional criminal court (N=198) were matched by propensity scores and followed for 12 months after the index offense. Data for the 12 months preceding the index offense were obtained for MHC participants. Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted, using both between-group and within-subjects designs. After control for covariates, logistic and Cox regressions indicated that MHC assignment predicted a lower overall rate of recidivism and longer time to rearrest for a new charge compared with assignment to traditional court. The groups did not significantly differ on the severity of the offense associated with rearrest. The findings largely held for felony, misdemeanor, violent, and nonviolent offenders, with the exception of analyses involving time to rearrest for violent offenders. Within-subjects analyses suggested that after MHC participation, there were improvements in occurrence of rearrest and time to rearrest but a tendency for rearrest to be associated with more severe offenses. Within the MHC group, recidivism outcomes did not significantly differ by class of offense. The results suggest that an MHC can be effective in reducing recidivism among offenders with mental illness and also indicate that persons who commit more severe offenses may be appropriate candidates for MHC.

  19. Juvenile crime and criminal justice: resolving border disputes.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal architecture of the new boundary-drawing regime and how effective it has been in reducing crime. The juvenile court, Fagan emphasizes, has always had the power to transfer juveniles to the criminal court. Transfer decisions were made individually by judges who weighed the competing interests of public safety and the possibility of rehabilitating young offenders. This authority has now been usurped by legislators and prosecutors. The recent changes in state law have moved large numbers of juveniles into the adult system. As many as 25 percent of all juvenile offenders younger than eighteen, says Fagan, are now prosecuted in adult court. Many live in states where the age boundary between juvenile and criminal court has been lowered to sixteen or seventeen. The key policy question is: do these new transfer laws reduce crime? In examining the research evidence, Fagan finds that rates of juvenile offending are not lower in states where it is relatively more common to try adolescents as adults. Likewise, juveniles who have been tried as adults are no less likely to re-offend than their counterparts who have been tried as juveniles. Treating juveniles as adult criminals, Fagan concludes, is not effective as a means of crime control. Fagan argues that the proliferation of transfer regimes over the past several decades calls into question the very rationale for a juvenile court. Transferring adolescent offenders to the criminal court exposes them to harsh and sometimes toxic forms of punishment that have the perverse effect of increasing criminal activity. The accumulating evidence on transfer, the recent decrease in serious juvenile

  20. Relative mortality among criminals in Norway and the relation to drug and alcohol related offenses.

    PubMed

    Skardhamar, Torbjørn; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-01-01

    Registered offenders are known to have a higher mortality rate, but given the high proportion of offenders with drug-addiction, particularly among offenders with a custodial sentence, higher mortality is expected. While the level of overall mortality compared to the non-criminal population is of interest in itself, we also estimate the risk of death by criminal records related to substance abuse and other types of criminal acts, and separate between those who receive a prison sentence or not. Age-adjusted relative risks of death for 2000-2008 were studied in a population based dataset. Our dataset comprise the total Norwegian population of 2.9 million individuals aged 15-69 years old in 1999, of whom 10% had a criminal record in the 1992-1999 period. Individuals with a criminal record have twice the relative risk (RR) of death of the control group (non-offenders). Males with a record of use/possession of drugs and a prison record have an 11.9 RR (females, 15.6); males with a drug record but no prison record have a 6.9 RR (females 10.5). Males imprisoned for driving under the influence of substances have a 4.4 RR (females 5.6); males with a record of driving under the influence but no prison sentence have a 3.2 RR (females 6.5). Other male offenders with a prison record have a 2.8 RR (females 3.7); other male offenders with no prison record have a 1.7 RR (females 2.3). Significantly higher mortality was found for people with a criminal record, also for those without any record of drug use. Mortality is much higher for those convicted of substance-related crimes: more so for drug- than for alcohol-related crimes and for women.

  1. Relative Mortality among Criminals in Norway and the Relation to Drug and Alcohol Related Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Skardhamar, Torbjørn; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-01-01

    Background Registered offenders are known to have a higher mortality rate, but given the high proportion of offenders with drug-addiction, particularly among offenders with a custodial sentence, higher mortality is expected. While the level of overall mortality compared to the non-criminal population is of interest in itself, we also estimate the risk of death by criminal records related to substance abuse and other types of criminal acts, and separate between those who receive a prison sentence or not. Methods Age-adjusted relative risks of death for 2000–2008 were studied in a population based dataset. Our dataset comprise the total Norwegian population of 2.9 million individuals aged 15–69 years old in 1999, of whom 10% had a criminal record in the 1992–1999 period. Results Individuals with a criminal record have twice the relative risk (RR) of death of the control group (non-offenders). Males with a record of use/possession of drugs and a prison record have an 11.9 RR (females, 15.6); males with a drug record but no prison record have a 6.9 RR (females 10.5). Males imprisoned for driving under the influence of substances have a 4.4 RR (females 5.6); males with a record of driving under the influence but no prison sentence have a 3.2 RR (females 6.5). Other male offenders with a prison record have a 2.8 RR (females 3.7); other male offenders with no prison record have a 1.7 RR (females 2.3). Conclusion Significantly higher mortality was found for people with a criminal record, also for those without any record of drug use. Mortality is much higher for those convicted of substance-related crimes: more so for drug- than for alcohol-related crimes and for women. PMID:24223171

  2. Analysis of National Crime Victimization Survey Data to Study Serious Delinquent Behavior. Monograph Four: Juvenile Criminal Behavior and Its Relation to Economic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danser, Kenneth R.; Laub, John H.

    Quarterly offending data from the National Crime Survey 1973-78 (NCS) were used to address the question: what effect do economic conditions have on criminal behavior over time? A total rate of offending in personal crimes as well as crime specific rates for robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault were examined. Analysis focused on three…

  3. Trauma changes everything: examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Perez, Nicholas; Cass, Elizabeth; Baglivio, Michael T; Epps, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Among juvenile offenders, those who commit the greatest number and the most violent offenses are referred to as serious, violent, and chronic (SVC) offenders. However, current practices typically identify SVC offenders only after they have committed their prolific and costly offenses. While several studies have examined risk factors of SVCs, no screening tool has been developed to identify children at risk of SVC offending. This study aims to examine how effective the adverse childhood experiences index, a childhood trauma-based screening tool developed in the medical field, is at identifying children at higher risk of SVC offending. Data on the history of childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, criminal behavior, and other criminological risk factors for offending among 22,575 delinquent youth referred to the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice are analyzed, with results suggesting that each additional adverse experience a child experiences increases the risk of becoming a serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offender by 35, when controlling for other risk factors for criminal behavior. These findings suggest that the ACE score could be used by practitioners as a first-line screening tool to identify children at risk of SVC offending before significant downstream wreckage occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What is so special about male adolescent sexual offending? A review and test of explanations through meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L

    2010-07-01

    We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies), childhood abuse, exposure to violence, family problems, interpersonal problems, sexuality, psychopathology, and cognitive abilities. The results did not support the notion that adolescent sexual offending can be parsimoniously explained as a simple manifestation of general antisocial tendencies. Adolescent sex offenders had much less extensive criminal histories, fewer antisocial peers, and fewer substance use problems compared with non-sex offenders. Special explanations suggesting a role for sexual abuse history, exposure to sexual violence, other abuse or neglect, social isolation, early exposure to sex or pornography, atypical sexual interests, anxiety, and low self-esteem received support. Explanations focusing on attitudes and beliefs about women or sexual offending, family communication problems or poor parent-child attachment, exposure to nonsexual violence, social incompetence, conventional sexual experience, and low intelligence were not supported. Ranked by effect size, the largest group difference was obtained for atypical sexual interests, followed by sexual abuse history, and, in turn, criminal history, antisocial associations, and substance abuse. We discuss the implications of the findings for theory development, as well as for the assessment, treatment, and prevention of adolescent sexual offending.

  5. Juvenile sex offenders: Personality profile, coping styles and parental care.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Craig, Francesco; Lafortezza, Elena; Lisi, Andrea; Pinto, Floriana; Stallone, Valentina; Pierri, Grazia; Pisani, Rossella; Zagaria, Giuseppina; Margari, Lucia; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in juvenile sex offenders showing that this population is highly heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to identify possible different profiles that could help understand the motivation behind offending, comparing 31 Juvenile Sexual Offenders (JSOs), 31 Juvenile Sexual Non Offenders (JSNOs) and 31 Juvenile Non Offenders (Control Group). A data collection form, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) were administered to all participants. The results show that JSOs differs from JNSOs in some domains, such as living in single-parent homes, while maintain some common aspects such as academic failure and previous sexual intercourse. Moreover, JNSOs showed more abnormal personality traits, such as Authority Problems, MacAndrew Alcoholism, Acknowledgement and Alcohol-Drug Problem Proneness compared to JSOs and the Control Group, while JSOs and JNSOs use a coping strategy more oriented to Avoidance and Distraction compared to the Control group. Finally, JSOs described the relationships with fathers characterized by higher care and protection than JNSOs. These findings provide additional evidence with respect the prevention and treatment of criminal sexual behavior in adolescent.

  6. The perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders.

    PubMed

    Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley

    2008-12-01

    A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.

  7. Child pornography possessors: trends in offender and case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2011-03-01

    This article describes trends in child pornography (CP) possession cases that ended in arrest in 2000 and in 2006, using data from the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, a two-wave longitudinal survey of a national sample of more than 2,500 U.S. law enforcement agencies. In 2006, there were an estimated 3,672 arrests for CP possession, compared with 1,713 arrests in 2000. Many characteristics of the offenders and the offense remained stable. In both 2006 and 2000, most offenders were White, non-Hispanic males and socioeconomically diverse. Few were known to have committed previous sex crimes. Most had CP that depicted preteen children and serious sexual abuse. In 2006, however, a higher proportion of offenders were aged 18 to 25 years, used peer-to-peer (p2p) networks, had images of children younger than 3 years, and had CP videos. P2p users had more extreme images (e.g., younger victims, sexual violence) and larger numbers of images than those who did not use p2p networks. Findings reflect heightened efforts in the criminal justice system to combat CP crimes. More cases originated with investigations of CP possession and involved proactive investigations aimed at detecting CP. The great majority of cases were successfully prosecuted, with more offenders sentenced to incarceration and serving longer sentences than in 2000. As in 2000, one in six cases that began with investigations of CP possession detected offenders who had molested children.

  8. Alias: lying to the police and pathological criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Delisi, Matt; Drury, Alan; Behnken, Monic; Vaughn, Michael G; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R

    2013-07-01

    The use of aliases has been shown to be associated with antisocial behavior, but the empirical research on this topic is modest. The current study employs a multiple analytical approach to explore the association between aliases and career criminality in two large samples of adult offenders. We hypothesized that the use of aliases would not only be strongly associated with arrest history but this singular behavior would accurately classify a large proportion of habitual criminals. Results show that alias usage is robustly associated with career arrests net the effects of arrest onset, age, and sex in negative binomial regression models and was an excellent classifier (AUC = .82) of habitual criminality. Implications of the findings for forensic and criminal justice practitioners are offered.

  9. Public attitudes toward legally coerced biological treatments of criminals

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Chandler, Jennifer A.; Reiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract How does the public view the offer of a biological treatment in lieu of prison for criminal offenders? Using the contrastive vignette technique, we explored this issue, using mixed-methods analysis to measure concerns regarding changing the criminal's personality, the coercive nature of the offer, and the safety of the proposed treatment. Overall, we found that of the three variables, the safety of the pill had the strongest effect on public acceptance of a biological intervention. Indeed, it was notable that the public was relatively sanguine about coercive offers of biological agents, as well as changing the personality of criminals. While respondents did not fully endorse such coercive offers, neither were they outraged by the use of biological treatments of criminals in lieu of incarceration. These results are discussed in the context of the retributive and rehabilitative sentiments of the public, and legal jurisprudence in the arena of human rights law. PMID:28852535

  10. Public attitudes toward legally coerced biological treatments of criminals.

    PubMed

    Berryessa, Colleen M; Chandler, Jennifer A; Reiner, Peter

    2016-12-01

    How does the public view the offer of a biological treatment in lieu of prison for criminal offenders? Using the contrastive vignette technique, we explored this issue, using mixed-methods analysis to measure concerns regarding changing the criminal's personality, the coercive nature of the offer, and the safety of the proposed treatment. Overall, we found that of the three variables, the safety of the pill had the strongest effect on public acceptance of a biological intervention. Indeed, it was notable that the public was relatively sanguine about coercive offers of biological agents, as well as changing the personality of criminals. While respondents did not fully endorse such coercive offers, neither were they outraged by the use of biological treatments of criminals in lieu of incarceration. These results are discussed in the context of the retributive and rehabilitative sentiments of the public, and legal jurisprudence in the arena of human rights law.

  11. Neurobiological determinism: human freedom of choice and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Urbaniok, Frank; Laubacher, Arja; Hardegger, Judith; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Moskvitin, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    Several authors have argued that criminal behavior is generally caused by neurobiological deficits. This assumption not only questions the concept of free will and a person's responsibility for his or her own actions but also the principle of guilt in criminal law. When critically examining the current state of research, it becomes apparent that the results are not sufficient to support the existence of a universally valid neurobiological causality of criminal behavior. Moreover, the assumption of total neurobiological determination of human behavior and the impossibility of individual responsibility are characterized by both faulty empiricism and methodical misconceptions. The principle of relative determinism and the analysis of the offender's behavior at the time of the offense thus remain the central and cogent approach to the assessment of criminal responsibility.

  12. Fearlessness in juvenile offenders is associated with offending rate.

    PubMed

    Syngelaki, Eva M; Fairchild, Graeme; Moore, Simon C; Savage, Justin C; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2013-01-01

    Poor fear conditioning is a correlate of violent offending in adults, but there is no evidence concerning juvenile offenders. Our aim was to compare emotional learning in juvenile offenders and controls and establish whether crime rate is related to seriousness of emotional learning problems. To this end, emotional learning was assessed in 42 juvenile offenders by measuring skin conductance responding (SCR) during fear conditioning. Compared to controls, juvenile offenders showed lower conditioned SCRs to visual stimuli associated with a subsequent aversive stimulus and the magnitude of the SCR during fear acquisition was inversely associated with the number of their recorded offences. These findings suggest that juvenile offenders have impairments in the neural systems that subserve emotional learning. The implication is that using punitive measures to control persistent offenders is unlikely to be effective in an identifiable group of juvenile offenders. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The puzzle of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: a meta-analysis comparing intrafamilial and extrafamilial offenders with child victims.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Babchishin, Kelly M; Pullman, Lesleigh E; McPhail, Ian V

    2015-07-01

    Intrafamilial child sexual abuse is a serious social and health problem, yet explanations of sexual offending against children that emphasize antisocial tendencies and atypical sexual interests do not adequately explain intrafamilial offending. In this meta-analysis, we tested other explanations of intrafamilial child sexual abuse by examining 78 independent samples that compared a total of 6605 intrafamilial offenders to a total of 10,573 extrafamilial offenders, in studies disseminated between 1978 and 2013 (Mdn=2000). Intrafamilial offenders were significantly lower on variables reflecting antisocial tendencies (e.g., criminal history, juvenile delinquency, impulsivity, substance use, and psychopathy) and atypical sexual interests (e.g., pedophilia, other paraphilias, and excessive sexual preoccupation). Contrary to other explanations that have been proposed, intrafamilial offenders scored lower on offense-supportive attitudes and beliefs, emotional congruence with children, and interpersonal deficits; intrafamilial offenders also did not differ from extrafamilial offenders on most indicators of psychopathology. Intrafamilial offenders were, however, more likely to have experienced sexual abuse, family abuse or neglect, and poor parent-child attachments. There were too few studies to examine family dynamics - spousal relationship quality, parent-child victim relationship, and family functioning more generally - even though these factors have been frequently mentioned in the clinical and theoretical literatures. Implications for theories of intrafamilial sexual offending, treatment, and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disentangling criminal profiling: accuracy, homology, and the myth of trait-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Palermo, George B

    2015-03-01

    The scholarly literature over the past decade has chronicled a growing problem in the forensic technique colloquially called criminal profiling. The basis of this conundrum appears to originate from a concept referred to as "offender homology," which presumes an inherent uniformity among offenders that is believed to underpin the analytic process incumbent to criminal profiling. Studies thus far conducted have apparently struggled to find evidence of offender homology, and based upon these findings arguments have been promulgated that various approaches to criminal profiling imputably labeled as "trait-based" are therefore not viable. Indirectly contradicting these arguments, however, have been studies testing profiler accuracy that have found evidence of individuals who appear to use trait-based methods but can nonetheless proficiently predict the characteristics of unknown offenders. Against this backdrop, the present article examines a number of tenets and disjunctions that appear to have arisen from research into offender homology and imputed to the practices of so-called trait-based profiling. The notion of whether trait-based profiling is, in fact, representative of profiling methods is examined and an integrative hypothesis proposed that attempts to resolve the quandary between offender homology and profiler accuracy.

  15. Criminal psychological profiling: validities and abilities.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N

    2003-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has attained unprecedented recognition despite little empirical evidence to support its validity and the absence of any thorough exposition of the skills involved with the technique. This article reports on the empirically derived conclusions of studies that sought to examine the accuracy and skill of various groups performing a profiling task. The conclusions provide some support for the contention that professional profilers can produce a more accurate prediction of an unknown offender in comparison to other studied groups. The results also give an indication of the type of skills required for proficient profiling.

  16. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W

    2002-12-01

    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  17. A Latent Class Analysis of Family Characteristics Linked to Youth Offending Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Zeng, Gerald; Li, Dongdong; Ting, Ming Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There were two aims to this study: firstly, to identify family subtypes of Singaporean youth offenders based on eight family variables. Secondly, the associations of these family subtypes with youth offending outcomes were tested. Methods: With a sample of 3,744 youth, a latent class analysis was first conducted based on eight family variables. Multivariate analyses and a Cox regression were subsequently performed to analyze the associations of the family classes with age at first arrest, age at first charge, and recidivism. Results: A three-class solution was found to have the best fit to the data: (1) intact functioning families had little family risk; (2) families with criminality had higher probabilities of family criminality, of drug/alcohol abuse, and of being nonintact; and (3) poorly managed families received the poorest parenting and were more likely to be nonintact. Youth offenders from the latter two classes were arrested and charged at younger ages. Additionally, they reoffended at a quicker rate. Conclusions: Family backgrounds matter for youth offending outcomes. Interventions have to be multifaceted and targeted at the family in order to mitigate the risk of young offenders from developing into pathological adult criminals. PMID:28736458

  18. A Latent Class Analysis of Family Characteristics Linked to Youth Offending Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chng, Grace S; Chu, Chi Meng; Zeng, Gerald; Li, Dongdong; Ting, Ming Hwa

    2016-11-01

    There were two aims to this study: firstly, to identify family subtypes of Singaporean youth offenders based on eight family variables. Secondly, the associations of these family subtypes with youth offending outcomes were tested. With a sample of 3,744 youth, a latent class analysis was first conducted based on eight family variables. Multivariate analyses and a Cox regression were subsequently performed to analyze the associations of the family classes with age at first arrest, age at first charge, and recidivism. A three-class solution was found to have the best fit to the data: (1) intact functioning families had little family risk; (2) families with criminality had higher probabilities of family criminality, of drug/alcohol abuse, and of being nonintact; and (3) poorly managed families received the poorest parenting and were more likely to be nonintact. Youth offenders from the latter two classes were arrested and charged at younger ages. Additionally, they reoffended at a quicker rate. Family backgrounds matter for youth offending outcomes. Interventions have to be multifaceted and targeted at the family in order to mitigate the risk of young offenders from developing into pathological adult criminals.

  19. Response Distortion in Applications of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The MMPI-2 continues to be widely used in many areas of professional forensic psychology, including the evaluation of criminal offenders for rehabilitation purposes. While many possible applications of the MMPI exist, not all are well-supported by strong empirical evidence. The origins of the scale among psychiatric populations suggest some…

  20. Understanding the Relationship between Onset Age and Subsequent Offending during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Sarah; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the well-documented relationship between early initiation or onset of criminal behavior and a heightened risk of involvement in offending. Previous research examining this question conducted by Nagin and Farrington ("Criminology" 30:235-260, 1992a; "Criminology" 30:501-523, 1992b) used data from the…

  1. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

  2. Understanding the Relationship between Onset Age and Subsequent Offending during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Sarah; Paternoster, Raymond; Brame, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the well-documented relationship between early initiation or onset of criminal behavior and a heightened risk of involvement in offending. Previous research examining this question conducted by Nagin and Farrington ("Criminology" 30:235-260, 1992a; "Criminology" 30:501-523, 1992b) used data from the…

  3. Differences between Juvenile Offenders with and without Intellectual Disability in Offense Type and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van der Put, Claudia E.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences between American juvenile offenders with and without intellectual disability (ID) in offense type and risk factors. The sample consisted of adolescents with ID (n = 102) and without ID (n = 526) who appeared before the courts for a criminal act and for whom the Washington State Juvenile Court…

  4. Response Distortion in Applications of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The MMPI-2 continues to be widely used in many areas of professional forensic psychology, including the evaluation of criminal offenders for rehabilitation purposes. While many possible applications of the MMPI exist, not all are well-supported by strong empirical evidence. The origins of the scale among psychiatric populations suggest some…

  5. Counseling Female Offenders and Victims: A Strengths-Restorative Approach. Springer Series on Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    This books considers the many aspects of how the criminal justice system can be reshaped to address the needs of victims of violence and offenders who themselves are often the victims of abuse. It presents a new model that offers an integrated framework to combine tenets of social work's strengths framework with the restorative justice model. It…

  6. Do Incarcerated Offenders Experience the Five Stages of Grief as Do Terminally Ill Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pledger, Carolyn Brastow

    1985-01-01

    Examines Kubler-Ross' five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) as they are experienced not by terminally ill persons, but by 20 criminal offenders and their families during incarceration. Concludes that shock of arrest and incarceration stimulates reactions similar to those of persons coping with terminal diagnosis.…

  7. 28 CFR 0.64-2 - Delegation respecting transfer of offenders to or from foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation respecting transfer of offenders to or from foreign countries. 0.64-2 Section 0.64-2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.64-2 Delegation respecting transfer...

  8. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to…

  9. Desistance from Crime: Reflections on the Transitional Experiences of Young People with a History of Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the complexities involved in young people's attempts to move away from criminal activity. This paper draws on qualitative data from a study that aimed to identify how young people negotiate transitions away from offending. The paper argues that an analysis of the subtle shifts in young people's perceptions…

  10. Desistance from Crime: Reflections on the Transitional Experiences of Young People with a History of Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the complexities involved in young people's attempts to move away from criminal activity. This paper draws on qualitative data from a study that aimed to identify how young people negotiate transitions away from offending. The paper argues that an analysis of the subtle shifts in young people's perceptions…

  11. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to…

  12. Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders over Periods Ranging from One to Twenty Years following Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMackin, Robert A.; Tansi, Robert; Lafratta, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the recidivism data for juvenile offenders discharged from a Massachusetts residential treatment center between 1976 and 1995. The criminal histories, juvenile and adult, of 162 delinquent youth referred through the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services who left the program were reviewed. Recidivism was defined as any…

  13. Differences of Personality, Defensiveness, and Compliance between Admitting and Denying Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisson, Gunnar Hrafn

    1996-01-01

    Assessed predicted psychological differences between denying (n=30) and admitting (n=72) male sex offenders within the framework of Eysenck's theory on the personality of criminals. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Gudjonsson's Compliance Questionnaire (CQ) were administered to consenting participants who were probationers in…

  14. Counseling Female Offenders and Victims: A Strengths-Restorative Approach. Springer Series on Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    This books considers the many aspects of how the criminal justice system can be reshaped to address the needs of victims of violence and offenders who themselves are often the victims of abuse. It presents a new model that offers an integrated framework to combine tenets of social work's strengths framework with the restorative justice model. It…

  15. Differences of Personality, Defensiveness, and Compliance between Admitting and Denying Male Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisson, Gunnar Hrafn

    1996-01-01

    Assessed predicted psychological differences between denying (n=30) and admitting (n=72) male sex offenders within the framework of Eysenck's theory on the personality of criminals. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Gudjonsson's Compliance Questionnaire (CQ) were administered to consenting participants who were probationers in…

  16. Beta-WAIS Comparisons with Low Functioning Minority Group Offenders: A Cautionary Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltonsmith, Robert W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the utility of the Revised Beta as a screening device for low-functioning minority-group criminal offenders. Mean scores for this sample were correlated only mildly. This finding contradicts prior research and creates the need for caution in using the Beta as a screening device with this population. (Author)

  17. Do Incarcerated Offenders Experience the Five Stages of Grief as Do Terminally Ill Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pledger, Carolyn Brastow

    1985-01-01

    Examines Kubler-Ross' five stages of grief (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance) as they are experienced not by terminally ill persons, but by 20 criminal offenders and their families during incarceration. Concludes that shock of arrest and incarceration stimulates reactions similar to those of persons coping with terminal diagnosis.…

  18. Offenders and Post-Release Jobs: Variables Influencing Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Byron; Schehr, Robert Carl

    2004-01-01

    Nonviolent adult repeat offenders between the ages of 18 and 35 face nearly insurmountable obstacles to successful reintegration into dominant culture. Upon release from prison ex-offenders receive an average of $69 from their state department of corrections, or between $100-$500 from the Federal Bureau of Prisons to aid their transition back into…

  19. Offenders and Post-Release Jobs: Variables Influencing Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Byron; Schehr, Robert Carl

    2004-01-01

    Nonviolent adult repeat offenders between the ages of 18 and 35 face nearly insurmountable obstacles to successful reintegration into dominant culture. Upon release from prison ex-offenders receive an average of $69 from their state department of corrections, or between $100-$500 from the Federal Bureau of Prisons to aid their transition back into…

  20. Collaboration between Correctional and Public School Systems for Juvenile Offenders: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellriegel, Kimberly L.; Yates, James R.

    The educational processes for youth who participated in a county-run correctional facility for juvenile offenders were studied. The county's Leadership Academy, a 48-bed correctional treatment center where juveniles are placed when ordered into direct care, is designed to divert repeat male offenders from the state-run correctional system. The…