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Sample records for replication proteins mcm5

  1. MCM5: a new actor in the link between DNA replication and Meier-Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vetro, Annalisa; Savasta, Salvatore; Russo Raucci, Annalisa; Cerqua, Cristina; Sartori, Geppo; Limongelli, Ivan; Forlino, Antonella; Maruelli, Silvia; Perucca, Paola; Vergani, Debora; Mazzini, Giuliano; Mattevi, Andrea; Stivala, Lucia Anna; Salviati, Leonardo; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2017-02-15

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGORS) is a rare disorder characterized by primordial dwarfism, microtia, and patellar aplasia/hypoplasia. Recessive mutations in ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, CDC6, and CDC45, encoding members of the pre-replication (pre-RC) and pre-initiation (pre-IC) complexes, and heterozygous mutations in GMNN, a regulator of cell-cycle progression and DNA replication, have already been associated with this condition. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of MGORS and identified biallelic variants in MCM5. This gene encodes a subunit of the replicative helicase complex, which represents a component of the pre-RC. Both variants, a missense substitution within a conserved domain critical for the helicase activity, and a single base deletion causing a frameshift and a premature stop codon, were predicted to be detrimental for the MCM5 function. Although variants of MCM5 have never been reported in specific human diseases, defect of this gene in zebrafish causes a phenotype of growth restriction overlapping the one associated with orc1 depletion. Complementation experiments in yeast showed that the plasmid carrying the missense variant was unable to rescue the lethal phenotype caused by mcm5 deletion. Moreover cell-cycle progression was delayed in patient's cells, as already shown for mutations in the ORC1 gene. Altogether our findings support the role of MCM5 as a novel gene involved in MGORS, further emphasizing that this condition is caused by impaired DNA replication.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.5.

  2. Sox10 regulates skin melanocyte proliferation by activating the DNA replication licensing factor MCM5.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhongyuan; Zheng, Xiaozi; Zhang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yipin; Zhu, Shanpu; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Hou, Ling

    2017-03-01

    The control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. A cell type that illustrates this point particularly well is the neural crest-derived melanocyte, the pigment cell of vertebrates, as melanocytes can be followed easily during development and their pigment is directly visible in the integument of the adult. In mammals, melanocytes undergo physiological cycles of loss and proliferative regeneration during the hair cycle, and their proliferation is also critical during wound healing, repigmentation of depigmented lesions, and in melanoma formation and progression. Hence, a thorough analysis of the molecular parameters controlling melanocyte proliferation is crucial for our understanding of the physiology of this cell type both in health and disease. SOX10 is a critical regulator in melanocytes and melanoma cells, but its specific role in their proliferation is far from clear. In this study we analyze the role of SOX10 in regulating mammalian melanocyte proliferation in a mouse model. The role of SOX10 in melanoblast proliferation was analyzed in Sox10/+ mice by co-staining for melanocyte-specific markers and cell proliferation. In vitro, the role of SOX10 was studied by manipulating its levels using RNAi and analyzing the effects on DNA synthesis and cell growth and on gene expression at the RNA and protein levels. Reduction of Sox10 gene dose led to a reduction in the number of melanoblasts. Knockdown of Sox10 in melanocytes led to inhibition of cell proliferation and a decrease in the expression of the minichromosome maintenance complex component 5 (MCM5). In fact, SOX10 directly activated MCM5 transcription by binding to conserved SOX10 consensus DNA sequences in the MCM5 promoter. Furthermore, the defect in cell proliferation could be rescued partially by overexpression of MCM5 in Sox10 knockdown melanocytes. The results suggest that the SOX10-MCM5 axis plays an important role in controlling melanocyte

  3. Bladder cancer diagnosis and identification of clinically significant disease by combined urinary detection of Mcm5 and nuclear matrix protein 22.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John D; Dudderidge, Tim J; Wollenschlaeger, Alex; Okoturo, Odu; Burling, Keith; Tulloch, Fiona; Halsall, Ian; Prevost, Teresa; Prevost, Andrew Toby; Vasconcelos, Joana C; Robson, Wendy; Leung, Hing Y; Vasdev, Nikhil; Pickard, Robert S; Williams, Gareth H; Stoeber, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers for bladder cancer detection are constrained by inadequate sensitivity or specificity. Here we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Mcm5, a novel cell cycle biomarker of aberrant growth, alone and in combination with NMP22. 1677 consecutive patients under investigation for urinary tract malignancy were recruited to a prospective blinded observational study. All patients underwent ultrasound, intravenous urography, cystoscopy, urine culture and cytologic analysis. An immunofluorometric assay was used to measure Mcm5 levels in urine cell sediments. NMP22 urinary levels were determined with the FDA-approved NMP22® Test Kit. Genito-urinary tract cancers were identified in 210/1564 (13%) patients with an Mcm5 result and in 195/1396 (14%) patients with an NMP22 result. At the assay cut-point where sensitivity and specificity were equal, the Mcm5 test detected primary and recurrent bladder cancers with 69% sensitivity (95% confidence interval = 62-75%) and 93% negative predictive value (95% CI = 92-95%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Mcm5 was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.71-0.79) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.67-0.77) for NMP22. Importantly, Mcm5 combined with NMP22 identified 95% (79/83; 95% CI = 88-99%) of potentially life threatening diagnoses (i.e. grade 3 or carcinoma in situ or stage ≥pT1) with high specificity (72%, 95% CI = 69-74%). The Mcm5 immunoassay is a non-invasive test for identifying patients with urothelial cancers with similar accuracy to the FDA-approved NMP22 ELISA Test Kit. The combination of Mcm5 plus NMP22 improves the detection of UCC and identifies 95% of clinically significant disease. Trials of a commercially developed Mcm5 assay suitable for an end-user laboratory alongside NMP22 are required to assess their potential clinical utility in improving diagnostic and surveillance care pathways.

  4. The cyclin A centrosomal localization sequence recruits MCM5 and Orc1 to regulate centrosome reduplication.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Rebecca L; Pascreau, Gaetan; Maller, James L

    2010-08-15

    Centrosomes are the major microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells and regulate formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle. Aberrant centrosome number causes chromosome mis-segregation, and has been implicated in genomic instability and tumor development. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for the DNA replication factors MCM5 and Orc1 in preventing centrosome reduplication. Cyclin A-Cdk2 localizes on centrosomes by means of a modular centrosomal localization sequence (CLS) that is distinct from that of cyclin E. Here, we show that cyclin A interacts with both MCM5 and Orc1 in a CLS-dependent but Cdk-independent manner. Although the MRAIL hydrophobic patch is contained within the cyclin A CLS, binding of both MCM5 and Orc1 to cyclin A does not require a wild-type hydrophobic patch. The same domain in MCM5 that mediates interaction with cyclin E also binds cyclin A, resulting in centrosomal localization of MCM5. Finally, unlike its function in DNA synthesis, MCM5-mediated inhibition of centrosome reduplication in S-phase-arrested CHO cells does not require binding to other MCM family members. These results suggest that cyclins E and A sequentially prevent centrosome reduplication throughout interphase by recruitment of DNA replication factors such as MCM5 and Orc1.

  5. MCM5 as a target of BET inhibitors in thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mio, Catia; Lavarone, Elisa; Conzatti, Ketty; Baldan, Federica; Toffoletto, Barbara; Puppin, Cinzia; Filetti, Sebastiano; Durante, Cosimo; Russo, Diego; Orlacchio, Arturo; Di Cristofano, Antonio; Di Loreto, Carla; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive thyroid cancer subtype, refractory to the current medical treatment. Among various epigenetic anticancer drugs, bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitors (BETis) are considered to be an appealing novel class of compounds. BETi target the bromodomain and extra-terminal of BET proteins that act as regulators of gene transcription, interacting with histone acetyl groups. The goal of this study is to delineate which pathway underlies the biological effects derived from BET inhibition, in order to find new potential therapeutic targets in ATC. We investigated the effects of BET inhibition on two human anaplastic thyroid cancer-derived cell lines (FRO and SW1736). The treatment with two BETis, JQ1 and I-BET762, decreased cell viability, reduced cell cycle S-phase, and determined cell death. In order to find BETi effectors, FRO and SW1736 were subjected to a global transcriptome analysis after JQ1 treatment. A significant portion of deregulated genes belongs to cell cycle regulators. Among them, MCM5 was decreased at both mRNA and protein levels in both tested cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments indicate that MCM5 is directly bound by the BET protein BRD4. MCM5 silencing reduced cell proliferation, thus underlining its involvement in the block of proliferation induced by BETis. Furthermore, MCM5 immunohistochemical evaluation in human thyroid tumor tissues demonstrated its overexpression in several papillary thyroid carcinomas and in all ATCs. MCM5 was also overexpressed in a murine model of ATC, and JQ1 treatment reduced Mcm5 mRNA expression in two murine ATC cell lines. Thus, MCM5 could represent a new target in the therapeutic approach against ATC. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary malignancy by detection of minichromosome maintenance protein 5 in biliary brush cytology

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Margaret G; Huggett, Matthew T; Chapman, Michael H; Johnson, Gavin J; Webster, George J; Thorburn, Douglas; Mackay, James; Pereira, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary brush cytology is the standard method of evaluating biliary strictures, but is insensitive at detecting malignancy. In pancreaticobiliary cancer minichromosome maintenance replication proteins (MCM 2–7) are dysregulated in the biliary epithelium and MCM5 levels are elevated in bile samples. This study aimed to validate an immunocolorimetric ELISA assay for MCM5 as a pancreaticobiliary cancer biomarker in biliary brush samples. Methods: Biliary brush specimens were collected prospectively at ERCP from patients with a biliary stricture. Collected samples were frozen at −80 °C. The supernatant was washed and lysed cells incubated with HRP-labelled anti-MCM5 mouse monoclonal antibody. Test positivity was determined by optical density absorbance. Patients underwent biliary brush cytology or additional investigations as per clinical routine. Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study; 50 had malignant strictures. Median age was 65 years (range 21–94) and 51 were male. Compared with final diagnosis the MCM5 assay had a sensitivity for malignancy of 65.4% compared with 25.0% for cytology. In the 72 patients with paired MCM5 assay and biliary brush cytology, MCM5 demonstrated an improved sensitivity (55.6% vs 25.0% P=0.0002) for the detection of malignancy. Conclusions: Minichromosome maintenance replication protein5 is a more sensitive indicator of pancreaticobiliary malignancy than standard biliary brush cytology. PMID:28081547

  7. Geminivirus C3 Protein: Replication Enhancement and Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Settlage, Sharon B.; See, Renee G.; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Most dicot-infecting geminiviruses encode a replication enhancer protein (C3, AL3, or REn) that is required for optimal replication of their small, single-stranded DNA genomes. C3 interacts with C1, the essential viral replication protein that initiates rolling circle replication. C3 also homo-oligomerizes and interacts with at least two host-encoded proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the retinoblastoma-related protein (pRBR). It has been proposed that protein interactions contribute to C3 function. Using the C3 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, we examined the impact of mutations to amino acids that are conserved across the C3 protein family on replication enhancement and protein interactions. Surprisingly, many of the mutations did not affect replication enhancement activity of C3 in tobacco protoplasts. Other mutations either enhanced or were detrimental to C3 replication activity. Analysis of mutated proteins in yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that mutations that inactivate C3 replication enhancement activity also reduce or inactivate C3 oligomerization and interaction with C1 and PCNA. In contrast, mutated C3 proteins impaired for pRBR binding are fully functional in replication assays. Hydrophobic residues in the middle of the C3 protein were implicated in C3 interaction with itself, C1, and PCNA, while polar resides at both the N and C termini of the protein are important for C3-pRBR interaction. These experiments established the importance of C3-C3, C3-C1, and C3-PCNA interactions in geminivirus replication. While C3-pRBR interaction is not required for viral replication in cycling cells, it may play a role during infection of differentiated cells in intact plants. PMID:16014949

  8. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  9. A conserved modified wobble nucleoside (mcm5s2U) in lysyl-tRNA is required for viability in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Glenn R.; Huang, Bo; Persson, Olof P.; Byström, Anders S.

    2007-01-01

    Transfer RNAs specific for Gln, Lys, and Glu from all organisms (except Mycoplasma) and organelles have a 2-thiouridine derivative (xm5s2U) as wobble nucleoside. These tRNAs read the A- and G-ending codons in the split codon boxes His/Gln, Asn/Lys, and Asp/Glu. In eukaryotic cytoplasmic tRNAs the conserved constituent (xm5-) in position 5 of uridine is 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5). A protein (Tuc1p) from yeast resembling the bacterial protein TtcA, which is required for the synthesis of 2-thiocytidine in position 32 of the tRNA, was shown instead to be required for the synthesis of 2-thiouridine in the wobble position (position 34). Apparently, an ancient member of the TtcA family has evolved to thiolate U34 in tRNAs of organisms from the domains Eukarya and Archaea. Deletion of the TUC1 gene together with a deletion of the ELP3 gene, which results in the lack of the mcm5 side chain, removes all modifications from the wobble uridine derivatives of the cytoplasmic tRNAs specific for Gln, Lys, and Glu, and is lethal to the cell. Since excess of the unmodified form of these three tRNAs rescued the double mutant elp3 tuc1, the primary function of mcm5s2U34 seems to be to improve the efficiency to read the cognate codons rather than to prevent mis-sense errors. Surprisingly, overexpression of the mcm5s2U-lacking tRNALys alone was sufficient to restore viability of the double mutant. PMID:17592039

  10. Diphenylpyrazoles as Replication Protein A inhibitors

    DOE PAGES

    Waterson, Alex G.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Patrone, James D.; ...

    2014-11-11

    Replication Protein A is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein that has a central role in initiating the cellular response to DNA damage. RPA recruits multiple proteins to sites of DNA damage via the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit (RPA70N). Here we describe the optimization of a diphenylpyrazole carboxylic acid series of inhibitors of these RPA–protein interactions. Lastly, we evaluated substituents on the aromatic rings as well as the type and geometry of the linkers used to combine fragments, ultimately leading to submicromolar inhibitors of RPA70N protein–protein interactions.

  11. Diphenylpyrazoles as Replication Protein A inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Waterson, Alex G.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Patrone, James D.; Pelz, Nicholas F.; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Frank, Andreas O.; Vangamudi, Bhavatarini; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2014-11-11

    Replication Protein A is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein that has a central role in initiating the cellular response to DNA damage. RPA recruits multiple proteins to sites of DNA damage via the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit (RPA70N). Here we describe the optimization of a diphenylpyrazole carboxylic acid series of inhibitors of these RPA–protein interactions. Lastly, we evaluated substituents on the aromatic rings as well as the type and geometry of the linkers used to combine fragments, ultimately leading to submicromolar inhibitors of RPA70N protein–protein interactions.

  12. Host membrane proteins involved in the replication of tobamovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Shuhei; Katoh, Etsuko; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2012-12-01

    Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-bound replication complexes composed of viral replication proteins and negative-strand RNA templates. These replication proteins are programmed to exhibit RNA polymerase and other replication-related activities only in replication complexes to avoid inducing double-stranded RNA-mediated host defenses. Host membrane components (e.g. proteins and lipids) should play important roles in the activation of replication proteins. Two host membrane proteins are components of the replication complex and activate the replication proteins of tobamoviruses. Interaction analyses using deletion mutants constructed based on structural information suggest a conformational change in replication proteins during the formation of a protein complex with RNA 5'-capping activity.

  13. The Replication Initiation Protein Sld3/Treslin Orchestrates the Assembly of the Replication Fork Helicase during S Phase*

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated process in eukaryotic cells, and central to the process of initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase. The replication fork helicase is comprised of CMG (Cdc45, Mcm2–7, and GINS) in eukaryotic cells, and the mechanism underlying assembly of the CMG during S phase was studied in this article. We identified a point mutation of Sld3 that is specifically defective for Mcm3 and Mcm5 interaction (sld3-m10), and also identified a point mutation of Sld3 that is specifically defective for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) interaction (sld3-m9). Expression of wild-type levels of sld3-m9 resulted in a severe DNA replication defect with no recruitment of GINS to Mcm2–7, whereas expression of wild-type levels of sld3-m10 resulted in a severe replication defect with no Cdc45 recruitment to Mcm2–7. We propose a model for Sld3-mediated control of replication initiation, wherein Sld3 manages the proper assembly of the CMG during S phase. We also find that the biochemical functions identified for Sld3 are conserved in human Treslin, suggesting that Treslin orchestrates assembly of the CMG in human cells. PMID:26405041

  14. The structure and function of replication protein A in DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Borgstahl, Gloria E O

    2012-01-01

    In all organisms from bacteria and archaea to eukarya, single-stranded DNA binding proteins play an essential role in most, if not all, nuclear metabolism involving single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein, has two important roles in DNA metabolism: (1) in binding ssDNA to protect it and to keep it unfolded, and (2) in coordinating the assembly and disassembly of numerous proteins and protein complexes during processes such as DNA replication. Since its discovery as a vital player in the process of replication, RPAs roles in recombination and DNA repair quickly became evident. This chapter summarizes the current understanding of RPA's roles in replication by reviewing the available structural data, DNA-binding properties, interactions with various replication proteins, and interactions with DNA repair proteins when DNA replication is stalled.

  15. Functional conservation of the pre-sensor one beta-finger hairpin (PS1-hp) structures in mini-chromosome maintenance proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and archaea.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Christopher J; Sclafani, Robert A

    2014-05-28

    Mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins form complexes that are required for DNA replication and are highly conserved throughout evolution. The replicative helicase of eukaryotic organisms is composed of the six paralogs MCM2-7, which form a heterohexameric ring structure. In contrast, the structure of the archaean replicative MCM helicase is a single Mcm protein that forms a homohexameric complex. Atomic structures of archaeal MCMs have identified multiple beta-finger structures in Mcm proteins whose in vivo function is unknown. In the present study, we have investigated the physiological role of the pre-sensor 1 beta-hairpin (PS1-hp) beta-fingers of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4p and Mcm5p in DNA replication initiation and elongation in vivo. The PS1-hp beta-finger mutant of Mcm5p (mcm5-HAT K506A::URA3) has a growth defect at both 18° and 37°. Mutation of the Mcm4p PS1-hp beta-finger (mcm4-HA K658A::TRP1) does not have a growth defect, indicating different functional contributions of the PS1-hp beta-finger structures of different MCM helicase subunits. Both Mcm4p and Mcm5p PS1-hp beta-finger mutants can coimmunoprecipitate Mcm2p, indicating the formation of the hexameric MCM helicase complex. Both PS1-hp beta-finger mutants have a plasmid loss phenotype that is suppressible by origin dosage, indicating a defective replication initiation. Surprisingly, a defect in the binding of PS1-hp MCM mutants to origins of DNA replication was not found by chromatin immunoprecipitation, suggesting a novel interpretation in which the defect is in a subsequent step of DNA strand separation by the MCM helicase. The double mutant mcm4-HA K658A::TRP1 mcm5-HAT K506A::URA3 is lethal, displaying a terminal MCM mutant phenotype of large budded cells.

  16. Affinity Purification of an Archaeal DNA Replication Protein Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Santangelo, Thomas J.; Čuboňová, Ľubomíra; Reeve, John N.; Kelman, Zvi

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen Thermococcus kodakarensis strains have been constructed, each of which synthesizes a different His6-tagged protein known or predicted to be a component of the archaeal DNA replication machinery. Using the His6-tagged proteins, stable complexes assembled in vivo have been isolated directly from clarified cell lysates and the T. kodakarensis proteins present have been identified by mass spectrometry. Based on the results obtained, a network of interactions among the archaeal replication proteins has been established that confirms previously documented and predicted interactions, provides experimental evidence for previously unrecognized interactions between proteins with known functions and with unknown functions, and establishes a firm experimental foundation for archaeal replication research. The proteins identified and their participation in archaeal DNA replication are discussed and related to their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. PMID:20978540

  17. The Replicative Consequences of Papillomavirus E2 Protein Binding to the Origin Replication Factor ORC2.

    PubMed

    DeSmet, Marsha; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Rietz, Anne; Wu, Wai-Hong; Roden, Richard; Androphy, Elliot J

    2016-10-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) coordinates a series of events that lead to initiation of DNA strand duplication. As a nuclear double stranded DNA plasmid, the papillomavirus (PV) genome resembles a mini-chromosome in infected cells. To initiate its replication, the viral E2 protein binds to and recruits the E1 DNA helicase at the viral origin. PV genome replication program exhibits three stages: initial amplification from a single genome upon infection to a few copies per cell, a cell cycle linked maintenance phase, and a differentiation dependent late stage where the genome is amplified to thousands of copies. Involvement of ORC or other pre-replication complex (pre-RC) factors has not been described. We report that human PV (HPV) and bovine PV (BPV-1) E2 proteins bind to ORC2, however, ORC2 was not detected at the viral origin. Depletion of ORC2 enhanced PV replication in a transient replication model and in keratinocytes stably maintaining viral episomes, while there was no effect on copy number in a cell line with integrated HPV genomes. Consistent with this, occupancy of E1 and E2 at the viral origin increased following ORC2 silencing. These data imply that ORC2 is not necessary for activation of the PV origin by E1 and E2 but instead suppresses E2 replicative function. Furthermore, we observed that over-expression of HPV E2 decreased ORC2 occupation at two known mammalian origins of replication, suggesting that E2 restricts pre-ORC assembly that could otherwise compete for host replication complexes necessary for viral genome amplification. We infer that the ORC2 complex with E2 restricts viral replication in the maintenance phase of the viral replication program and that elevated levels of E2 that occur during the differentiation dependent amplification stage subvert ORC loading and hence DNA synthesis at cellular origins.

  18. Physical determinants of the self-replication of protein fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šarić, Anđela; Buell, Alexander K.; Meisl, Georg; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Linse, Sara; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-09-01

    The ability of biological molecules to replicate themselves is the foundation of life, requiring a complex cellular machinery. However, a range of aberrant processes involve the self-replication of pathological protein structures without any additional assistance. One example is the autocatalytic generation of pathological protein aggregates, including amyloid fibrils, involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we use computer simulations to identify the necessary requirements for the self-replication of fibrillar assemblies of proteins. We establish that a key physical determinant for this process is the affinity of proteins for the surfaces of fibrils. We find that self-replication can take place only in a very narrow regime of inter-protein interactions, implying a high level of sensitivity to system parameters and experimental conditions. We then compare our theoretical predictions with kinetic and biosensor measurements of fibrils formed from the Aβ peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease. Our results show a quantitative connection between the kinetics of self-replication and the surface coverage of fibrils by monomeric proteins. These findings reveal the fundamental physical requirements for the formation of supra-molecular structures able to replicate themselves, and shed light on mechanisms in play in the proliferation of protein aggregates in nature.

  19. Novel Mutant AAV2 Rep Proteins Support AAV2 Replication without Blocking HSV-1 Helpervirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Seyffert, Michael; Glauser, Daniel L.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; de Oliveira, Anna-Paula; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Vogt, Bernd; Büning, Hildegard; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    As their names imply, parvoviruses of the genus Dependovirus rely for their efficient replication on the concurrent presence of a helpervirus, such as herpesvirus, adenovirus, or papilloma virus. Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is such an example, which in turn can efficiently inhibit the replication of each helpervirus by distinct mechanisms. In a previous study we have shown that expression of the AAV2 rep gene is not compatible with efficient replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In particular, the combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities of the Rep68/78 proteins have been shown to exert opposite effects on the replication of AAV2 and HSV-1. While essential for AAV2 DNA replication these protein activities account for the Rep-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 replication. Here, we describe a novel Rep mutant (Rep-D371Y), which displayed an unexpected phenotype. Rep-D371Y did not block HSV-1 replication, but still supported efficient AAV2 replication, at least when a double-stranded AAV2 genome template was used. We also found that the capacity of Rep-D371Y to induce apoptosis and a Rep-specific DNA damage response was significantly reduced compared to wild-type Rep. These findings suggest that AAV2 Rep-helicase subdomains exert diverging activities, which contribute to distinct steps of the AAV2 life cycle. More important, the novel AAV2 mutant Rep-D371Y may allow deciphering yet unsolved activities of the AAV2 Rep proteins such as DNA second-strand synthesis, genomic integration or packaging, which all involve the Rep-helicase activity. PMID:28125695

  20. Structures of replication initiation proteins from staphylococcal antibiotic resistance plasmids reveal protein asymmetry and flexibility are necessary for replication

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stephen B.; Phillips, Simon E.V.; Thomas, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a continual threat to human health, often residing in extrachromosomal plasmid DNA. Plasmids of the pT181 family are widespread and confer various antibiotic resistances to Staphylococcus aureus. They replicate via a rolling circle mechanism that requires a multi-functional, plasmid-encoded replication protein to initiate replication, recruit a helicase to the site of initiation and terminate replication after DNA synthesis is complete. We present the first atomic resolution structures of three such replication proteins that reveal distinct, functionally relevant conformations. The proteins possess a unique active site and have been shown to contain a catalytically essential metal ion that is bound in a manner distinct from that of any other rolling circle replication proteins. These structures are the first examples of the Rep_trans Pfam family providing insights into the replication of numerous antibiotic resistance plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative phage and the mobilisation of DNA by conjugative transposons. PMID:26792891

  1. Structures of replication initiation proteins from staphylococcal antibiotic resistance plasmids reveal protein asymmetry and flexibility are necessary for replication.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stephen B; Phillips, Simon E V; Thomas, Christopher D

    2016-03-18

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a continual threat to human health, often residing in extrachromosomal plasmid DNA. Plasmids of the pT181 family are widespread and confer various antibiotic resistances to Staphylococcus aureus. They replicate via a rolling circle mechanism that requires a multi-functional, plasmid-encoded replication protein to initiate replication, recruit a helicase to the site of initiation and terminate replication after DNA synthesis is complete. We present the first atomic resolution structures of three such replication proteins that reveal distinct, functionally relevant conformations. The proteins possess a unique active site and have been shown to contain a catalytically essential metal ion that is bound in a manner distinct from that of any other rolling circle replication proteins. These structures are the first examples of the Rep_trans Pfam family providing insights into the replication of numerous antibiotic resistance plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative phage and the mobilisation of DNA by conjugative transposons. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Activation of a human chromosomal replication origin by protein tethering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomi; Liu, Guoqi; Leffak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The specification of mammalian chromosomal replication origins is incompletely understood. To analyze the assembly and activation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs), we tested the effects of tethered binding of chromatin acetyltransferases and replication proteins on chromosomal c-myc origin deletion mutants containing a GAL4-binding cassette. GAL4DBD (DNA binding domain) fusions with Orc2, Cdt1, E2F1 or HBO1 coordinated the recruitment of the Mcm7 helicase subunit, the DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein DUE-B and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase activator Cdc45 to the replicator, and restored origin activity. In contrast, replication protein binding and origin activity were not stimulated by fusion protein binding in the absence of flanking c-myc DNA. Substitution of the GAL4-binding site for the c-myc replicator DUE allowed Orc2 and Mcm7 binding, but eliminated origin activity, indicating that the DUE is essential for pre-RC activation. Additionally, tethering of DUE-B was not sufficient to recruit Cdc45 or activate pre-RCs formed in the absence of a DUE. These results show directly in a chromosomal background that chromatin acetylation, Orc2 or Cdt1 suffice to recruit all downstream replication initiation activities to a prospective origin, and that chromosomal origin activity requires singular DNA sequences. PMID:23658226

  3. Activation of a human chromosomal replication origin by protein tethering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomi; Liu, Guoqi; Leffak, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The specification of mammalian chromosomal replication origins is incompletely understood. To analyze the assembly and activation of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs), we tested the effects of tethered binding of chromatin acetyltransferases and replication proteins on chromosomal c-myc origin deletion mutants containing a GAL4-binding cassette. GAL4(DBD) (DNA binding domain) fusions with Orc2, Cdt1, E2F1 or HBO1 coordinated the recruitment of the Mcm7 helicase subunit, the DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein DUE-B and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase activator Cdc45 to the replicator, and restored origin activity. In contrast, replication protein binding and origin activity were not stimulated by fusion protein binding in the absence of flanking c-myc DNA. Substitution of the GAL4-binding site for the c-myc replicator DUE allowed Orc2 and Mcm7 binding, but eliminated origin activity, indicating that the DUE is essential for pre-RC activation. Additionally, tethering of DUE-B was not sufficient to recruit Cdc45 or activate pre-RCs formed in the absence of a DUE. These results show directly in a chromosomal background that chromatin acetylation, Orc2 or Cdt1 suffice to recruit all downstream replication initiation activities to a prospective origin, and that chromosomal origin activity requires singular DNA sequences.

  4. Plant MCM proteins: role in DNA replication and beyond.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tran, Ngoc Quang; Dang, Hung Quang; Tuteja, Renu

    2011-12-01

    Mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins form heterohexameric complex (MCM2-7) to serve as licensing factor for DNA replication to make sure that genomic DNA is replicated completely and accurately once during S phase in a single cell cycle. MCMs were initially identified in yeast for their role in plasmid replication or cell cycle progression. Each of six MCM contains highly conserved sequence called "MCM box", which contains two ATPase consensus Walker A and Walker B motifs. Studies on MCM proteins showed that (a) the replication origins are licensed by stable binding of MCM2-7 to form pre-RC (pre-replicative complex) during G1 phase of the cell cycle, (b) the activation of MCM proteins by CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) and DDKs (Dbf4-dependent kinases) and their helicase activity are important for pre-RC to initiate the DNA replication, and (c) the release of MCMs from chromatin renders the origins "unlicensed". DNA replication licensing in plant is, in general, less characterized. The MCMs have been reported from Arabidopsis, maize, tobacco, pea and rice, where they are found to be highly expressed in dividing tissues such as shoot apex and root tips, localized in nucleus and cytosol and play important role in DNA replication, megagametophyte and embryo development. The identification of six MCM coding genes from pea and Arabidopsis suggest six distinct classes of MCM protein in higher plant, and the conserved function right across the eukaryotes. This overview of MCMs contains an emphasis on MCMs from plants and the novel role of MCM6 in abiotic stress tolerance.

  5. Binding of tobamovirus replication protein with small RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yukio; Inaba, Naoko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Takeda, Atsushi; Tagami, Yuko; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2007-08-01

    The sequence profiles of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in Arabidopsis infected with the crucifer tobamovirus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-Cg were determined by using a small RNA cloning technique. The majority of TMV-derived siRNAs were 21 nt in length. The size of the most abundant endogenous small RNAs in TMV-infected plants was 21 nt, whilst in mock-inoculated plants, it was 24 nt. Northern blot analysis revealed that some microRNAs (miRNAs) accumulated more in TMV-infected plants than in mock-inoculated plants. The question of whether the TMV-Cg-encoded 126K replication protein, an RNA-silencing suppressor, caused small RNA enrichment was examined. Transient expression of the replication protein did not change the pattern of miRNA processing. However, miRNA, miRNA* (the opposite strand of the miRNA duplex) and hairpin-derived siRNA all co-immunoprecipitated with the replication protein. Gel mobility-shift assays indicated that the replication protein binds small RNA duplexes. These results suggest that the tobamovirus replication protein functions as a silencing suppressor by binding small RNA duplexes, changing the small RNA profile in infected plants.

  6. DNA replication licensing factor minichromosome maintenance deficient 5 rescues p53-mediated growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh K; Ruhul Amin, A R M; Agarwal, Munna L

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of p53 signaling by mutation of p53 itself or abrogation of its normal function by other transfactors, such as MDM2, is a key event in the development of most human cancers. To identify novel regulators of p53, we have used a phenotype-based selection in which a total cDNA library in a retroviral vector has been introduced into TR9-7ER cells, which arrest when p53 is expressed from a tetracycline-regulated promoter. We have isolated several clones derived from cells that are not growth-arrested when p53 is overexpressed. In one clone, the levels of p53, p21, and MDM2 are comparable with those in TR9-7ER cells and, therefore, the abrogation of growth arrest by an exogenous cDNA is likely to be distal to p21. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we were able to isolate a cDNA of approximately 2.2 kb, which was found to have 99% identity to the nucleotides between about 80 and 2,288 of the open reading frame of a gene encoding DNA replication licensing factor. It encodes complete peptide of 734 residues of this protein also called minichromosome maintenance deficient 5 (MCM5) or cell division cycle 46 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Northern and Western blot analyses revealed that the expression of MCM5 and its transcriptional regulator, E2F1, is negatively regulated by p53. When MCM5 cDNA was reintroduced into fresh TR9-7ER cells, numerous colonies that grow in the absence of tetracycline were formed. This novel observation establishes a role for MCM5 in negating the growth arrest function of p53.

  7. DNA replication in protein extracts from human cells requires ORC and Mcm proteins.

    PubMed

    Baltin, Jens; Leist, Sandra; Odronitz, Florian; Wollscheid, Hans-Peter; Baack, Martina; Kapitza, Thomas; Schaarschmidt, Daniel; Knippers, Rolf

    2006-05-05

    We used protein extracts from proliferating human HeLa cells to support plasmid DNA replication in vitro. An extract with soluble nuclear proteins contains the major replicative chain elongation functions, whereas a high salt extract from isolated nuclei contains the proteins for initiation. Among the initiator proteins active in vitro are the origin recognition complex (ORC) and Mcm proteins. Recombinant Orc1 protein stimulates in vitro replication presumably in place of endogenous Orc1 that is known to be present in suboptimal amounts in HeLa cell nuclei. Partially purified endogenous ORC, but not recombinant ORC, is able to rescue immunodepleted nuclear extracts. Plasmid replication in the in vitro replication system is slow and of limited efficiency but robust enough to serve as a basis to investigate the formation of functional pre-replication complexes under biochemically defined conditions.

  8. Assembly of alphavirus replication complexes from RNA and protein components in a novel trans-replication system in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Spuul, Pirjo; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Hellström, Kirsi; Golubtsov, Andrey V; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2011-05-01

    For positive-strand RNA viruses, the viral genomic RNA also acts as an mRNA directing the translation of the replicase proteins of the virus. Replication takes place in association with cytoplasmic membranes, which are heavily modified to create specific replication compartments. Here we have expressed by plasmid DNA transfection the large replicase polyprotein of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) in mammalian cells from a nonreplicating mRNA and provided a separate RNA containing the replication signals. The replicase proteins were able to efficiently and specifically replicate the template in trans, leading to accumulation of RNA and marker gene products expressed from the template RNA. The replicase proteins and double-stranded RNA replication intermediates localized to structures similar to those seen in SFV-infected cells. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) with fluorescent marker proteins to relocate those transfected cells, in which active replication was ongoing, abundant membrane modifications, representing the replication complex spherules, were observed both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular endolysosomes. Thus, replication complexes are faithfully assembled and localized in the trans-replication system. We demonstrated, using CLEM, that the replication proteins alone or a polymerase-negative polyprotein mutant together with the template did not give rise to spherule formation. Thus, the trans-replication system is suitable for cell biological dissection and examination in a mammalian cell environment, and similar systems may be possible for other positive-strand RNA viruses.

  9. Role of preterminal protein processing in adenovirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A; Leith, I R; Nicholson, J; Hounsell, J; Hay, R T

    1997-01-01

    Preterminal protein (pTP), the protein primer for adenovirus DNA replication, is processed at two sites by the virus-encoded protease to yield mature terminal protein (TP). Here we demonstrate that processing to TP, via an intermediate (iTP), is conserved in all serotypes sequenced to date; and in determining the sites cleaved in Ad4 pTP, we extend the previously published substrate specificity of human adenovirus proteases to include a glutamine residue at P4. Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies raised against pTP, we show that processing to iTP and TP are temporally separated in the infectious cycle, with processing to iTP taking place outside the virus particles. In vitro and in vivo studies of viral DNA replication reveal that iTP can act as a template for initiation and elongation and argue against a role for virus-encoded protease in switching off DNA replication. Virus DNA with TP attached to its 5' end (TP-DNA) has been studied extensively in in vitro DNA replication assays. Given that in vivo pTP-DNA, not TP-DNA, is the template for all but the first round of replication, the two templates were compared in vitro and shown to have different properties. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that a region spanning the TP cleavage site is involved in defining the subnuclear localization of pTP. Therefore, a likely role for the processing of pTP-DNA is to create a distinct template for early transcription (TP-DNA), while the terminal protein moiety, be it TP or pTP, serves to guide the template to the appropriate subcellular location through the course of infection. PMID:9261355

  10. Role of preterminal protein processing in adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Webster, A; Leith, I R; Nicholson, J; Hounsell, J; Hay, R T

    1997-09-01

    Preterminal protein (pTP), the protein primer for adenovirus DNA replication, is processed at two sites by the virus-encoded protease to yield mature terminal protein (TP). Here we demonstrate that processing to TP, via an intermediate (iTP), is conserved in all serotypes sequenced to date; and in determining the sites cleaved in Ad4 pTP, we extend the previously published substrate specificity of human adenovirus proteases to include a glutamine residue at P4. Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies raised against pTP, we show that processing to iTP and TP are temporally separated in the infectious cycle, with processing to iTP taking place outside the virus particles. In vitro and in vivo studies of viral DNA replication reveal that iTP can act as a template for initiation and elongation and argue against a role for virus-encoded protease in switching off DNA replication. Virus DNA with TP attached to its 5' end (TP-DNA) has been studied extensively in in vitro DNA replication assays. Given that in vivo pTP-DNA, not TP-DNA, is the template for all but the first round of replication, the two templates were compared in vitro and shown to have different properties. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that a region spanning the TP cleavage site is involved in defining the subnuclear localization of pTP. Therefore, a likely role for the processing of pTP-DNA is to create a distinct template for early transcription (TP-DNA), while the terminal protein moiety, be it TP or pTP, serves to guide the template to the appropriate subcellular location through the course of infection.

  11. A replicator-specific binding protein essential for site-specific initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Huang, Liang; Fu, Haiqing; Smith, Owen K.; Lin, Chii Mei; Utani, Koichi; Rao, Mishal; Reinhold, William C.; Redon, Christophe E.; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; You, Yang; Hanna, Harlington; Boisclair, Yves; Long, Qiaoming; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosome replication starts from distinct sites; however, the principles governing initiation site selection are unclear because proteins essential for DNA replication do not exhibit sequence-specific DNA binding. Here we identify a replication-initiation determinant (RepID) protein that binds a subset of replication-initiation sites. A large fraction of RepID-binding sites share a common G-rich motif and exhibit elevated replication initiation. RepID is required for initiation of DNA replication from RepID-bound replication origins, including the origin at the human beta-globin (HBB) locus. At HBB, RepID is involved in an interaction between the replication origin (Rep-P) and the locus control region. RepID-depleted murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibit abnormal replication fork progression and fewer replication-initiation events. These observations are consistent with a model, suggesting that RepID facilitates replication initiation at a distinct group of human replication origins. PMID:27272143

  12. Familial dysautonomia (FD) patients have reduced levels of the modified wobble nucleoside mcm(5)s(2)U in tRNA.

    PubMed

    Karlsborn, Tony; Tükenmez, Hasan; Chen, Changchun; Byström, Anders S

    2014-11-21

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a recessive neurodegenerative genetic disease. FD is caused by a mutation in the IKBKAP gene resulting in a splicing defect and reduced levels of full length IKAP protein. IKAP homologues can be found in all eukaryotes and are part of a conserved six subunit protein complex, Elongator complex. Inactivation of any Elongator subunit gene in multicellular organisms cause a wide range of phenotypes, suggesting that Elongator has a pivotal role in several cellular processes. In yeast, there is convincing evidence that the main role of Elongator complex is in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides in tRNA and that their absence will influence translational efficiency. To date, no study has explored the possibility that FD patients display defects in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides as a consequence of reduced IKAP levels. In this study, we show that brain tissue and fibroblast cell lines from FD patients have reduced levels of the wobble uridine nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U). Our findings indicate that FD could be caused by inefficient translation due to lower levels of wobble uridine nucleosides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of DNA replication protein complexes in eukaryotes and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Chia, Nicholas; Cann, Isaac; Olsen, Gary J

    2010-06-02

    The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RFC), and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex-all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota.

  14. Evolution of DNA Replication Protein Complexes in Eukaryotes and Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Nicholas; Cann, Isaac; Olsen, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), replication factor C (RFC), and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. Methodology/Principal Findings While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex—all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. Conclusion/Significance This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota. PMID:20532250

  15. FMDV replicons encoding green fluorescent protein are replication competent.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Fiona; Pathania, Uday; Luke, Garry A; Nicholson, John; Stonehouse, Nicola J; Rowlands, David J; Jackson, Terry; Tuthill, Toby; Haas, Juergen; Lamond, Angus I; Ryan, Martin D

    2014-12-01

    The study of replication of viruses that require high bio-secure facilities can be accomplished with less stringent containment using non-infectious 'replicon' systems. The FMDV replicon system (pT7rep) reported by Mclnerney et al. (2000) was modified by the replacement of sequences encoding chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) with those encoding a functional L proteinase (L(pro)) linked to a bi-functional fluorescent/antibiotic resistance fusion protein (green fluorescent protein/puromycin resistance, [GFP-PAC]). Cells were transfected with replicon-derived transcript RNA and GFP fluorescence quantified. Replication of transcript RNAs was readily detected by fluorescence, whilst the signal from replication-incompetent forms of the genome was >2-fold lower. Surprisingly, a form of the replicon lacking the L(pro) showed a significantly stronger fluorescence signal, but appeared with slightly delayed kinetics. Replication can, therefore, be quantified simply by live-cell imaging and image analyses, providing a rapid and facile alternative to RT-qPCR or CAT assays.

  16. Replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus cotranslationally binds the 5′ untranslated region of genomic RNA to enable viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura-Nagaya, Kazue; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Huang, Ying-Ping; Miyashita, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Genomic RNA of positive-strand RNA viruses replicate via complementary (i.e., negative-strand) RNA in membrane-bound replication complexes. Before replication complex formation, virus-encoded replication proteins specifically recognize genomic RNA molecules and recruit them to sites of replication. Moreover, in many of these viruses, selection of replication templates by the replication proteins occurs preferentially in cis. This property is advantageous to the viruses in several aspects of viral replication and evolution, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been characterized. Here, we used an in vitro translation system to show that a 126-kDa replication protein of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, binds a 5′-terminal ∼70-nucleotide region of TMV RNA cotranslationally, but not posttranslationally. TMV mutants that carried nucleotide changes in the 5′-terminal region and showed a defect in the binding were unable to synthesize negative-strand RNA, indicating that this binding is essential for template selection. A C-terminally truncated 126-kDa protein, but not the full-length 126-kDa protein, was able to posttranslationally bind TMV RNA in vitro, suggesting that binding of the 126-kDa protein to the 70-nucleotide region occurs during translation and before synthesis of the C-terminal inhibitory domain. We also show that binding of the 126-kDa protein prevents further translation of the bound TMV RNA. These data provide a mechanistic explanation of how the 126-kDa protein selects replication templates in cis and how fatal collision between translating ribosomes and negative-strand RNA-synthesizing polymerases on the genomic RNA is avoided. PMID:24711385

  17. Protein Phosphatase-1 Regulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Shafagati, Nazly; Benedict, Ashwini; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hakami, Ramin M.; Terasaki, Kaori; Makino, Shinji; Nekhai, Sergei; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus family Bunyaviridae, is an arthropod-borne virus endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Recent outbreaks have resulted in cyclic epidemics with an increasing geographic footprint, devastating both livestock and human populations. Despite being recognized as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about the virulence mechanisms and host interactions of RVFV. To date there are no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines for RVF and there is an urgent need for their development. The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has previously been shown to play a significant role in the replication of several viruses. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PP1 plays a prominent role in RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle. Both siRNA knockdown of PP1α and a novel PP1-targeting small molecule compound 1E7-03, resulted in decreased viral titers across several cell lines. Deregulation of PP1 was found to inhibit viral RNA production, potentially through the disruption of viral RNA transcript/protein interactions, and indicates a potential link between PP1α and the viral L polymerase and nucleoprotein. These results indicate that PP1 activity is important for RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle and may prove an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:26801627

  18. Protein Phosphatase-1 regulates Rift Valley fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Shafagati, Nazly; Benedict, Ashwini; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hakami, Ramin M; Terasaki, Kaori; Makino, Shinji; Nekhai, Sergei; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus family Bunyaviridae, is an arthropod-borne virus endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Recent outbreaks have resulted in cyclic epidemics with an increasing geographic footprint, devastating both livestock and human populations. Despite being recognized as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about the virulence mechanisms and host interactions of RVFV. To date there are no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines for RVF and there is an urgent need for their development. The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has previously been shown to play a significant role in the replication of several viruses. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PP1 plays a prominent role in RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle. Both siRNA knockdown of PP1α and a novel PP1-targeting small molecule compound 1E7-03, resulted in decreased viral titers across several cell lines. Deregulation of PP1 was found to inhibit viral RNA production, potentially through the disruption of viral RNA transcript/protein interactions, and indicates a potential link between PP1α and the viral L polymerase and nucleoprotein. These results indicate that PP1 activity is important for RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle and may prove an attractive therapeutic target.

  19. Ancient diversification of eukaryotic MCM DNA replication proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Richards, Thomas A; Aves, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Background Yeast and animal cells require six mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) for pre-replication complex formation, DNA replication initiation and DNA synthesis. These six individual MCM proteins form distinct heterogeneous subunits within a hexamer which is believed to form the replicative helicase and which associates with the essential but non-homologous Mcm10 protein during DNA replication. In contrast Archaea generally only possess one MCM homologue which forms a homohexameric MCM helicase. In some eukaryotes Mcm8 and Mcm9 paralogues also appear to be involved in DNA replication although their exact roles are unclear. Results We used comparative genomics and phylogenetics to reconstruct the diversification of the eukaryotic Mcm2-9 gene family, demonstrating that Mcm2-9 were formed by seven gene duplication events before the last common ancestor of the eukaryotes. Mcm2-7 protein paralogues were present in all eukaryote genomes studied suggesting that no gene loss or functional replacements have been tolerated during the evolutionary diversification of eukaryotes. Mcm8 and 9 are widely distributed in eukaryotes and group together on the MCM phylogenetic tree to the exclusion of all other MCM paralogues suggesting co-ancestry. Mcm8 and Mcm9 are absent in some taxa, including Trichomonas and Giardia, and appear to have been secondarily lost in some fungi and some animals. The presence and absence of Mcm8 and 9 is concordant in all taxa sampled with the exception of Drosophila species. Mcm10 is present in most eukaryotes sampled but shows no concordant pattern of presence or absence with Mcm8 or 9. Conclusion A multifaceted and heterogeneous Mcm2-7 hexamer evolved during the early evolution of the eukaryote cell in parallel with numerous other acquisitions in cell complexity and prior to the diversification of extant eukaryotes. The conservation of all six paralogues throughout the eukaryotes suggests that each Mcm2-7 hexamer component has an

  20. Diffusion of human Replication Protein A along single stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh; Sokoloski, Joshua; Galletto, Roberto; Elson, Elliot L.; Wold, Marc S.; Lohman, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is a eukaryotic single stranded (ss) DNA binding protein that plays critical roles in most aspects of genome maintenance, including replication, recombination and repair. RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, destabilizes DNA secondary structure and facilitates binding of other proteins to ssDNA. However, RPA must be removed from or redistributed along ssDNA during these processes. To probe the dynamics of RPA-DNA interactions, we combined ensemble and single molecule fluorescence approaches to examine human RPA diffusion along ssDNA and find that an hRPA hetero-trimer can diffuse rapidly along ssDNA. Diffusion of hRPA is functional in that it provides the mechanism by which hRPA can transiently disrupt DNA hairpins by diffusing in from ssDNA regions adjacent to the DNA hairpin. hRPA diffusion was also monitored by the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity of a Cy3 fluorophore attached to the end of ssDNA. Using a novel method to calibrate the Cy3 fluorescence intensity as a function of hRPA position on the ssDNA, we estimate a one-dimensional diffusion coefficient of hRPA on ssDNA of D1 ~5000 nucleotide2s−1 at 37°C. Diffusion of hRPA while bound to ssDNA enables it to be readily repositioned to allow other proteins access to ssDNA. PMID:25058683

  1. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Replication Terminator Protein-Based Replication Fork-Arrest Systems in Various Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, A. A.; Andersen, P. A.; Wake, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    The replication terminator protein (RTP) of Bacillus subtilis interacts with its cognate DNA terminators to cause replication fork arrest, thereby ensuring that the forks approaching one another at the conclusion of a round of replication meet within a restricted terminus region. A similar situation exists in Escherichia coli, but it appears that the fork-arrest systems in these two organisms have evolved independently of one another. In the present work, RTP homologs in four species closely related to B. subtilis (B. atrophaeus, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. mojavensis, and B. vallismortis) have been identified and characterized. An RTP homolog could not be identified in another closely related species, B. licheniformis. The nucleotide and amino acid changes from B. subtilis among the four homologs are consistent with the recently established phylogenetic tree for these species. The GC contents of the rtp genes raise the possibility that these organisms arose within this branch of the tree by horizontal transfer into a common ancestor after their divergence from B. licheniformis. Only 5 amino acid residue positions were changed among the four homologs, despite an up to 17.2% change in the nucleotide sequence, a finding that highlights the importance of the precise folded structure to the functioning of RTP. The absence of any significant change in the proposed DNA-binding region of RTP emphasizes the importance of its high affinity for the DNA terminator in its functioning. By coincidence, the single change (E30K) found in the B. mojavensis RTP corresponds exactly to that purposefully introduced by others into B. subtilis RTP to implicate a crucial role for E30 in the fork-arrest mechanism. The natural occurrence of this variant is difficult to reconcile with such an implication, and it was shown directly that RTP.E30K functions normally in fork arrest in B. subtilis in vivo. Additional DNA terminators were identified in the new RTP homolog-containing strains, allowing

  3. Discovery of Protein–Protein Interaction Inhibitors of Replication Protein A

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ssDNA binding protein that is essential for DNA replication and repair. The initiation of the DNA damage response by RPA is mediated by protein–protein interactions involving the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit with partner proteins. Inhibition of these interactions increases sensitivity toward DNA damage and replication stress and may therefore be a potential strategy for cancer drug discovery. Toward this end, we have discovered two lead series of compounds, derived from hits obtained from a fragment-based screen, that bind to RPA70N with low micromolar affinity and inhibit the binding of an ATRIP-derived peptide to RPA. These compounds may offer a promising starting point for the discovery of clinically useful RPA inhibitors. PMID:23914285

  4. Tombusviruses upregulate phospholipid biosynthesis via interaction between p33 replication protein and yeast lipid sensor proteins during virus replication in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; Sharma, Monika; Wu, Cheng-Yu; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-12-15

    Positive-stranded RNA viruses induce new membranous structures and promote membrane proliferation in infected cells to facilitate viral replication. In this paper, the authors show that a plant-infecting tombusvirus upregulates transcription of phospholipid biosynthesis genes, such as INO1, OPI3 and CHO1, and increases phospholipid levels in yeast model host. This is accomplished by the viral p33 replication protein, which interacts with Opi1p FFAT domain protein and Scs2p VAP protein. Opi1p and Scs2p are phospholipid sensor proteins and they repress the expression of phospholipid genes. Accordingly, deletion of OPI1 transcription repressor in yeast has a stimulatory effect on TBSV RNA accumulation and enhanced tombusvirus replicase activity in an in vitro assay. Altogether, the presented data convincingly demonstrate that de novo lipid biosynthesis is required for optimal TBSV replication. Overall, this work reveals that a (+)RNA virus reprograms the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway in a unique way to facilitate its replication in yeast cells. - Highlights: • Tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with FFAT-domain host protein. • Tombusvirus replication leads to upregulation of phospholipids. • Tombusvirus replication depends on de novo lipid synthesis. • Deletion of FFAT-domain host protein enhances TBSV replication. • TBSV rewires host phospholipid synthesis.

  5. Improved artificial origins for phage Φ29 terminal protein-primed replication. Insights into early replication events

    PubMed Central

    Gella, Pablo; Salas, Margarita; Mencía, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The replication machinery of bacteriophage Φ29 is a paradigm for protein-primed replication and it holds great potential for applied purposes. To better understand the early replication events and to find improved origins for DNA amplification based on the Φ29 system, we have studied the end-structure of a double-stranded DNA replication origin. We have observed that the strength of the origin is determined by a combination of factors. The strongest origin (30-fold respect to wt) has the sequence CCC at the 3′ end of the template strand, AAA at the 5′ end of the non-template strand and 6 nucleotides as optimal unpairing at the end of the origin. We also show that the presence of a correctly positioned displaced strand is important because origins with 5′ or 3′ ssDNA regions have very low activity. Most of the effect of the improved origins takes place at the passage between the terminal protein-primed and the DNA-primed modes of replication by the DNA polymerase suggesting the existence of a thermodynamic barrier at that point. We suggest that the template and non-template strands of the origin and the TP/DNA polymerase complex form series of interactions that control the critical start of terminal protein-primed replication. PMID:25081208

  6. Human protein tau represses DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xing Sheng; Qu, M H; Liu, Ying; He, Rong Qiao

    2005-11-30

    Here, in the experiments of both PCR and real-time PCR, a repression of DNA amplification was observed in the presence of protein tau. Furthermore, a strong repression appeared when an in vitro DNA replication assay was performed at the physiological temperature (37 degrees C). The incorporation of dNTP was markedly decreased to approximately 12% of control by the presence of tau23 and to approximately 15% by tau40. In the competitive experiments, the PCR product could be restored when the competitor DNA was added, indicating that the association of tau with the template gave rise to the repression. However, tau did not repress the yield of RNA in transcription, suggesting that tau was replaced or ejected from the template by the elongating T7 RNA polymerase.

  7. The Golgi Protein ACBD3, an Interactor for Poliovirus Protein 3A, Modulates Poliovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Téoulé, François; Brisac, Cynthia; Pelletier, Isabelle; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Jégouic, Sophie; Mirabelli, Carmen; Bessaud, Maël; Combelas, Nicolas; Autret, Arnaud; Tangy, Frédéric; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2013-01-01

    We have shown that the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses responsible for poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have recombinant genomes composed of sequences encoding capsid proteins derived from poliovaccine Sabin, mostly type 2 (PVS2), and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other human enteroviruses. Interestingly, almost all of these recombinant genomes encode a nonstructural 3A protein related to that of field coxsackievirus A17 (CV-A17) strains. Here, we investigated the repercussions of this exchange, by assessing the role of the 3A proteins of PVS2 and CV-A17 and their putative cellular partners in viral replication. We found that the Golgi protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3), recently identified as an interactor for the 3A proteins of several picornaviruses, interacts with the 3A proteins of PVS2 and CV-A17 at viral RNA replication sites, in human neuroblastoma cells infected with either PVS2 or a PVS2 recombinant encoding a 3A protein from CV-A17 [PVS2-3A(CV-A17)]. The small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of ACBD3 significantly increased the growth of both viruses, suggesting that ACBD3 slowed viral replication. This was confirmed with replicons. Furthermore, PVS2-3A(CV-A17) was more resistant to the replication-inhibiting effect of ACBD3 than the PVS2 strain, and the amino acid in position 12 of 3A was involved in modulating the sensitivity of viral replication to ACBD3. Overall, our results indicate that exchanges of nonstructural proteins can modify the relationships between enterovirus recombinants and cellular interactors and may thus be one of the factors favoring their emergence. PMID:23926333

  8. A rotary pumping model for helicase function of MCM proteins at a distance from replication forks.

    PubMed

    Laskey, Ronald A; Madine, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    We propose an integrated model for eukaryotic DNA replication to explain the following problems: (1) How is DNA spooled through fixed sites of replication? (2) What and where are the helicases that unwind replicating DNA? (3) Why are the best candidates for replicative helicases, namely mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins, not concentrated at the replication fork? (4) How do MCM proteins spread away from loading sites at origins of replication? We draw on recent discoveries to argue that the MCM hexameric ring is a rotary motor that pumps DNA along its helical axis by simple rotation, such that the movement resembles that of a threaded bolt through a nut, and we propose that MCM proteins act at a distance from the replication fork to unwind DNA. This model would place DNA replication in a growing list of processes, such as recombination and virus packaging, that are mediated by ring-shaped ATPases pumping DNA by helical rotation.

  9. THE WERNER AND BLOOM SYNDROME PROTEINS HELP RESOLVE REPLICATION BLOCKAGE BY CONVERTING (REGRESSED) HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS TO FUNCTIONAL REPLICATION FORKS

    PubMed Central

    Machwe, Amrita; Karale, Rajashree; Xu, Xioahua; Liu, Yilun; Orren, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Cells cope with blockage of replication fork progression in a manner so that DNA synthesis can be completed and genomic instability minimized. Models for resolution of blocked replication involve fork regression to form Holliday junction structures. The human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM (deficient in Werner and Bloom syndromes, respectively) are critical for maintaining genomic stability and postulated to function in accurate resolution of replication blockage. Consistent with this notion, WRN and BLM localize to sites of blocked replication after certain DNA damaging treatments and exhibit enhanced activity on replication and recombination intermediates. Here we examined the actions of WRN and BLM on a special Holliday junction substrate reflective of a regressed replication fork. Our results demonstrate that, in reactions requiring ATP hydrolysis, both WRN and BLM convert this Holliday junction substrate primarily to a four-stranded replication fork structure, suggesting they target the Holliday junction to initiate branch migration. In agreement, the Holliday junction binding protein RuvA inhibits the WRN- and BLM-mediated conversion reactions. Importantly, this conversion product is suitable for replication with its leading daughter strand readily extended by DNA polymerases. Furthermore, binding to and conversion of this Holliday junction is optimal in low MgCl2, suggesting that WRN and BLM preferentially act on the square planar (open) conformation of Holliday junctions. Our findings suggest that, subsequent to fork regression events, WRN and/or BLM could re-establish functional replication forks to help overcome fork blockage. Such a function is highly consistent with phenotypes associated with WRN- and BLM-deficient cells. PMID:21736299

  10. Dual interaction of a geminivirus replication accessory factor with a viral replication protein and a plant cell cycle regulator.

    PubMed

    Settlage, S B; Miller, A B; Gruissem, W; Hanley-Bowdoin, L

    2001-01-20

    Geminiviruses replicate their small, single-stranded DNA genomes through double-stranded DNA intermediates in plant nuclei using host replication machinery. Like most dicot-infecting geminiviruses, tomato golden mosaic virus encodes a protein, AL3 or C3, that greatly enhances viral DNA accumulation through an unknown mechanism. Earlier studies showed that AL3 forms oligomers and interacts with the viral replication initiator AL1. Experiments reported here established that AL3 also interacts with a plant homolog of the mammalian tumor suppressor protein, retinoblastoma (pRb). Analysis of truncated AL3 proteins indicated that pRb and AL1 bind to similar regions of AL3, whereas AL3 oligomerization is dependent on a different region of the protein. Analysis of truncated AL1 proteins located the AL3-binding domain between AL1 amino acids 101 and 180 to a region that also includes the AL1 oligomerization domain and the catalytic site for initiation of viral DNA replication. Interestingly, the AL3-binding domain was fully contiguous with the domain that mediates AL1/pRb interactions. The potential significance of AL3/pRb binding and the coincidence of the domains responsible for AL3, AL1, and pRb interactions are discussed.

  11. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and localization of the

  12. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5′ ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3′–5′ exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and

  13. A Contingent Replication Assay for the Detection of Protein-Protein Interactions in Animal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasavada, Haren A.; Ganguly, Subinay; Germino, F. Joseph; Wang, Zhen Xi; Weissman, Sherman M.

    1991-12-01

    We have developed a sensitive and rapid assay system termed the contingent replication assay (CRA) for selecting cDNAs with desired functional properties from a cDNA library. The system functions in animal cells and permits enrichment of the desired cDNA in small-scale and convenient experiments. The assay can be used for the enrichment of proteins that activate transcription from conditional enhancers, bind to specific DNA sequences, or interact with target proteins of interest. In this communication we report the application of this assay to study protein-protein interactions in animal cells.

  14. Monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of proteins at replication forks and in assembled chromatin using isolation of proteins on nascent DNA.

    PubMed

    Sirbu, Bianca M; Couch, Frank B; Cortez, David

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the processes of DNA replication, chromatin assembly and maturation, and the replication stress response requires the ability to monitor protein dynamics at active and damaged replication forks. Detecting protein accumulation at replication forks or damaged sites has primarily relied on immunofluorescence imaging, which is limited in resolution and antibody sensitivity. Here we describe a procedure to isolate proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) that permits a high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of proteins at replication forks or on chromatin following DNA replication in cultured cells. iPOND relies on labeling of nascent DNA with the nucleoside analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Biotin conjugation to EdU-labeled DNA using click chemistry facilitates a single-step streptavidin purification of proteins bound to the nascent DNA. iPOND permits an interrogation of any cellular process linked to DNA synthesis using a 3- to 4-d protocol.

  15. Bioinformatics and functional analyses of coronavirus nonstructural proteins involved in the formation of replicative organelles.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Benjamin W

    2016-11-01

    Replication of eukaryotic positive-stranded RNA viruses is usually linked to the presence of membrane-associated replicative organelles. The purpose of this review is to discuss the function of proteins responsible for formation of the coronavirus replicative organelle. This will be done by identifying domains that are conserved across the order Nidovirales, and by summarizing what is known about function and structure at the level of protein domains.

  16. Identification of putative DnaN-binding motifs in plasmid replication initiation proteins.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Brian P; Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Wijffels, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Recently the plasmid RK2 replication initiation protein, TrfA, has been shown to bind to the beta subunit of DNA Polymerase III (DnaN) via a short pentapeptide with the consensus QL[S/D]LF. A second consensus peptide, the hexapeptide QLxLxL, has also been demonstrated to mediate binding to DnaN. Here we describe the results of a comprehensive survey of replication initiation proteins encoded by bacterial plasmids to identify putative DnaN-binding sites. Both pentapeptide and hexapeptide motifs have been identified in a number of families of replication initiation proteins. The distribution of sites is sporadic and closely related families of proteins may differ in the presence, location, or type of putative DnaN-binding motif. Neither motif has been identified in replication initiation proteins encoded by plasmids that replicate via rolling circles or strand displacement. The results suggest that the recruitment of DnaN to the origin of replication of a replisome by plasmid replication initiation proteins is not generally required for plasmid replication, but that in some cases it may be beneficial for efficiency of replication initiation.

  17. Dynamic interaction of Y RNAs with chromatin and initiation proteins during human DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alice Tianbu; Langley, Alexander R.; Christov, Christo P.; Kheir, Eyemen; Shafee, Thomas; Gardiner, Timothy J.; Krude, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Non-coding Y RNAs are required for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in mammalian cells. It is unknown how they perform this function or if they associate with a nuclear structure during DNA replication. Here, we investigate the association of Y RNAs with chromatin and their interaction with replication proteins during DNA replication in a human cell-free system. Our results show that fluorescently labelled Y RNAs associate with unreplicated euchromatin in late G1 phase cell nuclei before the initiation of DNA replication. Following initiation, Y RNAs are displaced locally from nascent and replicated DNA present in replication foci. In intact human cells, a substantial fraction of endogenous Y RNAs are associated with G1 phase nuclei, but not with G2 phase nuclei. Y RNAs interact and colocalise with the origin recognition complex (ORC), the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) protein Cdt1, and other proteins implicated in the initiation of DNA replication. These data support a molecular ‘catch and release’ mechanism for Y RNA function during the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication, which is consistent with Y RNAs acting as replication licensing factors. PMID:21610089

  18. The human cruciform-binding protein, CBP, is involved in DNA replication and associates in vivo with mammalian replication origins.

    PubMed

    Novac, Olivia; Alvarez, David; Pearson, Christopher E; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2002-03-29

    We previously identified and purified from human (HeLa) cells a 66-kDa cruciform-binding protein, CBP, with binding specificity for cruciform DNA regardless of its sequence. DNA cruciforms have been implicated in the regulation of initiation of DNA replication. CBP is a member of the 14-3-3 family of proteins, which are conserved regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotes. Here, the in vivo association of CBP/14-3-3 with mammalian origins of DNA replication was analyzed by studying its association with the monkey replication origins ors8 and ors12, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and quantitative PCR analysis. The association of the 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with these origins was found to be approximately 9-fold higher, compared with other portions of the genome, in logarithmically growing cells. In addition, the association of these isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was also analyzed as a function of the cell cycle. Higher binding of 14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta isoforms with ors8 and ors12 was found at the G(1)/S border, by comparison with other stages of the cell cycle. The CBP/14-3-3 cruciform binding activity was also found to be maximal at the G(1)/S boundary. The involvement of 14-3-3 in mammalian DNA replication was analyzed by studying the effect of anti-14-3-3beta, -epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of ors8. Anti-14-3-3epsilon, -gamma, and -zeta antibodies alone or in combination inhibited p186 replication by approximately 50-80%, while anti-14-3-3beta antibodies had a lesser effect ( approximately 25-50%). All of the antibodies tested were also able to interfere with CBP binding to cruciform DNA. The results indicate that CBP/14-3-3 is an origin-binding protein, acting at the initiation step of DNA replication by binding to cruciform-containing molecules, and dissociates after origin firing.

  19. Roles of Replication Protein-a Subunits 2 and 3 in DNA Replication Fork Movement in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Maniar, H. S.; Wilson, R.; Brill, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Replication Protein-A, the eukaryotic SSB, consists of a large subunit (RPA1) with strong ssDNA binding activity and two smaller subunits (RPA2 and 3) that may cooperate with RPA1 to bind ssDNA in a higher-order mode. To determine the in vivo function of the two smaller subunits and the potential role of higher-order ssDNA binding, we isolated an assortment of heat-lethal mutations in the genes encoding RPA2 and RPA3. At the permissive temperature, the mutants show a range of effects on DNA replication fidelity and sensitivities to UV and MMS. At the nonpermissive temperature, four out of five RPA2 mutants show a fast-stop DNA synthesis phenotype typical of a replication fork block. In contrast, the fifth RPA2 mutant and all RPA3 mutants are able to complete at least one round of DNA replication at the nonpermissive temperature. The effect of these mutations on the stability of the RPA complex was tested using a coprecipitation assay. At the nonpermissive temperature, we find that RPA1 and RPA2 are dissociated in the fast-stop mutants, but not in the slow-stop mutants. Thus, replication fork movement in vivo requires the association of at least two subunits of RPA. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that RPA functions in vivo by binding ssDNA in a higher-order mode. PMID:9093844

  20. Immunoprecipitation of SV40 replicating minichromosomes complexed with bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, E I; Garrido-Guerrero, E; Garcia-Carranca, A; Gariglio, P

    1992-01-01

    Simian Virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication is a useful model to study eukaryotic cell DNA replication because it encodes only one replication protein and its genome has a nucleoprotein structure ('minichromosome') indistinguishable from cellular chromatin. Late after infection SV40 replicating DNA molecules represent about 5% of total viral minichromosomes. Since gene 32 protein (P32) from bacteriophage T4 interacts with single-stranded DNA and SV40 replication complexes are expected to contain single-stranded regions at the replication forks, we asked whether P32 might be used to isolate replicating SV40 minichromosomes. When nuclear extracts from SV40 infected cells were treated sequentially with P32 and anti-P32 antibodies, pulse-labeled minichromosomes were selectively immunoprecipitated. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis confirmed that immunoprecipitated material corresponded to SV40 replicative intermediates. Protein analysis of the pelleted material revealed several proteins of viral and cellular origin. Among them, T antigen and histones were found to be complexed with at least other three proteins from cellular origin, to the replicative complexes. Additionally, anti-P32 antibodies were able to detect three cellular proteins of approximately 70, 32 and 13 kDa in western blots. These proteins could correspond to those found as part of an eukaryotic multisubunit single-stranded DNA binding protein. The use of P32 and anti-P32 antibodies thus allows the separation of replicating from mature SV40 minichromosomes and can constitute a novel method to enrich and to study replicative active chromatin. Images PMID:1311833

  1. Replication forks blocked by protein-DNA complexes have limited stability in vitro.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Peter; Guy, Colin P

    2008-08-29

    There are many barriers that replication forks must overcome in order to duplicate a genome in vivo. These barriers include damage to the template DNA and proteins bound to this template. If replication is halted by such a block, then the block must be either removed or bypassed for replication to continue. If continuation of replication employs the original fork, avoiding the need to reload the replication apparatus, then the blocked replisome must retain functionality. In vivo studies of Escherichia coli replication forks suggest that replication forks blocked by protein-DNA complexes retain the ability to resume replication upon removal of the block for several hours. Here we tested the functional stability of replication forks reconstituted in vitro and blocked by lac repressor-operator complexes. Once a fork comes to a halt at such a block, it cannot continue subsequently to translocate through the block until addition of IPTG induces repressor dissociation. However, the ability to resume replication is retained only for 4-6 min regardless of the topological state of the template DNA. Comparison of our in vitro data with previous in vivo data suggests that either accessory factors that stabilise blocked forks are present in vivo or the apparent stability of blocked forks in vivo is due to continual reloading of the replication apparatus at the site of the block.

  2. Membrane attachment activates dnaA protein, the initiation protein of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, B.Y.; Kornberg, A.

    1988-10-01

    ADP and ATP are tightly bound to dnaA protein and are crucial to its function in DNA replication; the exchange of these nucleotides is effected specifically by the acidic phospholipids (cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol) present in Escherichia coli membranes. We now find that phospholipids derived from membranes lacking an unsaturated fatty acid (e.g., oleic acid) are unable to promote the exchange. This observation correlates strikingly with the long-known effect of 3-decynoyl-N-acetylcysteamine, a ''suicide analog'' that prevents initiation of a cycle of replication in E. coli by inhibiting the synthesis of oleic acid, an inhibition that can be overcome by providing the cells with oleic acid. Profound influences on the specific binding of dnaA protein to phospholipids by temperature, the content of unsaturated fatty acids, and the inclusion of cholesterol can be explained by the need for the phospholipids to be in fluid-phase vesicles. These findings suggest that membrane attachment of dnaA protein is vital for its function in the initiation of chromosome replication in E. coli.

  3. Identification of Proteins at Active, Stalled, and Collapsed Replication Forks Using Isolation of Proteins on Nascent DNA (iPOND) Coupled with Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Sirbu, Bianca M.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Dungrawala, Huzefa; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Chen, Yaoyi; Tabb, David L.; Cortez, David

    2013-01-01

    Both DNA and chromatin need to be duplicated during each cell division cycle. Replication happens in the context of defects in the DNA template and other forms of replication stress that present challenges to both genetic and epigenetic inheritance. The replication machinery is highly regulated by replication stress responses to accomplish this goal. To identify important replication and stress response proteins, we combined isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) with quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified 290 proteins enriched on newly replicated DNA at active, stalled, and collapsed replication forks. Approximately 16% of these proteins are known replication or DNA damage response proteins. Genetic analysis indicates that several of the newly identified proteins are needed to facilitate DNA replication, especially under stressed conditions. Our data provide a useful resource for investigators studying DNA replication and the replication stress response and validate the use of iPOND combined with mass spectrometry as a discovery tool. PMID:24047897

  4. The cellular Mre11 protein interferes with adenovirus E4 mutant DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Shomita S.; Bridge, Eileen

    2007-09-01

    Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) relocalizes and degrades the host DNA repair protein Mre11, and efficiently initiates viral DNA replication. Mre11 associates with Ad E4 mutant DNA replication centers and is important for concatenating viral genomes. We have investigated the role of Mre11 in the E4 mutant DNA replication defect. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mre11 dramatically rescues E4 mutant DNA replication in cells that do or do not concatenate viral genomes, suggesting that Mre11 inhibits DNA replication independent of genome concatenation. The mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) protein is involved in recruiting and sustaining Mre11 at sites of DNA damage following ionizing radiation. We observe foci formation by Mdc1 in response to viral infection, indicating that this damage response protein is activated. However, knockdown of Mdc1 does not prevent Mre11 from localizing at viral DNA replication foci or rescue E4 mutant DNA replication. Our results are consistent with a model in which Mre11 interferes with DNA replication when it is localized at viral DNA replication foci.

  5. Host ESCRT proteins are required for bromovirus RNA replication compartment assembly and function.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Arturo; Zhang, Jiantao; Ollwerther, Abigail; Wang, Xiaofeng; Ahlquist, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses genome replication invariably is associated with vesicles or other rearranged cellular membranes. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication occurs on perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in ~70 nm vesicular invaginations (spherules). BMV RNA replication vesicles show multiple parallels with membrane-enveloped, budding retrovirus virions, whose envelopment and release depend on the host ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) membrane-remodeling machinery. We now find that deleting components of the ESCRT pathway results in at least two distinct BMV phenotypes. One group of genes regulate RNA replication and the frequency of viral replication complex formation, but had no effect on spherule size, while a second group of genes regulate RNA replication in a way or ways independent of spherule formation. In particular, deleting SNF7 inhibits BMV RNA replication > 25-fold and abolishes detectable BMV spherule formation, even though the BMV RNA replication proteins accumulate and localize normally on perinuclear ER membranes. Moreover, BMV ESCRT recruitment and spherule assembly depend on different sets of protein-protein interactions from those used by multivesicular body vesicles, HIV-1 virion budding, or tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) spherule formation. These and other data demonstrate that BMV requires cellular ESCRT components for proper formation and function of its vesicular RNA replication compartments. The results highlight growing but diverse interactions of ESCRT factors with many viruses and viral processes, and potential value of the ESCRT pathway as a target for broad-spectrum antiviral resistance.

  6. Polycomb proteins remain bound to chromatin and DNA during DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Nicole J.; Follmer, Nicole E.; Simon, Matthew D.; Aghia, George; Butler, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcriptional status of a gene can be maintained through multiple rounds of cell division during development. This epigenetic effect is believed to reflect heritable changes in chromatin folding and histone modifications or variants at target genes, but little is known about how these chromatin features are inherited through cell division. A particular challenge for maintaining transcription states is DNA replication, which disrupts or dilutes chromatin associated proteins and histone modifications. PRC1-class Polycomb Group protein complexes are essential for development, and are thought to heritably silence transcription by altering chromatin folding and histone modifications. It is not known whether these complexes and their effects are maintained during DNA replication or subsequently re-established. We find that when PRC1-class Polycomb complex-bound chromatin or DNA is replicated in vitro, Polycomb complexes remain bound to replicated templates. Retention of Polycomb proteins through DNA replication may contribute to maintenance of transcriptional silencing through cell division. PMID:19303136

  7. Crystal structure of the homology domain of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins Sld3/Treslin.

    PubMed

    Itou, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Sachiko; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-02

    The initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication requires the formation of an active replicative helicase at the replication origins of chromosomal DNA. Yeast Sld3 and its metazoan counterpart Treslin are the hub proteins mediating protein associations critical for the helicase formation. Here, we show the crystal structure of the central domain of Sld3 that is conserved in Sld3/Treslin family of proteins. The domain consists of two segments with 12 helices and is sufficient to bind to Cdc45, the essential helicase component. The structure model of the Sld3-Cdc45 complex, which is crucial for the formation of the active helicase, is proposed.

  8. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    SciTech Connect

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana; DeSmet, Marsha; Thomas, Yanique; Morgan, Iain M.; Androphy, Elliot J.

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.

  9. Functional Analysis of DNA Replication Fork Reversal Catalyzed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh; Muniyappa, K.

    2012-01-01

    Initially discovered in Escherichia coli, RuvAB proteins are ubiquitous in bacteria and play a dual role as molecular motor proteins responsible for branch migration of the Holliday junction(s) and reversal of stalled replication forks. Despite mounting genetic evidence for a crucial role of RuvA and RuvB proteins in reversal of stalled replication forks, the mechanistic aspects of this process are still not fully understood. Here, we elucidate the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RuvAB (MtRuvAB) complex to catalyze the reversal of replication forks using a range of DNA replication fork substrates. Our studies show that MtRuvAB, unlike E. coli RuvAB, is able to drive replication fork reversal via the formation of Holliday junction intermediates, suggesting that RuvAB-catalyzed fork reversal involves concerted unwinding and annealing of nascent leading and lagging strands. We also demonstrate the reversal of replication forks carrying hemi-replicated DNA, indicating that MtRuvAB complex-catalyzed fork reversal is independent of symmetry at the fork junction. The fork reversal reaction catalyzed by MtRuvAB is coupled to ATP hydrolysis, is processive, and culminates in the formation of an extended reverse DNA arm. Notably, we found that sequence heterology failed to impede the fork reversal activity of MtRuvAB. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of recognition and processing of varied types of replication fork structures by RuvAB proteins. PMID:22094465

  10. Dynamics of pre-replication complex proteins during the cell division cycle.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, Supriya G; Méndez, Juan; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Stillman, Bruce

    2004-01-29

    Replication of the human genome every time a cell divides is a highly coordinated process that ensures accurate and efficient inheritance of the genetic information. The molecular mechanism that guarantees that many origins of replication fire only once per cell-cycle has been the area of intense research. The origin recognition complex (ORC) marks the position of replication origins in the genome and serves as the landing pad for the assembly of a multiprotein, pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) at the origins, consisting of ORC, cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6), Cdc10-dependent transcript (Cdt1) and mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins. The MCM proteins serve as key participants in the mechanism that limits eukaryotic DNA replication to once-per-cell-cycle and its binding to the chromatin marks the final step of pre-RC formation, a process referred to as 'replication licensing'. We present data demonstrating how the MCM proteins associate with the chromatin during the G1 phase, probably defining pre-RCs and then anticipate replication fork movement in a precisely coordinated manner during the S phase of the cell cycle. The process of DNA replication must also be carefully coordinated with other cell-cycle processes including mitosis and cytokinesis. Some of the proteins that control initiation of DNA replication are likely to interact with the pathways that control these important cell-cycle transitions. Herein, we discuss the participation of human ORC proteins in other vital functions, in addition to their bona fide roles in replication.

  11. Eukaryotic DNA replication: Orchestrated action of multi-subunit protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukhyun; Kang, Mi-Sun; Ryu, Eunjin; Myung, Kyungjae

    2017-05-01

    Genome duplication is an essential process to preserve genetic information between generations. The eukaryotic cell cycle is composed of functionally distinct phases: G1, S, G2, and M. One of the key replicative proteins that participate at every stage of DNA replication is the Mcm2-7 complex, a replicative helicase. In the G1 phase, inactive Mcm2-7 complexes are loaded on the replication origins by replication-initiator proteins, ORC and Cdc6. Two kinases, S-CDK and DDK, convert the inactive origin-loaded Mcm2-7 complex to an active helicase, the CMG complex in the S phase. The activated CMG complex begins DNA unwinding and recruits enzymes essential for DNA synthesis to assemble a replisome at the replication fork. After completion of DNA synthesis, the inactive CMG complex on the replicated DNA is removed from chromatin to terminate DNA replication. In this review, we will discuss the structure, function, and regulation of the molecular machines involved in each step of DNA replication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Unusual roles of host metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins in plant virus replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Wen; Hu, Chung-Chi; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2012-12-01

    Viruses have developed the ability to improvise their own replication machineries with host proteins, adapt to different environments, and overcome difficulties encountered during various stages of their infection cycles. The modular nature of protein functional motifs allows for the novel use of ordinary host factors. Recent studies have revealed that positive-sense RNA [(+)RNA] viruses may adapt regular metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins of host plants by exploiting unusual functions to accommodate their need for replication, mainly for recruitment and subcellular localization of RNA templates or components of replicase complexes and for controlling switches in different stages of replication. This review compares the newly discovered roles of selected metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins in plant (+)RNA virus replication with their original cellular functions and the different consequences when utilized by different viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bromodomain Protein Brd4 Plays a Key Role in Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Jiao, Jing; Buck, Christopher B.; You, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is the first human polyomavirus to be definitively linked to cancer. The mechanisms of MCV-induced oncogenesis and much of MCV biology are largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) interacts with MCV large T antigen (LT) and plays a critical role in viral DNA replication. Brd4 knockdown inhibits MCV replication, which can be rescued by recombinant Brd4. Brd4 colocalizes with the MCV LT/replication origin complex in the nucleus and recruits replication factor C (RFC) to the viral replication sites. A dominant negative inhibitor of the Brd4-MCV LT interaction can dissociate Brd4 and RFC from the viral replication complex and abrogate MCV replication. Furthermore, obstructing the physiologic interaction between Brd4 and host chromatin with the chemical compound JQ1(+) leads to enhanced MCV DNA replication, demonstrating that the role of Brd4 in MCV replication is distinct from its role in chromatin-associated transcriptional regulation. Our findings demonstrate mechanistic details of the MCV replication machinery; providing novel insight to elucidate the life cycle of this newly discovered oncogenic DNA virus. PMID:23144621

  14. DNA replication restart and cellular dynamics of Hef helicase/nuclease protein in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Lestini, Roxane; Delpech, Floriane; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how frequently spontaneous replication arrests occur and how archaea deal with these arrests are very interesting and challenging research topics. Here we will described how genetic and imaging studies have revealed the central role of the archaeal helicase/nuclease Hef belonging to the XPF/MUS81/FANCM family of endonucleases in repair of arrested replication forks. Special focus will be on description of a recently developed combination of genetic and imaging tools to study the dynamic localization of a functional Hef::GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) fusion protein in the living cells of halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii. As Archaea provide an excellent and unique model for understanding how DNA replication is regulated to allow replication of a circular DNA molecule either from single or multiple replication origins, we will also summarize recent studies that have revealed peculiar features regarding DNA replication, particularly in halophilic archaea. We strongly believe that fundamental knowledge of our on-going studies will shed light on the evolutionary history of the DNA replication machinery and will help to establish general rules concerning replication restart and the key role of recombination proteins not only in bacteria, yeast and higher eukaryotes but also in archaea.

  15. Analysis of protein-protein interactions in the feline calicivirus replication complex.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, William J; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2006-02-01

    Caliciviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and cause a wide variety of other diseases in animals. Here, the characterization of protein-protein interactions between the individual proteins of Feline calicivirus (FCV), a model system for other members of the family Caliciviridae, is reported. Using the yeast two-hybrid system combined with a number of other approaches, it is demonstrated that the p32 protein (the picornavirus 2B analogue) of FCV interacts with p39 (2C), p30 (3A) and p76 (3CD). The FCV protease/RNA polymerase (ProPol) p76 was found to form homo-oligomers, as well as to interact with VPg and ORF2, the region encoding the major capsid protein VP1. A weak interaction was also observed between p76 and the minor capsid protein encoded by ORF3 (VP2). ORF2 protein was found to interact with VPg, p76 and VP2. The potential roles of the interactions in calicivirus replication are discussed.

  16. Efficient SIVcpz replication in human lymphoid tissue requires viral matrix protein adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Heigele, Anke; Keele, Brandon F.; Easlick, Juliet L.; Decker, Julie M.; Takehisa, Jun; Learn, Gerald; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2012-01-01

    SIVs infecting wild-living apes in west central Africa have crossed the species barrier to humans on at least four different occasions, one of which spawned the AIDS pandemic. Although the chimpanzee precursor of pandemic HIV-1 strains must have been able to infect humans, the capacity of SIVcpz strains to replicate in human lymphoid tissues (HLTs) is not known. Here, we show that SIVcpz strains from two chimpanzee subspecies are capable of replicating in human tonsillary explant cultures, albeit only at low titers. However, SIVcpz replication in HLT was significantly improved after introduction of a previously identified human-specific adaptation at position 30 in the viral Gag matrix protein. An Arg or Lys at this position significantly increased SIVcpz replication in HLT, while the same mutation reduced viral replication in chimpanzee-derived CD4+ T cells. Thus, naturally occurring SIVcpz strains are capable of infecting HLTs, the major site of HIV-1 replication in vivo. However, efficient replication requires the acquisition of a host-specific adaptation in the viral matrix protein. These results identify Gag matrix as a major determinant of SIVcpz replication fitness in humans and suggest a critical role in the emergence of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22505456

  17. The quaternary structure of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins Sld7 and Sld3.

    PubMed

    Itou, Hiroshi; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication requires the formation of an active replicative helicase at the replication origins of chromosomes. Yeast Sld3 and its metazoan counterpart treslin are the hub proteins mediating protein associations critical for formation of the helicase. The Sld7 protein interacts with Sld3, and the complex formed is thought to regulate the function of Sld3. Although Sld7 is a non-essential DNA replication protein that is found in only a limited range of yeasts, its depletion slowed the growth of cells and caused a delay in the S phase. Recently, the Mdm2-binding protein was found to bind to treslin in humans, and its depletion causes defects in cells similar to the depletion of Sld7 in yeast, suggesting their functional relatedness and importance during the initiation step of DNA replication. Here, the crystal structure of Sld7 in complex with Sld3 is presented. Sld7 comprises two structural domains. The N-terminal domain of Sld7 binds to Sld3, and the C-terminal domains connect two Sld7 molecules in an antiparallel manner. The quaternary structure of the Sld3-Sld7 complex shown from the crystal structures appears to be suitable to activate two helicase molecules loaded onto replication origins in a head-to-head manner.

  18. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 proteins associate in a complex and colocalize at replication factories.

    PubMed

    Vago, Riccardo; Leva, Valentina; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2009-08-15

    DNA ligase I is the main DNA ligase activity involved in eukaryotic DNA replication acting in the joining of Okazaki fragments. This enzyme is also implicated in nucleotide excision repair and in the long-patch base excision repair while its role in the recombinational repair pathways is poorly understood. DNA ligase I is phosphorylated during cell cycle at several serine and threonine residues that regulate its participation in different DNA transactions by modulating the interaction with different protein partners. Here we use an antibody-based array method to identify novel DNA ligase-interacting partners. We show that DNA ligase I participates in several multiprotein complexes with proteins involved in DNA replication and repair, cell cycle control, and protein modification. In particular we demonstrate that DNA ligase I complexes with Nbs1, a core component of the MRN complex critical for detection, processing and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The analysis of epitope tagged DNA ligase I mutants demonstrates that the association is mediated by the catalytic fragment of the enzyme. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 colocalize at replication factories during unperturbed replication and after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Since MRN complex is involved in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination at stalled replication forks our data support the notion that DNA ligase I participates in homology dependent pathways that deal with replication-associated lesions generated when replication fork encounters DNA damage.

  19. Regulated transport into the nucleus of herpesviridae DNA replication core proteins.

    PubMed

    Gualtiero, Alvisi; Jans, David A; Camozzi, Daria; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Ripalti, Alessandro; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-09-16

    The Herpesvirdae family comprises several major human pathogens belonging to three distinct subfamilies. Their double stranded DNA genome is replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by a number of host and viral products. Among the latter the viral replication complex, whose activity is strictly required for viral replication, is composed of six different polypeptides, including a two-subunit DNA polymerase holoenzyme, a trimeric primase/helicase complex and a single stranded DNA binding protein. The study of herpesviral DNA replication machinery is extremely important, both because it provides an excellent model to understand processes related to eukaryotic DNA replication and it has important implications for the development of highly needed antiviral agents. Even though all known herpesviruses utilize very similar mechanisms for amplification of their genomes, the nuclear import of the replication complex components appears to be a heterogeneous and highly regulated process to ensure the correct spatiotemporal localization of each protein. The nuclear transport process of these enzymes is controlled by three mechanisms, typifying the main processes through which protein nuclear import is generally regulated in eukaryotic cells. These include cargo post-translational modification-based recognition by the intracellular transporters, piggy-back events allowing coordinated nuclear import of multimeric holoenzymes, and chaperone-assisted nuclear import of specific subunits. In this review we summarize these mechanisms and discuss potential implications for the development of antiviral compounds aimed at inhibiting the Herpesvirus life cycle by targeting nuclear import of the Herpesvirus DNA replicating enzymes.

  20. A novel DNA replication origin identified in the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Taira, T; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    A general and sensitive method for the mapping of initiation sites of DNA replication in vivo, developed by Vassilev and Johnson, has revealed replication origins in the region of simian virus 40 ori, in the regions upstream from the human c-myc gene and downstream from the Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene, and in the enhancer region of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. Here we report that the region containing the promoter of the human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene was identified as a DNA replication origin in HeLa cells by this method. Several segments of the region were cloned into pUC19 and examined for autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity. The plasmids carrying the segments replicated episomally and semiconservatively when transfected into HeLa cells. The segments of ARS activity contained the sequences previously identified as binding sequences for a c-myc protein complex (T. Taira, Y. Negishi, F. Kihara, S. M. M. Iguchi-Ariga, and H. Ariga, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1130:166-174, 1992). Mutations introduced within the c-myc protein complex binding sequences abolished the ARS activity. Moreover, the ARS plasmids stably replicated at episomal state for a long time in established cell lines. The results suggest that the promoter region of the human hsp70 gene plays a role in DNA replication as well as in transcription. Images PMID:8065368

  1. Characterization of a DNA binding protein of bacteriophage PRD1 involved in DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pakula, T M; Caldentey, J; Serrano, M; Gutierrez, C; Hermoso, J M; Salas, M; Bamford, D H

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli phage PRD1 protein P12, involved in PRD1 DNA replication in vivo, has been highly purified from E. coli cells harbouring a gene XII-containing plasmid. Protein P12 binds to single-stranded DNA as shown by gel retardation assays and nuclease protection experiments. Binding of protein P12 to single-stranded DNA increases about 14% the contour length of the DNA as revealed by electron microscopy. Binding to single-stranded DNA seems to be cooperative, and it is not sequence specific. Protein P12 also binds to double-stranded DNA although with an affinity 10 times lower than to single-stranded DNA. Using the in vitro phage phi 29 DNA replication system, it is shown that protein P12 stimulates the overall phi 29 DNA replication. Images PMID:2251117

  2. Extracellular Vpr protein increases cellular permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus replication and reactivates virus from latency.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D N; Refaeli, Y; Weiner, D B

    1995-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus is a virion-associated regulatory protein that has been shown using vpr mutant viruses to increase virus replication, particularly in monocytes/macrophages. We have previously shown that vpr can directly inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation, events linked to the control of HIV replication, and also that the replication of a vpr mutant but not that of wild-type HIV type 1 (HIV-1) was compatible with cellular proliferation (D. N. Levy, L. S. Fernandes, W. V. Williams, and D. B. Weiner, Cell 72:541-550, 1993). Here we show that purified recombinant Vpr protein, in concentrations of < 100 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml, increases wild-type HIV-1 replication in newly infected transformed cell lines via a long-lasting increase in cellular permissiveness to HIV replication. The activity of extracellular Vpr protein could be completely inhibited by anti-Vpr antibodies. Extracellular Vpr also induced efficient HIV-1 replication in newly infected resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Extracellular Vpr transcomplemented a vpr mutant virus which was deficient in replication in promonocytic cells, restoring full replication competence. In addition, extracellular Vpr reactivated HIV-1 expression in five latently infected cell lines of T-cell, B-cell, and promonocytic origin which normally express very low levels of HIV RNA and protein, indicating an activation of translational or pretranslational events in the virus life cycle. Together, these results describe a novel pathway governing HIV replication and a potential target for the development of anti-HIV therapeutics. PMID:7815499

  3. Uracil DNA Glycosylase BKRF3 Contributes to Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Replication through Physical Interactions with Proteins in Viral DNA Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tzu; Liu, I-Hua; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Shu-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Yang, Pei-Wen; Chuang, Yu-Chia; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmunoprecipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication. IMPORTANCE Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme

  4. Imaging of the alphavirus capsid protein during virus replication.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Kielian, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses with highly organized structures. The nucleocapsid (NC) core contains a capsid protein lattice enclosing the plus-sense RNA genome, and it is surrounded by a lipid bilayer containing a lattice of the E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins. Capsid protein is synthesized in the cytoplasm and particle budding occurs at the plasma membrane (PM), but the traffic and assembly of viral components and the exit of virions from host cells are not well understood. To visualize the dynamics of capsid protein during infection, we developed a Sindbis virus infectious clone tagged with a tetracysteine motif. Tagged capsid protein could be fluorescently labeled with biarsenical dyes in living cells without effects on virus growth, morphology, or protein distribution. Live cell imaging and colocalization experiments defined distinct groups of capsid foci in infected cells. We observed highly motile internal puncta that colocalized with E2 protein, which may represent the transport machinery that capsid protein uses to reach the PM. Capsid was also found in larger nonmotile internal structures that colocalized with cellular G3BP and viral nsP3. Thus, capsid may play an unforeseen role in these previously observed G3BP-positive foci, such as regulation of cellular stress granules. Capsid puncta were also observed at the PM. These puncta colocalized with E2 and recruited newly synthesized capsid protein; thus, they may be sites of virus assembly and egress. Together, our studies provide the first dynamic views of the alphavirus capsid protein in living cells and a system to define detailed mechanisms during alphavirus infection.

  5. Protein aggregates are associated with replicative aging without compromising protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Saarikangas, Juha; Barral, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of cellular lineages is facilitated by asymmetric segregation of fate determinants between dividing cells. In budding yeast, various aging factors segregate to the aging (mother)-lineage, with poorly understood consequences. In this study, we show that yeast mother cells form a protein aggregate during early replicative aging that is maintained as a single, asymmetrically inherited deposit over the remaining lifespan. Surprisingly, deposit formation was not associated with stress or general decline in proteostasis. Rather, the deposit-containing cells displayed enhanced degradation of cytosolic proteasome substrates and unimpaired clearance of stress-induced protein aggregates. Deposit formation was dependent on Hsp42, which collected non-random client proteins of the Hsp104/Hsp70-refolding machinery, including the prion Sup35. Importantly, loss of Hsp42 resulted in symmetric inheritance of its constituents and prolonged the lifespan of the mother cell. Together, these data suggest that protein aggregation is an early aging-associated differentiation event in yeast, having a two-faceted role in organismal fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06197.001 PMID:26544680

  6. Identification of Viral and Host Proteins That Interact with Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen during Lytic Replication: a Role for Hsc70 in Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Eduardo; Byrum, Stephanie D.; Moreland, Linley E.; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Tackett, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a conserved, multifunctional protein encoded by members of the rhadinovirus subfamily of gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68). We previously demonstrated that MHV68 LANA (mLANA) is required for efficient lytic replication. However, mechanisms by which mLANA facilitates viral replication, including interactions with cellular and viral proteins, are not known. Thus, we performed a mass spectrometry-based interaction screen that defined an mLANA protein-protein interaction network for lytic viral replication consisting of 15 viral proteins and 191 cellular proteins, including 19 interactions previously reported in KSHV LANA interaction studies. We also employed a stable-isotope labeling technique to illuminate high-priority mLANA-interacting host proteins. Among the top prioritized mLANA-binding proteins was a cellular chaperone, heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70). We independently validated the mLANA-Hsc70 interaction through coimmunoprecipitation and in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays. Immunofluorescence and cellular fractionation analyses comparing wild-type (WT) to mLANA-null MHV68 infections demonstrated mLANA-dependent recruitment of Hsc70 to nuclei of productively infected cells. Pharmacologic inhibition and small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of Hsc70 impaired MHV68 lytic replication, which functionally correlated with impaired viral protein expression, reduced viral DNA replication, and failure to form viral replication complexes. Replication of mLANA-null MHV68 was less affected than that of WT virus by Hsc70 inhibition, which strongly suggests that Hsc70 function in MHV68 lytic replication is at least partially mediated by its interaction with mLANA. Together these experiments identify proteins engaged by mLANA during the MHV68 lytic replication cycle and define a previously unknown role for Hsc

  7. Replicative Functions of Minute Virus of Mice NS1 Protein Are Regulated In Vitro by Phosphorylation through Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Nüesch, Jürg P. F.; Dettwiler, Sabine; Corbau, Romuald; Rommelaere, Jean

    1998-01-01

    NS1, the major nonstructural protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice, is a multifunctional phosphoprotein which is involved in cytotoxicity, transcriptional regulation, and initiation of viral DNA replication. For coordination of these various functions during virus propagation, NS1 has been proposed to be regulated by posttranslational modifications, in particular phosphorylation. Recent in vitro studies (J. P. F. Nüesch, R. Corbau, P. Tattersall, and J. Rommelaere, J. Virol. 72:8002–8012, 1998) provided evidence that distinct NS1 activities, notably the intrinsic helicase function, are modulated by the phosphorylation state of the protein. In order to study the dependence of the initiation of viral DNA replication on NS1 phosphorylation and to identify the protein kinases involved, we established an in vitro replication system that is devoid of endogenous protein kinases and is based on plasmid substrates containing the minimal left-end origins of replication. Cellular components necessary to drive NS1-dependent rolling-circle replication (RCR) were freed from endogenous serine/threonine protein kinases by affinity chromatography, and the eukaryotic DNA polymerases were replaced by the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. While native NS1 (NS1P) supported RCR under these conditions, dephosphorylated NS1 (NS1O) was impaired. Using fractionated HeLa cell extracts, we identified two essential protein components which are able to phosphorylate NS1O, are enriched in protein kinase C (PKC), and, when present together, reactivate NS1O for replication. One of these components, containing atypical PKC, was sufficient to restore NS1O helicase activity. The requirement of NS1O reactivation for characteristic PKC cofactors such as Ca2+/phosphatidylserine or phorbol esters strongly suggests the involvement of this protein kinase family in regulation of NS1 replicative functions in vitro. PMID:9811734

  8. A bridging model for persistence of a polycomb group protein complex through DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lo, Stanley M; Follmer, Nicole E; Lengsfeld, Bettina M; Madamba, Egbert V; Seong, Samuel; Grau, Daniel J; Francis, Nicole J

    2012-06-29

    Epigenetic regulation may involve heritable chromatin states, but how chromatin features can be inherited through DNA replication is incompletely understood. We address this question using cell-free replication of chromatin. Previously, we showed that a Polycomb group complex, PRC1, remains continuously associated with chromatin through DNA replication. Here we investigate the mechanism of persistence. We find that a single PRC1 subunit, Posterior sex combs (PSC), can reconstitute persistence through DNA replication. PSC binds nucleosomes and self-interacts, bridging nucleosomes into a stable, oligomeric structure. Within these structures, individual PSC-chromatin contacts are dynamic. Stable association of PSC with chromatin, including through DNA replication, depends on PSC-PSC interactions. Our data suggest that labile individual PSC-chromatin contacts allow passage of the DNA replication machinery while PSC-PSC interactions prevent PSC from dissociating, allowing it to rebind to replicated chromatin. This mechanism may allow inheritance of chromatin proteins including PRC1 through DNA replication to maintain chromatin states.

  9. A Novel DNA Motif Contributes to Selective Replication of a Geminivirus-Associated Betasatellite by a Helper Virus-Encoded Replication-Related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Xu, Xiongbiao; Huang, Changjun; Qian, Yajuan; Li, Zhenghe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rolling-circle replication of single-stranded genomes of plant geminiviruses is initiated by sequence-specific DNA binding of the viral replication-related protein (Rep) to its cognate genome at the replication origin. Monopartite begomovirus-associated betasatellites can be trans replicated by both cognate and some noncognate helper viruses, but the molecular basis of replication promiscuity of betasatellites remains uncharacterized. Earlier studies showed that when tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) or tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) is coinoculated with both cognate and noncognate betasatellites, the cognate betasatellite dominates over the noncognate one at the late stages of infection. In this study, we constructed reciprocal chimeric betasatellites between tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite and tobacco curly shoot betasatellite and assayed their competitiveness against wild-type betasatellite when coinoculated with TYLCCNV or TbCSV onto plants. We mapped a region immediately upstream of the conserved rolling-circle cruciform structure of betasatellite origin that confers the cognate Rep-mediated replication advantage over the noncognate satellite. DNase I protection and in vitro binding assays further identified a novel sequence element termed Rep-binding motif (RBM), which specifically binds to the cognate Rep protein and to the noncognate Rep, albeit at lower affinity. Furthermore, we showed that RBM-Rep binding affinity is correlated with betasatellite replication efficiency in protoplasts. Our data suggest that although strict specificity of Rep-mediated replication does not exist, betasatellites have adapted to their cognate Reps for efficient replication during coevolution. IMPORTANCE Begomoviruses are numerous circular DNA viruses that cause devastating diseases of crops worldwide. Monopartite begomoviruses are frequently associated with betasatellites which are essential for induction of typical disease symptoms

  10. The origin of replication, oriC, and the dnaA protein are dispensable in stable DNA replication (sdrA) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Kogoma, T; von Meyenburg, K

    1983-01-01

    The sdrA224 mutants of Escherichia coli K-12, capable of continued DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis (stable DNA replication), tolerate inactivation of the dnaA gene by insertion of transposon Tn10. Furthermore, oriC, the origin of E. coli chromosome replication, can be deleted from the chromosome of sdrA mutants without loss of viability. The results suggest the presence of a second, normally repressed, initiation system for chromosome replication alternative to the 'normal' dnaA+ oriC+-dependent initiation mechanism.

  11. The origin of replication, oriC, and the dnaA protein are dispensable in stable DNA replication (sdrA) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Kogoma, T; von Meyenburg, K

    1983-01-01

    The sdrA224 mutants of Escherichia coli K-12, capable of continued DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis (stable DNA replication), tolerate inactivation of the dnaA gene by insertion of transposon Tn10. Furthermore, oriC, the origin of E. coli chromosome replication, can be deleted from the chromosome of sdrA mutants without loss of viability. The results suggest the presence of a second, normally repressed, initiation system for chromosome replication alternative to the 'normal' dnaA+ oriC+-dependent initiation mechanism. Images Fig. 2. PMID:11894964

  12. The V protein of canine distemper virus is required for virus replication in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Kubota, Toru; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Seki, Fumio; Sakai, Kouji; Kuroda, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Takeda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) becomes able to use human receptors through a single amino acid substitution in the H protein. In addition, CDV strains possessing an intact C protein replicate well in human epithelial H358 cells. The present study showed that CDV strain 007Lm, which was isolated from lymph node tissue of a dog with distemper, failed to replicate in H358 cells, although it possessed an intact C protein. Sequence analyses suggested that a cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution at position 267 of the V protein caused this growth defect. Analyses using H358 cells constitutively expressing the CDV V protein showed that the V protein with a cysteine, but not that with a tyrosine, at this position effectively blocked the interferon-stimulated signal transduction pathway, and supported virus replication of 007Lm in H358 cells. Thus, the V protein as well as the C protein appears to be functional and essential for CDV replication in human epithelial cells.

  13. A host small GTP-binding protein ARL8 plays crucial roles in tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5'-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions.

  14. Regulated degradation of chromosome replication proteins DnaA and CtrA in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Gorbatyuk, Boris; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2005-02-01

    DnaA protein binds bacterial replication origins and it initiates chromosome replication. The Caulobacter crescentus DnaA also initiates chromosome replication and the C. crescentus response regulator CtrA represses chromosome replication. CtrA proteolysis by ClpXP helps restrict chromosome replication to the dividing cell type. We report that C. crescentus DnaA protein is also selectively targeted for proteolysis but DnaA proteolysis uses a different mechanism. DnaA protein is unstable during both growth and stationary phases. During growth phase, DnaA proteolysis ensures that primarily newly made DnaA protein is present at the start of each replication period. Upon entry into stationary phase, DnaA protein is completely removed while CtrA protein is retained. Cell cycle arrest by sudden carbon or nitrogen starvation is sufficient to increase DnaA proteolysis, and relieving starvation rapidly stabilizes DnaA protein. This starvation-induced proteolysis completely removes DnaA protein even while DnaA synthesis continues. Apparently, C. crescentus relies on proteolysis to adjust DnaA in response to such rapid nutritional changes. Depleting the C. crescentus ClpP protease significantly stabilizes DnaA. However, a dominant-negative clpX allele that blocks CtrA degradation, even when combined with a clpA null allele, did not decrease DnaA degradation. We suggest that either a novel chaperone presents DnaA to ClpP or that ClpX is used with exceptional efficiency so that when ClpX activity is limiting for CtrA degradation it is not limiting for DnaA degradation. This unexpected and finely tuned proteolysis system may be an important adaptation for a developmental bacterium that is often challenged by nutrient-poor environments.

  15. Calf thymus DNA helicase F, a replication protein A copurifying enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Georgaki, A; Tuteja, N; Sturzenegger, B; Hübscher, U

    1994-01-01

    A DNA helicase from calf thymus, called DNA helicase F, copurified with replication protein A through several steps of purification including DEAE-Sephacel, hydroxyapatite and single stranded DNA cellulose. It is finally separated from replication protein A on FPLC Mono Q where the DNA helicase elutes after replication protein A. Characterization of the DNA helicase F by affinity labeling with [alpha 32P]ATP indicated that the enzyme has a catalytic subunit of 72 kDa. Gel filtration experiments suggested that DNA helicase F can exist both in a monomeric and an oligomeric form. The enzyme unwinds DNA in the 5'-->3' direction in relation to the strand it binds. All eight deoxyribonucleoside- and ribonucleosidetriphosphates could serve as an energy source. Testing a variety of DNA/DNA substrates demonstrated that the DNA helicase F preferentially unwinds very short substrates and is slightly stimulated by a single stranded 3'-tail. However, replication protein A allowed the DNA helicase to unwind much longer DNA substrates of up to 400 bases, indicating that the copurification of replication protein A with the DNA helicase F might be of functional relevance. Images PMID:8165124

  16. A leucine zipper motif determines different functions in a DNA replication protein.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de Viedma, D; Giraldo, R; Rivas, G; Fernández-Tresguerres, E; Diaz-Orejas, R

    1996-01-01

    RepA is the replication initiator protein of the Pseudomonas plasmid pPS10 and is also able to autoregulate its own synthesis. Here we report a genetic and functional analysis of a leucine zipper-like (LZ) motif located at the N-terminus of RepA. It is shown that the LZ motif modulates the equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric forms of the protein and that monomers of RepA interact with sequences at the origin of replication, oriV, while dimers are required for interactions of RepA at the repA promoter. Further, different residues of the LZ motif are seen to have different functional roles. Leucines at the d positions of the putative alpha-helix are relevant in the formation of RepA dimers required for transcriptional autoregulation. They also modulate other RepA-RepA interactions that result in cooperative binding of protein monomers to the origin of replication. The residues at the b/f positions of the putative helix play no relevant role in RepA-RepA interactions. These residues do not affect RepA autoregulation but do influence replication, as demonstrated by mutants that, without affecting binding to oriV, either increase the host range of the plasmid or are inactive in replication. It is proposed that residues in b/f positions play a relevant role in interactions between RepA and host replication factors. Images PMID:8631313

  17. TRAF6 is a novel NS3-interacting protein that inhibits classical swine fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huifang; Dong, Wang; Cao, Zhi; Li, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jie; Qian, Gui; Lv, Qizhuang; Wang, Chengbao; Guo, Kangkang; Zhang, Yanming

    2017-07-27

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional non-structural protein that plays a major role in viral replication. However, how exactly NS3 exerts these functions remains unknown. Here, we identified tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) as a novel NS3-interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid analysis, co-immunoprecipitation, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Furthermore, we observed that TRAF6 overexpression significantly inhibited CSFV replication, and TRAF6 knockdown promoted CSFV replication in porcine alveolar macrophages. Additionally, TRAF6 was degraded during CSFV infection or NS3 expression exclusively, indicating that CSFV and TRAF6 were mutually antagonistic and that TRAF6 degradation might contribute to persistent CSFV replication. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity and interferon (IFN)-β and interleukin (IL)-6 expression were increased in TRAF6-overexpressing cells, whereas TRAF6-knockdown cells exhibited decreased NF-κB activity and IFN-β and IL-6 levels. Notably, TRAF6 overexpression did not reduce CSFV replication following inhibition of NF-κB activation by p65 knockdown. Our findings revealed that TRAF6 inhibits CSFV replication via activation of NF-κB-signalling pathways along with increases in the expression of its targets IFN-β and IL-6. This work addresses a novel aspect concerning the regulation of innate antiviral immune response during CSFV infection.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Co-Opts Ras-GTPase-Activating Protein-Binding Protein 1 for Its Genome Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhigang; Pan, Tingting; Wu, Xianfang; Song, Wuhui; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Yan; Rice, Charles M.; MacDonald, Margaret R.; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that Ras-GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein (NS)5B and the 5′ end of the HCV minus-strand RNA. In the current study we confirmed these observations using immunoprecipitation and RNA pulldown assays, suggesting that G3BP1 might be an HCV replication complex (RC) component. In replicon cells, transfected G3BP1 interacts with multiple HCV nonstructural proteins. Using immunostaining and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that G3BP1 is colocalized with HCV RCs in replicon cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of G3BP1 moderately reduces established HCV RNA replication in HCV replicon cells and dramatically reduces HCV replication-dependent colony formation and cell-culture-produced HCV (HCVcc) infection. In contrast, knockdown of G3BP2 has no effect on HCVcc infection. Transient replication experiments show that G3BP1 is involved in HCV genome amplification. Thus, G3BP1 is associated with HCV RCs and may be co-opted as a functional RC component for viral replication. These findings may facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HCV genome replication. PMID:21561913

  19. phiX174 cistron A protein is a multifunctional enzyme in DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S; Griffith, J; Kornberg, A

    1977-08-01

    The cistron A protein induced by phage varphiX174 nicks (produces a single-strand break in) the viral strand of the superhelical varphiX duplex DNA, thereby forming a complex with the DNA. The protein, seen bound to the DNA in the electron microscope, was located in the restriction endonuclease fragment between nucleotides 4290 and 4330 on the varphiX map [Sanger, F., Air, G. M., Barrel, B. G., Brown, N. L., Coulson, A. R., Fiddes, J. C., Hutchison, C. A., III, Slocomb, P. M. Y. & Smith, M. (1977) Nature 265, 687-695]. Replication also was initiated at this point, thus identifying the site of cistron A protein nicking and binding as the origin of replication. The cisA-DNA complex (separated from free cistron A protein), upon the addition of Escherichia coli rep protein, ATP, and DNA binding protein, is unwound to generate a single-stranded linear [presumably the nicked (+) strand] and a circular [presumably the (-) strand] molecule. The cisA-DNA complex, upon the further addition of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme and deoxynucleoside triphosphates, supports replication to generate viral, single-stranded circles, as many as 15 circles per cisA-DNA complex. The replicating intermediates seen in the electron microscope are a novel form of "rolling circle" [Gilbert, W. & Dressler, D. H. (1969) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 33, 473-485]. The 5' end (presumably with the cistron A protein bound to it) is locked in the replication fork and loops back to accompany the strand-separation and replication fork around the template [(-) strand] circle. Thus, the multiple functions of cistron A protein include: (i) nicking the viral strand at the origin of replication to initiate a round of replication, (ii) participating in a complex which supports fork movement in strand separation and replication, (iii) nicking again at the regenerated origin to produce a unit-length DNA, and (iv) ligating the newly generated 3'-OH end to the 5'-phosphate-complexed end to form a circular

  20. A novel nucleoid-associated protein coordinates chromosome replication and chromosome partition.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James A; Panis, Gaël; Viollier, Patrick H; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2017-09-06

    We searched for regulators of chromosome replication in the cell cycle model Caulobacter crescentus and found a novel DNA-binding protein (GapR) that selectively aids the initiation of chromosome replication and the initial steps of chromosome partitioning. The protein binds the chromosome origin of replication (Cori) and has higher-affinity binding to mutated Cori-DNA that increases Cori-plasmid replication in vivo. gapR gene expression is essential for normal rapid growth and sufficient GapR levels are required for the correct timing of chromosome replication. Whole genome ChIP-seq identified dynamic DNA-binding distributions for GapR, with the strongest associations at the partitioning (parABS) locus near Cori. Using molecular-genetic and fluorescence microscopy experiments, we showed that GapR also promotes the first steps of chromosome partitioning, the initial separation of the duplicated parS loci following replication from Cori. This separation occurs before the parABS-dependent partitioning phase. Therefore, this early separation, whose mechanisms is not known, coincides with the poorly defined mechanism(s) that establishes chromosome asymmetry: C. crescentus chromosomes are partitioned to distinct cell-poles which develop into replicating and non-replicating cell-types. We propose that GapR coordinates chromosome replication with asymmetry-establishing chromosome separation, noting that both roles are consistent with the phylogenetic restriction of GapR to asymmetrically dividing bacteria. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Identification of nuclear pre-replication centers poised for DNA synthesis in Xenopus egg extracts: immunolocalization study of replication protein A

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We demonstrate by immunofluorescence that a 70-kD protein (P70) purified from Xenopus egg extracts is associated with subnuclear foci (about 200) which we propose to be an assembly of DNA pre-replication centers (preRCs). A cDNA encoding this protein reveals that P70 is the Xenopus homologue of replication protein A (RPA also called RF-A). RPA is know to be a cellular, three-subunit single-stranded DNA binding protein, which assists T-antigen in the assembly of the pre-priming complex in the SV40 replication system. The punctated preRCs exist transiently; they form post-mitotically during the period of nuclear membrane breakdown and disappear during ongoing DNA replication. P70 is homogeneously associated with chromatin at the later stages of the S- phase and is displaced from chromatin post replication, so that P70 cannot be detected on mitotic chromosomes. Double-immunofluorescence studies using biotin-dUTP demonstrate that initiation of DNA synthesis is confined to preRCs, resulting in the punctated replication pattern observed previously by others. PreRCs form efficiently on decondensed chromatin in membrane-free egg extracts if ATP and divalent cations are present. Our results suggest that preRCs are composed of an assembly of a large number of pre-initiation replication complexes poised for initiation at discreet subnuclear regions prior to nuclear reconstruction and initiation of DNA synthesis. PMID:1527163

  2. Interactions between tobamovirus replication proteins and cellular factors: their impacts on virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Nishikiori, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2010-11-01

    Most viral gene products function inside cells in the presence of various host proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Thus, viral gene products come into direct contact with these molecules. The replication proteins of tobamovirus participate not only in viral genome replication but also in counterdefense mechanisms against RNA silencing and other plant defense systems. Accumulating evidence indicates that these functions are carried out through interactions with specific host components. Interactions with some cellular factors, however, are inhibitory to virus multiplication and contribute to host range restriction of tobamovirus. The interactions that have positive and negative impacts on virus multiplication should have been maintained and lost, respectively, during adaptation of the viruses to their respective natural hosts. This review lists the host factors that interact with the replication proteins of tobamovirus and discusses how they influence multiplication of the virus.

  3. Nodavirus RNA Replication Protein A Induces Membrane Association of Genomic RNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Van Wynsberghe, Priscilla M.; Chen, Hau-Ren; Ahlquist, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA virus genome replication occurs in membrane-associated RNA replication complexes, whose assembly remains poorly understood. Here we show that prior to RNA replication, the multifunctional, transmembrane RNA replication protein A of the nodavirus flock house virus (FHV) recruits FHV genomic RNA1 to a membrane-associated state in both Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Protein A has mitochondrial membrane-targeting, self-interaction, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and RNA capping domains. In the absence of RdRp activity due to an active site mutation (AD692E), protein A stimulated RNA1 accumulation by increasing RNA1 stability. Protein AD692E stimulated RNA1 accumulation in wild-type cells and in xrn1− yeast defective in decapped RNA decay, showing that increased RNA1 stability was not due to protein A-mediated RNA1 recapping. Increased RNA1 stability was closely linked with protein A-induced membrane association of the stabilized RNA and was highly selective for RNA1. Substantial N- and C-proximal regions of protein A were dispensable for these activities. However, increased RNA1 accumulation was eliminated by deleting protein A amino acids (aa) 1 to 370 but was restored completely by adding back the transmembrane domain (aa 1 to 35) and partially by adding back peripheral membrane association sequences in aa 36 to 370. Moreover, although RNA polymerase activity was not required, even small deletions in or around the RdRp domain abolished increased RNA1 accumulation. These and other results show that prior to negative-strand RNA synthesis, multiple domains of mitochondrially targeted protein A cooperate to selectively recruit FHV genomic RNA to membranes where RNA replication complexes form. PMID:17301137

  4. Filovirus proteins for antiviral drug discovery: Structure/function bases of the replication cycle.

    PubMed

    Martin, Baptiste; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2017-05-01

    Filoviruses are important pathogens that cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans, for which no approved vaccines and antiviral treatments are yet available. In an earlier article (Martin et al., Antiviral Research, 2016), we reviewed the role of the filovirus surface glycoprotein in replication and as a target for drugs and vaccines. In this review, we focus on recent findings on the filovirus replication machinery and how they could be used for the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new antiviral compounds. First, we summarize the recent structural and functional advances on the molecules involved in filovirus replication/transcription cycle, particularly the NP, VP30, VP35 proteins, and the "large" protein L, which harbors the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and mRNA capping activities. These proteins are essential for viral mRNA synthesis and genome replication, and consequently they constitute attractive targets for drug design. We then describe how these insights into filovirus replication mechanisms and the structure/function characterization of the involved proteins have led to the development of new and innovative antiviral strategies that may help reduce the filovirus disease case fatality rate through post-exposure or prophylactic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and functional characterization of Bet protein as a negative regulator of BFV3026 replication.

    PubMed

    Bing, Tiejun; Wu, Kai; Cui, Xiaoxu; Shao, Peng; Zhang, Qicheng; Bai, Xiaobo; Tan, Juan; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-06-01

    Foamy virus (FV) establishes persistent infection in the host without causing apparent disease. Besides the transactivator Tas protein, another auxiliary protein--Bet--has been reported in prototype foamy virus, equine foamy virus, and feline foamy virus. Here, we found the putative bbet gene in clone C74 from a cDNA library of bovine foamy virus strain 3026 (BFV3026) by comparison of gene localization, composition, and splicing features with other known bet genes. Subsequently, BBet protein was detected in BFV3026-infected cells by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Analysis of the BBet mutant infectious clone (pBS-BFVdelBBet) revealed that BBet could inhibit BFV3026 replication. Consistent with this result, overexpression of BBet in Cf2Th cells reduced BFV replication by approximately threefold. Furthermore, virus replication levels similarly were reduced by approximately threefold in pBS-BFV-transfected and BFV3026-infected Cf2Th cells stably expressing BBet compared with control cells. After three passages, BFV3026 replicated more slowly in BBet-expressing cells. This study implicates BBet as a negative regulator of BFV replication and provides a resource for future studies on the function of this protein in the virus lifecycle.

  6. uS10, a novel Npro-interacting protein, inhibits classical swine fever virus replication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huifang; Dong, Wang; Qian, Gui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiaomeng; Cao, Zhi; Lv, Qizhuang; Wang, Chengbao; Guo, Kangkang; Zhang, Yanming

    2017-07-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a severe, febrile and highly contagious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) that has resulted in huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. CSFV Npro has been actively studied but remains incompletely understood. Few studies have investigated the cellular proteins that interact with Npro and their participation in viral replication. Here, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was employed to screen Npro-interacting proteins from a porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cDNA library, and a blast search of the NCBI database revealed that 15 cellular proteins interact with Npro. The interaction of Npro with ribosomal protein S20, also known as universal S10 (uS10), was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. Furthermore, uS10 overexpression inhibited CSFV replication, whereas the knockdown of uS10 promoted CSFV replication in PAMs. In addition, Npro or CSFV reduced uS10 expression in PAMs in a proteasome-dependent manner, indicating that Npro-uS10 interaction might contribute to persistent CSFV replication. Our previous research showed that CSFV decreases Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression. The results showed that uS10 knockdown reduced TLR3 expression, and that uS10 overexpression increased TLR3 expression. Notably, uS10 knockdown did not promote CSFV replication following TLR3 overexpression. Conversely, uS10 overexpression did not inhibit CSFV replication following TLR3 knockdown. These results revealed that uS10 inhibits CSFV replication by modulating TLR3 expression. This work addresses a novel aspect of the regulation of the innate antiviral immune response during CSFV infection.

  7. Enhancement of protein expression by alphavirus replicons by designing self-replicating subgenomic RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal Young; Atasheva, Svetlana; McAuley, Alexander J; Plante, Jessica A; Frolova, Elena I; Beasley, David W C; Frolov, Ilya

    2014-07-22

    Since the development of infectious cDNA clones of viral RNA genomes and the means of delivery of the in vitro-synthesized RNA into cells, alphaviruses have become an attractive system for expression of heterologous genetic information. Alphaviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm, and their genetic material cannot recombine with cellular DNA. Alphavirus genome-based, self-replicating RNAs (replicons) are widely used vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. Their current design relies on replacement of structural genes, encoded by subgenomic RNAs (SG RNA), with heterologous sequences of interest. The SG RNA is transcribed from a promoter located in the alphavirus-specific RNA replication intermediate and is not further amplified. In this study, we have applied the accumulated knowledge of the mechanism of alphavirus replication and promoter structures, in particular, to increase the expression level of heterologous proteins from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-based replicons. During VEEV infection, replication enzymes are produced in excess to RNA replication intermediates, and a large fraction of them are not involved in RNA synthesis. The newly designed constructs encode SG RNAs, which are not only transcribed from the SG promoter, but are additionally amplified by the previously underused VEEV replication enzymes. These replicons produce SG RNAs and encoded proteins of interest 10- to 50-fold more efficiently than those using a traditional design. A modified replicon encoding West Nile virus (WNV) premembrane and envelope proteins efficiently produced subviral particles and, after a single immunization, elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies, which protected mice from lethal challenge with WNV.

  8. Cnr interferes with dimerization of the replication protein alpha in phage-plasmid P4.

    PubMed

    Tocchetti, A; Serina, S; Oliva, I; Dehò, G; Ghisotti, D

    2001-01-15

    DNA replication of phage-plasmid P4 in its host Escherichia coli depends on its replication protein alpha. In the plasmid state, P4 copy number is controlled by the regulator protein Cnr (copy number regulation). Mutations in alpha (alpha(cr)) that prevent regulation by Cnr cause P4 over-replication and cell death. Using the two-hybrid system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a system based on lambda immunity in E.coli for in vivo detection of protein-protein interactions, we found that (i) alpha protein interacts with Cnr, whereas alpha(cr) proteins do not; (ii) both alpha-alpha and alpha(cr)-alpha(cr) interactions occur and the interaction domain is located within the C-terminal of alpha; (iii) Cnr-Cnr interaction also occurs. Using an in vivo competition assay, we found that Cnr interferes with both alpha-alpha and alpha(cr)-alpha(cr) dimerization. Our data suggest that Cnr and alpha interact in at least two ways, which may have different functional roles in P4 replication control.

  9. RePLiCal: A QconCAT Protein for Retention Time Standardization in Proteomics Studies.

    PubMed

    Holman, Stephen W; McLean, Lynn; Eyers, Claire E

    2016-03-04

    This study introduces a new reversed-phase liquid chromatography retention time (RT) standard, RePLiCal (Reversed-phase liquid chromatography calibrant), produced using QconCAT technology. The synthetic protein contains 27 lysine-terminating calibrant peptides, meaning that the same complement of standards can be generated using either Lys-C or trypsin-based digestion protocols. RePLiCal was designed such that each constituent peptide is unique with respect to all eukaryotic proteomes, thereby enabling integration into a wide range of proteomic analyses. RePLiCal has been benchmarked against three commercially available peptide RT standard kits and outperforms all in terms of LC gradient coverage. RePLiCal also provides a higher number of calibrant points for chromatographic retention time standardization and normalization. The standard provides stable RTs over long analysis times and can be readily transferred between different LC gradients and nUHPLC instruments. Moreover, RePLiCal can be used to predict RTs for other peptides in a timely manner. Furthermore, it is shown that RePLiCal can be used effectively to evaluate trapping column performance for nUHPLC instruments using trap-elute configurations, to optimize gradients to maximize peptide and protein identification rates, and to recalibrate the m/z scale of mass spectrometry data post-acquisition.

  10. The Golgi protein ACBD3 facilitates Enterovirus 71 replication by interacting with 3A

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yijie; Qi, Jianli; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Yan; Zhou, Zhuo; He, Bin; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human pathogen that causes hand, foot, mouth disease and neurological complications. Although EV71, as well as other enteroviruses, initiates a remodeling of intracellular membrane for genomic replication, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. By screening human cDNA library, we uncover that the Golgi resident protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3) serves as a target of the 3A protein of EV71. This interaction occurs in cells expressing 3A or infected with EV71. Genetic inhibition or deletion of ACBD3 drastically impairs viral RNA replication and plaque formation. Such defects are corrected upon restoration of ACBD3. In infected cells, EV71 3A redirects ACBD3, to the replication sites. I44A or H54Y substitution in 3A interrupts the binding to ACBD3. As such, viral replication is impeded. These results reveal a mechanism of EV71 replication that involves host ACBD3 for viral replication. PMID:28303920

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase B mediates an oxygen-dependent replication switch

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sherman, David R.; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-07

    In the majority of cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by little or no bacterial replication and drug tolerance. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Mtb encodes eleven serine/threonine protein kinases, a family of signaling molecules known to regulate similar replicative adaptations in other bacteria. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in hypoxia. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle - active disease, latency, and reactivation.

  12. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein-mediated regulation of hepatocyte metabolic pathways affects viral replication.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Sumedha; Rawat, Siddhartha; Ajenjo, Marcia; Bouchard, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Chronic HBV infection is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HBV HBx protein stimulates HBV replication and likely influences the development of HBV-associated HCC. Whether HBx affects regulators of metabolism in normal hepatocytes has not been addressed. We used an ex vivo, cultured primary rat hepatocyte system to assess the interplay between HBV replication and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. HBx activated mTORC1 signaling; however, inhibition of mTORC1 enhanced HBV replication. HBx also decreased ATP levels and activated the energy-sensing factor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Inhibition of AMPK decreased HBV replication. Inhibition of AMPK activates mTORC1, and we showed that activated mTORC1 is one factor that reduces HBV replication when AMPK is inhibited. HBx activation of both AMPK and mTORC1 suggests that these activities could provide a balancing mechanism to facilitate persistent HBV replication. HBx activation of mTORC1 and AMPK could also influence HCC development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Versatile Transreplication-Based System To Identify Cellular Proteins Involved in Geminivirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Castillo, Araceli G.; Preiss, Werner; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2006-01-01

    A versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette containing the replication origins of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is described. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants containing one copy of the cassette stably integrated into their genome were superinfected with TYLCSV, which mobilized and replicated the cassette as an episomal replicon. The expression of the reporter gene (the GFP gene) was thereby modified. Whereas GFP fluorescence was dimmed in the intercostal areas, an increase of green fluorescence in veins of all leaves placed above the inoculation site, as well as in transport tissues of roots and stems, was observed. The release of episomal trans replicons from the transgene and the increase in GFP expression were dependent on the cognate geminiviral replication-associated protein (Rep) and required interaction between Rep and the intergenic region of TYLCSV. This expression system is able to monitor the replication status of TYLCSV in plants, as induction of GFP expression is only produced in those tissues where Rep is present. To further confirm this notion, the expression of a host factor required for geminivirus replication, the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) was transiently silenced. Inhibition of PCNA prevented GFP induction in veins and reduced viral DNA. We propose that these plants could be widely used to easily identify host factors required for geminivirus replication by virus-induced gene silencing. PMID:16537630

  14. Identification of a UV-induced trans-acting protein that stimulates polyomavirus DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Ronai, Z.A.; Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-03-01

    Previous studies provided indirect evidence that the ability of a variety of DNA-damaging agents to induce asynchronous polyomavirus DNA replication in the H3 rat fibroblast cell line is mediated by a trans-acting factor. Using an erythrocyte insertion technique to introduce protein fractions from UV-irradiated cells into unirradiated H3 cells, we have now obtained evidence that this factor is a 60-kilodalton protein. These findings provide evidence that DNA damage in mammalian cells induces a factor that can alter the replication of a viral DNA.

  15. Cyclodextrins inhibit replication of scrapie prion protein in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Prior, Marguerite; Lehmann, Sylvain; Sy, Man-Sun; Molloy, Brendan; McMahon, Hilary E M

    2007-10-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by the conversion of a normal host-encoded protein, PrP(C), to an abnormal, disease-causing form, PrP(Sc). This paper reports that cyclodextrins have the ability to reduce the pathogenic isoform of the prion protein PrP(Sc) to undetectable levels in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma cells. Beta-cyclodextrin removed PrP(Sc) from the cells at a concentration of 500 microM following 2 weeks of treatment. Structure activity studies revealed that antiprion activity was dependent on the size of the cyclodextrin. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) for beta-cyclodextrin was 75 microM, whereas alpha-cyclodextrin, which possessed less antiprion activity, had an IC(50) of 750 microM. This report presents cyclodextrins as a new class of antiprion compound. For decades, the pharmaceutical industry has successfully used cyclodextrins for their complex-forming ability; this ability is due to the structural orientation of the glucopyranose units, which generate a hydrophobic cavity that can facilitate the encapsulation of hydrophobic moieties. Consequently, cyclodextrins could be ideal candidates for the treatment of prion diseases.

  16. Protein import, replication, and inheritance of a vestigial mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Regoes, Attila; Zourmpanou, Danai; León-Avila, Gloria; van der Giezen, Mark; Tovar, Jorge; Hehl, Adrian B

    2005-08-26

    Mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes) that exist in a range of "amitochondrial" eukaryotic organisms represent ideal models for the study of mitochondrial evolution and for the establishment of the minimal set of proteins required for the biogenesis of an endosymbiosis-derived organelle. Giardia intestinalis, often described as the earliest branching eukaryote, contains double membrane-bounded structures involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, an essential function of mitochondria. Here we present evidence that Giardia mitosomes also harbor Cpn60, mtHsp70, and ferredoxin and that despite their advanced state of reductive evolution they have retained vestiges of presequence-dependent and -independent protein import pathways akin to those that operate in mammalian mitochondria. Although import of IscU and ferredoxin is still reliant on their amino-terminal presequences, targeting of Giardia Cpn60, IscS, or mtHsp70 into mitosomes no longer requires cleavable presequences, a derived feature from their mitochondrial homologues. In addition, we found that division and segregation of a single centrally positioned mitosome tightly associated with the microtubular cytoskeleton is coordinated with the cell cycle, whereas peripherally located mitosomes are inherited into daughter cells stochastically.

  17. Interactions between the Structural Domains of the RNA Replication Proteins of Plant-Infecting RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Erin K.; Wang, Zhaohui; French, Roy; Kao, C. Cheng

    1998-01-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, encodes two replication proteins: the 2a protein, which contains polymerase-like sequences, and the 1a protein, with N-terminal putative capping and C-terminal helicase-like sequences. These two proteins are part of a multisubunit complex which is necessary for viral RNA replication. We have previously shown that the yeast two-hybrid assay consistently duplicated results obtained from in vivo RNA replication assays and biochemical assays of protein-protein interaction, thus permitting the identification of additional interacting domains. We now map an interaction found to take place between two 1a proteins. Using previously characterized 1a mutants, a perfect correlation was found between the in vivo phenotypes of these mutants and their abilities to interact with wild-type 1a (wt1a) and each other. Western blot analysis revealed that the stabilities of many of the noninteracting mutant proteins were similar to that of wt1a. Deletion analysis of 1a revealed that the N-terminal 515 residues of the 1a protein are required and sufficient for 1a-1a interaction. This intermolecular interaction between the putative capping domain and itself was detected in another tripartite RNA virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), suggesting that the 1a-1a interaction is a feature necessary for the replication of tripartite RNA viruses. The boundaries for various activities are placed in the context of the predicted secondary structures of several 1a-like proteins of members of the alphavirus-like superfamily. Additionally, we found a novel interaction between the putative capping and helicase-like portions of the BMV and CMV 1a proteins. Our cumulative data suggest a working model for the assembly of the BMV RNA replicase. PMID:9696810

  18. Cyclosporine inhibits flavivirus replication through blocking the interaction between host cyclophilins and viral NS5 protein.

    PubMed

    Qing, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Zou, Gang; Robida, John M; Yuan, Zhiming; Tang, Hengli; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2009-08-01

    Although flaviviruses cause significant human diseases, no effective therapy is currently available. Host factors essential for viral replication are potential targets for antiviral development. Here we report that cyclophilins (CyPs), a family of cellular peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), play a role in flavivirus replication. Huh-7.5 cells with knockdown of different isoforms of CyP were less efficient than parental cells in supporting flavivirus replication, including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. The low viral replication in CyP A (CyPA) knockdown cells could be rescued by trans supplying of a wild-type CyPA but not by trans supplying of a mutant CyPA (defective in the PPIase activity), indicating that the isomerase activity of CyPA is critical for viral replication. Immunoprecipitation and biochemical pulldown analyses showed that CyPA interacts with WNV genomic RNA and viral NS5 protein in the replication complex. Furthermore, antiviral experiments demonstrated that cyclosporine (Cs; an 11-amino-acid cyclic peptide known to block the PPIase activity of CyPA) inhibits flavivirus replication in cell culture at nontoxic concentrations. Time-of-addition and transient replicon results indicated that Cs inhibits flavivirus at the step of viral RNA synthesis. Biochemical analysis showed that Cs directly blocks the interaction between CyPA and WNV NS5 protein. Our results suggest that host CyPA is a component of flavivirus replication complex and could be targeted for potential antiviral development.

  19. Human RIF1 and protein phosphatase 1 stimulate DNA replication origin licensing but suppress origin activation.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Ly, Tony; Garzón, Javier; Hořejší, Zuzana; Ohkubo, Yoshi-Nobu; Endo, Akinori; Obuse, Chikashi; Boulton, Simon J; Lamond, Angus I; Donaldson, Anne D

    2017-03-01

    The human RIF1 protein controls DNA replication, but the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human RIF1 negatively regulates DNA replication by forming a complex with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) that limits phosphorylation-mediated activation of the MCM replicative helicase. We identify specific residues on four MCM helicase subunits that show hyperphosphorylation upon RIF1 depletion, with the regulatory N-terminal domain of MCM4 being particularly strongly affected. In addition to this role in limiting origin activation, we discover an unexpected new role for human RIF1-PP1 in mediating efficient origin licensing. Specifically, during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, RIF1-PP1 protects the origin-binding ORC1 protein from untimely phosphorylation and consequent degradation by the proteasome. Depletion of RIF1 or inhibition of PP1 destabilizes ORC1, thereby reducing origin licensing. Consistent with reduced origin licensing, RIF1-depleted cells exhibit increased spacing between active origins. Human RIF1 therefore acts as a PP1-targeting subunit that regulates DNA replication positively by stimulating the origin licensing step, and then negatively by counteracting replication origin activation. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  1. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Multiple functions of capsid protein phosphorylation in duck hepatitis B virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, M; Summers, J

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the role of phosphorylation of the capsid protein of the avian hepadnavirus duck hepatitis B virus in viral replication. We found previously that three serines and one threonine in the C-terminal 24 amino acids of the capsid protein serve as phosphorylation sites and that the pattern of phosphorylation at these sites in intracellular viral capsids is complex. In this study, we present evidence that the phosphorylation state of three of these residues affects distinct steps in viral replication. By substituting these residues with alanine in order to mimic serine, or with aspartic acid in order to mimic phosphoserine, and assaying the effects of these substitutions on various steps in virus replication, we were able to make the following inferences. (i) The presence of phosphoserines at residues 245 and 259 stimulates DNA synthesis within viral nucleocapsids. (ii) The absence of phosphoserine at residue 257 and at residues 257 and 259 stimulates covalently closed circular DNA synthesis and virus production, respectively. (iii) The presence of phosphoserine at position 259 is required for initiation of infection. The results implied that both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated capsid proteins were necessary for a nucleocapsid particle to carry out all its functions in virus replication, explaining why differential phosphorylation of the capsid protein occurs in hepadnaviruses. Whether these differentially phosphorylated proteins coexist on the same nucleocapsid, or whether the nucleocapsid acquires sequential functions through selective phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, is discussed. Images PMID:8207809

  3. NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of the replication initiator protein DnaA

    SciTech Connect

    Wemmer, David E.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Rosalind; Yokota, Hisao; Wemmer, David E.

    2007-08-07

    DnaA is an essential component in the initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication. DnaA binds to a series of 9 base pair repeats leading to oligomerization, recruitment of the DnaBC helicase, and the assembly of the replication fork machinery. The structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-100) of DnaA from Mycoplasma genitalium was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The backbone r.m.s.d. for the first 86 residues was 0.6 +/- 0.2 Angstrom based on 742 NOE, 50 hydrogen bond, 46 backbone angle, and 88 residual dipolar coupling restraints. Ultracentrifugation studies revealed that the domain is monomeric in solution. Features on the protein surface include a hydrophobic cleft flanked by several negative residues on one side, and positive residues on the other. A negatively charged ridge is present on the opposite face of the protein. These surfaces may be important sites of interaction with other proteins involved in the replication process. Together, the structure and NMR assignments should facilitate the design of new experiments to probe the protein-protein interactions essential for the initiation of DNA replication.

  4. Subcellular localization of host and viral proteins associated with tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Yuka; Komoda, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Takuya; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Funada, Ryo; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Naito, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2003-01-15

    Arabidopsis TOM1 (AtTOM1) and TOM2A (AtTOM2A) are integral membrane proteins genetically identified to be necessary for efficient intracellular multiplication of tobamoviruses. AtTOM1 interacts with the helicase domain polypeptide of tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins and with AtTOM2A, suggesting that both AtTOM1 and AtTOM2A are integral components of the tobamovirus replication complex. We show here that AtTOM1 and AtTOM2A proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) are targeted to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast)-like structures in plant cells. In subcellular fractionation analyses, GFP-AtTOM2A, AtTOM2A and its tobacco homolog NtTOM2A were predominantly fractionated to low-density tonoplast-rich fractions, whereas AtTOM1-GFP, AtTOM1 and its tobacco homolog NtTOM1 were distributed mainly into the tonoplast-rich fractions and partially into higher-buoyant-density fractions containing membranes from several other organelles. The tobamovirus-encoded replication proteins were co-fractionated with both NtTOM1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. The replication proteins were also found in the fractions containing non-membrane-bound proteins, but neither NtTOM1 nor the polymerase activity was detected there. These observations suggest that the formation of tobamoviral RNA replication complex occurs on TOM1-containing membranes and is facilitated by TOM2A.

  5. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by balsamin, a ribosome inactivating protein of Momordica balsamina.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderdeep; Puri, Munish; Ahmed, Zahra; Blanchet, Fabien P; Mangeat, Bastien; Piguet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4(+) T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections.

  6. Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by Balsamin, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein of Momordica balsamina

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra; Blanchet, Fabien P.; Mangeat, Bastien; Piguet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4+ T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections. PMID:24040067

  7. RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions in coronavirus replication and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Isabel; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Almazan, Fernando; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Coronavirus (CoV) RNA synthesis includes the replication of the viral genome, and the transcription of sgRNAs by a discontinuous mechanism. Both processes are regulated by RNA sequences such as the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), and the transcription regulating sequences (TRSs) of the leader (TRS-L) and those preceding each gene (TRS-Bs). These distant RNA regulatory sequences interact with each other directly and probably through protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions involving viral and cellular proteins.1 By analogy to other plus-stranded RNA viruses, such as polioviruses, in which translation and replication switch involves a cellular factor (PCBP) and a viral protein (3CD),2 it is conceivable that in CoVs the switch between replication and transcription is also associated with the binding of proteins that are specifically recruited by the replication or transcription complexes. Complexes between RNA motifs such as TRS-L and the TRS-Bs located along the CoV genome are probably formed previously to the transcription start, and most likely promote template-switch of the nascent minus RNA to the TRS-L region.3 Many cellular proteins interacting with regulatory CoV RNA sequences4 are members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of RNA-binding proteins, involved in mRNA processing and transport, which shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the context of CoV RNA synthesis, these cellular ribonucleoproteins might also participate in RNA-protein complexes to bring into physical proximity TRS-L and distant TRS-B, as proposed for CoV discontinuous transcription.5–7 In this review, we summarize RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions that represent modest examples of complex quaternary RNA-protein structures required for the fine-tuning of virus replication. Design of chemically defined replication and transcription systems will help to clarify the nature and activity of these structures. PMID:21378501

  8. In Situ Tagged nsp15 Reveals Interactions with Coronavirus Replication/Transcription Complex-Associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Athmer, Jeremiah; Fehr, Anthony R.; Grunewald, Matthew; Smith, Everett Clinton; Denison, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronavirus (CoV) replication and transcription are carried out in close proximity to restructured endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in replication/transcription complexes (RTC). Many of the CoV nonstructural proteins (nsps) are required for RTC function; however, not all of their functions are known. nsp15 contains an endoribonuclease domain that is conserved in the CoV family. While the enzymatic activity and crystal structure of nsp15 are well defined, its role in replication remains elusive. nsp15 localizes to sites of RNA replication, but whether it acts independently or requires additional interactions for its function remains unknown. To begin to address these questions, we created an in situ tagged form of nsp15 using the prototypic CoV, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). In MHV, nsp15 contains the genomic RNA packaging signal (P/S), a 95-bp RNA stem-loop structure that is not required for viral replication or nsp15 function. Utilizing this knowledge, we constructed an internal hemagglutinin (HA) tag that replaced the P/S. We found that nsp15-HA was localized to discrete perinuclear puncta and strongly colocalized with nsp8 and nsp12, both well-defined members of the RTC, but not the membrane (M) protein, involved in virus assembly. Finally, we found that nsp15 interacted with RTC-associated proteins nsp8 and nsp12 during infection, and this interaction was RNA independent. From this, we conclude that nsp15 localizes and interacts with CoV proteins in the RTC, suggesting it plays a direct or indirect role in virus replication. Furthermore, the use of in situ epitope tags could be used to determine novel nsp-nsp interactions in coronaviruses. PMID:28143984

  9. Conserved mechanism for coordinating replication fork helicase assembly with phosphorylation of the helicase

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) phosphorylates minichromosome maintenance 2 (Mcm2) during S phase in yeast, and Sld3 recruits cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45) to minichromosome maintenance 2-7 (Mcm2-7). We show here DDK-phosphoryled Mcm2 preferentially interacts with Cdc45 in vivo, and that Sld3 stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2 by 11-fold. We identified a mutation of the replication initiation factor Sld3, Sld3-m16, that is specifically defective in stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Wild-type expression levels of sld3-m16 result in severe growth and DNA replication defects. Cells expressing sld3-m16 exhibit no detectable Mcm2 phosphorylation in vivo, reduced replication protein A-ChIP signal at an origin, and diminished Go, Ichi, Ni, and San association with Mcm2-7. Treslin, the human homolog of Sld3, stimulates human DDK phosphorylation of human Mcm2 by 15-fold. DDK phosphorylation of human Mcm2 decreases the affinity of Mcm5 for Mcm2, suggesting a potential mechanism for helicase ring opening. These data suggest a conserved mechanism for replication initiation: Sld3/Treslin coordinates Cdc45 recruitment to Mcm2-7 with DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2 during S phase. PMID:26305950

  10. Identification and characterization of interferon-induced proteins that inhibit alphavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yugen; Burke, Crystal W; Ryman, Kate D; Klimstra, William B

    2007-10-01

    Alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) produces antiviral effects through upregulation of many interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) whose protein products are effectors of the antiviral state. Previous data from our laboratory have shown that IFN-alpha/beta can limit Sindbis virus (SB) replication through protein kinase R (PKR)-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms and that one PKR-independent mechanism inhibits translation of the infecting virus genome (K. D. Ryman et al., J. Virol. 79:1487-1499, 2005). Further, using Affymetrix microarray technology, we identified 44 genes as candidates for PKR/RNase L-independent IFN-induced antiviral activities. In the current studies, we have begun analyzing these gene products for antialphavirus activity using three techniques: (i) overexpression of the protein from SB vectors and assessment of virulence attenuation in mice; (ii) overexpression of the proteins in a stable tetracycline-inducible murine fibroblast culture system and assessment of effects upon SB replication; and (iii) small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of gene mRNA in fibroblast cultures followed by SB replication assessment as above. Tested proteins included those we hypothesized had potential to affect virus genome translation and included murine ISG20, ISG15, the zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP), viperin, p56, p54, and p49. Interestingly, the pattern of antiviral activity for some gene products was different between in vitro and in vivo assays. Viperin and ZAP attenuated virulence most profoundly in mice. However, ISG20 and ZAP potently inhibited SB replication in vitro, whereas and viperin, p56, and ISG15 exhibited modest replication inhibition in vitro. In contrast, p54 and p49 had little to no effect in any assay.

  11. Characteristics of DNA replication in isolated nuclei initiated by an aprotinin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Hameed, M; Cohen, S

    1993-02-01

    Isolated cell nuclei were used as the source of template DNA to investigate the role of a cytosolic aprotinin-binding protein (ADR) in the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Computerized image cytometry demonstrated that the DNA content of individual nuclei increased significantly following incubation with ADR-containing preparations, and the extent of DNA synthesis is consistent with that allowed by the limiting concentration of dTTP. Thus, dTTP incorporation into isolated nuclei represents DNA synthesis and not parent strand repair. We found that dTTP incorporation into the isolated nuclei is dependent on DNA polymerase alpha (a principal polymerase in DNA replication) but that DNA polymerase beta (a principal polymerase in DNA repair processes) does not play a significant role in this system. Finally, neither aprotinin nor a previously described cytosolic ADR inhibitor can block the replication of nuclease-treated calf thymus DNA, while both strongly inhibit replication of DNA in isolated nuclei. This result, coupled with the relative ineffectiveness of nuclease-treated DNA compared with nuclear DNA to serve as a replicative template in this assay, argues against a significant contribution from repair or synthesis which initiates at a site of DNA damage. These data indicate that ADR-mediated incorporation of 3H-dTTP into isolated nuclei results from DNA replicative processes that are directly relevant to in vivo S phase events.

  12. The Werner's Syndrome protein collaborates with REV1 to promote replication fork progression on damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lara G.; Sale, Julian E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage tolerance pathways facilitate the bypass of DNA lesions encountered during replication. These pathways can be mechanistically divided into recombinational damage avoidance and translesion synthesis, in which the lesion is directly bypassed by specialised DNA polymerases. We have recently shown distinct genetic dependencies for lesion bypass at and behind the replication fork in the avian cell line DT40, bypass at the fork requiring REV1 and bypass at post-replicative gaps requiring PCNA ubiquitination by RAD18. The WRN helicase/exonuclease, which is mutated in the progeroid and cancer predisposition disorder Werner's Syndrome, has previously been implicated in a RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathway. However, WRN has also been shown to be required to maintain normal replication fork progression on a damaged DNA template, a defect reminiscent of REV1-deficient cells. Here we use the avian cell line DT40 to demonstrate that WRN assists REV1-dependent translesion synthesis at the replication fork and that PCNA ubiquitination-dependent post-replicative lesion bypass provides an important backup mechanism for damage tolerance in the absence of WRN protein. PMID:20691646

  13. Replication protein A subunit 3 and the iron efficiency response in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], iron deficiency results in interveinal chlorosis and decreased photosynthetic capacity, leading to stunting and yield loss. In this study, gene expression analyses investigated the role of soybean replication protein A (RPA) subunits during iron stress. Nine RP...

  14. The Drosophila suppressor of underreplication protein binds to late-replicating regions of polytene chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Makunin, I V; Volkova, E I; Belyaeva, E S; Nabirochkina, E N; Pirrotta, V; Zhimulev, I F

    2002-01-01

    In many late-replicating euchromatic regions of salivary gland polytene chromosomes, DNA is underrepresented. A mutation in the SuUR gene suppresses underreplication and leads to normal levels of DNA polytenization in these regions. We identified the SuUR gene and determined its structure. In the SuUR mutant stock a 6-kb insertion was found in the fourth exon of the gene. A single SuUR transcript is present at all stages of Drosophila development and is most abundant in adult females and embryos. The SuUR gene encodes a protein of 962 amino acids whose putative sequence is similar to the N-terminal part of SNF2/SWI2 proteins. Staining of salivary gland polytene chromosomes with antibodies directed against the SuUR protein shows that the protein is localized mainly in late-replicating regions and in regions of intercalary and pericentric heterochromatin. PMID:11901119

  15. Disclosing early steps of protein-primed genome replication of the Gram-positive tectivirus Bam35

    PubMed Central

    Berjón-Otero, Mónica; Villar, Laurentino; Salas, Margarita; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto

    2016-01-01

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in a number of linear genomes of viruses, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism, a so-called terminal protein (TP) primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Bam35 belongs to a group of temperate tectiviruses infecting Gram-positive bacteria, predicted to replicate their genomes by a protein-primed mechanism. Here, we characterize Bam35 replication as an alternative model of protein-priming DNA replication. First, we analyze the role of the protein encoded by the ORF4 as the TP and characterize the replication mechanism of the viral genome (TP-DNA). Indeed, full-length Bam35 TP-DNA can be replicated using only the viral TP and DNA polymerase. We also show that DNA replication priming entails the TP deoxythymidylation at conserved tyrosine 194 and that this reaction is directed by the third base of the template strand. We have also identified the TP tyrosine 172 as an essential residue for the interaction with the viral DNA polymerase. Furthermore, the genetic information of the first nucleotides of the genome can be recovered by a novel single-nucleotide jumping-back mechanism. Given the similarities between genome inverted terminal repeats and the genes encoding the replication proteins, we propose that related tectivirus genomes can be replicated by a similar mechanism. PMID:27466389

  16. Heat Shock Protein 90 Ensures Efficient Mumps Virus Replication by Assisting with Viral Polymerase Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Tahara, Maino; Kidokoro, Minoru; Takeda, Makoto

    2017-03-15

    Paramyxoviral RNAs are synthesized by a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) consisting of the large (L) protein and its cofactor phosphoprotein (P protein). The L protein is a multifunctional protein that catalyzes RNA synthesis, mRNA capping, and mRNA polyadenylation. Growing evidence shows that the stability of several paramyxovirus L proteins is regulated by heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). In this study, we demonstrated that Hsp90 activity was important for mumps virus (MuV) replication. The Hsp90 activity was required for L-protein stability and activity because an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), destabilized the MuV L protein and suppressed viral RNA synthesis. However, once the L protein formed a mature polymerase complex with the P protein, Hsp90 activity was no longer required for the stability and activity of the L protein. When the Hsp90 activity was inhibited, the MuV L protein was degraded through the CHIP (C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein)-mediated proteasomal pathway. High concentrations of 17-AAG showed strong cytotoxicity to certain cell types, but combined use of an Hsp70 inhibitor, VER155008, potentiated degradation of the L protein, allowing a sufficient reduction of 17-AAG concentration to block MuV replication with minimum cytotoxicity. Regulation of the L protein by Hsp90 and Hsp70 chaperones was also demonstrated for another paramyxovirus, the measles virus. Collectively, our data show that the Hsp90/Hsp70 chaperone machinery assists in the maturation of the paramyxovirus L protein and thereby in the formation of a mature RdRp complex and efficient viral replication.IMPORTANCE Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is nearly universally required for viral protein homeostasis. Here, we report that Hsp90 activity is required for efficient propagation of mumps virus (MuV). Hsp90 functions in the maintenance of the catalytic subunit of viral polymerase, the large (L) protein, prior to formation of a

  17. HIVed, a knowledgebase for differentially expressed human genes and proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Ramarathinam, Sri H.; Revote, Jerico; Khoury, Georges; Song, Jiangning; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the altered gene expression level and identifying differentially expressed genes/proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency is fundamental for broadening our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV infection and T-cell dysfunction. Such studies are crucial for developing effective strategies for virus eradication from the body. Inspired by the availability and enrichment of gene expression data during HIV infection, replication and latency, in this study, we proposed a novel compendium termed HIVed (HIV expression database; http://hivlatency.erc.monash.edu/) that harbours comprehensive functional annotations of proteins, whose genes have been shown to be dysregulated during HIV infection, replication and latency using different experimental designs and measurements. We manually curated a variety of third-party databases for structural and functional annotations of the protein entries in HIVed. With the goal of benefiting HIV related research, we collected a number of biological annotations for all the entries in HIVed besides their expression profile, including basic protein information, Gene Ontology terms, secondary structure, HIV-1 interaction and pathway information. We hope this comprehensive protein-centric knowledgebase can bridge the gap between the understanding of differentially expressed genes and the functions of their protein products, facilitating the generation of novel hypotheses and treatment strategies to fight against the HIV pandemic. PMID:28358052

  18. HIVed, a knowledgebase for differentially expressed human genes and proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Ramarathinam, Sri H; Revote, Jerico; Khoury, Georges; Song, Jiangning; Purcell, Anthony W

    2017-03-30

    Measuring the altered gene expression level and identifying differentially expressed genes/proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency is fundamental for broadening our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV infection and T-cell dysfunction. Such studies are crucial for developing effective strategies for virus eradication from the body. Inspired by the availability and enrichment of gene expression data during HIV infection, replication and latency, in this study, we proposed a novel compendium termed HIVed (HIV expression database; http://hivlatency.erc.monash.edu/) that harbours comprehensive functional annotations of proteins, whose genes have been shown to be dysregulated during HIV infection, replication and latency using different experimental designs and measurements. We manually curated a variety of third-party databases for structural and functional annotations of the protein entries in HIVed. With the goal of benefiting HIV related research, we collected a number of biological annotations for all the entries in HIVed besides their expression profile, including basic protein information, Gene Ontology terms, secondary structure, HIV-1 interaction and pathway information. We hope this comprehensive protein-centric knowledgebase can bridge the gap between the understanding of differentially expressed genes and the functions of their protein products, facilitating the generation of novel hypotheses and treatment strategies to fight against the HIV pandemic.

  19. Contribution of HN protein length diversity to Newcastle disease virus virulence, replication and biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jihui; Zhao, Jing; Ren, Yingchao; Zhong, Qi; Zhang, Guozhong

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of length diversity in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein to the pathogenicity, replication and biological characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), we used reverse genetics to generate a series of recombinant NDVs containing truncated or extended HN proteins based on an infectious clone of genotype VII NDV (SG10 strain). The mean death times and intracerebral pathogenicity indices of these viruses showed that the different length mutations in the HN protein did not alter the virulence of NDV. In vitro studies of recombinant NDVs containing truncated or extended HN proteins revealed that the extension of HN protein increased its hemagglutination titer, receptor-binding ability and impaired its neuraminidase activity, fusogenic activity and replication ability. Furthermore, the hemadsorption, neuraminidase and fusogenic promotion activities at the protein level were consistent with those of viral level. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the HN biological activities affected by the C-terminal extension are associated with NDV replication but not the virulence. PMID:27833149

  20. Discovery of a Potent Inhibitor of Replication Protein A Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Fragment-Linking Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Andreas O.; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Waterson, Alex G.; Pelz, Nicholas F.; Patrone, James D.; Vangamudi, Bhavatarini; Camper, DeMarco V.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-10-22

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA-damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein–protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA-damage response and to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein–protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N–ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA’s interaction with ssDNA.

  1. Cdc14p resets the competency of replication licensing by dephosphorylating multiple initiation proteins during mitotic exit in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanliang; Yung, Philip Y K; Huo, Lin; Liang, Chun

    2010-11-15

    In eukaryotes, replication licensing is achieved through sequential loading of several replication-initiation proteins onto replication origins to form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs), and unscheduled replication licensing is prevented by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) through inhibitory phosphorylations of multiple initiation proteins. It is known that CDK inactivation during mitotic exit promotes pre-RC formation for the next cell cycle. However, whether the removal of the inhibitory phosphorylations on the initiation proteins is essential and the identity of the acting phosphatase(s) remain unknown. Here, we show that cell division cycle protein 14 (Cdc14p) dephosphorylates replication-initiation proteins Orc2p, Orc6p, Cdc6p and Mcm3p to restore their competence for pre-RC assembly in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells without functional Cdc14p fail to dephosphorylate initiation proteins and to form pre-RCs - even when CDK activities are suppressed - and cannot replicate DNA in mitotic rereplication systems, whereas pulsed ectopic expression of Cdc14p in mitotic cells results in efficient pre-RC assembly and DNA rereplication. Furthermore, Cdc14p becomes dispensable for DNA rereplication in mitotic cells with combined non-phosphorylatable and/or phosphorylation-insensitive alleles of the initiation proteins. These data unravel the essential role of Cdc14p in replication licensing, beyond its established functions in mitotic exit, providing new insight into the intricate regulation of DNA replication through the interplay of CDKs and the Cdc14p phosphatase.

  2. Translocation and Stability of Replicative DNA Helicases upon Encountering DNA-Protein Cross-links*

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Miyamoto-Matsubara, Mayumi; Shoulkamy, Mahmoud I.; Salem, Amir M. H.; Pack, Seung Pil; Ishimi, Yukio; Ide, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are formed when cells are exposed to various DNA-damaging agents. Because DPCs are extremely large, steric hindrance conferred by DPCs is likely to affect many aspects of DNA transactions. In DNA replication, DPCs are first encountered by the replicative helicase that moves at the head of the replisome. However, little is known about how replicative helicases respond to covalently immobilized protein roadblocks. In the present study we elucidated the effect of DPCs on the DNA unwinding reaction of hexameric replicative helicases in vitro using defined DPC substrates. DPCs on the translocating strand but not on the nontranslocating strand impeded the progression of the helicases including the phage T7 gene 4 protein, simian virus 40 large T antigen, Escherichia coli DnaB protein, and human minichromosome maintenance Mcm467 subcomplex. The impediment varied with the size of the cross-linked proteins, with a threshold size for clearance of 5.0–14.1 kDa. These results indicate that the central channel of the dynamically translocating hexameric ring helicases can accommodate only small proteins and that all of the helicases tested use the steric exclusion mechanism to unwind duplex DNA. These results further suggest that DPCs on the translocating and nontranslocating strands constitute helicase and polymerase blocks, respectively. The helicases stalled by DPC had limited stability and dissociated from DNA with a half-life of 15–36 min. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the distinct stabilities of replisomes that encounter tight but reversible DNA-protein complexes and irreversible DPC roadblocks. PMID:23283980

  3. Bovine coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (p28) is an RNA binding protein that binds terminal genomic cis-replication elements.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Kortney M; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Brian, David A

    2009-06-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1), a 28-kDa protein in the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and closely related mouse hepatitis coronavirus, is the first protein cleaved from the open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) polyprotein product of genome translation. Recently, a 30-nucleotide (nt) cis-replication stem-loop VI (SLVI) has been mapped at nt 101 to 130 within a 288-nt 5'-terminal segment of the 738-nt nsp1 cistron in a BCoV defective interfering (DI) RNA. Since a similar nsp1 coding region appears in all characterized groups 1 and 2 coronavirus DI RNAs and must be translated in cis for BCoV DI RNA replication, we hypothesized that nsp1 might regulate ORF 1 expression by binding this intra-nsp1 cistronic element. Here, we (i) establish by mutation analysis that the 72-nt intracistronic SLV immediately upstream of SLVI is also a DI RNA cis-replication signal, (ii) show by gel shift and UV-cross-linking analyses that cellular proteins of approximately 60 and 100 kDa, but not viral proteins, bind SLV and SLVI, (SLV-VI) and (iii) demonstrate by gel shift analysis that nsp1 purified from Escherichia coli does not bind SLV-VI but does bind three 5' untranslated region (UTR)- and one 3' UTR-located cis-replication SLs. Notably, nsp1 specifically binds SLIII and its flanking sequences in the 5' UTR with approximately 2.5 muM affinity. Additionally, under conditions enabling expression of nsp1 from DI RNA-encoded subgenomic mRNA, DI RNA levels were greatly reduced, but there was only a slight transient reduction in viral RNA levels. These results together indicate that nsp1 is an RNA-binding protein that may function to regulate viral genome translation or replication but not by binding SLV-VI within its own coding region.

  4. Biological or pharmacological activation of protein kinase C alpha constrains hepatitis E virus replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshi; Wang, Yijin; Debing, Yannick; Zhou, Xinying; Yin, Yuebang; Xu, Lei; Herrera Carrillo, Elena; Brandsma, Johannes H; Poot, Raymond A; Berkhout, Ben; Neyts, Johan; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2017-04-01

    Although hepatitis E has emerged as a global health issue, there is limited knowledge of its infection biology and no FDA-approved medication is available. Aiming to investigate the role of protein kinases in hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and to identify potential antiviral targets, we screened a library of pharmacological kinase inhibitors in a cell culture model, a subgenomic HEV replicon containing luciferase reporter. We identified protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) as an essential cell host factor restricting HEV replication. Both specific inhibitor and shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCα enhanced HEV replication. Conversely, over-expression of the activated form of PKCα or treatment with its pharmacological activator strongly inhibited HEV replication. Interestingly, upon the stimulation by its activator, PKCα efficiently activates its downstream Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) pathway, leading to the induction of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). This process is independent of the JAK-STAT machinery and interferon production. However, PKCα induced HEV inhibition appears independent of the AP1 cascade. The discovery that activated PKCα restricts HEV replication reveals new insight of HEV-host interactions and provides new target for antiviral drug development.

  5. Replication protein A binds to regulatory elements in yeast DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K K; Samson, L

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to DNA damage by arresting cell cycle progression (thereby preventing the replication and segregation of damaged chromosomes) and by inducing the expression of numerous genes, some of which are involved in DNA repair, DNA replication, and DNA metabolism. Induction of the S. cerevisiae 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase repair gene (MAG) by DNA-damaging agents requires one upstream activating sequence (UAS) and two upstream repressing sequences (URS1 and URS2) in the MAG promoter. Sequences similar to the MAG URS elements are present in at least 11 other S. cerevisiae DNA repair and metabolism genes. Replication protein A (Rpa) is known as a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein that is involved in the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication, nucleotide excision repair, and homologous recombination. We now show that the MAG URS1 and URS2 elements form similar double-stranded, sequence-specific, DNA-protein complexes and that both complexes contain Rpa. Moreover, Rpa appears to bind the MAG URS1-like elements found upstream of 11 other DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. These results lead us to hypothesize that Rpa may be involved in the regulation of a number of DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7761422

  6. Replication of origin containing adenovirus DNA fragments that do not carry the terminal protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, B G; van der Ley, P A; van Driel, W; van Mansfeld, A D; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infected HeLa cells were used to study the template requirements for adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. When XbaI digested Ad5 DNA, containing the parental terminal protein (TP), was used as a template preferential synthesis of the terminal fragments was observed. The newly synthesized DNA was covalently bound to the 82 kD preterminal protein (pTP). Plasmid DNAs containing the Ad2 origin sequence or the Ad12 origin sequence with small deletions were analyzed for their capacity to support pTP-primed DNA replication. Circular plasmid DNAs were inactive. When plasmids were linearized to expose the adenovirus origin, both Ad2 and Ad12 TP-free fragments could support initiation and elongation similarly as Ad5 DNA-TP, although with lower efficiency. These observations indicate that the parental terminal protein is dispensable for initiation in vitro. The presence of 29 nucleotides ahead of the molecular end or a deletion of 14 base pairs extending into the conserved sequence (9-22) destroyed the template activity. DNA with a large deletion within the first 8 base pairs could still support replication while a small deletion could not. The results suggest that only G residues at a distance of 4-8 nucleotides from the start of the conserved sequence can be used as template during initiation of DNA replication. Images PMID:6300787

  7. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga; Kang, Misun; Rho, Jaerang

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  8. Molecular Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Vaccinia Virus I3 Protein, the Replicative Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Greseth, Matthew D.; Boyle, Kathleen A.; Bluma, Matthew S.; Unger, Bethany; Wiebe, Matthew S.; Soares-Martins, Jamaria A.; Wickramasekera, Nadi T.; Wahlberg, James

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus, the prototypic poxvirus, efficiently and faithfully replicates its ∼200-kb DNA genome within the cytoplasm of infected cells. This intracellular localization dictates that vaccinia virus encodes most, if not all, of its own DNA replication machinery. Included in the repertoire of viral replication proteins is the I3 protein, which binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with great specificity and stability and has been presumed to be the replicative ssDNA binding protein (SSB). We substantiate here that I3 colocalizes with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled nascent viral genomes and that these genomes accumulate in cytoplasmic factories that are delimited by membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, we report on a structure/function analysis of I3 involving the isolation and characterization of 10 clustered charge-to-alanine mutants. These mutants were analyzed for their biochemical properties (self-interaction and DNA binding) and biological competence. Three of the mutant proteins, encoded by the I3 alleles I3-4, -5, and -7, were deficient in self-interaction and unable to support virus viability, strongly suggesting that the multimerization of I3 is biologically significant. Mutant I3-5 was also deficient in DNA binding. Additionally, we demonstrate that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of I3 causes a significant decrease in the accumulation of progeny genomes and that this reduction diminishes the yield of infectious virus. PMID:22438556

  9. The p23 Protein of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Is Indispensable for Host-Specific Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao-Zhen; Lucy, Andrew P.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Wong, Sek-Man

    2002-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) possesses a novel open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative 23-kDa protein (p23). We report here the in vivo detection of p23 and demonstrate its essential role in viral replication. The expression of p23 could be detected in protein extracts from transfected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplasts and in HCRSV-infected leaves. Further, direct immunoblotting of infected kenaf leaves also showed the presence of p23, and transient expression in onion and kenaf cells demonstrated that the protein is distributed throughout the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that mutations introduced into the ORF of p23 abolished viral replication in kenaf protoplasts and plants but not in Chenopodium quinoa L. The loss of function of the p23 mutant M23/S33-1 could be complemented in trans upon the induced expression of p23 from an infiltrated construct bearing the ORF (pCam23). Altogether, these results demonstrate that p23 is a bona fide HCRSV protein that is expressed in vivo and suggest that p23 is indispensable for the host-specific replication of HCRSV. In addition, we show that p23 does not bind nucleic acids in vitro and does not act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic tobacco carrying a green fluorescent protein. PMID:12414971

  10. ChIP-Seq to Analyze the Binding of Replication Proteins to Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, A Zachary; Viggiani, Christopher J; Aparicio, Jennifer G; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used method to study interactions between proteins and discrete chromosomal loci in vivo. ChIP was originally developed for in vivo analysis of protein associations with candidate DNA sequences known or suspected to bind the protein of interest. The advent of DNA microarrays enabled the unbiased, genome-scale identification of all DNA sequences enriched by ChIP, providing a genomic map of a protein's chromatin binding. This method, termed ChIP-chip, is broadly applicable and has been particularly valuable in DNA replication studies to map potential replication origins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other organisms based on the specific association of certain replication proteins with these chromosomal elements, which are distributed throughout the genome. More recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have replaced microarrays as the preferred method for genomic analysis of ChIP experiments, and this combination is termed ChIP-Seq. We present a detailed ChIP-Seq protocol for S. cerevisiae that can be adapted for different HTS platforms and for different organisms. We also outline general schemes for data analysis; however, HTS data analyses usually must be tailored specifically for individual studies, depending on the experimental design, data characteristics, and the genome being analyzed.

  11. Inhibition of HIV replication by pokeweed antiviral protein targeted to CD4+ cells by monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarling, Joyce M.; Moran, Patricia A.; Haffar, Omar; Sias, Joan; Richman, Douglas D.; Spina, Celsa A.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Kuebelbeck, Virginia; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; Uckun, Fatih M.

    1990-09-01

    FUNCTIONAL impairment and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of AIDS, are at least partly caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) type 1 binding to the CD4 molecule and infecting CD4+ cells1,2. It may, therefore, be of therapeutic value to target an antiviral agent to CD4+ cells to prevent infection and to inhibit HIV-1 production in patients' CD4+ cells which contain proviral DNA3,4. We report here that HIV-1 replication in normal primary CD4+ T cells can be inhibited by pokeweed antiviral protein, a plant protein of relative molecular mass 30,000 (ref. 5), which inhibits replication of certain plant RNA viruses6-8, and of herpes simplex virus, poliovirus and influenza virus9-11. Targeting pokeweed antiviral protein to CD4+ T cells by conjugating it to monoclonal antibodies reactive with CDS, CD7 or CD4 expressed on CD4+ cells, increased its anti-HIV potency up to 1,000-fold. HIV-1 replication is inhibited at picomolar concentrations of conjugates of pokeweed antiviral protein and monoclonal antibodies, which do not inhibit proliferation of normal CD4+ T cells or CD4-dependent responses. These conjugates inhibit HIV-1 protein synthesis and also strongly inhibit HIV-1 production in activated CD4+ T cells from infected patients.

  12. Replicating adenovirus vector prime/protein boost strategies for HIV vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, L. Jean; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    Background In the last few years the HIV vaccine field has moved forward a number of promising vaccine candidates into human clinical trials. Objective In this review we briefly discuss the advances made in vaccine development and HIV pathogenesis and give an overview of the body of work our lab has generated in multiple animal models on replication-competent Ad recombinant vaccines. Methods Emphasis is placed on comparative examination of vaccine components, routes of immunization and challenge models using replicating Ad vectors. Results/conclusion The overall findings make the case that replicating Ad vectors are superior in priming multiple arms of the immune system, and in conjunction with protein boosting, have resulted in dramatic protective efficacy leading to their advancement to phase 1 trials. Implications of the recent halting of the Merck Ad5-HIV phase 2b clinical trial for our vaccine approach and other vectored vaccines are discussed. PMID:18694354

  13. Replication Checkpoint Kinase Cds1 Regulates Recombinational Repair Protein Rad60

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, Michael N.; Shanahan, Paul; Hayes McDonald, W.; Lopez-Girona, Antonia; Noguchi, Eishi; Yates III, John R.; Russell, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Genome integrity is protected by Cds1 (Chk2), a checkpoint kinase that stabilizes arrested replication forks. How Cds1 accomplishes this task is unknown. We report that Cds1 interacts with Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair in fission yeast. Cds1 activation triggers Rad60 phosphorylation and nuclear delocalization. A Rad60 mutant that inhibits regulation by Cds1 renders cells specifically sensitive to replication fork arrest. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that Rad60 functions codependently with Smc5 and Smc6, subunits of an SMC (structural maintenance of chromosomes) complex required for recombinational repair. These studies indicate that regulation of Rad60 is an important part of the replication checkpoint response controlled by Cds1. We propose that control of Rad60 regulates recombination events at stalled forks. PMID:12897162

  14. DNA-protein interaction dynamics at the Lamin B2 replication origin.

    PubMed

    Puzzi, Luca; Marchetti, Laura; Peverali, Fiorenzo A; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Giacca, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To date, a complete understanding of the molecular events leading to DNA replication origin activation in mammalian cells still remains elusive. In this work, we report the results of a high resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation study to detect proteins interacting with the human Lamin B2 replication origin. In addition to the pre-RC component ORC4 and to the transcription factors USF and HOXC13, we found that 2 components of the AP-1 transcription factor, c-Fos and c-Jun, are also associated with the origin DNA during the late G1 phase of the cell cycle and that these factors interact with ORC4. Both DNA replication and AP-1 factor binding to the origin region were perturbed by cell treatment with merbarone, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, suggesting that DNA topology is essential for determining origin function.

  15. Viral precursor protein P3 and its processed products perform discrete and essential functions in the poliovirus RNA replication complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The differential use of protein precursors and their products is a key strategy used during poliovirus replication. To characterize the role of protein precursors during replication, we examined the complementation profiles of mutants that inhibited 3D polymerase or 3C-RNA binding activity. We showe...

  16. Identification of a gene encoding the replication initiator protein of the Streptomyces integrating element, pSAM2.

    PubMed

    Hagège, J; Boccard, F; Smokvina, T; Pernodet, J L; Friedmann, A; Guérineau, M

    1994-03-01

    pSAM2 is an 11-kilobase integrating element from Streptomyces ambofaciens which was previously shown to generate single-stranded DNA during replication, indicating that it probably replicates by a rolling-circle replication (RCR) mechanism. Two separate regions are involved in its replication, one of which was shown to contain the plus origin of replication (ds origin). We report here the study of the second region. Its nucleotide sequence was determined and analysed for open reading frames (ORFs). Three putative ORFs were identified: orf183 (183 amino acids (aa)), orf50 (50 aa), and repSA (459 aa). orf183 is not necessary for replication. The function of orf50 is unknown. repSA is essential for pSAM2 replication; it could encode a protein, RepSA, presenting similarities to the replication initiator proteins (Rep) of elements that replicate by an RCR mechanism. A derivative consisting of repSA, the region containing ds origin, a Streptomyces antibiotic resistance marker, and pBR322, could replicate in Streptomyces, further demonstrating that this ORF encodes the major replication protein of pSAM2. repSA might be co-transcribed with the genes involved in integration and excision of pSAM2.

  17. Brucella Induces an Unfolded Protein Response via TcpB That Supports Intracellular Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Judith A.; Khan, Mike; Magnani, Diogo D.; Harms, Jerome S.; Durward, Marina; Radhakrishnan, Girish K.; Liu, Yi-Ping; Splitter, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. The Brucella intracellular replicative niche in macrophages and dendritic cells thwarts immune surveillance and complicates both therapy and vaccine development. Currently, host-pathogen interactions supporting Brucella replication are poorly understood. Brucella fuses with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to replicate, resulting in dramatic restructuring of the ER. This ER disruption raises the possibility that Brucella provokes an ER stress response called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In this study, B. melitensis infection up regulated expression of the UPR target genes BiP, CHOP, and ERdj4, and induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in murine macrophages. These data implicate activation of all 3 major signaling pathways of the UPR. Consistent with previous reports, XBP1 mRNA splicing was largely MyD88-dependent. However, up regulation of CHOP, and ERdj4 was completely MyD88 independent. Heat killed Brucella stimulated significantly less BiP, CHOP, and ERdj4 expression, but induced XBP1 splicing. Although a Brucella VirB mutant showed relatively intact UPR induction, a TcpB mutant had significantly compromised BiP, CHOP and ERdj4 expression. Purified TcpB, a protein recently identified to modulate microtubules in a manner similar to paclitaxel, also induced UPR target gene expression and resulted in dramatic restructuring of the ER. In contrast, infection with the TcpB mutant resulted in much less ER structural disruption. Finally, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a pharmacologic chaperone that ameliorates the UPR, significantly impaired Brucella replication in macrophages. Together, these results suggest Brucella induces a UPR, via TcpB and potentially other factors, that enables its intracellular replication. Thus, the UPR may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of brucellosis. These results also have implications for other

  18. DNA replication catalyzed by herpes simplex virus type 1 proteins reveals trombone loops at the fork.

    PubMed

    Bermek, Oya; Willcox, Smaranda; Griffith, Jack D

    2015-01-30

    Using purified replication factors encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 and a 70-base minicircle template, we obtained robust DNA synthesis with leading strand products of >20,000 nucleotides and lagging strand fragments from 600 to 9,000 nucleotides as seen by alkaline gel electrophoresis. ICP8 was crucial for the synthesis on both strands. Visualization of the deproteinized products using electron microscopy revealed long, linear dsDNAs, and in 87%, one end, presumably the end with the 70-base circle, was single-stranded. The remaining 13% had multiple single-stranded segments separated by dsDNA segments 500 to 1,000 nucleotides in length located at one end. These features are diagnostic of the trombone mechanism of replication. Indeed, when the products were examined with the replication proteins bound, a dsDNA loop was frequently associated with the replication complex located at one end of the replicated DNA. Furthermore, the frequency of loops correlated with the fraction of DNA undergoing Okazaki fragment synthesis.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase B mediates an oxygen-dependent replication switch.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R; Wright, Aaron T; Sherman, David R; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by drug tolerance and little or no bacterial replication. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in reaeration. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability and gross morphological defects in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle-active disease, latency, and reactivation.

  20. The oligomeric Rep protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a likely replicative helicase.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Malik, Punjab Singh; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Kaliappan, Kosalai; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Geminiviruses replicate by rolling circle mode of replication (RCR) and the viral Rep protein initiates RCR by the site-specific nicking at a conserved nonamer (TAATATT downward arrow AC) sequence. The mechanism of subsequent steps of the replication process, e.g. helicase activity to drive fork-elongation, etc. has largely remained obscure. Here we show that Rep of a geminivirus, namely, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), acts as a replicative helicase. The Rep-helicase, requiring > or =6 nt space for its efficient activity, translocates in the 3'-->5' direction, and the presence of forked junction in the substrate does not influence the activity to any great extent. Rep forms a large oligomeric complex and the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric conformation ( approximately 24mer). The role of Rep as a replicative helicase has been demonstrated through ex vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in planta analyses in Nicotiana tabacum. We also establish that such helicase activity is not confined to the MYMIV system alone, but is also true with at least two other begomoviruses, viz., Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV).

  1. The oligomeric Rep protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a likely replicative helicase

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Malik, Punjab Singh; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Kaliappan, Kosalai; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Geminiviruses replicate by rolling circle mode of replication (RCR) and the viral Rep protein initiates RCR by the site-specific nicking at a conserved nonamer (TAATATT↓ AC) sequence. The mechanism of subsequent steps of the replication process, e.g. helicase activity to drive fork-elongation, etc. has largely remained obscure. Here we show that Rep of a geminivirus, namely, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), acts as a replicative helicase. The Rep-helicase, requiring ≥6 nt space for its efficient activity, translocates in the 3′→5′ direction, and the presence of forked junction in the substrate does not influence the activity to any great extent. Rep forms a large oligomeric complex and the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric conformation (∼24mer). The role of Rep as a replicative helicase has been demonstrated through ex vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in planta analyses in Nicotiana tabacum. We also establish that such helicase activity is not confined to the MYMIV system alone, but is also true with at least two other begomoviruses, viz., Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV). PMID:17142233

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr Protein Kinase B Mediates an Oxygen-Dependent Replication Switch

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sherman, David R.; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by drug tolerance and little or no bacterial replication. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in reaeration. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability and gross morphological defects in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle—active disease, latency, and reactivation. PMID:24409094

  3. Cryo-EM of dynamic protein complexes in eukaryotic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchuan; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; Li, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication in Eukaryotes is a highly dynamic process that involves several dozens of proteins. Some of these proteins form stable complexes that are amenable to high-resolution structure determination by cryo-EM, thanks to the recent advent of the direct electron detector and powerful image analysis algorithm. But many of these proteins associate only transiently and flexibly, precluding traditional biochemical purification. We found that direct mixing of the component proteins followed by 2D and 3D image sorting can capture some very weakly interacting complexes. Even at 2D average level and at low resolution, EM images of these flexible complexes can provide important biological insights. It is often necessary to positively identify the feature-of-interest in a low resolution EM structure. We found that systematically fusing or inserting maltose binding protein (MBP) to selected proteins is highly effective in these situations. In this chapter, we describe the EM studies of several protein complexes involved in the eukaryotic DNA replication over the past decade or so. We suggest that some of the approaches used in these studies may be applicable to structural analysis of other biological systems. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  4. Characterization of the phage phi 29 protein p5 as a single-stranded DNA binding protein. Function in phi 29 DNA-protein p3 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, G; Lázaro, J M; Méndez, E; Salas, M

    1989-01-01

    The phage phi 29 protein p5, required in vivo in the elongation step of phi 29 DNA replication, was highly purified from Escherichia coli cells harbouring a gene 5-containing plasmid and from phi 29-infected Bacillus subtilis. The protein was characterized as the gene 5 product by amino acid analysis and NH2-terminal sequence determination. The purified protein p5 was shown to bind to single-stranded DNA and to protect it against nuclease degradation. No effect of protein p5 was observed either on the formation of the p3-dAMP initiation complex or on the rate of elongation. However, protein p5 greatly stimulated phi 29 DNA-protein p3 replication at incubation times where the replication in the absence of p5 leveled off. Images PMID:2499869

  5. The nucleolar protein GLTSCR2 is required for efficient viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Meng, Wen; Han, Shi-Chong; Li, Cui-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2 protein (GLTSCR2) is a nucleolar protein. In the investigation of the role of GLTSCR2 that played in the cellular innate immune response to viral infection, we found GLTSCR2 supported viral replication of rhabdovirus, paramyxovirus, and coronavirus in cells. Viral infection induced translocation of GLTSCR2 from nucleus to cytoplasm that enabled GLTSCR2 to attenuate type I interferon IFN-β and support viral replication. Cytoplasmic GLTSCR2 was able to interact with retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15), and the triple interaction induced USP15 activity to remove K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, leading to attenuation of RIG-I and IFN-β. Blocking cytoplasmic translocation of GLTSCR2, by deletion of its nuclear export sequence (NES), abrogated its ability to attenuate IFN-β and support viral replication. GLTSCR2-mediated attenuation of RIG-I and IFN-β led to alleviation of host cell innate immune response to viral infection. Our findings suggested that GLTSCR2 contributed to efficient viral replication, and GLTSCR2 should be considered as a potential target for therapeutic control of viral infection. PMID:27824081

  6. Preparation and use of Xenopus egg extracts to study DNA replication and chromatin associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Peter J.; Gambus, Agnieszka; Blow, J. Julian

    2012-01-01

    The use of cell-free extracts prepared from eggs of the South African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis, has led to many important discoveries in cell cycle research. These egg extracts recapitulate the key nuclear transitions of the eukaryotic cell cycle in vitro under apparently the same controls that exist in vivo. DNA added to the extract is first assembled into a nucleus and is then efficiently replicated. Progression of the extract into mitosis then allows the separation of paired sister chromatids. The Xenopus cell-free system is therefore uniquely suited to the study of the mechanisms, dynamics and integration of cell cycle regulated processes at a biochemical level. In this article we describe methods currently in use in our laboratory for the preparation of Xenopus egg extracts and demembranated sperm nuclei for the study of DNA replication in vitro. We also detail how DNA replication can be quantified in this system. In addition, we describe methods for isolating chromatin and chromatin-bound protein complexes from egg extracts. These recently developed and revised techniques provide a practical starting point for investigating the function of proteins involved in DNA replication. PMID:22521908

  7. Synthesis of Site-Specific DNA–Protein Conjugates and Their Effects on DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) are bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions that form in the genome upon exposure to common antitumor drugs, environmental/occupational toxins, ionizing radiation, and endogenous free-radical-generating systems. As a result of their considerable size and their pronounced effects on DNA–protein interactions, DPCs can interfere with DNA replication, transcription, and repair, potentially leading to mutagenesis, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity. However, the biological consequences of these ubiquitous lesions are not fully understood due to the difficulty of generating DNA substrates containing structurally defined, site-specific DPCs. In the present study, site-specific cross-links between the two biomolecules were generated by copper-catalyzed [3 + 2] Huisgen cycloaddition (click reaction) between an alkyne group from 5-(octa-1,7-diynyl)-uracil in DNA and an azide group within engineered proteins/polypeptides. The resulting DPC substrates were subjected to in vitro primer extension in the presence of human lesion bypass DNA polymerases η, κ, ν, and ι. We found that DPC lesions to the green fluorescent protein and a 23-mer peptide completely blocked DNA replication, while the cross-link to a 10-mer peptide was bypassed. These results indicate that the polymerases cannot read through the larger DPC lesions and further suggest that proteolytic degradation may be required to remove the replication block imposed by bulky DPC adducts. PMID:24918113

  8. Posttranscriptional regulation of hepatitis B virus replication by the precore protein.

    PubMed Central

    Scaglioni, P P; Melegari, M; Wands, J R

    1997-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses encode two core-related open reading frames. One directs the synthesis of the p21 core protein, which subsequently becomes a structural component of the viral nucleocapsid. The other produces a p25 precore protein that is targeted by a signal peptide to a cell secretory pathway where N-terminal processing will create a p22 species. This molecule will be further modified at the C-terminal region to generate p17, and the truncated protein is secreted from the cell as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). The function of the precore gene in the biology of hepadnaviruses is unknown. We found that ablation of the precore gene resulted in the generation of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) species with a high-replication-level phenotype. More important, expression in trans of physiologic levels of p25 restored viral replication to wild-type levels. Moreover, transient or stable overexpression of the precore gene resulted in striking inhibition of HBV replication. The molecular species responsible for this viral inhibitory effect was identified as the p22 nonsecreted HBeAg precursor protein. By sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis, we determined that expression of p22 leads to the formation of nucleocapsids similar to those made with wild-type p21 core protein. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the p21 and p22 physically interact and form hybrid nucleocapsid structures devoid of pregenomic viral RNA. These experiments suggest that expression of the precore gene may be important in the regulation of HBV replication and describe a possible molecular mechanism(s) for this effect. PMID:8985356

  9. Pseudo-replication of [GADV]-proteins and origin of life.

    PubMed

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2009-04-02

    The RNA world hypothesis on the origin of life is generally considered as the key to solve the "chicken and egg dilemma" concerning the evolution of genes and proteins as observed in the modern organisms. This hypothesis, however, contains several serious weak points. We have a counterproposal called [GADV]-protein world hypothesis, abbreviated as GADV hypothesis, in which we have suggested that life originated from a [GADV]-protein world, which comprised proteins composed of four amino acids: Gly [G], Ala [A], Asp [D], and Val [V]. A new concept "pseudo-replication" is crucial for the description of the emergence of life. The new hypothesis not only plausibly explains how life originated from the initial chaotic protein world, but also how genes, genetic code, and proteins co-evolved.

  10. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  11. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency.

  12. Plum Pox Virus 6K1 Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Targets the Viral Replication Complex at the Early Stage of Infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2016-05-15

    The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. Potyviruses account for more than 30% of known plant viruses and consist of many agriculturally important viruses. The genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into 11 mature

  13. Plum Pox Virus 6K1 Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Targets the Viral Replication Complex at the Early Stage of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. IMPORTANCE Potyviruses account for more than 30% of known plant viruses and consist of many agriculturally important viruses. The genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically

  14. Cyclophilin A binds to the viral RNA and replication proteins, resulting in inhibition of tombusviral replicase assembly.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

    2013-12-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses is greatly affected by numerous host-encoded proteins that act as restriction factors. Cyclophilins, which are a large family of cellular prolyl isomerases, have been found to inhibit Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) replication in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model based on genome-wide screens and global proteomics approaches. In this report, we further characterize single-domain cyclophilins, including the mammalian cyclophilin A and plant Roc1 and Roc2, which are orthologs of the yeast Cpr1p cyclophilin, a known inhibitor of TBSV replication in yeast. We found that recombinant CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 strongly inhibited TBSV replication in a cell-free replication assay. Additional in vitro studies revealed that CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 cyclophilins bound to the viral replication proteins, and CypA and Roc1 also bound to the viral RNA. These interactions led to inhibition of viral RNA recruitment, the assembly of the viral replicase complex, and viral RNA synthesis. A catalytically inactive mutant of CypA was also able to inhibit TBSV replication in vitro due to binding to the replication proteins and the viral RNA. Overexpression of CypA and its mutant in yeast or plant leaves led to inhibition of tombusvirus replication, confirming that CypA is a restriction factor for TBSV. Overall, the current work has revealed a regulatory role for the cytosolic single-domain Cpr1-like cyclophilins in RNA virus replication.

  15. The Barley stripe mosaic virus γb protein promotes chloroplast-targeted replication by enhancing unwinding of RNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yongliang; Yang, Meng; Liu, Songyu; Li, Zhenggang; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2017-04-07

    RNA viruses encode various RNA binding proteins that function in many steps of viral infection cycles. These proteins function as RNA helicases, methyltransferases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, RNA silencing suppressors, RNA chaperones, movement proteins, and so on. Although many of the proteins bind the viral RNA genome during different stages of infection, our knowledge about the coordination of their functions is limited. In this study, we describe a novel role for the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb as an enhancer of αa RNA helicase activity, and we show that the γb protein is recruited by the αa viral replication protein to chloroplast membrane sites of BSMV replication. Mutagenesis or deletion of γb from BSMV resulted in reduced positive strand (+) RNAα accumulation, but γb mutations abolishing viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) activity did not completely eliminate genomic RNA replication. In addition, cis- or trans-expression of the Tomato bushy stunt virus p19 VSR protein failed to complement the γb replication functions, indicating that the direct involvement of γb in BSMV RNA replication is independent of VSR functions. These data support a model whereby two BSMV-encoded RNA-binding proteins act coordinately to regulate viral genome replication and provide new insights into strategies whereby double-stranded viral RNA unwinding is regulated, as well as formation of viral replication complexes.

  16. The Barley stripe mosaic virus γb protein promotes chloroplast-targeted replication by enhancing unwinding of RNA duplexes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Liu, Songyu; Li, Zhenggang; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin

    2017-01-01

    RNA viruses encode various RNA binding proteins that function in many steps of viral infection cycles. These proteins function as RNA helicases, methyltransferases, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, RNA silencing suppressors, RNA chaperones, movement proteins, and so on. Although many of the proteins bind the viral RNA genome during different stages of infection, our knowledge about the coordination of their functions is limited. In this study, we describe a novel role for the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb as an enhancer of αa RNA helicase activity, and we show that the γb protein is recruited by the αa viral replication protein to chloroplast membrane sites of BSMV replication. Mutagenesis or deletion of γb from BSMV resulted in reduced positive strand (+) RNAα accumulation, but γb mutations abolishing viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) activity did not completely eliminate genomic RNA replication. In addition, cis- or trans-expression of the Tomato bushy stunt virus p19 VSR protein failed to complement the γb replication functions, indicating that the direct involvement of γb in BSMV RNA replication is independent of VSR functions. These data support a model whereby two BSMV-encoded RNA-binding proteins act coordinately to regulate viral genome replication and provide new insights into strategies whereby double-stranded viral RNA unwinding is regulated, as well as formation of viral replication complexes. PMID:28388677

  17. Biomimetic Replication of Microscopic Metal-Organic Framework Patterns Using Printed Protein Patterns.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kang; Carbonell, Carlos; Styles, Mark J; Ricco, Raffaele; Cui, Jiwei; Richardson, Joseph J; Maspoch, Daniel; Caruso, Frank; Falcaro, Paolo

    2015-12-02

    It is demonstrated that metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be replicated in a biomimetic fashion from protein patterns. Bendable, fluorescent MOF patterns are formed with micrometer resolution under ambient conditions. Furthermore, this technique is used to grow MOF patterns from fingerprint residue in 30 s with high fidelity. This technique is not only relevant for crime-scene investigation, but also for biomedical applications.

  18. Gene- and Protein-Delivered Zinc Finger–Staphylococcal Nuclease Hybrid for Inhibition of DNA Replication of Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mino, Takashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that artificial zinc-finger proteins (AZPs) inhibited virus DNA replication in planta and in mammalian cells by blocking binding of a viral replication protein to its replication origin. However, the replication mechanisms of viruses of interest need to be disentangled for the application. To develop more widely applicable methods for antiviral therapy, we explored the feasibility of inhibition of HPV-18 replication as a model system by cleaving its viral genome. To this end, we fused the staphylococcal nuclease cleaving DNA as a monomer to an AZP that binds to the viral genome. The resulting hybrid nuclease (designated AZP–SNase) cleaved its target DNA plasmid efficiently and sequence-specifically in vitro. Then, we confirmed that transfection with a plasmid expressing AZP–SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication in transient replication assays using mammalian cells. Linker-mediated PCR analysis revealed that the AZP–SNase cleaved an HPV-18 ori plasmid around its binding site. Finally, we demonstrated that the protein-delivered AZP–SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication as well and did not show any significant cytotoxicity. Thus, both gene- and protein-delivered hybrid nucleases efficiently inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication, leading to development of a more universal antiviral therapy for human DNA viruses. PMID:23437192

  19. Gene- and protein-delivered zinc finger-staphylococcal nuclease hybrid for inhibition of DNA replication of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Mino, Takashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that artificial zinc-finger proteins (AZPs) inhibited virus DNA replication in planta and in mammalian cells by blocking binding of a viral replication protein to its replication origin. However, the replication mechanisms of viruses of interest need to be disentangled for the application. To develop more widely applicable methods for antiviral therapy, we explored the feasibility of inhibition of HPV-18 replication as a model system by cleaving its viral genome. To this end, we fused the staphylococcal nuclease cleaving DNA as a monomer to an AZP that binds to the viral genome. The resulting hybrid nuclease (designated AZP-SNase) cleaved its target DNA plasmid efficiently and sequence-specifically in vitro. Then, we confirmed that transfection with a plasmid expressing AZP-SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication in transient replication assays using mammalian cells. Linker-mediated PCR analysis revealed that the AZP-SNase cleaved an HPV-18 ori plasmid around its binding site. Finally, we demonstrated that the protein-delivered AZP-SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication as well and did not show any significant cytotoxicity. Thus, both gene- and protein-delivered hybrid nucleases efficiently inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication, leading to development of a more universal antiviral therapy for human DNA viruses.

  20. The DNA replication protein Cdc6 inhibits the microtubule-organizing activity of the centrosome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inyoung; Kim, Gwang Su; Bae, Jun Sung; Kim, Jaeyoun; Rhee, Kunsoo; Hwang, Deog Su

    2017-09-29

    The centrosome serves as a major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). The Cdc6 protein is a component of the pre-replicative complex and a licensing factor for the initiation of chromosome replication and localizes to centrosomes during the S and G2 phases of the cfell cycle of human cells. This cell cycle-dependent localization of Cdc6 to the centrosome motivated us to investigate whether Cdc6 negatively regulates MTOC activity and to determine the integral proteins that comprise the pericentriolar material (PCM). Time-lapse live-cell imaging of microtubule regrowth revealed that Cdc6 depletion increased microtubule nucleation at the centrosomes and that expression of Cdc6 in Cdc6-depleted cells reversed this effect. This increase and decrease in microtubule nucleation correlated with the centrosomal intensities of PCM proteins such as γ-tubulin, pericentrin, CDK5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 (CDK5RAP2), and centrosomal protein 192 (Cep192). The regulation of microtubule nucleation and the recruitment of PCM proteins to the centrosome required Cdc6 ATPase activity, as well as a centrosomal localization of Cdc6. These results suggest a novel function for Cdc6 in coordinating centrosome assembly and function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Replication Protein A Prohibits Diffusion of the PCNA Sliding Clamp along Single-Stranded DNA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The replicative polymerases cannot accommodate distortions to the native DNA sequence such as modifications (lesions) to the native template bases from exposure to reactive metabolites and environmental mutagens. Consequently, DNA synthesis on an afflicted template abruptly stops upon encountering these lesions, but the replication fork progresses onward, exposing long stretches of the damaged template before eventually stalling. Such arrests may be overcome by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) in which specialized TLS polymerases bind to the resident proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replicate the damaged DNA. Hence, a critical aspect of TLS is maintaining PCNA at or near a blocked primer/template (P/T) junction upon uncoupling of fork progression from DNA synthesis by the replicative polymerases. The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, replication protein A (RPA), coats the exposed template and might prohibit diffusion of PCNA along the single-stranded DNA adjacent to a blocked P/T junction. However, this idea had yet to be directly tested. We recently developed a unique Cy3-Cy5 Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair that directly reports on the occupancy of DNA by PCNA. In this study, we utilized this FRET pair to directly and continuously monitor the retention of human PCNA at a blocked P/T junction. Results from extensive steady state and pre-steady state FRET assays indicate that RPA binds tightly to the ssDNA adjacent to a blocked P/T junction and restricts PCNA to the upstream duplex region by physically blocking diffusion of PCNA along ssDNA. PMID:28177605

  2. Protein domains and conformational changes in the activation of RepA, a DNA replication initiator.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, R; Andreu, J M; Díaz-Orejas, R

    1998-01-01

    RepA is the DNA replication initiator protein of the Pseudomonas plasmid pPS10. RepA has a dual function: as a dimer, it binds to an inversely-repeated sequence acting as a repressor of its own synthesis; as a monomer, RepA binds to four directly-repeated sequences to constitute a specialized nucleoprotein complex responsible for the initiation of DNA replication. We have previously shown that a Leucine Zipper-like motif (LZ) at the N-terminus of RepA is responsible for protein dimerization. In this paper we characterize the existence in RepA of two protein globular domains C-terminal to the LZ. We propose that dissociation of RepA dimers into monomers results in a conformational change from a compact arrangement of both domains, competent for binding to the operator, to an extended species that is suited for iteron binding. This model establishes the structural basis for the activation of DNA replication initiators in plasmids from Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:9687517

  3. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  4. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Use of gene fusions and protein-protein interaction in the isolation of a biologically active regulatory protein: the replication initiator protein of plasmid R6K.

    PubMed Central

    Germino, J; Gray, J G; Charbonneau, H; Vanaman, T; Bastia, D

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication of plasmid R6K is triggered by a 35-kilodalton initiator protein. The initiator protein had been elusive because of its lability and the lack of a convenient assay procedure to aid its purification. Using recombinant DNA techniques, we have fused the cistron of the initiator near its COOH-terminal end, in the correct reading frame, to the lacZ cistron of Escherichia coli at the ninth codon from the NH2 terminus. The fused cistron yielded a protein that was not only stable in vivo but also had dual activities: initiation of DNA replication in vivo and in vitro and hydrolysis of beta-galactoside. Using an affinity column that is specific for beta-galactosidase, we have demonstrated the rapid purification of the hybrid protein to near homogeneity. Exploiting the polymeric structure of the initiator, we have also isolated the nonfused form of the initiator protein, associated through subunit interaction with the beta-galactosidase-fused protein, which permits its purification by affinity chromatography. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the heteropolymer has not only shown that the fused and nonfused initiators have the same sequence but also confirmed the protein sequence of the initiator as predicted from its nucleotide sequence. The techniques described here should be generally useful for the isolation of other proteins that are difficult to purify by conventional procedures. Images PMID:6316329

  6. Intramitochondrial localization of universal minicircle sequence-binding protein, a trypanosomatid protein that binds kinetoplast minicircle replication origins.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elneel, K; Robinson, D R; Drew, M E; Englund, P T; Shlomai, J

    2001-05-14

    Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the mitochondrial DNA of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata, is a unique structure containing 5,000 DNA minicircles topologically linked into a massive network. In vivo, the network is condensed into a disk-shaped structure. Replication of minicircles initiates at unique origins that are bound by universal minicircle sequence (UMS)-binding protein (UMSBP), a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. This protein, encoded by a nuclear gene, localizes within the cell's single mitochondrion. Using immunofluorescence, we found that UMSBP localizes exclusively to two neighboring sites adjacent to the face of the kDNA disk nearest the cell's flagellum. This site is distinct from the two antipodal positions at the perimeter of the disk that is occupied by DNA polymerase beta, topoisomerase II, and a structure-specific endonuclease. Although we found constant steady-state levels of UMSBP mRNA and protein and a constant rate of UMSBP synthesis throughout the cell cycle, immunofluorescence indicated that UMSBP localization within the kinetoplast is not static. The intramitochondrial localization of UMSBP and other kDNA replication enzymes significantly clarifies our understanding of the process of kDNA replication.

  7. Identification of Cellular Proteins Required for Replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Dziuba, Natallia; Ferguson, Monique R.; O'Brien, William A.; Sanchez, Anthony; Prussia, Andrew J.; McDonald, Natalie J.; Friedrich, Brian M.; Li, Guangyu; Shaw, Michael W.; Sheng, Jinsong; Hodge, Thomas W.; Rubin, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cellular proteins are essential for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and may serve as viable new targets for treating infection. Using gene trap insertional mutagenesis, a high-throughput approach based on random inactivation of cellular genes, candidate genes were found that limit virus replication when mutated. Disrupted genes (N=87) conferring resistance to lytic infection with several viruses were queried for an affect on HIV-1 replication by utilizing small interfering RNA (siRNA) screens in TZM-bl cells. Several genes regulating diverse pathways were found to be required for HIV-1 replication, including DHX8, DNAJA1, GTF2E1, GTF2E2, HAP1, KALRN, UBA3, UBE2E3, and VMP1. Candidate genes were independently tested in primary human macrophages, toxicity assays, and/or Tat-dependent β-galactosidase reporter assays. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that several host factors present in this study participate in canonical pathways and functional processes implicated in prior genome-wide studies. However, the genes presented in this study did not share identity with those found previously. Novel antiviral targets identified in this study should open new avenues for mechanistic investigation. PMID:22404213

  8. Flock house virus replicates and expresses green fluorescent protein in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Ranjit; Cheng, Li-Lin; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Christensen, Bruce M

    2003-07-01

    Flock house virus (FHV) is a non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus of insect origin that belongs to the family Nodaviridae. FHV has been shown to overcome the kingdom barrier and to replicate in plants, insects, yeast and mammalian cells. Although of insect origin, FHV has not previously been shown to replicate in mosquitoes. We have tested FHV replication in vitro in C6/36 cells (derived from neonatal Aedes albopictus) and in vivo in four different genera of mosquitoes, Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Armigeres. FHV replicated to high titres in C6/36 cells that had been subcloned to support maximum growth of FHV. When adult mosquitoes were orally fed or injected with the virus, FHV antigen was detected in various tissues and infectious virus was recovered. Vectors developed from an infectious cDNA clone of a defective-interfering RNA, derived from FHV genomic RNA2, expressed green fluorescent protein in Drosophila cells and adult mosquitoes. This demonstrates the potential of FHV-based vectors for expression of foreign genes in mosquitoes and possibly other insects.

  9. A Hypothesis for DNA Viruses as the Origin of Eukaryotic Replication Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Luis P.; DeFilippis, Victor R.

    2000-01-01

    The eukaryotic replicative DNA polymerases are similar to those of large DNA viruses of eukaryotic and bacterial T4 phages but not to those of eubacteria. We develop and examine the hypothesis that DNA virus replication proteins gave rise to those of eukaryotes during evolution. We chose the DNA polymerase from phycodnavirus (which infects microalgae) as the basis of this analysis, as it represents a virus of a primitive eukaryote. We show that it has significant similarity with replicative DNA polymerases of eukaryotes and certain of their large DNA viruses. Sequence alignment confirms this similarity and establishes the presence of highly conserved domains in the polymerase amino terminus. Subsequent reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree indicates that these algal viral DNA polymerases are near the root of the clade containing all eukaryotic DNA polymerase delta members but that this clade does not contain the polymerases of other DNA viruses. We consider arguments for the polarity of this relationship and present the hypothesis that the replication genes of DNA viruses gave rise to those of eukaryotes and not the reverse direction. PMID:10888648

  10. Recovery of DNA Replication in UV-Irradiated Escherichia coli Requires both Excision Repair and RecF Protein Function†

    PubMed Central

    Courcelle, Justin; Crowley, David J.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    1999-01-01

    After UV doses that disrupt DNA replication, the recovery of replication at replication forks in Escherichia coli requires a functional copy of the recF gene. In recF mutants, replication fails to recover and extensive degradation of the nascent DNA occurs, suggesting that recF function is needed to stabilize the disrupted replication forks and facilitate the process of recovery. We show here that the ability of recF to promote the recovery of replication requires that the disrupting lesions be removed. In the absence of excision repair, recF+ cells protect the nascent DNA at replication forks, but replication does not resume. The classical view is that recombination proteins operate in pathways that are independent from DNA repair, and therefore the functions of Rec proteins have been studied in repair-deficient cells. However, mutations in either uvr or recF result in failure to recover replication at UV doses from which wild-type cells recover efficiently, suggesting that recF and excision repair contribute to a common pathway in the recovery of replication. PMID:9922256

  11. Dissecting DNA damage response pathways by analyzing protein localization and abundance changes during DNA replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Tkach, Johnny M.; Yimit, Askar; Lee, Anna Y.; Riffle, Michael; Costanzo, Michael; Jaschob, Daniel; Hendry, Jason A.; Ou, Jiongwen; Moffat, Jason; Boone, Charles; Davis, Trisha N.; Nislow, Corey; Brown, Grant W.

    2012-01-01

    Re-localization of proteins is a hallmark of the DNA damage response. We use high-throughput microscopic screening of the yeast GFP fusion collection to develop a systems-level view of protein re-organization following drug-induced DNA replication stress. Changes in protein localization and abundance reveal drug-specific patterns of functional enrichments. Classification of proteins by sub-cellular destination allows the identification of pathways that respond to replication stress. We analyzed pairwise combinations of GFP fusions and gene deletion mutants to define and order two novel DNA damage responses. In the first, Cmr1 forms subnuclear foci that are regulated by the histone deacetylase Hos2 and are distinct from the typical Rad52 repair foci. In a second example, we find that the checkpoint kinases Mec1/Tel1 and the translation regulator Asc1 regulate P-body formation. This method identifies response pathways that were not detected in genetic and protein interaction screens, and can be readily applied to any form of chemical or genetic stress to reveal cellular response pathways. PMID:22842922

  12. Targeting the OB-Folds of Replication Protein A with Small Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Anciano Granadillo, Victor J.; Earley, Jennifer N.; Shuck, Sarah C.; Georgiadis, Millie M.; Fitch, Richard W.; Turchi, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is the main eukaryotic single-strand (ss) DNA-binding protein involved in DNA replication and repair. We have identified and developed two classes of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) that show in vitro inhibition of the RPA-DNA interaction. We present further characterization of these SMIs with respect to their target binding, mechanism of action, and specificity. Both reversible and irreversible modes of inhibition are observed for the different classes of SMIs with one class found to specifically interact with DNA-binding domains A and B (DBD-A/B) of RPA. In comparison with other oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding-fold (OB-fold) containing ssDNA-binding proteins, one class of SMIs displayed specificity for the RPA protein. Together these data demonstrate that the specific targeting of a protein-DNA interaction can be exploited towards interrogating the cellular activity of RPA as well as increasing the efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics used in cancer treatment. PMID:21188165

  13. Proteome-Wide Overexpression of Host Proteins for Identification of Factors Affecting Tombusvirus RNA Replication: an Inhibitory Role of Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Shah Nawaz-ul-Rehman, Muhammad; Martinez-Ochoa, Natalia; Pascal, Helene; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Herbst, Christin; Xu, Kai; Baker, Jannine; Sharma, Monika; Herbst, Alan

    2012-01-01

    To identify host genes affecting replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a small model positive-stranded RNA virus, we overexpressed 5,500 yeast proteins individually in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which supports TBSV replication. In total, we identified 141 host proteins, and overexpression of 40 of those increased and the remainder decreased the accumulation of a TBSV replicon RNA. Interestingly, 36 yeast proteins were identified previously by various screens, greatly strengthening the relevance of these host proteins in TBSV replication. To validate the results from the screen, we studied the effect of protein kinase C1 (Pkc1), a conserved host kinase involved in many cellular processes, which inhibited TBSV replication when overexpressed. Using a temperature-sensitive mutant of Pkc1p revealed a high level of TBSV replication at a semipermissive temperature, further supporting the idea that Pkc1p is an inhibitor of TBSV RNA replication. A direct inhibitory effect of Pkc1p was shown in a cell-free yeast extract-based TBSV replication assay, in which Pkc1p likely phosphorylates viral replication proteins, decreasing their abilities to bind to the viral RNA. We also show that cercosporamide, a specific inhibitor of Pkc-like kinases, leads to increased TBSV replication in yeast, in plant single cells, and in whole plants, suggesting that Pkc-related pathways are potent inhibitors of TBSV in several hosts. PMID:22718827

  14. Ribosomal protein L4 interacts with viral protein VP3 and regulates the replication of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuming; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Lizhou; Gao, Li; Wang, Nian; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Kai; Gao, Yulong; Cui, Hongyu; Gao, Honglei; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-04

    VP3 protein is a structural protein which plays important roles in the virus assembly and the inhibition of antiviral innate immunity of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). To explore the potential roles of VP3 in the interplay of IBDV with the host cell, an immunoprecipitation (IP)-coupled mass spectra (MS) screening was performed and the host cellular ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) was identified as a putative interacting partner of VP3 protein. The interaction of RPL4 with VP3 was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and their colocalization in DF1 cells were observed by confocal microscopy. In addition, knockdown of RPL4 in DF1 cells resulted in reductions of the viral protein pVP2 expression and the virus titers, which reveals a significant role of RPL4 in IBDV replication. Taken together, we indicated for the first time that ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) was an interacting partner of VP3 and involved in the modulation of IBDV replication. The present study contributes to further understanding the pathogenic mechanism of IBDV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed Central

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-01-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells. PMID:9564051

  16. Efficient HIV-1 replication can occur in the absence of the viral matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Reil, H; Bukovsky, A A; Gelderblom, H R; Göttlinger, H G

    1998-05-01

    Matrix (MA), a major structural protein of retroviruses, is thought to play a critical role in several steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, including the plasma membrane targeting of Gag, the incorporation of envelope (Env) glycoproteins into nascent particles, and the nuclear import of the viral genome in non-dividing cells. We now show that the entire MA protein is dispensable for the incorporation of HIV-1 Env glycoproteins with a shortened cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, efficient HIV-1 replication in the absence of up to 90% of MA was observed in a cell line in which the cytoplasmic domain of Env is not required. Additional compensatory changes in Gag permitted efficient virus replication even if all of MA was replaced by a heterologous membrane targeting signal. Viruses which lacked the globular domain of MA but retained its N-terminal myristyl anchor exhibited an increased ability to form both extracellular and intracellular virus particles, consistent with a myristyl switch model of Gag membrane targeting. Pseudotyped HIV-1 particles that lacked the structurally conserved globular head of MA efficiently infected macrophages, indicating that MA is dispensable for nuclear import in terminally differentiated cells.

  17. Unperturbed Posttranscriptional Regulatory Rev Protein Function and HIV-1 Replication in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes protect neurons, but also evoke proinflammatory responses to injury and viral infections, including HIV. There is a prevailing notion that HIV-1 Rev protein function in astrocytes is perturbed, leading to restricted viral replication. In earlier studies, our finding of restricted viral entry into astrocytes led us to investigate whether there are any intracellular restrictions, including crippled Rev function, in astrocytes. Despite barely detectable levels of DDX3 (Rev-supporting RNA helicase) and TRBP (anti-PKR) in primary astrocytes compared to astrocytic cells, Rev function was unperturbed in wild-type, but not DDX3-ablated astrocytes. As in permissive cells, after HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes, viral-encoded Tat and Rev proteins had robust regulatory activities, leading to efficient viral replication. Productive HIV-1 infection in astrocytes persisted for several weeks. Our findings on HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes demonstrated that the intracellular environment is conducive to viral replication and that Tat and Rev functions are unperturbed. PMID:25188302

  18. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-06-24

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%-99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy.

  19. Two novel families of plasmids from hyperthermophilic archaea encoding new families of replication proteins

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Nicolas; Marguet, Evelyne; Cortez, Diego; Desnoues, Nicole; Keller, Jenny; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Thermococcales (phylum Euryarchaeota) are model organisms for physiological and molecular studies of hyperthermophiles. Here we describe three new plasmids from Thermococcales that could provide new tools and model systems for genetic and molecular studies in Archaea. The plasmids pTN2 from Thermococcus nautilus sp. 30-1 and pP12-1 from Pyrococcus sp. 12-1 belong to the same family. They have similar size (∼12 kb) and share six genes, including homologues of genes encoded by the virus PAV1 from Pyrococcus abyssi. The plasmid pT26-2 from Thermococcus sp. 26-2 (21.5 kb), that corresponds to another plasmid family, encodes many proteins having homologues in virus-like elements integrated in several genomes of Thermococcales and Methanococcales. Our analyses confirm that viruses and plasmids are evolutionary related and co-evolve with their hosts. Whereas all plasmids previously isolated from Thermococcales replicate by the rolling circle mechanism, the three plasmids described here probably replicate by the theta mechanism. The plasmids pTN2 and pP12-1 encode a putative helicase of the SFI superfamily and a new family of DNA polymerase, whose activity was demonstrated in vitro, whereas pT26-2 encodes a putative new type of helicase. This strengthens the idea that plasmids and viruses are a reservoir of novel protein families involved in DNA replication. PMID:20403814

  20. In vitro replication of bacteriophage PRD1 DNA. Characterization of the protein-primed initiation site.

    PubMed

    Caldentey, J; Blanco, L; Bamford, D H; Salas, M

    1993-08-11

    Bacteriophage PRD1 replicates its DNA by means of a protein-primed replication mechanism. Using single-stranded oligonucleotide templates carrying the sequence corresponding to the 25 first bases of the 3' end of PRD1 DNA, and Mg2+ as the activating metal ion of the phage DNA polymerase, we show that the fourth base from the 3' end of the template directs, by base complementarity, the dNMP to be linked to the phage terminal protein (TP) in the initiation reaction. This result suggests that phage PRD1 maintains its 3' end DNA sequences via a sliding-back mechanism. The single-stranded DNA templates could not be replicated by the PRD1 DNA polymerase, much in contrast to the natural TP-DNA. Nevertheless, the analysis of the transition products obtained with TP-DNA and origin-containing oligonucleotides suggests that sliding-back occurs stepwise, the fourth base being the directing position during the entire process.

  1. Expression of the zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits alphavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Bick, Matthew J; Carroll, John-William N; Gao, Guangxia; Goff, Stephen P; Rice, Charles M; MacDonald, Margaret R

    2003-11-01

    The rat zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) was recently identified as a host protein conferring resistance to retroviral infection. We analyzed ZAP's ability to inhibit viruses from other families and found that ZAP potently inhibits the replication of multiple members of the Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae, including Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. However, expression of ZAP did not induce a broad-spectrum antiviral state as some viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, poliovirus, yellow fever virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1, replicated to normal levels in ZAP-expressing cells. We determined that ZAP expression inhibits Sindbis virus replication after virus penetration and entry, but before the amplification of newly synthesized plus strand genomic RNA. Using a temperature-sensitive Sindbis virus mutant expressing luciferase, we further showed that translation of incoming viral RNA is blocked by ZAP expression. Elucidation of the antiviral mechanism by which ZAP inhibits Sindbis virus translation may lead to the development of agents with broad activity against alphaviruses.

  2. Interaction between human MCM7 and Rad17 proteins is required for replication checkpoint signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Cheng-Chung; Geisen, Christoph; Abraham, Robert T

    2004-01-01

    Human Rad17 (hRad17) is centrally involved in the activation of cell-cycle checkpoints by genotoxic agents or replication stress. Here we identify hMCM7, a core component of the DNA replication apparatus, as a novel hRad17-interacting protein. In HeLa cells, depletion of either hRad17 or hMCM7 with small-interfering RNA suppressed ultraviolet (UV) light- or aphidicolin-induced hChk1 phosphorylation, and abolished UV-induced S-phase checkpoint activation. Similar results were obtained after transfection of these cells with a fusion protein containing the hMCM7-binding region of hRad17. The hMCM7-depleted cells were also defective for the formation of ATR-containing nuclear foci after UV irradiation, suggesting that hMCM7 is required for stable recruitment of ATR to damaged DNA. These results demonstrate that hMCM7 plays a direct role in the transmission of DNA damage signals from active replication forks to the S-phase checkpoint machinery in human cells. PMID:15538388

  3. Foot and mouth disease virus non structural protein 2C interacts with Beclin1 modulating virus replication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...

  4. Phylogeny of replication initiator protein TrfA reveals a highly divergent clade of incompatibility group P1 plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Incompatibility group P-1 (incP-1) includes broad host range plasmids of Gram negative bacteria and are classified into five subgroups (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon). The incP-1 replication module consists of the trfA gene, encoding the replication initiator protein TrfA, and the origin o...

  5. Probing the Sites of Interactions of Rotaviral Proteins Involved in Replication

    PubMed Central

    Viskovska, Maria; Anish, Ramakrishnan; Hu, Liya; Chow, Dar-Chone; Hurwitz, Amy M.; Brown, Nicholas G.; Palzkill, Timothy; Estes, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Replication and packaging of the rotavirus genome occur in cytoplasmic compartments called viroplasms, which form during virus infection. These processes are orchestrated by yet-to-be-understood complex networks of interactions involving nonstructural proteins (NSPs) 2, 5, and 6 and structural proteins (VPs) 1, 2, 3, and 6. The multifunctional enzyme NSP2, an octamer with RNA binding activity, is critical for viroplasm formation with its binding partner, NSP5, and for genome replication/packaging through its interactions with replicating RNA, the viral polymerase VP1, and the inner core protein VP2. Using isothermal calorimetry, biolayer interferometry, and peptide array screening, we examined the interactions between NSP2, VP1, VP2, NSP5, and NSP6. These studies provide the first evidence that NSP2 can directly bind to VP1, VP2, and NSP6, in addition to the previously known binding to NSP5. The interacting sites identified from reciprocal peptide arrays were found to be in close proximity to the RNA template entry and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) exit tunnels of VP1 and near the catalytic cleft and RNA-binding grooves of NSP2; these sites are consistent with the proposed role of NSP2 in facilitating dsRNA synthesis by VP1. Peptide screening of VP2 identified NSP2-binding sites in the regions close to the intersubunit junctions, suggesting that NSP2 binding could be a regulatory mechanism for preventing the premature self-assembly of VP2. The binding sites on NSP2 for NSP6 were found to overlap that of VP1, and the NSP5-binding sites overlap those of VP2 and VP1, suggesting that interaction of these proteins with NSP2 is likely spatially and/or temporally regulated. IMPORTANCE Replication and packaging of the rotavirus genome occur in cytoplasmic compartments called viroplasms that form during virus infection and are orchestrated by complex networks of interactions involving nonstructural proteins (NSPs) and structural proteins (VPs). A multifunctional RNA

  6. Dengue Virus Type 2: Protein Binding and Active Replication in Human Central Nervous System Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ma Isabel; Pérez-García, Marissa; Terreros-Tinoco, Marisol; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Diegopérez-Ramírez, Jaime; Ramírez-Reyes, Alma Griselda; Aguilera, Penélope; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; García-Flores, María Martha

    2013-01-01

    An increased number of dengue cases with neurological complications have been reported in recent years. The lack of reliable animal models for dengue has hindered studies on dengue virus (DENV) pathogenesis and cellular tropism in vivo. We further investigate the tropism of DENV for the human central nervous system (CNS), characterizing DENV interactions with cell surface proteins in human CNS cells by virus overlay protein binding assays (VOPBA) and coimmunoprecipitations. In VOPBA, three membrane proteins (60, 70, and 130 kDa) from the gray matter bound the entire virus particle, whereas only a 70 kDa protein bound in white matter. The coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed three proteins from gray matter consistently binding virus particles, one clearly distinguishable protein (~32 kDa) and two less apparent proteins (100 and 130 kDa). Monoclonal anti-NS3 targeted the virus protein in primary cell cultures of human CNS treated with DENV-2, which also stained positive for NeuH, a neuron-specific marker. Thus, our results indicate (1) that DENV-2 exhibited a direct tropism for human neurons and (2) that human neurons sustain an active DENV replication as was demonstrated by the presence of the NS3 viral antigen in primary cultures of these cells treated with DENV-2. PMID:24302878

  7. Proteolytic Processing of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Replication Proteins and Functional Impact on Infectivity▿

    PubMed Central

    Jakubiec, Anna; Drugeon, Gabrièle; Camborde, Laurent; Jupin, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), a positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the alphavirus-like supergroup, encodes its nonstructural replication proteins as a 206K precursor with domains indicative of methyltransferase (MT), proteinase (PRO), NTPase/helicase (HEL), and polymerase (POL) activities. Subsequent processing of 206K generates a 66K protein encompassing the POL domain and uncharacterized 115K and 85K proteins. Here, we demonstrate that TYMV proteinase mediates an additional cleavage between the PRO and HEL domains of the polyprotein, generating the 115K protein and a 42K protein encompassing the HEL domain that can be detected in plant cells using a specific antiserum. Deletion and substitution mutagenesis experiments and sequence comparisons indicate that the scissile bond is located between residues Ser879 and Gln880. The 85K protein is generated by a host proteinase and is likely to result from nonspecific proteolytic degradation occurring during protein sample extraction or analysis. We also report that TYMV proteinase has the ability to process substrates in trans in vivo. Finally, we examined the processing of the 206K protein containing native, mutated, or shuffled cleavage sites and analyzed the effects of cleavage mutations on viral infectivity and RNA synthesis by performing reverse-genetics experiments. We present evidence that PRO/HEL cleavage is critical for productive virus infection and that the impaired infectivity of PRO/HEL cleavage mutants is due mainly to defective synthesis of positive-strand RNA. PMID:17686855

  8. Dengue virus type 2: protein binding and active replication in human central nervous system cells.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ma Isabel; Pérez-García, Marissa; Terreros-Tinoco, Marisol; Castro-Mussot, María Eugenia; Diegopérez-Ramírez, Jaime; Ramírez-Reyes, Alma Griselda; Aguilera, Penélope; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; García-Flores, María Martha

    2013-01-01

    An increased number of dengue cases with neurological complications have been reported in recent years. The lack of reliable animal models for dengue has hindered studies on dengue virus (DENV) pathogenesis and cellular tropism in vivo. We further investigate the tropism of DENV for the human central nervous system (CNS), characterizing DENV interactions with cell surface proteins in human CNS cells by virus overlay protein binding assays (VOPBA) and coimmunoprecipitations. In VOPBA, three membrane proteins (60, 70, and 130 kDa) from the gray matter bound the entire virus particle, whereas only a 70 kDa protein bound in white matter. The coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed three proteins from gray matter consistently binding virus particles, one clearly distinguishable protein (~32 kDa) and two less apparent proteins (100 and 130 kDa). Monoclonal anti-NS3 targeted the virus protein in primary cell cultures of human CNS treated with DENV-2, which also stained positive for NeuH, a neuron-specific marker. Thus, our results indicate (1) that DENV-2 exhibited a direct tropism for human neurons and (2) that human neurons sustain an active DENV replication as was demonstrated by the presence of the NS3 viral antigen in primary cultures of these cells treated with DENV-2.

  9. Decreased MCM2-6 in Drosophila S2 Cells Does Not Generate Significant DNA Damage or Cause a Marked Increase in Sensitivity to Replication Interference

    PubMed Central

    Crevel, Isabelle; Crevel, Gilles; Gostan, Thierry; de Renty, Christelle; Coulon, Vincent; Cotterill, Sue

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in the level of some MCM proteins in human cancer cells (MCM5 in U20S cells or MCM3 in Hela cells) causes a rapid increase in the level of DNA damage under normal conditions of cell proliferation and a loss of viability when the cells are subjected to replication interference. Here we show that Drosophila S2 cells do not appear to show the same degree of sensitivity to MCM2-6 reduction. Under normal cell growth conditions a reduction of >95% in the levels of MCM3, 5, and 6 causes no significant short term alteration in the parameters of DNA replication or increase in DNA damage. MCM depleted cells challenged with HU do show a decrease in the density of replication forks compared to cells with normal levels of MCM proteins, but this produces no consistent change in the levels of DNA damage observed. In contrast a comparable reduction of MCM7 levels has marked effects on viability, replication parameters and DNA damage in the absence of HU treatment. PMID:22102875

  10. Protein-mediated Selective Enclosure of Early Replicators Inside of Membranous Vesicles: First Step Towards Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiterä, Tiina; Lehto, Kirsi

    2009-12-01

    Containment in cell membranes is essential for all contemporary life, and apparently even the earliest life forms had to be somehow contained. It has been postulated that random enclosure of replicating molecules inside of spontaneously assembled vesicles would have formed the initial cellular ancestors. However, completely random re-formation or division of such primitive vesicles would have abolished the heritability of their contents, nullifying any selective advantage to them. We propose that the containment of the early replicators in membranous vesicles was adopted only after the invention of genetically encoded proteins, and that selective enclosure of target molecules was mediated by specific proteins. A similar containment process is still utilised by various RNA- and retroviruses to isolate their replication complexes from the host’s intracellular environment. Such selective encapsulation would have protected the replicators against competitor and parasitic sequences, and provided a strong positive selection within the replicator communities.

  11. DNA mismatch repair proteins are required for efficient herpes simplex virus 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Mohni, Kareem N; Mastrocola, Adam S; Bai, Ping; Weller, Sandra K; Heinen, Christopher D

    2011-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a double-stranded DNA virus that replicates in the nucleus of its human host cell and is known to interact with many cellular DNA repair proteins. In this study, we examined the role of cellular mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in the virus life cycle. Both MSH2 and MLH1 are required for efficient replication of HSV-1 in normal human cells and are localized to viral replication compartments. In addition, a previously reported interaction between MSH6 and ICP8 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and extended to show that UL12 is also present in this complex. We also report for the first time that MLH1 associates with ND10 nuclear bodies and that like other ND10 proteins, MLH1 is recruited to the incoming genome. Knockdown of MLH1 inhibits immediate-early viral gene expression. MSH2, on the other hand, which is generally thought to play a role in mismatch repair at a step prior to that of MLH1, is not recruited to incoming genomes and appears to act at a later step in the viral life cycle. Silencing of MSH2 appears to inhibit early gene expression. Thus, both MLH1 and MSH2 are required but appear to participate in distinct events in the virus life cycle. The observation that MLH1 plays an earlier role in HSV-1 infection than does MSH2 is surprising and may indicate a novel function for MLH1 distinct from its known MSH2-dependent role in mismatch repair.

  12. Development of benzimidazole derivatives to inhibit HIV-1 replication through protecting APOBEC3G protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ting; He, Xin; Chen, Bing; Chen, Hui; Geng, Guannan; Luo, Haihua; Zhang, Hui; Bai, Chuan

    2015-05-05

    Human APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, A3G) is a potent restriction factor against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by inducing hypermutation of G to A in viral genome after its incorporation into virions. HIV-1 Vif (Virion Infectivity Factor) counteracts A3G by inducing ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of A3G protein. Vif-A3G axis therefore is a promising therapeutic target of HIV-1. Here we report the screening, synthesis and SAR studies of benzimidazole derivatives as potent inhibitors against HIV-1 replication via protecting A3G protein. Based on the steep SAR of the benzimidazole scaffold, we identified compound 14 and 26 which provided the best potency, with IC50 values of 3.45 nM and 58.03 nM respectively in the anti-HIV-1 replication assay in H9 cells. Compound 14 and 26 also afforded protective effects on A3G protein level. Both compounds have been proved to be safe in acute toxicological studies. Taken together, we suggest that these two benzimidazole derivatives can be further developed as a new category of anti-HIV-1 leads.

  13. Essential functions of the 32 kDa subunit of yeast replication protein A

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Anne M.; Krasikova, Yulia; Pestryakov, Pavel; Lavrik, Olga; Wold, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric (70, 32 and 14 kDa subunits), single-stranded DNA-binding protein required for cellular DNA metabolism. All subunits of RPA are essential for life, but the specific functions of the 32 and 14 kDa subunits remains unknown. The 32 kDa subunit (RPA2) has multiple domains, but only the central DNA-binding domain (called DBD D) is essential for life in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To define the essential function(s) of RPA2 in S. cerevisiae, a series of site-directed mutant forms of DBD D were generated. These mutant constructs were then characterized in vitro and in vivo. The mutations had minimal effects on the overall structure and activity of the RPA complex. However, several mutants were shown to disrupt crosslinking of RPA2 to DNA and to dramatically lower the DNA-binding affinity of a RPA2-containing subcomplex. When introduced into S. cerevisiae, all DBD D mutants were viable and supported normal growth rates and DNA replication. These findings indicate that RPA2–DNA interactions are not essential for viability and growth in S. cerevisiae. We conclude that DNA-binding activity of RPA2 is dispensable in yeast and that the essential function of DBD D is intra- and/or inter-protein interactions. PMID:19244309

  14. Remodeling of RecG Helicase at the DNA Replication Fork by SSB Protein.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiqiang; Tan, Hui Yin; Bianco, Piero R; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2015-04-29

    The RecG DNA helicase a key player in stalled replication fork rescue. The single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) participates in this process, but its role in the interaction of RecG with the fork remains unclear. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the interaction of RecG with a fork DNA in the presence of SSB. We discovered that SSB enhances RecG loading efficiency onto the DNA fork by threefold. Additionally, SSB interacts with RecG leading to the RecG remodeling. As a result, RecG separates from the fork, but remains bound to the DNA duplex. Moreover, in this new binding mode RecG is capable of translocation along the parental duplex DNA. We propose a model of RecG interaction with the replication fork involving two RecG binding modes. SSB plays the role of a remodeling factor defining the mode of RecG binding to the fork mediated by the SSB C-terminus. In the translocating mode, RecG remains in the vicinity of the fork and is capable of initiating the fork regression. Our results afford novel mechanistic insights into RecG interaction with the replication fork and provide the basis for further structural studies.

  15. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K

    2014-08-01

    Loss of Werner syndrome protein function causes Werner syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN's DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor HU. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency.

  16. The importance of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein dimers in the initiation of replication.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Kim, Bong-Suk; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Loesch-Fries, Sue

    2003-01-05

    Deletion and substitution mutations affecting the oligomerization of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein (CP) were studied in protoplasts to determine their effect on genome activation, an early step in AMV replication. The CP mutants that formed dimers, CPDeltaC9 and CPC-A(R)F, were highly active in initiating replication with 63-84% of wild-type (wt) CP activity. However, all mutants that did not form dimers, CPDeltaC18, CPDeltaC19, CPC-WFP, and CPC-W, were much less active with 19-33% of wt CP activity. The accumulation and solubility of mutant CPs expressed from a virus-based vector in Nicotiana benthamiana were similar to that of wt CP. Analysis of CP-RNA interactions indicated that CP dimers and CP monomers interacted very differently with AMV RNA 3' ends. These results suggest that CP dimers are more efficient for replication than CP monomers because of differences in RNA binding rather than differences in expression and accumulation of the mutant CPs in infected cells.

  17. A nuclear export signal within the structural Gag protein is required for prototype foamy virus replication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Gag polyproteins play distinct roles during the replication cycle of retroviruses, hijacking many cellular machineries to fulfill them. In the case of the prototype foamy virus (PFV), Gag structural proteins undergo transient nuclear trafficking after their synthesis, returning back to the cytoplasm for capsid assembly and virus egress. The functional role of this nuclear stage as well as the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for Gag nuclear export are not understood. Results We have identified a leptomycin B (LMB)-sensitive nuclear export sequence (NES) within the N-terminus of PFV Gag that is absolutely required for the completion of late stages of virus replication. Point mutations of conserved residues within this motif lead to nuclear redistribution of Gag, preventing subsequent virus egress. We have shown that a NES-defective PFV Gag acts as a dominant negative mutant by sequestrating its wild-type counterpart in the nucleus. Trans-complementation experiments with the heterologous NES of HIV-1 Rev allow the cytoplasmic redistribution of FV Gag, but fail to restore infectivity. Conclusions PFV Gag-Gag interactions are finely tuned in the cytoplasm to regulate their functions, capsid assembly, and virus release. In the nucleus, we have shown Gag-Gag interactions which could be involved in the nuclear export of Gag and viral RNA. We propose that nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced PFV RNAs relies on two complementary mechanisms, which take place successively during the replication cycle. PMID:21255441

  18. Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Strycharska, Melania S.; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Erzberger, Jan P.; O’Shea, Valerie; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Berger, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB complexed with nucleotide reveals a new conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active, but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an auto-regulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to nucleotide and both replication initiation and elongation factors. PMID:24373746

  19. Zinc finger antiviral protein inhibits coxsackievirus B3 virus replication and protects against viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yan, Kepeng; Wei, Lin; Yang, Jie; Lu, Chenyu; Xiong, Fei; Zheng, Chunfu; Xu, Wei

    2015-11-01

    The host Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) has been reported exhibiting antiviral activity against positive-stranded RNA viruses (Togaviridae), negative-stranded RNA viruses (Filoviridae) and retroviruses (Retroviridae). However, whether ZAP restricts the infection of enterovirus and the development of enterovirus mediated disease remains unknown. Here, we reported the antiviral properties of ZAP against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae as a major causative agent of viral myocarditis (VMC). We found that the expression of ZAP was significantly induced after CVB3 infection in heart tissues of VMC mice. ZAP potently inhibited CVB3 replication in cells after infection, while overexpression of ZAP in mice significantly increased the resistance to CVB3 replication and viral myocarditis by significantly reducing cardiac inflammatory cytokine production. The ZAP-responsive elements (ZREs) were mapped to the 3'UTR and 5'UTR of viral RNA. Taken together, ZAP confers resistance to CVB3 infection via directly targeting viral RNA and protects mice from acute myocarditis by suppressing viral replication and cardiac inflammatory cytokine production. Our finding further expands ZAP's range of viral targets, and suggests ZAP as a potential therapeutic target for viral myocarditis caused by CVB3.

  20. Structural Protein VP2 of African Horse Sickness Virus Is Not Essential for Virus Replication In Vitro.

    PubMed

    van Gennip, René G P; van de Water, Sandra G P; Potgieter, Christiaan A; van Rijn, Piet A

    2017-02-15

    The Reoviridae family consists of nonenveloped multilayered viruses with a double-stranded RNA genome consisting of 9 to 12 genome segments. The Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family contains African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, which cause notifiable diseases and are spread by biting Culicoides species. Here, we used reverse genetics for AHSV to study the role of outer capsid protein VP2, encoded by genome segment 2 (Seg-2). Expansion of a previously found deletion in Seg-2 indicates that structural protein VP2 of AHSV is not essential for virus replication in vitro In addition, in-frame replacement of RNA sequences in Seg-2 by that of green fluorescence protein (GFP) resulted in AHSV expressing GFP, which further confirmed that VP2 is not essential for virus replication. In contrast to virus replication without VP2 expression in mammalian cells, virus replication in insect cells was strongly reduced, and virus release from insect cells was completely abolished. Further, the other outer capsid protein, VP5, was not copurified with virions for virus mutants without VP2 expression. AHSV without VP5 expression, however, could not be recovered, indicating that outer capsid protein VP5 is essential for virus replication in vitro Our results demonstrate for the first time that a structural viral protein is not essential for orbivirus replication in vitro, which opens new possibilities for research on other members of the Reoviridae family.

  1. Human Cytomegalovirus Can Procure Deoxyribonucleotides for Viral DNA Replication in the Absence of Retinoblastoma Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kuny, Chad V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral DNA replication requires deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). These molecules, which are found at low levels in noncycling cells, are generated either by salvage pathways or through de novo synthesis. Nucleotide synthesis utilizes the activity of a series of nucleotide-biosynthetic enzymes (NBEs) whose expression is repressed in noncycling cells by complexes between the E2F transcription factors and the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor. Rb-E2F complexes are dissociated and NBE expression is activated during cell cycle transit by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-mediated Rb phosphorylation. The DNA virus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes a viral Cdk (v-Cdk) (the UL97 protein) that phosphorylates Rb, induces the expression of cellular NBEs, and is required for efficient viral DNA synthesis. A long-held hypothesis proposed that viral proteins with Rb-inactivating activities functionally similar to those of UL97 facilitated viral DNA replication in part by inducing the de novo production of dNTPs. However, we found that dNTPs were limiting even in cells infected with wild-type HCMV in which UL97 is expressed and Rb is phosphorylated. Furthermore, we revealed that both de novo and salvage pathway enzymes contribute to viral DNA replication during HCMV infection and that Rb phosphorylation by cellular Cdks does not correct the viral DNA replication defect observed in cells infected with a UL97-deficient virus. We conclude that HCMV can obtain dNTPs in the absence of Rb phosphorylation and that UL97 can contribute to the efficiency of DNA replication in an Rb phosphorylation-independent manner. IMPORTANCE Transforming viral oncoproteins, such as adenovirus E1A and papillomavirus E7, inactivate Rb. The standard hypothesis for how Rb inactivation facilitates infection with these viruses is that it is through an increase in the enzymes required for DNA synthesis, which include nucleotide-biosynthetic enzymes. However, HCMV UL97, which functionally

  2. DNA-Binding Proteins Regulating pIP501 Transfer and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently detected in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR. RepR is similar to RepE of related streptococcal plasmid pAMβ1, which has been shown to possess RNase activity cleaving free RNA molecules in close proximity of the initiation site of DNA synthesis. Replication of pIP501 is controlled by the concerted action of a small protein, CopR, and an antisense RNA, RNAIII. CopR has a dual function: It acts as transcriptional repressor at the repR promoter and, in addition, prevents convergent transcription of RNAIII and repR mRNA (RNAII), which indirectly increases RNAIII synthesis. CopR binds asymmetrically as a dimer at two consecutive binding sites upstream of and overlapping with the repR promoter. RNAIII induces transcriptional attenuation within the leader region of the repR mRNA (RNAII). Deletion of either control component causes a 10- to 20-fold increase of plasmid copy number, while simultaneous deletions have no additional effect. Conjugative transfer of pIP501 depends on a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded in a single operon. Its transfer host-range is considerably broad, as it has been transferred to virtually all Gram-positive bacteria including Streptomyces and even the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Expression of the 15 genes encoding the T4SS is tightly controlled by binding of the relaxase TraA, the transfer initiator protein, to the operon promoter overlapping with the origin of transfer (oriT). The T4SS operon encodes the DNA-binding proteins TraJ (VirD4-like coupling

  3. Prolactin Regulatory Element Binding Protein Is Involved in Hepatitis C Virus Replication by Interaction with NS4B

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingbao; Fujimoto, Akira; Nakamura, Mariko; Aoyagi, Haruyo; Matsuda, Mami; Watashi, Koichi; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Arita, Minetaro; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Sakamaki, Yuriko; Ichinose, Shizuko; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been proposed that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4B protein triggers the membranous HCV replication compartment, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we screened for NS4B-associated membrane proteins by tandem affinity purification and proteome analysis and identified 202 host proteins. Subsequent screening of replicon cells with small interfering RNA identified prolactin regulatory element binding (PREB) to be a novel HCV host cofactor. The interaction between PREB and NS4B was confirmed by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assays. PREB colocalized with double-stranded RNA and the newly synthesized HCV RNA labeled with bromouridine triphosphate in HCV replicon cells. Furthermore, PREB shifted to detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), where HCV replication complexes reside, in the presence of NS4B expression in Huh7 cells. However, a PREB mutant lacking the NS4B-binding region (PREBd3) could not colocalize with double-stranded RNA and did not shift to the DRM in the presence of NS4B. These results indicate that PREB locates at the HCV replication complex by interacting with NS4B. PREB silencing inhibited the formation of the membranous HCV replication compartment and increased the protease and nuclease sensitivity of HCV replicase proteins and RNA in DRMs, respectively. Collectively, these data indicate that PREB promotes HCV RNA replication by participating in the formation of the membranous replication compartment and by maintaining its proper structure by interacting with NS4B. Furthermore, PREB was induced by HCV infection in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide new insights into HCV host cofactors. IMPORTANCE The hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein NS4B can induce alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum and the formation of a membranous web structure, which provides a platform for the HCV replication complex. The molecular mechanism by which NS4B induces the membranous HCV replication

  4. The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx Protein Activates AKT To Simultaneously Regulate HBV Replication and Hepatocyte Survival

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx is a multifunctional protein encoded by the HBV genome; HBx stimulates HBV replication and is thought to play an important role in the development of HBV-associated HCC. HBx can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway in some cell lines; however, whether HBx regulates PI3K/AKT signaling in normal hepatocytes has not been evaluated. In studies described here, we assessed HBx activation of PI3K/AKT signaling in an ex vivo model of cultured primary hepatocytes and determined how this HBx activity affects HBV replication. We report that HBx activates AKT in primary hepatocytes and that the activation of AKT decreases HBV replication and HBV mRNA and core protein levels. We show that the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a target of HBx-regulated AKT, and we link HNF4α to HBx-regulated AKT modulation of HBV transcription and replication. Although we and others have shown that HBx stimulates and is likely required for HBV replication, we now report that HBx also activates signals that can diminish the overall level of HBV replication. While this may seem counterintuitive, we show that an important effect of HBx activation of AKT is inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, our studies suggest that HBx balances HBV replication and cell survival by stimulating signaling pathways that enhance hepatocyte survival at the expense of higher levels of HBV replication. IMPORTANCE Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a common cause of the development of liver cancer. Regulation of cell signaling pathways by the HBV HBx protein is thought to influence the development of HBV-associated liver cancer. HBx stimulates, and may be essential for, HBV replication. We show that HBx activates AKT in hepatocytes to reduce HBV replication. While this seems contradictory to an

  5. Visualizing the replication cycle of bunyamwera orthobunyavirus expressing fluorescent protein-tagged Gc glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaohong; van Mierlo, Joël T; French, Andrew; Elliott, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    The virion glycoproteins Gn and Gc of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV), the prototype of the Bunyaviridae family and also of the Orthobunyavirus genus, are encoded by the medium (M) RNA genome segment and are involved in both viral attachment and entry. After their synthesis Gn and Gc form a heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transit to the Golgi compartment for virus assembly. The N-terminal half of the Gc ectodomain was previously shown to be dispensable for virus replication in cell culture (X. Shi, J. Goli, G. Clark, K. Brauburger, and R. M. Elliott, J. Gen. Virol. 90:2483-2492, 2009.). In this study, the coding sequence for a fluorescent protein, either enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or mCherry fluorescent protein, was fused to the N terminus of truncated Gc, and two recombinant BUNVs (rBUNGc-eGFP and rBUNGc-mCherry) were rescued by reverse genetics. The recombinant viruses showed bright autofluorescence under UV light and were competent for replication in various mammalian cell lines. rBUNGc-mCherry was completely stable over 10 passages, whereas internal, in-frame deletions occurred in the chimeric Gc-eGFP protein of rBUNGc-eGFP, resulting in loss of fluorescence between passages 5 and 7. Autofluorescence of the recombinant viruses allowed visualization of different stages of the infection cycle, including virus attachment to the cell surface, budding of virus particles in Golgi membranes, and virus-induced morphological changes to the Golgi compartment at later stages of infection. The fluorescent protein-tagged viruses will be valuable reagents for live-cell imaging studies to investigate virus entry, budding, and morphogenesis in real time.

  6. Inhibition of retroviral replication by members of the TRIM protein family.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam J; Towers, Greg J

    2013-01-01

    The TRIM protein family is emerging as a central component of mammalian antiviral innate immunity. Beginning with the identification of TRIM5α as a mammalian post-entry restriction factor against retroviruses, to the repeated observation that many TRIMs ubiquitinate and regulate signaling pathways, the past decade has witnessed an intense research effort to understand how TRIM proteins influence immunity. The list of viral families targeted directly or indirectly by TRIM proteins has grown to include adenoviruses, hepadnaviruses, picornaviruses, flaviviruses, orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, herpesviruses, rhabdoviruses and arenaviruses. We have come to appreciate how, through intense bouts of positive selection, some TRIM genes have been honed into species-specific restriction factors. Similarly, in the case of TRIMCyp, we are beginning to understand how viruses too have mutated to evade restriction, suggesting that TRIM and viruses have coevolved for millions of years of primate evolution. Recently, TRIM5α returned to the limelight when it was shown to trigger the expression of antiviral genes upon recognition of an incoming virus, a paradigm shift that demonstrated that restriction factors make excellent pathogen sensors. However, it remains unclear how many of ~100 human TRIM genes are antiviral, despite the expression of many of these genes being upregulated by interferon and upon viral infection. TRIM proteins do not conform to one type of antiviral mechanism, reflecting the diversity of viruses they target. Moreover, the cofactors of restriction remain largely enigmatic. The control of retroviral replication remains an important medical subject and provides a useful backdrop for reviewing how TRIM proteins act to repress viral replication.

  7. Protein biogenesis machinery is a driver of replicative aging in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Georges E; Meinema, Anne C; González, Javier; Wolters, Justina C; Schmidt, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Bischoff, Rainer; Wit, Ernst C; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M; Heinemann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    An integrated account of the molecular changes occurring during the process of cellular aging is crucial towards understanding the underlying mechanisms. Here, using novel culturing and computational methods as well as latest analytical techniques, we mapped the proteome and transcriptome during the replicative lifespan of budding yeast. With age, we found primarily proteins involved in protein biogenesis to increase relative to their transcript levels. Exploiting the dynamic nature of our data, we reconstructed high-level directional networks, where we found the same protein biogenesis-related genes to have the strongest ability to predict the behavior of other genes in the system. We identified metabolic shifts and the loss of stoichiometry in protein complexes as being consequences of aging. We propose a model whereby the uncoupling of protein levels of biogenesis-related genes from their transcript levels is causal for the changes occurring in aging yeast. Our model explains why targeting protein synthesis, or repairing the downstream consequences, can serve as interventions in aging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08527.001 PMID:26422514

  8. Biological roles and functional mechanisms of arenavirus Z protein in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialong; Danzy, Shamika; Kumar, Naveen; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying

    2012-09-01

    Arenaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever diseases in humans, with limited prophylactic or therapeutic measures. A small RING-domain viral protein Z has been shown to mediate the formation of virus-like particles and to inhibit viral RNA synthesis, although its biological roles in an infectious viral life cycle have not been directly addressed. By taking advantage of the available reverse genetics system for a model arenavirus, Pichinde virus (PICV), we provide the direct evidence for the essential biological roles of the Z protein's conserved residues, including the G2 myristylation site, the conserved C and H residues of RING domain, and the poorly characterized C-terminal L79 and P80 residues. Dicodon substitutions within the late (L) domain (PSAPPYEP) of the PICV Z protein, although producing viable mutant viruses, have significantly reduced virus growth, a finding suggestive of an important role for the intact L domain in viral replication. Further structure-function analyses of both PICV and Lassa fever virus Z proteins suggest that arenavirus Z proteins have similar molecular mechanisms in mediating their multiple functions, with some interesting variations, such as the role of the G2 residue in blocking viral RNA synthesis. In summary, our studies have characterized the biological roles of the Z protein in an infectious arenavirus system and have shed important light on the distinct functions of its domains in virus budding and viral RNA regulation, the knowledge of which may lead to the development of novel antiviral drugs.

  9. Anopheles gambiae heat shock protein cognate 70B impedes o'nyong-nyong virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Cheolho; Hong, Young S; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Collins, Frank H

    2007-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic and functional analysis was conducted on an Anopheles gambiae gene, ENSANGG00000017398. Based on phylogenetic analysis, this gene belongs to the same lineage as Heat shock protein cognate 70-4 (Hsc70-4) in Drosophila. Accordingly, we propose to name this gene Heat shock protein cognate 70B (HSC70B). We previously reported that expression of HSC70B and other genes including elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and the agglutinin attachment subunit (agglutinin) were up-regulated in o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV)-infected female An. gambiae. Double-stranded RNA interferences have been applied to further investigate HSC70B, EF-1α and the agglutinin functions in ONNV replication in An. gambiae. Results Among these three RNAi silenced genes, only dsRNAs of HSC70B (dsHSC70B) promoted ONNV replication in adult An. gambiae compared to the control mosquitoes that were co-injected with ONNV and dsRNA of β-galactosidase (dsβ-gal). ONNV titers from mosquitoes co-injected with dsHSC70B were about 9-fold higher at 6 days post-injection (d.p.i.) as compared to the control mosquitoes. By using ONNV tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (ONNV-eGFP), co-injection of ONNV-eGFP with dsHSC70B also showed approximately 2 ~ 3-fold higher GFP expression rates than the controls in the head, thorax, and abdomen of the mosquito. Furthermore, co-injection of ONNV with dsHSC70B significantly reduced the lifespan of adult mosquitoes as compared with the control, co-injection of ONNV with dsβ-gal treated mosquitoes. Conclusion These results indicate that HSC70B plays important roles in homeostasis and suppression of ONNV replication in the vector, An. gambiae. Biological implications of these findings are that while mosquitoes allow ONNV to replicate in them, they also check viral titers so that ONNV infection will result in no harmful effect on mosquitoes. Therefore, mosquitoes can function as vectors of ONNV transmission to humans while ONNV infection in An. gambiae

  10. Mutational analysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immediate early protein (IE62) subdomains and their importance in viral replication

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Mohamed I.; Che, Xibing; Sung, Phillip; Sommer, Marvin H.; Hay, John; Arvin, Ann M.

    2016-05-15

    VZV IE62 is an essential, immediate-early, tegument protein and consists of five domains. We generated recombinant viruses carrying mutations in the first three IE62 domains and tested their influence on VZV replication kinetics. The mutations in domain I did not affect replication kinetics while domain II mutations, disrupting the DNA binding and dimerization domain (DBD), were lethal for VZV replication. Mutations in domain III of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the two phosphorylation sites S686A/S722A resulted in slower growth in early and late infection respectively and were associated with IE62 accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus respectively. This study mapped the functional domains of IE62 in context of viral infection, indicating that DNA binding and dimerization domain is essential for VZV replication. In addition, the correct localization of IE62, whether nuclear or cytoplasmic, at different points in the viral life cycle, is important for normal progression of VZV replication. - Highlights: • Mutation of IE62 domain I did not affect VZV replication in melanoma cells. • IE62 domain II and III are important for VZV replication in melanoma cells. • Mutations of IE62 domain II (DBD) were lethal for virus replication. • Mutations of IE62 NLS and phosphorylation sites inhibited VZV replication. • NLS and S686A/S722A mutations altered localization of IE62 during early and late infection.

  11. Cyclophilin A Binds to the Viral RNA and Replication Proteins, Resulting in Inhibition of Tombusviral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses is greatly affected by numerous host-encoded proteins that act as restriction factors. Cyclophilins, which are a large family of cellular prolyl isomerases, have been found to inhibit Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) replication in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model based on genome-wide screens and global proteomics approaches. In this report, we further characterize single-domain cyclophilins, including the mammalian cyclophilin A and plant Roc1 and Roc2, which are orthologs of the yeast Cpr1p cyclophilin, a known inhibitor of TBSV replication in yeast. We found that recombinant CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 strongly inhibited TBSV replication in a cell-free replication assay. Additional in vitro studies revealed that CypA, Roc1, and Roc2 cyclophilins bound to the viral replication proteins, and CypA and Roc1 also bound to the viral RNA. These interactions led to inhibition of viral RNA recruitment, the assembly of the viral replicase complex, and viral RNA synthesis. A catalytically inactive mutant of CypA was also able to inhibit TBSV replication in vitro due to binding to the replication proteins and the viral RNA. Overexpression of CypA and its mutant in yeast or plant leaves led to inhibition of tombusvirus replication, confirming that CypA is a restriction factor for TBSV. Overall, the current work has revealed a regulatory role for the cytosolic single-domain Cpr1-like cyclophilins in RNA virus replication. PMID:24089553

  12. Dengue virus NS1 protein interacts with the ribosomal protein RPL18: this interaction is required for viral translation and replication in Huh-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Salazar, Margot; Angel-Ambrocio, Antonio H; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Hurtado-Monzon, Arianna M; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Ludert, Juan E; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Given dengue virus (DENV) genome austerity, it uses cellular molecules and structures for virion entry, translation and replication of the genome. NS1 is a multifunctional protein key to viral replication and pathogenesis. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with NS1 may help in further understanding the functions of NS1. In this paper we isolated a total of 64 proteins from DENV infected human hepatic cells (Huh-7) that interact with NS1 by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation assays. The subcellular location and expression levels during infection of the ribosomal proteins RPS3a, RPL7, RPL18, RPL18a plus GAPDH were determined. None of these proteins changed their expression levels during infection; however, RPL-18 was redistributed to the perinuclear region after 48hpi. Silencing of the RPL-18 does not affect cell translation efficiency or viability, but it reduces significantly viral translation, replication and viral yield, suggesting that the RPL-18 is required during DENV replicative cycle.

  13. The Interaction between Bamboo Mosaic Virus Replication Protein and Coat Protein Is Critical for Virus Movement in Plant Hosts ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Cheng; Ho, Yuan-Ning; Hu, Rei-Hsing; Yen, Yu-Ting; Wang, Zheng-Cheng; Lee, Ya-Chien; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Meng, Menghsiao

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Potexvirus. Open reading frame 1 (ORF1) encodes the viral replication protein that consists of a capping enzyme domain, a helicase-like domain (HLD), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain from the N to C terminus. ORF5 encodes the viral coat protein (CP) required for genome encapsidation and the virus movement in plants. In this study, application of a yeast-two hybrid assay detected an interaction between the viral HLD and CP. However, the interaction did not affect the NTPase activity of the HLD. To identify the critical amino acids of CP interacting with the HLD, a random mutational library of CP was created using error-prone PCR, and the mutations adversely affecting the interaction were screened by a bacterial two-hybrid system. As a result, the mutations A209G and N210S in CP were found to weaken the interaction. To determine the significance of the interaction, the mutations were introduced into a BaMV infectious clone, and the mutational effects on viral replication, movement, and genome encapsidation were investigated. There was no effect on accumulations of BaMV CP and genomic RNAs within protoplasts; however, the virus cell-to-cell movement in plants was restricted. Sequence alignment revealed that A209 of BaMV CP is conserved in many potexviruses. Mutation of the corresponding residue in Foxtail mosaic virus CP also reduced the viral HLD-CP interaction and restricted the virus movement, suggesting that interaction between CP and a widely conserved HLD in the potexviral replication protein is crucial for viral trafficking through plasmodesmata. PMID:21917973

  14. Structural organization of poliovirus RNA replication is mediated by viral proteins of the P2 genomic region

    SciTech Connect

    Bienz, K.; Egger, D.; Troxler, M.; Pasamontes, L. )

    1990-03-01

    Transcriptionally active replication complexes bound to smooth membrane vesicles were isolated from poliovirus-infected cells. In electron microscopic, negatively stained preparations, the replication complex appeared as an irregularly shaped, oblong structure attached to several virus-induced vesicles of a rosettelike arrangement. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of such preparations demonstrated that the poliovirus replication complex contains the proteins coded by the P2 genomic region (P2 proteins) in a membrane-associated form. In addition, the P2 proteins are also associated with viral RNA, and they can be cross-linked to viral RNA by UV irradiation. Guanidine hydrochloride prevented the P2 proteins from becoming membrane bound but did not change their association with viral RNA. The findings allow the conclusion that the protein 2C or 2C-containing precursor(s) is responsible for the attachment of the viral RNA to the vesicular membrane and for the spatial organization of the replication complex necessary for its proper functioning in viral transcription. A model for the structure of the viral replication complex and for the function of the 2C-containing P2 protein(s) and the vesicular membranes is proposed.

  15. Flos Farfarae Inhibits Enterovirus 71-Induced Cell Injury by Preventing Viral Replication and Structural Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya Wen; Yeh, Chia Feng; Yen, Ming Hong; Lu, Chi Yu; Chiang, Lien Chai; Shieh, Den En; Chang, Jung San

    2017-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause airway symptoms, brainstem encephalitis, neurogenic shock, and neurogenic pulmonary edema with high morbidity and mortality. There is no proven therapeutic modality. Flos Farfarae is the dried flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. that has been used to manage airway illnesses for thousands of years. It has neuro-protective activity and has been used to manage neuro-inflammatory diseases. However, it is unknown whether Flos Farfarae has activity against EV71-induced neuropathy. The current study used both human foreskin fibroblast (CCFS-1/KMC) and human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell lines to test the hypothesis that a hot water extract of Flos Farfarae could effectively inhibit EV71 infection. The authenticity of Flos Farfarae was confirmed by HPLC-UV fingerprint. Through plaque reduction assays and flow cytometry, Flos Farfarae was found to inhibit EV71 infection ([Formula: see text]). Inhibition of viral replication and protein expression were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and western blot, respectively. The estimated IC[Formula: see text]s were 106.3[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL in CCFS-1/KMC, and 15.0[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL in RD cells. Therefore, Flos Farfarae could be beneficial to inhibit EV71 infection by preventing viral replication and structural protein expression.

  16. The influenza virus nucleoprotein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein pivotal to virus replication.

    PubMed

    Portela, Agustín; Digard, Paul

    2002-04-01

    All viruses with negative-sense RNA genomes encode a single-strand RNA-binding nucleoprotein (NP). The primary function of NP is to encapsidate the virus genome for the purposes of RNA transcription, replication and packaging. The purpose of this review is to illustrate using the influenza virus NP as a well-studied example that the molecule is much more than a structural RNA-binding protein, but also functions as a key adapter molecule between virus and host cell processes. It does so through the ability to interact with a wide variety of viral and cellular macromolecules, including RNA, itself, two subunits of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the viral matrix protein. NP also interacts with cellular polypeptides, including actin, components of the nuclear import and export apparatus and a nuclear RNA helicase. The evidence for the existence of each of these activities and their possible roles in transcription, replication and intracellular trafficking of the virus genome is considered.

  17. Replication protein A safeguards genome integrity by controlling NER incision events

    PubMed Central

    Overmeer, René M.; Moser, Jill; Volker, Marcel; Kool, Hanneke; Tomkinson, Alan E.; van Zeeland, Albert A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA gaps that might arise by futile repair processes can lead to mutagenic events and challenge genome integrity. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved repair mechanism, essential for removal of helix-distorting DNA lesions. In the currently prevailing model, NER operates through coordinated assembly of repair factors into pre- and post-incision complexes; however, its regulation in vivo is poorly understood. Notably, the transition from dual incision to repair synthesis should be rigidly synchronized as it might lead to accumulation of unprocessed repair intermediates. We monitored NER regulatory events in vivo using sequential UV irradiations. Under conditions that allow incision yet prevent completion of repair synthesis or ligation, preincision factors can reassociate with new damage sites. In contrast, replication protein A remains at the incomplete NER sites and regulates a feedback loop from completion of DNA repair synthesis to subsequent damage recognition, independently of ATR signaling. Our data reveal an important function for replication protein A in averting further generation of DNA strand breaks that could lead to mutagenic and recombinogenic events. PMID:21282463

  18. Function and Structural Organization of the Replication Protein of Bamboo mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Menghsiao; Lee, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The genus Potexvirus is one of the eight genera belonging to the family Alphaflexiviridae according to the Virus Taxonomy 2015 released by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (www.ictvonline.org/index.asp). Currently, the genus contains 35 known species including many agricultural important viruses, e.g., Potato virus X (PVX). Members of this genus are characterized by flexuous, filamentous virions of 13 nm in diameter and 470–580 nm in length. A potexvirus has a monopartite positive-strand RNA genome, encoding five open-reading frames (ORFs), with a cap structure at the 5′ end and a poly(A) tail at the 3′ end. Besides PVX, Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is another potexvirus that has received intensive attention due to the wealth of knowledge on the molecular biology of the virus. In this review, we discuss the enzymatic activities associated with each of the functional domains of the BaMV replication protein, a 155-kDa polypeptide encoded by ORF1. The unique cap formation mechanism, which may be conserved across the alphavirus superfamily, is particularly addressed. The recently identified interactions between the replication protein and the plant host factors are also described. PMID:28400766

  19. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem–loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay. PMID:17182628

  20. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem-loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay.

  1. Dynamics of replication proteins during lagging strand synthesis: A crossroads for genomic instability and cancer.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amit Laxmikant; Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Deependra Kumar; Maurya, Pooja; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    DNA replication is a complex phenomenon that requires the concerted action of several enzymes, together with their protein and non-protein cofactors. In the nucleus, the two DNA strands are duplicated by two completely independent methods due to their anti-parallel orientation and the restrictive nature of DNA polymerases that allow DNA synthesis in the 5'-3' direction only. In this review, we focus on the proteins that are involved in the more complex and discontinuous process of lagging strand DNA synthesis by the formation of small DNA fragments called Okazaki fragments which are later sealed to form a continuous strand of DNA. We try and connect all the protein-protein interactions important for lagging strand synthesis in the S-phase of the cell cycle, describe the dynamics of these interactions and go on to discuss the post-translational modifications that affect them. We also look at how mutations in any of the players of the lagging strand synthesis can cause genomic instability leading to cancer and discuss if any of the players may be targeted for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recruitment of DNA replication and damage response proteins to viral replication centers during infection with NS2 mutants of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Zandra; Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2011-02-20

    MVM NS2 is essential for viral DNA amplification, but its mechanism of action is unknown. A classification scheme for autonomous parvovirus-associated replication (APAR) center development, based on NS1 distribution, was used to characterize abnormal APAR body maturation in NS2null mutant infections, and their organization examined for defects in host protein recruitment. Since acquisition of known replication factors appeared normal, we looked for differences in invoked DNA damage responses. We observed widespread association of H2AX/MDC1 damage response foci with viral replication centers, and sequestration and complex hyperphosphorylation of RPA(32), which occurred in wildtype and mutant infections. Quantifying these responses by western transfer indicated that both wildtype and NS2 mutant MVM elicited ATM activation, while phosphorylation of ATR, already basally activated in asynchronous A9 cells, was downregulated. We conclude that MVM infection invokes multiple damage responses that influence the APAR environment, but that NS2 does not modify the recruitment of cellular proteins.

  3. Protein Phosphatase 2A and Cdc7 Kinase Regulate the DNA Unwinding Element-binding Protein in Replication Initiation*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzhe; Yao, Jianhong; Poudel, Sumeet; Romer, Eric; Abu-Niaaj, Lubna; Leffak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein (DUE-B) binds to replication origins coordinately with the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase and the helicase activator Cdc45 in vivo, and loads Cdc45 onto chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Human DUE-B also retains the aminoacyl-tRNA proofreading function of its shorter orthologs in lower organisms. Here we report that phosphorylation of the DUE-B unstructured C-terminal domain unique to higher organisms regulates DUE-B intermolecular binding. Gel filtration analyses show that unphosphorylated DUE-B forms multiple high molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and Mcm2–7 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry of the HMW complexes. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase binding is RNase A sensitive, whereas interaction with Mcm2–7 is nuclease resistant. Unphosphorylated DUE-B HMW complex formation is decreased by PP2A inhibition or direct DUE-B phosphorylation, and increased by inhibition of Cdc7. These results indicate that the state of DUE-B phosphorylation is maintained by the equilibrium between Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation and PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation, each previously shown to regulate replication initiation. Alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation target sites increases MCM binding but blocks Cdc45 loading in vivo and inhibits cell division. In egg extracts alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation sites blocks Cdc45 loading and inhibits DNA replication. The effects of DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation reveal a novel S phase kinase regulatory mechanism for Cdc45 loading and MCM helicase activation. PMID:25258324

  4. Protein phosphatase 2A and Cdc7 kinase regulate the DNA unwinding element-binding protein in replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzhe; Yao, Jianhong; Poudel, Sumeet; Romer, Eric; Abu-Niaaj, Lubna; Leffak, Michael

    2014-12-26

    The DNA unwinding element (DUE)-binding protein (DUE-B) binds to replication origins coordinately with the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase and the helicase activator Cdc45 in vivo, and loads Cdc45 onto chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Human DUE-B also retains the aminoacyl-tRNA proofreading function of its shorter orthologs in lower organisms. Here we report that phosphorylation of the DUE-B unstructured C-terminal domain unique to higher organisms regulates DUE-B intermolecular binding. Gel filtration analyses show that unphosphorylated DUE-B forms multiple high molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and Mcm2-7 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry of the HMW complexes. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase binding is RNase A sensitive, whereas interaction with Mcm2-7 is nuclease resistant. Unphosphorylated DUE-B HMW complex formation is decreased by PP2A inhibition or direct DUE-B phosphorylation, and increased by inhibition of Cdc7. These results indicate that the state of DUE-B phosphorylation is maintained by the equilibrium between Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation and PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation, each previously shown to regulate replication initiation. Alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation target sites increases MCM binding but blocks Cdc45 loading in vivo and inhibits cell division. In egg extracts alanine mutation of the DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation sites blocks Cdc45 loading and inhibits DNA replication. The effects of DUE-B C-terminal phosphorylation reveal a novel S phase kinase regulatory mechanism for Cdc45 loading and MCM helicase activation.

  5. Tomato Mosaic Virus Replication Protein Suppresses Virus-Targeted Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kenji; Tsuda, Shinya; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a homology-dependent RNA degradation system, has a role in defending against virus infection in plants, but plant viruses encode a suppressor to combat PTGS. Using transgenic tobacco in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is posttranscriptionally silenced, we investigated a tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-encoded PTGS suppressor. Infection with wild-type ToMV (L strain) interrupted GFP silencing in tobacco, coincident with visible symptoms, whereas some attenuated strains of ToMV (L11 and L11A strains) failed to suppress GFP silencing. Analyses of recombinant viruses containing the L and L11A strains revealed that a single base change in the replicase gene, which causes an amino acid substitution, is responsible for the symptomless and suppressor-defective phenotypes of the attenuated strains. An agroinfiltration assay indicated that the 130K replication protein acts as a PTGS suppressor. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 21 to 25 nucleotides accumulated during ToMV infection, suggesting that the major target of the ToMV-encoded suppressor is downstream from the production of siRNAs in the PTGS pathway. Analysis with GFP-tagged recombinant viruses revealed that the suppressor inhibits the establishment of the ToMV-targeted PTGS system in the inoculated leaves but does not detectably suppress the activity of the preexisting, sequence-specific PTGS machinery there. Taken together, these results indicate that it is likely that the ToMV-encoded suppressor, the 130K replication protein, blocks the utilization of silencing-associated small RNAs, so that a homology-dependent RNA degradation machinery is not newly formed. PMID:14512550

  6. Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm7(+) and cdc23(+) (MCM10) and interactions with replication checkpoints.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, D T; Forsburg, S L

    2001-01-01

    MCM proteins are required for the proper regulation of DNA replication. We cloned fission yeast mcm7(+) and showed it is essential for viability; spores lacking mcm7(+) begin S phase later than wild-type cells and arrest with an apparent 2C DNA content. We isolated a novel temperature-sensitive allele, mcm7-98, and also characterized two temperature-sensitive alleles of the fission yeast homolog of MCM10, cdc23(+). mcm7-98 and both cdc23ts alleles arrest with damaged chromosomes and an S phase delay. We find that mcm7-98 is synthetically lethal with the other mcmts mutants but does not interact genetically with either cdc23ts allele. However, cdc23-M36 interacts with mcm4ts. Unlike other mcm mutants or cdc23, mcm7-98 is synthetically lethal with checkpoint mutants Deltacds1, Deltachk1, or Deltarad3, suggesting chromosomal defects even at permissive temperature. Mcm7p is a nuclear protein throughout the cell cycle, and its localization is dependent on the other MCM proteins. Our data suggest that the Mcm3p-Mcm5p dimer interacts with the Mcm4p-Mcm6p-Mcm7p core complex through Mcm7p. PMID:11606526

  7. Rif1 controls DNA replication by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 to reverse Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of the MCM complex.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Alvino, Gina M; Chang, Fujung; Lian, Hui-Yong; Sridhar, Akila; Kubota, Takashi; Brewer, Bonita J; Weinreich, Michael; Raghuraman, M K; Donaldson, Anne D

    2014-02-15

    Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires phosphorylation of the MCM complex by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), composed of Cdc7 kinase and its activator, Dbf4. We report here that budding yeast Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor 1) controls DNA replication genome-wide and describe how Rif1 opposes DDK function by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the MCM complex. Deleting RIF1 partially compensates for the limited DDK activity in a cdc7-1 mutant strain by allowing increased, premature phosphorylation of Mcm4. PP1 interaction motifs within the Rif1 N-terminal domain are critical for its repressive effect on replication. We confirm that Rif1 interacts with PP1 and that PP1 prevents premature Mcm4 phosphorylation. Remarkably, our results suggest that replication repression by Rif1 is itself also DDK-regulated through phosphorylation near the PP1-interacting motifs. Based on our findings, we propose that Rif1 is a novel PP1 substrate targeting subunit that counteracts DDK-mediated phosphorylation during replication. Fission yeast and mammalian Rif1 proteins have also been implicated in regulating DNA replication. Since PP1 interaction sites are evolutionarily conserved within the Rif1 sequence, it is likely that replication control by Rif1 through PP1 is a conserved mechanism.

  8. Molecular Evolution and Functional Diversification of Replication Protein A1 in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Aklilu, Behailu B.; Culligan, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric, single-stranded DNA binding complex required for eukaryotic DNA replication, repair, and recombination. RPA is composed of three subunits, RPA1, RPA2, and RPA3. In contrast to single RPA subunit genes generally found in animals and yeast, plants encode multiple paralogs of RPA subunits, suggesting subfunctionalization. Genetic analysis demonstrates that five Arabidopsis thaliana RPA1 paralogs (RPA1A to RPA1E) have unique and overlapping functions in DNA replication, repair, and meiosis. We hypothesize here that RPA1 subfunctionalities will be reflected in major structural and sequence differences among the paralogs. To address this, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide sequences of RPA1 paralogs from 25 complete genomes representing a wide spectrum of plants and unicellular green algae. We find here that the plant RPA1 gene family is divided into three general groups termed RPA1A, RPA1B, and RPA1C, which likely arose from two progenitor groups in unicellular green algae. In the family Brassicaceae the RPA1B and RPA1C groups have further expanded to include two unique sub-functional paralogs RPA1D and RPA1E, respectively. In addition, RPA1 groups have unique domains, motifs, cis-elements, gene expression profiles, and pattern of conservation that are consistent with proposed functions in monocot and dicot species, including a novel C-terminal zinc-finger domain found only in plant RPA1C-like sequences. These results allow for improved prediction of RPA1 subunit functions in newly sequenced plant genomes, and potentially provide a unique molecular tool to improve classification of Brassicaceae species. PMID:26858742

  9. Shifts in Host Range of a Promiscuous Plasmid through Parallel Evolution of its Replication Initiation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sota, Masahiro; Yano, Hirokazu; Hughes, Julie; Daughdrill, Gary W.; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Top, Eva M.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of bacterial plasmids to adapt to novel hosts and thereby shift their host range is key to their long-term persistence in bacterial communities. Promiscuous plasmids of the IncP-1 group can colonize a wide range of hosts, but it is not known if and how they can contract, shift or further expand their host range. To understand the evolutionary mechanisms of host range shifts of IncP-1 plasmids, an IncP-1β mini-replicon was experimentally evolved in four hosts wherein it was initially unstable. After 1000 generations in serial batch cultures under antibiotic selection for plasmid maintenance (kanamycin resistance), the stability of the mini-plasmid had dramatically improved in all coevolved hosts. However, only plasmids evolved in Shewanella oneidensis showed improved stability in the ancestor, indicating that adaptive mutations had occurred in the plasmid itself. Complete genome sequence analysis of nine independently evolved plasmids showed seven unique plasmid genotypes that had various kinds of single mutations at one locus, namely the N-terminal region of the replication initiation protein TrfA. Such parallel evolution indicates that this region was under strong selection. In five of the seven evolved plasmids these trfA mutations resulted in a significantly higher plasmid copy number. Evolved plasmids were found to be stable in four other naïve hosts, but could no longer replicate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study demonstrates that plasmids can specialize to a novel host through trade-offs between improved stability in the new host and the ability to replicate in a previously permissive host. PMID:20520653

  10. Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.L. Siqueira; Lira, C.B.B.; Giardini, M.A.; Khater, L.; Perez, A.M.; Peroni, L.A.; Reis, J.R.R. dos; Freitas-Junior, L.H.; Ramos, C.H.I.; Cano, M.I.N. . E-mail: micano@ibb.unesp.br

    2007-06-29

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 is a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres.

  11. Relative, label-free protein quantitation: spectral counting error statistics from nine replicate MudPIT samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nine replicate samples of peptides from soybean leaves, each spiked with a different concentration of bovine apotransferrin peptides, were analyzed on a mass spectrometer using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Proteins were detected from the peptide tandem mass spectra a...

  12. Association of Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 with Rad50-Interacting Protein 1 Enhances Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Campos-León, Karen; Wijendra, Kalpanee; Siddiqa, Abida; Pentland, Ieisha; Feeney, Katherine M.; Knapman, Alison; Davies, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rad50-interacting protein 1 (Rint1) associates with the DNA damage response protein Rad50 during the transition from the S phase to the G2/M phase and functions in radiation-induced G2 checkpoint control. It has also been demonstrated that Rint1 is essential in vesicle trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through an interaction with Zeste-White 10 (ZW10). We have isolated a novel interaction between Rint1 and the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) transcription and replication factor E2. E2 binds to Rint1 within its ZW10 interaction domain, and we show that in the absence of E2, Rint1 is localized to the ER and associates with ZW10. E2 expression results in a disruption of the Rint1-ZW10 interaction and an accumulation of nuclear Rint1, coincident with a significant reduction in vesicle movement from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. Interestingly, nuclear Rint1 and members of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex were found in distinct E2 nuclear foci, which peaked during mid-S phase, indicating that the recruitment of Rint1 to E2 foci within the nucleus may also result in the recruitment of this DNA damage-sensing protein complex. We show that exogenous Rint1 expression enhances E2-dependent virus replication. Conversely, the overexpression of a truncated Rint1 protein that retains the E2 binding domain but not the Rad50 binding domain acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of E2-dependent HPV replication. Put together, these experiments demonstrate that the interaction between Rint1 and E2 has an important function in HPV replication. IMPORTANCE HPV infections are an important driver of many epithelial cancers, including those within the anogenital and oropharyngeal tracts. The HPV life cycle is tightly regulated and intimately linked to the differentiation of the epithelial cells that it infects. HPV replication factories formed in the nucleus are locations where viral DNA is copied to support virus persistence and amplification

  13. Association of Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 with Rad50-Interacting Protein 1 Enhances Viral DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Campos-León, Karen; Wijendra, Kalpanee; Siddiqa, Abida; Pentland, Ieisha; Feeney, Katherine M; Knapman, Alison; Davies, Rachel; Androphy, Elliot J; Parish, Joanna L

    2017-03-01

    Rad50-interacting protein 1 (Rint1) associates with the DNA damage response protein Rad50 during the transition from the S phase to the G2/M phase and functions in radiation-induced G2 checkpoint control. It has also been demonstrated that Rint1 is essential in vesicle trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through an interaction with Zeste-White 10 (ZW10). We have isolated a novel interaction between Rint1 and the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) transcription and replication factor E2. E2 binds to Rint1 within its ZW10 interaction domain, and we show that in the absence of E2, Rint1 is localized to the ER and associates with ZW10. E2 expression results in a disruption of the Rint1-ZW10 interaction and an accumulation of nuclear Rint1, coincident with a significant reduction in vesicle movement from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. Interestingly, nuclear Rint1 and members of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex were found in distinct E2 nuclear foci, which peaked during mid-S phase, indicating that the recruitment of Rint1 to E2 foci within the nucleus may also result in the recruitment of this DNA damage-sensing protein complex. We show that exogenous Rint1 expression enhances E2-dependent virus replication. Conversely, the overexpression of a truncated Rint1 protein that retains the E2 binding domain but not the Rad50 binding domain acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of E2-dependent HPV replication. Put together, these experiments demonstrate that the interaction between Rint1 and E2 has an important function in HPV replication.IMPORTANCE HPV infections are an important driver of many epithelial cancers, including those within the anogenital and oropharyngeal tracts. The HPV life cycle is tightly regulated and intimately linked to the differentiation of the epithelial cells that it infects. HPV replication factories formed in the nucleus are locations where viral DNA is copied to support virus persistence and amplification of

  14. Regulation of Multiple Stages of Hepadnavirus Replication by the Carboxyl-Terminal Domain of Viral Core Protein in trans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuancheng; Ludgate, Laurie; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutational analyses have indicated that the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of hepadnavirus core protein and its state of phosphorylation are critical for multiple steps in viral replication. Also, CTD interacts with host proteins in a phosphorylation state-dependent manner. To ascertain the role of CTD in viral replication without perturbing its sequence and the role of CTD-host interactions, CTD of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) or duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core protein, either the wild type (WT) or with alanine or glutamic acid/aspartic acid substitutions at the phosphorylation sites, was expressed in cells replicating DHBV with the WT core protein. A dramatic decrease in phosphorylation of the DHBV core protein (DHBc) was observed when the WT and most HBV core protein CTD (HCTD) variants were coexpressed in trans, which was accompanied by a profound reduction of viral core DNA and, in particular, the double-stranded DNA. One HCTD variant that failed to change DHBc phosphorylation also had no effect on DHBV core DNA. All WT and variant HCTDs and DHBc CTDs (DCTDs) decreased the DHBV covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA. Identification of CTD-host interactions indicated that CDK2 binding by CTD may mediate its inhibitory effect on DHBc phosphorylation and reverse transcription via competition with DHBc for the host kinase, whereas importin α binding by CTD may contribute to inhibition of CCC DNA production by competitively blocking the nuclear import of viral nucleocapsids. These results suggest the possibility of blocking multiple steps of viral replication, especially CCC DNA formation, via inhibition of CTD functions. IMPORTANCE Mutational analyses have suggested that the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of hepadnavirus core protein is critical for viral replication. However, results from mutational analyses are open to alternative interpretations. Also, how CTD affects virus replication remains unclear. In this study, we took an alternative

  15. DNA replication origin and transcriptional enhancer in c-myc gene share the c-myc protein binding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, H; Imamura, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that c-myc protein, or protein(s) complexed with c-myc protein, binds to the region upstream of the first exon of the c-myc gene and that this region contains an origin of cellular DNA replication (ori) and also a transcriptional enhancer. Here we show by Southwestern blotting that c-myc protein binds directly to a 7 bp sequence within the above region. Furthermore, we show that the c-myc protein binding sequences are indispensable for both ori and enhancer functions, but that additional sequences are required for maximal ori and enhancer activities. Thus, c-myc protein is a sequence specific factor which is apparently used both in initiation of DNA replication and in regulation of RNA transcription. Images PMID:2686984

  16. DNA-dependent protease activity of human Spartan facilitates replication of DNA-protein crosslink-containing DNA.

    PubMed

    Mórocz, Mónika; Zsigmond, Eszter; Tóth, Róbert; Enyedi, Márton Zs; Pintér, Lajos; Haracska, Lajos

    2017-04-07

    Mutations in SPARTAN are associated with early onset hepatocellular carcinoma and progeroid features. A regulatory function of Spartan has been implicated in DNA damage tolerance pathways such as translesion synthesis, but the exact function of the protein remained unclear. Here, we reveal the role of human Spartan in facilitating replication of DNA-protein crosslink-containing DNA. We found that purified Spartan has a DNA-dependent protease activity degrading certain proteins bound to DNA. In concert, Spartan is required for direct DPC removal in vivo; we also show that the protease Spartan facilitates repair of formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein crosslinks in later phases of replication using the bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU) comet assay. Moreover, DNA fibre assay indicates that formaldehyde-induced replication stress dramatically decreases the speed of replication fork movement in Spartan-deficient cells, which accumulate in the G2/M cell cycle phase. Finally, epistasis analysis mapped these Spartan functions to the RAD6-RAD18 DNA damage tolerance pathway. Our results reveal that Spartan facilitates replication of DNA-protein crosslink-containing DNA enzymatically, as a protease, which may explain its role in preventing carcinogenesis and aging. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Modulation of influenza virus replication by alteration of sodium ion transport and protein kinase C activity

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, H.-Heinrich; Palese, Peter; Shaw, Megan L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increasing levels of resistance to the four FDA-approved anti-influenza virus drugs have been described and vaccine manufacturers have experienced demands that exceed their capacity. This situation underlines the urgent need for novel antivirals as well as innovations in vaccine production in preparation for the next influenza epidemic. Here we report the development of a cell-based high-throughput screen which we have used for the identification of compounds that modulate influenza virus growth either negatively or positively. We screened a library of compounds with known biological activity and identified distinct groups of inhibitors and enhancers that target sodium channels or protein kinase C (PKC). We confirmed these results in viral growth assays and find that treatment with a sodium channel opener or PKC inhibitor significantly reduces viral replication. In contrast, inhibition of sodium channels or activation of PKC leads to enhanced virus production in tissue culture. These diametrically opposing effects strongly support a role for PKC activity and the regulation of Na+ currents in influenza virus replication and both may serve as targets for antiviral drugs. Furthermore, we raise the possibility that compounds that result in increased viral titers may be beneficial for boosting the production of tissue culture-grown influenza vaccines. PMID:18585796

  18. MicroRNA-23b inhibits enterovirus 71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bai-ping; Dai, Hong-jian; Yang, Yue-huang; Zhuang, Yu; Sheng, Ru

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and effective antiviral agents and vaccines against this virus have, to date, not been available. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of RNAs with the function of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs play important roles in the complicated interaction network between virus and host, while few studies have explored the role of miRNAs in EV71 infection. A recent study showed that hsa-miR-23b was downregulated significantly in cell-infected viruses. To address this issue, biological software miRanda was first used to predict possible target sites of miR-23b at EV71 gene sequence, then to confirm it by luciferase assay. miR-23b mimics were transfected to verify its effects on infection of EV71. These results suggest that miR-23b and upregulation of miR-23b inhibited the replication of EV71 by targeting at EV71 3'UTR conserved sequence. Taken together, miR-23b could inhibit EV71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein. These results may enhance our understanding on the prevention and treatment of hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by EV71 infection.

  19. Polycomb proteins control proliferation and transformation independently of cell cycle checkpoints by regulating DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Piunti, Andrea; Rossi, Alessandra; Cerutti, Aurora; Albert, Mareike; Jammula, Sriganesh; Scelfo, Andrea; Cedrone, Laura; Fragola, Giulia; Olsson, Linda; Koseki, Haruhiko; Testa, Giuseppe; Casola, Stefano; Helin, Kristian; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Pasini, Diego

    2014-04-14

    The ability of PRC1 and PRC2 to promote proliferation is a main feature that links polycomb (PcG) activity to cancer. PcGs silence the expression of the tumour suppressor locus Ink4a/Arf, whose products positively regulate pRb and p53 functions. Enhanced PcG activity is a frequent feature of human tumours, and PcG inhibition has been proposed as a strategy for cancer treatment. However, the recurrent inactivation of pRb/p53 responses in human cancers raises a question regarding the ability of PcG proteins to affect cellular proliferation independently from this checkpoint. Here we demonstrate that PRCs regulate cellular proliferation and transformation independently of the Ink4a/Arf-pRb-p53 pathway. We provide evidence that PRCs localize at replication forks, and that loss of their function directly affects the progression and symmetry of DNA replication forks. Thus, we have identified a novel activity by which PcGs can regulate cell proliferation independently of major cell cycle restriction checkpoints.

  20. Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 2 (PSTPIP2), a host membrane-deforming protein, is critical for membranous web formation in hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ti-Chun; Su, Wen-Chi; Huang, Jing-Ying; Chen, Yung-Chia; Jeng, King-Song; Wang, Horng-Dar; Lai, Michael M C

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) reorganizes intracellular membranes to establish sites of replication. How viral and cellular proteins target, bind, and rearrange specific membranes into the replication factory remains a mystery. We used a lentivirus-based RNA interference (RNAi) screening approach to identify the potential cellular factors that are involved in HCV replication. A protein with membrane-deforming activity, proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 2 (PSTPIP2), was identified as a potential factor. Knockdown of PSTPIP2 in HCV subgenomic replicon-harboring and HCV-infected cells was associated with the reduction of HCV protein and RNA expression. PSTPIP2 was localized predominantly in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), which contain the RNA replication complex. PSTPIP2 knockdown caused a significant reduction of the formation of HCV- and NS4B-induced membranous webs. A PSTPIP2 mutant defective in inducing membrane curvature failed to support HCV replication, confirming that the membrane-deforming ability of PSTPIP2 is essential for HCV replication. Taking these results together, we suggest that PSTPIP2 facilitates membrane alterations and is a key player in the formation of the membranous web, which is the site of the HCV replication complex.

  1. The tyrosine kinase Hck is an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication counteracted by the viral vif protein.

    PubMed

    Hassaïne, G; Courcoul, M; Bessou, G; Barthalay, Y; Picard, C; Olive, D; Collette, Y; Vigne, R; Decroly, E

    2001-05-18

    The virus infectivity factor (Vif) protein facilitates the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in primary lymphocytes and macrophages. Its action is strongly dependent on the cellular environment, and it has been proposed that the Vif protein counteracts cellular activities that would otherwise limit HIV-1 replication. Using a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, we identified that Vif binds specifically to the Src homology 3 domain of Hck, a tyrosine kinase from the Src family. The interaction between Vif and the full-length Hck was further assessed by co-precipitation assays in vitro and in human cells. The Vif protein repressed the kinase activity of Hck and was not itself a substrate for Hck phosphorylation. Within one single replication cycle of HIV-1, Hck was able to inhibit the production and the infectivity of vif-deleted virus but not that of wild-type virus. Accordingly, HIV-1 vif- replication was delayed in Jurkat T cell clones stably expressing Hck. Our data demonstrate that Hck controls negatively HIV-1 replication and that this inhibition is suppressed by the expression of Vif. Hck, which is present in monocyte-macrophage cells, represents the first identified cellular inhibitor of HIV-1 replication overcome by Vif.

  2. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie; Cotmore, Susan F.; Tattersall, Peter; Zhao, Haiyan; Tang, Liang

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  3. Roles of serine and threonine residues of mumps virus P protein in viral transcription and replication.

    PubMed

    Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; Elson, Andrew; Li, Zhuo; Zengel, James; He, Biao

    2014-04-01

    Mumps virus (MuV), a paramyxovirus containing a negative-sense nonsegmented RNA genome, is a human pathogen that causes an acute infection with symptoms ranging from parotitis to mild meningitis and severe encephalitis. Vaccination against mumps virus has been effective in reducing mumps cases. However, recently large outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated populations. There is no anti-MuV drug. Understanding replication of MuV may lead to novel antiviral strategies. MuV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase minimally consists of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large protein (L). The P protein is heavily phosphorylated. To investigate the roles of serine (S) and threonine (T) residues of P in viral RNA transcription and replication, P was subjected to mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. P, a 392-amino acid residue protein, has 64 S and T residues. We have found that mutating nine S/T residues significantly reduced and mutating residue T at 101 to A (T101A) significantly enhanced activity in a minigenome system. A recombinant virus containing the P-T101A mutation (rMuV-P-T101A) was recovered and analyzed. rMuV-P-T101A grew to higher titers and had increased protein expression at early time points. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of MuV-P-T101 plays a negative role in viral RNA synthesis. This is the first time that the P protein of a paramyxovirus has been systematically analyzed for S/T residues that are critical for viral RNA synthesis. Mumps virus (MuV) is a reemerging paramyxovirus that caused large outbreaks in the United States, where vaccination coverage is very high. There is no anti-MuV drug. In this work, we have systematically analyzed roles of Ser/Thr residues of MuV P in viral RNA synthesis. We have identified S/T residues of P critical for MuV RNA synthesis and phosphorylation sites that are important for viral RNA synthesis. This work leads to a better understanding of viral RNA synthesis as well as to potential novel strategies to

  4. Roles of Serine and Threonine Residues of Mumps Virus P Protein in Viral Transcription and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, Adrian; Xu, Pei; Elson, Andrew; Li, Zhuo; Zengel, James

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mumps virus (MuV), a paramyxovirus containing a negative-sense nonsegmented RNA genome, is a human pathogen that causes an acute infection with symptoms ranging from parotitis to mild meningitis and severe encephalitis. Vaccination against mumps virus has been effective in reducing mumps cases. However, recently large outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated populations. There is no anti-MuV drug. Understanding replication of MuV may lead to novel antiviral strategies. MuV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase minimally consists of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large protein (L). The P protein is heavily phosphorylated. To investigate the roles of serine (S) and threonine (T) residues of P in viral RNA transcription and replication, P was subjected to mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. P, a 392-amino acid residue protein, has 64 S and T residues. We have found that mutating nine S/T residues significantly reduced and mutating residue T at 101 to A (T101A) significantly enhanced activity in a minigenome system. A recombinant virus containing the P-T101A mutation (rMuV-P-T101A) was recovered and analyzed. rMuV-P-T101A grew to higher titers and had increased protein expression at early time points. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of MuV-P-T101 plays a negative role in viral RNA synthesis. This is the first time that the P protein of a paramyxovirus has been systematically analyzed for S/T residues that are critical for viral RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE Mumps virus (MuV) is a reemerging paramyxovirus that caused large outbreaks in the United States, where vaccination coverage is very high. There is no anti-MuV drug. In this work, we have systematically analyzed roles of Ser/Thr residues of MuV P in viral RNA synthesis. We have identified S/T residues of P critical for MuV RNA synthesis and phosphorylation sites that are important for viral RNA synthesis. This work leads to a better understanding of viral RNA synthesis as well as to potential

  5. Interaction between Geminivirus Replication Protein and the SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme Is Required for Viral Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Durán, Miguel A.; Dallas, Mary B.; Ascencio-Ibañez, José T.; Reyes, Maria Ines; Arroyo-Mateos, Manuel; Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that replicate in nuclei of infected plant cells by using plant DNA polymerases. These viruses encode a protein designated AL1, Rep, or AC1 that is essential for viral replication. AL1 is an oligomeric protein that binds to double-stranded DNA, catalyzes the cleavage and ligation of single-stranded DNA, and induces the accumulation of host replication machinery. It also interacts with several host proteins, including the cell cycle regulator retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR), the DNA replication protein PCNA (proliferating cellular nuclear antigen), and the sumoylation enzyme that conjugates SUMO to target proteins (SUMO-conjugating enzyme [SCE1]). The SCE1-binding motif was mapped by deletion to a region encompassing AL1 amino acids 85 to 114. Alanine mutagenesis of lysine residues in the binding region either reduced or eliminated the interaction with SCE1, but no defects were observed for other AL1 functions, such as oligomerization, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, and interaction with AL3 or RBR. The lysine mutations reduced or abolished virus infectivity in plants and viral DNA accumulation in transient-replication assays, suggesting that the AL1-SCE1 interaction is required for viral DNA replication. Ectopic AL1 expression did not result in broad changes in the sumoylation pattern of plant cells, but specific changes were detected, indicating that AL1 modifies the sumoylation state of selected host proteins. These results established the importance of AL1-SCE1 interactions during geminivirus infection of plants and suggested that AL1 alters the sumoylation of selected host factors to create an environment suitable for viral infection. PMID:21775461

  6. Heat shock protein 72 expression allows permissive replication of oncolytic adenovirus dl1520 (ONYX-015) in rat glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Madara, Jonathan; Krewet, James A; Shah, Maulik

    2005-01-01

    In this study we have made novel observations with regards to potentiation of the tumoricidal activity of the oncolytic adenovirus, dl1520 (ONYX-015) in rat glioblastoma cell lines expressing heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) due to permissive virus replication. ONYX-015 is a conditionally replicating adenovirus that is deleted for the E1B 55 kDA gene product whose normal function is to interact with cell-cycle regulatory proteins to permit virus replication. However, many murine and rodent cell lines are not permissive for adenovirus replication. Previously, it has been reported that the heat shock response is necessary for adenovirus replication and that induction of heat shock proteins is mediated by E1 region gene products. Therefore, we hypothesized that HSP72 expression may allow for permissive replication of ONYX-015 in previously non-permissive cells. Rat glioma cell lines 9L and RT2 were transfected with a plasmids expressing HSP72 or GFP. After infection with ONYX-015, no tumoricidal activity is observed in GFP expressing cell lines despite adequate transduction. In contrast, HSP72 transfected cells show cytopathic effects by 72 hours and greater than 75% loss of viability by 96 hours. Burst assays show active virus replication in the HSP72 expressing cell lines. Therefore, 9L-HSP72 and RT2-HSP72 are ideal models to evaluate the efficacy of ONYX-015 in an immunocompetent rat model. Our study has implications for creating rodent tumor models for pre-clinical studies with E1 region deleted conditionally replicating adenovirus. PMID:15762988

  7. Stem-loop binding protein is a multifaceted cellular regulator of HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Lynne D.; Asara, John M.; Cheruiyot, Collins K.; Lu, Huafei; Wu, Zhijin J.; Newstein, Michael C.; Dooner, Mark S.; Friedman, Jennifer; Lally, Michelle A.; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    A rare subset of HIV-1–infected individuals is able to maintain plasma viral load (VL) at low levels without antiretroviral treatment. Identifying the mechanisms underlying this atypical response to infection may lead to therapeutic advances for treating HIV-1. Here, we developed a proteomic analysis to compare peripheral blood cell proteomes in 20 HIV-1–infected individuals who maintained either high or low VL with the aim of identifying host factors that impact HIV-1 replication. We determined that the levels of multiple histone proteins were markedly decreased in cohorts of individuals with high VL. This reduction was correlated with lower levels of stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), which is known to control histone metabolism. Depletion of cellular SLBP increased promoter engagement with the chromatin structures of the host gene high mobility group protein A1 (HMGA1) and viral long terminal repeat (LTR), which led to higher levels of HIV-1 genomic integration and proviral transcription. Further, we determined that TNF-α regulates expression of SLBP and observed that plasma TNF-α levels in HIV-1–infected individuals correlated directly with VL levels and inversely with cellular SLBP levels. Our findings identify SLBP as a potentially important cellular regulator of HIV-1, thereby establishing a link between histone metabolism, inflammation, and HIV-1 infection. PMID:27454292

  8. Replication protein A subunit 3 and the iron efficiency response in soybean.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Sarah E; O'Rourke, Jamie A; Peiffer, Gregory A; Yin, Tengfei; Majumder, Mahbubul; Zhang, Chunquan; Cianzio, Silvia R; Hill, John H; Cook, Dianne; Whitham, Steven A; Shoemaker, Randy C; Graham, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], iron deficiency results in interveinal chlorosis and decreased photosynthetic capacity, leading to stunting and yield loss. In this study, gene expression analyses investigated the role of soybean replication protein A (RPA) subunits during iron stress. Nine RPA homologs were significantly differentially expressed in response to iron stress in the near isogenic lines (NILs) Clark (iron efficient) and Isoclark (iron inefficient). RPA homologs exhibited opposing expression patterns in the two NILs, with RPA expression significantly repressed during iron deficiency in Clark but induced in Isoclark. We used virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to repress GmRPA3 expression in the iron inefficient line Isoclark and mirror expression in Clark. GmRPA3-silenced plants had improved IDC symptoms and chlorophyll content under iron deficient conditions and also displayed stunted growth regardless of iron availability. RNA-Seq comparing gene expression between GmRPA3-silenced and empty vector plants revealed massive transcriptional reprogramming with differential expression of genes associated with defense, immunity, aging, death, protein modification, protein synthesis, photosynthesis and iron uptake and transport genes. Our findings suggest the iron efficient genotype Clark is able to induce energy controlling pathways, possibly regulated by SnRK1/TOR, to promote nutrient recycling and stress responses in iron deficient conditions.

  9. Conserved amino acids within the N-terminus of the West Nile virus NS4A protein contribute to virus replication, protein stability and membrane proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, R.L.; Mackenzie, J.M.

    2015-07-15

    The West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) NS4A protein is a multifunctional protein involved in many aspects of the virus life-cycle and is a major component of the WNV{sub KUN} replication complex (RC). Previously we identified a conserved region in the C-terminus of NS4A regulating proteolytic processing and RC assembly, and now investigate key conserved residues in the N-terminus of NS4A and their contribution to WNV{sub KUN} replication. Mutation of P13 completely ablated replication, whereas, mutation of P48 and D49, near the first transmembrane helix, and G66 within the helix, showed variable defects in replication, virion secretion and membrane proliferation. Intriguingly, the P48 and G66 NS4A mutants resulted in specific proteasome depletion of NS4A that could in part be rescued with a proteasome inhibitor. Our results suggest that the N-terminus of NS4A contributes to correct folding and stability, essential for facilitating the essential roles of NS4A during replication. - Highlights: • Mutation of Proline13 of the WNV NS4A protein is lethal to replication. • 1st TMB helix of NS4A contributes to protein stability and membrane remodelling. • Unstable mutants of NS4A can be rescued with a proteasome inhibitor. • This study (and of others) contributes to a functional mapping of the NS4A protein.

  10. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins

  11. Interaction of NCOR/SMRT Repressor Complexes with Papillomavirus E8^E2C Proteins Inhibits Viral Replication.

    PubMed

    Dreer, Marcel; Fertey, Jasmin; van de Poel, Saskia; Straub, Elke; Madlung, Johannes; Macek, Boris; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) such as HPV16 and 31 can lead to ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers and HPV types from the beta genus have been implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. HPV replicate as nuclear extrachromosomal plasmids at low copy numbers in undifferentiated cells. HPV16 and 31 mutants have indicated that these viruses express an E8^E2C protein which negatively regulates genome replication. E8^E2C shares the DNA-binding and dimerization domain (E2C) with the essential viral replication activator E2 and the E8 domain replaces the replication/transcription activation domain of E2. The HR-HPV E8 domain is required for inhibiting viral transcription and the replication of the viral origin mediated by viral E1 and E2 proteins. We show now that E8^E2C also limits replication of HPV1, a mu-PV and HPV8, a beta-PV, in normal human keratinocytes. Proteomic analyses identified all NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex components (HDAC3, GPS2, NCoR, SMRT, TBL1 and TBLR1) as co-precipitating host cell proteins for HPV16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments revealed that NCoR/SMRT components interact with HPV1, 8, 16 and 31 E8^E2C proteins in an E8-dependent manner. SiRNA knock-down experiments confirm that NCoR/SMRT components are critical for both the inhibition of transcription and HPV origin replication by E8^E2C proteins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative NCoR fragment activates transcription and replication only from HPV16 and 31 wt but not from mutant genomes encoding NCoR/SMRT-binding deficient E8^E2C proteins. In summary, our data suggest that the repressive function of E8^E2C is highly conserved among HPV and that it is mediated by an E8-dependent interaction with NCoR/SMRT complexes. Our data also indicate for the first time that NCoR/SMRT complexes not only are involved in inhibiting cellular and viral transcription but also in controlling the replication of HPV origins.

  12. Localization of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein and replication protein A on damaged DNA in nucleotide excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Krasikova, Yuliya S.; Rechkunova, Nadejda I.; Maltseva, Ekaterina A.; Petruseva, Irina O.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) and replication protein A (RPA) with damaged DNA in nucleotide excision repair (NER) was studied using model dsDNA and bubble-DNA structure with 5-{3-[6-(carboxyamido-fluoresceinyl)amidocapromoyl]allyl}-dUMP lesions in one strand and containing photoreactive 5-iodo-dUMP residues in defined positions. Interactions of XPA and RPA with damaged and undamaged DNA strands were investigated by DNA–protein photocrosslinking and gel shift analysis. XPA showed two maximums of crosslinking intensities located on the 5′-side from a lesion. RPA mainly localized on undamaged strand of damaged DNA duplex and damaged bubble-DNA structure. These results presented for the first time the direct evidence for the localization of XPA in the 5′-side of the lesion and suggested the key role of XPA orientation in conjunction with RPA binding to undamaged strand for the positioning of the NER preincision complex. The findings supported the mechanism of loading of the heterodimer consisting of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum group F proteins by XPA on the 5′-side from the lesion before damaged strand incision. Importantly, the proper orientation of XPA and RPA in the stage of preincision was achieved in the absence of TFIIH and XPG. PMID:20693538

  13. Interferon-inducible protein SCOTIN interferes with HCV replication through the autolysosomal degradation of NS5A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nari; Kim, Min-Jung; Sung, Pil Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-02-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizes autophagy to promote its propagation. Here we show the autophagy-mediated suppression of HCV replication via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein SCOTIN. SCOTIN overexpression inhibits HCV replication and infectious virion production in cells infected with cell culture-derived HCV. HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein, which is a critical factor for HCV RNA replication, interacts with the IFN-β-inducible protein SCOTIN, which transports NS5A to autophagosomes for degradation. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of SCOTIN on HCV replication is impaired in both ATG7-silenced cells and cells treated with autophagy or lysosomal inhibitors. SCOTIN does not affect the overall flow of autophagy; however, it is a substrate for autophagic degradation. The physical association between the transmembrane/proline-rich domain (TMPRD) of SCOTIN and Domain-II of NS5A is essential for autophagosomal trafficking and NS5A degradation. Altogether, our findings suggest that IFN-β-induced SCOTIN recruits the HCV NS5A protein to autophagosomes for degradation, thereby restricting HCV replication.

  14. Structural Protein VP2 of African Horse Sickness Virus Is Not Essential for Virus Replication In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    van de Water, Sandra G. P.; Potgieter, Christiaan A.; van Rijn, Piet A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Reoviridae family consists of nonenveloped multilayered viruses with a double-stranded RNA genome consisting of 9 to 12 genome segments. The Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family contains African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, which cause notifiable diseases and are spread by biting Culicoides species. Here, we used reverse genetics for AHSV to study the role of outer capsid protein VP2, encoded by genome segment 2 (Seg-2). Expansion of a previously found deletion in Seg-2 indicates that structural protein VP2 of AHSV is not essential for virus replication in vitro. In addition, in-frame replacement of RNA sequences in Seg-2 by that of green fluorescence protein (GFP) resulted in AHSV expressing GFP, which further confirmed that VP2 is not essential for virus replication. In contrast to virus replication without VP2 expression in mammalian cells, virus replication in insect cells was strongly reduced, and virus release from insect cells was completely abolished. Further, the other outer capsid protein, VP5, was not copurified with virions for virus mutants without VP2 expression. AHSV without VP5 expression, however, could not be recovered, indicating that outer capsid protein VP5 is essential for virus replication in vitro. Our results demonstrate for the first time that a structural viral protein is not essential for orbivirus replication in vitro, which opens new possibilities for research on other members of the Reoviridae family. IMPORTANCE Members of the Reoviridae family cause major health problems worldwide, ranging from lethal diarrhea caused by rotavirus in humans to economic losses in livestock production caused by different orbiviruses. The Orbivirus genus contains many virus species, of which bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) cause notifiable diseases according to the World Organization of Animal Health. Recently, it has

  15. The role of accessory proteins in the replication of feline infectious peritonitis virus in peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-03-23

    The ability to productively infect monocytes/macrophages is the most important difference between the low virulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In vitro, the replication of FECV in peripheral blood monocytes always drops after 12h post inoculation, while FIPV sustains its replication in the monocytes from 45% of the cats. The accessory proteins of feline coronaviruses have been speculated to play a prominent role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with attenuated viruses. Still, no functions have been ascribed to them. In order to investigate if the accessory proteins of FIPV are important for sustaining its replication in monocytes, replication kinetics were determined for FIPV 79-1146 and its deletion mutants, lacking either accessory protein open reading frame 3abc (FIPV-Δ3), 7ab (FIPV-Δ7) or both (FIPV-Δ3Δ7). Results showed that the deletion mutants FIPV-Δ7 and FIPV-Δ3Δ7 could not maintain their replication, which was in sharp contrast to wt-FIPV. FIPV-Δ3 could still sustain its replication, but the percentage of infected monocytes was always lower compared to wt-FIPV. In conclusion, this study showed that ORF7 is crucial for FIPV replication in monocytes/macrophages, giving an explanation for its importance in vivo, its role in the development of FIP and its conservation in field strains. The effect of an ORF3 deletion was less pronounced, indicating only a supportive role of ORF3 encoded proteins during the infection of the in vivo target cell by FIPVs.

  16. Dengue virus nonstructural protein 3 redistributes fatty acid synthase to sites of viral replication and increases cellular fatty acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Nicholas S.; Perera, Rushika; Berger, Kristi L.; Khadka, Sudip; LaCount, Douglas J.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Randall, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) modifies cellular membranes to establish its sites of replication. Although the 3D architecture of these structures has recently been described, little is known about the cellular pathways required for their formation and expansion. In this report, we examine the host requirements for DENV replication using a focused RNAi analysis combined with validation studies using pharmacological inhibitors. This approach identified three cellular pathways required for DENV replication: autophagy, actin polymerization, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Further characterization of the viral modulation of fatty acid biosynthesis revealed that a key enzyme in this pathway, fatty acid synthase (FASN), is relocalized to sites of DENV replication. DENV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is responsible for FASN recruitment, inasmuch as (i) NS3 expressed in the absence of other viral proteins colocalizes with FASN and (ii) NS3 interacts with FASN in a two-hybrid assay. There is an associated increase in the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis in DENV-infected cells, and de novo synthesized lipids preferentially cofractionate with DENV RNA. Finally, purified recombinant NS3 stimulates the activity of FASN in vitro. Taken together, these experiments suggest that DENV co-opts the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway to establish its replication complexes. This study provides mechanistic insight into DENV membrane remodeling and highlights the potential for the development of therapeutics that inhibit DENV replication by targeting the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:20855599

  17. In vivo occupancy of mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein supports the strand displacement mode of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Miralles Fusté, Javier; Shi, Yonghong; Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Zhu, Xuefeng; Jemt, Elisabeth; Persson, Örjan; Sabouri, Nasim; Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for proteins required for oxidative phosphorylation, and mutations affecting the genome have been linked to a number of diseases as well as the natural ageing process in mammals. Human mtDNA is replicated by a molecular machinery that is distinct from the nuclear replisome, but there is still no consensus on the exact mode of mtDNA replication. We here demonstrate that the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) directs origin specific initiation of mtDNA replication. MtSSB covers the parental heavy strand, which is displaced during mtDNA replication. MtSSB blocks primer synthesis on the displaced strand and restricts initiation of light-strand mtDNA synthesis to the specific origin of light-strand DNA synthesis (OriL). The in vivo occupancy profile of mtSSB displays a distinct pattern, with the highest levels of mtSSB close to the mitochondrial control region and with a gradual decline towards OriL. The pattern correlates with the replication products expected for the strand displacement mode of mtDNA synthesis, lending strong in vivo support for this debated model for mitochondrial DNA replication.

  18. Replication of Tobamovirus RNA.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2016-08-04

    Tobacco mosaic virus and other tobamoviruses have served as models for studying the mechanisms of viral RNA replication. In tobamoviruses, genomic RNA replication occurs via several steps: (a) synthesis of viral replication proteins by translation of the genomic RNA; (b) translation-coupled binding of the replication proteins to a 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA; (c) recruitment of the genomic RNA by replication proteins onto membranes and formation of a complex with host proteins TOM1 and ARL8; (d) synthesis of complementary (negative-strand) RNA in the complex; and (e) synthesis of progeny genomic RNA. This article reviews current knowledge on tobamovirus RNA replication, particularly regarding how the genomic RNA is specifically selected as a replication template and how the replication proteins are activated. We also focus on the roles of the replication proteins in evading or suppressing host defense systems.

  19. NIRF, a Novel Ubiquitin Ligase, Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication Through Effect on HBV Core Protein and H3 Histones.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guanhua; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Danlin; Xuan, Yanyan; Bai, Lu; Duan, Changzhu

    2015-05-01

    Np95/ICBP90-like RING finger protein (NIRF), a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been shown to interact with HBc and promote its degradation. This study investigated the effects of NIRF on replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the mechanisms. We have shown that NIRF inhibits replication of HBV DNA and secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2 cells transfected with pAAV-HBV1.3. NIRF also inhibits the replication and secretion of HBV in a mouse model that expressed HBV. NIRF reduces acetylation of HBV cccDNA-bound H3 histones. These results showed that NIRF is involved in the HBV replication cycle not only through direct interaction with HBc but also reduces acetylation of HBV cccDNA-bound H3 histones.

  20. Inhibition of HCV Replication by Oxysterol-Binding Protein-Related Protein 4 (ORP4) through Interaction with HCV NS5B and Alteration of Lipid Droplet Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yahong; Liu, Ziqing; Ridgway, Neale D.; Kao, C. Cheng; He, Johnny J.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication involves complex interactions among the 3’x RNA element within the HCV 3’ untranslated region, viral and host proteins. However, many of the host proteins remain unknown. In this study, we devised an RNA affinity chromatography /2D/MASS proteomics strategy and identified nine putative 3’ X-associated host proteins; among them is oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4), a cytoplasmic receptor for oxysterols. We determined the relationship between ORP4 expression and HCV replication. A very low level of constitutive ORP4 expression was detected in hepatocytes. Ectopically expressed ORP4 was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibited luciferase reporter gene expression in HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCV core expression in JFH-1-infected cells. Expression of ORP4S, an ORP4 variant that lacked the N-terminal pleckstrin-homology domain but contained the C-terminal oxysterol-binding domain also inhibited HCV replication, pointing to an important role of the oxysterol-binding domain in ORP4-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. ORP4 was found to associate with HCV NS5B and its expression led to inhibition of the NS5B activity. ORP4 expression had little effect on intracellular lipid synthesis and secretion, but it induced lipid droplet formation in the context of HCV replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ORP4 is a negative regulator of HCV replication, likely via interaction with HCV NS5B in the replication complex and regulation of intracellular lipid homeostasis. This work supports the important role of lipids and their metabolism in HCV replication and pathogenesis. PMID:24069433

  1. Bluetongue Virus Nonstructural Protein NS3/NS3a Is Not Essential for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    van Gennip, René G. P.; van de Water, Sandra G. P.; van Rijn, Piet A.

    2014-01-01

    Orbiviruses form the largest genus of the family Reoviridae consisting of at least 23 different virus species. One of these is the bluetongue virus (BTV) and causes severe hemorrhagic disease in ruminants, and is transmitted by bites of Culicoides midges. BTV is a non-enveloped virus which is released from infected cells by cell lysis and/or a unique budding process induced by nonstructural protein NS3/NS3a encoded by genome segment 10 (Seg-10). Presence of both NS3 and NS3a is highly conserved in Culicoides borne orbiviruses which is suggesting an essential role in virus replication. We used reverse genetics to generate BTV mutants to study the function of NS3/NS3a in virus replication. Initially, BTV with small insertions in Seg-10 showed no CPE but after several passages these BTV mutants reverted to CPE phenotype comparable to wtBTV, and NS3/NS3a expression returned by repair of the ORF. These results show that there is a strong selection for functional NS3/NS3a. To abolish NS3 and/or NS3a expression, Seg-10 with one or two mutated start codons (mutAUG1, mutAUG2 and mutAUG1+2) were used to generate BTV mutants. Surprisingly, all three BTV mutants were generated and the respective AUGMet→GCCAla mutations were maintained. The lack of expression of NS3, NS3a, or both proteins was confirmed by westernblot analysis and immunostaining of infected cells with NS3/NS3a Mabs. Growth of mutAUG1 and mutAUG1+2 virus in BSR cells was retarded in both insect and mammalian cells, and particularly virus release from insect cells was strongly reduced. Our findings now enable research on the role of RNA sequences of Seg-10 independent of known gene products, and on the function of NS3/NS3a proteins in both types of cells as well as in the host and insect vector. PMID:24465709

  2. 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Protein Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication and Is Targeted by the Viral Nonstructural Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Jayeeta; Cuevas, Rolando A; Goswami, Ramansu; Zhu, Jianzhong; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Barik, Sailen

    2015-10-01

    2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein (OASL) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein. Here we describe differential inhibitory activities of human OASL and the two mouse OASL homologs against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication. Interestingly, nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of RSV promoted proteasome-dependent degradation of specific OASL isoforms. We conclude that OASL acts as a cellular antiviral protein and that RSV NS1 suppresses this function to evade cellular innate immunity and allow virus growth.

  3. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Brosey, Chris; Yan, Chunli; Tsutakawa, Susan; Heller, William; Rambo, Robert; Tainer, John; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Chazin, Walter

    2013-01-17

    By coupling the protection and organization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, replication protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA coordinates biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA's DNA-binding activity, combining small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA's DNA-binding core. The scattering data reveal compaction promoted by DNA binding; DNA-free RPA exists in an ensemble of states with inter-domain mobility and becomes progressively more condensed and less dynamic on binding ssDNA. Our results contrast with previous models proposing RPA initially binds ssDNA in a condensed state and becomes more extended as it fully engages the substrate. Moreover, the consensus view that RPA engages ssDNA in initial, intermediate and final stages conflicts with our data revealing that RPA undergoes two (not three) transitions as it binds ssDNA with no evidence for a discrete intermediate state. These results form a framework for understanding how RPA integrates the ssDNA substrate into DNA processing machinery, provides substrate access to its binding partners and promotes the progression and selection of DNA processing pathways.

  4. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Brosey, Chris A; Yan, Chunli; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Heller, William T; Rambo, Robert P; Tainer, John A; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Chazin, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    By coupling the protection and organization of ssDNA with the recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, Replication Protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA manages to coordinate the biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA s DNA binding activity, combining small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA s DNA-binding core. It has been long held that RPA engages ssDNA in three stages, but our data reveal that RPA undergoes two rather than three transitions as it binds ssDNA. In contrast to previous models, RPA is more compact when fully engaged on 20-30 nucleotides of ssDNA than when DNA-free, and there is no evidence for significant population of a highly compacted structure in the initial 8-10 nucleotide binding mode. These results provide a new framework for understanding the integration of ssDNA into DNA processing machinery and how binding partners may manipulate RPA architecture to gain access to the substrate.

  5. Cardiovirus Leader proteins bind exportins: Implications for virus replication and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J; Basta, Holly A; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovirus Leader proteins (LX) inhibit cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by directing host kinases to phosphorylate Phe/Gly-containing nuclear pore proteins (Nups). Resolution of the Mengovirus LM structure bound to Ran GTPase, suggested this complex would further recruit specific exportins (karyopherins), which in turn mediate kinase selection. Pull-down experiments and recombinant complex reconstitution now confirm that Crm1 and CAS exportins form stable dimeric complexes with encephalomyocarditis virus LE, and also larger complexes with LE:Ran. shRNA knockdown studies support this idea. Similar activities could be demonstrated for recombinant LS and LT from Theiloviruses. When mutations were introduced to alter the LE zinc finger domain, acidic domain, or dual phosphorylation sites, there was reduced exportin selection. These regions are not involved in Ran interactions, so the Ran and Crm1 binding sites on LE must be non-overlapping. The involvement of exportins in this mechanism is important to viral replication and the observation of trafficking inhibition by LE.

  6. Archaeal Genome Guardians Give Insights into Eukaryotic DNA Replication and Damage Response Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shin, David S.; Pratt, Ashley J.; Tainer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    As the third domain of life, archaea, like the eukarya and bacteria, must have robust DNA replication and repair complexes to ensure genome fidelity. Archaea moreover display a breadth of unique habitats and characteristics, and structural biologists increasingly appreciate these features. As archaea include extremophiles that can withstand diverse environmental stresses, they provide fundamental systems for understanding enzymes and pathways critical to genome integrity and stress responses. Such archaeal extremophiles provide critical data on the periodic table for life as well as on the biochemical, geochemical, and physical limitations to adaptive strategies allowing organisms to thrive under environmental stress relevant to determining the boundaries for life as we know it. Specifically, archaeal enzyme structures have informed the architecture and mechanisms of key DNA repair proteins and complexes. With added abilities to temperature-trap flexible complexes and reveal core domains of transient and dynamic complexes, these structures provide insights into mechanisms of maintaining genome integrity despite extreme environmental stress. The DNA damage response protein structures noted in this review therefore inform the basis for genome integrity in the face of environmental stress, with implications for all domains of life as well as for biomanufacturing, astrobiology, and medicine. PMID:24701133

  7. Cardiovirus Leader proteins bind exportins: Implications for virus replication and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Basta, Holly A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2016-01-15

    Cardiovirus Leader proteins (L{sub X}) inhibit cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by directing host kinases to phosphorylate Phe/Gly-containing nuclear pore proteins (Nups). Resolution of the Mengovirus L{sub M} structure bound to Ran GTPase, suggested this complex would further recruit specific exportins (karyopherins), which in turn mediate kinase selection. Pull-down experiments and recombinant complex reconstitution now confirm that Crm1 and CAS exportins form stable dimeric complexes with encephalomyocarditis virus L{sub E}, and also larger complexes with L{sub E}:Ran. shRNA knockdown studies support this idea. Similar activities could be demonstrated for recombinant L{sub S} and L{sub T} from Theiloviruses. When mutations were introduced to alter the L{sub E} zinc finger domain, acidic domain, or dual phosphorylation sites, there was reduced exportin selection. These regions are not involved in Ran interactions, so the Ran and Crm1 binding sites on L{sub E} must be non-overlapping. The involvement of exportins in this mechanism is important to viral replication and the observation of trafficking inhibition by L{sub E}.

  8. Cellular COPII Proteins Are Involved in Production of the Vesicles That Form the Poliovirus Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Rust, René C.; Landmann, Lukas; Gosert, Rainer; Tang, Bor Luen; Hong, Wanjin; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Egger, Denise; Bienz, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Poliovirus (PV) replicates its genome in association with membranous vesicles in the cytoplasm of infected cells. To elucidate the origin and mode of formation of PV vesicles, immunofluorescence labeling with antibodies against the viral vesicle marker proteins 2B and 2BC, as well as cellular markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), anterograde transport vesicles, and the Golgi complex, was performed in BT7-H cells. Optical sections obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy were subjected to a deconvolution process to enhance resolution and signal-to-noise ratio and to allow for a three-dimensional representation of labeled membrane structures. The mode of formation of the PV vesicles was, on morphological grounds, similar to the formation of anterograde membrane traffic vesicles in uninfected cells. ER-resident membrane markers were excluded from both types of vesicles, and the COPII components Sec13 and Sec31 were both found to be colocalized on the vesicular surface, indicating the presence of a functional COPII coat. PV vesicle formation during early time points of infection did not involve the Golgi complex. The expression of PV protein 2BC or the entire P2 and P3 genomic region led to the production of vesicles carrying a COPII coat and showing the same mode of formation as vesicles produced after PV infection. These results indicate that PV vesicles are formed at the ER by the cellular COPII budding mechanism and thus are homologous to the vesicles of the anterograde membrane transport pathway. PMID:11559814

  9. Replication Protein A (RPA) deficiency activates the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seok-Won; Jung, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Min

    2016-09-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway regulates DNA inter-strand crosslink (ICL) repair. Despite our greater understanding of the role of FA in ICL repair, its function in the preventing spontaneous genome instability is not well understood. Here, we show that depletion of replication protein A (RPA) activates the FA pathway. RPA1 deficiency increases chromatin recruitment of FA core complex, leading to FANCD2 monoubiquitination (FANCD2-Ub) and foci formation in the absence of DNA damaging agents. Importantly, ATR depletion, but not ATM, abolished RPA1 depletion-induced FANCD2-Ub, suggesting that ATR activation mediated FANCD2-Ub. Interestingly, we found that depletion of hSSB1/2-INTS3, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein complex, induces FANCD2-Ub, like RPA1 depletion. More interestingly, depletion of either RPA1 or INTS3 caused increased accumulation of DNA damage in FA pathway deficient cell lines. Taken together, these results indicate that RPA deficiency induces activation of the FA pathway in an ATR-dependent manner, which may play a role in the genome maintenance.

  10. A Vicilin-Like Seed Storage Protein, PAP85, Is Involved in Tobacco Mosaic Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-En; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Wang, Hsiang-Iu

    2013-01-01

    One striking feature of viruses with RNA genomes is the modification of the host membrane structure during early infection. This process requires both virus- and host-encoded proteins; however, the host factors involved and their role in this process remain largely unknown. On infection with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, the filamentous and tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) converts to aggregations at the early stage and returns to filamentous at the late infectious stage, termed the ER transition. Also, membrane- or vesicle-packaged viral replication complexes (VRCs) are induced early during infection. We used microarray assays to screen the Arabidopsis thaliana gene(s) responding to infection with TMV in the initial infection stage and identified an Arabidopsis gene, PAP85 (annotated as a vicilin-like seed storage protein), with upregulated expression during 0.5 to 6 h of TMV infection. TMV accumulation was reduced in pap85-RNA interference (RNAi) Arabidopsis and restored to wild-type levels when PAP85 was overexpressed in pap85-RNAi Arabidopsis. We did not observe the ER transition in TMV-infected PAP85-knockdown Arabidopsis protoplasts. In addition, TMV accumulation was reduced in PAP85-knockdown protoplasts. VRC accumulation was reduced, but not significantly (P = 0.06), in PAP85-knockdown protoplasts. Coexpression of PAP85 and the TMV main replicase (P126), but not their expression alone in Arabidopsis protoplasts, could induce ER aggregations. PMID:23576511

  11. Cardiovirus Leader proteins bind exportins: implications for virus replication and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J.; Basta, Holly A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovirus Leader proteins (LX) inhibit cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by directing host kinases to phosphorylate Phe/Gly-containing nuclear pore proteins (Nups). Resolution of the Mengovirus LM structure bound to Ran GTPase, suggested this complex would further recruit specific exportins (karyopherins), which in turn mediate kinase selection. Pull-down experiments and recombinant complex reconstitution now confirm that Crm1 and CAS exportins form stable dimeric complexes with encephalomyocarditis virus LE, and also larger complexes with LE:Ran. shRNA knockdown studies support this idea. Similar activities could be demonstrated for recombinant LS and LT from Theiloviruses. When mutations were introduced to alter the LE zinc finger domain, acidic domain, or dual phosphorylation sites, there was reduced exportin selection. These regions are not involved in Ran interactions, so the Ran and Crm1 binding sites on LE must be non-overlapping. The involvement of exportins in this mechanism is important to viral replication and the observation of trafficking inhibition by LE. PMID:26492198

  12. MCMV-mediated Inhibition of the Pro-apoptotic Bak Protein Is Required for Optimal In Vivo Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Peter; Kvansakul, Marc; Voigt, Valentina; Kile, Benjamin T.; Kluck, Ruth M.; Huang, David C. S.; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A.; Andoniou, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Successful replication and transmission of large DNA viruses such as the cytomegaloviruses (CMV) family of viruses depends on the ability to interfere with multiple aspects of the host immune response. Apoptosis functions as a host innate defence mechanism against viral infection, and the capacity to interfere with this process is essential for the replication of many viruses. The Bcl-2 family of proteins are the principle regulators of apoptosis, with two pro-apoptotic members, Bax and Bak, essential for apoptosis to proceed. The m38.5 protein encoded by murine CMV (MCMV) has been identified as Bax-specific inhibitor of apoptosis. Recently, m41.1, a protein product encoded by the m41 open reading frame (ORF) of MCMV, has been shown to inhibit Bak activity in vitro. Here we show that m41.1 is critical for optimal MCMV replication in vivo. Growth of a m41.1 mutant was attenuated in multiple organs, a defect that was not apparent in Bak−/− mice. Thus, m41.1 promotes MCMV replication by inhibiting Bak-dependent apoptosis during in vivo infection. The results show that Bax and Bak mediate non-redundant functions during MCMV infection and that the virus produces distinct inhibitors for each protein to counter the activity of these proteins. PMID:23468630

  13. The nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 targets Newcastle disease virus matrix protein to the nucleoli and facilitates viral replication.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jian; Xu, Haixu; Zhu, Jie; Li, Qunhui; He, Liang; Liu, Huimou; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-03-01

    The cellular nucleolar proteins are reported to facilitate the replication cycles of some human and animal viruses by interaction with viral proteins. In this study, a nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 was identified to interact with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein. We found that NDV M protein accumulated in the nucleolus by binding B23 early in infection, but resulted in the redistribution of B23 from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm later in infection. In vitro binding studies utilizing deletion mutants indicated that amino acids 30-60 of M and amino acids 188-245 of B23 were required for binding. Furthermore, knockdown of B23 by siRNA or overexpression of B23 or M-binding B23-derived polypeptides remarkably reduced cytopathic effect and inhibited NDV replication. Collectively, we show that B23 facilitates NDV replication by targeting M to the nucleolus, demonstrating for the first time a direct role for nucleolar protein B23 in a paramyxovirus replication process.

  14. Crosstalk between DnaA Protein, the Initiator of Escherichia coli Chromosomal Replication, and Acidic Phospholipids Present in Bacterial Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rahul; Fingland, Nicholas; Patil, Digvijay; Sharma, Anjali K.; Crooke, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Anionic (i.e., acidic) phospholipids such as phosphotidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), participate in several cellular functions. Here we review intriguing in vitro and in vivo evidence that suggest emergent roles for acidic phospholipids in regulating DnaA protein-mediated initiation of Escherichia coli chromosomal replication. In vitro acidic phospholipids in a fluid bilayer promote the conversion of inactive ADP-DnaA to replicatively proficient ATP-DnaA, yet both PG and CL also can inhibit the DNA-binding activity of DnaA protein. We discuss how cellular acidic phospholipids may positively and negatively influence the initiation activity of DnaA protein to help assure chromosomal replication occurs once, but only once, per cell-cycle. Fluorescence microscopy has revealed that PG and CL exist in domains located at the cell poles and mid-cell, and several studies link membrane curvature with sub-cellular localization of various integral and peripheral membrane proteins. E. coli DnaA itself is found at the cell membrane and forms helical structures along the longitudinal axis of the cell. We propose that there is cross-talk between acidic phospholipids in the bacterial membrane and DnaA protein as a means to help control the spatial and temporal regulation of chromosomal replication in bacteria. PMID:23595001

  15. Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus 6K2 Protein Hijacks NbPsbO1 for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Chao; Yan, Zhi-Yong; Cheng, De-Jie; Liu, Jin; Tian, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Chang-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Yan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast-bound vesicles are key components in viral replication complexes (VRCs) of potyviruses. The potyviral VRCs are induced by the second 6 kDa protein (6K2) and contain at least viral RNA and nuclear inclusion protein b. To date, no chloroplast protein has been identified to interact with 6K2 and involve in potyvirus replication. In this paper, we showed that the Photosystem II oxygen evolution complex protein of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbPsbO1) was a chloroplast protein interacting with 6K2 of Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) and present in the VRCs. The first 6 kDa protein (6K1) was recruited to VRCs by 6K2 but had no interaction with NbPSbO1. Knockdown of NbPsbO1 gene expression in N. benthamiana plants through virus-induced gene silencing significantly decreased the accumulation levels of TVBMV and another potyvirus Potato virus Y, but not Potato virus X of genus Potexvirus. Amino acid substitutions in 6K2 that disrupted its interaction with NbPsbO1 also affected the replication of TVBMV. NbPsbP1 and NbPsbQ1, two other components of the Photosystem II oxygen evolution complex had no interaction with 6K2 and no effect on TVBMV replication. To conclude, 6K2 recruits 6K1 to VRCs and hijacks chloroplast protein NbPsbO1 to regulate potyvirus replication. PMID:28230184

  16. Resistance of Adenoviral DNA Replication to Aphidicolin Is Dependent on the 72-Kilodalton DNA-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David A.; Hantzopoulos, Petros; Zubay, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Aphidicolin is a highly specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase α and has been most useful for assessing the role of this enzyme in various replication processes (J. A. Huberman, Cell 23:647-648, 1981). Both nuclear DNA replication and simian virus 40 DNA replication are highly sensitive to this drug (Krokan et al., Biochemistry 18:4431-4443, 1979), whereas mitochondrial DNA synthesis is completely insensitive (Zimmerman et al., J. Biol. Chem. 255:11847-11852, 1980). Adenovirus DNA replication is sensitive to aphidicolin, but only at much higher concentrations. These patterns of sensitivity are seen both in vivo and in vitro (Krokan et al., Biochemistry 18:4431-4443, 1979). A temperature-sensitive mutant of adenovirus type 5 known as H5ts125 is able to complete but not initiate new rounds of replication at nonpermissive temperatures (P. C. van der Vliet and J. S. Sussenbach, Virology 67:415-426, 1975). When cells infected with H5ts125 were shifted from permissive (33°C) to nonpermissive (41°C) conditions, the residual DNA synthesis (elongation) showed a striking increase in sensitivity to aphidicolin. The temperature-sensitive mutation of H5ts125 is in the gene for the 72-kilodalton single-stranded DNA-binding protein. This demonstrated that the increased resistance to aphidicolin shown by adenovirus DNA replication was dependent on that protein. It also supports an elongation role for both DNA polymerase α and the 72-kilodalton single-stranded DNA-binding protein in adenovirus DNA replication. Further support for an elongation role of DNA polymerase α came from experiments with permissive temperature conditions and inhibiting levels of aphidicolin in which it was shown that newly initiated strands failed to elongate to completion. Images PMID:6809958

  17. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation of bona fide stress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjie; Dong, Luna; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Hang; Zhang, Pin; Meng, Chunchun; Zhan, Yuan; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Guijun; Liao, Ying; Ding, Chan

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian cells respond to various environmental stressors to form stress granules (SGs) by arresting cytoplasmic mRNA, protein translation element, and RNA binding proteins. Virus-induced SGs function in different ways, depending on the species of virus; however, the mechanism of SG regulation of virus replication is not well understood. In this study, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) triggered stable formation of bona fide SGs on HeLa cells through activating the protein kinase R (PKR)/eIF2α pathway. NDV-induced SGs contained classic SG markers T-cell internal antigen (TIA)-1, Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein (G3BP)-1, eukaryotic initiation factors, and small ribosomal subunit, which could be disassembled in the presence of cycloheximide. Treatment with nocodazole, a microtubule disruption drug, led to the formation of relatively small and circular granules, indicating that NDV infection induces canonical SGs. Furthermore, the role of SGs on NDV replication was investigated by knockdown of TIA-1 and TIA-1-related (TIAR) protein, the 2 critical components involved in SG formation from the HeLa cells, followed by NDV infection. Results showed that depletion of TIA-1 or TIAR inhibited viral protein synthesis, reduced extracellular virus yields, but increased global protein translation. FISH revealed that NDV-induced SGs contained predominantly cellular mRNA rather than viral mRNA. Deletion of TIA-1 or TIAR reduced NP mRNA levels in polysomes. These results demonstrate that NDV triggers stable formation of bona fide SGs, which benefit viral protein translation and virus replication by arresting cellular mRNA.-Sun, Y., Dong, L., Yu, S., Wang, X., Zheng, H., Zhang, P., Meng, C., Zhan, Y., Tan, L., Song, C., Qiu, X., Wang, G., Liao, Y., Ding, C. Newcastle disease virus induces stable formation of bona fide stress granules to facilitate viral replication through manipulating host protein translation.

  18. Moonlighting at replication forks - a new life for homologous recombination proteins BRCA1, BRCA2 and RAD51.

    PubMed

    Kolinjivadi, Arun Mouli; Sannino, Vincenzo; de Antoni, Anna; Técher, Hervé; Baldi, Giorgio; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-12

    Coordination between DNA replication and DNA repair ensures maintenance of genome integrity, which is lost in cancer cells. Emerging evidence has linked homologous recombination (HR) proteins RAD51, BRCA1 and BRCA2 to the stability of nascent DNA. This function appears to be distinct from double-strand break (DSB) repair and is in part due to the prevention of MRE11-mediated degradation of nascent DNA at stalled forks. The role of RAD51 in fork protection resembles the activity described for its prokaryotic orthologue RecA, which prevents nuclease-mediated degradation of DNA and promotes replication fork restart in cells challenged by DNA-damaging agents. Here, we examine the mechanistic aspects of HR-mediated fork protection, addressing the crosstalk between HR and replication proteins.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG Protein but Not RuvAB or RecA Protein Is Efficient at Remodeling the Stalled Replication Forks

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Roshan Singh; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh; Muniyappa, K.; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA replication, defects in the protection, and restart of stalled replication forks are major causes of genome instability in all organisms. Replication fork reversal is emerging as an evolutionarily conserved physiological response for restart of stalled forks. Escherichia coli RecG, RuvAB, and RecA proteins have been shown to reverse the model replication fork structures in vitro. However, the pathways and the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a slow growing human pathogen, responds to different types of replication stress and DNA damage are unclear. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis RecG rescues E. coli ΔrecG cells from replicative stress. The purified M. tuberculosis RecG (MtRecG) and RuvAB (MtRuvAB) proteins catalyze fork reversal of model replication fork structures with and without a leading strand single-stranded DNA gap. Interestingly, single-stranded DNA-binding protein suppresses the MtRecG- and MtRuvAB-mediated fork reversal with substrates that contain lagging strand gap. Notably, our comparative studies with fork structures containing template damage and template switching mechanism of lesion bypass reveal that MtRecG but not MtRuvAB or MtRecA is proficient in driving the fork reversal. Finally, unlike MtRuvAB, we find that MtRecG drives efficient reversal of forks when fork structures are tightly bound by protein. These results provide direct evidence and valuable insights into the underlying mechanism of MtRecG-catalyzed replication fork remodeling and restart pathways in vivo. PMID:26276393

  20. Hfq protein deficiency in Escherichia coli affects ColE1-like but not λ plasmid DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Cech, Grzegorz M; Pakuła, Bartosz; Kamrowska, Dominika; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Arluison, Véronique; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    Hfq is a nucleic acid-binding protein involved in controlling several aspects of RNA metabolism. It achieves this regulatory function by modulating the translational activity and stability of different mRNAs, generally via interactions with stress-related small regulatory sRNAs. However, besides its role in the coordination of translation of bacterial mRNA, Hfq is also a nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein. Motivated by the above property of Hfq, we investigated if hfq gene mutation has implications for the regulation of DNA replication. Efficiency of ColE1-like (pMB1- and p15A replicons) and bacteriophage λ-derived plasmids' replication has been investigated in wild-type strain and otherwise isogenic hfq mutant of Escherichia coli. Significant differences in plasmid amount and kinetics of plasmid DNA synthesis were observed between the two tested bacterial hosts for ColE1-like replicons, but not for λ plasmid. Furthermore, ColE1-like plasmids replicated more efficiently in wild-type cells than in the hfq mutant in the early exponential phase of growth, but less efficiently in late exponential and early stationary phases. Hfq levels in the wild-type host, estimated by Western-blotting, were increased at the latter phases relative to the former one. Moreover, effects of the hfq mutation on ColE1-like plasmid replication were impaired in the absence of the rom gene, coding for a protein enhancing RNA I-RNA II interactions during the control of the replication initiation. These results are discussed in the light of a potential mechanism by which Hfq protein may influence replication of some, but not all, replicons in E. coli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of clindamycin on intracellular replication, protein synthesis, and infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Blais, J; Tardif, C; Chamberland, S

    1993-12-01

    We studied the effects of clindamycin and a combination of clindamycin and pyrimethamine on the proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured mammalian cells and the effect of clindamycin on the parasite's RNA and protein syntheses. Infected macrophages were treated for 48 h with clindamycin or a combination of clindamycin and pyrimethamine, and the 50% inhibitory concentrations for parasite growth were 32.50 +/- 1.30 and 10.78 +/- 0.56 micrograms/ml, respectively. A modified susceptibility assay was also used to measure the effect of low concentrations of clindamycin on T. gondii. Macrophages and bovine turbinate cells were infected with low numbers of tachyzoites and were exposed to low concentrations of clindamycin for 5 days. In these systems, a concentration of 10 ng of clindamycin per ml inhibited 50% of the growth of the parasite in macrophages, while it completely prohibited the growth of the parasite in epithelial cells. When free tachyzoites were preexposed to clindamycin for 4 h, the reduction of parasite infectivity was proportional to the amount of drug; 100 ng of clindamycin per ml reduced the infectivity of T. gondii to 46.5% +/- 8.5% of that of the untreated control. A concentration of 40 micrograms of clindamycin per ml reduced protein synthesis by 56.2% +/- 6.0% but had no effect on RNA synthesis after a 4-h exposure of free tachyzoites of T. gondii to the drug. Our results show that long-term exposure to low concentrations of clindamycin reduces the level of replication of T. gondii, that clindamycin affects the protein synthesis of free parasites, and that clindamycin impairs the ability of tachyzoites to infect host cells.

  2. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C.; Agnes, J. T.; Behrens, N.; Tagawa, Y.; Gershwin, L. J.; Corbeil, L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS) stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2—RSAD2) and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15—ubiquitin-like modifier) were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT) upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt) does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo. PMID:26859677

  3. Two homologous host proteins interact with potato virus X RNAs and CPs and affect viral replication and movement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-06-29

    Because viruses encode only a small number of proteins, all steps of virus infection rely on specific interactions between viruses and hosts. We previously screened several Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) proteins that interact with the stem-loop 1 (SL1) RNA structure located at the 5' end of the potato virus X (PVX) genome. In this study, we characterized two of these proteins (NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b), which are homologous and are induced upon PVX infection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that both proteins bind to either SL1(+) or SL1(-) RNAs of PVX. The two proteins also interact with the PVX capsid protein (CP) in planta. Overexpression of NbCPIP2a positively regulated systemic movement of PVX in N. benthamiana, whereas NbCPIP2b overexpression did not affect systemic movement of PVX. Transient overexpression and silencing experiments demonstrated that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b are positive regulators of PVX replication and that the effect on replication was greater for NbCPIP2a than for NbCPIP2b. Although these two host proteins are associated with plasma membranes, PVX infection did not affect their subcellular localization. Taken together, these results indicate that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b specifically bind to PVX SL1 RNAs as well as to CP and enhance PVX replication and movement.

  4. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA. PMID:27599637

  5. Cellular proteins bind to the downstream component of the lytic origin of DNA replication of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gruffat, H; Renner, O; Pich, D; Hammerschmidt, W

    1995-01-01

    The lytic origin of DNA replication of Epstein-Barr virus, oriLyt, is a complex eukaryotic origin which is activated during the lytic phase of the viral life cycle. It consists of at least two independent cis-acting components, one of which plays a dual role in transcription and DNA replication. The binding of the viral factor BZLF1, a member of the AP1 family of transcription factors, to this upstream component is crucial for oriLyt function (A. Schepers, D. Pich, and W. Hammerschmidt, EMBO J. 12:3921-3929, 1993). The second cis-acting element, the downstream component of oriLyt, is equally indispensable; however, its function is unknown. In this study, the downstream component was found to be the binding target of several cellular proteins. One could be identified as Sp1 or as a related protein which binds twice to the downstream component of oriLyt. Mutational analysis indicated that Sp1 alone is not directly involved in mediating DNA replication; however, other factors which share the same binding sequence or bind closely to one of the Sp1 binding sites are likely candidates to contribute to a replication protein complex at the downstream component of oriLyt. The sequence requirements for the downstream component are remarkably stringent, indicating that at least one of the putative factors is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein which is required for the activation of oriLyt. PMID:7853529

  6. Are the SSB-Interacting Proteins RecO, RecG, PriA and the DnaB-Interacting Protein Rep Bound to Progressing Replication Forks in Escherichia coli?

    PubMed Central

    Matelot, Mélody; Allemand, Jean-François; Michel, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    In all organisms several enzymes that are needed upon replication impediment are targeted to replication forks by interaction with a replication protein. In most cases these proteins interact with the polymerase clamp or with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB). In Escherichia coli an accessory replicative helicase was also shown to interact with the DnaB replicative helicase. Here we have used cytological observation of Venus fluorescent fusion proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in live E. coli cells to determine whether DNA repair and replication restart proteins that interact with a replication protein travel with replication forks. A custom-made microscope that detects active replisome molecules provided that they are present in at least three copies was used. Neither the recombination proteins RecO and RecG, nor the replication accessory helicase Rep are detected specifically in replicating cells in our assay, indicating that either they are not present at progressing replication forks or they are present in less than three copies. The Venus-PriA fusion protein formed foci even in the absence of replication forks, which prevented us from reaching a conclusion. PMID:26244508

  7. Heat shock protein 90 is essential for replication of porcine circovirus type 2 in PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xuliang; Ma, Chang; You, Jinwei; Dong, Min; Yun, Shifeng; Jiang, Ping

    2016-09-15

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as the causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). However, the mechanism of PCV2 replication has not been understood completely. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an important role in viral genome replication, viral genes expression, and viral particle packaging. In this study, we firstly found that inhibition of Hsp90 by pretreatment of host cells with 17-AAG, a specific inhibitor of Hsp90, or blocking Hsp90α/Hsp90β with siRNA, resulted in significantly reduced viral replication in PK-15 cells. But inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-AAG did not affect PCV2 entry into the host cells. Meanwhile, over-expression of Hsp90α/Hsp90β enhanced PCV2 genome replication and virion production. In addition, Hsp90β was enriched in the nuclear zone in the cells infected with PCV2. But it did not interact with the viral Cap/Rep proteins. It suggested that Hsp90 is required for PCV2 production in PK-15 cells culture. It should be helpful for further evaluating the mechanism of replication and pathogenesis of PCV2 and developing novel antiviral therapies.

  8. Strand-Specific Analysis Shows Protein Binding at Replication Forks and PCNA Unloading from Lagging Strands when Forks Stall

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhe; Gan, Haiyun; Han, Junhong; Zhou, Zhi-Xiong; Jia, Shaodong; Chabes, Andrei; Farrugia, Gianrico; Ordog, Tamas; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication proceeds with continuous synthesis of leading-strand DNA and discontinuous synthesis of lagging-strand DNA. Here we describe a method, eSPAN (enrichment and sequencing of protein-associated nascent DNA), which reveals the genome-wide association of proteins with leading and lagging strands of DNA replication forks. Using this approach in budding yeast, we confirm the strand specificities of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and show that the PCNA clamp is enriched at lagging strands compared with leading-strand replication. Surprisingly, at stalled forks, PCNA is unloaded specifically from lagging strands. PCNA unloading depends on the Elg1-containing alternative RFC complex, ubiquitination of PCNA, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53. Cells deficient in PCNA unloading exhibit increased chromosome breaks. Our studies provide a tool for studying replication-related processes and reveal a mechanism whereby checkpoint kinases regulate strand-specific unloading of PCNA from stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability. PMID:25449133

  9. A telomerase-associated RecQ protein-like helicase resolves telomeric G-quadruplex structures during replication.

    PubMed

    Postberg, Jan; Tsytlonok, Maksym; Sparvoli, Daniela; Rhodes, Daniela; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-04-15

    It is well established that G-quadruplex DNA structures form at ciliate telomeres and their formation throughout the cell-cycle by telomere-end-binding proteins (TEBPs) has been analyzed. During replication telomeric G-quadruplex structure has to be resolved to allow telomere replication by telomerase. It was shown that both phosphorylation of TEBPβ and binding of telomerase are prerequisites for this process, but probably not sufficient to unfold G-quadruplex structure in timely manner to allow replication to proceed. Here we describe a RecQ-like helicase required for unfolding of G-quadruplex structures in vivo. This helicase is highly reminiscent of human RecQ protein-like 4 helicase as well as other RecQ-like helicase found in various eukaryotes and E. coli. In situ analyses combined with specific silencing of either the telomerase or the helicase by RNAi and co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that this helicase is associated with telomerase during replication and becomes recruited to telomeres by this enzyme. In vitro assays showed that a nuclear extract prepared from cells in S-phase containing both the telomerase as well as the helicase resolves telomeric G-quadruplex structure. This finding can be incorporated into a mechanistic model about the replication of telomeric G-quadruplex structures during the cell cycle.

  10. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1) mediates replicative senescence-associated aberrant collagen homeostasis in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2012-09-01

    Dermal fibroblasts produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix, which confers mechanical strength and resiliency to human skin. During aging, collagen production is reduced and collagen fragmentation is increased, which is initiated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). This aberrant collagen homeostasis results in net collagen deficiency, which impairs the structural integrity and function of skin. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), a member of the CCN family, negatively regulates collagen homeostasis, in primary human skin dermal fibroblasts. As replicative senescence is a form of cellular aging, we have utilized replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts to further investigate the connection between elevated CCN1 and aberrant collagen homeostasis. CCN1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts. Replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts also expressed significantly reduced levels of type I procollagen and increased levels of MMP-1. Knockdown of elevated CCN1 in senescent dermal fibroblasts partially normalized both type I procollagen and MMP-1 expression. These data further support a key role of CCN1 in regulation of collagen homeostasis. Elevated expression of CCN1 substantially increased collagen lattice contraction and fragmentation caused by replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) further revealed collagen fibril fragmentation and disorganization were largely prevented by knockdown of CCN1 in replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts, suggesting CCN1 mediates MMP-1-induced alterations of collagen fibrils by replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts. Given the ability of CCN1 to regulate both production and degradation of type I collagen, it is likely that elevated-CCN1 functions as an important mediator of collagen loss, which is observed in aged human skin.

  11. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  12. Nuclear Envelope Protein SUN2 Promotes Cyclophilin-A-Dependent Steps of HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Lahaye, Xavier; Satoh, Takeshi; Gentili, Matteo; Cerboni, Silvia; Silvin, Aymeric; Conrad, Cécile; Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Rodriguez, Elisa C.; Guichou, Jean-François; Bosquet, Nathalie; Piel, Matthieu; Le Grand, Roger; King, Megan C.; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Manel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the early phase of replication, HIV reverse transcribes its RNA and crosses the nuclear envelope while escaping host antiviral defenses. The host factor Cyclophilin A (CypA) is essential for these steps and binds the HIV capsid; however, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we identify related capsid mutants in HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIVmac that are restricted by CypA. This antiviral restriction of mutated viruses is conserved across species and prevents nuclear import of the viral cDNA. Importantly, the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN2 is required for the antiviral activity of CypA. We show that wild-type HIV exploits SUN2 in primary CD4+ T cells as an essential host factor that is required for the positive effects of CypA on reverse transcription and infection. Altogether, these results establish essential CypA-dependent functions of SUN2 in HIV infection at the nuclear envelope. PMID:27149839

  13. Murine guanylate binding protein 2 (mGBP2) controls Toxoplasma gondii replication.

    PubMed

    Degrandi, Daniel; Kravets, Elisabeth; Konermann, Carolin; Beuter-Gunia, Cornelia; Klümpers, Verena; Lahme, Sarah; Wischmann, Eva; Mausberg, Anne K; Beer-Hammer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Klaus

    2013-01-02

    IFN-γ orchestrates the host response against intracellular pathogens. Members of the guanylate binding proteins (GBP) comprise the most abundant IFN-γ-induced transcriptional response. mGBPs are GTPases that are specifically up-regulated by IFN-γ, other proinflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor agonists, as well as in response to Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii infection. mGBP2 localizes at the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) of T. gondii; however, the molecular function of mGBP2 and its domains in T. gondii infection is not known. Here, we show that mGBP2 is highly expressed in several cell types, including T and B cells after stimulation. We provide evidence that the C-terminal domain is sufficient and essential for recruitment to the T. gondii PV. Functionally, mGBP2 reduces T. gondii proliferation because mGBP2-deficient cells display defects in the replication control of T. gondii. Ultimately, mGBP2-deficient mice reveal a marked immune susceptibility to T. gondii. Taken together, mGBP2 is an essential immune effector molecule mediating antiparasitic resistance.

  14. Diverse circular replication-associated protein encoding viruses circulating in invertebrates within a lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dayaram, Anisha; Galatowitsch, Mark L; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Harding, Jon S; Roumagnac, Philippe; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Over the last five years next-generation sequencing has become a cost effective and efficient method for identifying known and unknown microorganisms. Access to this technique has dramatically changed the field of virology, enabling a wide range of environmental viral metagenome studies to be undertaken of organisms and environmental samples from polar to tropical regions. These studies have led to the discovery of hundreds of highly divergent single stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus-like sequences encoding replication-associated proteins. Yet, few studies have explored how viruses might be shared in an ecosystem through feeding relationships. Here we identify 169 circular molecules (160 CRESS DNA molecules, nine circular molecules) recovered from a New Zealand freshwater lake, that we have tentatively classified into 51 putatively novel species and five previously described species (DflaCV-3, -5, -6, -8, -10). The CRESS DNA viruses identified in this study were recovered from molluscs (Echyridella menzeisii, Musculium novaezelandiae, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Physella acuta) and insect larvae (Procordulia grayi, Xanthocnemis zealandica, and Chironomus zealandicus) collected from Lake Sarah, as well as from the lake water and benthic sediments. Extensive diversity was observed across most CRESS DNA molecules recovered. The putative capsid protein of one viral species was found to be most similar to those of members of the Tombusviridae family, thus expanding the number of known RNA-DNA hybrid viruses in nature. We noted a strong association between the CRESS DNA viruses and circular molecules identified in the water and browser organisms (C. zealandicus, P. antipodarum and P. acuta), and between water sediments and undefended prey species (C. zealandicus). However, we were unable to find any significant correlation of viral assemblages to the potential feeding relationships of the host aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The TPR Domain in the Host Cyp40-like Cyclophilin Binds to the Viral Replication Protein and Inhibits the Assembly of the Tombusviral Replicase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Qin, Jun; Nagy, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses is greatly affected by numerous host-coded proteins acting either as susceptibility or resistance factors. Previous genome-wide screens and global proteomics approaches with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host revealed the involvement of cyclophilins, which are a large family of host prolyl isomerases, in TBSV replication. In this paper, we identified those members of the large cyclophilin family that interacted with the viral replication proteins and inhibited TBSV replication. Further characterization of the most effective cyclophilin, the Cyp40-like Cpr7p, revealed that it strongly inhibits many steps during TBSV replication in a cell-free replication assay. These steps include viral RNA recruitment inhibited via binding of Cpr7p to the RNA-binding region of the viral replication protein; the assembly of the viral replicase complex and viral RNA synthesis. Since the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeats) domain, but not the catalytic domain of Cpr7p is needed for the inhibitory effect on TBSV replication, it seems that the chaperone activity of Cpr7p provides the negative regulatory function. We also show that three Cyp40-like proteins from plants can inhibit TBSV replication in vitro and Cpr7p is also effective against Nodamura virus, an insect pathogen. Overall, the current work revealed a role for Cyp40-like proteins and their TPR domains as regulators of RNA virus replication. PMID:22346747

  16. Development of an insect vector cell culture and RNA interference system to investigate the functional role of fijivirus replication protein.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Zheng, Ailing; Chen, Qian; Liu, Qifei; Xie, Lianhui; Wu, Zujian; Wei, Taiyun

    2012-05-01

    An in vitro culture system of primary cells from white-backed planthopper, an insect vector of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus, was established to study replication of the virus. Viroplasms, putative sites of viral replication, contained the nonstructural viral protein P9-1, viral RNA, outer-capsid proteins, and viral particles in virus-infected cultured insect vector cells, as revealed by transmission electron and confocal microscopy. Formation of viroplasm-like structures in non-host insect cells upon expression of P9-1 suggested that the matrix of viroplasms observed in virus-infected cells was composed basically of P9-1. In cultured insect vector cells, knockdown of P9-1 expression due to RNA interference (RNAi) induced by synthesized double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from the P9-1 gene strongly inhibited viroplasm formation and viral infection. RNAi induced by ingestion of dsRNA strongly abolished viroplasm formation, preventing efficient viral spread in the body of intact vector insects. All these results demonstrated that P9-1 was essential for viroplasm formation and viral replication. This system, combining insect vector cell culture and RNA interference, can further advance our understanding of the biological activities of fijivirus replication proteins.

  17. The interaction between the hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication.

    PubMed

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H

    2015-01-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B-NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits.

  18. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein is downregulated in response to Newcastle disease virus infection to promote viral replication.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renfu; Liu, Xinxin; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Guangyao; Zhang, Pingze; Meng, Xin; Ai, Lili; Xu, Rongyi; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a severe and economically significant disease affecting almost the entire poultry industry worldwide. However, factors that affect NDV replication in host cells are poorly understood. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of c-RAF kinase and NF-κB signalling, known for their functions in the control of immune response as well as tumour invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of overexpression of host RKIP during viral infection. We demonstrate that NDV infection represses RKIP expression thereby promoting virus replication. Experimental upregulation of RKIP in turn acts as a potential antiviral defence mechanism in host cells that restricts NDV replication by repressing the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK and IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathways. Our results not only extend the concept of linking NDV-host interactions, but also reveal RKIP as a new class of protein-kinase-inhibitor protein that affects NDV replication with therapeutic potential.

  19. The interaction between the Hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S.; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B–NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits. PMID:25462354

  20. Autoantibodies against the replication protein A complex in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Yoshioki; Narain, Sonali; Hernandez, Liza; Barker, Tolga; Ikeda, Keigo; Segal, Mark S; Richards, Hanno B; Chan, Edward KL; Reeves, Westley H; Satoh, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), a heterotrimer with subunits of molecular masses 70, 32, and 14 kDa, is a single-stranded-DNA-binding factor involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. There have been only three reported cases of anti-RPA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren syndrome (SjS). This study sought to clarify the clinical significance of autoantibodies against RPA. Sera from 1,119 patients enrolled during the period 2000 to 2005 were screened by immunoprecipitation (IP) of 35S-labeled K562 cell extract. Antigen-capture ELISA with anti-RPA32 mAb, immunofluorescent antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and western blot analysis with purified RPA were also performed. Our results show that nine sera immunoprecipitated the RPA70–RPA32–RPA14 complex and all were strongly positive by ELISA (titers 1:62,500 to 1:312,500). No additional sera were positive by ELISA and subsequently confirmed by IP or western blotting. All sera showed fine speckled/homogeneous nuclear staining. Anti-RPA was found in 1.4% (4/276) of SLE and 2.5% (1/40) of SjS sera, but not in rheumatoid arthritis (0/35), systemic sclerosis (0/47), or polymyositis/dermatomyositis (0/43). Eight of nine patients were female and there was no racial predilection. Other positive patients had interstitial lung disease, autoimmune thyroiditis/hepatitis C virus/pernicious anemia, or an unknown diagnosis. Autoantibody specificities found in up to 40% of SLE and other diseases, such as anti-nRNP, anti-Sm, anti-Ro, and anti-La, were unusual in anti-RPA-positive sera. Only one of nine had anti-Ro, and zero of nine had anti-nRNP, anti-Sm, anti-La, or anti-ribosomal P antibodies. In summary, high titers of anti-RPA antibodies were found in nine patients (1.4% of SLE and other diseases). Other autoantibodies found in SLE were rare in this subset, suggesting that patients with anti-RPA may form a unique clinical and immunological subset. PMID:16846524

  1. Genetic analysis of the Replication Protein A large subunit family in Arabidopsis reveals unique and overlapping roles in DNA repair, meiosis and DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Aklilu, Behailu B.; Soderquist, Ryan S.; Culligan, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein complex that binds single-stranded DNA. In plants, multiple genes encode the three RPA subunits (RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3), including five RPA1-like genes in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests two distinct groups composed of RPA1A, RPA1C, RPA1E (ACE group) and RPA1B, RPA1D (BD group). ACE-group members are transcriptionally induced by ionizing radiation, while BD-group members show higher basal transcription and are not induced by ionizing radiation. Analysis of rpa1 T-DNA insertion mutants demonstrates that although each mutant line is likely null, all mutant lines are viable and display normal vegetative growth. The rpa1c and rpa1e single mutants however display hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation, and combination of rpa1c and rpa1e results in additive hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents. Combination of the partially sterile rpa1a with rpa1c results in complete sterility, incomplete synapsis and meiotic chromosome fragmentation, suggesting an early role for RPA1C in promoting homologous recombination. Combination of either rpa1c and/or rpa1e with atr revealed additive hypersensitivity phenotypes consistent with each functioning in unique repair pathways. In contrast, rpa1b rpa1d double mutant plants display slow growth and developmental defects under non-damaging conditions. We show these defects in the rpa1b rpa1d mutant are likely the result of defective DNA replication leading to reduction in cell division. PMID:24335281

  2. Soluble expression and complex formation of proteins required for HCMV DNA replication using the SFV expression system.

    PubMed

    McCue, L A; Anders, D G

    1998-08-01

    Several of the viral proteins required for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA replication have been difficult to study due to their low abundance in infected cells and low solubility in bacterial or insect-cell expression systems. Therefore we used the Semliki Forest virus expression system to express these proteins in mammalian cells. All of the recombinant proteins were soluble, on the basis of ultracentrifugation properties and their ability to be immunoprecipitated from solution with specific antibodies. Pulse-chase analysis of the 86-kDa major immediate-early protein (IE86) revealed two expressed forms-a precursor and a product-indicating that this recombinant protein, like the native HCMV protein, is posttranslationally processed. The recombinant proteins (polymerase core and accessory as well as the IE86 and pUL84) formed stable complexes similar to those known to form in HCMV-infected cells. The recombinant DNA polymerase holoenzyme also exhibited enzyme activity that was phosphonoformic acid sensitive, as is the infected-cell DNA polymerase activity. This expression system offers many advantages for the expression and study of the HCMV replication proteins, including the expression of soluble, active proteins that are able to interact to form complexes. Additionally, the relative ease with which SFV recombinants can be made lends itself to the construction and evaluation of mutants.

  3. Geminin Inhibits a Late Step in the Formation of Human Pre-replicative Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Lu, Wenyan; Santos, Ruth E.; Frattini, Mark G.; Kelly, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The initial step in initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication involves the assembly of pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) at origins of replication during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In metazoans initiation is inhibited by the regulatory factor Geminin. We have purified the human pre-RC proteins, studied their interactions in vitro with each other and with origin DNA, and analyzed the effects of HsGeminin on formation of DNA-protein complexes. The formation of an initial complex containing the human origin recognition complex (HsORC), HsCdt1, HsCdc6, and origin DNA is cooperative, involving all possible binary interactions among the components. Maximal association of HsMCM2–7, a component of the replicative helicase, requires HsORC, HsCdc6, HsCdt1, and ATP, and is driven by interactions of HsCdt1 and HsCdc6 with multiple HsMCM2–7 subunits. Formation of stable complexes, resistant to high salt, requires ATP hydrolysis. In the absence of HsMCM proteins, HsGeminin inhibits the association of HsCdt1 with DNA or with HsORC-HsCdc6-DNA complexes. However, HsGeminin does not inhibit recruitment of HsMCM2–7 to DNA to form complexes containing all of the pre-RC proteins. In fact, HsGeminin itself is a component of such complexes, and interacts directly with the HsMcm3 and HsMcm5 subunits of HsMCM2–7, as well as with HsCdt1. Although HsGeminin does not prevent the initial formation of DNA-protein complexes containing the pre-RC proteins, it strongly inhibits the formation of stable pre-RCs that are resistant to high salt. We suggest that bound HsGeminin prevents transition of the pre-RC to a state that is competent for initiation of DNA replication. PMID:25231993

  4. Viral Replication Protein Inhibits Cellular Cofilin Actin Depolymerization Factor to Regulate the Actin Network and Promote Viral Replicase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Barajas, Daniel; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses exploit host cells by co-opting host factors and lipids and escaping host antiviral responses. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in the model host yeast have identified 18 cellular genes that are part of the actin network. In this paper, we show that the p33 viral replication factor interacts with the cellular cofilin (Cof1p), which is an actin depolymerization factor. Using temperature-sensitive (ts) Cof1p or actin (Act1p) mutants at a semi-permissive temperature, we find an increased level of TBSV RNA accumulation in yeast cells and elevated in vitro activity of the tombusvirus replicase. We show that the large p33 containing replication organelle-like structures are located in the close vicinity of actin patches in yeast cells or around actin cable hubs in infected plant cells. Therefore, the actin filaments could be involved in VRC assembly and the formation of large viral replication compartments containing many individual VRCs. Moreover, we show that the actin network affects the recruitment of viral and cellular components, including oxysterol binding proteins and VAP proteins to form membrane contact sites for efficient transfer of sterols to the sites of replication. Altogether, the emerging picture is that TBSV, via direct interaction between the p33 replication protein and Cof1p, controls cofilin activities to obstruct the dynamic actin network that leads to efficient subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. In summary, the discovery that TBSV interacts with cellular cofilin and blocks the severing of existing filaments and the formation of new actin filaments in infected cells opens a new window to unravel the way by which viruses could subvert/co-opt cellular proteins and lipids. By regulating the functions of cofilin and the actin network, which are central nodes in cellular pathways, viruses could gain supremacy in subversion of cellular factors for pro-viral functions. PMID:26863541

  5. The inhibitor of DNA replication encoded by the Drosophila gene plutonium is a small, ankyrin repeat protein.

    PubMed Central

    Axton, J M; Shamanski, F L; Young, L M; Henderson, D S; Boyd, J B; Orr-Weaver, T L

    1994-01-01

    The plutonium (plu) gene product controls DNA replication early in Drosophila development. plu mutant females lay unfertilized eggs that have undergone extensive DNA synthesis. In fertilized embryos from plu mutant mothers, S-phase is uncoupled from mitosis. The gene is expressed only in ovaries and embryos, null alleles are strict maternal effect mutations, and the phenotype of inappropriate DNA replication is the consequence of loss-of-gene function. plu therefore negatively regulates S-phase at a time in early development when commitment to S-phase does not depend on cyclic transcription. plu encodes a protein with two ankyrin-like repeats, a domain for protein-protein interaction. plu is immediately adjacent to, but distinct from, the PCNA gene. Images PMID:8313891

  6. Coat Protein Regulation by CK2, CPIP, HSP70, and CHIP Is Required for Potato Virus A Replication and Coat Protein Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Andres; Hafrén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We demonstrate here that both coat protein (CP) phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 and a chaperone system formed by two heat shock proteins, CP-interacting protein (CPIP) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), are essential for potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) replication and that all these host proteins have the capacity to contribute to the level of PVA CP accumulation. An E3 ubiquitin ligase called carboxyl terminus Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), which may participate in the CPIP-HSP70-mediated CP degradation, is also needed for robust PVA gene expression. Residue Thr243 within the CK2 consensus sequence of PVA CP was found to be essential for viral replication and to regulate CP protein stability. Substitution of Thr243 either with a phosphorylation-mimicking Asp (CPADA) or with a phosphorylation-deficient Ala (CPAAA) residue in CP expressed from viral RNA limited PVA gene expression to the level of nonreplicating PVA. We found that both the CPAAA mutant and CK2 silencing inhibited, whereas CPADA mutant and overexpression of CK2 increased, PVA translation. From our previous studies, we know that phosphorylation reduces the RNA binding capacity of PVA CP and an excess of CP fully blocks viral RNA translation. Together, these findings suggest that binding by nonphosphorylated PVA CP represses viral RNA translation, involving further CP phosphorylation and CPIP-HSP70 chaperone activities as prerequisites for PVA replication. We propose that this mechanism contributes to shifting potyvirus RNA from translation to replication. IMPORTANCE Host protein kinase CK2, two host chaperones, CPIP and HSP70, and viral coat protein (CP) phosphorylation at Thr243 are needed for potato virus A (PVA) replication. Our results show that nonphosphorylated CP blocks viral translation, likely via binding to viral RNA. We propose that this translational block is needed to allow time and space for the formation of potyviral replication complex around the 3′ end of

  7. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-03

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus.

  8. TrxG and PcG proteins but not methylated histones remain associated with DNA through replication

    PubMed Central

    Petruk, Svetlana; Sedkov, Yurii; Johnston, Danika M.; Hodgson, Jacob W.; Black, Kathryn L.; Kovermann, Sina K.; Beck, Samantha; Canaani, Eli; Brock, Hugh W.; Mazo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary Propagation of gene expression patterns through the cell cycle requires the existence of an epigenetic mark that re-establishes the chromatin architecture of the parental cell in the daughter cells. We devised assays to determine which potential epigenetic marks associate with epigenetic maintenance elements during DNA replication in Drosophila embryos. Histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 or 27 are present during transcription, but surprisingly are replaced by non-methylated H3 following DNA replication. Methylated H3 is detected on DNA only in nuclei not in S phase. In contrast, the TrxG and PcG proteins Trithorax and Enhancer-of-Zeste that are H3K4 and H3K27 methylases, and Polycomb continuously associate with their response elements on the newly replicated DNA. We suggest that histone modification enzymes may re-establish the histone code on newly assembled unmethylated histones, and thus may act as epigenetic marks. PMID:22921915

  9. Signals in the phi 29 DNA-terminal protein template for the initiation of phage phi 29 DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J; Vinós, J; Prieto, I; Méndez, E; Hermoso, J M; Salas, M

    1986-12-01

    The protein-free terminal fragments HindIII B and L, from the left and right ends of phi 29 DNA, respectively, but not internal fragments of similar size, were active as templates in the formation of the p3-dAMP initiation complex in an in vitro system containing purified phi 29 terminal protein p3 and DNA polymerase p2, although the activity was lower than that obtained with the phi 29 DNA-p3 complex. These results indicate the existence of specific sequences at the ends of phi 29 DNA that allow the initiation of phi 29 DNA replication. The template activity of the protein-free terminal fragments was size dependent. The protein-free single strands of the HindIII L fragment were much less active than the corresponding double-stranded fragment. Terminal protein-DNA complexes of phages PZA and phi 15, with a terminal protein closely related to the phi 29 protein p3, were more active as templates in the initiation reaction with the purified phi 29 proteins than the corresponding protein-free DNAs, as it happens in the case of phi 29. However, the terminal protein-DNA complexes of phages Nf, B103, and GA-1, with a terminal protein less related or unrelated to the phi 29 protein p3, were essentially inactive and became active after removal of the parental terminal protein. These results strongly suggest that the parental terminal protein is the major signal in the template for the initiation of phi 29 DNA replication.

  10. PriC-mediated DNA replication restart requires PriC complex formation with the single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Sarah R; Marceau, Aimee H; Massoni, Shawn C; Zhou, Ruobo; Ha, Taekjip; Sandler, Steven J; Keck, James L

    2013-06-14

    Frequent collisions between cellular DNA replication complexes (replisomes) and obstacles such as damaged DNA or frozen protein complexes make DNA replication fork progression surprisingly sporadic. These collisions can lead to the ejection of replisomes prior to completion of replication, which, if left unrepaired, results in bacterial cell death. As such, bacteria have evolved DNA replication restart mechanisms that function to reload replisomes onto abandoned DNA replication forks. Here, we define a direct interaction between PriC, a key Escherichia coli DNA replication restart protein, and the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), a protein that is ubiquitously associated with DNA replication forks. PriC/SSB complex formation requires evolutionarily conserved residues from both proteins, including a pair of Arg residues from PriC and the C terminus of SSB. In vitro, disruption of the PriC/SSB interface by sequence changes in either protein blocks the first step of DNA replication restart, reloading of the replicative DnaB helicase onto an abandoned replication fork. Consistent with the critical role of PriC/SSB complex formation in DNA replication restart, PriC variants that cannot bind SSB are non-functional in vivo. Single-molecule experiments demonstrate that PriC binding to SSB alters SSB/DNA complexes, exposing single-stranded DNA and creating a platform for other proteins to bind. These data lead to a model in which PriC interaction with SSB remodels SSB/DNA structures at abandoned DNA replication forks to create a DNA structure that is competent for DnaB loading.

  11. Mutational analysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immediate early protein (IE62) subdomains and their importance in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Che, Xibing; Sung, Phillip; Sommer, Marvin H; Hay, John; Arvin, Ann M

    2016-05-01

    VZV IE62 is an essential, immediate-early, tegument protein and consists of five domains. We generated recombinant viruses carrying mutations in the first three IE62 domains and tested their influence on VZV replication kinetics. The mutations in domain I did not affect replication kinetics while domain II mutations, disrupting the DNA binding and dimerization domain (DBD), were lethal for VZV replication. Mutations in domain III of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the two phosphorylation sites S686A/S722A resulted in slower growth in early and late infection respectively and were associated with IE62 accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus respectively. This study mapped the functional domains of IE62 in context of viral infection, indicating that DNA binding and dimerization domain is essential for VZV replication. In addition, the correct localization of IE62, whether nuclear or cytoplasmic, at different points in the viral life cycle, is important for normal progression of VZV replication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The E1 Protein of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Is Dispensable for Maintenance Replication of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Nakahara, Tomomi; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Yugawa, Takashi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Yamato, Kenji; Natori, Yukikazu

    2012-01-01

    Papillomavirus genomes are thought to be amplified to about 100 copies per cell soon after infection, maintained constant at this level in basal cells, and amplified for viral production upon keratinocyte differentiation. To determine the requirement for E1 in viral DNA replication at different stages, an E1-defective mutant of the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) genome featuring a translation termination mutation in the E1 gene was used. The ability of the mutant HPV16 genome to replicate as nuclear episomes was monitored with or without exogenous expression of E1. Unlike the wild-type genome, the E1-defective HPV16 genome became established in human keratinocytes only as episomes in the presence of exogenous E1 expression. Once established, it could replicate with the same efficiency as the wild-type genome, even after the exogenous E1 was removed. However, upon calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation, once again amplification was dependent on exogenous E1. These results demonstrate that the E1 protein is dispensable for maintenance replication but not for initial and productive replication of HPV16. PMID:22238312

  13. The extent of error-prone replication restart by homologous recombination is controlled by Exo1 and checkpoint proteins.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ellen; Miyabe, Izumi; Iraqui, Ismail; Zheng, Jiping; Lambert, Sarah A E; Carr, Antony M

    2014-07-01

    Genetic instability, a hallmark of cancer, can occur when the replication machinery encounters a barrier. The intra-S-phase checkpoint maintains stalled replication forks in a replication-competent configuration by phosphorylating replisome components and DNA repair proteins to prevent forks from catastrophically collapsing. Here, we report a novel function of the core Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint sensor kinase, Rad3 (an ATR orthologue), that is independent of Chk1 and Cds1 (a CHK2 orthologue); Rad3(ATR) regulates the association of recombination factors with collapsed forks, thus limiting their genetic instability. We further reveal antagonistic roles for Rad3(ATR) and the 9-1-1 clamp - Rad3(ATR) restrains MRN- and Exo1-dependent resection, whereas the 9-1-1 complex promotes Exo1 activity. Interestingly, the MRN complex, but not its nuclease activity, promotes resection and the subsequent association of recombination factors at collapsed forks. The biological significance of this regulation is revealed by the observation that Rad3(ATR) prevents Exo1-dependent genome instability upstream of a collapsed fork without affecting the efficiency of recombination-mediated replication restart. We propose that the interplay between Rad3(ATR) and the 9-1-1 clamp functions to fine-tune the balance between the need for the recovery of replication through recombination and the risk of increased genome instability. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. The extent of error-prone replication restart by homologous recombination is controlled by Exo1 and checkpoint proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ellen; Miyabe, Izumi; Iraqui, Ismail; Zheng, Jiping; Lambert, Sarah A. E.; Carr, Antony M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic instability, a hallmark of cancer, can occur when the replication machinery encounters a barrier. The intra-S-phase checkpoint maintains stalled replication forks in a replication-competent configuration by phosphorylating replisome components and DNA repair proteins to prevent forks from catastrophically collapsing. Here, we report a novel function of the core Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint sensor kinase, Rad3 (an ATR orthologue), that is independent of Chk1 and Cds1 (a CHK2 orthologue); Rad3ATR regulates the association of recombination factors with collapsed forks, thus limiting their genetic instability. We further reveal antagonistic roles for Rad3ATR and the 9-1-1 clamp – Rad3ATR restrains MRN- and Exo1-dependent resection, whereas the 9-1-1 complex promotes Exo1 activity. Interestingly, the MRN complex, but not its nuclease activity, promotes resection and the subsequent association of recombination factors at collapsed forks. The biological significance of this regulation is revealed by the observation that Rad3ATR prevents Exo1-dependent genome instability upstream of a collapsed fork without affecting the efficiency of recombination-mediated replication restart. We propose that the interplay between Rad3ATR and the 9-1-1 clamp functions to fine-tune the balance between the need for the recovery of replication through recombination and the risk of increased genome instability. PMID:24806966

  15. c-myc protein can be substituted for SV40 T antigen in SV40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Itani, T; Yamaguchi, M; Ariga, H

    1987-01-01

    Replicating activity of SV40 origin-containing plasmid was tested in human cells as well as in monkey CosI cells. All the plasmids possessing SV40 ori sequences could replicate, even in the absence of SV40 T antigen, in human HL-60 and Raji cells which are expressing c-myc gene at high level. The copy numbers of the replicated plasmids in these human cells were 1/100 as high as in monkey CosI cells which express SV40 T antigen constitutively. Exactly the same plasmids as the transfected original ones were recovered from the Hirt supernatant of the transfected HL-60 cells. Furthermore, replication of the SV40 ori-containing plasmids in HL-60 cells was inhibited by anti-c-myc antibody co-transfected into the cells. These results indicate that the c-myc protein can be substituted for SV40 T antigen in SV40 DNA replication. Images PMID:3037484

  16. The N Terminus of the Retinoblastoma Protein Inhibits DNA Replication via a Bipartite Mechanism Disrupted in Partially Penetrant Retinoblastomas.

    PubMed

    Borysov, Sergiy I; Nepon-Sixt, Brook S; Alexandrow, Mark G

    2015-12-28

    The N-terminal domain of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor protein (RbN) harbors in-frame exon deletions in partially penetrant hereditary retinoblastomas and is known to impair cell growth and tumorigenesis. However, how such RbN deletions contribute to Rb tumor- and growth-suppressive functions is unknown. Here we establish that RbN directly inhibits DNA replication initiation and elongation using a bipartite mechanism involving N-terminal exons lost in cancer. Specifically, Rb exon 7 is necessary and sufficient to target and inhibit the replicative CMG helicase, resulting in the accumulation of inactive CMGs on chromatin. An independent N-terminal loop domain, which forms a projection, specifically blocks DNA polymerase α (Pol-α) and Ctf4 recruitment without affecting DNA polymerases ε and δ or the CMG helicase. Individual disruption of exon 7 or the projection in RbN or Rb, as occurs in inherited cancers, partially impairs the ability of Rb/RbN to inhibit DNA replication and block G1-to-S cell cycle transit. However, their combined loss abolishes these functions of Rb. Thus, Rb growth-suppressive functions include its ability to block replicative complexes via bipartite, independent, and additive N-terminal domains. The partial loss of replication, CMG, or Pol-α control provides a potential molecular explanation for how N-terminal Rb loss-of-function deletions contribute to the etiology of partially penetrant retinoblastomas.

  17. System-wide Analysis of SUMOylation Dynamics in Response to Replication Stress Reveals Novel Small Ubiquitin-like Modified Target Proteins and Acceptor Lysines Relevant for Genome Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhenyu; Chang, Jer-Gung; Hendriks, Ivo A.; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Olsen, Jesper V.; Vertegaal, Alfred C.O.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can cause replication fork stalling in dividing cells because of DNA lesions, eventually leading to replication fork collapse when the damage is not repaired. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMOs) are known to counteract replication stress, nevertheless, only a small number of relevant SUMO target proteins are known. To address this, we have purified and identified SUMO-2 target proteins regulated by replication stress in human cells. The developed methodology enabled single step purification of His10-SUMO-2 conjugates under denaturing conditions with high yield and high purity. Following statistical analysis on five biological replicates, a total of 566 SUMO-2 targets were identified. After 2 h of hydroxyurea treatment, 10 proteins were up-regulated for SUMOylation and two proteins were down-regulated for SUMOylation, whereas after 24 h, 35 proteins were up-regulated for SUMOylation, and 13 proteins were down-regulated for SUMOylation. A site-specific approach was used to map over 1000 SUMO-2 acceptor lysines in target proteins. The methodology is generic and is widely applicable in the ubiquitin field. A large subset of these identified proteins function in one network that consists of interacting replication factors, transcriptional regulators, DNA damage response factors including MDC1, ATR-interacting protein ATRIP, the Bloom syndrome protein and the BLM-binding partner RMI1, the crossover junction endonuclease EME1, BRCA1, and CHAF1A. Furthermore, centromeric proteins and signal transducers were dynamically regulated by SUMOylation upon replication stress. Our results uncover a comprehensive network of SUMO target proteins dealing with replication damage and provide a framework for detailed understanding of the role of SUMOylation to counteract replication stress. Ultimately, our study reveals how a post-translational modification is able to orchestrate a large variety of different proteins to integrate different nuclear processes with the

  18. The interaction between the PARP10 protein and the NS1 protein of H5N1 AIV and its effect on virus replication.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengbin; Zhang, Chuanfu; Yang, Yutao; Yang, Zhixin; Zhao, Lixia; Xu, Long; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Xiaowei; Huang, Peitang

    2011-12-16

    During the process that AIV infect hosts, the NS1 protein can act on hosts, change corresponding signal pathways, promote the translation of virus proteins and result in virus replication. In our study, we found that PARP domain and Glu-rich region of PARP10 interacted with NS1, and the presence of NS1 could induce PARP10 migrate from cytoplasm to nucleus. NS1 high expression could reduce the endogenous PARP10 expression. Cell cycle analysis showed that with inhibited PARP10 expression, NS1 could induce cell arrest in G2-M stage, and the percentage of cells in G2-M stage rise from the previous 10%-45%, consistent with the cell proliferation result. Plague forming unit measurement showed that inhibited PARP10 expression could help virus replication. In a word, our results showed that NS1 acts on host cells and PARP10 plays a regulating role in virus replication.

  19. Effects of Solution Chemistry and Aging Time on Prion Protein Adsorption and Replication of Soil-Bound Prions

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Samuel E.; Yuan, Qi; Bartz, Jason C.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Prion interactions with soil may play an important role in the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie. Prions are known to bind to a wide range of soil surfaces, but the effects of adsorption solution chemistry and long-term soil binding on prion fate and transmission risk are unknown. We investigated HY TME prion protein (PrPSc) adsorption to soil minerals in aqueous solutions of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and deionized water using western blotting. The replication efficiency of bound prions following adsorption in these solutions was also evaluated by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Aging studies investigated PrPSc desorption and replication efficiency up to one year following adsorption in PBS or DI water. Results indicate that adsorption solution chemistry can affect subsequent prion replication or desorption ability, especially after incubation periods of 30 d or longer. Observed effects were minor over the short-term (7 d or less). Results of long-term aging experiments demonstrate that unbound prions or prions bound to a diverse range of soil surfaces can readily replicate after one year. Our results suggest that while prion-soil interactions can vary with solution chemistry, prions bound to soil could remain a risk for transmitting prion diseases after months in the environment. PMID:21526178

  20. A self-perpetuating repressive state of a viral replication protein blocks superinfection by the same virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Rong; Guo, Qin; Zhang, Shaoyan; Li, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    Diverse animal and plant viruses block the re-infection of host cells by the same or highly similar viruses through superinfection exclusion (SIE), a widely observed, yet poorly understood phenomenon. Here we demonstrate that SIE of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is exclusively determined by p28, one of the two replication proteins encoded by this virus. p28 expressed from a TCV replicon exerts strong SIE to a different TCV replicon. Transiently expressed p28, delivered simultaneously with, or ahead of, a TCV replicon, largely recapitulates this repressive activity. Interestingly, p28-mediated SIE is dramatically enhanced by C-terminally fused epitope tags or fluorescent proteins, but weakened by N-terminal modifications, and it inversely correlates with the ability of p28 to complement the replication of a p28-defective TCV replicon. Strikingly, p28 in SIE-positive cells forms large, mobile punctate inclusions that trans-aggregate a non-coalescing, SIE-defective, yet replication-competent p28 mutant. These results support a model postulating that TCV SIE is caused by the formation of multimeric p28 complexes capable of intercepting fresh p28 monomers translated from superinfector genomes, thereby abolishing superinfector replication. This model could prove to be applicable to other RNA viruses, and offer novel targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:28267773

  1. Viral precursor protein P3 and its processed products perform discrete and essential functions in the poliovirus RNA replication complex.

    PubMed

    Spear, Allyn; Ogram, Sushma A; Morasco, B Joan; Smerage, Lucia Eisner; Flanegan, James B

    2015-11-01

    The differential use of protein precursors and their products is a key strategy used during poliovirus replication. To characterize the role of protein precursors during replication, we examined the complementation profiles of mutants that inhibited 3D polymerase or 3C-RNA binding activity. We showed that 3D entered the replication complex in the form of its precursor, P3 (or 3CD), and was cleaved to release active 3D polymerase. Furthermore, our results showed that P3 is the preferred precursor that binds to the 5'CL. Using reciprocal complementation assays, we showed that one molecule of P3 binds the 5'CL and that a second molecule of P3 provides 3D. In addition, we showed that a second molecule of P3 served as the VPg provider. These results support a model in which P3 binds to the 5'CL and recruits additional molecules of P3, which are cleaved to release either 3D or VPg to initiate RNA replication.

  2. The N-terminus of porcine circovirus type 2 replication protein is required for nuclear localization and ori binding activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-L.; Chien, M.-S.; Du, Y.-W.; Wu, P.-C.; Huang Chienjin

    2009-02-20

    Porcine circovirus type 2 possesses a circular, single-stranded DNA genome that requires the replication protein (Rep) for virus replication. To characterize the DNA binding potential and the significant region that confers the nuclear localization of the Rep protein, the defined coding regions of rep gene were cloned and expressed. All of the recombinant proteins except for the N-terminal 110 residues deletion mutant could bind to the double-stranded minimal binding site of replication origin (ori). In addition, the N-terminal deletion mutant lacking 110 residues exhibited mainly cytoplasmic staining in the transfected cells in contrast to the others, which localized dominantly in the nucleus, suggesting that this N-terminal domain is essential for nuclear localization. Furthermore, a series of green fluorescence proteins (GFP) containing potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences were tested for their cellular distribution. The ability of the utmost 20 residues of the N-terminal region to target the GFP to the nucleus confirmed its role as a functional NLS.

  3. Host Protein Ku70 Binds and Protects HIV-1 Integrase from Proteasomal Degradation and Is Required for HIV Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Ao, Zhujun; Wang, Binchen; Jayappa, Kallesh Danappa; Yao, Xiaojian

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a key viral enzymatic protein acting in several viral replication steps, including integration. IN has been shown to be an unstable protein degraded by the N-end rule pathway through the host ubiquitin-proteasome machinery. However, it is still not fully understood how this viral protein is protected from the host ubiquitin-proteasome system within cells during HIV replication. In the present study, we provide evidence that the host protein Ku70 interacts with HIV-1 IN and protects it from the Lys48-linked polyubiquitination proteasomal pathway. Moreover, Ku70 is able to down-regulate the overall protein polyubiquitination level within the host cells and to specifically deubiquitinate IN through their interaction. Mutagenic studies revealed that the C terminus of IN (residues 230–288) is required for IN binding to the N-terminal part of Ku70 (Ku70(1–430)), and their interaction is independent of Ku70/80 heterodimerization. Finally, knockdown of Ku70 expression in both virus-producing and target CD4+ T cells significantly disrupted HIV-1 replication and rendered two-long terminal repeat circles and integration undetectable, indicating that Ku70 is required for both the early and the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle. Interestingly, Ku70 was incorporated into the progeny virus in an IN-dependent way. We proposed that Ku70 may interact with IN during viral assembly and accompany HIV-1 IN upon entry into the new target cells, acting to 1) protect IN from the host defense system and 2) assist IN integration activity. Overall, this report provides another example of how HIV-1 hijacks host cellular machinery to protect the virus itself and to facilitate its replication. PMID:21454661

  4. Versatile Trans-Replication Systems for Chikungunya Virus Allow Functional Analysis and Tagging of Every Replicase Protein

    PubMed Central

    Utt, Age; Quirin, Tania; Saul, Sirle; Hellström, Kirsi; Ahola, Tero; Merits, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people. There are no licensed vaccines or antivirals, and the knowledge of the molecular biology of CHIKV, crucial for development of efficient antiviral strategies, remains fragmentary. CHIKV has a 12 kb positive-strand RNA genome, which is translated to yield a nonstructural (ns) or replicase polyprotein. CHIKV structural proteins are expressed from a subgenomic RNA synthesized in infected cells. Here we have developed CHIKV trans-replication systems, where replicase expression and RNA replication are uncoupled. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA polymerase II were used for production of mRNAs for CHIKV ns polyprotein and template RNAs, which are recognized by CHIKV replicase and encode for reporter proteins. CHIKV replicase efficiently amplified such RNA templates and synthesized large amounts of subgenomic RNA in several cell lines. This system was used to create tagged versions of ns proteins including nsP1 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein and nsP4 with an immunological tag. Analysis of these constructs and a matching set of replicon vectors revealed that the replicases containing tagged ns proteins were functional and maintained their subcellular localizations. When cells were co-transfected with constructs expressing template RNA and wild type or tagged versions of CHIKV replicases, formation of characteristic replicase complexes (spherules) was observed. Analysis of mutations associated with noncytotoxic phenotype in CHIKV replicons showed that a low level of RNA replication is not a pre-requisite for reduced cytotoxicity. The CHIKV trans-replicase does not suffer from genetic instability and represents an efficient, sensitive and reliable tool for studies of different aspects of CHIKV RNA replication process. PMID:26963103

  5. Versatile Trans-Replication Systems for Chikungunya Virus Allow Functional Analysis and Tagging of Every Replicase Protein.

    PubMed

    Utt, Age; Quirin, Tania; Saul, Sirle; Hellström, Kirsi; Ahola, Tero; Merits, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people. There are no licensed vaccines or antivirals, and the knowledge of the molecular biology of CHIKV, crucial for development of efficient antiviral strategies, remains fragmentary. CHIKV has a 12 kb positive-strand RNA genome, which is translated to yield a nonstructural (ns) or replicase polyprotein. CHIKV structural proteins are expressed from a subgenomic RNA synthesized in infected cells. Here we have developed CHIKV trans-replication systems, where replicase expression and RNA replication are uncoupled. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA polymerase II were used for production of mRNAs for CHIKV ns polyprotein and template RNAs, which are recognized by CHIKV replicase and encode for reporter proteins. CHIKV replicase efficiently amplified such RNA templates and synthesized large amounts of subgenomic RNA in several cell lines. This system was used to create tagged versions of ns proteins including nsP1 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein and nsP4 with an immunological tag. Analysis of these constructs and a matching set of replicon vectors revealed that the replicases containing tagged ns proteins were functional and maintained their subcellular localizations. When cells were co-transfected with constructs expressing template RNA and wild type or tagged versions of CHIKV replicases, formation of characteristic replicase complexes (spherules) was observed. Analysis of mutations associated with noncytotoxic phenotype in CHIKV replicons showed that a low level of RNA replication is not a pre-requisite for reduced cytotoxicity. The CHIKV trans-replicase does not suffer from genetic instability and represents an efficient, sensitive and reliable tool for studies of different aspects of CHIKV RNA replication process.

  6. EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING OF DNA REPLICATION AND REPAIR PROTEINS FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILE SULFOLOBUS SOLFATARICUS

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, S.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; Hammel, M.; Hura, G.L.; Tainer, J.A.; Yannone, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Vital molecular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, and maintenance occur through transient protein interactions. Elucidating the mechanisms by which these protein complexes and interactions function could lead to treatments for diseases related to DNA damage and cell division control. In the recent decades since its introduction as a third domain, Archaea have shown to be simpler models for complicated eukaryotic processes such as DNA replication, repair, transcription, and translation. Sulfolobus solfataricus is one such model organism. A hyperthermophile with an optimal growth temperature of 80°C, Sulfolobus protein-protein complexes and transient protein interactions should be more stable at moderate temperatures, providing a means to isolate and study their structure and function. Here we provide the initial steps towards characterizing three DNA-related Sulfolobus proteins with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): Sso0257, a cell division control and origin recognition complex homolog, Sso0768, the small subunit of the replication factor C, and Sso3167, a Mut-T like protein. SAXS analysis was performed at multiple concentrations for both short and long exposure times. The Sso0257 sample was determined to be either a mixture of monomeric and dimeric states or a population of dynamic monomers in various conformational states in solution, consistent with a fl exible winged helix domain. Sso0768 was found to be a complex mixture of multimeric states in solution. Finally, molecular envelope reconstruction from SAXS data for Sso3167 revealed a novel structural component which may function as a disordered to ordered region in the presence of its substrates and/or protein partners.

  7. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C.; Sinning, Allan; Henegar, Jeffrey; Norcross, Erin; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2010-09-30

    Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

  8. Paradoxes of eukaryotic DNA replication: MCM proteins and the random completion problem.

    PubMed

    Hyrien, Olivier; Marheineke, Kathrin; Goldar, Arach

    2003-02-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates at multiple origins. In early fly and frog embryos, chromosomal replication is very rapid and initiates without sequence specificity. Despite this apparent randomness, the spacing of these numerous initiation sites must be sufficiently regular for the genome to be completely replicated on time. Studies in various eukaryotes have revealed that there is a strict temporal separation of origin "licensing" prior to S phase and origin activation during S phase. This may suggest that replicon size must be already established at the licensing stage. However, recent experiments suggest that a large excess of potential origins are assembled along chromatin during licensing. Thus, a regular replicon size may result from the selection of origins during S phase. We review single molecule analyses of origin activation and other experiments addressing this issue and their general significance for eukaryotic DNA replication. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [The effects of TorR protein on initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao; Jiaxin, Qiao; Jing, Li; Hui, Li; Morigen, Morigen

    2015-03-01

    The two-component systems, which could sense and respond to environmental changes, widely exist in bacteria as a signal transduction pathway. The bacterial CckA/CtrA, ArcA/ArcB and PhoP/PhoQ two-component systems are associated with initiation of DNA replication and cell division, however, the effects of the TorS/TorR system on cell cycle and DNA replication remains unknown. The TorS/TorR system in Escherichia coli can sense changes in trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) concentration around the cells. However, it is unknown if it also affects initiation of DNA replication. We detected DNA replication patterns in ΔtorS and ΔtorR mutant strains by flow cytometry. We found that the average number of replication origins (oriCs) per cell and doubling time in ΔtorS mutants were the same while the average number of oriCs in ΔtorR mutants was increased compared with that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that absence of TorR led to an earlier initiation of DNA replication than that in wild-type cells. Strangely, neither overexpression of TorR nor co-expression of TorR and TorS could restore ΔtorR mutant phenotype to the wild type. However, overexpression of SufD in both wild type and ΔtorR mutants promoted initiation of DNA replication, while mutation of SufD delayed it in ΔtorR mutants. Thus, TorR may affect initiation of DNA replication indirectly through regulating gene expression of sufD.

  10. RNA Replication and Membrane Modification Require the Same Functions of Alphavirus Nonstructural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Katri; Hellström, Kirsi; Jokitalo, Eija

    2015-01-01

    The alphaviruses induce membrane invaginations known as spherules as their RNA replication sites. Here, we show that inactivation of any function (polymerase, helicase, protease, or membrane association) essential for RNA synthesis also prevents the generation of spherule structures in a Semliki Forest virus trans-replication system. Mutants capable of negative-strand synthesis, including those defective in RNA capping, gave rise to spherules. Recruitment of RNA to membranes in the absence of spherule formation was not detected. PMID:26581991

  11. RNA Replication and Membrane Modification Require the Same Functions of Alphavirus Nonstructural Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Katri; Hellström, Kirsi; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2015-11-18

    The alphaviruses induce membrane invaginations known as spherules as their RNA replication sites. Here, we show that inactivation of any function (polymerase, helicase, protease, or membrane association) essential for RNA synthesis also prevents the generation of spherule structures in a Semliki Forest virus trans-replication system. Mutants capable of negative-strand synthesis, including those defective in RNA capping, gave rise to spherules. Recruitment of RNA to membranes in the absence of spherule formation was not detected.

  12. The R35 residue of the influenza A virus NS1 protein has minimal effects on nuclear localization but alters virus replication through disrupting protein dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Lalime, Erin N.; Pekosz, Andrew

    2014-06-15

    The influenza A virus NS1 protein has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the amino terminal region. This NLS overlaps sequences that are important for RNA binding as well as protein dimerization. To assess the significance of the NS1 NLS on influenza virus replication, the NLS amino acids were individually mutated to alanines and recombinant viruses encoding these mutations were rescued. Viruses containing NS1 proteins with mutations at R37, R38 and K41 displayed minimal changes in replication or NS1 protein nuclear localization. Recombinant viruses encoding NS1 R35A were not recovered but viruses containing second site mutations at position D39 in addition to the R35A mutation were isolated. The mutations at position 39 were shown to partially restore NS1 protein dimerization but had minimal effects on nuclear localization. These data indicate that the amino acids in the NS1 NLS region play a more important role in protein dimerization compared to nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Mutations were introduced into influenza NS1 NLS1. • NS1 R37A, R38A, K41A viruses had minimal changes in replication and NS1 localization. • Viruses from NS1 R35A rescue all contained additional mutations at D39. • NS1 R35A D39X mutations recover dimerization lost in NS1 R35A mutations. • These results reaffirm the importance of dimerization for NS1 protein function.

  13. Photosensitized UVA-Induced Cross-Linking between Human DNA Repair and Replication Proteins and DNA Revealed by Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320–400 nm) interacts with chromophores present in human cells to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage both DNA and proteins. ROS levels are amplified, and the damaging effects of UVA are exacerbated if the cells are irradiated in the presence of UVA photosensitizers such as 6-thioguanine (6-TG), a strong UVA chromophore that is extensively incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells, or the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Both DNA-embedded 6-TG and ciprofloxacin combine synergistically with UVA to generate high levels of ROS. Importantly, the extensive protein damage induced by these photosensitizer+UVA combinations inhibits DNA repair. DNA is maintained in intimate contact with the proteins that effect its replication, transcription, and repair, and DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) are a recognized reaction product of ROS. Cross-linking of DNA metabolizing proteins would compromise these processes by introducing physical blocks and by depleting active proteins. We describe a sensitive and statistically rigorous method to analyze DPCs in cultured human cells. Application of this proteomics-based analysis to cells treated with 6-TG+UVA and ciprofloxacin+UVA identified proteins involved in DNA repair, replication, and gene expression among those most vulnerable to cross-linking under oxidative conditions. PMID:27654267

  14. The Nedd4-Type Rsp5p Ubiquitin Ligase Inhibits Tombusvirus Replication by Regulating Degradation of the p92 Replication Protein and Decreasing the Activity of the Tombusvirus Replicase▿

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Li, Zhenghe; Nagy, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Recent in vitro proteomics screens revealed that many host proteins could interact with the replication proteins of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which is a small, plus-stranded RNA virus (Z. Li, D. Barajas, T. Panavas, D. A. Herbst, and P. D. Nagy, J. Virol. 82:6911-6926, 2008). To further our understanding of the roles of host factors in TBSV replication, we have tested the effect of Rsp5p, which is a member of the Nedd4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. The full-length Rsp5p, via its WW domain, is shown to interact with p33 and the central portion of p92pol replication proteins. We find that overexpression of Rsp5p inhibits TBSV replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, while downregulation of Rsp5p leads to increased TBSV accumulation. The inhibition is caused by Rsp5p-guided degradation of p92pol, while the negative effect on the p33 level is less pronounced. Interestingly, recombinant Rsp5p also inhibits TBSV RNA replication in a cell-free replication assay, likely due to its ability to bind to p33 and p92pol. We show that the WW domain of Rsp5p, which is involved in protein interactions, is responsible for inhibition of TBSV replication, whereas the HECT domain, involved in protein ubiquitination, is not necessary for Rsp5p-mediated inhibition of viral replication. Overall, our data suggest that direct binding between Rsp5p and p92pol reduces the stability of p92pol, with consequent inhibition of TBSV replicase activity. PMID:19759160

  15. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Laura T.; Sutera, Vincent A.; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S.; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3’ azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5’ to 3’ helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3’ exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication. PMID:26544712

  16. Connecting Replication and Repair: YoaA, a Helicase-Related Protein, Promotes Azidothymidine Tolerance through Association with Chi, an Accessory Clamp Loader Protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura T; Sutera, Vincent A; Zhou, Shen; Weitzel, Christopher S; Cheng, Yisha; Lovett, Susan T

    2015-11-01

    Elongating DNA polymerases frequently encounter lesions or structures that impede progress and require repair before DNA replication can be completed. Therefore, directing repair factors to a blocked fork, without interfering with normal replication, is important for proper cell function, and it is a process that is not well understood. To study this process, we have employed the chain-terminating nucleoside analog, 3' azidothymidine (AZT) and the E. coli genetic system, for which replication and repair factors have been well-defined. By using high-expression suppressor screens, we identified yoaA, encoding a putative helicase, and holC, encoding the Chi component of the replication clamp loader, as genes that promoted tolerance to AZT. YoaA is a putative Fe-S helicase in the XPD/RAD3 family for which orthologs can be found in most bacterial genomes; E. coli has a paralog to YoaA, DinG, which possesses 5' to 3' helicase activity and an Fe-S cluster essential to its activity. Mutants in yoaA are sensitive to AZT exposure; dinG mutations cause mild sensitivity to AZT and exacerbate the sensitivity of yoaA mutant strains. Suppression of AZT sensitivity by holC or yoaA was mutually codependent and we provide evidence here that YoaA and Chi physically interact. Interactions of Chi with single-strand DNA binding protein (SSB) and with Psi were required to aid AZT tolerance, as was the proofreading 3' exonuclease, DnaQ. Our studies suggest that repair is coupled to blocked replication through these interactions. We hypothesize that SSB, through Chi, recruits the YoaA helicase to replication gaps and that unwinding of the nascent strand promotes repair and AZT excision. This recruitment prevents the toxicity of helicase activity and aids the handoff of repair with replication factors, ensuring timely repair and resumption of replication.

  17. Co-opted oxysterol-binding ORP and VAP proteins channel sterols to RNA virus replication sites via membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Brandizzi, Federica; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-10-01

    Viruses recruit cellular membranes and subvert cellular proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis to build viral replicase complexes and replication organelles. Among the lipids, sterols are important components of membranes, affecting the shape and curvature of membranes. In this paper, the tombusvirus replication protein is shown to co-opt cellular Oxysterol-binding protein related proteins (ORPs), whose deletion in yeast model host leads to decreased tombusvirus replication. In addition, tombusviruses also subvert Scs2p VAP protein to facilitate the formation of membrane contact sites (MCSs), where membranes are juxtaposed, likely channeling lipids to the replication sites. In all, these events result in redistribution and enrichment of sterols at the sites of viral replication in yeast and plant cells. Using in vitro viral replication assay with artificial vesicles, we show stimulation of tombusvirus replication by sterols. Thus, co-opting cellular ORP and VAP proteins to form MCSs serves the virus need to generate abundant sterol-rich membrane surfaces for tombusvirus replication.

  18. Co-opted Oxysterol-Binding ORP and VAP Proteins Channel Sterols to RNA Virus Replication Sites via Membrane Contact Sites

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Daniel; Xu, Kai; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Brandizzi, Federica; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses recruit cellular membranes and subvert cellular proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis to build viral replicase complexes and replication organelles. Among the lipids, sterols are important components of membranes, affecting the shape and curvature of membranes. In this paper, the tombusvirus replication protein is shown to co-opt cellular Oxysterol-binding protein related proteins (ORPs), whose deletion in yeast model host leads to decreased tombusvirus replication. In addition, tombusviruses also subvert Scs2p VAP protein to facilitate the formation of membrane contact sites (MCSs), where membranes are juxtaposed, likely channeling lipids to the replication sites. In all, these events result in redistribution and enrichment of sterols at the sites of viral replication in yeast and plant cells. Using in vitro viral replication assay with artificial vesicles, we show stimulation of tombusvirus replication by sterols. Thus, co-opting cellular ORP and VAP proteins to form MCSs serves the virus need to generate abundant sterol-rich membrane surfaces for tombusvirus replication. PMID:25329172

  19. Coat Protein Regulation by CK2, CPIP, HSP70, and CHIP Is Required for Potato Virus A Replication and Coat Protein Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Andres; Hafrén, Anders; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate here that both coat protein (CP) phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 and a chaperone system formed by two heat shock proteins, CP-interacting protein (CPIP) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), are essential for potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) replication and that all these host proteins have the capacity to contribute to the level of PVA CP accumulation. An E3 ubiquitin ligase called carboxyl terminus Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP), which may participate in the CPIP-HSP70-mediated CP degradation, is also needed for robust PVA gene expression. Residue Thr(243) within the CK2 consensus sequence of PVA CP was found to be essential for viral replication and to regulate CP protein stability. Substitution of Thr(243) either with a phosphorylation-mimicking Asp (CP(ADA)) or with a phosphorylation-deficient Ala (CP(AAA)) residue in CP expressed from viral RNA limited PVA gene expression to the level of nonreplicating PVA. We found that both the CP(AAA) mutant and CK2 silencing inhibited, whereas CP(ADA) mutant and overexpression of CK2 increased, PVA translation. From our previous studies, we know that phosphorylation reduces the RNA binding capacity of PVA CP and an excess of CP fully blocks viral RNA translation. Together, these findings suggest that binding by nonphosphorylated PVA CP represses viral RNA translation, involving further CP phosphorylation and CPIP-HSP70 chaperone activities as prerequisites for PVA replication. We propose that this mechanism contributes to shifting potyvirus RNA from translation to replication.

  20. 2′-5′-Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Protein Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication and Is Targeted by the Viral Nonstructural Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Jayeeta; Cuevas, Rolando A.; Goswami, Ramansu; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    2′-5′-Oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein (OASL) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein. Here we describe differential inhibitory activities of human OASL and the two mouse OASL homologs against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication. Interestingly, nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of RSV promoted proteasome-dependent degradation of specific OASL isoforms. We conclude that OASL acts as a cellular antiviral protein and that RSV NS1 suppresses this function to evade cellular innate immunity and allow virus growth. PMID:26178980

  1. The C-terminal Domain (CTD) of Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Is Required for Forming BERosome Repair Complex with DNA Replication Proteins at the Replicating Genome: DOMINANT NEGATIVE FUNCTION OF THE CTD.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Pavana M; Dutta, Arijit; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Joy; Adhikari, Sanjay; Tomkinson, Alan E; Li, Guo-Min; Boldogh, Istvan; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-08-21

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 was recently demonstrated to initiate prereplicative base excision repair (BER) of oxidized bases in the replicating genome, thus preventing mutagenic replication. A significant fraction of NEIL1 in cells is present in large cellular complexes containing DNA replication and other repair proteins, as shown by gel filtration. However, how the interaction of NEIL1 affects its recruitment to the replication site for prereplicative repair was not investigated. Here, we show that NEIL1 binarily interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamp loader replication factor C, DNA polymerase δ, and DNA ligase I in the absence of DNA via its non-conserved C-terminal domain (CTD); replication factor C interaction results in ∼8-fold stimulation of NEIL1 activity. Disruption of NEIL1 interactions within the BERosome complex, as observed for a NEIL1 deletion mutant (N311) lacking the CTD, not only inhibits complete BER in vitro but also prevents its chromatin association and reduced recruitment at replication foci in S phase cells. This suggests that the interaction of NEIL1 with replication and other BER proteins is required for efficient repair of the replicating genome. Consistently, the CTD polypeptide acts as a dominant negative inhibitor during in vitro repair, and its ectopic expression sensitizes human cells to reactive oxygen species. We conclude that multiple interactions among BER proteins lead to large complexes, which are critical for efficient BER in mammalian cells, and the CTD interaction could be targeted for enhancing drug/radiation sensitivity of tumor cells.

  2. Heparan Sulfate and Heparin Promote Faithful Prion Replication in Vitro by Binding to Normal and Abnormal Prion Proteins in Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Morikazu; Tabeta, Naoko; Kato, Nobuko; Matsuura, Yuichi; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Murayama, Yuichi

    2016-12-16

    The precise mechanism underlying the conversion of normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) remains unclear. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), an in vitro technique used for amplifying PrP(Sc), results in PrP(Sc) replication that preserves the strain-specific characteristics of the input PrP(Sc); thus, PMCA mimics the process of in vivo PrP(Sc) replication. Previous work has demonstrated that in PMCA, nucleic acids are critical for PrP(Sc) amplification, but little information has been reported on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) participation in PrP(Sc) replication in vitro Here, we investigated whether GAGs play a role in the faithful replication of PrP(Sc) by using a modified PMCA performed with baculovirus-derived recombinant PrP (Bac-PrP) as a substrate. The addition of heparan sulfate (HS) or its analog heparin (HP) restored the conversion efficiency in PMCA that was inhibited through nucleic acid depletion. Moreover, the PMCA products obtained under these conditions were infectious and preserved the properties of the input PrP(Sc) These data suggest that HS and HP play the same role as nucleic acids in facilitating faithful replication of prions in PMCA. Furthermore, we showed that HP binds to both Bac-PrP and Bac-PrP(Sc) through the sulfated groups present on HP and that the N-terminal domain of Bac-PrP(Sc) might potentially not be involved in the binding to HP. These results suggest that the interaction of GAGs such as HS and HP with PrP(C) and/or PrP(Sc) through their sulfate groups is critical for the faithful replication of prions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Opposing roles for DNA replication initiator proteins ORC1 and CDC6 in control of Cyclin E gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Manzar; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Newly born cells either continue to proliferate or exit the cell division cycle. This decision involves delaying expression of Cyclin E that promotes DNA replication. ORC1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) large subunit, is inherited into newly born cells after it binds to condensing chromosomes during the preceding mitosis. We demonstrate that ORC1 represses Cyclin E gene (CCNE1) transcription, an E2F1 activated gene that is also repressed by the Retinoblastoma (RB) protein. ORC1 binds to RB, the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and to its repressive histone H3K9me3 mark. ORC1 cooperates with SUV39H1 and RB protein to repress E2F1-dependent CCNE1 transcription. In contrast, the ORC1-related replication protein CDC6 binds Cyclin E-CDK2 kinase and in a feedback loop removes RB from ORC1, thereby hyper-activating CCNE1 transcription. The opposing effects of ORC1 and CDC6 in controlling the level of Cyclin E ensures genome stability and a mechanism for linking directly DNA replication and cell division commitment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12785.001 PMID:27458800

  4. The DnaA Protein Is Not the Limiting Factor for Initiation of Replication in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Flåtten, Ingvild; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig; Taipale, Riikka; Martinsen, Silje; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial replication cycle is driven by the DnaA protein which cycles between the active ATP-bound form and the inactive ADP-bound form. It has been suggested that DnaA also is the main controller of initiation frequency. Initiation is thought to occur when enough ATP-DnaA has accumulated. In this work we have performed cell cycle analysis of cells that contain a surplus of ATP-DnaA and asked whether initiation then occurs earlier. It does not. Cells with more than a 50% increase in the concentration of ATP-DnaA showed no changes in timing of replication. We suggest that although ATP-DnaA is the main actor in initiation of replication, its accumulation does not control the time of initiation. ATP-DnaA is the motor that drives the initiation process, but other factors will be required for the exact timing of initiation in response to the cell’s environment. We also investigated the in vivo roles of datA dependent DnaA inactivation (DDAH) and the DnaA-binding protein DiaA. Loss of DDAH affected the cell cycle machinery only during slow growth and made it sensitive to the concentration of DiaA protein. The result indicates that compromised cell cycle machines perform in a less robust manner. PMID:26047361

  5. A region of the polyoma virus genome between the replication origin and late protein coding sequences is required in cis for both early gene expression and viral DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Tyndall, C; La Mantia, G; Thacker, C M; Favaloro, J; Kamen, R

    1981-01-01

    Deletion mutants within the Py DNA region between the replication origin and the beginning of late protein coding sequences have been constructed and analysed for viability, early gene expression and viral DNA replication. Assay of replicative competence was facilitated by the use of Py transformed mouse cells (COP lines) which express functional large T-protein but contain no free viral DNA. Viable mutants defined three new nonessential regions of the genome. Certain deletions spanning the PvuII site at nt 5130 (67.4 mu) were unable to express early genes and had a cis-acting defect in DNA replication. Other mutants had intermediate phenotypes. Relevance of these results to eucaryotic "enhancer" elements is discussed. Images PMID:6275353

  6. High-resolution crystal structure of a hepatitis B virus replication inhibitor bound to the viral core protein.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Klaus; Lam, Angela M; Lukacs, Christine; Vogel, Robert; Ren, Suping; Espiritu, Christine; Baydo, Ruth; Atkins, Kateri; Abendroth, Jan; Liao, Guochun; Efimov, Andrey; Hartman, George; Flores, Osvaldo A

    2015-12-08

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is essential for HBV replication and an important target for antiviral drug discovery. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution crystal structure of an antiviral compound bound to the HBV core protein. The compound NVR-010-001-E2 can induce assembly of the HBV core wild-type and Y132A mutant proteins and thermostabilize the proteins with a Tm increase of more than 10 °C. NVR-010-001-E2 binds at the dimer-dimer interface of the core proteins, forms a new interaction surface promoting protein-protein interaction, induces protein assembly, and increases stability. The impact of naturally occurring core protein mutations on antiviral activity correlates with NVR-010-001-E2 binding interactions determined by crystallography. The crystal structure provides understanding of a drug efficacy mechanism related to the induction and stabilization of protein-protein interactions and enables structure-guided design to improve antiviral potency and drug-like properties.

  7. Recruitment of terminal protein to the ends of Streptomyces linear plasmids and chromosomes by a novel telomere-binding protein essential for linear DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Kai; Cohen, Stanley N.

    2003-01-01

    Bidirectional replication of Streptomyces linear plasmids and chromosomes from a central origin produces unpaired 3′-leading-strand overhangs at the telomeres of replication intermediates. Filling in of these overhangs leaves a terminal protein attached covalently to the 5′ DNA ends of mature replicons. We report here the essential role of a novel 80-kD DNA-binding protein (telomere-associated protein, Tap) in this process. Biochemical studies, yeast two-hybrid analysis, and immunoprecipitation/immunodepletion experiments indicate that Tap binds tightly to specific sequences in 3′ overhangs and also interacts with Tpg, bringing Tpg to telomere termini. Using DNA microarrays to analyze the chromosomes of tap mutant bacteria, we demonstrate that survivors of Tap ablation undergo telomere deletion, chromosome circularization, and amplification of subtelomeric DNA. Microarray-based chromosome mapping at single-ORF resolution revealed common endpoints for independent deletions, identified amplified chromosomal ORFs adjacent to these endpoints, and quantified the copy number of these ORFs. Sequence analysis confirmed chromosome circularization and revealed the insertion of adventitious DNA between joined chromosome ends. Our results show that Tap is required for linear DNA replication in Streptomyces and suggest that it functions to recruit and position Tpg at the telomeres of replication intermediates. They also identify hotspots for the telomeric deletions and subtelomeric DNA amplifications that accompany chromosome circularization. PMID:12651895

  8. An initiator protein for plasmid R6K DNA replication. Mutations affecting the copy-number control.

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, M; Wada, Y

    1988-02-08

    Two kinds of mutations affecting the copy-number control of plasmid R6K were isolated and identified in an initiator pi protein by DNA sequencing. Firstly, a temperature-sensitive replication mutation, ts22, with decreased copy number results in a substitution of threonine to isoleucine at position 138 of the 305-amino-acid pi protein. Secondly, a high-copy-number (cop21) mutant was isolated from this ts mutant and was identified by an alteration of alanine to serine at position 162. This cop21 mutation suppressed the Ts character and was recessive to the wild-type allele in the copy control.

  9. Importance of interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins and retinoic acid inducible gene I for influenza virus replication: A review.

    PubMed

    Suo, Siqingaowa; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between Influenza viruses and host cells is key to elucidating the pathogenesis of these viruses. Several host factors have been identified that exert antiviral functions; however, influenza viruses continue to replicate utilizing host cell machinery. Herein, we review the mechanisms of action of two host-derived proteins on conferring cellular resistance to the influenza virus; (1) the interferon inducible trans-membrane proteins, 1, 2 and 3, a recently identified family of early restriction factors; and (2) retinoic acid inducible gene I, a key mediator of antiviral immunity. These data may contribute to the design of novel and efficient anti-influenza treatments.

  10. Structural modifications induced by the mtDBP-C protein in the replication origin of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Mignotte, B; Theveny, B; Revet, B

    1990-01-01

    The structure of the non-coding region of Xenopus laevis mitochondrial DNA has been studied by electron microscopy analysis of DNA molecules end-labelled with streptavidin-ferritin. We have shown that the effect of a protein modifying the shape of the DNA double-helix can be studied and precisely located by this method. It was found that the non-coding region contains curved segments and that the mitochondrial protein mtDBP-C preferentially enhances the curvature of the promoters-replication origin region.

  11. Use of Chemicals to Inhibit DNA Replication, Transcription, and Protein Synthesis to Study Zygotic Genome Activation.

    PubMed

    Uh, Kyungjun; Lee, Kiho

    2017-01-01

    Maternal-to-zygotic transition is an event that developmental control of early embryos is switched from oocyte-derived factors to the zygotic genome. Ability to inhibit DNA replication, transcription, and translation is an important tool in studying events, such as zygotic genome activation, during embyogenesis. Here, we describe approaches to block DNA replication, transcription, and translation using chemical inhibitors. Then we also demonstrate how the transcript level of a maternally inherited gene, ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 3, responses to the chemical treatments.

  12. A Crystal Structure of the Dengue Virus NS5 Protein Reveals a Novel Inter-domain Interface Essential for Protein Flexibility and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yongqian; Soh, Tingjin Sherryl; Zheng, Jie; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Phoo, Wint Wint; Lee, Chin Chin; Tay, Moon Y. F.; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Cornvik, Tobias C.; Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong; Lescar, Julien; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Luo, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Flavivirus RNA replication occurs within a replication complex (RC) that assembles on ER membranes and comprises both non-structural (NS) viral proteins and host cofactors. As the largest protein component within the flavivirus RC, NS5 plays key enzymatic roles through its N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase) and C-terminal RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, and constitutes a major target for antivirals. We determined a crystal structure of the full-length NS5 protein from Dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV3) at a resolution of 2.3 Å in the presence of bound SAH and GTP. Although the overall molecular shape of NS5 from DENV3 resembles that of NS5 from Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), the relative orientation between the MTase and RdRp domains differs between the two structures, providing direct evidence for the existence of a set of discrete stable molecular conformations that may be required for its function. While the inter-domain region is mostly disordered in NS5 from JEV, the NS5 structure from DENV3 reveals a well-ordered linker region comprising a short 310 helix that may act as a swivel. Solution Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) analysis reveals an increased mobility of the thumb subdomain of RdRp in the context of the full length NS5 protein which correlates well with the analysis of the crystallographic temperature factors. Site-directed mutagenesis targeting the mostly polar interface between the MTase and RdRp domains identified several evolutionarily conserved residues that are important for viral replication, suggesting that inter-domain cross-talk in NS5 regulates virus replication. Collectively, a picture for the molecular origin of NS5 flexibility is emerging with profound implications for flavivirus replication and for the development of therapeutics targeting NS5. PMID:25775415

  13. Multiple Origins and Replication Proteins Influence Biological Properties of β-Lactamase-Producing Plasmids from Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Pagotto, Franco; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.

    2001-01-01

    The β-lactamase-producing Asia-type plasmid pJD4 of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a 7.4-kb, broad-host-range plasmid. It is part of a family of plasmids which are structurally related yet vary in size, found in both N. gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. Branch-point analysis by electron microscopy indicates that pJD4 carries three clustered but distinguishable origins of replication, which we named ori1, ori2, and ori3. Although pJD4 belongs to incompatibility (Inc) group W, it also carries a silent IncFII determinant which is expressed when ori2 and ori3 are absent. The Africa-type plasmid pJD5, a naturally occurring deletion derivative of pJD4, carries only ori1, belongs to the IncFII group, and, in contrast to pJD4, requires DNA polymerase I (Pol I) for replication. Plasmids constructed from pJD4 which lack ori1 but carry ori2 and ori3 do not require Pol I and are incompatible with IncW plasmids, suggesting that the ori2 or ori3 region contains the IncW determinant. We have cloned a replication initiation protein (RepB) that is necessary for ori2 and ori3 to function. This Rep protein is distinct from RepA, which is necessary for ori1. Thus, pJD4 is unique because it is the smallest plasmid characterized containing three origins of replication and two unique Rep proteins. PMID:11544207

  14. Enzyme E2 from Chinese white shrimp inhibits replication of white spot syndrome virus and ubiquitinates its RING domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, An-Jing; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome pathway (UPP) is closely related to immune defense. We have identified a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2, from the Chinese white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcUbc). Injection of recombinant FcUbc protein (rFcUbc) reduced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and inhibited replication of WSSV. rFcUbc, but not a mutant FcUbc (mFcUbc), bound to WSSV RING domains (WRDs) from four potential E3 ligase proteins of WSSV in vitro. Importantly, rFcUbc could ubiquitinate the RING domains (named WRD2 and WRD3) of WSSV277 and WSSV304 proteins in vitro and the two proteins in WSSV-infected Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Furthermore, overexpression of FcUbc increased ubiquitination of WSSV277 and WSSV304 during WSSV infection. In summary, our study demonstrates that FcUbc from Chinese white shrimp inhibited WSSV replication and could ubiquitinate WSSV RING domain-containing proteins. This is the first report about antiviral function of Ubc E2 in shrimp.

  15. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by adeno-associated virus rep proteins depends on their combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Daniel L; Seyffert, Michael; Strasser, Regina; Franchini, Marco; Laimbacher, Andrea S; Dresch, Christiane; de Oliveira, Anna Paula; Vogel, Rebecca; Büning, Hildegard; Salvetti, Anna; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2010-04-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of its helper virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and the inhibitory activity has been attributed to the expression of the AAV Rep proteins. In the present study, we assessed the Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication using a panel of wild-type and mutant Rep proteins lacking defined domains and activities. We found that the inhibition of HSV-1 replication required Rep DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities but not endonuclease activity. The Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication precisely coincided with the activities that were responsible for induction of cellular DNA damage and apoptosis, suggesting that these three processes are closely linked. Notably, the presence of Rep induced the hyperphosphorylation of a DNA damage marker, replication protein A (RPA), which has been reported not to be normally hyperphosphorylated during HSV-1 infection and to be sequestered away from HSV-1 replication compartments during infection. Finally, we demonstrate that the execution of apoptosis is not required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication and that the hyperphosphorylation of RPA per se is not inhibitory for HSV-1 replication, suggesting that these two processes are not directly responsible for the inhibition of HSV-1 replication by Rep.

  16. Chaperone-Assisted Protein Folding Is Critical for Yellow Fever Virus NS3/4A Cleavage and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bozzacco, Leonia; Yi, Zhigang; Andreo, Ursula; Conklin, Claire R.; Li, Melody M. H.; Rice, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNAJC14, a heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) cochaperone, assists with Hsp70-mediated protein folding. Overexpressed DNAJC14 is targeted to sites of yellow fever virus (YFV) replication complex (RC) formation, where it interacts with viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and inhibits viral RNA replication. How RCs are assembled and the roles of chaperones in this coordinated process are largely unknown. We hypothesized that chaperones are diverted from their normal cellular protein quality control function to play similar roles during viral infection. Here, we show that DNAJC14 overexpression affects YFV polyprotein processing and alters RC assembly. We monitored YFV NS2A-5 polyprotein processing by the viral NS2B-3 protease in DNAJC14-overexpressing cells. Notably, DNAJC14 mutants that did not inhibit YFV replication had minimal effects on polyprotein processing, while overexpressed wild-type DNAJC14 affected the NS3/4A and NS4A/2K cleavage sites, resulting in altered NS3-to-NS3-4A ratios. This suggests that DNAJC14's folding activity normally modulates NS3/4A/2K cleavage events to liberate appropriate levels of NS3 and NS4A and promote RC formation. We introduced amino acid substitutions at the NS3/4A site to alter the levels of the NS3 and NS4A products and examined their effects on YFV replication. Residues with reduced cleavage efficiency did not support viral RNA replication, and only revertant viruses with a restored wild-type arginine or lysine residue at the NS3/4A site were obtained. We conclude that DNAJC14 inhibition of RC formation upon DNAJC14 overexpression is likely due to chaperone dysregulation and that YFV probably utilizes DNAJC14's cochaperone function to modulate processing at the NS3/4A site as a mechanism ensuring virus replication. IMPORTANCE Flaviviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of illnesses. Upon host cell entry, the viral genome is translated on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to produce a single

  17. Inhibition of host protein synthesis by Sindbis virus: correlation with viral RNA replication and release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; García-Moreno, Manuel; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Infection of mammalian cells by Sindbis virus (SINV) profoundly blocks cellular mRNA translation. Experimental evidence points to viral non-structural proteins (nsPs), in particular nsP2, as the mediator of this inhibition. However, individual expression of nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 or nsP1-4 does not block cellular protein synthesis in BHK cells. Trans-complementation of a defective SINV replicon lacking most of the coding region for nsPs by the co-expression of nsP1-4 propitiates viral RNA replication at low levels, and inhibition of cellular translation is not observed. Exit of nuclear proteins including T-cell intracellular antigen and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is clearly detected in SINV-infected cells, but not upon the expression of nsPs, even when the defective replicon was complemented. Analysis of a SINV variant with a point mutation in nsP2, exhibiting defects in the shut-off of host protein synthesis, indicates that both viral RNA replication and the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm are greatly inhibited. Furthermore, nucleoside analogues that inhibit cellular and viral RNA synthesis impede the blockade of host mRNA translation, in addition to the release of nuclear proteins. Prevention of the shut-off of host mRNA translation by nucleoside analogues is not due to the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, as this prevention is also observed in PKR(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not phosphorylate eIF2α after SINV infection. Collectively, our observations are consistent with the concept that for the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis to occur, viral RNA replication must take place at control levels, leading to the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Replication of individual DNA molecules under electronic control using a protein nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasagasti, Felix; Lieberman, Kate R.; Benner, Seico; Cherf, Gerald M.; Dahl, Joseph M.; Deamer, David W.; Akeson, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Nanopores can be used to analyse DNA by monitoring ion currents as individual strands are captured and driven through the pore in single file by an applied voltage. Here, we show that serial replication of individual DNA templates can be achieved by DNA polymerases held at the α-haemolysin nanopore orifice. Replication is blocked in the bulk phase, and is initiated only after the DNA is captured by the nanopore. We used this method, in concert with active voltage control, to observe DNA replication catalysed by bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase (T7DNAP) and by the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I (KF). T7DNAP advanced on a DNA template against an 80-mV load applied across the nanopore, and single nucleotide additions were measured on the millisecond timescale for hundreds of individual DNA molecules in series. Replication by KF was not observed when this enzyme was held on top of the nanopore orifice at an applied potential of 80 mV. Sequential nucleotide additions by KF were observed upon applying controlled voltage reversals.

  19. Replication Protein A Presents Canonical Functions and Is Also Involved in the Differentiation Capacity of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Raphael Souza; da Silva, Marcelo Santos; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre Henrique; Morini, Flavia Souza; Araujo, Christiane Bezerra; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Machado, Carlos Renato; Cano, Maria Isabel; Fragoso, Stenio Perdigão; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA), the major single stranded DNA binding protein in eukaryotes, is composed of three subunits and is a fundamental player in DNA metabolism, participating in replication, transcription, repair, and the DNA damage response. In human pathogenic trypanosomatids, only limited studies have been performed on RPA-1 from Leishmania. Here, we performed in silico, in vitro and in vivo analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi RPA-1 and RPA-2 subunits. Although computational analysis suggests similarities in DNA binding and Ob-fold structures of RPA from T. cruzi compared with mammalian and fungi RPA, the predicted tridimensional structures of T. cruzi RPA-1 and RPA-2 indicated that these molecules present a more flexible tertiary structure, suggesting that T. cruzi RPA could be involved in additional responses. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that the T. cruzi RPA complex interacts with DNA via RPA-1 and is directly related to canonical functions, such as DNA replication and DNA damage response. Accordingly, a reduction of TcRPA-2 expression by generating heterozygous knockout cells impaired cell growth, slowing down S-phase progression. Moreover, heterozygous knockout cells presented a better efficiency in differentiation from epimastigote to metacyclic trypomastigote forms and metacyclic trypomastigote infection. Taken together, these findings indicate the involvement of TcRPA in the metacyclogenesis process and suggest that a delay in cell cycle progression could be linked with differentiation in T. cruzi.

  20. Replication Protein A Presents Canonical Functions and Is Also Involved in the Differentiation Capacity of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Raphael Souza; da Silva, Marcelo Santos; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre Henrique; Morini, Flavia Souza; Araujo, Christiane Bezerra; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Sant’Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Machado, Carlos Renato; Cano, Maria Isabel; Fragoso, Stenio Perdigão; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Replication Protein A (RPA), the major single stranded DNA binding protein in eukaryotes, is composed of three subunits and is a fundamental player in DNA metabolism, participating in replication, transcription, repair, and the DNA damage response. In human pathogenic trypanosomatids, only limited studies have been performed on RPA-1 from Leishmania. Here, we performed in silico, in vitro and in vivo analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi RPA-1 and RPA-2 subunits. Although computational analysis suggests similarities in DNA binding and Ob-fold structures of RPA from T. cruzi compared with mammalian and fungi RPA, the predicted tridimensional structures of T. cruzi RPA-1 and RPA-2 indicated that these molecules present a more flexible tertiary structure, suggesting that T. cruzi RPA could be involved in additional responses. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that the T. cruzi RPA complex interacts with DNA via RPA-1 and is directly related to canonical functions, such as DNA replication and DNA damage response. Accordingly, a reduction of TcRPA-2 expression by generating heterozygous knockout cells impaired cell growth, slowing down S-phase progression. Moreover, heterozygous knockout cells presented a better efficiency in differentiation from epimastigote to metacyclic trypomastigote forms and metacyclic trypomastigote infection. Taken together, these findings indicate the involvement of TcRPA in the metacyclogenesis process and suggest that a delay in cell cycle progression could be linked with differentiation in T. cruzi. PMID:27984589

  1. Effect of exposure to UV-C irradiation and monochloramine on adenovirus serotype 2 early protein expression and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Shisler, Joanna L; Mariñas, Benito J

    2008-06-01

    The mechanisms of adenovirus serotype 2 inactivation with either UV light (with a narrow emission spectrum centered at 254 nm) or monochloramine were investigated by assessing the potential inhibition of two key steps of the adenovirus life cycle, namely, E1A protein synthesis and viral genomic replication. E1A early protein synthesis was assayed by using immunoblotting, while the replication of viral DNA was analyzed by using slot blotting. Disinfection experiments were performed in phosphate buffer solutions at pH 8 and room temperature (UV) or 20 degrees C (monochloramine). Experimental results revealed that normalized E1A levels at 12 h postinfection (p.i.) were statistically the same as the corresponding decrease in survival ratio for both UV and monochloramine disinfection. Normalized DNA levels at 24 h p.i. were also found to be statistically the same as the corresponding decrease in survival ratio for monochloramine disinfection. In contrast, for UV disinfection, genomic DNA levels were much lower than E1A or survival ratios, possibly as a result of a delay in DNA replication for UV-treated virions compared to that for controls. Future efforts will determine the pre-E1A synthesis step in the adenovirus life cycle affected by exposure to UV and monochloramine, with the goal of identifying the viral molecular target of these two disinfectants.

  2. Characterization of a protein tyrosine phosphatase as a host factor promoting baculovirus replication in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xue, Renju; Li, Xianyang; Hu, Cuimei; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) to host-pathogen interaction is highlighted in mammalian studies, whereas less is known in insects. Here we presented the categorization of the PTP complement of silkworm and characterized their homologous relationship with human and fruit fly PTPs. Among the 36 PTP genes, ptp-h, which was proposed to be the origin of baculovirus ptp belongs to atypical VH1-like dual-specific PTP subset and encodes a catalytic active protein. The maximum expression level of Bmptp-h was at 5th instar and in fat body. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection potently induced its expression in silkworm larvae and in BmE cells. Knock-down of Bmptp-h by RNA interference significantly inhibited viral replication, and over-expression enhanced viral replication as determined by viral DNA abundance and BmNPV-GFP positive cells. These results suggest that BmPTP-h might be one of the host factors that is beneficial to baculovirus infection by promoting viral replication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The BAH domain facilitates the ability of human Orc1 protein to activate replication origins in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kohji; Vassilev, Alex; Ghosh, Soma; Yates, John L; DePamphilis, Melvin L

    2006-01-01

    Selection of initiation sites for DNA replication in eukaryotes is determined by the interaction between the origin recognition complex (ORC) and genomic DNA. In mammalian cells, this interaction appears to be regulated by Orc1, the only ORC subunit that contains a bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain. Since BAH domains mediate protein–protein interactions, the human Orc1 BAH domain was mutated, and the mutant proteins expressed in human cells to determine their affects on ORC function. The BAH domain was not required for nuclear localization of Orc1, association of Orc1 with other ORC subunits, or selective degradation of Orc1 during S-phase. It did, however, facilitate reassociation of Orc1 with chromosomes during the M to G1-phase transition, and it was required for binding Orc1 to the Epstein–Barr virus oriP and stimulating oriP-dependent plasmid DNA replication. Moreover, the BAH domain affected Orc1's ability to promote binding of Orc2 to chromatin as cells exit mitosis. Thus, the BAH domain in human Orc1 facilitates its ability to activate replication origins in vivo by promoting association of ORC with chromatin. PMID:17066079

  4. Conformational plasticity of RepB, the replication initiator protein of promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, D. Roeland; Ruiz-Masó, José Angel; Rueda, Manuel; Petoukhov, Maxim V.; Machón, Cristina; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Orozco, Modesto; Del Solar, Gloria; Coll, Miquel

    2016-02-01

    DNA replication initiation is a vital and tightly regulated step in all replicons and requires an initiator factor that specifically recognizes the DNA replication origin and starts replication. RepB from the promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158 is a hexameric ring protein evolutionary related to viral initiators. Here we explore the conformational plasticity of the RepB hexamer by i) SAXS, ii) sedimentation experiments, iii) molecular simulations and iv) X-ray crystallography. Combining these techniques, we derive an estimate of the conformational ensemble in solution showing that the C-terminal oligomerisation domains of the protein form a rigid cylindrical scaffold to which the N-terminal DNA-binding/catalytic domains are attached as highly flexible appendages, featuring multiple orientations. In addition, we show that the hinge region connecting both domains plays a pivotal role in the observed plasticity. Sequence comparisons and a literature survey show that this hinge region could exists in other initiators, suggesting that it is a common, crucial structural element for DNA binding and manipulation.

  5. FANCD2 Binds Human Papillomavirus Genomes and Associates with a Distinct Set of DNA Repair Proteins to Regulate Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Chelsey C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of human papillomavirus (HPV) is dependent on the differentiation state of its host cell. HPV genomes are maintained as low-copy episomes in basal epithelial cells and amplified to thousands of copies per cell in differentiated layers. Replication of high-risk HPVs requires the activation of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA repair pathways. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is a part of the DNA damage response and mediates cross talk between the ATM and ATR pathways. Our studies show that HPV activates the FA pathway, leading to the accumulation of a key regulatory protein, FANCD2, in large nuclear foci. These HPV-dependent foci colocalize with a distinct population of DNA repair proteins, including ATM components γH2AX and BRCA1, but infrequently with p-SMC1, which is required for viral genome amplification in differentiated cells. Furthermore, FANCD2 is found at viral replication foci, where it is preferentially recruited to viral genomes compared to cellular chromosomes and is required for maintenance of HPV episomes in undifferentiated cells. These findings identify FANCD2 as an important regulator of HPV replication and provide insight into the role of the DNA damage response in the differentiation-dependent life cycle of HPV. PMID:28196964

  6. Loading a ring: structure of the Bacillus subtilis DnaB protein, a co-loader of the replicative helicase.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Velten, Marion; Rivas, Germán; Polard, Patrice; Carazo, José María; Donate, Luis Enrique

    2007-03-30

    Loading of the ring-shaped replicative helicase is a critical step in the initiation of DNA replication. Bacillus subtilis has adopted a two-protein strategy to load its hexameric replicative helicase: DnaB and DnaI interact with the helicase and mediate its delivery onto DNA. We present here the 3D electron microscopy structure of the DnaB protein, along with a detailed analysis of both its oligomeric state and its domain organization. DnaB is organized as an asymmetric tetramer that is comprised of two stacked components, one arranged as a closed collar and the other as an open sigma shape. Intriguingly, the 3D map of DnaB exhibits an overall architecture similar to the structure of the Escherichia coli gamma-complex, the loader of the ring-shaped processivity factor. We propose a model whereby each DnaB monomer participates in both stacked components of the tetramer and displays a different overall shape. This asymmetric quaternary organization could be a general feature of ring loaders.

  7. Replication-dependent downregulation of cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein expression by human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F; Deijs, Martin; Milewska, Aleksandra; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Buelow, Elena; van der Bijl, Anna; van der Hoek, Lia

    2012-09-01

    Like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 employs angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for cellular entry. SARS-CoV infection causes robust downregulation of cellular ACE2 expression levels and it has been suggested that the SARS-CoV effect on ACE2 is involved in the severity of disease. We investigated whether cellular ACE2 downregulation occurs at optimal replication conditions of HCoV-NL63 infection. The expression of the homologue of ACE2, the ACE protein not used as a receptor by HCoV-NL63, was measured as a control. A specific decrease for ACE2 protein level was observed when HCoV-NL63 was cultured at 34 °C. Culturing the virus at the suboptimal temperature of 37 °C resulted in low replication of the virus and the effect on ACE2 expression was lost. We conclude that the decline of ACE2 expression is dependent on the efficiency of HCoV-NL63 replication, and that HCoV-NL63 and SARS-CoV both affect cellular ACE2 expression during infection.

  8. Conformational plasticity of RepB, the replication initiator protein of promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158

    PubMed Central

    Boer, D. Roeland; Ruiz-Masó, José Angel; Rueda, Manuel; Petoukhov, Maxim V.; Machón, Cristina; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Orozco, Modesto; del Solar, Gloria; Coll, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication initiation is a vital and tightly regulated step in all replicons and requires an initiator factor that specifically recognizes the DNA replication origin and starts replication. RepB from the promiscuous streptococcal plasmid pMV158 is a hexameric ring protein evolutionary related to viral initiators. Here we explore the conformational plasticity of the RepB hexamer by i) SAXS, ii) sedimentation experiments, iii) molecular simulations and iv) X-ray crystallography. Combining these techniques, we derive an estimate of the conformational ensemble in solution showing that the C-terminal oligomerisation domains of the protein form a rigid cylindrical scaffold to which the N-terminal DNA-binding/catalytic domains are attached as highly flexible appendages, featuring multiple orientations. In addition, we show that the hinge region connecting both domains plays a pivotal role in the observed plasticity. Sequence comparisons and a literature survey show that this hinge region could exists in other initiators, suggesting that it is a common, crucial structural element for DNA binding and manipulation. PMID:26875695

  9. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep' proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep', in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replica...

  10. Accessory proteins assist exonuclease-deficient bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase in replicating past an abasic site

    PubMed Central

    Blanca, Giuseppina; Delagoutte, Emmanuelle; Tanguy le gac, Nicolas; Johnson, Neil P.; Baldacci, Giuseppe; Villani, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases, such as T4 polymerase, possess both elongation and 3′–5′ exonuclease proofreading catalytic activities. They arrest at the base preceding DNA damage on the coding DNA strand and specialized DNA polymerases have evolved to replicate across the lesion by a process known as TLS (translesion DNA synthesis). TLS is considered to take place in two steps that often require different enzymes, insertion of a nucleotide opposite the damaged template base followed by extension from the inserted nucleotide. We and others have observed that inactivation of the 3′–5′ exonuclease function of T4 polymerase enables TLS across a single site-specific abasic [AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic)] lesion. In the present study we report a role for auxiliary replicative factors in this reaction. When replication is performed with a large excess of DNA template over DNA polymerase in the absence of auxiliary factors, the exo− polymerase (T4 DNA polymerase deficient in the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity) inserts one nucleotide opposite the AP site but does not extend past the lesion. Addition of the clamp processivity factor and the clamp loader complex restores primer extension across an AP lesion on a circular AP-containing DNA substrate by the exo− polymerase, but has no effect on the wild-type enzyme. Hence T4 DNA polymerase exhibits a variety of responses to DNA damage. It can behave as a replicative polymerase or (in the absence of proofreading activity) as a specialized DNA polymerase and carry out TLS. As a specialized polymerase it can function either as an inserter or (with the help of accessory proteins) as an extender. The capacity to separate these distinct functions in a single DNA polymerase provides insight into the biochemical requirements for translesion DNA synthesis. PMID:17064253

  11. Proteasomes regulate hepatitis B virus replication by degradation of viral core-related proteins in a two-step manner.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zi-Hua; Yang, Hui-Ying; Gu, Lin; Peng, Xiao-Mou

    2016-10-01

    The cellular proteasomes presumably inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) due to degradation of the viral core protein (HBcAg). Common proteasome inhibitors, however, either enhance or inhibit HBV replication. In this study, the exact degradation process of HBcAg and its influences on HBV replication were further studied using bioinformatic analysis, protease digestion assays of recombinant HBcAg, and proteasome inhibitor treatments of HBV-producing cell line HepG2.2.15. Besides HBcAg and hepatitis B e antigen precursor, common hepatitis B core-related antigens (HBcrAgs), the small and the large degradation intermediates of these HBcrAgs (HBcrDIs), were regularly found in cytosol of HepG2.2.15 cells. Further, the results of investigation reveal that the degradation process of cytosolic HBcrAgs in proteasomes consists of two steps: the limited proteolysis into HBcrDIs by the trypsin-like (TL) activity and the complete degradation of HBcrDIs by the chymotrypsin-like (chTL) activity. Concordantly, HBcrAgs and the large HBcrDI or HBcrDIs (including the small HBcrDI) were accumulated when the TL or chTL activity was inhibited, which generally correlated with enhancement and inhibition of HBV replication, respectively. The small HBcrDI inhibited HBV replication by assembling into the nucleocapsids and preventing the victim particles from being mature enough for envelopment. The two-step degradation manner may highlight some new anti-HBV strategies.

  12. Complexes of Sendai virus NP-P and P-L proteins are required for defective interfering particle genome replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Horikami, S M; Curran, J; Kolakofsky, D; Moyer, S A

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that the formation of NP-P and P-L protein complexes is essential for replication of the genome of Sendai defective interfering (DI-H) virus in vitro, using extracts of cells expressing these viral proteins from plasmids. Optimal replication of DI-H nucleocapsid RNA required extracts of cells transfected with critical amounts and ratios of each of the plasmids and was three- to fivefold better than replication with a control extract prepared from a natural virus infection. Extracts in which NP and P proteins were coexpressed supported replication of the genome of purified DI-H virus which contained endogenous polymerase proteins, but extracts in which NP and P were expressed separately and then mixed were inactive. Similarly, the P and L proteins must be coexpressed for biological activity. The replication data thus suggest that two protein complexes, NP-P and P-L, are required for nucleocapsid RNA replication and that these complexes must form during or soon after synthesis of the proteins. Biochemical evidence in support of the formation of each complex includes coimmunoprecipitation of both proteins of each complex with an antibody specific for one component and cosedimentation of the subunits of each complex. We propose that the P-L complex serves as the RNA polymerase and NP-P is required for encapsidation of newly synthesized RNA. Images PMID:1321276

  13. High-resolution crystal structure of a hepatitis B virus replication inhibitor bound to the viral core protein

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Klaus; Lam, Angela M.; Lukacs, Christine; Vogel, Robert; Ren, Suping; Espiritu, Christine; Baydo, Ruth; Atkins, Kateri; Abendroth, Jan; Liao, Guochun; Efimov, Andrey; Hartman, George; Flores, Osvaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is essential for HBV replication and an important target for antiviral drug discovery. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution crystal structure of an antiviral compound bound to the HBV core protein. The compound NVR-010–001-E2 can induce assembly of the HBV core wild-type and Y132A mutant proteins and thermostabilize the proteins with a Tm increase of more than 10 °C. NVR-010–001-E2 binds at the dimer–dimer interface of the core proteins, forms a new interaction surface promoting protein–protein interaction, induces protein assembly, and increases stability. The impact of naturally occurring core protein mutations on antiviral activity correlates with NVR-010–001-E2 binding interactions determined by crystallography. The crystal structure provides understanding of a drug efficacy mechanism related to the induction and stabilization of protein–protein interactions and enables structure-guided design to improve antiviral potency and drug-like properties. PMID:26598693

  14. Two single amino acid substitutions in the intervening region of Newcastle disease virus HN protein attenuate viral replication and pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Ji, Yanhong; Lin, Zhongqing; Fu, Yuguang; Muhammad Dafallah, Rihab; Zhu, Qiyun

    2015-01-01

    Among the proteins encoded by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the attachment protein (HN) is an important determinant of virulence and pathogenicity. HN has been molecularly characterized at the protein level; however, the relationship between the molecular character of HN and the animal pathotype it causes has not been well explored. Here, we revisited the intervening region (IR) of the HN stalk and extended the known biological functions of HN. Three distinct substitutions (A89Q, P93A, and L94A) in the IR of genotype VII NDV (G7 strain) HN protein were analyzed. The A89Q and L94A mutations weakened the fusion promotion activity of HN to 44% and 41% of that of wild type, respectively, whereas P93A decreased the neuraminidase activity to 21% of the parental level. At the virus level, P93A and L94A-bearing viruses displayed impaired receptor recognition ability, neuraminidase activity, and fusion-promoting activity, all of which led to virus attenuation. In addition, the L94A-mutated virus showed a dramatic decline in replication and was attenuated in cells and in chickens. Our data demonstrate that the HN biological activities and functions modulated by these specific amino acids in the IR are associated with NDV replication and pathogenicity. PMID:26267791

  15. Characterization of the effect of aphidicolin on adenovirus DNA replication: evidence in support of a protein primer model of initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, S; Robertson, W; Rekosh, D

    1981-01-01

    Adenovirus DNA replication is inhibited by aphidicolin but the inhibition clearly has different parameters than the inhibition of purified DNA polymerase alpha. In adenovirus infected Hela cells, 10 micrograms/ml of aphidicolin reduced viral DNA synthesis by 80%. Cellular DNA synthesis was inhibited by 97% at 0.1 microgram/ml. 10 micrograms/ml of drug had no effect on virus yield or late protein synthesis though higher concentrations of drug (50 micrograms/ml) caused an abrupt cessation of late protein synthesis and 100 micrograms/ml reduced virus yield by 3 logs. Concentrations of the drug from 0.5 microgram/ml to 10 micrograms/ml were found to dramatically slow the rate of DNA chain elongation in vitro but not stop it completely, so that over a long period of time net incorporation was reduced only slightly compared to the control. 50 micrograms/ml or 100 micrograms/ml of drug completely inhibited incorporation in vitro. Initiation of viral DNA replication - covalent attachment of dCMP to the preterminal protein - occurs in vitro. This reaction was found to be insensitive to inhibition by aphidicolin. We thus conclude that aphidicolin exerts its effect on adenovirus DNA chain elongation, but not on the primary initiation event of protein priming. Images PMID:6796938

  16. A positive-strand RNA virus uses alternative protein-protein interactions within a viral protease/cofactor complex to switch between RNA replication and virion morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dubrau, Danilo; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Rey, Félix A; Tautz, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    The viruses of the family Flaviviridae possess a positive-strand RNA genome and express a single polyprotein which is processed into functional proteins. Initially, the nonstructural (NS) proteins, which are not part of the virions, form complexes capable of genome replication. Later on, the NS proteins also play a critical role in virion formation. The molecular basis to understand how the same proteins form different complexes required in both processes is so far unknown. For pestiviruses, uncleaved NS2-3 is essential for virion morphogenesis while NS3 is required for RNA replication but is not functional in viral assembly. Recently, we identified two gain of function mutations, located in the C-terminal region of NS2 and in the serine protease domain of NS3 (NS3 residue 132), which allow NS2 and NS3 to substitute for uncleaved NS2-3 in particle assembly. We report here the crystal structure of pestivirus NS3-4A showing that the NS3 residue 132 maps to a surface patch interacting with the C-terminal region of NS4A (NS4A-kink region) suggesting a critical role of this contact in virion morphogenesis. We show that destabilization of this interaction, either by alanine exchanges at this NS3/4A-kink interface, led to a gain of function of the NS3/4A complex in particle formation. In contrast, RNA replication and thus replicase assembly requires a stable association between NS3 and the NS4A-kink region. Thus, we propose that two variants of NS3/4A complexes exist in pestivirus infected cells each representing a basic building block required for either RNA replication or virion morphogenesis. This could be further corroborated by trans-complementation studies with a replication-defective NS3/4A double mutant that was still functional in viral assembly. Our observations illustrate the presence of alternative overlapping surfaces providing different contacts between the same proteins, allowing the switch from RNA replication to virion formation.

  17. A positive-strand RNA virus uses alternative protein-protein interactions within a viral protease/cofactor complex to switch between RNA replication and virion morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Félix A.

    2017-01-01

    The viruses of the family Flaviviridae possess a positive-strand RNA genome and express a single polyprotein which is processed into functional proteins. Initially, the nonstructural (NS) proteins, which are not part of the virions, form complexes capable of genome replication. Later on, the NS proteins also play a critical role in virion formation. The molecular basis to understand how the same proteins form different complexes required in both processes is so far unknown. For pestiviruses, uncleaved NS2-3 is essential for virion morphogenesis while NS3 is required for RNA replication but is not functional in viral assembly. Recently, we identified two gain of function mutations, located in the C-terminal region of NS2 and in the serine protease domain of NS3 (NS3 residue 132), which allow NS2 and NS3 to substitute for uncleaved NS2-3 in particle assembly. We report here the crystal structure of pestivirus NS3-4A showing that the NS3 residue 132 maps to a surface patch interacting with the C-terminal region of NS4A (NS4A-kink region) suggesting a critical role of this contact in virion morphogenesis. We show that destabilization of this interaction, either by alanine exchanges at this NS3/4A-kink interface, led to a gain of function of the NS3/4A complex in particle formation. In contrast, RNA replication and thus replicase assembly requires a stable association between NS3 and the NS4A-kink region. Thus, we propose that two variants of NS3/4A complexes exist in pestivirus infected cells each representing a basic building block required for either RNA replication or virion morphogenesis. This could be further corroborated by trans-complementation studies with a replication-defective NS3/4A double mutant that was still functional in viral assembly. Our observations illustrate the presence of alternative overlapping surfaces providing different contacts between the same proteins, allowing the switch from RNA replication to virion formation. PMID:28151973

  18. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3).

  19. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  20. Monitoring of the spatial and temporal dynamics of BER/SSBR pathway proteins, including MYH, UNG2, MPG, NTH1 and NEIL1-3, during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Bj Rås, Karine Ø; Sousa, Mirta M L; Sharma, Animesh; Fonseca, Davi M; S Gaard, Caroline K; Bj Rås, Magnar; Otterlei, Marit

    2017-08-21

    Base lesions in DNA can stall the replication machinery or induce mutations if bypassed. Consequently, lesions must be repaired before replication or in a post-replicative process to maintain genomic stability. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway for repair of base lesions and is known to be associated with DNA replication, but how BER is organized during replication is unclear. Here we coupled the iPOND (isolation of proteins on nascent DNA) technique with targeted mass-spectrometry analysis, which enabled us to detect all proteins required for BER on nascent DNA and to monitor their spatiotemporal orchestration at replication forks. We demonstrate that XRCC1 and other BER/single-strand break repair (SSBR) proteins are enriched in replisomes in unstressed cells, supporting a cellular capacity of post-replicative BER/SSBR. Importantly, we identify for the first time the DNA glycosylases MYH, UNG2, MPG, NTH1, NEIL1, 2 and 3 on nascent DNA. Our findings suggest that a broad spectrum of DNA base lesions are recognized and repaired by BER in a post-replicative process. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. The hemagglutinin protein of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses overcomes an early block in the replication cycle to promote productive replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cline, Troy D; Karlsson, Erik A; Seufzer, Bradley J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are known to be one of the first lines of defense against influenza virus infection. However, they may also contribute to severe disease caused by the highly pathogenic avian (HPAI) H5N1 influenza viruses. One reason for this may be the ability of certain influenza virus strains to productively replicate in macrophages. However, studies investigating the productive replication of influenza viruses in macrophages have been contradictory, and the results may depend on both the type of macrophages used and the specific viral strain. In this work, we investigated the ability of H1 to H16 viruses to productively replicate in primary murine alveolar macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophages. We show that only a subset of HPAI H5N1 viruses, those that cause high morbidity and mortality in mammals, can productively replicate in macrophages, as measured by the release of newly synthesized virus particles into the cell supernatant. Mechanistically, we found that these H5 strains can overcome a block early in the viral life cycle leading to efficient nuclear entry, viral transcription, translation, and ultimately replication. Studies with reassortant viruses demonstrated that expression of the hemagglutinin gene from an H5N1 virus rescued replication of H1N1 influenza virus in macrophages. This study is the first to characterize H5N1 influenza viruses as the only subtype of influenza virus capable of productive replication in macrophages and establishes the viral gene that is required for this characteristic. The ability to productively replicate in macrophages is unique to H5N1 influenza viruses and may contribute to their increased pathogenesis.

  2. Role of Vaccinia Virus A20R Protein in DNA Replication: Construction and Characterization of Temperature-Sensitive Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Koji; Moss, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Previous analyses of randomly generated, temperature-sensitive vaccinia virus mutants led to the mapping of DNA synthesis negative complementation groups to the B1R, D4R, D5R, and E9L genes. Evidence from the yeast two-hybrid system that the D4R and D5R proteins can interact with the A20R protein suggested that A20R was also involved in DNA replication. We found that the A20R gene was transcribed early after infection, consistent with such a role. To investigate the function of the A20R protein, targeted mutations were made by substituting alanines for charged amino acids occurring in 11 different clusters. Four mutants were not isolated, suggesting that they were lethal, two mutants exhibited no temperature sensitivity, two mutants exhibited partial temperature sensitivity, and two mutants formed no plaques or infectious virus at 39°C. The two mutants with stringent phenotypes were further characterized. Temperature shift-up experiments indicated that the crucial period was between 6 and 12 h after infection, making it unlikely that the defect was in virus entry, early gene expression, or a late stage of virus assembly. Similar patterns of metabolically labeled viral early proteins were detected at permissive and nonpermissive temperatures, but one mutant showed an absence of late proteins under the latter conditions. Moreover, no viral DNA synthesis was detected when cells were infected with either stringent mutant at 39°C. The previous yeast two-hybrid analysis together with the present characterization of A20R temperature-sensitive mutants suggested that the A20R, D4R, and D5R proteins are components of a multiprotein DNA replication complex. PMID:11160663

  3. A nuclear export signal in the matrix protein of Influenza A virus is required for efficient virus replication.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Xiaoling; Yu, Maorong; Li, Jing; Jia, Xiaojuan; Bi, Yuhai; Sun, Lei; Gao, George F; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-05-01

    The influenza A virus matrix 1 protein (M1) shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus during the viral life cycle and plays an important role in the replication, assembly, and budding of viruses. Here, a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) was identified specifically for the nuclear export of the M1 protein. The predicted NES, designated the Flu-A-M1 NES, is highly conserved among all sequences from the influenza A virus subtype, but no similar NES motifs are found in the M1 sequences of influenza B or C viruses. The biological function of the Flu-A-M1 NES was demonstrated by its ability to translocate an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-NES fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in transfected cells, compared to the even nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of EGFP. The translocation of EGFP-NES from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was not inhibited by leptomycin B. NES mutations in M1 caused a nuclear retention of the protein and an increased nuclear accumulation of NEP during transfection. Indeed, as shown by rescued recombinant viruses, the mutation of the NES impaired the nuclear export of M1 and significantly reduced the virus titer compared to titers of wild-type viruses. The NES-defective M1 protein was retained in the nucleus during infection, accompanied by a lowered efficiency of the nuclear export of viral RNPs (vRNPs). In conclusion, M1 nuclear export was specifically dependent on the Flu-A-M1 NES and critical for influenza A virus replication.

  4. Novel PKCη Is Required To Activate Replicative Functions of the Major Nonstructural Protein NS1 of Minute Virus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Sylvie; Rommeleare, Jean; Nüesch, Jürg P. F.

    2003-01-01

    The multifunctional protein NS1 of minute virus of mice (MVMp) is posttranslationally modified and at least in part regulated by phosphorylation. The atypical lambda isoform of protein kinase C (PKCλ) phosphorylates residues T435 and S473 in vitro and in vivo, leading directly to an activation of NS1 helicase function, but it is insufficient to activate NS1 for rolling circle replication. The present study identifies an additional cellular protein kinase phosphorylating and regulating NS1 activities. We show in vitro that the recombinant novel PKCη phosphorylates NS1 and in consequence is able to activate the viral polypeptide in concert with PKCλ for rolling circle replication. Moreover, this role of PKCη was confirmed in vivo. We thereby created stably transfected A9 mouse fibroblasts, a typical MVMp-permissive host cell line with Flag-tagged constitutively active or inactive PKCη mutants, in order to alter the activity of the NS1 regulating kinase. Indeed, tryptic phosphopeptide analyses of metabolically 32P-labeled NS1 expressed in the presence of a dominant-negative mutant, PKCηDN, showed a lack of distinct NS1 phosphorylation events. This correlates with impaired synthesis of viral DNA replication intermediates, as detected by Southern blotting at the level of the whole cell population and by BrdU incorporation at the single-cell level. Remarkably, MVM infection triggers an accumulation of endogenous PKCη in the nuclear periphery, suggesting that besides being a target for PKCη, parvovirus infections may also affect the regulation of this NS1 regulating kinase. Altogether, our results underline the tight interconnection between PKC-mediated signaling and the parvoviral life cycle. PMID:12829844

  5. Human cytomegalovirus gene UL21a encodes a short-lived cytoplasmic protein and facilitates virus replication in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong

    2010-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL21a was recently annotated by its conservation in chimpanzee cytomegalovirus. Two large-scale mutagenic analyses showed that mutations in overlapping UL21a/UL21 resulted in a severe defect of virus growth in fibroblasts. Here, we characterized UL21a and demonstrated its role in HCMV infection. We mapped a UL21a-specific transcript of approximately 600 bp that was expressed with early kinetics. UL21a encoded pUL21a, a protein of approximately 15 kDa, which was unstable and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm during HCMV infection or when expressed alone. Interestingly, pUL21a was drastically stabilized in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, but its instability was independent of a functional ubiquitin-mediated pathway, suggesting that pUL21a underwent proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation. A UL21a deletion virus was attenuated in primary human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), whereas a marker-rescued virus and mutant viruses lacking the neighboring or overlapping genes UL20, UL21, or UL21.5-UL23 replicated at wild-type levels. The growth defect of UL21a-deficient virus in MRC-5 cells was more pronounced than that in HFFs. At a high multiplicity of infection, the UL21a deletion virus synthesized viral proteins with wild-type kinetics but had a two- to threefold defect in viral DNA replication. More importantly, although pUL21a was not detected in the virion, progeny virions produced by the mutant virus were approximately 10 times less infectious than wild-type virus, suggesting that UL21a is required for HCMV to establish efficient productive infection. We conclude that UL21a encodes a short-lived cytoplasmic protein and facilitates HCMV replication in fibroblasts.

  6. Replication Restart in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Michel, Bénédicte; Sandler, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    In bacteria, replication forks assembled at a replication origin travel to the terminus, often a few megabases away. They may encounter obstacles that trigger replisome disassembly, rendering replication restart from abandoned forks crucial for cell viability. During the past 25 years, the genes that encode replication restart proteins have been identified and genetically characterized. In parallel, the enzymes were purified and analyzed in vitro, where they can catalyze replication initiation in a sequence-independent manner from fork-like DNA structures. This work also revealed a close link between replication and homologous recombination, as replication restart from recombination intermediates is an essential step of DNA double-strand break repair in bacteria and, conversely, arrested replication forks can be acted upon by recombination proteins and converted into various recombination substrates. In this review, we summarize this intense period of research that led to the characterization of the ubiquitous replication restart protein PriA and its partners, to the definition of several replication restart pathways in vivo, and to the description of tight links between replication and homologous recombination, responsible for the importance of replication restart in the maintenance of genome stability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Common determinants in DNA melting and helicase-catalysed DNA unwinding by papillomavirus replication protein E1.

    PubMed

    Castella, Sandrine; Bingham, Gregg; Sanders, Cyril M

    2006-01-01

    E1 and T-antigen of the tumour viruses bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1) and Simian virus 40 (SV40) are the initiator proteins that recognize and melt their respective origins of replication in the initial phase of DNA replication. These proteins then assemble into processive hexameric helicases upon the single-stranded DNA that they create. In T-antigen, a characteristic loop and hairpin structure (the pre-sensor 1beta hairpin, PS1betaH) project into a central cavity generated by protein hexamerization. This channel undergoes large ATP-dependent conformational changes, and the loop/PS1betaH is proposed to form a DNA binding site critical for helicase activity. Here, we show that conserved residues in BPV E1 that probably form a similar loop/hairpin structure are required for helicase activity and also origin (ori) DNA melting. We propose that DNA melting requires the cooperation of the E1 helicase domain (E1HD) and the origin binding domain (OBD) tethered to DNA. One possible mechanism is that with the DNA locked in the loop/PS1betaH DNA binding site, ATP-dependent conformational changes draw the DNA inwards in a twisting motion to promote unwinding.

  8. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibited hepatitis C virus replication by binding viral NS3 protein.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xijing; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian

    2016-05-01

    HCV infection has a complex and dynamic process which involves a large number of viral and host factors. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibits liver fibrosis and liver tumor migration and invasion. However, the contribution of GAS5 on HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, GAS5 was gradually upregulated during HCV infection in Huh7 cells. In addition, GAS5 attenuated virus replication with its 5' end sequences, as confirmed by different GAS5 truncations. Moreover, this 5' end sequences showed RNA-protein interaction with HCV NS3 protein that could act as a decoy to inhibit its functions, which contributed to the suppression of HCV replication. Finally, the innate immune responses remained low in HCV infected Huh7 cells, ruling out the possibility of GAS5 to modulate innate immunity. Thus, HCV stimulated endogenous GAS5 can suppress HCV infection by acting as HCV NS3 protein decoy, providing a potential role of GAS5 as a diagnostic or therapeutic target.

  9. HIV-1 replication in human immune cells is independent of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) expression.

    PubMed

    Nehls, Julia; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Floss, Thomas; Schindler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was originally identified as a host cell factor binding to the HIV-1 LTR and thereby suppressing HIV-1 transcription and gene expression (Ou et al., J.Virol. 1995, 69(6):3584). TDP-43 is a global regulator of transcription, can influence RNA metabolism in many different ways and is ubiquitously expressed. Thus, TDP-43 could be a major factor restricting HIV-1 replication at the level of LTR transcription and gene expression. These facts prompted us to revisit the role of TDP-43 for HIV-1 replication. We utilized established HIV-1 cell culture systems as well as primary cell models and performed a comprehensive analysis of TDP-43 function and investigated its putative impact on HIV-1 gene expression. In HIV-1 infected cells TDP-43 was neither degraded nor sequestered from the nucleus. Furthermore, TDP-43 overexpression as well as siRNA mediated knockdown did not affect HIV-1 gene expression and virus production in T cells and macrophages. In summary, our experiments argue against a restricting role of TDP-43 during HIV-1 replication in immune cells.

  10. Downregulation of Aedes aegypti chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7/Kismet by Wolbachia and its effect on dengue virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Sultan; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Asgari, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus imposing a significant burden on human health around the world. Since current control strategies are not sufficient, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control DENV transmission. It has been demonstrated that introduction of Wolbachia pipientis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can impede DENV transmission with the mechanism(s) not fully understood. Recently, a number of studies have found the involvement of chromodomain DNA binding helicases in case of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Influenza A virus infection. In this study, we have identified three chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein (CHD) genes in Ae. aegypti and looked at their response in the case of Wolbachia and DENV infections. Foremost amongst them we have found that AeCHD7/Kismet is significantly downregulated in the presence of Wolbachia infection only in female mosquitoes. Furthermore, AeCHD7 levels showed significant increase during DENV infection, and AeCHD7 depletion led to severe reduction in the replication of DENV. Our data have identified AeCHD7 as a novel Ae. aegypti host factor that is important for DENV replication, and Wolbachia downregulates it, which may contribute towards the mechanism(s) of limiting DENV replication. PMID:27827425

  11. HIV-1 Replication in Human Immune Cells Is Independent of TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nehls, Julia; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Floss, Thomas; Schindler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was originally identified as a host cell factor binding to the HIV-1 LTR and thereby suppressing HIV-1 transcription and gene expression (Ou et al., J.Virol. 1995, 69(6):3584). TDP-43 is a global regulator of transcription, can influence RNA metabolism in many different ways and is ubiquitously expressed. Thus, TDP-43 could be a major factor restricting HIV-1 replication at the level of LTR transcription and gene expression. These facts prompted us to revisit the role of TDP-43 for HIV-1 replication. We utilized established HIV-1 cell culture systems as well as primary cell models and performed a comprehensive analysis of TDP-43 function and investigated its putative impact on HIV-1 gene expression. In HIV-1 infected cells TDP-43 was neither degraded nor sequestered from the nucleus. Furthermore, TDP-43 overexpression as well as siRNA mediated knockdown did not affect HIV-1 gene expression and virus production in T cells and macrophages. In summary, our experiments argue against a restricting role of TDP-43 during HIV-1 replication in immune cells. PMID:25127017

  12. The E89K Mutation in the Matrix Protein of the Measles Virus Affects In Vitro Cell Death and Virus Replication Efficiency in Human PBMC

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jianbao; Zhu, Wei; Saito, Akatsuki; Goto, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Haga, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Matrix protein is known to have an important role in the process of virus assembly and virion release during measles virus replication. In the present in vitro study, a single mutation of E89K in the matrix protein was shown to affect cell death and virus replication efficiency in human PBMC. One strain with this mutation caused less cell death than the parental virus, and possessed high virus replication efficiency. Moreover, by Annexin V-FITC staining, polycaspase FLICA staining, and double labeling with poly-caspase FLICA and the Hoechst stain, the cell death seen was shown to be apoptosis. PMID:22715352

  13. Roles of Long and Short Replication Initiation Proteins in the Fate of IncP-1 Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hirokazu; Deckert, Gail E.; Rogers, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-host-range IncP-1 plasmids generally encode two replication initiation proteins, TrfA1 and TrfA2. TrfA2 is produced from an internal translational start site within trfA1. While TrfA1 was previously shown to be essential for replication in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its role in other bacteria within its broad host range has not been established. To address the role of TrfA1 and TrfA2 in other hosts, efficiency of transformation, plasmid copy number (PCN), and plasmid stability were first compared between a mini-IncP-1β plasmid and its trfA1 frameshift variant in four phylogenetically distant hosts: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Sphingobium japonicum, and Cupriavidus necator. TrfA2 was sufficient for replication in these hosts, but the presence of TrfA1 enhanced transformation efficiency and PCN. However, TrfA1 did not contribute to, and even negatively affected, long-term plasmid persistence. When trfA genes were cloned under a constitutive promoter in the chromosomes of the four hosts, strains expressing either both TrfA1 and TrfA2 or TrfA1 alone, again, generally elicited a higher PCN of an IncP1-β replicon than strains expressing TrfA2 alone. When a single species of TrfA was produced at different concentrations in E. coli cells, TrfA1 maintained a 3- to 4-fold higher PCN than TrfA2 at the same TrfA concentrations, indicating that replication mediated by TrfA1 is more efficient than that by TrfA2. These results suggest that the broad-host-range properties of IncP-1 plasmids are essentially conferred by TrfA2 and the intact replication origin alone but that TrfA1 is nonetheless important to efficiently establish plasmid replication upon transfer into a broad range of hosts. PMID:22228734

  14. The Proximity of Ribosomal Protein Genes to oriC Enhances Vibrio cholerae Fitness in the Absence of Multifork Replication

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Timmermans, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent works suggest that bacterial gene order links chromosome structure to cell homeostasis. Comparative genomics showed that, in fast-growing bacteria, ribosomal protein genes (RP) locate near the replication origin (oriC). We recently showed that Vibrio cholerae employs this positional bias as a growth optimization strategy: under fast-growth conditions, multifork replication increases RP dosage and expression. However, RP location may provide advantages in a dosage-independent manner: for example, the physical proximity of the many ribosomal components, in the context of a crowded cytoplasm, may favor ribosome biogenesis. To uncover putative dosage-independent effects, we studied isogenic V. cholerae derivatives in which the major RP locus, S10-spc-α (S10), was relocated to alternative genomic positions. When bacteria grew fast, bacterial fitness was reduced according to the S10 relative distance to oriC. The growth of wild-type V. cholerae could not be improved by additional copies of the locus, suggesting a physiologically optimized genomic location. Slow growth is expected to uncouple RP position from dosage, since multifork replication does not occur. Under these conditions, we detected a fitness impairment when S10 was far from oriC. Deep sequencing followed by marker frequency analysis in the absence of multifork replication revealed an up to 30% S10 dosage reduction associated with its relocation that closely correlated with fitness alterations. Hence, the impact of S10 location goes beyond a growth optimization strategy during feast periods. RP location may be important during the whole life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:28246358

  15. An Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Protein Complex Requires an Origin of Lytic Replication In Cis to Mediate Late Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Djavadian, Reza; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Johannsen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication is accomplished by an intricate cascade of gene expression that integrates viral DNA replication and structural protein synthesis. Most genes encoding structural proteins exhibit “true” late kinetics–their expression is strictly dependent on lytic DNA replication. Recently, the EBV BcRF1 gene was reported to encode a TATA box binding protein homolog, which preferentially recognizes the TATT sequence found in true late gene promoters. BcRF1 is one of seven EBV genes with homologs found in other β- and γ-, but not in α-herpesviruses. Using EBV BACmids, we systematically disrupted each of these “βγ” genes. We found that six of them, including BcRF1, exhibited an identical phenotype: intact viral DNA replication with loss of late gene expression. The proteins encoded by these six genes have been found by other investigators to form a viral protein complex that is essential for activation of TATT-containing reporters in EBV-negative 293 cells. Unexpectedly, in EBV infected 293 cells, we found that TATT reporter activation was weak and non-specific unless an EBV origin of lytic replication (OriLyt) was present in cis. Using two different replication-defective EBV genomes, we demonstrated that OriLyt-mediated DNA replication is required in cis for TATT reporter activation and for late gene expression from the EBV genome. We further demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the late BcLF1 mRNA localizes to EBV DNA replication factories. These findings support a model in which EBV true late genes are only transcribed from newly replicated viral genomes. PMID:27348612

  16. Critical role of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 accessory proteins in viral replication and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Björn; Lairmore, Michael D

    2002-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with a diverse range of lymphoproliferative and neurodegenerative diseases, yet pathogenic mechanisms induced by the virus remain obscure. This complex retrovirus contains typical structural and enzymatic genes but also unique regulatory and accessory genes in four open reading frames (ORFs) of the pX region of the viral genome (pX ORFs I to IV). The regulatory proteins encoded by pX ORFs III and IV, Tax and Rex, respectively, have been extensively characterized. In contrast the contribution of the four accessory proteins p12(I), p27(I), p13(II), and p30(II), encoded by pX ORFs I and II, to viral replication and pathogenesis remained unclear. Proviral clones that are mutated in either pX ORF I or II, while fully competent in cell culture, are severely limited in their replicative capacity in a rabbit model. Emerging evidence indicates that the HTLV-1 accessory proteins are critical for establishment of viral infectivity, enhance T-lymphocyte activation, and potentially alter gene transcription and mitochondrial function. HTLV-1 pX ORF I expression is critical to the viral infectivity in resting primary lymphocytes, suggesting a role for p12(I) in lymphocyte activation. The endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi localizing p12(I), encoded from pX ORF I, activates NFAT, a key T-cell transcription factor, through calcium-mediated signaling pathways and may lower the threshold of lymphocyte activation via the JAK/STAT pathway. In contrast p30(II) localizes to the nucleus and represses viral promoter activity, but may regulate cellular gene expression through p300/CBP or related coactivators of transcription. p13(II) targets mitochondrial proteins, where it alters the organelle morphology and may influence energy metabolism. Collectively, studies of the molecular functions of the HTLV-1 accessory proteins provide insight into strategies used by retroviruses that are associated with lymphoproliferative

  17. Cyclin A degradation by primate cytomegalovirus protein pUL21a counters its innate restriction of virus replication.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Nicolas; Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin A is critical for cellular DNA synthesis and S phase progression of the cell cycle. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can reduce cyclin A levels and block cellular DNA synthesis, and cyclin A overexpression can repress HCMV replication. This interaction has only been previously observed in HCMV as murine CMV does not downregulate cyclin A, and the responsible viral factor has not been identified. We previously reported that the HCMV protein pUL21a disrupted the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), but a point mutant abrogating this activity did not phenocopy a UL21a-deficient virus, suggesting that pUL21a has an additional function. Here we identified a conserved arginine-x-leucine (RxL) cyclin-binding domain within pUL21a, which allowed pUL21a to interact with cyclin A and target it for proteasome degradation. Homologous pUL21a proteins from both chimpanzee and rhesus CMVs also contained the RxL domain and similarly degraded cyclin A, indicating that this function is conserved in primate CMVs. The RxL point mutation disabled the virus' ability to block cellular DNA synthesis and resulted in a growth defect similar to pUL21a-deficient virus. Importantly, knockdown of cyclin A rescued growth of UL21a-deficient virus. Together, these data show that during evolution, the pUL21a family proteins of primate CMVs have acquired a cyclin-binding domain that targets cyclin A for degradation, thus neutralizing its restriction on virus replication. Finally, the combined proteasome-dependent degradation of pUL21a and its cellular targets suggests that pUL21a may act as a novel suicide protein, targeting its protein cargos for destruction.

  18. Identification, characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the rolling-circle replication initiator protein from plasmid pSTK1.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stephen B; Mecia, Lauren B; Phillips, Simon E V; Thomas, Christopher D

    2013-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens poses an ever-increasing risk to human health. In antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus this resistance often resides in extra-chromosomal plasmids, such as those of the pT181 family, which replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism mediated by a plasmid-encoded replication initiation protein. Currently, there is no structural information available for the pT181-family Rep proteins. Here, the crystallization of a catalytically active fragment of a homologous replication initiation protein from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus responsible for the replication of plasmid pSTK1 is reported. Crystals of the RepSTK1 fragment diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to space group P2₁2₁2₁.

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection inhibits LGP2 protein expression to exaggerate inflammatory response and promote viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zixiang; Li, Chuntian; Du, Xiaoli; Wang, Guoqing; Cao, Weijun; Yang, Fan; Feng, Huanhuan; Zhang, Xiangle; Shi, Zhengwang; Liu, Huanan; Tian, Hong; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue

    2017-01-01

    The role of the innate immune protein LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in FMDV-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of LGP2 during FMDV infection. FMDV infection triggered LGP2 mRNA expression but reduced protein expression. Overexpression of LGP2 suppressed FMDV replication, and the inflammatory response was significantly inhibited by LGP2 in virus-infected cells. The N-terminal DExDc and the C-terminal regulatory domain regions of LGP2 were essential for LGP2-mediated antiviral activity against FMDV. Disruption of RNA recognition by LGP2 is suggested to abolish completely LGP2-mediated antiviral activity against FMDV. FMDV leader protein (Lpro), as well as the 3Cpro and 2B proteins were determined to possess the ability to induce reduction of LGP2 protein expression. 2B-induced reduction of LGP2 was independent of cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma; and the proteasomes, lysosomes or caspase-dependent pathways were not involved in this process. The C-terminal amino acids of 101–154 were essential for 2B-induced reduction of LGP2 and upregulation of inflammatory response. Direct interaction was demonstrated between LGP2 and 2B. Our results describe the antiviral role of LGP2 against FMDV and a novel antagonistic mechanism of FMDV that is mediated by 2B protein. PMID:28406479

  20. Identification of a putative chromosomal replication origin from Helicobacter pylori and its interaction with the initiator protein DnaA

    PubMed Central

    Zawilak, Anna; Cebrat, Stanislaw; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Król-Hulewicz, Anna; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Messer, Walter; Gosciniak, Grazyna; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, Jolanta

    2001-01-01

    The key elements of the initiation of Helicobacter pylori chromosome replication, DnaA protein and putative oriC region, have been characterized. The gene arrangement in the H.pylori dnaA region differs from that found in many other eubacterial dnaA regions (rnpA-rmpH-dnaA-dnaN-recF-gyrB). Helicobacter pylori dnaA is flanked by two open reading frames with unknown function, while dnaN-gyrB and rnpA-rmpH loci are separated from the dnaA gene by 600 and 90 kb, respectively. We show that the dnaA gene encoding initiator protein DnaA is expressed in H.pylori cells. The H.pylori DnaA protein, like other DnaA proteins, can be divided into four domains. Here we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of H.pylori DnaA protein is responsible for DNA binding. Using in silico and in vitro studies, the putative oriC region containing five DnaA boxes has been located upstream of the dnaA gene. DNase I and gel retardation analyses show that the C-terminal domain of H.pylori DnaA protein specifically binds each of five DnaA boxes. PMID:11376143

  1. DNA and heparin chaperone the refolding of purified recombinant replication protein A subunit 1 from Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Lira, C B B; Gui, K E; Perez, A M; da Silveira, R C V; Gava, L M; Ramos, C H I; Cano, M I N

    2009-02-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has been implicated in DNA metabolism and telomere maintenance. Subunit 1 of RPA from Leishmania amazonensis (LaRPA-1) has previously been affinity-purified on a column containing a G-rich telomeric DNA. LaRPA-1 binds and co-localizes with parasite telomeres in vivo. Here we describe the purification and characterization of native recombinant LaRPA-1 (rLaRPA-1). The protein was initially re-solubilized from inclusion bodies by using urea. After dialysis, rLaRPA-1 was soluble but contaminated with DNA, which was removed by an anion-exchange chromatography of the protein solubilized in urea. However, rLaRPA-1 precipitated after dialysis to remove urea. To investigate whether the contaminating DNA was involved in chaperoning the refolding of rLaRPA-1, salmon sperm DNA or heparin was added to the solution before dialysis. The addition of either of these substances prevented the precipitation of rLaRPA-1. The resulting rLaRPA-1 was soluble, correctly folded, and able to bind telomeric DNA. This is the first report showing the characterization of rLaRPA1 and of the importance of additives in chaperoning the refolding of this protein. The availability of rLaRPA-1 should be helpful in assessing the importance of this protein as a potential drug target.

  2. The heat shock protein 70 cochaperone YDJ1 is required for efficient membrane-specific flock house virus RNA replication complex assembly and function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Spencer A; Miller, David J

    2008-02-01

    The assembly of RNA replication complexes on intracellular membranes is an essential step in the life cycle of positive-sense RNA viruses. We have previously shown that Hsp90 chaperone complex activity is essential for efficient Flock House virus (FHV) RNA replication in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. To further explore the role of cellular chaperones in viral RNA replication, we used both pharmacologic and genetic approaches to examine the role of the Hsp90 and Hsp70 chaperone systems in FHV RNA replication complex assembly and function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to results with insect cells, yeast deficient in Hsp90 chaperone complex activity showed no significant decrease in FHV RNA replication. However, yeast with a deletion of the Hsp70 cochaperone YDJ1 showed a dramatic reduction in FHV RNA replication that was due in part to reduced viral RNA polymerase accumulation. Furthermore, the absence of YDJ1 did not reduce FHV RNA replication when the viral RNA polymerase and replication complexes were retargeted from the mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum. These results identify YDJ1 as an essential membrane-specific host factor for FHV RNA replication complex assembly and function in S. cerevisiae and are consistent with known differences in the role of distinct chaperone complexes in organelle-specific protein targeting between yeast and higher eukaryotes.

  3. The Heat Shock Protein 70 Cochaperone YDJ1 Is Required for Efficient Membrane-Specific Flock House Virus RNA Replication Complex Assembly and Function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Spencer A.; Miller, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of RNA replication complexes on intracellular membranes is an essential step in the life cycle of positive-sense RNA viruses. We have previously shown that Hsp90 chaperone complex activity is essential for efficient Flock House virus (FHV) RNA replication in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. To further explore the role of cellular chaperones in viral RNA replication, we used both pharmacologic and genetic approaches to examine the role of the Hsp90 and Hsp70 chaperone systems in FHV RNA replication complex assembly and function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to results with insect cells, yeast deficient in Hsp90 chaperone complex activity showed no significant decrease in FHV RNA replication. However, yeast with a deletion of the Hsp70 cochaperone YDJ1 showed a dramatic reduction in FHV RNA replication that was due in part to reduced viral RNA polymerase accumulation. Furthermore, the absence of YDJ1 did not reduce FHV RNA replication when the viral RNA polymerase and replication complexes were retargeted from the mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum. These results identify YDJ1 as an essential membrane-specific host factor for FHV RNA replication complex assembly and function in S. cerevisiae and are consistent with known differences in the role of distinct chaperone complexes in organelle-specific protein targeting between yeast and higher eukaryotes. PMID:18057252

  4. In vitro replication of plasmids containing human ribosomal gene sequences: origin localization and dependence on an aprotinin-binding cytosolic protein.

    PubMed

    Coffman, F D; Georgoff, I; Fresa, K L; Sylvester, J; Gonzalez, I; Cohen, S

    1993-11-01

    We previously investigated the role of an aprotinin-binding protein (ADR) in the initiation of DNA replication in isolated quiescent nuclei. In the present study, we have used a cell-free DNA replication system to test the ability of plasmid vectors which contain sequences from the human ribosomal RNA gene to serve as replicative templates in vitro when exposed to ADR-containing preparations. Significant dTTP incorporation was seen using DNA from either a 7-kb sequence in the 5' spacer region (CHE) or a 7-kb sequence which begins near the end of the 28S coding region and extends into the 3' spacer region (ADBB), while sequences from other regions of the rRNA gene mediated little or no dTTP incorporation. The characteristics of plasmid-directed dTTP incorporation indicate that most incorporation is due to DNA replication and not repair or damage-initiated processes. To conclusively demonstrate origin-dependent replication in the plasmid system and to further map replication origins, an approach was developed using ddGTP to restrict the length of daughter strands followed by hybridization of these replication products to restriction fragments spanning the putative origin region. This approach allowed us to identify replication origin activity apart from parent strand repair or synthesis initiated at random damaged sites. One of the origins was localized to a 1375-bp fragment within the 5' spacer region, and this fragment contains sequences homologous to those found in other replication origins.

  5. Pseudo-Replication of [GADV]-Proteins and Origin of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The RNA world hypothesis on the origin of life is generally considered as the key to solve the “chicken and egg dilemma” concerning the evolution of genes and proteins as observed in the modern organisms. This hypothesis, however, contains several serious weak points. We have a counterproposal called [GADV]-protein world hypothesis, abbreviated as GADV hypothesis, in which we have suggested that life originated from a [GADV]-protein world, which comprised proteins composed of four amino acids: Gly [G], Ala [A], Asp [D], and Val [V]. A new concept “pseudo-replication” is crucial for the description of the emergence of life. The new hypothesis not only plausibly explains how life originated from the initial chaotic protein world, but also how genes, genetic code, and proteins co-evolved. PMID:19468323

  6. Separation of the adenovirus terminal protein precursor from its associated DNA polymerase: role of both proteins in the initiation of adenovirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Lichy, J H; Field, J; Horwitz, M S; Hurwitz, J

    1982-01-01

    A complex containing the 80,000-dalton precursor to the adenovirus (Ad)-encoded terminal protein (pTP) and a 140,000-dalton protein is required for Ad DNA replication in vitro. This complex has been separated into subunits by glycerol gradient centrifugation in the presence of urea. The isolated 140,000-dalton subunit contains a DNA polymerase activity which can be differentiated from all host DNA polymerases. No enzyme activity was detected with the isolated pTP. The requirements for reactions involved in the initiation of Ad DNA replication were determined by using the isolated subunits. The covalent addition of dCMP, the first nucleotide in the DNA chain, to the pTP, which serves as the primer for replication, required the DNA polymerase subunit as well as the pTP. Synthesis of viral DNA in vitro also required both subunits. The properties of the DNA polymerase suggest that it may be a viral gene product. Images PMID:6957861

  7. Poxvirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Poxviruses are large, enveloped viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and encode proteins for DNA replication and gene expression. Hairpin ends link the two strands of the linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Viral proteins involved in DNA synthesis include a 117-kDa polymerase, a helicase–primase, a uracil DNA glycosylase, a processivity factor, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a protein kinase, and a DNA ligase. A viral FEN1 family protein participates in double-strand break repair. The DNA is replicated as long concatemers that are resolved by a viral Holliday junction endonuclease. PMID:23838441

  8. Inhibition of binding of tomato yellow leaf curl virus rep to its replication origin by artificial zinc-finger protein.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomoaki; Takenaka, Kosuke; Domoto, Fumiya; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Previously we demonstrated that inhibition of replication-associated protein (Rep) binding to its replication origin by artificial zinc-finger proteins (AZPs) is a powerful method to prevent plant virus infection in vivo. In the present study, we applied the AZP technology to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which is a limiting factor in tomato cultivation worldwide. First, we determined 5'-ATCGGTGT ATCGGTGT-3' in the 195-bp intergenic region of the TYLCV-Israel strain, a strain reported first among TYLCV strains, as the Rep-binding site by gel shift assays. We then constructed a 6-finger AZP that bound to a 19-bp DNA including the Rep-binding site. We demonstrated that the binding affinity of the AZP was >1,000-fold greater than that of Rep and that the AZP inhibited Rep binding completely in vitro. Because the binding capability of the AZP was same as that of the AZP previously designed for geminivirus-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana, we predict that the present AZP will prevent TYLCV infection in vivo.

  9. Functions of Replication Protein A as a Sensor of R Loops and a Regulator of RNaseH1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai Dang; Yadav, Tribhuwan; Giri, Sumanprava; Saez, Borja; Graubert, Timothy A; Zou, Lee

    2017-03-02

    R loop, a transcription intermediate containing RNA:DNA hybrids and displaced single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), has emerged as a major source of genomic instability. RNaseH1, which cleaves the RNA in RNA:DNA hybrids, plays an important role in R loop suppression. Here we show that replication protein A (RPA), an ssDNA-binding protein, interacts with RNaseH1 and colocalizes with both RNaseH1 and R loops in cells. In vitro, purified RPA directly enhances the association of RNaseH1 with RNA:DNA hybrids and stimulates the activity of RNaseH1 on R loops. An RPA binding-defective RNaseH1 mutant is not efficiently stimulated by RPA in vitro, fails to accumulate at R loops in cells, and loses the ability to suppress R loops and associated genomic instability. Thus, in addition to sensing DNA damage and replication stress, RPA is a sensor of R loops and a regulator of RNaseH1, extending the versatile role of RPA in suppression of genomic instability.

  10. Novel Irreversible Small Molecule Inhibitors of Replication Protein A Display Single Agent Activity and Synergize with Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Tracy M.; Bodenmiller, Diane; Fitch, Richard W.; Jalal, Shadia I.; Turchi, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-strand DNA-binding protein with essential roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair. RPA is necessary for the formation of the preincision complex which is required for proper incision of damaged DNA nucleotides during DNA repair. We have previously identified small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) with the ability to disrupt RPA binding activity to ssDNA. Further characterization of these RPA inhibitors was assessed using both lung and ovarian cancer cell lines. Lung cancer cell lines demonstrated increased apoptotic cell death following treatment with the SMI MCI13E, with IC50 values of ~5 μM. The A2780 ovarian cancer cell line and the p53-null lung cancer cell line H1299 were particularly sensitive to MCI13E treatment with IC50 values below 3 μM. Furthermore, a cell cycle effect was observed in lung cancer cell lines which resulted in a lengthening of either G1 or S-phases of the cell cycle following single agent treatment. Sequential treatment with MCI13E and cisplatin resulted in synergism. Overall these data suggest that decreasing RPA’s DNA binding activity via a SMI may disrupt RPA’s role in cell cycle regulation. Thus, RPA SMIs hold the potential to be used as single agent chemotherapeutics or in combination with current chemotherapeutic regimens to increase efficacy. PMID:21846830

  11. Regulation of DNA replication and repair proteins through interaction with the front side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Jónsson, Z O; Hindges, R; Hübscher, U

    1998-01-01

    The DNA polymerase accessory factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been caught in interaction with an ever increasing number of proteins. To characterize the sites and functions of some of these interactions, we constructed four mutants of human PCNA and analysed them in a variety of assays. By targeting loops on the surface of the PCNA trimer and changing three or four residues at a time to alanine, we found that a region including part of the domain-connecting loop of PCNA and loops on one face of the trimer, close to the C-termini, is involved in binding to all of the following proteins: DNA polymerase delta, replication factor C, the flap endonuclease Fen1, the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and DNA ligase I. An inhibition of DNA ligation caused by the interaction of PCNA with DNA ligase I was found, and we show that DNA ligase I and Fen1 can inhibit DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase delta/PCNA. We demonstrate that PCNA must be located below a 5' flap on a forked template to stimulate Fen1 activity, and considering the interacting region on PCNA for Fen1, this suggests an orientation for PCNA during DNA replication with the C-termini facing forwards, in the direction of DNA synthesis. PMID:9545252

  12. Induction of necrosis via mitochondrial targeting of Melon necrotic spot virus replication protein p29 by its second transmembrane domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Kanda, Ayami; Ohnishi, Jun; Ohki, Takehiro; Tsuda, Shinya

    2009-08-01

    The virulence factor of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), a virus that induces systemic necrotic spot disease on melon plants, was investigated. When the replication protein p29 was expressed in N. benthamiana using a Cucumber mosaic virus vector, necrotic spots appeared on the leaf tissue. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial aggregation in these tissues. Fractionation of tissues expressing p29 and confocal imaging using GFP-tagged p29 revealed that p29 associated with the mitochondrial membrane as an integral membrane protein. Expression analysis of p29 deletion fragments and prediction of hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) in p29 showed that deletion of the second putative TMD from p29 led to deficiencies in both the mitochondrial localization and virulence of p29. Taken together, these results indicated that MNSV p29 interacts with the mitochondrial membrane and that p29 may be a virulence factor causing the observed necrosis.

  13. Werner syndrome protein: functions in the response to DNA damage and replication stress in S-phase.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Muftuoglu, Meltem; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2007-09-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an excellent model system for the study of human aging. WRN, a nuclear protein mutated in WS, plays multiple roles in DNA metabolism. Our understanding about the metabolic regulation and function of this RecQ helicase has advanced greatly during the past decade, largely due to the availability of purified WRN protein, WRN knockdown cells, and WRN knockout mice. Recent biochemical and genetic studies indicate that WRN plays significant roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Interestingly, many WRN functions require handling of DNA ends during S-phase, and evidence suggests that WRN plays both upstream and downstream roles in the response to DNA damage. Future research should focus on the mechanism(s) of WRN in the regulation of the various DNA metabolism pathways and development of therapeutic approaches to treat premature aging syndromes such as WS.