Science.gov

Sample records for representing multi-metal assemblies

  1. Autoinhibition of SNARE complex assembly by a conformational switch represents a conserved feature of syntaxins

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Chris; Munson, Mary; Bryant, Nia J.

    2017-01-01

    Regulation and specificity of membrane trafficking are required to maintain organelle integrity while performing essential cellular transport. Membrane fusion events in all eukaryotic cells are facilitated by the formation of specific SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor) complexes between proteins on opposing lipid bilayers. Although regulation of SNARE complex assembly is not well understood, it is clear that two conserved protein families, the Sx (syntaxin) and the SM (Sec1p/Munc18) proteins, are central to this process. Sxs are a subfamily of SNARE proteins; in addition to the coiled-coil SNARE motif, Sxs possess an N-terminal, autonomously folded, triple-helical (Habc) domain. For some Sxs, it has been demonstrated that this Habc domain exerts an autoinhibitory effect on SNARE complex assembly by making intramolecular contacts with the SNARE motif. SM proteins regulate membrane fusion through interactions with their cognate Sxs. One hypothesis for SM protein function is that they facilitate a switch of the Sx from a closed to an open conformation, thus lifting the inhibitory action of the Habc domain and freeing the SNARE motif to participate in SNARE complexes. However, whether these regulatory mechanisms are conserved throughout the Sx/SM protein families remains contentious as it is not clear whether the closed conformation represents a universal feature of Sxs. PMID:20074061

  2. Autoinhibition of SNARE complex assembly by a conformational switch represents a conserved feature of syntaxins.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Chris; Munson, Mary; Bryant, Nia J

    2010-02-01

    Regulation and specificity of membrane trafficking are required to maintain organelle integrity while performing essential cellular transport. Membrane fusion events in all eukaryotic cells are facilitated by the formation of specific SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor) complexes between proteins on opposing lipid bilayers. Although regulation of SNARE complex assembly is not well understood, it is clear that two conserved protein families, the Sx (syntaxin) and the SM (Sec1p/Munc18) proteins, are central to this process. Sxs are a subfamily of SNARE proteins; in addition to the coiled-coil SNARE motif, Sxs possess an N-terminal, autonomously folded, triple-helical (Habc) domain. For some Sxs, it has been demonstrated that this Habc domain exerts an autoinhibitory effect on SNARE complex assembly by making intramolecular contacts with the SNARE motif. SM proteins regulate membrane fusion through interactions with their cognate Sxs. One hypothesis for SM protein function is that they facilitate a switch of the Sx from a closed to an open conformation, thus lifting the inhibitory action of the Habc domain and freeing the SNARE motif to participate in SNARE complexes. However, whether these regulatory mechanisms are conserved throughout the Sx/SM protein families remains contentious as it is not clear whether the closed conformation represents a universal feature of Sxs.

  3. A memory-efficient data structure representing exact-match overlap graphs with application for next-generation DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Hieu; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2011-07-15

    Exact-match overlap graphs have been broadly used in the context of DNA assembly and the shortest super string problem where the number of strings n ranges from thousands to billions. The length ℓ of the strings is from 25 to 1000, depending on the DNA sequencing technologies. However, many DNA assemblers using overlap graphs suffer from the need for too much time and space in constructing the graphs. It is nearly impossible for these DNA assemblers to handle the huge amount of data produced by the next-generation sequencing technologies where the number n of strings could be several billions. If the overlap graph is explicitly stored, it would require Ω(n(2)) memory, which could be prohibitive in practice when n is greater than a hundred million. In this article, we propose a novel data structure using which the overlap graph can be compactly stored. This data structure requires only linear time to construct and and linear memory to store. For a given set of input strings (also called reads), we can informally define an exact-match overlap graph as follows. Each read is represented as a node in the graph and there is an edge between two nodes if the corresponding reads overlap sufficiently. A formal description follows. The maximal exact-match overlap of two strings x and y, denoted by ov(max)(x, y), is the longest string which is a suffix of x and a prefix of y. The exact-match overlap graph of n given strings of length ℓ is an edge-weighted graph in which each vertex is associated with a string and there is an edge (x, y) of weight ω=ℓ-|ov(max)(x, y)| if and only if ω ≤ λ, where |ov(max)(x, y)| is the length of ov(max)(x, y) and λ is a given threshold. In this article, we show that the exact-match overlap graphs can be represented by a compact data structure that can be stored using at most (2λ-1)(2⌈logn⌉+⌈logλ⌉)n bits with a guarantee that the basic operation of accessing an edge takes O(log λ) time. We also propose two algorithms for

  4. Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J.; French, N.B.; Brown, C.H.; Burns, D.B.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Priebe, S.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1997-11-17

    Three prototype multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in April 1996 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The CEM instruments were: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES); Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LIBS); and Laser Spark Spectrometry, another LIBS instrument. The three CEMs were tested simultaneously during test periods in which low, medium, and high concentration levels of seven toxic metals -- antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury -- were maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Two methods were used to introduce the test metals into the flue gas: (1) solution atomization, introducing metal-containing aerosol directly into the secondary combustion burner, and (2) injection of fly ash particulates. The testing addressed four measures of CEM performance: relative accuracy (RA), calibration drift, zero drift, and response time. These were accomplished by comparing the toxic metal analyte concentrations reported by the CEMs to the concentrations measured using the EPA reference method (RM) for the same analytes. Overall, the test results showed the prototype nature of the test CEMs and the clear need for further development. None of the CEMs tested consistently achieved RA values of 20% or less as required by the EPA draft performance specification. Instrument size reduction and automation will also likely need additional attention before multi-metal CEMs systems become commercially available for service as envisioned by regulators and citizens.

  5. Green synthesis of multi metal- citrate complexes and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Usha; Warkar, Sudhir G.; Kumar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    Four new multi metal-citrate complexes have been synthesized through green synthetic pathways. Their synthesis by hydrothermal route in the present research is decorated with features such as, a simple one pot synthesis, cost effectiveness, easy to scale up for commercial production, efficient synthesis conditions like mild temperature and shorter duration which further rules out the possibility of forming byproducts which may cause damage to the environment and being environmental benign as it eliminates the use and recovery of harmful organic solvents such as N, N- dimethyl formamide and N, N- diethyl formamide, used by the researchers in the past during the synthesis of similar metal- organic framework complexes. All four complexes are well defined crystalline materials with polynuclear multi metal-citrate framework having cubic crystal structure as indicated by their Powder X-ray Diffraction patterns. These complexes have been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Powder XRD techniques.

  6. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sky +, Inc.

    1998-09-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

  7. Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors. Appendix Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J. Jr.; French, N.B.; Brown, C.H.; Burns, D.B.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Priebe, S.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1997-11-17

    This report contains appendices to the study of three prototype multi-metals continuous emission monitors (CEMs). The appendices are: Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analytical Laboratory daily logbook pages and CEM data; Navy/Thermo Jarrell Ash Corp. daily logbook pages and CEM data; Sandia National Laboratories daily logbook pages and CEM data; Measurement data from Insitec particle counter, sizers, velocimeter.

  8. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    PubMed

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality.

  9. Evaluation of cotton burdock (Arctium tomentosum Mill.) responses to multi-metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Al Harbawee, Waad E Q; Kluchagina, Alina N; Anjum, Naser A; Bashmakov, Dmitry I; Lukatkin, Alexander S; Pereira, Eduarda

    2017-02-01

    Plants have immense potential for their use in the minimization of emerging environmental pollution issues. Under simulated laboratory conditions, this work investigated the growth and biochemical responses of 14-day-old cotton burdock (Arctium tomentosum Mill.) seedlings to the body burdens of multi-metals including Pb, Cu, Ni, and Zn (1.0 μM-10 mM). Biochemical traits (superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, content of total peroxides), growth traits (axial organs growth, dry weight accumulation, leaf area), and also metal body burdens varied with types and concentrations of metals. Results indicated a significant tolerance of A. tomentosum to multi-metals that can be implicated for its potential role in the metal phytoremediation programs.

  10. Viability of a nanoremediation  process in single or multi-metal(loid) contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Gil-Díaz, M; Pinilla, P; Alonso, J; Lobo, M C

    2017-01-05

    The effectiveness of single- and multi-metal(loid) immobilization of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn using different doses of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was evaluated and compared in two different soils, a calcareous and an acidic one. The effectiveness of nZVI to immobilize metal(loid)s in soil strongly depended on the metal characteristics, soil properties, dose of nZVI and presence of other metal(loid)s. In the case of single contamination, this nanoremediation strategy was effective for all of the metal(loid)s studied except for Cd. When comparing the two soils, anionic metal(loid)s (As and Cr) were more easily retained in acidic soil, whereas cationic metal(loid)s (Cd, Pb and Zn), were immobilized more in calcareous soil. In multi-metal(loid) contaminated soils, the presence of several metal(loid)s affected their immobilization, which was probably due to the competitive phenomenon between metal(loid) ions, which can reduce their sorption or produce synergistic effects. At 10% of nZVI, As, Cr and Pb availability decreased more than 82%, for Zn it ranged between 31 and 75% and for Cd between 13 and 42%. Thus, the application of nZVI can be a useful strategy to immobilize As, Cr, Pb and Zn in calcareous or acidic soils in both single- or multi-metal(loid) contamination conditions.

  11. Development and evaluation of a new multi-metal binding biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Abdolali, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Lee, D J; Tung, K L; Wang, X C

    2014-05-01

    A novel multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) was developed by combining a group of three from the selective natural lignocellulosic agro-industrial wastes for effectively eliminating lead, cadmium, copper and zinc from aqueous solutions. Four MMBBs with different combinations (MMBB1: tea waste, corncob, sugarcane bagasse; MMBB2: tea waste, corncob and sawdust; MMBB3: tea waste, corncob and apple peel; MMBB4: tea waste, corncob and grape stalk) were evaluated. FTIR analysis for characterizing the MMBB2 explored that the MMBB2 contains more functional groups available for multi-metals binding. Comparing among the MMBBs as well as the single group biosorbents, MMBB2 was the best biosorbent with the maximum biosorption capacities of 41.48, 39.48, 94.00 and 27.23 mg/g for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. After 5 times of desorption with CaCl2, CH3COOH and NaCl as eluent, the MMBB2 still remained excellent biosorptive capacity, so as it could be well regenerated for reuse and possible recovery of metals.

  12. Characterization of a multi-metal binding biosorbent: Chemical modification and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Abdolali, Atefeh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhou, John L; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Wang, Xiaochang C; Nguyen, Phuoc Dan

    2015-10-01

    This work attends to preparation and characterization of a novel multi-metal binding biosorbent after chemical modification and desorption studies. Biomass is a combination of tea waste, maple leaves and mandarin peels with a certain proportion to adsorb cadmium, copper, lead and zinc ions from aqueous solutions. The mechanism involved in metal removal was investigated by SEM, SEM/EDS and FTIR. SEM/EDS showed the presence of different chemicals and adsorbed heavy metal ions on the surface of biosorbent. FTIR of both unmodified and modified biosorbents revealed the important role of carboxylate groups in heavy metal biosorption. Desorption using different eluents and 0.1 M HCl showed the best desorption performance. The effectiveness of regeneration step by 1 M CaCl2 on five successive cycles of sorption and desorption displays this multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) can effectively be utilized as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions in five cycles of sorption/desorption/regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) to reclaim multi-metal contaminated acidic soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Xi; Lu, Huan-Liang; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-hao-bo; Lin, Qing-Qi; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-03-01

    A five-year field trial was conducted at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine to explore the feasibility and availability of using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) , a fiber crop with strong heavy metals tolerance and potential economic value, to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. Different amendments were applied prior to the kenaf planting to evaluate their effects on the soil properties and kenaf growth. After the amendments application, the kenaf could grow well on the heavy metals contaminated soil with the Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations being 1600, 440, 640, 7. 6, and 850 mg . kg-1, respectively. Among the amendments, dolomite and fly ash had better effects than limestone and organic fertilizer. With the application of dolomite and fly ash, the aboveground dry mass production of kenaf reached 14-15 t . hm-2, which was similar to that on normal soils, and the heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber and stem of kenaf decreased significantly, as compared with the control. The mass of the bast fiber accounted for 32% -38% of the shoot production, and the extractable heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber could meet the standard of 'technical specifications of ecological textiles' in China, suggesting that the bast fiber had potential economic value. It was suggested that planting kenaf combining with dolomite/fly ash application could be an effective measure to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil.

  14. Competitive adsorption of metals on cabbage waste from multi-metal solutions.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Vigneswaran, S; Nguyen, T V

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the adsorption capacity of the agro-waste 'cabbage' as a biosorbent in single, binary, ternary and quaternary sorption systems with Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions. Dried and ground powder of cabbage waste (CW) was used for the sorption of metals ions. Carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amine groups in cabbage waste were found to be the key functional groups for metal sorption. The adsorption isotherms obtained could be well fitted to both the mono- and multi-metal models. In the competitive adsorption systems, cabbage waste adsorbed larger amount of Pb(II) than the other three metals. However, the presence of the competing ions suppressed the sorption of the target metal ions. Except the case of binary system of Cd(II)-Zn(II) and Cd(II)-Cu(II), there was a linear inverse dependency between the sorption capacities and number of different types of competitive metal ions.

  15. Empirical modeling of heavy metal extraction by EDDS from single-metal and multi-metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Yip, Theo C M; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ng, Kelvin T W; Lo, Irene M C

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of using biodegradable EDDS (S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) for metal extraction has drawn increasing attention in recent years. In this study, an empirical model, which utilized the initial metal distribution in soils and a set of parameter values independently determined from sequential extraction, was developed for estimating the time-dependent heavy metal extraction by EDDS from single-metal and multi-metal contaminated soils. The model simulation provided a satisfactory description of the experimental results of the 7-d extraction kinetics of Cu, Zn, and Pb in both artificially contaminated and field-contaminated soils. Thus, independent and prior assessment of extraction efficiency would be available to facilitate the engineering applications of EDDS. Furthermore, a simple empirical equation using the initial metal distribution was also proposed to estimate the extraction efficiency at equilibrium. It was found that, for the same type of soils, higher extraction efficiency was achieved in multi-metal contaminated soils than in single-metal contaminated soils. The differences were 4-9%, 9-16%, and 21-31% for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, probably due to the larger proportion of exchangeable and carbonate fractions of sorbed Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. EDDS-promoted mineral dissolution, on the other hand, was more significant in multi-metal contaminated soils as a result of the higher EDDS concentration applied to the soils of higher total metal content.

  16. Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-07-01

    The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC₁₀C₁₀ being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites.

  17. Terahertz multi-metal-wire hybrid-cladding hollow waveguide for refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Ying, Yu; Xu-You, Li; Kun-Peng, He; Bo, Sun

    2016-02-01

    We propose a design of terahertz refractive index sensing based on the multi-metal-wire (MMW) hybrid-cladding hollow waveguide. The proposed terahertz hybrid-cladding hollow waveguide comprises one air core in the center surrounding MMW surrounded dielectric. The central air core is used for filling lossless measurands and transmitting terahertz light. In particular, the refractive index sensing is realized by measuring the mode field area (MFA) variation of radially polarized mode. The modal effective refractive index, mode field intensity distribution, and mode field area properties responding to the measurand refractive indexes for different operating frequencies and structure dimensions are investigated, respectively. Simulations show that the proposed terahertz refractive index sensor can realize easily the measurement of the measurand refractive index. Meanwhile, the effects of operating frequency and structure parameters on sensitivity and measurement accuracy are also studied. In view of the trade-off between sensitivity and measurement accuracy, the reasonable choice of the operating frequency and structure parameters can optimize appropriately the sensitivity and measurement accuracy, and the sensitivity can reach approximately 0.585 mm2/RIU (RIU is short for refraction index units) with the proper frequency and structure parameter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51309059).

  18. Increase of multi-metal tolerance of three leguminous plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Xu-Hong; Wong, Ming-Hung; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Lou, Lai-Qing; Wang, You-Shan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2007-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae on the growth and metal uptake of three leguminous plants (Sesbania rostrata, Sesbania cannabina, Medicago sativa) grown in multi-metal contaminated soil. AMF colonization increased the growth of the legumes, indicating that AMF colonization increased the plant's resistance to heavy metals. It also significantly stimulated the formation of root nodules and increased the N and P uptake of all of the tested leguminous plants, which might be one of the tolerance mechanisms conferred by AMF. Compared with the control, colonization by G. mosseae decreased the concentration of metals, such as Cu, in the shoots of the three legumes, indicating that the decreased heavy metals uptake and growth dilution were induced by AMF treatment, thereby reducing the heavy metal toxicity to the plants. The root/shoot ratios of Cu in the three legumes and Zn in M. sativa were significantly increased (P<0.05) with AMF colonization, indicating that heavy metals were immobilized by the mycorrhiza and the heavy metal translocations to the shoot were decreased.

  19. Representing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Handbooks denote representative authority, which gives their content normative value and through which editors and authors can emphasize certain views and orientations within a field. The representative authority of a handbook is reinforced in various ways, both obvious and subtle. The "SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" is no exception…

  20. Representing Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Handbooks denote representative authority, which gives their content normative value and through which editors and authors can emphasize certain views and orientations within a field. The representative authority of a handbook is reinforced in various ways, both obvious and subtle. The "SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" is no exception…

  1. Novel EDTA and process water recycling method after soil washing of multi-metal contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2012-01-30

    The development of EDTA-based soil washing technologies is hampered by the lack of treatment methods of the spent solution, particularly when multi-metal contaminated soils have to be remediated. Extraction of Pb (5329 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3401 mg kg(-1)), Cd (35 mg kg(-1)) and As (279 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil with 60 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil removed 72%, 27%, 71%, and 80% of contaminants, respectively. We demonstrate here, on a laboratory scale experiment, the feasibility of using acid precipitation with HCl and H(2)SO(4), coupled to initial alkaline Fe removal, to recover up to 88% of EDTA from a spent soil washing solution containing 11,578 mg L(-1) of EDTA and 1109, 267, 7.1 and 64 mg L(-1) of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively. An electrochemical advanced oxidation process with a graphite anode was subsequently used to degrade 99.9% of the remaining EDTA in the spent washing solution and remove 99.7% Pb, 100% Zn, 96.6% Cd and 100% of As as (electro)precipitate. The cleansed process water obtained after electrochemical treatment was then used to prepare recycled washing solution by re-dissolving the recovered/recycled part of the EDTA. Washing solutions prepared from recycled EDTA had the same potential to extract Pb, Zn, Cd and As from soil as washing solution prepared from fresh EDTA of the same molarity. The novel recycling method is simple and robust and enables reuse of both EDTA and process water in a closed process loop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Representing dispositions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them. PMID:21995952

  3. DNA Cleaving "Tandem-Array" Metallopeptides Activated With KHSO5: Towards the Development of Multi-Metallated Bioactive Conjugates and Compounds.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark A; Williams, Katie M; Fang, Ya-Yin; Schultz, Franklin A; Long, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Amino terminal peptides of the general form Gly-Gly-His have been used to introduce single sites of metal binding and redox activity into a wide range of biomolecules to create bioactive compounds and conjugates capable of substrate oxidation. We report here that Gly-Gly-His-like peptides linked in a tandem fashion can also be generated leading to multi-metal binding arrays. While metal binding by the native Gly-Gly-His motif (typically to Cu(2+), Ni(2+), or Co(2+)) requires a terminal peptide amine ligand, previous work has demonstrated that an ornithine (Orn) residue can be substituted for the terminal Gly residue to allow solid-phase peptide synthesis to continue via the side chain N-δ. This strategy thus frees the Orn residue N-α for metal binding and permits placement of a Gly-Gly-His-like metal binding domain at any location within a linear, synthetic peptide chain. As we show here, this strategy also permits the assembly of tandem arrays of metal binding units in linear peptides of the form: NH2-Gly-Gly-His-[(δ)-Orn-Gly-His]n-(δ)-Orn-Gly-His-CONH2 (where n = 0, 1, and 2). Metal binding titrations of these tandem arrays monitored by UV-vis and ESI-MS indicated that they bind Cu(2+), Ni(2+), or Co(2+) at each available metal binding site. Further, it was found that these systems retained their ability to modify DNA oxidatively and to an extent greater than their parent M(II)•Gly-Gly-His. These findings suggest that the tandem array metallopeptides described here may function with increased efficiency as "next generation" appendages in the design of bioactive compounds and conjugates.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Multi-Metal-Resistant Halomonas sp. MG from Tamil Nadu Magnesite Ore Soil in India.

    PubMed

    Govarthanan, Muthusamy; Shim, Jaehong; Kim, Seol Ah; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize potential multi-metal-resistant bacteria from ore soils. A total of three bacteria were isolated and assayed for resistance to arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb). Isolate Halomonas sp. MG exhibited maximum resistance to 1000 mg Pb/L, 800 mg As/L, and 500 mg Cu/L and it was identified as Halomonas sp. based on the partial 16S rDNA sequences. The metal(loid)s resistance mechanisms were further confirmed by amplification of arsC (As) copAU (Cu), and pbrT (Pb) genes. Biological transmission electron micrographs and XRD studies showed that the isolate Halomonas sp. MG transformed and/or biomineralized the metals either intracellularly or extracellularly. These results suggest that the isolate could be used as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of As, Cu, and Pb.

  5. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  6. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  7. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, Paul A.; Church, Deanna M.; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  8. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-04

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms of stabilization by silicon-rich amendments of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in a multi-metal contaminated acidic soil and the mitigation of metal accumulation in rice were investigated in this study. The results from a pot experiment indicated that the application of fly ash (20 and...

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers place some of the Columbia debris moved from the Columbia Debris Hangar in its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers place some of the Columbia debris moved from the Columbia Debris Hangar in its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  11. Study on reaction kinetics and selective precipitation of Cu, Zn, Ni and Sn with H₂S in single-metal and multi-metal systems.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, H; Kuchar, D; Mihara, N; Kubota, M; Matsuda, H; Fukuta, T

    2008-11-01

    Determination of reaction kinetics and selective precipitation of Cu, Zn, Ni and Sn with H(2)S in single-metal and multi-metal systems were studied to develop a process of metal recovery from plating wastewater. As samples, single-metal model wastewaters containing Cu, Sn, Zn or Ni, and multi-metal model wastewater containing Cu-Zn-Ni or Sn-Zn mixtures were used. In both single-metal and multi-metal systems, the pH value was precisely controlled at a value of 1.5 for CuS and SnS precipitation, 4.5 for ZnS precipitation and 6.5-7.0 for NiS precipitation. Subsequently, the sulfidation of Cu, Sn, Zn and Ni was evaluated. It was found that an amount of H(2)S equimolar to a given metal was sufficient to achieve almost complete precipitation of the particular metal. Further, the selectivity of metal precipitation was found to be higher than 95% in the Cu-Zn-Ni multi-metal system and higher than 91% in the Sn-Zn system. It was also found that the sulfidation reaction proceeded in accordance with Higbie's penetration theory and reaction rate constants and mass-transfer coefficients under various experimental conditions were determined. Finally, the reaction rate constants obtained in single-metal and multi-metal systems were found to be almost the same indicating that the precipitation of a particular metal was not significantly affected by the presence of other components.

  12. Impact of an urban multi-metal contamination gradient: metal bioaccumulation and tolerance of river biofilms collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Faburé, Juliette; Dufour, Marine; Autret, Armelle; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability and seasonal variability of the biological response of river biofilms chronically exposed to a multi-metal pressure in an urban contamination gradient. Biofilms were grown on immersed plastic membranes at three sites on the Seine river upstream (site 1) and downstream (sites 2 and 3) from Paris (France). They were collected in four different seasons (autumn, spring, summer and winter). Biofilm tolerance to Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was measured using a PICT (Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance) approach with a previously developed short-term toxicity test based on β-glucosidase (heterotrophic) activity. Metal concentrations in the river and also in the biofilm samples (total and non-exchangeable bioaccumulated metals) were also monitored. Biofilm-accumulated metal concentrations reflected the increase of the multi-metal exposure along the urban gradient. These concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and with the total metal fraction in the river water, which recalls the significant influence of the environmental parameters on metal uptake processes in river biofilms. Overall, natural biofilms allow monitoring water quality by integrating the variations of a diffuse metal contamination overtime. Tolerance levels globally increased from site 1 to site 3 reflecting the metal pollution gradient measured in the river water collected at the three sites. Cu tolerance tended to increase during warm seasons but no clear seasonal tendency could be found for Ni, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, principal component analysis clearly discriminated samples collected upstream (site 1) from samples collected downstream (sites 2 and 3) along the first principal component which was correlated to the metal gradient. Samples collected in winter were also separated from the others along the second principal component correlated to parameters like water temperature and Total Suspended Solids

  13. Comparative performance evaluation of multi-metal resistant fungal strains for simultaneous removal of multiple hazardous metals.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyadarshini; Gola, Deepak; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Kumar, Peeyush; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Patel, Neelam; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-11-15

    In the present study, five fungal strains viz., Aspergillus terreus AML02, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus 4099, Beauveria bassiana 4580, Aspergillus terreus PD-17, Aspergillus fumigatus PD-18, were screened for simultaneous multimetal removal. Highest metal tolerance index for each individual metal viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (500mg/L) was recorded for A. fumigatus for the metals (Cd, 0.72; Cu, 0.72; Pb, 1.02; Zn, 0.94) followed by B. bassiana for the metals (Cd, 0.56; Cu, 0.14; Ni, 0.29; Zn, 0.85). Next, the strains were exposed to multiple metal mixture (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of various concentrations (6, 12, 18, 30mg/L). Compared to other strains, B. bassiana and A. fumigatus had higher cube root growth (k) constants indicating their better adaptability to multi metal stress. After 72h, multimetal accumulation potential of B. bassiana (26.94±0.07mg/L) and A. fumigatus (27.59±0.09mg/L) were higher than the other strains at initial multimetal concentration of 30mg/L. However, considering the post treatment concentrations of individual metals in multimetal mixture (at all the tested concentrations), A. fumigatus demonstrated exceptional performance and could bring down the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn below the threshold level for irrigation prescribed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosorption kinetics of heavy metals by leaf biomass of Jatropha curcas in single and multi-metal system.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Anand Prabha; Giri, Krishna; Rai, J P N

    2014-03-01

    Biosorption of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(6+) from aqueous solutions by leaf biomass of Jatropha curcas was investigated as a function of biomass concentration, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, and pH of the solution systematically. The aim of this study was to optimize biosorption process and find out a suitable kinetic model for the metal removal in single and multi-metal system. The experimental data were analyzed using two sorption kinetic models, viz., pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order equations, to determine the best fit equation for the biosorption of metal ions Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(6+) onto the leaf biomass of J. curcas in different metal systems. The experimental data fitted well the pseudo-second-order equation and provided the best correlation for the biosorption process. The findings of the present investigation revealed that J. curcas leaf biomass was an eco-friendly and cost-effective biosorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

  15. Activity of N-coordinated multi-metal-atom active site structures for Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: Role of *OH ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holby, Edward F.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2015-03-01

    We report calculated oxygen reduction reaction energy pathways on multi-metal-atom structures that have previously been shown to be thermodynamically favorable. We predict that such sites have the ability to spontaneously cleave the O2 bond and then will proceed to over-bind reaction intermediates. In particular, the *OH bound state has lower energy than the final 2 H2O state at positive potentials. Contrary to traditional surface catalysts, this *OH binding does not poison the multi-metal-atom site but acts as a modifying ligand that will spontaneously form in aqueous environments leading to new active sites that have higher catalytic activities. These *OH bound structures have the highest calculated activity to date.

  16. Activity of N-coordinated multi-metal-atom active site structures for Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: Role of *OH ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Holby, Edward F.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2015-03-19

    We report calculated oxygen reduction reaction energy pathways on multi-metal-atom structures that have previously been shown to be thermodynamically favorable. We predict that such sites have the ability to spontaneously cleave the O₂ bond and then will proceed to over-bind reaction intermediates. In particular, the *OH bound state has lower energy than the final 2 H₂O state at positive potentials. Contrary to traditional surface catalysts, this *OH binding does not poison the multi-metal-atom site but acts as a modifying ligand that will spontaneously form in aqueous environments leading to new active sites that have higher catalytic activities. These *OH bound structures have the highest calculated activity to date.

  17. Activity of N-coordinated multi-metal-atom active site structures for Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: Role of *OH ligands

    PubMed Central

    Holby, Edward F.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    We report calculated oxygen reduction reaction energy pathways on multi-metal-atom structures that have previously been shown to be thermodynamically favorable. We predict that such sites have the ability to spontaneously cleave the O2 bond and then will proceed to over-bind reaction intermediates. In particular, the *OH bound state has lower energy than the final 2 H2O state at positive potentials. Contrary to traditional surface catalysts, this *OH binding does not poison the multi-metal-atom site but acts as a modifying ligand that will spontaneously form in aqueous environments leading to new active sites that have higher catalytic activities. These *OH bound structures have the highest calculated activity to date. PMID:25788358

  18. Activity of N-coordinated multi-metal-atom active site structures for Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction catalysis: Role of *OH ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Holby, Edward F.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2015-03-19

    We report calculated oxygen reduction reaction energy pathways on multi-metal-atom structures that have previously been shown to be thermodynamically favorable. We predict that such sites have the ability to spontaneously cleave the O₂ bond and then will proceed to over-bind reaction intermediates. In particular, the *OH bound state has lower energy than the final 2 H₂O state at positive potentials. Contrary to traditional surface catalysts, this *OH binding does not poison the multi-metal-atom site but acts as a modifying ligand that will spontaneously form in aqueous environments leading to new active sites that have higher catalytic activities. These *OH boundmore » structures have the highest calculated activity to date.« less

  19. Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and heavy metal ion removal characteristics of thus-obtained Zeolite X in multi-metal systems.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vinay Kumar; Nagae, Masahiro; Matsuda, Motohide; Miyake, Michihiro

    2009-06-01

    Zeolitic materials have been prepared from coal fly ash as well as from a SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3) system upon NaOH fusion treatment, followed by subsequent hydrothermal processing at various NaOH concentrations and reaction times. During the preparation process, the starting material initially decomposed to an amorphous form, and the nucleation process of the zeolite began. The carbon content of the starting material influenced the formation of the zeolite by providing an active surface for nucleation. Zeolite A (Na-A) was transformed into zeolite X (Na-X) with increasing NaOH concentration and reaction time. The adsorption isotherms of the obtained Na-X based on the characteristics required to remove heavy ions such as Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) were examined in multi-metal systems. Thus obtained experimental data suggests that the Langmuir and Freundlich models are more accurate compared to the Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) model. However, the sorption energy obtained from the DKR model was helpful in elucidating the mechanism of the sorption process. Further, in going from a single- to multi-metal system, the degree of fitting for the Freundlich model compared with the Langmuir model was favored due to its basic assumption of a heterogeneity factor. The Extended-Langmuir model may be used in multi-metal systems, but gives a lower value for equilibrium sorption compared with the Langmuir model.

  20. Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.

    PubMed

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2013-07-01

    Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500 μg/mL, cadmium 300 μg/mL, chromium 400 μg/mL, lead 1,400 μg/mL, zinc 1,000 μg/mL and copper 300 μg/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil.

  1. Application of Sargassum biomass to remove heavy metal ions from synthetic multi-metal solutions and urban storm water runoff.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Teo, Ting Ting; Balasubramanian, R; Joshi, Umid Man

    2009-05-30

    The ability of Sargassum sp. to biosorb four metal ions, namely lead, copper, zinc, and manganese from a synthetic multi-solute system and real storm water runoff has been investigated for the first time. Experiments on synthetic multi-solute systems revealed that Sargassum performed well in the biosorption of all four metal ions, with preference towards Pb, followed by Cu, Zn, and Mn. The solution pH strongly affected the metal biosorption, with pH 6 being identified as the optimal condition for achieving maximum biosorption. Experiments at different biosorbent dosages revealed that good biosorption capacity as well as high metal removal efficiency was observed at 3g/L. The biosorption kinetics was found to be fast with equilibrium being attained within 50 min. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, Sargassum exhibited maximum uptakes of 214, 67.5, 24.2 and 20.2mg/g for lead, copper, zinc, and manganese, respectively in single-solute systems. In multi-metal systems, strong competition between four metal ions in terms of occupancy binding sites was observed, and Sargassum showed preference in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn. The application of Sargassum to remove four heavy metal ions in real storm water runoff revealed that the biomass was capable of removing the heavy metal ions. However, the biosorption performance was slightly lower compared to that of synthetic metal solutions. Several factors were responsible for this difference, and the most important factor is the presence of other contaminants such as anions, organics, and other trace metals in the runoff.

  2. Redox biotransformation of arsenic along with plant growth promotion by multi-metal resistance Pseudomonas sp. MX6.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Maria; Jawaid, Aqsa; Rehman, Yasir

    Remediation of toxic metal-polluted sites by microorganisms is an environment-friendly remediation technique. Multi-metal-resistant bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant showing resistance against As(III), As(V), Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. Maximum resistance against all metals was shown by the bacterial isolate MX-6 (As 20mM, Cd 30mM, Cr 5.0mM, Co 25mM, Cu 25mM, Ni 20mM, Zn 30mM, Pb 15mM, Se 20mM and Hg 2.5mM), which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. through 16S rDNA sequencing. Pseudomonas sp. MX-6 reduced 506μM As(V) and also oxidized 160μM As(III). The genes for As, Cd, Se and Zn resistance in Pseudomonas sp. MX-6 were found to be plasmid borne, as indicated by transformation. Pseudomonas sp. MX-6 produced 49.37μg·mL(-1) IAA and was also positive for HCN production and phosphate solubilisation. The bacterial isolate also supported Vigna radiata growth, both in the absence and presence of the aforementioned metals. Such bacteria can be used as biofertilizers to reclaim the polluted lands and to enhance crop production in metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Space assembly fixtures and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

  4. Chemical and biological processes for multi-metal extraction from waste printed circuit boards of computers and mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2014-11-01

    E-waste printed circuit boards (PCB) of computers, mobile-phones, televisions, LX (LongXiang) PCB in LED lights and bulbs, and tube-lights were crushed to ≥250 µm particle size and 16 different metals were analysed. A comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) and mobile-phone printed circuit boards (m-PCB) by chemical and biological methods. Chemical process showed the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni by ferric sulphate was best among the studied chemical lixiviants. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with the iron oxidising consortium, which showed that when E-waste and inoculum were added simultaneously in the medium (one-step process); 60.33% and 87.50% Cu, 75.67% and 85.67% Zn and 71.09% and 81.87% Ni were extracted from 10 g L(-1) of c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, within 10-15 days of reaction time. Whereas, E-waste added after the complete oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) iron containing medium (two-step process) showed 85.26% and 99.99% Cu, 96.75% and 99.49% Zn and 93.23% and 84.21% Ni extraction from c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, only in 6-8 days. Influence of varying biogenerated Fe(3+) and c-PCB concentrations showed that 16.5 g L(-1) of Fe(3+) iron was optimum up to 100 g L(-1) of c-PCB. Changes in pH, acid consumed and redox potential during the process were also studied. The present study shows the ability of an eco-friendly process for the recovery of multi-metals from E-waste even at 100 g L(-1) printed circuit boards concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Bacteriophage assembly.

    PubMed

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  6. Meta assembler enhancements and generalized linkage editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A meta Assembler for NASA was developed. The initial development of the Meta Assembler for the SUMC was performed. The capabilities included assembly for both main and micro level programs. A period of checkout and utilization to verify the performance of the Meta Assembler was undertaken. Additional enhancements were made to the Meta Assembler which expanded the target computer family to include architectures represented by the PDP-11, MODCOMP 2, and Raytheon 706 computers.

  7. Theoretical Aspect of Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Václav, Štefan; Jurko, Jozef; Božek, Pavol; Lecký, Šimon

    2016-09-01

    Assembly plays a decisive role in global production in terms of its share in the total costs of the products assembled and in terms of the number of people working in the field. The author of (1) indicates that the percentage of the workers in assembly out of the total number of the workers in manufacturing in the U.S.A. ranged from 26.3% (bicycles) to 45.6% (automobiles), while the cost of the product assembly represented typically more than 50% of the total costs. Despite the above-mentioned importance of assembly in the industry, the discontinuous production processes have not been paid adequate attention until recently. It was sufficient to manufacture parts and then an operative reasonably and inexpensively assembled each product manually. The authors of this paper would like to emphasise "the method of a systemic approach" which focuses upon identifying the key activities to meet the objective. Harmonious interrelations of the activities are often a source of greater profit than in a system where some activities are of the top level while the others are neglected (2). The aim of this paper is to describe theoretical aspects of all the typical activities of the assembly system.

  8. Processing and synthesis of multi-metallic nano oxide ceramics via liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azurdia, Jose Antonio

    The liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process aerosolizes metal-carboxylate precursors dissolved in alcohol with oxygen and combusts them at >1500°C. The products are quenched rapidly (˜10s msec) to < 400°C. By selecting the appropriate precursor mixtures, the compositions of the resulting oxide nanopowders can be tailored easily, which lends itself to combinatorial studies of systems facilitating material property optimization. The resulting nanopowders typically consist of single crystal particles with average particle sizes (APS) < 35 nm, specific surface areas (SSA) of 20-60 m2/g and spherical morphology. LF-FSP provides access to novel single phase nanopowders, known phases at compositions outside their published phase diagrams, intimate mixing at nanometer length scales in multi metallic oxide nanopowders, and control of stoichiometry to ppm levels. The materials produced may exhibit unusual properties including structural, catalytic, and photonic ones and lower sintering temperatures. Prior studies used LF-FSP to produce MgAl2O4 spinel for applications in transparent armor and IR radomes. In these studies, a stable spinel structure with a (MgO)0.1(Al2O3)0.9 composition well outside the known phase field was observed. The work reported here extends this observation to two other spinel systems: Al2O3-NiO, Al2O3-CoOx; followed by three series of transition metal binary oxides, NiO-CoO, NiO-MoO3, NiO-CuO. The impetus to study spinels derives both from the fact that a number of them are known transparent ceramics, but also others offer high SSAs coupled with unusual phases that suggest potentially novel catalytic materials. Because LF-FSP provides access to any composition, comprehensive studies of the entire tie-lines were conducted rather than just compositions of value for catalytic applications. Initial efforts established baseline properties for the nano aluminate spinels, then three binary transition metal oxide sets (Ni-Co, Ni-Mo and Ni

  9. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  10. Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hai-Hong; Qiu, Hao; Tian, Tian; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Chaney, Rufus L; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Tang, Ye-Tao; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2011-05-01

    The mechanisms of stabilization by silicon-rich amendments of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in a multi-metal contaminated acidic soil and the mitigation of metal accumulation in rice were investigated in this study. The results from a pot experiment indicated that the application of fly ash (20 and 40gkg(-1)) and steel slag (3 and 6gkg(-1)) increased soil pH from 4.0 to 5.0-6.4, decreased the phytoavailability of heavy metals by at least 60%, and further suppressed metal uptake by rice. Diffusion gradient in thin-film measurement showed the heavy metal diffusion fluxes from soil to solution decreased by greater than 84% after remediation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the mobile metals were mainly deposited as their silicates, phosphates and hydroxides in amended treatments. Moreover, it was found metal translocation from stem to leaf was dramatically restrained by adding amendments, which might be due to the increase of silicon concentration and co-precipitation with heavy metals in stem. Finally, a field experiment showed the trace element concentrations in polished rice treated with amendments complied with the food safety standards of China. These results demonstrated fly ash and steel slag could be effective in mitigating heavy metal accumulation in rice grown on multi-metal contaminated acidic soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of chitosan-graphene oxide SPR sensor with a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure for lead(II) ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique by implementing a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure in the chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) SPR sensor for lead(II) ion detection. The performance of the sensor is analyzed via SPR measurements, from which the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability are determined. The nanostructure layers are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We showed that the proposed structure has increased the shift in the SPR angle up to 3.5° within the range of 0.1-1 ppm due to the enhanced evanescent field at the sensing layer-analyte interface. This sensor also exhibits great repeatability which benefits from the stable multi-metallic nanostructure. The SNR value of 0.92 for 5 ppm lead(II) ion solution and reasonable linearity range up to that concentration shows that the tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor gives a good response towards the lead(II) ion solution. The CS-GO SPR sensor is also sensitive to at least a 10-5 change in the refractive index. The results prove that our proposed tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor demonstrates a strong performance and reliability for lead(II) ion detection in accordance with the standardized lead safety level for wastewater.

  12. Pod Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An improved pod assembly for positively securing the equipment contained therein to the wingtip of an aircraft and having a readily removable...podshell for in situ service and repair. The pod assembly includes a strongback assembly of an acurate saddle and support beam secured to the outboard ends...of the aircraft wing beams, to which a satellite communications antenna array is mounted. A fiberglass reinforced laminated thin wall plastic pod

  13. Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LIBING; XU, LIGUANG; KUANG, HUA; XU, CHUANLAI; KOTOV, NICHOLAS A.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Importance Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple sizes of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously formed superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the ‘bottom-up’ fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Classification Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces) are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable superstructures with a nearly constant number same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation and/or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions

  14. Wellhead assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. D.; Szymczak, E. J.

    1985-05-07

    A wellhead assembly with an increased through bore for passing slightly oversized drill bits therethrough with a substantially reduced landing shoulder, and an improved landing assembly which transfers a portion of the stresses through the energizing ring and support ring into the wellhead body along the straight bore above said landing shoulder.

  15. The hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola harbors metal-resistant endophytic bacteria that improve its phytoextraction capacity in multi-metal contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Oliveira, Rui S; Nai, Fengjiao; Rajkumar, Mani; Luo, Yongming; Rocha, Inês; Freitas, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Endophyte-assisted phytoremediation has recently been suggested as a successful approach for ecological restoration of metal contaminated soils, however little information is available on the influence of endophytic bacteria on the phytoextraction capacity of metal hyperaccumulating plants in multi-metal polluted soils. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize metal-resistant and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) utilizing endophytic bacteria from tissues of the newly discovered Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and to examine if these endophytic bacterial strains could improve the efficiency of phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils. Among a collection of 42 metal resistant bacterial strains isolated from the tissues of S. plumbizincicola grown on Pb/Zn mine tailings, five plant growth promoting endophytic bacterial strains (PGPE) were selected due to their ability to promote plant growth and to utilize ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus E2S2, Bacillus sp. E1S2, Bacillus sp. E4S1, Achromobacter sp. E4L5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. E1L and subsequent testing revealed that they all exhibited traits associated with plant growth promotion, such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores and solubilization of phosphorus. These five strains showed high resistance to heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Pb) and various antibiotics. Further, inoculation of these ACC utilizing strains significantly increased the concentrations of water extractable Cd and Zn in soil. Moreover, a pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of inoculating metal-resistant ACC utilizing strains on the growth of S. plumbizincicola and its uptake of Cd, Zn and Pb in multi-metal contaminated soils. Out of the five strains, B. pumilus E2S2 significantly increased root (146%) and shoot (17%) length, fresh (37%) and dry biomass (32%) of S. plumbizincicola as well as plant Cd uptake (43%), whereas

  16. Very large assemblies: Optimizing for automatic generation of assembly sequences

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-02-01

    Sandia's Archimedes 3.0{copyright} Automated Assembly Analysis System has been applied successfully to several large industrial and weapon assemblies. These have included Sandia assemblies such as portions of the B61 bomb, and assemblies from external customers such as Cummins Engine Inc., Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Missile Systems and Sikorsky Aircraft. While Archimedes 3.0{copyright} represents the state-of-the-art in automated assembly planning software, applications of the software made prior to the technological advancements presented here showed several limitations of the system, and identified the need for extensive modifications to support practical analysis of assemblies with several hundred to a few thousand parts. It was believed that there was substantial potential for enhancing Archimedes 3.0{copyright} to routinely handle much larger models and/or to handle more modestly sized assemblies more efficiently. Such a mature assembly analysis capability was needed to support routine application to industrial assemblies that overstressed the system, such as full nuclear weapon assemblies or full-scale aerospace or military vehicles.

  17. Flexible white organic light-emitting diodes with a multi-metal electrode and a new combination of heteroleptic iridium compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho Won; Yang, Hyung Jin; Yi, Jae Eun; Kim, Young Kwan; Ha, Yunkyoung

    2015-01-01

    Transparent electrodes and heteroleptic iridium complexes have attracted tremendous scientific interest to organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) because they have an advantage in that transparent electrodes can replace indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode that has structural defects or diffuse indium into the organic layer. Moreover, heteroleptic iridium complexes exhibit high luminescence and quantum yield, as well as superior device performance. Therefore, we propose the use of flexible white OLEDs with semitransparent Ni/Ag/Ni multi-metal layers and a new combination of iridium complex as an orange phosphorescent emitter. We demonstrate that flexible white OLEDs with ITO-free electrodes and new orange phosphorescent emitters have the potential of stable electrical and optical characteristics.

  18. The life-table demographic response of freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus to multi-metal (Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn) mixture interaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Huang, Lin; Xiang, Xian-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The effects of multi-metal mixtures on the life-table demography of rotifers are not well known. In this study, the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus was exposed to mixture of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Mn, and the life-table demographic parameters including net reproductive rate, generation time, life expectancy at hatching, and intrinsic rate of population increase were calculated. The results showed that interactions between a given element concentration, except Mn, and the other four elements mixture concentration affected the intrinsic rate of population increase (p < 0.01). Interactions between Zn concentration, as well as Mn, and the other four elements mixture concentration affected the net reproductive rate and the life expectancy at hatching, respectively (p < 0.05). The variation of parameters with the rise of the other four elements mixture concentrations from 0 to high was mainly attributed to the difference of interaction among the five metals mixture with different ratio of concentrations.

  19. Crew Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Train to improve your dexterity and hand-eye coordination by assembling a puzzle.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to set goals, practice ...

  20. Heavy metal accumulation by poplar in calcareous soil with various degrees of multi-metal contamination: implications for phytoextraction and phytostabilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Su, Jieqiong; Wang, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The object of this study was to assess the capacity of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for phytoremediation of heavy metals on calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals. In a pot culture experiment, a multi-metal-contaminated calcareous soil was mixed at different ratios with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil, to establish a gradient of soil metal contamination levels. In a field experiment, poplars with different stand ages (3, 5, and 7 years) were sampled randomly in a wastewater-irrigated field. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), Cu, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the poplar tissues and soil were determined. The accumulation of Cd and Zn was greatest in the leaves of P. pyramidalis, while Cu and Pb mainly accumulated in the roots. In the pot experiment, the highest tissue concentrations of Cd (40.76 mg kg(-1)), Cu (8.21 mg kg(-1)), Pb (41.62 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (696 mg kg(-1)) were all noted in the multi-metal-contaminated soil. Although extremely high levels of Cd and Zn accumulated in the leaves, phytoextraction using P. pyramidalis may take at least 24 and 16 years for Cd and Zn, respectively. The foliar concentrations of Cu and Pb were always within the normal ranges and were never higher than 8 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The field experiment also revealed that the concentrations of all four metals in the bark were significantly higher than that in the wood. In addition, the tissue metal concentrations, together with the NH4NO3-extractable concentrations of metals in the root zone, decreased as the stand age increased. P. pyramidalis is suitable for phytostabilization of calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals, but collection of the litter fall would be necessary due to the relatively high foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn.

  1. Behavioural development of school-aged children who live around a multi-metal sulphide mine in Guangdong province, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Qing-Song; Lu, Ci-Yong; Song, Hong; Wang, Mao; Ling, Wenhua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Deng, Xue-Qing; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Rao, Shaoqi

    2009-01-01

    Background The deleterious biological effects of low-level, long-term exposure to heavy metals are well known, and children are the most susceptible population. Dabaoshan Mine in the southeast of Guangdong Province is at high risk of discharging multi-metals pollutants into a local river (Hengshihe) and the surrounding area. The present study aimed to estimate relationships between measured multi-metal exposures and the presence of behavioural problems for the school-aged children in the polluted area. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. Children aged 7–16 years living in three villages of the Hengshihe area with different degrees of heavy-metal pollution participated in this study. Local environmental samples (water and crops) and children's hair were collected, and concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The Child Behaviour Check-list (CBCL) was used to assess the presence of behaviour problems. General linear regression was used to analyze the contribution of hair metals to each CBCL subscale with adjustment for socio-demographic confounding factors. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed significant effects of hair lead, cadmium and zinc levels on CBCL subscales. Log-transformed hair lead, cadmium and zinc levels accounted for an incremental of 8% to 15% variance in anxious/depressed, withdrawn, somatic complaints, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviour and aggressive behaviour. The concurrent log-transformed hair lead and zinc levels were strongly associated with all subscales while the concurrent log-transformed hair cadmium was only significantly associated with withdrawn, social problems and attention problems. Conclusion This study reveals that heavy metal exposure was associated with increased risk of behavioral problems for school-aged children. PMID:19573251

  2. Seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  3. Planning Assembly Of Large Truss Structures In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, Luiz S. Homem; Desai, Rajiv S.

    1992-01-01

    Report dicusses developmental algorithm used in systematic planning of sequences of operations in which large truss structures assembled in outer space. Assembly sequence represented by directed graph called "assembly graph", in which each arc represents joining of two parts or subassemblies. Algorithm generates assembly graph, working backward from state of complete assembly to initial state, in which all parts disassembled. Working backward more efficient than working forward because it avoids intermediate dead ends.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jim Delie (left) and Don Eitel select from the shelves wrapped pieces of debris to be packed into storage boxes. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jim Delie (left) and Don Eitel select from the shelves wrapped pieces of debris to be packed into storage boxes. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, a video cameraman records some of the debris collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, a video cameraman records some of the debris collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Pieces of Columbia debris are offloaded from a flatbed truck in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being moved from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Pieces of Columbia debris are offloaded from a flatbed truck in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being moved from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Scott Thurston, NASA vehicle flow manager, addresses the media about efforts to pack the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris permanently.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Scott Thurston, NASA vehicle flow manager, addresses the media about efforts to pack the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris permanently.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Don Eitel (left) wraps pieces of Columbia debris for storage. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Don Eitel (left) wraps pieces of Columbia debris for storage. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Pam Melroy speaks to members of the Columbia Reconstruction Team during transfer of debris from the Columbia Debris Hangar to its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Pam Melroy speaks to members of the Columbia Reconstruction Team during transfer of debris from the Columbia Debris Hangar to its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Flatbed trucks carrying some of the debris of Space Shuttle Columbia approach the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being transferred from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Flatbed trucks carrying some of the debris of Space Shuttle Columbia approach the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being transferred from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amy Norris (left) packs some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. Jack Nowling works on the computer. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Amy Norris (left) packs some of the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. Jack Nowling works on the computer. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Some of the Columbia debris is loaded onto a flatbed truck outside the Columbia Debris Hangar. The debris is being transferred to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Some of the Columbia debris is loaded onto a flatbed truck outside the Columbia Debris Hangar. The debris is being transferred to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Pieces of debris of Space Shuttle Columbia are offloaded from a flatbed truck in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being moved from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Pieces of debris of Space Shuttle Columbia are offloaded from a flatbed truck in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being moved from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, a photographer examines some of the debris collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, a photographer examines some of the debris collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Some of the Columbia debris inside the Columbia Debris Hangar is being moved out and placed on a flatbed truck (seen in the background) for transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Some of the Columbia debris inside the Columbia Debris Hangar is being moved out and placed on a flatbed truck (seen in the background) for transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A worker moves some of the Columbia debris to its storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being transferred from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A worker moves some of the Columbia debris to its storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being transferred from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the Columbia Debris Hangar, some of the debris of Space Shuttle Columbia is moved onto a flatbed truck for transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the Columbia Debris Hangar, some of the debris of Space Shuttle Columbia is moved onto a flatbed truck for transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers focus on a piece of the debris collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers focus on a piece of the debris collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The media listen to Scott Thurston, NASA vehicle flow manager, talk about efforts to pack the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris permanently.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The media listen to Scott Thurston, NASA vehicle flow manager, talk about efforts to pack the debris stored in the Columbia Debris Hangar. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris permanently.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Comer, United Space Alliance project leader for Columbia reconstruction, speaks to members of the Columbia Reconstruction Team during transfer of debris from the Columbia Debris Hangar to its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Comer, United Space Alliance project leader for Columbia reconstruction, speaks to members of the Columbia Reconstruction Team during transfer of debris from the Columbia Debris Hangar to its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Don Eitel (in front) and Jim Delie carry pieces of debris to be packed into storage boxes. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Don Eitel (in front) and Jim Delie carry pieces of debris to be packed into storage boxes. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A flatbed truck carrying pieces of Columbia debris arrives in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The debris is being transferred to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A flatbed truck carrying pieces of Columbia debris arrives in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building. The debris is being transferred to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the Columbia Debris Hangar, some of the debris of Space Shuttle Columbia is secured onto a flatbed truck for transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the Columbia Debris Hangar, some of the debris of Space Shuttle Columbia is secured onto a flatbed truck for transfer to the Vehicle Assembly Building for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers look at pieces of tile collected during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers look at pieces of tile collected during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jack Nowling transfers bags with debris pieces into a storage box. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Jack Nowling transfers bags with debris pieces into a storage box. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers move some of the Columbia debris to its storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being transferred from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers move some of the Columbia debris to its storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The debris is being transferred from the Columbia Debris Hangar to the VAB for permanent storage. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Larry Tarver (left) and Don Eitel bag and wrap pieces of debris to be packed into storage boxes. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Columbia Debris Hangar, Larry Tarver (left) and Don Eitel bag and wrap pieces of debris to be packed into storage boxes. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. An area of the Vehicle Assembly Building is being prepared to store the debris.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Scott Thurston, NASA vehicle flow manager, speaks to members of the Columbia Reconstruction Team during transfer of debris from the Columbia Debris Hangar to its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Scott Thurston, NASA vehicle flow manager, speaks to members of the Columbia Reconstruction Team during transfer of debris from the Columbia Debris Hangar to its permanent storage site in the Vehicle Assembly Building. More than 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas. That represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers focus on part of the cockpit collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers focus on part of the cockpit collected from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  10. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  11. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, David Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  12. Uniform Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  13. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  14. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  15. Sabot assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz

    2016-11-08

    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  16. Nitrogenase assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogenase contains two unique metalloclusters: the P-cluster and the M-cluster. The assembly processes of P- and M-clusters are arguably the most complicated processes in bioinorganic chemistry. There is considerable interest in decoding the biosynthetic mechanisms of the P- and M-clusters, because these clusters are not only biologically important, but also chemically unprecedented. Understanding the assembly mechanisms of these unique metalloclusters is crucial for understanding the structure-function relationship of nitrogenase. Here, we review the recent advances in this research area, with an emphasis on our work that provide important insights into the biosynthetic pathways of these high-nuclearity metal centers. PMID:23232096

  17. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  18. Assembly of simple icosahedral viruses.

    PubMed

    Almendral, José M

    2013-01-01

    Icosahedral viruses exhibit elegant pathways of capsid assembly and maturation regulated by symmetry principles. Assembly is a dynamic process driven by consecutive and genetically programmed morphogenetic interactions between protein subunits. The non-symmetric capsid subunits are gathered by hydrophobic contacts and non-covalent interactions in assembly intermediates, which serve as blocks to build a symmetric capsid. In some cases, non-symmetric interactions among intermediates are involved in assembly, highlighting the remarkable capacity of capsid proteins to fold into demanding conformations compatible with a closed protein shell. In this chapter, the morphogenesis of structurally simple icosahedral viruses, including representative members of the parvoviruses, picornaviruses or polyomaviruses as paradigms, is described in some detail. Icosahedral virus assembly may occur in different subcellular compartments and involve a panoplia of cellular and viral factors, chaperones, and protein modifications that, in general, are still poorly characterized. Mechanisms of viral genome encapsidation may imply direct interactions between the genome and the assembly intermediates, or active packaging into a preformed empty capsid. High stability of intermediates and proteolytic cleavages during viral maturation usually contribute to the overall irreversible character of the assembly process. These and other simple icosahedral viruses were pioneer models to understand basic principles of virus assembly, continue to be leading subjects of morphogenetic analyses, and have inspired ongoing studies on the assembly of larger viruses and cellular and synthetic macromolecular complexes.

  19. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  20. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  1. Representing Substantive Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Stewart, James

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of Schwab's "substantive structures" of a discipline in terms of science philosophy. Presents three techniques for representing substantive structures and discusses some of their uses in science education research. (SK)

  2. Generation of precedence relations for mechanical assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Planning of assembly sequences is essential to the manufacturing system design process. Several methodologies have been proposed to represent all the feasible assembly sequences. In this thesis, three algorithms are presented to generate three sets of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks, all the infeasible assembly states, and all the feasible assembly sequences, respectively. The equivalence of the resulting sets of precedence relations to the AND/OR graph is established. A new property, the real time property, of a representation of assembly sequences is defined and discussed. A representation of assembly sequences is said to have the real time property, if it is possible to generate the next assembly task by testing locally in the representation, and it will guarantee that the generated assembly task will not lead the assembly sequence to a dead end situation, in which no feasible assembly task can be performed any more. It is shown that the correctness and completeness of one representation can not guarantee the real time property of the representation. It is proven that the directed graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly states have the real time property, while the AND/OR graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks do not have the real time property. Finally in the thesis, the PLEIDEAS system, a PLanning Environment for Integrated DEsign of Assembly Systems, is described and illustrated by an example.

  3. Representing properties locally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  4. Representing vision and blindness.

    PubMed

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  5. Environmental representative program

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, B.P.

    1984-05-01

    As new pollution regulations are created and existing regulations are made more complex, it is becoming more important for plant personnel to have a knowlege of the environment. The Environmental Representative Program is designed to train plant personnel and is aimed at preventing fines, citations, and negative publicity. The goal of the program is on-going daily compliance assurance, and is divided into two segments: 1) program initiation (general considerations, representative selection, and authorization by management); and 2) program implementation (requirements training, responsibilities development, incorporation into annual goals, and program maintenance). A discussion of how each part of the program is accomplished is presented.

  6. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  7. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  8. A multi-metal risk assessment strategy for natural freshwater ecosystems based on the additive inhibitory free metal ion concentration index.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cristina M; Ferreira, Carlos M H; Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

    2017-04-01

    Scientifically sound risk assessment strategies and derivations of environmental quality standards for metals present in freshwater environments are currently hampered by insufficient chronic toxicity data collected from natural ecosystems, as well as inadequate information on metal speciation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of freshwater containing multiple metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) on the chronic toxicity (72h) to the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and compare the observed toxicity results to the total and free metal concentration of the samples. Based on the information obtained herein, an additive inhibitory free multi-metal ion concentration index, calculated as the sum of the equivalent toxicities to the free metal ion concentration of each sample, was developed. The proposed index was well correlated to the observed chronic toxicity results, indicating that the concentration addition, when expressed as the free-ion activity, can be considered a reliable indicator for the evaluation of ecological risk assessments for natural waters containing multiple metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metal pollution in vegetables grown in the vicinity of a multi-metal mining area in Gejiu, China: total concentrations, speciation analysis, and health risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Yin, Fei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soils and vegetables in a multi-metal mining area, Gejiu, China. Furthermore, three vegetables (water spinach, potato, and summer squash) containing high metal concentrations were selected to further analyze metal speciation. The results showed that the average concentrations of five metals in soil exceeded the limiting values, and their bioavailable concentrations were significantly positively correlated to the total ones. Heavy metals in the edible parts of vegetables also exceeded the corresponding standards. The leaves of pakchoi, peppermint, and coriander had a strong metal-accumulative ability and they were not suitable for planting. Except the residue forms, the main forms of metals in the edible parts of three selected vegetables were ethanol-, NaCl-, and HAc-extractable fractions for As, Pb, and Cd, respectively; however, Cu was mainly presented as NaCl-extractable and Zn as HAc-extractable fractions. A high proportion of ethanol-extractable As showed that As bioactivity and toxic effects were the highest. Although the total and bioavailable Cd were high in soil, its speciation in vegetables was mainly presented as HAc-extractable fraction, which has a relatively low bioactivity. Lead and arsenic were imposing a serious threat on the local residents via vegetable consumption.

  10. Mono- and Bis-Terpyridine-Based Dimer and Metallo-Organic Polymers as Ionic Templates for Preparation of Multi-Metallic Au Nanocluster and Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Die; Cao, Hongda; Jiang, Zhilong; Wu, Tun; Sun, Xiaoyi; Wang, Pingshan; Moorefield, Charles N; Dai, Liming; Newkome, George R

    2016-03-01

    The preparation of multi-metallic Au nanocluster and nanowires has been achieved using terpyridine-based metallo-organic polymers as multi-ionic templates through a straightforward counterion exchange with aqueous NaAuCl4 followed by a mild reduction in-situ with sodium citrate. The mild reduction of the [TpyFeTpy]2+ x 2[AuCl4]- complex, derived from [TpyFeTpy]2+ x 2Cl- 1 (tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine), led to the formation of Au nanoclusters (Au NC) with diameters ranging from 7.5-88 nm. Each Au NC alone contained multiple nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2.5-4.5 nm. 1,4-bis-terpyridine based metallo-oraganic polymer [-TpyFeTpy-TpyFeTpy-]n(2n+) x [Cl]2n- 2 was found to generate a multi-ionic metallo-polymer with AuCl4- as the counterion, after mild reduction with sodium citrate, resulting in irregular zigzag shaped Au nanowires (Au NW). The prepared Au NW from the di-metallic complex 3 should find applications within electronic devices. Both Au NC and NW were also found to possess excellent catalytic properties.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, PL properties, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nano multi-metal oxide NiOṡCeO2ṡZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhan, Md Abdus; Ahmed, Tanzir; Uddin, Nizam; Azad, Abdul Kalam; Begum, Kulsuma

    2015-02-01

    A novel multi-metal nanocomposite, NiOṡCeO2ṡZnO has been prepared by co-precipitation of their carbonates from aqueous solutions of the metal nitrates following calcination and annealing 5 h at 450 °C and 10 h at 950 °C. NiOṡCeO2ṡZnO has been characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, IR and PL spectra. The crystallite size of the as-synthesized sample varies in the range of 14-23 nm and those of the annealed sample in the range of 17-50 nm. Emissions of NiOṡCeO2ṡZnO have been observed in UV (NBE emission) and visible region at different excitations. Excitation wavelength dependent PL behavior of NiOṡCeO2ṡZnO has been observed in acetone at room temperature. This PL property is in disagreement with Kasha's rule of excitation wavelength dependence of emission spectrum. Photocatalytic as well as anti-bacterial activities were studied.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, PL properties, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nano multi-metal oxide NiO⋅CeO2⋅ZnO.

    PubMed

    Subhan, Md Abdus; Ahmed, Tanzir; Uddin, Nizam; Azad, Abdul Kalam; Begum, Kulsuma

    2015-02-05

    A novel multi-metal nanocomposite, NiO⋅CeO2⋅ZnO has been prepared by co-precipitation of their carbonates from aqueous solutions of the metal nitrates following calcination and annealing 5 h at 450°C and 10 h at 950°C. NiO⋅CeO2⋅ZnO has been characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, IR and PL spectra. The crystallite size of the as-synthesized sample varies in the range of 14-23 nm and those of the annealed sample in the range of 17-50 nm. Emissions of NiO⋅CeO2⋅ZnO have been observed in UV (NBE emission) and visible region at different excitations. Excitation wavelength dependent PL behavior of NiO⋅CeO2⋅ZnO has been observed in acetone at room temperature. This PL property is in disagreement with Kasha's rule of excitation wavelength dependence of emission spectrum. Photocatalytic as well as anti-bacterial activities were studied.

  13. Representing Color Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  14. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  15. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, J.D.

    1984-03-30

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  16. Shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  17. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  18. OSMOSE experiment representativity studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Aliberti, G.; Klann, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-10

    The OSMOSE program aims at improving the neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels through measurements in the MINERVE facility at the CEA-Cadarache (France) on samples containing the following separated actinides: Th-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243, Cm-244 and Cm-245. The goal of the experimental measurements is to produce a database of reactivity-worth measurements in different neutron spectra for the separated heavy nuclides. This database can then be used as a benchmark for integral reactivity-worth measurements to verify and validate reactor analysis codes and integral cross-section values for the isotopes tested. In particular, the OSMOSE experimental program will produce very accurate sample reactivity-worth measurements for a series of actinides in various spectra, from very thermalized to very fast. The objective of the analytical program is to make use of the experimental data to establish deficiencies in the basic nuclear data libraries, identify their origins, and provide guidelines for nuclear data improvements in coordination with international programs. To achieve the proposed goals, seven different neutron spectra can be created in the MINERVE facility: UO2 dissolved in water (representative of over-moderated LWR systems), UO2 matrix in water (representative of LWRs), a mixed oxide fuel matrix, two thermal spectra containing large epithermal components (representative of under-moderated reactors), a moderated fast spectrum (representative of fast reactors which have some slowing down in moderators such as lead-bismuth or sodium), and a very hard spectrum (representative of fast reactors with little moderation from reactor coolant). The different spectra are achieved by changing the experimental lattice within the MINERVE reactor. The experimental lattice is the replaceable central part of MINERVE, which establishes the spectrum at the sample location. This configuration

  19. Virus protein assembly in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D.; Paulsen, A.; Johnson, T. C.; Consigli, R. A.

    1993-07-01

    The coat of polyomavirus is composed of three proteins that can self-assemble to form an icosahedral capsid. VP1 represents 75% of the virus capsid protein and the VP1 capsomere subunits are capable of self assembly to form a capsid-like structure. Ground-based and orbiter studies were conducted with VP1 protein cloned in an expression vector and purified to provide ample quantities for capsomere-capsid assembly. Flight studies were conducted on STS-37 on April 5-9, 1991. Assembly initiated when a VP1 protein solution was interfaced with a Ca+2 buffer solution (pH 5.0). After four days a second alignment terminated the assembly process and allowed for glutaraldehyde fixation. Flight and ground-based samples were analyzed by electron microscopy. Ground-based experiments revealed the assembly of VP1 into capsid-like structures and a heterogenous size array of capsomere subunits. Samples reacted in microgravity, however, showed capsomeres of a homogenous size, but lack of capsid-like assembly.

  20. Role of GTPases in ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Karbstein, Katrin

    2007-09-01

    GTPases are a universally conserved class of regulatory proteins involved in such diverse cellular functions as signal transduction, translation, cytoskeleton formation, and intracellular transport. GTPases are also required for ribosome assembly in eukaryotes and bacteria, where they present themselves as possible regulatory molecules. Strikingly, in bacteria they represent the largest class of essential assembly factors. A review of their common structural, biochemical and genetic interactions is presented and integrated with models for their function in ribosome assembly. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. Shifts in the relative abundance of bacteria after wine-lees-derived biochar intervention in multi metal-contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Xia, Hongxia; Wu, Jun; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Peng, Hong; Yu, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Xiao, Hong; Qi, Hui

    2017-12-01

    The impact of biochar application on soil ecological functions depends on the diversity of soil conditions and of the feedstocks from which biochar is obtained. Moreover, little information is available on the effect of biochar on dynamic changes in microorganisms with the development of rice plants in multi-metal-contaminated paddy soil amended with wine-lees-derived biochar. In this paper, biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of wine lees at 600°C was used to investigate the potential role of biochar in maintaining soil ecological functions, with consideration of the alteration of the microbial population over periods of rice growth. Biochar increased the soil nutrient availability, suppressed the toxicity of heavy metals and benefited the rice growth. Enzymic activities initially increased and then decreased with increasing biochar addition as well as with the growth stage. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that biochar application shifted the soil microbial community, increased the bacterial diversity and reduced the bacterial richness. The relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria increased with increasing biochar addition, whereas the abundance of Gemmatimonadetes decreased at higher biochar applications. With increasing biochar application, Nitrospirae, which were lowest in the 1% biochar addition treatment, first decreased and then increased. The results from this study indicated that biochar addition increased N2 fixation and improved C cycling. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that RI (potential ecological risk index), AN (available nitrogen) and AP (available phosphorus) were the most important factors for bacteria and accounted for 68.7%, 58.3% and 52.4% of the variation, respectively. Therefore, the reduction of metal toxicity and the improvement of soil fertility are important mechanisms for higher bacterial abundances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation and translocation of heavy metal by spontaneous plants growing on multi-metal-contaminated site in the Southeast of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Cácio Luiz; Pistóia, Vítor Caçula; Gianelo, Clésio; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the number of cases of heavy metal contamination has increased worldwide, leading to reports on environmental pollution and human health problems. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remove heavy metal from contaminated sites. This study determined heavy metal concentrations in the biomass of plant species growing on a multi-metal-contaminated site. Seven plant species and associated rhizospheric soil were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. While plant Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, As, and Ba concentrations ranged from 8.8 to 21.1, 56.4 to 514.3, 0.24 to 2.14, 1.56 to 2.76, 67.8 to 188.2, 0.06 to 1.21, and 0.05 to 0.62 mg kg(-1), respectively, none of the plants was identified as hyperaccumulators. Those in the rhizospheric soil ranged from 10.5 to 49.1, 86.2 to 590.9, 0.32 to 2.0, 3.6 to 8.2, 19.1 to 232.5, 2.0 to 35.6, and 85.8 to 170.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, Zn, Cd, Pb, and As concentrations in the soil outside the rhizosphere zone were 499.0, 2.0, 631.0, and 48.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. Senecio brasiliensis was most effective in translocating Cu, Cd, and Ba. The most effective plant for translocating Zn and Pb was Baccharis trimera and, for element As, Dicranopteris nervosa and Hyptis brevipes. Heavy metal and metalloid levels in spontaneous plants greatly exceeded the upper limits for terrestrial plants growing in uncontaminated soil, demonstrating the higher uptake of heavy metal from soil by these plants. It is concluded that naturally occurring species have a potential for phytoremediation programs.

  3. Characterization of a salt resistant bacterial strain Proteus sp. NA6 capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in presence of multi-metal stress.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naila; Hussain, Sabir; Azeem, Farrukh; Shahzad, Tanvir; Bhatti, Sajjad Haider; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Maqbool, Zahid; Abid, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Microbial biotechnologies for the decolorization of textile wastewaters have attracted worldwide attention because of their economic suitability and easiness in handling. However, the presence of high amounts of salts and metal ions in textile wastewaters adversely affects the decolorization efficiency of the microbial bioresources. In this regard, the present study was conducted to isolate salt tolerant bacterial strains which might have the potential to decolorize azo dyes even in the presence of multi-metal ion mixtures. Out of the tested 48 bacteria that were isolated from an effluent drain, the strain NA6 was found relatively more efficient in decolorizing the reactive yellow-2 (RY2) dye in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the similarity of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its position in a phylogenetic tree, this strain was designated as Proteus sp. NA6. The strain NA6 showed efficient decolorization (>90 %) of RY2 at pH 7.5 in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl under static incubation at 30 °C. This strain also had the potential to efficiently decolorize other structurally related azo dyes in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Moreover, Proteus sp. NA6 was found to resist the presence of different metal ions (Co(+2), Cr(+6), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2), Cd(+2)) and was capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of different levels of the mixtures of these metal ions along with 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the findings of this study, it can be suggested that Proteus sp. NA6 might serve as a potential bioresource for the biotechnologies involving bioremediation of textile wastewaters containing the metal ions and salts.

  4. Metal-resistant rhizobacteria isolates improve Mucuna deeringiana phytoextraction capacity in multi-metal contaminated soils from a gold mining area.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Cácio Luiz; Giovanella, Patricia; Amorim, Magno Batista; de Sá, Enilson Luiz Saccol; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation consists of biological techniques for heavy metal remediation, which include exploring the genetic package of vegetable species to remove heavy metals from the environment. The goals of this study were to investigate heavy metal and bioaugmentation effects on growth and nutrient uptake by Mucuna deeringiana; to determine the metal translocation factor and bioconcentration factor and provide insight for using native bacteria to enhance heavy metal accumulation. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions using a 2 × 4 factorial scheme with highly and slightly contaminated soil samples and inoculating M. deeringiana with three highly lead (Pb(+2))-resistant bacteria Kluyvera intermedia (Ki), Klebsiella oxytoca (Ko), and Citrobacter murliniae (Cm) isolated from the rhizosphere of native plants identified as Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) Less., Senecio leptolobus DC., and Baccharis trimera (Less) DC., respectively. The increased heavy metal concentrations in soil samples do not decrease the root dry mass of M. deeringiana, concerning the number and dry weight of nodules. The shoot dry mass is reduced by the increasing concentration of heavy metals in soil associated with Kluyvera intermedia and Klebsiella oxytoca bacteria. The number of nodules is affected by heavy metals associated with Citrobacter murliniae bacteria. The bacteria K. intermedia, C. murliniae, and K. oxytoca increase the lead and cadmium available in the soil and enhanced metal uptake by Mucuna deeringiana. The M. deeringiana specie has characteristics that make it hyperaccumulate copper and zinc. The translocation and bioconcentration factors for M. deeringiana characterize it as a promising candidate to phytostabilize multi-metal contaminated soils.

  5. Metallomics and NMR-based metabolomics of Chlorella sp. reveal the synergistic role of copper and cadmium in multi-metal toxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlin; Tan, Nicole G J; Fu, Baohui; Li, Sam F Y

    2015-03-01

    Industrial wastewaters often contain high levels of metal mixtures, in which metal mixtures may have synergistic or antagonistic effects on aquatic organisms. A combination of metallomics and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based metabolomics was employed to understand the consequences of multi-metal systems (Cu, Cd, Pb) on freshwater microalgae. Morphological characterization, cell viability and chlorophyll a determination of metal-spiked Chlorella sp. suggested synergistic effects of Cu and Cd on growth inhibition and toxicity. While Pb has no apparent effect on Chlorella sp. metabolome, a substantial decrease of sucrose, amino acid content and glycerophospholipid precursors in Cu-spiked microalgae revealed Cu-induced oxidative stress. Addition of Cd to Cu-spiked cultures induced more drastic metabolic perturbations, hence we confirmed that Cu and Cd synergistically influenced photosynthesis inhibition, oxidative stress and membrane degradation. Total elemental analysis revealed a significant decrease in K, and an increase in Na, Mg, Zn and Mn concentrations in Cu-spiked cultures. This indicated that Cu is more toxic to Chlorella sp. as compared to Cd or Pb, and the combination of Cu and Cd has a strong synergistic effect on Chlorella sp. oxidative stress induction. Oxidative stress is confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, which demonstrated a drastic decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio solely in Cu-spiked cultures. Interestingly, we observed Cu-facilitated Cd and Pb bioconcentration in Chlorella sp. The absence of phytochelatins and an increment of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) yields in Cu-spiked cultures suggested that the mode of bioconcentration of Cd and Pb is through adsorption of free metals onto the algal EPS rather than intracellular chelation to phytochelatins.

  6. A "signal-on'' aptasensor for simultaneous detection of chloramphenicol and polychlorinated biphenyls using multi-metal ions encoded nanospherical brushes as tracers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhongdan; Gan, Ning; Wang, De; Cao, Yuting; Chen, Meng; Li, Tianhua; Chen, Yinji

    2015-12-15

    A "signal-on'' aptasensor was developed for simultaneous detection of chloramphenicols (CAP) and polychlorinated biphenyl-72 (PCB72) with a novel multi-metal ions encoded nanospherical brushes as nanotracers. To construct the assay, the respective aptamer of CAP and PCB72 labeled magnetic gold nanoparticles as capture probes (aptamer-MGPs), and their complementary single strand DNA (s-DNA) encoded metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) on nanospherical branched polyethylene imine brushes as tracers (s-DNA-MSPEIs), were simultaneously synthesized. After that, the capture probe and tracers were connected through a hybridization reaction between s-DNA and aptamers. In the presence of CAP and PCB72, the analytes could react with the aptamers on capture probes and release the tracers into supernatant after magnetic separation. The released tracers with metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) could be simultaneously detected through the square wave voltammetry (SWV) without acid dissolution, which can switch the signals of the biosensor to "on'' state. Under optimal conditions, the assay could detect CAP and PCB72 as low as 0.3 pg mL(-1) with the dynamitic range from 0.001 to 100 ng mL(-1) and exhibited excellent selectivity. More importantly, the strategy can be extended easily to other targets after changing the corresponding aptamers and other metal ions tracers, which provides a promising and facile approach in multiplex detection of ultra-trace level of pollutants in food safety without more complex separation and washing steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped Zn-Al multi-metal oxide composites derived from layered double hydroxide precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianyao; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hongtao; Qiu, Yanling; Zhu, Linyan; Küppers, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a series of novel Zn-Al-Ce multi-metal oxide (Zn-Al-Ce-MMO) photocatalysts with different Ce doping contents were prepared by calcination of Ce-doped Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (Zn-Al-Ce-LDH) precursors at various temperatures in air atmosphere. The synthesized Zn-Al-Ce-MMO materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and UV-vis DRS. The photocatalytic activities of the Zn-Al-Ce-MMO materials were evaluated by the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye and paracetamol in aqueous solution under simulated solar light irradiation. The result of photodegradation of RhB showed that the Zn-Al-Ce-MMO samples exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than that of Zn-Al-MMO, and the optimal Ce doping content is 5% of mole ratio (nCe/n(Zn+Al+Ce)). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Zn-Al-Ce-MMO was mainly attributed to the increasing in the separation efficiency of electrons and holes. The effect of calcination temperature was also studied. The photocatalytic activity of Zn-Al-Ce-MMO increased with increasing calcination temperature up to 750°C, which can be ascribed to the formation of well-crystallized metal oxides during calcination. Under experimental conditions, 97.8% degradation efficiency of RhB and 98.9% degradation efficiency of paracetamol were achieved after 240min. Active species trapping and EPR experiments suggested that hole (h(+)), superoxide radical (O2(-)) and hydroxyl radical (OH) played important roles during the RhB photocatalytic process. Moreover, the results indicated that the synthesized Zn-Al-Ce-MMO materials had good stability and reusability.

  8. Rapid Assembly Module for Traypacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    quantities to fulfill the order. Lot numbers of all incoming materials should be documented to provide traceability of finished goods should there be a...recall. Each production day will represents an assembled lot. Associated component lot numbers should be cross-referenced to the day’s production run

  9. Swivel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  10. Thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  11. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  12. De novo transciptome assembly in polyploid species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the absence of a reference genome, the ultimate goal of a de novo transcriptome assembly is to accurately and comprehensively reconstruct the set of messenger RNA transcripts represented in the sample. Non-reference assembly of the transcriptome of polyploid species poses a particular challenge b...

  13. Representativity of TMA studies.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The smaller the portion of a tumor sample that is analyzed becomes, the higher is the risk of missing important histological or molecular features that might be present only in a subset of tumor cells. Many researchers have, therefore, suggested using larger tissue cores or multiple cores from the same donor tissue to enhance the representativity of TMA studies. However, numerous studies comparing the results of TMA studies with the findings from conventional large sections have shown that all well-established associations between molecular markers and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis can be reproduced with TMAs even if only one single 0.6 mm tissue spot is analyzed. Moreover, the TMA technology has proven to be superior to large section analysis in finding new clinically relevant associations. The high number of samples that are typically included in TMA studies, and the unprecedented degree of standardization during TMA experiments and analysis often give TMA studies an edge over traditional large-section studies.

  14. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  15. Drilling head assembly

    SciTech Connect

    De Wayne Wagoner, E.; Owen, E.D.

    1984-01-03

    An improved rotary drilling head assembly comprising a main housing having an axial bore therethrough; a stripper assembly disposed within the housing axial bore; and a stripper support assembly rotatingly supporting the stripper assembly. The stripper support assembly is removably attachable to the main housing and comprises an inner skirt member which is configured to extend about and to be supported on an exterior support surface of the main housing; an outer bearing housing configured to extend about and to be bearingly interconnected to the inner skirt member; a stripper clamp assembly clamping the stripper assembly to the outer bearing housing; and a clamping assembly removably attaching the inner skirt member to the exterior support surface such that the entire stripper support assembly of the drilling head assembly is removable from the housing as a unitary assembly by disengaging the clamping assembly.

  16. Muscle assembly: a titanic achievement?

    PubMed

    Gregorio, C C; Granzier, H; Sorimachi, H; Labeit, S

    1999-02-01

    The formation of perfectly aligned myofibrils in striated muscle represents a dramatic example of supramolecular assembly in eukaryotic cells. Recently, considerable progress has been made in deciphering the roles that titin, the third most abundant protein in muscle, has in this process. An increasing number of sarcomeric proteins (ligands) are being identified that bind to specific titin domains. Titin may serve as a molecular blueprint for sarcomere assembly and turnover by specifying the precise position of its ligands within each half-sarcomere in addition to functioning as a molecular spring that maintains the structural integrity of the contracting myofibrils.

  17. Jennifer Pruitt, explains ECLSS to media representatives

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-02

    JENNIFER PRUITT, LEAD DESIGN ENGINEER FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION URINE PROCESSING ASSEMBLY AT MARSHALL, BRIEFS A GROUP OF MORE THAN 20 SOCIAL AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA REPRESENTATIVES ABOUT HER WORK TO IMPROVE THE RECYCLING OF WATER FOR ASTRONAUTS. THE TOUR OF MARSHALL WORK SUPPORTING NASA'S JOURNEY TO MARS WAS PART OF AGENCY-WIDE "STATE OF NASA" EVENTS FEB. 2. THE TOUR ALSO INCLUDED A LOOK AT OXYGEN RECYCLING EFFORTS, A SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM CORE STAGE SIMULATOR AND A CHANCE TO TALK WITH MARSHALL DIRECTOR PATRICK SCHEUERMANN AND DEPUTY DIRECTOR TERESA VANHOOSER.

  18. Electrical Connector Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    hereinafter 5 appear, a feature of the invention is the provision of an 6 electrical connector assembly including a female connector 7 assembly comprising...urging of the male connector assembly 3 into the female connector assembly, a leading edge of ehe 4 retention ring engages the claw fingers forcing...assembly barrel portion to pass through the female connector 3 assembly annular wall central opening, and permitting entry of 9 the pin into the sleeve

  19. Finishing bacterial genome assemblies with Mix

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Among challenges that hamper reaping the benefits of genome assembly are both unfinished assemblies and the ensuing experimental costs. First, numerous software solutions for genome de novo assembly are available, each having its advantages and drawbacks, without clear guidelines as to how to choose among them. Second, these solutions produce draft assemblies that often require a resource intensive finishing phase. Methods In this paper we address these two aspects by developing Mix , a tool that mixes two or more draft assemblies, without relying on a reference genome and having the goal to reduce contig fragmentation and thus speed-up genome finishing. The proposed algorithm builds an extension graph where vertices represent extremities of contigs and edges represent existing alignments between these extremities. These alignment edges are used for contig extension. The resulting output assembly corresponds to a set of paths in the extension graph that maximizes the cumulative contig length. Results We evaluate the performance of Mix on bacterial NGS data from the GAGE-B study and apply it to newly sequenced Mycoplasma genomes. Resulting final assemblies demonstrate a significant improvement in the overall assembly quality. In particular, Mix is consistent by providing better overall quality results even when the choice is guided solely by standard assembly statistics, as is the case for de novo projects. Availability Mix is implemented in Python and is available at https://github.com/cbib/MIX, novel data for our Mycoplasma study is available at http://services.cbib.u-bordeaux2.fr/mix/. PMID:24564706

  20. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  1. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  2. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distributed assembly processes. From a physical perspective, these phenomena provide insight into delay dynamics and inventory distributions in large-scale manufacturing systems.

  3. Automated optical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, John L.

    1995-08-01

    Automation and polymer science represent fundamental new technologies which can be directed toward realizing the goal of establishing a domestic, world-class, commercial optics business. Use of innovative optical designs using precision polymer optics will enable the US to play a vital role in the next generation of commercial optical products. The increased cost savings inherent in the utilization of optical-grade polymers outweighs almost every advantage of using glass for high volume situations. Optical designers must gain experience with combined refractive/diffractive designs and broaden their knowledge base regarding polymer technology beyond a cursory intellectual exercise. Implementation of a fully automated assembly system, combined with utilization of polymer optics, constitutes the type of integrated manufacturing process which will enable the US to successfully compete with the low-cost labor employed in the Far East, as well as to produce an equivalent product.

  4. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  5. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Precechtel, Donald R.; Smith, Bob G.; Knight, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  6. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  7. Firearm trigger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  8. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  9. Controlling and imaging biomimetic self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliprandi, Alessandro; Mauro, Matteo; de Cola, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of chemical entities represents a very attractive way to create a large variety of ordered functional structures and complex matter. Although much effort has been devoted to the preparation of supramolecular nanostructures based on different chemical building blocks, an understanding of the mechanisms at play and the ability to monitor assembly processes and, in turn, control them are often elusive, which precludes a deep and comprehensive control of the final structures. Here the complex supramolecular landscape of a platinum(II) compound is characterized fully and controlled successfully through a combination of supramolecular and photochemical approaches. The supramolecular assemblies comprise two kinetic assemblies and their thermodynamic counterpart. The monitoring of the different emission properties of the aggregates, used as a fingerprint for each species, allows the real-time visualization of the evolving self-assemblies. The control of multiple supramolecular pathways will help the design of complex systems in and out of their thermodynamic equilibrium.

  10. Controlling and imaging biomimetic self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Aliprandi, Alessandro; Mauro, Matteo; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The self-assembly of chemical entities represents a very attractive way to create a large variety of ordered functional structures and complex matter. Although much effort has been devoted to the preparation of supramolecular nanostructures based on different chemical building blocks, an understanding of the mechanisms at play and the ability to monitor assembly processes and, in turn, control them are often elusive, which precludes a deep and comprehensive control of the final structures. Here the complex supramolecular landscape of a platinum(II) compound is characterized fully and controlled successfully through a combination of supramolecular and photochemical approaches. The supramolecular assemblies comprise two kinetic assemblies and their thermodynamic counterpart. The monitoring of the different emission properties of the aggregates, used as a fingerprint for each species, allows the real-time visualization of the evolving self-assemblies. The control of multiple supramolecular pathways will help the design of complex systems in and out of their thermodynamic equilibrium.

  11. Genetic algorithms for DNA sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Parsons, R; Forrest, S; Burks, C

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a genetic algorithm application to the DNA sequence assembly problem. The genetic algorithm uses a sorted order representation for representing the orderings of fragments. Two different fitness functions, both based on pairwise overlap strengths between fragments, are tested. The paper concludes that the genetic algorithm is a promising method for fragment assembly problems, achieving usable solutions quickly, but that the current fitness functions are flawed and that other representations might be more appropriate.

  12. Computing by molecular self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Jonoska, Nataša; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2012-08-06

    The paper reviews two computing models by DNA self-assembly whose proof of principal have recently been experimentally confirmed. The first model incorporates DNA nano-devices and triple crossover DNA molecules to algorithmically arrange non-DNA species. This is achieved by simulating a finite-state automaton with output where golden nanoparticles are assembled to read-out the result. In the second model, a complex DNA molecule representing a graph emerges as a solution of a computational problem. This supports the idea that in molecular self-assembly computing, it may be necessary to develop the notion of shape processing besides the classical approach through symbol processing.

  13. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  14. Assembly reflects evolution of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Emmanuel D; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Robinson, Carol V; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2008-06-26

    A homomer is formed by self-interacting copies of a protein unit. This is functionally important, as in allostery, and structurally crucial because mis-assembly of homomers is implicated in disease. Homomers are widespread, with 50-70% of proteins with a known quaternary state assembling into such structures. Despite their prevalence, their role in the evolution of cellular machinery and the potential for their use in the design of new molecular machines, little is known about the mechanisms that drive formation of homomers at the level of evolution and assembly in the cell. Here we present an analysis of over 5,000 unique atomic structures and show that the quaternary structure of homomers is conserved in over 70% of protein pairs sharing as little as 30% sequence identity. Where quaternary structure is not conserved among the members of a protein family, a detailed investigation revealed well-defined evolutionary pathways by which proteins transit between different quaternary structure types. Furthermore, we show by perturbing subunit interfaces within complexes and by mass spectrometry analysis, that the (dis)assembly pathway mimics the evolutionary pathway. These data represent a molecular analogy to Haeckel's evolutionary paradigm of embryonic development, where an intermediate in the assembly of a complex represents a form that appeared in its own evolutionary history. Our model of self-assembly allows reliable prediction of evolution and assembly of a complex solely from its crystal structure.

  15. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  16. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  17. Representing Tactical Land Navigation Expertise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    they adjust and recalibrate tools dynamically; and (4) they visualize spatial information. Finally, a multi - agent system computationally represents the route planning portion of the performance model.

  18. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  19. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David H

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  20. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  1. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  2. Telerobotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Philip L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss was telerobotically assembled in order to gain experience with robotic assembly of hardware designed for astronaut extravehicular (EVA) assembly. Tight alignment constraints of the ACCESS hardware made telerobotic assembly difficult. A wider alignment envelope and a compliant end effector would have reduced the problem. The manipulator had no linear motion capability, but many of the assembly operations required straight line motion. The manipulator was attached to a motion table in order to provide the X, Y, and Z translations needed. A programmable robot with linear translation capability would have eliminated the need for the motion table and streamlined the assembly. Poor depth perception was a major problem. Shaded paint schemes and alignment lines were helpful in reducing this problem. The four cameras used worked well for only some operations. It was not possible to identify camera locations that worked well for all assembly steps. More cameras or movable cameras would have simplified some operations. The audio feedback system was useful.

  3. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  4. Representing Learning With Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models are being used widely in artificial intelligence, for instance, in diagnosis and expert systems, as a unified qualitative and quantitative framework for representing and reasoning with probabilities and independencies. Their development and use spans several fields including artificial intelligence, decision theory and statistics, and provides an important bridge between these communities. This paper shows by way of example that these models can be extended to machine learning, neural networks and knowledge discovery by representing the notion of a sample on the graphical model. Not only does this allow a flexible variety of learning problems to be represented, it also provides the means for representing the goal of learning and opens the way for the automatic development of learning algorithms from specifications.

  5. Representing Learning With Graphical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic graphical models are being used widely in artificial intelligence, for instance, in diagnosis and expert systems, as a unified qualitative and quantitative framework for representing and reasoning with probabilities and independencies. Their development and use spans several fields including artificial intelligence, decision theory and statistics, and provides an important bridge between these communities. This paper shows by way of example that these models can be extended to machine learning, neural networks and knowledge discovery by representing the notion of a sample on the graphical model. Not only does this allow a flexible variety of learning problems to be represented, it also provides the means for representing the goal of learning and opens the way for the automatic development of learning algorithms from specifications.

  6. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  7. A classification scheme for LWR fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.S.; Williamson, D.A.; Notz, K.J.

    1988-11-01

    With over 100 light water nuclear reactors operating nationwide, representing designs by four primary vendors, and with reload fuel manufactured by these vendors and additional suppliers, a wide variety of fuel assembly types are in existence. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, both the Systems Integration Program and the Characteristics Data Base project required a classification scheme for these fuels. This scheme can be applied to other areas and is expected to be of value to many Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management programs. To develop the classification scheme, extensive information on the fuel assemblies that have been and are being manufactured by the various nuclear fuel vendors was compiled, reviewed, and evaluated. It was determined that it is possible to characterize assemblies in a systematic manner, using a combination of physical factors. A two-stage scheme was developed consisting of 79 assembly types, which are grouped into 22 assembly classes. The assembly classes are determined by the general design of the reactor cores in which the assemblies are, or were, used. The general BWR and PWR classes are divided differently but both are based on reactor core configuration. 2 refs., 15 tabs.

  8. Protein self-assembly via supramolecular strategies.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yushi; Luo, Quan; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-05-21

    Proteins, as the elemental basis of living organisms, mostly execute their biological tasks in the form of supramolecular self-assemblies with subtle architectures, dynamic interactions and versatile functionalities. Inspired by the structural harmony and functional beauty of natural protein self-assemblies to fabricate sophisticated yet highly ordered protein superstructures represents an adventure in the pursuit of nature's supreme wisdom. In this review, we focus on building protein self-assembly systems based on supramolecular strategies and classify recent progress by the types of utilized supramolecular driving forces. Especially, the design strategy, structure control and the thermodynamic/kinetic regulation of the self-assemblies, which will in turn provide insights into the natural biological self-assembly mechanism, are highlighted. In addition, recently, this research field is starting to extend its interest beyond constructing complex morphologies towards the potential applications of the self-assembly systems; several attempts to design functional protein complexes are also discussed. As such, we hope that this review will provide a panoramic sketch of the field and draw a roadmap towards the ultimate construction of advanced protein self-assemblies that even can serve as analogues of their natural counterparts.

  9. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Gojobori, Takashi; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biophysical studies of bacterial ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Williamson, James R

    2008-06-01

    The assembly of the bacterial ribosome involves the association of over 50 proteins to 3 large RNA molecules, and it represents a major metabolic activity for rapidly growing bacteria. The availability of atomic structures of the ribosome and the application of biochemical and biophysical methods have led to rapid progress in understanding the mechanistic details of ribosome assembly. The basic steps required to assemble a ribosome are outlined, and the contributions of mass spectrometry, computational methods, and RNA-folding studies in understanding these steps are detailed. This complex process takes place with both sequential and parallel processing that is coordinated to ensure efficient and complete assembly of ribosomes to meet the demands of cell growth.

  11. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Dianliang; Zhu Hongmin

    2010-05-21

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  12. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2010-05-01

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  13. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  14. Spliceosome assembly and composition.

    PubMed

    Matlin, Arianne J; Moore, Melissa J

    2007-01-01

    Cells control alternative splicing by modulating assembly of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery at competing splice sites. Therefore, a working knowledge of spliceosome assembly is essential for understanding how alternative splice site choices are achieved. In this chapter, we review spliceosome assembly with particular emphasis on the known steps and factors subject to regulation during alternative splice site selection in mammalian cells. We also review recent advances regarding similarities and differences between the in vivo and in vitro assembly pathways, as well as proofreading mechanisms contributing to the fidelity of splice site selection.

  15. Representing and acquiring geographic knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for researchers and students in AI, cognitive psychology, and computational geometry, this work presents an original theory of how knowledge of a large-scale neighborhood can be represented symbolically in a computer program, accessed for use, and increased by experience. The discussion analyzes related work in the field, presents an actual computer implementation, and suggests areas for further research.

  16. Representing and acquiring geographic knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a theory of how knowledge of a large-scale neighborhood can be represented symbolically in a computer program, accessed for use, and increased by experience. The discussion analyzes related work in the field, presents an actual computer implementation, and suggests areas for further research.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, a photographer gets a close-up of the mockup of the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, a photographer gets a close-up of the mockup of the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers pause at the mockup of the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-11

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - During a media tour of the Columbia Debris Hangar, photographers pause at the mockup of the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing. About 83,000 pieces of debris from Columbia were shipped to KSC from search and recovery efforts in East Texas. About 83,000 pieces of debris were shipped to KSC, which represents about 38 percent of the dry weight of Columbia, equaling almost 85,000 pounds. The debris is being packaged for storage in an area of the Vehicle Assembly Building.

  19. Powering through ribosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Strunk, Bethany S.; Karbstein, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Ribosome assembly is required for cell growth in all organisms. Classic in vitro work in bacteria has led to a detailed understanding of the biophysical, thermodynamic, and structural basis for the ordered and correct assembly of ribosomal proteins on ribosomal RNA. Furthermore, it has enabled reconstitution of active subunits from ribosomal RNA and proteins in vitro. Nevertheless, recent work has shown that eukaryotic ribosome assembly requires a large macromolecular machinery in vivo. Many of these assembly factors such as ATPases, GTPases, and kinases hydrolyze nucleotide triphosphates. Because these enzymes are likely regulatory proteins, much work to date has focused on understanding their role in the assembly process. Here, we review these factors, as well as other sources of energy, and their roles in the ribosome assembly process. In addition, we propose roles of energy-releasing enzymes in the assembly process, to explain why energy is used for a process that occurs largely spontaneously in bacteria. Finally, we use literature data to suggest testable models for how these enzymes could be used as targets for regulation of ribosome assembly. PMID:19850913

  20. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  1. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  2. Pultrusion Die Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor); Frye, Mark W. (Inventor); Stanfield, Clarence E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pultrusion die assemblies, and more particularly, to a pultrusion die assembly which incorporates a plurality of functions in order to produce a continuous, thin composite fiber reinforced thermoplastic material. The invention is useful for making high performance thermoplastic composite materials in sheets which can be coiled on a spool and stored for further processing.

  3. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  4. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  5. Assembling Transgender Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to assemble moments--scholarly, popular, and aesthetic--in order to explore the possibilities that emerge as moments collect in education's encounters with the needs, struggles, and possibilities of transgender lives and practices. Assembling moments, the author argues, illustrates the value of "moments"…

  6. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  7. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  8. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  9. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  10. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  11. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  12. Assembly of bacterial ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Shajani, Zahra; Sykes, Michael T; Williamson, James R

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of ribosomes from a discrete set of components is a key aspect of the highly coordinated process of ribosome biogenesis. In this review, we present a brief history of the early work on ribosome assembly in Escherichia coli, including a description of in vivo and in vitro intermediates. The assembly process is believed to progress through an alternating series of RNA conformational changes and protein-binding events; we explore the effects of ribosomal proteins in driving these events. Ribosome assembly in vivo proceeds much faster than in vitro, and we outline the contributions of several of the assembly cofactors involved, including Era, RbfA, RimJ, RimM, RimP, and RsgA, which associate with the 30S subunit, and CsdA, DbpA, Der, and SrmB, which associate with the 50S subunit.

  13. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  14. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-04-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid and in some cases are surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assemble within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for the assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells and how these are modified in cases in which the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly that are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

  15. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  16. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  17. Total Column Ozone: A More Representative "Best Representative Daily Value"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Andrew; Rimmer, John; Webb, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Long-term ground-based datasets of total column ozone (TCO) and their subsequent analyses of ozone recovery are predicated on the basis of a best representative value for each day's measurements. For Brewer spectrophotometers this is defined by the World Ozone Data Centre as selecting the mean of a day's valid direct sun (DS) measurements, and if none are available, the mean of a day's valid zenith sky (ZS) measurements. For mid- and high-latitudes where cloudy skies are prevalent this binary choice can often lead to the daily average value being based on a small number of DS measurements, whilst many more valid ZS measurements are rejected. Further the small number of contributing DS measurements is unlikely to be spread evenly through the day, and hence may not be the most representative of the underlying daily mean. Against this must be balanced the fact that TCO values derived from DS measurements are directly calibrated at regular intervals, whilst zenith sky measurements are dependent on a further polynomial fitting step. Here we describe a methodology to address this issue and combine both DS and ZS measurements into a single "Best Representative Daily Value". The method takes into account periods of time when valid measurements are more frequent and the relative uncertainty of each measurement. It is applied to circa. 15 year long ozone records in the United Kingdom where we assess the re-evaluated datasets in terms of their wider daily time sampling, the mean observation time and number of contributing observations. The re-evaluated time series are compared with the original data series and satellite overpass data, whilst the impact of this methodology on both apparent ozone recovery and frequency of low ozone events is investigated.

  18. Representing videos in tangible products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Weiting, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    Videos can be taken with nearly every camera, digital point and shoot cameras, DSLRs as well as smartphones and more and more with so-called action cameras mounted on sports devices. The implementation of videos while generating QR codes and relevant pictures out of the video stream via a software implementation was contents in last years' paper. This year we present first data about what contents is displayed and how the users represent their videos in printed products, e.g. CEWE PHOTOBOOKS and greeting cards. We report the share of the different video formats used, the number of images extracted out of the video in order to represent the video, the positions in the book and different design strategies compared to regular books.

  19. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  20. Representative shuttle evaporative heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a representative shuttle evaporative heat sink (RSEHS) system which vaporizes an expendable fluid to provide cooling for the shuttle heat transport fluid loop is reported. The optimized RSEHS minimum weight design meets or exceeds the shuttle flash evaporator system requirements. A cold trap which cryo-pumps flash evaporator exhaust water from the CSD vacuum chamber test facility to prevent water contamination of the chamber pumping equipment is also described.

  1. Assessing De Novo transcriptome assembly metrics for consistency and utility.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Shawn T; Emrich, Scott J

    2013-07-09

    Transcriptome sequencing and assembly represent a great resource for the study of non-model species, and many metrics have been used to evaluate and compare these assemblies. Unfortunately, it is still unclear which of these metrics accurately reflect assembly quality. We simulated sequencing transcripts of Drosophila melanogaster. By assembling these simulated reads using both a "perfect" and a modern transcriptome assembler while varying read length and sequencing depth, we evaluated quality metrics to determine whether they 1) revealed perfect assemblies to be of higher quality, and 2) revealed perfect assemblies to be more complete as data quantity increased.Several commonly used metrics were not consistent with these expectations, including average contig coverage and length, though they became consistent when singletons were included in the analysis. We found several annotation-based metrics to be consistent and informative, including contig reciprocal best hit count and contig unique annotation count. Finally, we evaluated a number of novel metrics such as reverse annotation count, contig collapse factor, and the ortholog hit ratio, discovering that each assess assembly quality in unique ways. Although much attention has been given to transcriptome assembly, little research has focused on determining how best to evaluate assemblies, particularly in light of the variety of options available for read length and sequencing depth. Our results provide an important review of these metrics and give researchers tools to produce the highest quality transcriptome assemblies.

  2. Expert systems for assembly sequence evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to identify delivered orbital subassemblies derived from a phase A conceptual space vehicle design while minimizing on-orbit assembly complexity. The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: an orbital assembly scenario; subassemblies; subassembly identification and simulation model; estimating subassembly interfaces by engineering functional allocation using MBR; representative data base of interface connections; vehicle decomposition model; connection interface estimation model results; knowledge-source 1 and 2 results; knowledge-source 3 -- connection-index results (Boeing NTR-2016 CI-profile); KS3 algorithm, and KS3 flight manifest results.

  3. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological

  4. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  5. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  6. TPX assembly plan

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, D.

    1993-11-01

    The TPX machine will be assembled in the TFTR Test Cell at the Plasma Physics Laboratory, utilizing the existing TFTR machine foundation. Preparation of the area for assembly will begin after completion of the decontamination and decommissioning phase on TFTR and certification that the radiation levels remaining, if any, are consistent with the types of operations planned. Assembly operations begin with the arrival of the first components, and conclude, approximately 24 months later, with the successful completion of the integrated systems tests and the achievement of a first plasma.

  7. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-15

    Keprt 0 Judgments Of and By Representativeness,,I Jan. , *80agoAprO &1 i, 7. A. COPATaNRA ___ N00014-79-C-0077 Am;os /ftversky - ail hea S . PERFORMING...value and a variable; ..4 an instance and a category; I& a sample and a population; 4(1 an effect and a cause. The principles of representativenes...reduces it probability. Several studies of judgment are reported in which naive and sophi- DD I FjA017 1473 ITorION OF I Nov S IIS isoSOLETE Unclassified S

  8. Representing actions through their sound.

    PubMed

    Aglioti, Salvatore M; Pazzaglia, Mariella

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of 'mirror neurons' in the monkey premotor and parietal cortex, an increasing body of evidence in animals and humans alike has supported the notion of the inextricable link between action execution and action perception. Although research originally focused on the relationship between performed and viewed actions, more recent studies highlight the importance of representing the actions of others through audition. In the first part of this article, we discuss animal studies, which provide direct evidence that action is inherently linked to multi-sensory cues, as well as the studies carried out on healthy subjects by using state-of-the-art cognitive neuroscience techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), event-related potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In the second section, we review the lesion analysis studies in brain-damaged patients demonstrating the link between 'resonant' fronto-parieto-temporal networks and the ability to represent an action by hearing its sound. Moreover, we examine the evidence in favour of somatotopy as a possible representational rule underlying the auditory mapping of actions and consider the links between language and audio-motor action mapping. We conclude with a discussion of some outstanding questions for future research on the link between actions and the sounds they produce.

  9. Operon Gene Order Is Optimized for Ordered Protein Complex Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan N; Bergendahl, L Therese; Marsh, Joseph A

    2016-02-02

    The assembly of heteromeric protein complexes is an inherently stochastic process in which multiple genes are expressed separately into proteins, which must then somehow find each other within the cell. Here, we considered one of the ways by which prokaryotic organisms have attempted to maximize the efficiency of protein complex assembly: the organization of subunit-encoding genes into operons. Using structure-based assembly predictions, we show that operon gene order has been optimized to match the order in which protein subunits assemble. Exceptions to this are almost entirely highly expressed proteins for which assembly is less stochastic and for which precisely ordered translation offers less benefit. Overall, these results show that ordered protein complex assembly pathways are of significant biological importance and represent a major evolutionary constraint on operon gene organization.

  10. RNA-Seq Assembly – Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Schliesky, Simon; Gowik, Udo; Weber, Andreas P. M.; Bräutigam, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptomic sequence resources represent invaluable assets for research, in particular for non-model species without a sequenced genome. To date, the Next Generation Sequencing technologies 454/Roche and Illumina have been used to generate transcriptome sequence databases by mRNA-Seq for more than fifty different plant species. While some of the databases were successfully used for downstream applications, such as proteomics, the assembly parameters indicate that the assemblies do not yet accurately reflect the actual plant transcriptomes. Two different assembly strategies have been used, overlap consensus based assemblers for long reads and Eulerian path/de Bruijn graph assembler for short reads. In this review, we discuss the challenges and solutions to the transcriptome assembly problem. A list of quality control parameters and the necessary scripts to produce them are provided. PMID:23056003

  11. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  12. Magnetostrictive valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

  13. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  14. Supramolecular DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Christopher K; Hamblin, Graham D; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2011-12-01

    The powerful self-assembly features of DNA make it a unique template to finely organize and control matter on the nanometre scale. While DNA alone offers a high degree of fidelity in its self-assembly, a new area of research termed 'supramolecular DNA assembly' has recently emerged. This field combines DNA building blocks with synthetic organic, inorganic and polymeric structures. It thus brings together the toolbox of supramolecular chemistry with the predictable and programmable nature of DNA. The result of this molecular partnership is a variety of hybrid architectures, that expand DNA assembly beyond the boundaries of Watson-Crick base pairing into new structural and functional properties. In this tutorial review we outline this emerging field of study, and describe recent research aiming to synergistically combine the properties inherent to DNA with those of a number of supramolecular scaffolds. This ultimately creates structures with numerous potential applications in materials science, catalysis and medicine.

  15. Assembly Line of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-06

    This image from NASA Herschel, in the constellation of Vulpecula, shows an entire assembly line of newborn stars. The diffuse glow reveals the widespread cold reservoir of raw material that our Milky Way galaxy has in stock for building stars.

  16. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  17. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  18. The proteasome assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Madura, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of the proteasome — the cellular machine that eliminates unwanted proteins — is a carefully choreographed affair, involving a complex sequence of steps overseen by dedicated protein chaperones. PMID:19516331

  19. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  20. Flexseal Insulator Test Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Eric

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale version of solid-fuel rocket motor flexseal nozzle bearing assembly instrumented and tested in compression-testing fixture simulating conditions during rocket motor operation described in report.

  1. Integrated thruster assembly program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

  2. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  3. Automated Assembly Center (AAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate advanced assembly and assembly support technology under a comprehensive architecture; to implement automated assembly technologies in the production of high-visibility DOD weapon systems; and to document the improved cost, quality, and lead time. This will enhance the production of DOD weapon systems by utilizing the latest commercially available technologies combined into a flexible system that will be able to readily incorporate new technologies as they emerge. Automated assembly encompasses the following areas: product data, process planning, information management policies and framework, three schema architecture, open systems communications, intelligent robots, flexible multi-ability end effectors, knowledge-based/expert systems, intelligent workstations, intelligent sensor systems, and PDES/PDDI data standards.

  4. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  6. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2008-08-26

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  7. Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center in Florida was used to assemble and house American-crewed launch vehicles from 1968 to 2011. AT 3,684,883 cubic meters, it is one of the largest buildings in the world by volume. Inside the facility, High Bay 3 is being upgraded and modified to support processing of the agency's Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft.

  8. Scaling metagenome sequence assembly with probabilistic de Bruijn graphs.

    PubMed

    Pell, Jason; Hintze, Arend; Canino-Koning, Rosangela; Howe, Adina; Tiedje, James M; Brown, C Titus

    2012-08-14

    Deep sequencing has enabled the investigation of a wide range of environmental microbial ecosystems, but the high memory requirements for de novo assembly of short-read shotgun sequencing data from these complex populations are an increasingly large practical barrier. Here we introduce a memory-efficient graph representation with which we can analyze the k-mer connectivity of metagenomic samples. The graph representation is based on a probabilistic data structure, a Bloom filter, that allows us to efficiently store assembly graphs in as little as 4 bits per k-mer, albeit inexactly. We show that this data structure accurately represents DNA assembly graphs in low memory. We apply this data structure to the problem of partitioning assembly graphs into components as a prelude to assembly, and show that this reduces the overall memory requirements for de novo assembly of metagenomes. On one soil metagenome assembly, this approach achieves a nearly 40-fold decrease in the maximum memory requirements for assembly. This probabilistic graph representation is a significant theoretical advance in storing assembly graphs and also yields immediate leverage on metagenomic assembly.

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Polyploid Species.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan J; Garvin, David F

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of a reference genome, the ultimate goal of a de novo transcriptome assembly is to accurately and comprehensively reconstruct the set of messenger RNA transcripts represented in the sample. Non-reference assembly of the transcriptome of polyploid species poses a particular challenge because of the presence of homeologs that are difficult to disentangle at the sequence level. This is especially true for hexaploid oats, which have three highly similar subgenomes, two of which are thought to be nearly identical. Under these circumstances, most software packages and established pipelines encounter difficulties in rendering an accurate transcriptome because they are typically developed, refined, and tested for diploid organisms. We present a protocol for transcriptome assembly in oats that can be extended both to other polyploids and species with highly duplicated genomes.

  10. EVA assembly of large space structure element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Stokes, J. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a test program to assess the potential of manned extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly of erectable space trusses are described. Seventeen tests were conducted in which six "space-weight" columns were assembled into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two "space"-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental "element" of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system modes were evaluated. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structures is well within man's capabilities.

  11. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  12. Assemblies of Conformal Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

  13. Want change? Call your representative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2011-07-01

    During my tenure as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, which began in September 2010 and continues until November 2011, my time has been shared between working with the U.S. House of Representatives Natural Resource Committee Democratic staff and in the office of Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass., ranking Democrat on the committee). I appreciate getting to work with staff, fellows, and interns who inspire me, make me laugh, and know their issues cold. Much of my work on the committee is related to fish, wildlife, oceans, lands, and water issues and is directly related to my background in ecology and evolutionary biology (I studied zebra ecology and behavior in Kenya). My assignments have included asking the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about why it has not changed the allowed usage of certain pesticides that the National Marine Fisheries Service has found to jeopardize the recovery of endangered Pacific salmon; helping to identify research needs and management options to combat the swiftly spreading and catastrophic white nose syndrome in North American bats; and inquiring as to whether a captive-ape welfare bill, if passed without amendment, could thwart development of a vaccine to stop the Ebola virus from continuing to cause mass mortality in endangered wild apes.

  14. Anisotropic assembly and pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brecht, James H.; Uminsky, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of anisotropy in two classes of individual-based models for self-organization, collective behavior and self-assembly. We accomplish this via first-order dynamical systems of pairwise interacting particles that incorporate anisotropic interactions. At a continuum level, these models represent the natural anisotropic variants of the well-known aggregation equation. We leverage this framework to analyze the impact of anisotropic effects upon the self-assembly of co-dimension one equilibrium structures, such as micelles and vesicles. Our analytical results reveal the regularizing effect of anisotropy, and isolate the contexts in which anisotropic effects are necessary to achieve dynamical stability of co-dimension one structures. Our results therefore place theoretical limits on when anisotropic effects can be safely neglected. We also explore whether anisotropic effects suffice to induce pattern formation in such particle systems. We conclude with brief numerical studies that highlight various aspects of the models we introduce, elucidate their phase structure and partially validate the analysis we provide.

  15. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rina; Graves, Jeffrey A; Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  16. Local and Regional Processes in Community Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Juan C; Kolasa, Jurek

    2013-01-01

    Controversy on whether local (deterministic) or regional (stochastic) factors control the structure of communities persists after decades of research. The main reason for why it has not been resolved may lie in the nature of evidence which largely comes from realized natural communities. In such communities assembly history leaves a mark that may support either set of factors. To avoid the confounding effects of assembly history we controlled for these effects experimentally. We created a null community by mixing 17 rock pool communities. We then divided the null community into replicates and distributed among treatments representing a gradient of factors from local to regional. We hypothesized that if deterministic factors dominate the assembly of communities, community structures should show a corresponding gradient from being very similar and convergent to dissimilar and divergent. In contrast, if local processes are predominantly stochastic in nature, such a gradient of community configurations should emerge even in the homogeneous setting. Our results appear to partially support both hypotheses and thus suggest that both deterministic and stochastic processes contribute to the assembly of communities. Furthermore, we found that to satisfactorily explain patterns observed in natural communities environmental heterogeneity and regional processes must also be considered. In conclusion, although deterministic mechanisms seem to be important in the assembly of communities, in natural systems their signal may be diluted and masked whenever other factors exert meaningful influence. Such factors increase the number of possible paths to the point that the number of paths equals the number of communities in a metacommunity. PMID:23355879

  17. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  18. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-05-29

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic 'lumped' circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems.

  19. Assembly Test Article (ATA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Glen A.

    1988-01-01

    The assembly test article (ATA) consisted of two live loaded redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) segments which were assembled and disassembled to simulate the actual flight segment stacking process. The test assembly joint was flight RSRM design, which included the J-joint insulation design and metal capture feature. The ATA test was performed mid-November through 24 December 1987, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The purpose of the test was: certification that vertical RSRM segment mating and separation could be accomplished without any damage; verification and modification of the procedures in the segment stacking/destacking documents; and certification of various GSE to be used for flight assembly and inspection. The RSRM vertical segment assembly/disassembly is possible without any damage to the insulation, metal parts, or seals. The insulation J-joint contact area was very close to the predicted values. Numerous deviations and changes to the planning documents were made to ensure the flight segments are effectively and correctly stacked. Various GSE were also certified for use on flight segments, and are discussed in detail.

  20. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  1. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  2. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  3. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  4. RNA folding and ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Woodson, Sarah A

    2008-12-01

    Ribosome synthesis is a tightly regulated process that is crucial for cell survival. Chemical footprinting, mass spectrometry, and cryo-electron microscopy are revealing how these complex cellular machines are assembled. Rapid folding of the rRNA provides a platform for protein-induced assembly of the bacterial 30S ribosome. Multiple assembly pathways increase the flexibility of the assembly process, while accessory factors and modification enzymes chaperone the late stages of assembly and control the quality of the mature subunits.

  5. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  6. Optical interconnect assembly

    DOEpatents

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

    2015-06-09

    An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

  7. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  8. Driving ribosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Kressler, Dieter; Hurt, Ed; Bassler, Jochen

    2010-06-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental process that provides cells with the molecular factories for cellular protein production. Accordingly, its misregulation lies at the heart of several hereditary diseases (e.g., Diamond-Blackfan anemia). The process of ribosome assembly comprises the processing and folding of the pre-rRNA and its concomitant assembly with the ribosomal proteins. Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis relies on a large number (>200) of non-ribosomal factors, which confer directionality and accuracy to this process. Many of these non-ribosomal factors fall into different families of energy-consuming enzymes, notably including ATP-dependent RNA helicases, AAA-ATPases, GTPases, and kinases. Ribosome biogenesis is highly conserved within eukaryotic organisms; however, due to the combination of powerful genetic and biochemical methods, it is best studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This review summarizes our current knowledge on eukaryotic ribosome assembly, with particular focus on the molecular role of the involved energy-consuming enzymes.

  9. Liaison based assembly design

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  10. Blade attachment assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  11. Method and apparatus for automated assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Rondall E.; Wilson, Randall H.; Calton, Terri L.

    1999-01-01

    A process and apparatus generates a sequence of steps for assembly or disassembly of a mechanical system. Each step in the sequence is geometrically feasible, i.e., the part motions required are physically possible. Each step in the sequence is also constraint feasible, i.e., the step satisfies user-definable constraints. Constraints allow process and other such limitations, not usually represented in models of the completed mechanical system, to affect the sequence.

  12. Method and apparatus for automated assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.; Calton, T.L.

    1999-11-09

    A process and apparatus generates a sequence of steps for assembly or disassembly of a mechanical system. Each step in the sequence is geometrically feasible, i.e., the part motions required are physically possible. Each step in the sequence is also constraint feasible, i.e., the step satisfies user-definable constraints. Constraints allow process and other such limitations, not usually represented in models of the completed mechanical system, to affect the sequence.

  13. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovich, M.; Burkett, J. P.; Sallustio, J.

    1984-12-11

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly.

  14. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  15. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  16. Assembling an aesthetic.

    PubMed

    Candela, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low inductance connector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  18. Lightweight reflector assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Jolley, J.; Walker, W. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight reflective assembly member having good optical quality and particularly adaptable to accommodating temperature variations without providing destructive thermal stresses and reflective slope errors is described. The reflective assembly consists of a thin sheet of glass with appropriate reflective coating and a cellular glass block substrate bonded together. The method of fabrication includes abrading the cellular substrate with an abrasive master die to form an appropriate concave surface. An adhesive is applied to the abraded surface and a lamina reflective surface is placed under a uniform pressure to conform the reflective surface onto the desired abraded surface of the substrate.

  19. Flow Cage Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Apparatus, systems and methods for implementing flow cages and flow cage assemblies in association with high pressure fluid flows and fluid valves are provided. Flow cages and flow assemblies are provided to dissipate the energy of a fluid flow, such as by reducing fluid flow pressure and/or fluid flow velocity. In some embodiments the dissipation of the fluid flow energy is adapted to reduce erosion, such as from high-pressure jet flows, to reduce cavitation, such as by controllably increasing the flow area, and/or to reduce valve noise associated with pressure surge.

  20. Locking differential gear assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, M.; Teraoka, M.

    1989-02-21

    A locking differential gear assembly is described comprising; clutch means for restricting the differential action of the assembly; movable means movable in a linear direction to actuate the clutch means; rotatable pressing means for moving the movable means in the linear direction drive means for rotating the pressing means; and converting means for converting the rotation of the pressing means into linear movement, the converting means including an element fixed in relation to the pressing means, with interengaged threaded portions on the pressing means and the element.

  1. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  2. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  3. An investigation of Hebbian phase sequences as assembly graphs

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Filho, Daniel G.; Lopes-dos-Santos, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Nivaldo A. P.; Miranda, José G. V.; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Hebb proposed that synapses between neurons that fire synchronously are strengthened, forming cell assemblies and phase sequences. The former, on a shorter scale, are ensembles of synchronized cells that function transiently as a closed processing system; the latter, on a larger scale, correspond to the sequential activation of cell assemblies able to represent percepts and behaviors. Nowadays, the recording of large neuronal populations allows for the detection of multiple cell assemblies. Within Hebb's theory, the next logical step is the analysis of phase sequences. Here we detected phase sequences as consecutive assembly activation patterns, and then analyzed their graph attributes in relation to behavior. We investigated action potentials recorded from the adult rat hippocampus and neocortex before, during and after novel object exploration (experimental periods). Within assembly graphs, each assembly corresponded to a node, and each edge corresponded to the temporal sequence of consecutive node activations. The sum of all assembly activations was proportional to firing rates, but the activity of individual assemblies was not. Assembly repertoire was stable across experimental periods, suggesting that novel experience does not create new assemblies in the adult rat. Assembly graph attributes, on the other hand, varied significantly across behavioral states and experimental periods, and were separable enough to correctly classify experimental periods (Naïve Bayes classifier; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.55 to 0.99) and behavioral states (waking, slow wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.64 to 0.98). Our findings agree with Hebb's view that assemblies correspond to primitive building blocks of representation, nearly unchanged in the adult, while phase sequences are labile across behavioral states and change after novel experience. The results are compatible with a role for phase sequences in behavior and cognition. PMID

  4. An investigation of Hebbian phase sequences as assembly graphs.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Daniel G; Lopes-dos-Santos, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Nivaldo A P; Miranda, José G V; Tort, Adriano B L; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-01-01

    Hebb proposed that synapses between neurons that fire synchronously are strengthened, forming cell assemblies and phase sequences. The former, on a shorter scale, are ensembles of synchronized cells that function transiently as a closed processing system; the latter, on a larger scale, correspond to the sequential activation of cell assemblies able to represent percepts and behaviors. Nowadays, the recording of large neuronal populations allows for the detection of multiple cell assemblies. Within Hebb's theory, the next logical step is the analysis of phase sequences. Here we detected phase sequences as consecutive assembly activation patterns, and then analyzed their graph attributes in relation to behavior. We investigated action potentials recorded from the adult rat hippocampus and neocortex before, during and after novel object exploration (experimental periods). Within assembly graphs, each assembly corresponded to a node, and each edge corresponded to the temporal sequence of consecutive node activations. The sum of all assembly activations was proportional to firing rates, but the activity of individual assemblies was not. Assembly repertoire was stable across experimental periods, suggesting that novel experience does not create new assemblies in the adult rat. Assembly graph attributes, on the other hand, varied significantly across behavioral states and experimental periods, and were separable enough to correctly classify experimental periods (Naïve Bayes classifier; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.55 to 0.99) and behavioral states (waking, slow wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep; maximum AUROCs ranging from 0.64 to 0.98). Our findings agree with Hebb's view that assemblies correspond to primitive building blocks of representation, nearly unchanged in the adult, while phase sequences are labile across behavioral states and change after novel experience. The results are compatible with a role for phase sequences in behavior and cognition.

  5. Fibrillin Assembly Requires Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Laetitia; Chen, Daliang; Fagotto-Kaufmann, Christine; Hubmacher, Dirk; McKee, Marc D.; Annis, Douglas S.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrillins constitute the major backbone of multifunctional microfibrils in elastic and nonelastic extracellular matrices. Proper assembly mechanisms are central to the formation and function of these microfibrils, and their properties are often compromised in pathological circumstances such as in Marfan syndrome and in other fibrillinopathies. Here, we have used human dermal fibroblasts to analyze the assembly of fibrillin-1 in dependence of other matrix-forming proteins. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrated that the assembly of fibrillin-1 is strictly dependent on the presence of extracellular fibronectin fibrils. Immunolabeling performed at the light and electron microscopic level showed colocalization of fibrillin-1 with fibronectin fibrils at the early stages of the assembly process. Protein-binding assays demonstrated interactions of fibronectin with a C-terminal region of fibrillin-1, -2, and -3 and with an N-terminal region of fibrillin-1. The C-terminal half of fibrillin-2 and -3 had propensities to multimerize, as has been previously shown for fibrillin-1. The C-terminal of all three fibrillins interacted strongly with fibronectin as multimers, but not as monomers. Mapping studies revealed that the major binding interaction between fibrillins and fibronectin involves the collagen/gelatin-binding region between domains FNI6 and FNI9. PMID:19037100

  6. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  7. Turbomachine blade assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  8. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  9. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  10. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  12. Dump valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  13. Beyond the Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

    1985-01-01

    Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

  14. Beyond the Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

    1985-01-01

    Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

  15. Admission mixing duct assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, Robert J. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A variable cycle jet engine is provided with a mixing duct assembly which mixes core engine exhaust gas with bypass air when the engine is operating in a turbofan mode and which blocks flow from the core engine and isolates the core engine from the bypass flow when the engine is operating as a ramjet.

  16. Secondary air filter assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Ortonville, A.J.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes a filter cartridge assembly used for filtering air of a crankcase ventilating system of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: first (108) and second (110) air permeable filter platforms; vertical support columns; leg members; and a filter retainer.

  17. Segmented stator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Quirion, Owen Scott

    2013-04-02

    An electric machine and stator assembly are provided that include a continuous stator portion having stator teeth, and a tooth tip portion including tooth tips corresponding to the stator teeth of the continuous stator portion, respectively. The tooth tip portion is mounted onto the continuous stator portion.

  18. Walking boot assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Chambers, A. B.; Stjohn, R. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A walking boot assembly particularly suited for use with a positively pressurized spacesuit is presented. A bootie adapted to be secured to the foot of a wearer, an hermetically sealed boot for receiving the bootie having a walking sole, an inner sole, and an upper portion adapted to be attached to an ankle joint of a spacesuit, are also described.

  19. Metaphase Spindle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2017-01-01

    A microtubule-based bipolar spindle is required for error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. In this review I discuss the molecular mechanisms required for the assembly of this dynamic micrometer-scale structure in animal cells. PMID:28165376

  20. Electronics Assembly Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's interest in and potential to enter a training program in electronics assembly or in a similar program. Section 1 describes the assessment, correlates the work performed and worker traits required for completing the work sample, and lists related occupations and DOT…

  1. Lageos assembly operation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  2. Tectonic assembly of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John J. W.; Unrug, Raphael; Sultan, Mohamed

    1995-01-01

    The Paleozoic assembly of Pangea, with Gondwana as its southern half, completed the last full cycle of growth and dispersal of supercontinents during earth history. This assembly apparently resulted from reorganization of a preceding supercontinent (Rodinia) that existed at ˜1000 Ma. In addition to Laurentia and fragments that formed nuclei for Europe and Asia, the rifting of Rodinia produced: (1) East Gondwana, consisting largely of Western Australia, India, East Antarctica, and possibly part of southern Africa; and (2) various smaller fragments that converged to form West Gondwana, consisting of most of Africa and South America. East Gondwana appears to have been a stable block at a time no younger than ˜1000 Ma and possibly older. West Gondwana accreted largely in the latest Proterozoic and early Paleozoic by closure of the Pharusian Ocean in the north, the Adamaster Ocean in the south, and the ANEKT/Mozambique Ocean between West and East Gondwana. The assembly process was diachronous along numerous mobile belts, accompanied by syn- and post-collisional shearing and magmatism, and led to development of successor basins and rifts. Uncertainties in the timing and mechanism of assembly of Gondwana greatly limit our understanding of the supercontinent cycle. Thus, we propose investigations of Gondwana to determine more precisely the nature and age of apparent cratonic blocks, the locations and ages of orogenic belts, the configuration of former ocean basins, the significance of transcontinental shears, the extent of reactivation of older terranes, and the relationship of Gondwana to North America. Detailed knowledge of the assembly of Gondwana should also provide information on its relationship to other major processes such as mantle evolution and atmospheric, oceanic, and biologic changes.

  3. A resolution informing the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2009-01-06

    01/06/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5; text as passed Senate: CR S5; text of measure as introduced: CR S147) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. A resolution informing the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-05

    01/05/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6; text as passed Senate: CR S6; text of measure as introduced: CR S64) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. A resolution informing the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2013-01-03

    01/03/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S6; text as passed Senate: CR S6; text of measure as introduced: CR S14) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. A resolution informing the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-05

    Senate - 01/05/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. A resolution informing the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-05

    01/05/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. A resolution informing the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2013-01-03

    01/03/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. A resolution informing the House of Representatives that a quorum of the Senate is assembled.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2009-01-06

    01/06/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Solvation Effects in Self-Assembled Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frink, L.J.D.

    1998-11-10

    Many types of self-assembly can be found in nature. They include crystallization, the formation of micelles, and the folding of proteins. Recently there has been much interest in pursuing nano-to-microscopically engineered materials by way of self-assembly on imprinted or templated surfaces. In all of these diverse cases, wetting plays a critical role in the assembly process. Wetting involves the interactions of the substrate or amphiphilic molecule or macromolecule with a solvent. In many self-assembled systems we find that the critical feature of the system is a substrate! or macromolecule with a both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature. In this paper we discuss the wetting properties of a striped surface where the stripes represent alternating chemical characteristics. We show how the chemical heterogeneity affects the wetting properties of the surface (e.g. the static contact angle), and discuss the length limitations on the soft lithography approach. In this paper, the wetting of a chemically heterogeneous surface is studied using a nonlocal Density Functional Theory (DFT). The results for the heterogeneous surface model we discuss have immediate implications for soft-lithography by self-assembly. It also lends fundamental insight into the mechanisms controlling self-assembly of macromolecules. We present the results of nonlocal 2D DFT calculations on the wetting properties of chemically heterogeneous surfaces. These calculations showed complex density distributions and phase behavior as a result of the heterogeneity. The location of the wetting transition are found to be strongly dependent on the extent and strength of the heterogeneity, and complete wetting was suppressed altogether if the hydrophobic parts of the surface were large enough. In these cases, the condensed nanophase may crystallize if the hydrophilic surface-fluid interactions are strong enough. By exploring the phase space including strength of hydrophilic interactions and extent of chemical

  11. Methodological studies on the VVER-440 control assembly calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraczy, C.

    1995-12-31

    The control assembly regions of VVER-440 reactors are represented by 2-group albedo matrices in the global calculations of the KARATE code system. Some methodological aspects of calculating albedo matrices with the COLA transport code are presented. Illustrations are given how these matrices depend on the relevant parameters describing the boron steel and steel regions of the control assemblies. The calculation of the response matrix for a node consisting of two parts filled with different materials is discussed.

  12. LMFBR fuel assembly design for HCDA fuel dispersal

    DOEpatents

    Lacko, Robert E.; Tilbrook, Roger W.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel assembly for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor having an upper axial blanket region disposed in a plurality of zones within the fuel assembly. The characterization of a zone is dependent on the height of the axial blanket region with respect to the active fuel region. The net effect of having a plurality of zones is to establish a dispersal flow path for the molten materials resulting during a core meltdown accident. Upward flowing molten material can escape from the core region and/or fuel assembly without solidifying on the surface of fuel rods due to the heat sink represented by blanket region pellets.

  13. Engineering β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiling; Liu, Menghua; Ye, Ling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen; Liu, Shuwen

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.

  14. Multi-metal oxide ceramic nanomaterial

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Stephen; Liu, Shuangyi; Huang, Limin

    2016-06-07

    A convenient and versatile method for preparing complex metal oxides is disclosed. The method uses a low temperature, environmentally friendly gel-collection method to form a single phase nanomaterial. In one embodiment, the nanomaterial consists of Ba.sub.AMn.sub.BTi.sub.CO.sub.D in a controlled stoichiometry.

  15. Reconfigurable assemblies of shape-changing nanorods.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trung Dac; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2010-05-25

    Reconfigurable nanostructures represent an exciting new direction for materials. Applications of reversible transformations between nanostructures induced by molecular conformations under external fields can be found in a broad range of advanced technologies including smart materials, electromagnetic sensors, and drug delivery. With recent breakthroughs in synthesis and fabrication techniques, shape-changing nanoparticles are now possible. Such novel building blocks provide a conceptually new and exciting approach to self-assembly and phase transformations by providing tunable parameters fundamentally different from the usual thermodynamic parameters. Here we investigate via molecular simulation a transformation between two thermodynamically stable structures self-assembled by laterally tethered nanorods whose rod length is switched between two values. Building blocks with longer rods assemble into a square grid structure, while those with short rods form bilayer sheets with internal smectic A ordering at the same thermodynamic conditions. By shortening or lengthening the rods over a short time scale relative to the system equilibration time, we observe a transformation from the square grid structure into bilayer sheets, and vice versa. We also observe honeycomb grid and pentagonal grid structures for intermediate rod lengths. The reconfiguration between morphologically distinct nanostructures induced by dynamically switching the building block shape serves to motivate the fabrication of shape-changing nanoscale building blocks as a new approach to the self-assembly of reconfigurable materials.

  16. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  17. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  18. Turbine seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  19. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  20. Desmosome assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nekrasova, Oxana; Green, Kathleen J

    2013-11-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that anchor intermediate filaments (IFs) to the plasma membrane, forming a supracellular scaffold that provides mechanical resilience to tissues. This anchoring function is accomplished by specialized members of the cadherin family and associated cytoskeletal linking proteins, which together form a highly organized membrane core flanked by mirror-image cytoplasmic plaques. Due to the biochemical insolubility of desmosomes, the mechanisms that govern assembly of these components into a functional organelle remained elusive. Recently developed molecular reporters and live cell imaging approaches have provided powerful new tools to monitor this finely tuned process in real time. Here we discuss studies that are beginning to decipher the machinery and regulation governing desmosome assembly and homeostasis in situ and how these mechanisms are affected during disease pathogenesis.

  1. Low inductance busbar assembly

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann

    2010-09-21

    A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

  2. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  3. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  4. Fuel nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  5. Commutating Feed Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AD-AOBS 567 ITT GILFILLAN VAN NUYS CA F/6 17/9 CONF4UTATING FEED ASSEMBLY. 1W DEC 79 R WOL.FSON F19628-79-C-OOSS UNCLASSIFIED RADC -TR79303 NI. 1i.ll...INTRODUCTION 9 2 COMMUTATING FEED ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS 10 . 3 TECHNICAL PROBLEMS 11 1: 3.1 System Design 12 3.1.1 Radius of Circular Array 12 3.1.2 Design...Support Structure 16 3.3 Annular Rotary Coupler 16 3.4 Stripline Feed Network 17 w V.3.4.1 Range of Coupling Values vs. Percent Power into Load 17 3.4.2

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) flight article assembly with multilayer insulation, high gain anterna, and solar arrays in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  8. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  9. Compressor diaphragm assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Scalzo, A.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes, in a combustion turbine having a casing, one or more slots of a first predetermined cross-section formed circumferentially within the casing at a compressor portion of the turbine, and a compressor diaphragm assembly adapted to be suspended from each of the one or more slots to provide a labyrinth seal with a plurality of compressor discs, a method of forming each compressor diaphragm assembly. It comprises: providing a plurality of vane airfoils each of which have an inner shroud formed integrally with the vane airfoil, and an outer portion attached to the vane airfoil; providing outer ring means for suspending each of the plurality of van airfoils at a stagger angle; suspending the plurality of vane airfoils from the outer ring means, thereby disposing each the vane airfoil and its respective outer portion at the stagger angle; and providing seal carrier means for engagement with each the inner shroud.

  10. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  11. Vacuum breaker valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Jeffrey L.; Upton, Hubert Allen

    1999-04-27

    Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening.

  12. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wierzbicki, Julian J.; Chakrabarti, Kirti B.

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  13. Composite airfoil assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  14. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  15. REACTOR NOZZLE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Capuder, F.C.; Dearwater, J.R.

    1959-02-10

    An improved nozzle assembly useful in a process for the direct reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride by means of dissociated ammonia in a heated reaction vessel is descrlbed. The nozzle design provides for intimate mixing of the two reactants and at the same time furnishes a layer of dissociated ammonia adjacent to the interior wall of the reaction vessel, thus preventing build-up of the reaction product on the vessel wall.

  16. Printed wiring assembly cleanliness

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This work installed a product cleanliness test capability in a manufacturing environment. A previously purchased testing device was modified extensively and installed in a production department. The device, the testing process, and some soldering and cleaning variables were characterized to establish their relationship to the device output. The characterization provided information which will be required for cleanliness testing to be an adequate process control of printed wiring assembly soldering and cleaning processes.

  17. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  18. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  19. Magnetic control assembly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickler, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Results are summarized of the qualification level vibration tests performed on the magnet control assembly (MCA) for Nimbus and ERTS satellites. The MCA electronics and probe units have demonstrated the capability to survive qualification sinusoidal and random vibration levels. The functional testing indicated normal operation of the units after each axis of vibration. Visual inspection indicated no evidence of degradation. Post vibration acceptance testing verified normal operation of the MCA.

  20. Combustor liner support assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A support assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor includes an annular frame having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons, and an annular combustor liner disposed coaxially with the frame and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons circumferentially adjoining respective ones of the frame tenons for radially and tangentially supporting the liner to the frame while allowing unrestrained differential thermal radial movement therebetween.

  1. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  2. OH Module Assembly Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-16

    There is an OR module assembly stand in use at IB4. This design has been approved by safety, as presented by Mike Foley, and has been successfully used. Another one is needed at the D-zero assembly building, but some modifications need to be made. This report will show that the new modified design is at least as strong, if not stronger, than the older IB4 design in every aspect. Since the weight distribution of the OR modules on the sling is indeterminate, this report compares three cases of support for the entire assembly: the lowest two beams only, the lowest four beams only, and all six beams. In each of these cases, the new design is stronger than the old design in maximum allowable weight. The ability of the the cradle to support the weight is also shown. For all of the failure conditions except for two, the cradle is stronger than the beams that it supports. In the two excepted situations, the calculated limit of the cradle is less than the beams it supports. This is because no credit is taken for the sling and strongback, which in reality will relieve much of the horizontal load.

  3. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  4. Pathfinder aircraft being assembled - wing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Technicians easily lift a 20-foot-long wing section during assembly of the Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. A number of upgrades were made to the unique aircraft prior to its successful checkout flight Nov. 19, 1996, among them the installation of stronger ultra-light wing ribs made of composite materials on two of the five wing panels. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  5. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  6. Nuclear core and fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Downs, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    A fast flux nuclear core of a plurality of rodded, open-lattice assemblies having a rod pattern rotated relative to a rod support structure pattern. Elongated fuel rods are oriented on a triangular array and laterally supported by grid structures positioned along the length of the assembly. Initial inter-assembly contact is through strongbacks at the corners of the support pattern and peripheral fuel rods between adjacent assemblies are nested so as to maintain a triangular pitch across a clearance gap between the other portions of adjacent assemblies. The rod pattern is rotated relative to the strongback support pattern by an angle .alpha. equal to sin .sup.-1 (p/2c), where p is the intra-assembly rod pitch and c is the center-to-center spacing among adjacent assemblies.

  7. Improving ancient DNA genome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Nieselt, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Most reconstruction methods for genomes of ancient origin that are used today require a closely related reference. In order to identify genomic rearrangements or the deletion of whole genes, de novo assembly has to be used. However, because of inherent problems with ancient DNA, its de novo assembly is highly complicated. In order to tackle the diversity in the length of the input reads, we propose a two-layer approach, where multiple assemblies are generated in the first layer, which are then combined in the second layer. We used this two-layer assembly to generate assemblies for two different ancient samples and compared the results to current de novo assembly approaches. We are able to improve the assembly with respect to the length of the contigs and can resolve more repetitive regions. PMID:28392981

  8. 37 CFR 3.61 - Domestic representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic representative. 3.61... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Domestic Representative § 3.61 Domestic... is not domiciled in the United States, the assignee may designate a domestic representative in...

  9. 37 CFR 3.61 - Domestic representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic representative. 3.61... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Domestic Representative § 3.61 Domestic... is not domiciled in the United States, the assignee may designate a domestic representative in...

  10. 50 CFR 1.2 - Authorized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.2 Authorized representative. Authorized representative means the subordinate... matters. The Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is frequently the authorized representative of...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.612 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1220.612 Section 1220.612... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.612 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to section 1970 of the Act. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.20 Representative period. The term representative period means the 2006 calendar year. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.611 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1280.611 Section 1280.611... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.611 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to § 518 of the Act. ...

  14. 29 CFR 548.405 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative period. 548.405 Section 548.405 Labor... Application § 548.405 Representative period. (a) The application must set forth the facts relied upon to show... employee exclusive of overtime premiums over a representative period of time. 21 The basic rate will be...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.618 - Representative period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1230.618 Section 1230.618... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.618 Representative period. The term Representative period means the 12-consecutive months prior to the first day of absentee and...

  16. 24 CFR 26.7 - Respondent's representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Respondent's representative. 26.7 Section 26.7 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Respondent's representative. The party against whom the administrative action is taken may be represented at...

  17. 22 CFR 901.22 - Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Representative. 901.22 Section 901.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.22 Representative. Representative means the person(s) identified in writing to the Board as assisting the party or...

  18. 22 CFR 901.22 - Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Representative. 901.22 Section 901.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.22 Representative. Representative means the person(s) identified in writing to the Board as assisting the party or...

  19. 22 CFR 901.22 - Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Representative. 901.22 Section 901.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.22 Representative. Representative means the person(s) identified in writing to the Board as assisting the party or...

  20. 22 CFR 901.22 - Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Representative. 901.22 Section 901.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.22 Representative. Representative means the person(s) identified in writing to the Board as assisting the party or...

  1. 22 CFR 901.22 - Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Representative. 901.22 Section 901.22 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.22 Representative. Representative means the person(s) identified in writing to the Board as assisting the party or...

  2. Single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture enable de novo reference assembly of the domestic goat genome.

    PubMed

    Bickhart, Derek M; Rosen, Benjamin D; Koren, Sergey; Sayre, Brian L; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Lee, Joyce; Lam, Ernest T; Liachko, Ivan; Sullivan, Shawn T; Burton, Joshua N; Huson, Heather J; Nystrom, John C; Kelley, Christy M; Hutchison, Jana L; Zhou, Yang; Sun, Jiajie; Crisà, Alessandra; Ponce de León, F Abel; Schwartz, John C; Hammond, John A; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Schroeder, Steven G; Liu, George E; Dunham, Maitreya J; Shendure, Jay; Sonstegard, Tad S; Phillippy, Adam M; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Smith, Timothy P L

    2017-04-01

    The decrease in sequencing cost and increased sophistication of assembly algorithms for short-read platforms has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of species with genome assemblies. However, these assemblies are highly fragmented, with many gaps, ambiguities, and errors, impeding downstream applications. We demonstrate current state of the art for de novo assembly using the domestic goat (Capra hircus) based on long reads for contig formation, short reads for consensus validation, and scaffolding by optical and chromatin interaction mapping. These combined technologies produced what is, to our knowledge, the most continuous de novo mammalian assembly to date, with chromosome-length scaffolds and only 649 gaps. Our assembly represents a ∼400-fold improvement in continuity due to properly assembled gaps, compared to the previously published C. hircus assembly, and better resolves repetitive structures longer than 1 kb, representing the largest repeat family and immune gene complex yet produced for an individual of a ruminant species.

  3. Auxiliary air injector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, R.L.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes an auxiliary air injector assembly kit for replacement use to connect a secondary air line from an engine air pump to an exhaust pipe in a variety of combustion engine exhaust systems. The exhaust pipe has an auxiliary air receiving hole formed in a wall thereof. The assembly comprises a flexible conduit adapted to be readily cut to length and connected at one end to the secondary air line, a metal tube, means for connecting a first end of the metal tube to the other end of the flexible conduit, and a hollow fitting with an air flow-through passage and having a conical portion adapted to fit in the hole in a leak resistant manner. The fitting has a bearing portion with a convex spherical surface located outside the exhaust pipe when the conical portion is in the hole. A second end of the metal tube has a flange with a concave spherical surface to seat against the convex spherical surface in a leak resistant manner. A clamp means connects the metal tube to the exhaust pipe and applies pressure on the metal tube flange against the bearing portion of the fitting to hold the fitting in the hole. The clamp means includes a saddle having an opening larger than the tube but smaller than the tube flange. The tube extends through the saddle opening. The clamp means also includes a U-bolt assembly for extending around the exhaust pipe and forcing the saddle against the tube flange and toward the exhaust pipe.

  4. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  5. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  6. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  7. Divided electrochemical cell assembly

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ch. J. H.

    1985-02-19

    A divided electrochemical cell assembly comprises stacked bipolar substantially square parallel planar electrodes and membranes. The corners and edges of the electrodes with bordering insulative spacers in juxtaposition with the chamber walls define four electrolyte circulation manifolds. Anolyte and catholyte channeling means permit the separate introduction of anolyte and catholyte into two of the manifolds and the withdrawal of anolyte and catholyte separately from at least two other manifolds. The electrodes and membranes are separated from one another by the insulative spacers which are also channeling means disposed to provide electrolyte channels across the interfaces of adjacent electrodes and membranes.

  8. Seeing Circuits Assemble

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Jeff W.; Smith, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental neurobiology has been greatly invigorated by a recent string of breakthroughs in molecular biology and optical physics that permit direct in vivo observation of neural circuit assembly. The imaging done thus far suggests that as brains are built, a significant amount of unbuilding is also occurring. We offer the view that this tumult is the result of the intersecting behaviors of the many single-celled creatures (i.e., neurons, glia, and progenitors) that inhabit brains. New tools will certainly be needed if we wish to monitor the myriad cooperative and competitive interactions at play in the cellular society that builds brains. PMID:18995818

  9. Mars aerobrake assembly simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.; Lee, Gordon K. F.; Garvey, John

    1992-01-01

    On-orbit assembly operation simulations in neutral buoyancy conditions are presently undertaken by a partial/full-scale Mars mission aerobrake mockup, whose design, conducted in the framework of an engineering senior students' design project, involved several levels of constraints for critical physical and operational features. Allowances had to be made for the auxiliary constraints introduced by underwater testing, as well as the subsegmenting required for overland shipment to the neutral-buoyancy testing facility. This mockup aerobrake's fidelity is determined by the numerous, competing design objectives.

  10. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  11. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.

    1994-01-01

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

  12. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

    2014-10-21

    The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play

  13. Self-assembly drugs: from micelles to nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Messina, Paula V; Besada-Porto, Jose Miguel; Ruso, Juan M

    2014-03-01

    Self-assembly has fascinated many scientists over the past few decades. Rapid advances and widespread interest in the study of this subject has led to the synthesis of an ever-increasing number of elegant and intricate functional structures with sizes that approach nano- and mesoscopic dimensions. Today, it has grown into a mature field of modern science whose interfaces with many disciplines have provided invaluable opportunities for crossing boundaries for scientists seeking to design novel molecular materials exhibiting unusual properties, and for researchers investigating the structure and function of biomolecules. Consequently, self-assembly transcends the traditional divisional boundaries of science and represents a highly interdisciplinary field including nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Basically, self-assembly focuses on a wide range of discrete molecules or molecular assemblies and uses physical transformations to achieve its goals. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the advances in the field of drug self-assembly and discuss in detail the synthesis, self-assembly behavior, and physical properties as well as applications. We refer the reader to past reviews dealing with colloidal molecules and colloidal self-assembly. In the first part, we will discuss, compare, and link the various bioinformatic procedures: Molecular Dynamics and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship. The second section deals with the self-assembly behavior in more detail, in which we focus on several experimental techniques, selected according to the depth of knowledge obtained. The last part will review the advances in drug-protein assembly. Nature provides many examples of proteins that form their substrate binding sites by bringing together the component pieces in a process of self-assembly. We will focus in the understanding of physical properties and applications developing thereof.

  14. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  15. Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.

  16. Intermediate Filaments: Structure and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli

    2016-11-01

    Proteins of the intermediate filament (IF) supergene family are ubiquitous structural components that comprise, in a cell type-specific manner, the cytoskeleton proper in animal tissues. All IF proteins show a distinctly organized, extended α-helical conformation prone to form two-stranded coiled coils, which are the basic building blocks of these highly flexible, stress-resistant cytoskeletal filaments. IF proteins are highly charged, thus representing versatile polyampholytes with multiple functions. Taking vimentin, keratins, and the nuclear lamins as our prime examples, we present an overview of their molecular and structural parameters. These, in turn, document the ability of IF proteins to form distinct, highly diverse supramolecular assemblies and biomaterials found, for example, at the inner nuclear membrane, throughout the cytoplasm, and in highly complex extracellular appendages, such as hair and nails, of vertebrate organisms. Ultimately, our aim is to set the stage for a more rational understanding of the immediate effects that missense mutations in IF genes have on cellular functions and for their far-reaching impact on the development of the numerous IF diseases caused by them.

  17. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture.

  18. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, J.E.

    1988-04-26

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture. 2 figs.

  19. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  20. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  1. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  2. Two speed axle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.F.; Krisher, J.A.; Pifer, R.L.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a two speed axle assembly comprising an input sun gear, an output sun gear, a plant carrier mounted for rotation about the input and output sun gears, at least one compound planetary gear rotatably mounted on the planet carrier and drivingly connected to the input sun gear and the output sun gear, first clutch means for selectively locking the planet carrier relative to the input sun gear for rotation therewith including means normally loading the first clutch means whereby the planet carrier rotates the input sun gear, second clutch means for alternatively locking the planet carrier against rotation whereby the compound planet gear rotates on the planet carrier in response to rotation of the input sun gear, and inflatable bladder means adapted when selectively inflated to load the second clutch means and simultaneously unload the normally loaded first clutch means whereby the planet carrier is unlocked relative to the input sun gear and locked against rotation, including means selectively supplying hydraulic fluid under pressure to the bladder means, means supplying hydraulic fluid comprising accumulator means, pump means remote from the axle assembly for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid and maintaining a supply of the fluid under at least a minimum pressure in the accumulator means, and valve means for selectively admitting the pressurized fluid from the accumulator means to the bladder means to inflate the bladder means and relieving the pressure to deflate the bladder means.

  3. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  4. Solar panel mounting assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.E.

    1990-01-02

    This patent describes a mounting assembly for pivotally connecting a solar panel or collector to a base. The mounting assembly comprising: a frame whereupon the solar panel or collector can be mounted; a first plate connected to the frame, the plate having a pivot hole and a plurality of angle displacement holes each being equidistant from the pivot hole; a second plate connected to the base and situated substantially parallel to the first plate. The second plate having a pivot hole and an angle displacement hole being situated substantially the same distance apart from the second plate pivot hole as the distance between the pivot and displacement holes of the first plate; a pivot shaft received through the plate pivot hole and the second plate pivot hole whereby the frame and first plate can pivot with respect to the second plate and the base; an angle displacement shaft selectively received through the second plate angle displacement hole and any one of the first plate angle displacement holes whereby the frame and first plate can be selectively angularly fixed with respect to the second plate and the base; a U-member having two legs, the second plate being connected to the U-member; and, a selectively rotable shaft.

  5. An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Talkington, Megan W T; Siuzdak, Gary; Williamson, James R

    2005-12-01

    Self-assembling macromolecular machines drive fundamental cellular processes, including transcription, messenger RNA processing, translation, DNA replication and cellular transport. The ribosome, which carries out protein synthesis, is one such machine, and the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome is the preeminent model system for biophysical analysis of large RNA-protein complexes. Our understanding of 30S assembly is incomplete, owing to the challenges of monitoring the association of many components simultaneously. Here we have developed a method involving pulse-chase monitored by quantitative mass spectrometry (PC/QMS) to follow the assembly of the 20 ribosomal proteins with 16S ribosomal RNA during formation of the functional particle. These data represent a detailed and quantitative kinetic characterization of the assembly of a large multicomponent macromolecular complex. By measuring the protein binding rates at a range of temperatures, we find that local transformations throughout the assembling subunit have similar but distinct activation energies. Thus, the prevailing view of 30S assembly as a pathway proceeding through a global rate-limiting conformational change must give way to one in which the assembly of the complex traverses a landscape dotted with various local conformational transitions.

  6. An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, Megan W. T.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Self-assembling macromolecular machines drive fundamental cellular processes, including transcription, mRNA processing, translation, DNA replication, and cellular transport. The ribosome, which carries out protein synthesis, is one such machine, and the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome is the preeminent model system for biophysical analysis of large RNA-protein complexes. Our understanding of 30S assembly is incomplete, due to the challenges of monitoring the association of many components simultaneously. We have developed a new method involving pulse-chase monitored by quantitative mass spectrometry (PC/QMS) to follow the assembly of the 20 ribosomal proteins with 16S rRNA during formation of the functional particle. These data represent the first detailed and quantitative kinetic characterization of the assembly of a large multicomponent macromolecular complex. By measuring the protein binding rates at a range of temperatures, we have found that local transformations throughout the assembling subunit have similar but distinct activation energies. This observation shows that the prevailing view of 30S assembly as a pathway proceeding through a global rate-limiting conformational change must give way to a view in which the assembly of the complex traverses a landscape dotted with a variety of local conformational transitions. PMID:16319883

  7. A framework for geometric reasoning about tools in assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    When assembling a product, humans, robots, and other automation employ a variety of tools to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper proposes a framework lo represent and reason about geometric accessibility constraints for a wide variety of assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, we present more efficient methods lo integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method preprocesses a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. We describe experiments with an initial implementation of the framework and a library of seven tools.

  8. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Neeraja M.; Jain, Prachi; Gupta, Saurabh; Hariharan, Arun K.; Panda, Binay

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0) yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0). The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome. PMID:27172223

  9. 14 CFR 1274.906 - Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Designation of New Technology Representative... Conditions § 1274.906 Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative. Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative July 2002 (a) For purposes of administration...

  10. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine.

  11. Integrated automation for manufacturing of electronic assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampite, T. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Since 1985, the Naval Ocean Systems Center has been identifying and developing needed technology for flexible manufacturing of hybrid microelectronic assemblies. Specific projects have been accomplished through contracts with manufacturing companies, equipment suppliers, and joint efforts with other government agencies. The resulting technology has been shared through semi-annual meetings with government, industry, and academic representatives who form an ad hoc advisory panel. More than 70 major technical capabilities have been identified for which new development is needed. Several of these developments have been completed and are being shared with industry.

  12. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  13. Cooperative effects of fibronectin matrix assembly and initial cell-substrate adhesion strength in cellular self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Brennan, James R; Hocking, Denise C

    2016-03-01

    The cell-dependent polymerization of intercellular fibronectin fibrils can stimulate cells to self-assemble into multicellular structures. The local physical cues that support fibronectin-mediated cellular self-assembly are largely unknown. Here, fibronectin matrix analogs were used as synthetic adhesive substrates to model cell-matrix fibronectin fibrils having different integrin-binding specificity, affinity, and/or density. We utilized this model to quantitatively assess the relationship between adhesive forces derived from cell-substrate interactions and the ability of fibronectin fibril assembly to induce cellular self-assembly. Results indicate that the strength of initial, rather than mature, cell-substrate attachments correlates with the ability of substrates to support fibronectin-mediated cellular self-assembly. The cellular response to soluble fibronectin was bimodal and independent of the integrin-binding specificity of the substrate; increasing soluble fibronectin levels above a critical threshold increased aggregate cohesion on permissive substrates. Once aggregates formed, continuous fibronectin polymerization was necessary to maintain cohesion. During self-assembly, soluble fibronectin decreased cell-substrate adhesion strength and induced aggregate cohesion via a Rho-dependent mechanism, suggesting that the balance of contractile forces derived from fibronectin fibrils within cell-cell versus cell-substrate adhesions controls self-assembly and aggregate cohesion. Thus, initial cell-substrate attachment strength may provide a quantitative basis with which to build predictive models of fibronectin-mediated microtissue fabrication on a variety of substrates. Cellular self-assembly is a process by which cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins spontaneously organize into three-dimensional (3D) tissues in the absence of external forces. Cellular self-assembly can be initiated in vitro, and represents a potential tool for tissue engineers to

  14. Wave propagation in equivalent continuums representing truss lattice materials

    SciTech Connect

    Messner, Mark C.; Barham, Matthew I.; Kumar, Mukul; Barton, Nathan R.

    2015-07-29

    Stiffness scales linearly with density in stretch-dominated lattice meta-materials offering the possibility of very light yet very stiff structures. Current additive manufacturing techniques can assemble structures consisting of these lattice materials, but the design of such structures will require accurate, efficient simulation techniques. Equivalent continuum models have several advantages over discrete truss models of stretch dominated lattices, including computational efficiency and ease of model construction. However, the development an equivalent model suitable for representing the dynamic response of a periodic truss is complicated by microinertial effects. This paper derives a dynamic equivalent continuum model for periodic truss structures and verifies it against detailed finite element simulations. The model must incorporate microinertial effects to accurately reproduce long-wavelength characteristics of the response such as anisotropic elastic soundspeeds. The formulation presented here also improves upon previous work by preserving equilibrium at truss joints for affine lattice deformation and by improving numerical stability by eliminating vertices in the effective yield surface.

  15. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  16. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  17. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  18. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

  19. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1997-06-03

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.

  20. Multi-position photovoltaic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-03-18

    The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

  1. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-02

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  2. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Dawson, Richard Nils; Qu, Ronghai; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  3. Clean then Assemble Versus Assemble then Clean: Several Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    Cleanliness of manufactured parts and assemblies is a significant issue in many industries including disk drives, semiconductors, aerospace, and medical devices. Clean manufacturing requires cleanroom floor space and cleaning technology that are both expensive to own and expensive to operate. Strategies to reduce these costs are an important consideration. One strategy shown to be effective at reducing costs is to assemble parts into subassemblies and then clean the subassembly, rather than clean the individual parts first and then assemble them. One advantage is that assembly outside of the cleanroom reduces the amount of cleanroom floor space and its associated operating cost premium. A second advantage is that this strategy reduces the number of individual parts that must be cleaned prior to assembly, reducing the number of cleaning baskets, handling and, possibly, reducing the number of cleaners. The assemble then clean strategy also results in a part that is significantly cleaner because contamination generated during the assembly steps are more effectively removed that normally can be achieved by hand wiping after assembly in the cleanroom.

  4. Tokarev assembles the RadioSkaf antenna during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-24

    ISS012-E-17050 (24 Jan. 2006) --- Cosmonaut Valery I. Tokarev, Expedition 12 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, assembles the antenna kit for the Radioskaf (SuitSat) payload in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station.

  5. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Youngsuk; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Jessee, Matthew A.; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2015-08-14

    While the accuracy of assembly calculations has greatly improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This paper extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Finally, numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.

  6. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Youngsuk; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Jessee, Matthew A.; ...

    2015-08-14

    While the accuracy of assembly calculations has greatly improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the usemore » of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This paper extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Finally, numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.« less

  7. Acquisition of Human Expertise in Robotic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sawaragi, Tetsuo; Tian, Yajie; Horiguchi, Yukio

    Robots must be presently taught by human workers to execute given manufacturing tasks. The current problem is that the task of teaching robots is rather time-consuming, especially within the robotic assembly domain. This problem is caused by insufficient accumulation of human expertise that should be reused in this domain. Therefore, a knowledge-intensive method for acquiring human expertise is proposed in this paper. Our method is able to acquire human expertise in the robotic assembly domain by observing robot-teaching demonstrations of human experts. What distinguishes our method from others is that there are two modes of learning: 1. learning from an example directly given by human workers, and 2. learning expertise on error recovery by observing revisions made by human workers in handling execution errors that occur in reusing previously acquired knowledge. The acquired human expertise is required to be represented in a way that satisfies two requirements. The first one is operability so that the representation is easy to transform into robot programs (commands & parameters). The second one is understandability so that the representation is easy for human workers to understand the robot program. A specific robot assembly example is given to illustrate the proposed method.

  8. Rotatable seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Garibaldi, Jack L.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  9. Assembling a COMPASS

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Jean-Francois; Skiniotis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of histone proteins lie at the heart of the epigenetic landscape in the cell’s nucleus and the precise regulation of gene expression. A myriad of studies have showed that several histone-modifying enzymes are controlled by modulatory protein partner subunits and other post-transcriptional modifications deposited in the vicinity of the targeted site. All together, these mechanisms create an intricate network of interactions that regulate enzymatic activities and ultimately control the site-specific deposition of covalent modifications. In this Point-of-View, we discuss our evolving understanding on the assembly and architecture of histone H3 Lys-4 (H3K4) methyltransferase COMPASS complexes and the techniques that progressively allowed us to better define the molecular basis of complex formation and function. We further briefly discuss some of the challenges lying ahead and additional approaches required to understand mechanistic details for the function of such complexes. PMID:23470558

  10. Gas gun assembly

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.N.

    1983-10-11

    A gas gun assembly, for measuring depths of reflectors in a well bore, includes a housing having a central chamber and bottom bulkhead through which a first valve bore extends. Coupling structure is provided to connect the housing to the well. A cap closure for the chamber has a second valve bore therethrough of diameter larger than the diameter of the first valve bore and is located in axial alignment with the first valve bore. A valve stem has one end axially movable within the second valve bore while closing the same and the other end movable into and out of the first valve bore. A predetermined pressure condition is established across the bulkhead. The valve stem is then released for rapid equalization of pressure across the bulkhead to produce an acoustic pulse in the well bore.

  11. HDEV Flight Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-07

    View of the High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) flight assembly installed on the exterior of the Columbus European Laboratory module. Image was released by astronaut on Twitter. The High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) experiment places four commercially available HD cameras on the exterior of the space station and uses them to stream live video of Earth for viewing online. The cameras are enclosed in a temperature specific housing and are exposed to the harsh radiation of space. Analysis of the effect of space on the video quality, over the time HDEV is operational, may help engineers decide which cameras are the best types to use on future missions. High school students helped design some of the cameras' components, through the High Schools United with NASA to Create Hardware (HUNCH) program, and student teams operate the experiment.

  12. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  13. Solar radiation assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, S.D.

    1987-04-21

    A Solar transmission system is described comprising at least one radiation permeable assembly. A light aperture is adapted to be mounted in the envelope of a building. The light aperture has at least one layer of first glazing forming part of the building envelope. A generally rectangular frame is supported on the building and around an outer side of the aperture. A layer of second glazing comprises an outer facing of the frame. Ventilation means at the top and bottom of the frame, includes means for enabling air flow through the frame, and includes means for inhibiting rain from entering the frame. Support means connectible between the frame and the building, enable the frame to be moved away from the building, whereby the glazing of the light aperture may be made accessible.

  14. Camshaft assembly and method

    SciTech Connect

    Madaffer, A.J.

    1986-07-01

    A method is described of manufacturing a camshaft assembly for internal combustion engines and the like. The method includes the steps of: providing cam and journal elements, the elements each including an axial opening, securing the elements in predetermined fixed orientation and spacing with the openings aligned on a common axis, inserting a hollow tube into the elements, in close fitting relation with openings, and expanding the hollow tube into mechanical interference engagement with all the element openings to secure the elements permanently onto the tube in the predetermined orientation while forming within the tube a uniform smooth sided interior cross-sectional configuration by forcing through the tube an element sufficiently larger than the tube inner diameter to outwardly deform the tube wall in the required degree.

  15. Turbine vane plate assembly

    DOEpatents

    Schiavo Jr., Anthony L.

    2006-01-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes a turbine vane having first and second shrouds with an elongated airfoil extending between. Each end of the airfoil transitions into a shroud at a respective junction. Each of the shrouds has a plurality of cooling passages, and the airfoil has a plurality of cooling passages extending between the first and second shrouds. A substantially flat inner plate and an outer plate are coupled to each of the first and second shrouds so as to form inner and outer plenums. Each inner plenum is defined between at least the junction and the substantially flat inner plate; each outer plenum is defined between at least the substantially flat inner plate and the outer plate. Each inner plenum is in fluid communication with a respective outer plenum through at least one of the cooling passages in the respective shroud.

  16. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  17. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  18. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J.; Oltmans, Bret; Allison, John E.; Heater, Thomas J.; Hines, Joy Adair; Tappen, Grant K.; Peiskammer, Dietmar

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  19. Energy storing flywheel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Vestermark, L. A.

    1985-08-06

    An energy storing flywheel assembly in which first and second reels are operatively connected by a flexible band, with the first and second reels capable of being rotated by first and second electric motors, and the second reel that can rotate either clockwise or counter clockwise through a clutch mechanism driving a flywheel. The flywheel that stores rotational energy is free to rotate independently of the second reel in a clockwise direction except when it is eccelerated to a predetermined maximum rate by the second reel. Acceleration of the flywheel occurs as the first motor drives the first reel at a constant rate to wind the band thereon. After the flywheel has reached the desired maximum rate of rotation the second reel is rotated to rewind the band thereon. Upon the rate of rotation of the flywheel decreasing to a predetermined minimum the above described operation is repeated.

  20. Hygrothermal Anaylsis of Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a one-dimensional hygrothermal model to investigate the moisture performance of 10 residential wood-frame wall assemblies in a representative mixed-humid climate location of Baltimore, Maryland (climate zone 4A). All the assemblies include oriented strandboard (OSB) sheathing and vinyl siding. The walls differ in stud cavity thickness, level of cavity...

  1. 28 CFR 104.4 - Personal Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personal Representative. 104.4 Section 104.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 General; Eligibility § 104.4 Personal Representative. (a) In general. The...

  2. 28 CFR 104.4 - Personal Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal Representative. 104.4 Section 104.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 General; Eligibility § 104.4 Personal Representative. (a) In general. The...

  3. 45 CFR 2400.11 - Faculty representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Faculty representatives. 2400.11 Section 2400.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Application § 2400.11 Faculty representatives. Each college and...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.11 - Faculty representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Faculty representatives. 2400.11 Section 2400.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Application § 2400.11 Faculty representatives. Each college and...

  5. 5 CFR 551.704 - Claimant's representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claimant's representative. 551.704 Section 551.704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT FLSA Claims and Compliance § 551.704 Claimant's representative...

  6. Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

  7. The Moral Distinctiveness of Representative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kateb, George

    The paper investigates the qualities which distinguish representative democracies from other forms of government, particularly direct democracies, dictatorships, and oligarchies. Representative democracy is based on the precept that political authority should be located in offices which are specified by a popularly ratified or accepted…

  8. 22 CFR 223.5 - Agency representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agency representative. 223.5 Section 223.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.5 Agency representative. The General Counsel shall appoint an...

  9. 22 CFR 223.5 - Agency representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agency representative. 223.5 Section 223.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.5 Agency representative. The General Counsel shall appoint an...

  10. 22 CFR 223.5 - Agency representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agency representative. 223.5 Section 223.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.5 Agency representative. The General Counsel shall appoint an...

  11. 22 CFR 223.5 - Agency representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agency representative. 223.5 Section 223.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.5 Agency representative. The General Counsel shall appoint an...

  12. 22 CFR 223.5 - Agency representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agency representative. 223.5 Section 223.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.5 Agency representative. The General Counsel shall appoint an...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.11 - Faculty representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Faculty representatives. 2400.11 Section 2400.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Application § 2400.11 Faculty representatives. Each college and...

  14. 45 CFR 2400.11 - Faculty representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Faculty representatives. 2400.11 Section 2400.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Application § 2400.11 Faculty representatives. Each college and...

  15. 45 CFR 2400.11 - Faculty representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Faculty representatives. 2400.11 Section 2400.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Application § 2400.11 Faculty representatives. Each college and...

  16. Representing Animal-Others in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Gail J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper encourages environmental and humane education scholars to consider the ethical implications of how nonhuman animals are represented in research. I argue that research representations of animals can work to either break down processes of "othering," or reinforce them. I explore various options for representing other animals, including…

  17. 45 CFR 1801.14 - Faculty Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.14 Faculty Representative. (a) Each institution... Representative to establish a process to publicize the scholarship, recruit candidates, select nominees, and...

  18. 45 CFR 1801.14 - Faculty Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.14 Faculty Representative. (a) Each institution... Representative to establish a process to publicize the scholarship, recruit candidates, select nominees, and...

  19. 45 CFR 1801.14 - Faculty Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.14 Faculty Representative. (a) Each institution... Representative to establish a process to publicize the scholarship, recruit candidates, select nominees, and...

  20. 45 CFR 1801.14 - Faculty Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.14 Faculty Representative. (a) Each institution... Representative to establish a process to publicize the scholarship, recruit candidates, select nominees, and...

  1. 45 CFR 1801.14 - Faculty Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.14 Faculty Representative. (a) Each institution... Representative to establish a process to publicize the scholarship, recruit candidates, select nominees, and...

  2. Quantifying Representativeness Importance Values for AmeriFlux Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2005-12-01

    We are using a multivariate statistical clustering analysis to determine how well the current distribution of sites in the AmeriFlux network is representative of the dominant combinations of vegetation, soils, and climate which are present in the conterminous US. Statistical indices based on multivariate representativeness and site importance indicate how well the current network of towers "samples" the population of flux environments within the nation. The same empirical approach provides a repeatable rationale for the selection of additional flux tower sites by determining any number of additional locations such that the representation of the overall network is maximized by their addition. A representativeness importance value for each existing eddy covariance tower to the AmeriFlux network can be calculated. We have statistically created a series of nine sets of flux-relevant ecoregions which divide the conterminous U.S. into a set of areas within which the carbon flux from terrestrial ecosystems is expected to be relatively uniform and homogeneous. Starting with digital GIS layers of factors deemed important in regulating carbon fixation and loss from terrestrial ecosystems, we assembled a set of maps of multivariate factors which describe and characterize the flux environment in each map cell. Then, we used a k-means clustering procedure to classify each map cell into a particular group whose cells have sufficiently similar environments. Because there were as many as 30 environmental descriptors, each with nearly 8 million cells, it was necessary to perform the clustering process on a parallel supercomputer. Because the statistical process is quantitative, the similarity of a selected flux-ecoregion to every other ecoregion in the map can be calculated. Maps can be produced that show the degree of similarity to the chosen flux-ecoregion as a series of gray shades. By sequentially selecting flux ecoregions currently containing an AmeriFlux tower, maps showing

  3. Society of Toxicology Postdoctoral Assembly: Expanding Leadership, Scientific, and Career Resources for Members

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Society of Toxicology (SOT) established the Postdoctoral Assembly (PDA) to identify and meet the needs of postdoctoral scholars, establish communication, and form collaborations within the SOT members. The PDA currently has representatives on key SOT committees and component ...

  4. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  5. Stator and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shen, Xiaochun

    2013-06-18

    The present application provides a stator. The stator may include a number of poles and a stator tip and cooling assembly. The stator tip and cooling assembly may include a number of stator tips with a number of cooling tubes adjacent thereto such that the stator tips align with the poles and the cooling tubes cool the poles.

  6. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  7. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  8. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  9. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  10. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  11. 14 CFR 1274.906 - Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of New Technology... Conditions § 1274.906 Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative. Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative July 2002 (a) For purposes of administration...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.58 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Designation of new technology representative... of new technology representative and patent representative. Designation of New Technology... of this grant entitled “New Technology,” the following named representatives are hereby designated...

  13. 14 CFR § 1274.906 - Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of New Technology... Conditions § 1274.906 Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative. Designation of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative July 2002 (a) For purposes of...

  14. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  15. Statistical Mechanics of Ecosystem Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitán, José A.; Cuesta, José A.; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-10-01

    We introduce a toy model of ecosystem assembly for which we are able to map out all assembly pathways generated by external invasions. The model allows us to display the whole phase space in the form of an assembly graph whose nodes are communities of species and whose directed links are transitions between them induced by invasions. We characterize the process as a finite Markov chain and prove that it exhibits a unique set of recurrent states (the end state of the process), which is therefore resistant to invasions. This also shows that the end state is independent of the assembly history. The model shares all features with standard assembly models reported in the literature, with the advantage that all observables can be computed in an exact manner.

  16. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  17. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  18. 76 FR 27020 - Representative and Address Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Representative and Address Provisions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of...

  19. Self-assembled magnetic nanospheres with three-dimensional magnetic vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min-Kwan; Dhak, Prasanta; Lee, Ha-Youn; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Jehyun; Kim, Sang-Koog; Jin, Kyoungsuk; Chu, Arim; Nam, Ki Tae; Kim, Miyoung; Park, Hyun Soon; Aizawa, Shinji; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Shindo, Daisuke

    2014-12-08

    We report the electron holography images of spin configurations in peculiar assemblies of soft magnetic nanoparticles in single-, double-, triple-, or quadruple-sphere geometrical arrangements, in which each particle has a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic-vortex structure. Micromagnetic numerical calculations reveal that the uniqueness of the nanoparticles' 3D vortex structure plays a crucial role in their assembly, especially in terms of the contrasting contributions of the exchange and dipolar interactions to their binding energies. The results represent physical insights into the assembly of 3D-vortex-structure magnetic nanoparticles in different geometrical configurations and offer a practical means of controlling those assemblies.

  20. Combustor dome assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, S.J.; Toborg, S.M.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a dome assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor. It comprises: an annular dome having at least one dome eyelet; a mounting ring fixedly joined to the dome and having a radially inner surface defining a central aperture coaxially aligned with the dome eyelet; a baffle having a tubular mounting portion extending upstream through the mounting ring central aperture and fixedly joined to the mounting ring radially inner surface, and a flare portion extending downstream from the mounting ring; and a carburetor including an air swirler having an annular exit cone, the exit cone having a radially outer surface disposed against the baffle mounting portion, and annular radially outwardly extending radial flange, and a radially inwardly facing annular flow surface for channeling air thereover and downstream over the baffle flare portion; the swirler exit cone radial flange being fixedly joined to, and removable from, the mounting ring for providing a fuel/air mixture through the central aperture with a predetermined relationship to the baffle flare portion, the baffle mounting portion extending upstream through the mounting ring central aperture for being accessible from an upstream side of the dome upon removal of the carburetor from the mounting ring.

  1. Subsea wellhead assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T. P.

    1984-12-11

    A subsea wellhead assembly for areas subject to iceberg scouring including an upper conductor in a well bore and a lower conductor in the well bore with the upper end of the lower conductor being within the lower end of the upper conductor and connected thereto by a weak connection and the upper end of the lower conductor being below the maximum iceberg scour depth and means for connecting said conductors, said connecting means having sufficient strength to withstand bending loads during drilling and being removable for installation of production equipment. Additionally production equipment in the well bore includes a block valve supported within the second conductor and a production string extending upward from the block valve and having a weak point within the upper end of the second conductor whereby the well control is not lost by deep iceberg scouring since the production control equipment is within the second conductor which is not damaged by the scouring and the production equipment extending thereabove fails without damage to the lower control equipment or loss of the well.

  2. Gear box assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Harrod, L.R.; Siebern, M.R.

    1989-04-25

    This patent describes a gearbox assembly for a vehicle which includes a driven axle shaft extending transversely of the vehicle having wheels secured thereto: a drive gear concentric with the axle shaft nonrotatably connected to the shaft, the drive gear having an integral hub on each of opposite sides thereof, a pinion gear shiftably mounted above the drive gear having one position engaging the drive gear and shiftable laterally to disengage from the drive gear, a shift lever mounted in a position projecting upwardly from the pinion gear actuatable to shift the pinion gear, an electric motor with output shaft mounted with the output shaft paralleling the axle shaft and having a driving gear mounted thereon, a multiple gear gear train mounted so as to establish a driving connection between the driving gear and the pinion gear, and a transmission housing enclosing the driving gar, gear train, pinion gear and drive gear, the housing including sleeve portions rotatably receiving the hubs of the drive gear and thus rotatably mounting the drive gear and the axle shaft connected to the drive gear.

  3. Piston and valve assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rolder, G. K.

    1985-10-01

    A downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of either the free or fixed type lifts formation fluid from the bottom of a borehole to the surface of the ground. The downhole pump has a power piston which actuates a production plunger. A valve means is concentrically arranged within the power piston. A stationary, hollow valve control rod extends through the power piston and through the valve means, with a lower marginal end of the control rod terminating within the production plunger. Power fluid flows through the control rod and to the valve means. As the power piston reciprocates within the engine cylinder, means on the control rod actuates the valve means between two alternant positions so that power fluid is applied to the bottom face of the power piston to thereby cause the power piston to reciprocate upward; and thereafter, the control rod causes the valve means to shift to the other position, whereupon spent power fluid is exhausted from the engine cylinder. The spent power fluid is admixed with production fluid and is conducted to the surface of the ground.

  4. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  5. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineers and technicians conduct a fit check of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array flight article in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The Solar Array is 40- feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, and provides power to the spacecraft. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  7. Passive bypass valve assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Siedlecki, W.F. Jr.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a bypass valve assembly for controlling fluid flow in a gas turbine engine. It comprises an annular frame including an outer casing, an inner casing spaced from the outer casing to define a channel for channeling fluid flow and the outer casing including an annular opening therein; a plurality of circumferentially juxtaposed bypass valve doors disposed in the annular opening, each of the valve doors having an inner surface for facing the fluid flowable in the channel, an outer surface, a first end pivotally connected to the frame, and a second end, the doors being positionable in a first position generally parallel to the outer casing, and in a second position inclined relative to the outer casing, the fluid flow flowable against the door inner surface being effective for generating a fluid force on the door; and means for automatically positioning the doors in first and second positions in response to differential pressure across the door, the positioning means providing a torque on the doors for moving the door from the first to the second positions and including torque adjustment means for reducing the torque for at least a portion of travel of the doors from the second to the first positions.

  8. Gearbox assembly for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, M.; Masumura, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Hosoya, E.

    1987-01-13

    A gearbox assembly is described for a vehicle for transmitting an output of an engine to driving wheels of the vehicle, comprising: a main gearbox receiving the output and having plural forward gear-shift steps; a shift lever; a sub gearbox coupled to an output of the main gearbox having at least two relatively high and low speed gearshift steps (GH,GL) and a reverse transmission system (GR), the two steps and the reverse transmission system being selectively established through switching operation of the shift lever; wherein the sub gearbox further comprises: a rotary member connected to the shift lever for selecting one of the steps and the reverse transmission system according to its rotation; a stopper mechanism engaging the rotary member for preventing the rotary member from rotating to a position where the reverse transmission system is established; and interlinking means between the stopper mechanism and the main gearbox for releasing the stopper mechanism only when the main gearbox is in neutral or in a low speed gear-shift step; wherein the stopper mechanism comprises: a cam rotatable in response to the gear-shift operation of the main gearbox; a stopper lever one end of which faces the periphery of the cam and the other end facing the rotary member, the stopper lever being pivotally supported at its middle portion; and a spring urging the stopper level to abut against the periphery of the cam.

  9. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  10. Representing nursing assessment documentation with ICNP.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Denise M; Kim, Hyeon-eui; Choi, Jeeyae; Goldberg, Howard S; Dykes, Patricia C

    2008-11-06

    The purpose of this study was to identify key concepts and semantic relations necessary to represent standardized and local patient assessment items in an electronic documentation system and to evaluate the degree to which coverage of both are represented by ICNP. A total of 805 unique assessment concepts were identified. Forty-three percent had exact matches in ICNP, and an additional 20% had matches in the ICNP classified as narrower, broader or other.

  11. Validation of the transient Structural Response of a Threaded Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Doebling, S. W.; Hemez, F. M.; Schultze, J. F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate the application of model validation techniques to a transient structural dynamics problem. The problem of interest is the propagation of an explosive shock through a complex threaded joint that is a surrogate model of a system assembly. The objective is to validate the computational modeling of the key mechanical phenomena in the assembly, so that the component can be represented with adequate fidelity in the system-level model. A set of experiments was conducted on the threaded assembly where the acceleration and strain responses to an explosive load were measured on mass-simulators representing payloads. A significantly detailed computational model of the threaded assembly was also created. Numerical features that represent the important characteristics of the response were defined and calculated for both the experimental and computational data. Each step of the model validation process will be described as applied to this problem. Fundamental issues regarding the nature of model validation and the role of model validation in the engineering analysis process will also be discussed.

  12. Metagenomic Classification and Characterization Marine Actinobacteria from the Gulf of Maine without Representative Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, R.; Heidelberg, J.

    2012-12-01

    Actinobacteria represent one of the largest and most diverse bacterial phyla and unlike most marine prokaryotes are gram-positive. This phylum encompasses a broad range of physiologies, morphologies, and metabolic properties with a broad array of lifestyles. The marine actinobacterial assemblage is dominated by the orders Actinomycetales and Acidimicrobiales (also known as the marine Actinobacteria clade). The Acidimicrobiales bacteria typically outnumber the Actinomycetales bacteria and are mostly represented by the OCS155 group. Although bacteria of the order Acidimicrobiales make up ~7.6% of the 16S matches from the Global Ocean Survey shotgun metagenomic libraries; very little is known about their potential function and role in biogeochemical cycling. Samples were collected from surface seawater samples in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) from the summer and winter of 2006. Sanger sequences were generated from the 0.1-0.8 μm fractions using paired-end medium insert shotgun libraries. The resulting 2.2 Gb were assembled using the Celera Assembler package into 280 Mb of non-redundant scaffolds. Putative actinobacterial assemblies were identified using (1) ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 23S), (2) phylogenetically informative non-ribosomal core genes thought to be resistant to horizontal gene transfer (e.g. RecA and RpoB) and (3) compositional binning using oligonucleotide frequency pattern based hierarchical clustering. Binning resulted in 3.6 Mb (4.2X coverage) of actinobacterial scaffolds that were comprised of 15.1 Mb of unassembled reads. Putative actinobacterial assemblies included both summer and winter reads demonstrating that the Actinobacteria are abundant year round. Classification reveals that all of the sampled Actinobacteria are from the orders Acidimicrobiales and Actinomycetales and are similar to those found in the global ocean. The GOM Actinobacteria show a broad range of G+C % content (32-66%) indicating a high level of genomic diversity. Those assemblies

  13. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  14. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  15. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    DOEpatents

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  16. Institutional environmental impact statement, Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description and analysis of Michoud Assembly Facility as an operational base for both NASA and NASA-related programs and various government tenant-agencies and their contractors is given. Tenant-agencies are governmental agencies or governmental agency contractors which are not involved in a NASA program, but utilize office or manufacturing space at the Michoud Assembly Facility. The statements represent the full description of the likely environmental effects of the facility and are used in the process of making program and project decisions.

  17. PEPC LRU: Ball Support Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, T

    1999-05-14

    The PEPC LRU upper ball support assembly consists of a ball and a pneumatic air cylinder/conical seat latching mechanism to be attached to the optics support frame,and a ball attached to the PEPC LRU. Both components are designed to allow manual positioning in three axes. Upon insertion of the PEPC LRU into the structure, the upper pneumatic cylinder is actuated to latch the two assemblies together through the conical seat device to grab the lower ball to support the LRU weight. To be conservative, the design load for the assembly is 1500 pounds (the prototype PEPC LRU weight was measured to be near 1380 pounds).

  18. Kinetic assembly of coordination networks.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Kawano, Masaki

    2017-08-03

    Kinetic assembly is an important method for obtaining desired materials in chemical synthesis and materials science. We highlight the kinetic assembly of porous coordination networks, which promote the production of interactive pore sites. The interactive pore sites can activate or stabilize guest molecules. The properties of interactive pores are typified by iodine chemisorption and small sulfur encapsulation. Using interactive pores, we trapped small sulfur allotropes, such as S2, cyclo-S3, bent-S3, and S6, demonstrating the importance of interactive pore sites. Here, we address the important aspects of interactive pore sites created by kinetic assembly of porous coordination networks.

  19. Multi-Spoked Wheel Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael (Inventor); Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A robust ground traction (drive) assembly for remotely controlled vehicles, which not only operates smoothly on surfaces that are flat, but also upon surfaces that include rugged terrain, snow, mud, and sand, is provided. The assembly includes a sun gear and a braking gear. The sun gear is configured to cause rotational force to be applied to second planetary gears through a coupling of first planetary gears. The braking gear is configured to cause the assembly (or the second planetary gears) to rotate around the braking gear when an obstacle or braking force is applied.

  20. Fuel assembly for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Creagan, Robert J.; Frisch, Erling

    1977-01-01

    A new and improved fuel assembly is formed to minimize the amount of parasitic structural material wherein a plurality of hollow tubular members are juxtaposed to the fuel elements of the assembly. The tubular members may serve as guide tubes for control elements and are secured to a number of longitudinally spaced grid members along the fuel assembly. The grid members include means thereon engaging each of the fuel elements to laterally position the fuel elements in a predetermined array. Openings in the bottom of each hollow member serve as a shock absorber to cushion shock transmitted to the structure when the control elements are rapidly inserted in their corresponding tubular members.

  1. Assembly line performance and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-03-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  2. Assembly line performance and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-03-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  3. Curved conveyor section guide assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Truszczinski, H.

    1981-02-03

    A guide assembly for a curved conveyor section of a scraperchain conveyor guides the scraper assembly from a first straight conveyor portion round the curved conveyor section to a second straight conveyor portion. This guiding is accomplished by a pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels. A further pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels are provided to guide the drive chain of a plough round the curved conveyor section. This enables the plough to be driven to and fro along the first straight conveyor portion by a drive station attached to the second straight conveyor portion adjacent to the guide assembly.

  4. Cooling assembly for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Werth, John

    1990-01-01

    A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet.

  5. Do regional climate models represent regional climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    When using climate change scenarios - either from global climate models or further downscaled - to assess localised real world impacts, one has to ensure that the local simulation indeed correctly represents the real world local climate. Representativeness has so far mainly been discussed as a scale issue: simulated meteorological variables in general represent grid box averages, whereas real weather is often expressed by means of point values. As a result, in particular simulated extreme values are not directly comparable with observed local extreme values. Here we argue that the issue of representativeness is more general. To illustrate this point, assume the following situations: first, the (GCM or RCM) simulated large scale weather, e.g., the mid-latitude storm track, might be systematically distorted compared to observed weather. If such a distortion at the synoptic scale is strong, the simulated local climate might be completely different from the observed. Second, the orography even of high resolution RCMs is only a coarse model of true orography. In particular in mountain ranges the simulated mesoscale flow might therefore considerably deviate from the observed flow, leading to systematically displaced local weather. In both cases, the simulated local climate does not represent observed local climate. Thus, representativeness also encompasses representing a particular location. We propose to measure this aspect of representativeness for RCMs driven with perfect boundary conditions as the correlation between observations and simulations at the inter-annual scale. In doing so, random variability generated by the RCMs is largely averaged out. As an example, we assess how well KNMIs RACMO2 RCM at 25km horizontal resolution represents winter precipitation in the gridded E-OBS data set over the European domain. At a chosen grid box, RCM precipitation might not be representative of observed precipitation, in particular in the rain shadow of major moutain ranges

  6. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  7. Theseus Assembly Sequence #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft being assembled at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was

  8. Theseus Assembly Sequence #3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft being assembled at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was

  9. Theseus Assembly Sequence #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Crew members are seen here assembling the tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change

  10. Heat exchange assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  11. Hear Exchange Assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  12. Selecting representative model micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Holland, BR; Schmid, J

    2005-01-01

    Background Micro-biological research relies on the use of model organisms that act as representatives of their species or subspecies, these are frequently well-characterized laboratory strains. However, it has often become apparent that the model strain initially chosen does not represent important features of the species. For micro-organisms, the diversity of their genomes is such that even the best possible choice of initial strain for sequencing may not assure that the genome obtained adequately represents the species. To acquire information about a species' genome as efficiently as possible, we require a method to choose strains for analysis on the basis of how well they represent the species. Results We develop the Best Total Coverage (BTC) method for selecting one or more representative model organisms from a group of interest, given that rough genetic distances between the members of the group are known. Software implementing a "greedy" version of the method can be used with large data sets, its effectiveness is tested using both constructed and biological data sets. Conclusion In both the simulated and biological examples the greedy-BTC method outperformed random selection of model organisms, and for two biological examples it outperformed selection of model strains based on phylogenetic structure. Although the method was designed with microbial species in mind, and is tested here on three microbial data sets, it will also be applicable to other types of organism. PMID:15904495

  13. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called digital materials. We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  14. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called "digital materials." We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  15. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Mascher, Martin; Buluc, Aydin; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A.; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2015-01-31

    We report that polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population.

  16. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome

    DOE PAGES

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Mascher, Martin; Buluc, Aydin; ...

    2015-01-31

    We report that polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible tomore » construct a mapping population.« less

  17. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  18. Analysis of Illumina Microbial Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Clum, Alicia; Foster, Brian; Froula, Jeff; LaButti, Kurt; Sczyrba, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Woyke, Tanja

    2010-05-28

    Since the emerging of second generation sequencing technologies, the evaluation of different sequencing approaches and their assembly strategies for different types of genomes has become an important undertaken. Next generation sequencing technologies dramatically increase sequence throughput while decreasing cost, making them an attractive tool for whole genome shotgun sequencing. To compare different approaches for de-novo whole genome assembly, appropriate tools and a solid understanding of both quantity and quality of the underlying sequence data are crucial. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of short-read Illumina sequence assembly strategies for bacterial and archaeal genomes. Different types of Illumina libraries as well as different trim parameters and assemblers were evaluated. Results of the comparative analysis and sequencing platforms will be presented. The goal of this analysis is to develop a cost-effective approach for the increased throughput of the generation of high quality microbial genomes.

  19. Self-assembly via microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Sánchez, Samuel

    2015-12-07

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic building blocks has attracted extensive interest in myriad fields in recent years, due to their great potential in the nanoscale design of functional hybrid materials. Microfluidic techniques provide an intriguing method to control kinetic aspects of the self-assembly of molecular amphiphiles by the facile adjustment of the hydrodynamics of the fluids. Up to now, there have been several reports about one-step direct self-assembly of different building blocks with versatile and multi-shape products without templates, which demonstrated the advantages of microfluidics. These assemblies with different morphologies have great applications in various areas such as cancer therapy, micromotor fabrication, and controlled drug delivery.

  20. Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-08-01

    Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities in 1959 at NASA Glenn Research Center (formerly NASA Lewis). Big Joe was an Atlas missile that successfully launched a boilerplate model of the Mercury capsule on September 9, 1959.

  1. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  2. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  3. Glass-formers vs. Assemblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzer, Sharon

    2015-03-01

    In most instances, the formation of a glass signifies an inability of the constituents of a system to self-organize into a well-defined, thermodynamically preferred ordered structure. Thus good ''assemblers'' may make poor glass-formers, and good glass-formers tend to be poor assemblers. How good or bad a system is in assembling or vitrifying/jamming depends on many features of the constituent building blocks, including shape and interactions. In many cases, building blocks whose shapes make them good glass-formers can, through almost imperceptible perturbations, become good assemblers, and vice versa. We examine these issues through consideration of several model systems, including colloidal ''rocks'' and foldable nets. *with E.R. Chen, P. Damasceno, P. Dodd, M. Engel, A.S. Keys, D. Klotsa, E. Teich, and G. van Anders

  4. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  5. 48 CFR 1852.227-72 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-72 Designation of new technology representative... of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative (JUL 1997) (a) For purposes of administration of the clause of this contract entitled “New Technology” or “Patent Rights—Retention by the...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.58 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of new technology... of new technology representative and patent representative. Designation of New Technology... of this grant entitled “New Technology,” the following named representatives are hereby designated by...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-72 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-72 Designation of new technology representative... of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative (JUL 1997) (a) For purposes of administration of the clause of this contract entitled “New Technology” or “Patent Rights—Retention by the...

  8. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  9. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  10. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  11. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  12. 40 CFR 96.312 - Changing CAIR designated representative and alternate CAIR designated representative; changes in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designated Representative for CAIR NOX Ozone Season Sources § 96.312 Changing CAIR designated representative... CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone Season units at the source. (b) Changing alternate... representative and the owners and operators of the CAIR NOX Ozone Season source and the CAIR NOX Ozone...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.58 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of new technology representative and patent representative. 1260.58 Section 1260.58 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.58 Designation of new technology representative and patent...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.227-72 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Technology Representative Patent Representative (b) Reports of reportable items, and disclosure of subject inventions, interim reports, final reports, utilization reports, and other reports required by the clause, as... of the above-named representatives are set forth in 1827.305-370 of the NASA FAR Supplement. (End of...

  15. 14 CFR § 1260.58 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of new technology... Designation of new technology representative and patent representative. Designation of New Technology... of this grant entitled “New Technology,” the following named representatives are hereby designated...

  16. Representative galaxy age-metallicity relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastián L.

    2017-07-01

    The ongoing surveys of galaxies and those for the next generation of telescopes will demand the execution of high-CPU consuming machine codes for recovering detailed star formation histories (SFHs) and hence age-metallicity relationships (AMRs). We present here an expeditive method which provides quick-look AMRs on the basis of representative ages and metallicities obtained from colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) analyses. We have tested its performance by generating synthetic CMDs for a wide variety of galaxy SFHs. The representative AMRs turn out to be reliable down to a magnitude limit with a photometric completeness factor higher than ˜85 per cent, and trace the chemical evolution history for any stellar population (represented by a mean age and an intrinsic age spread) with a total mass within ˜40 per cent of the more massive stellar population in the galaxy.

  17. What do the solar activity indices represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li , K. J.; Kong, D. F.; Liang, H. F.; Feng, W.

    Sunspot number, sunspot area, and radio flux at 10.7 cm are the indices which are most frequently used to describe the long-term solar activity. The data of the daily solar full-disk magnetograms measured at Mount Wilson Observatory from 19 January 1970 to 31 December 2012 are utilized together with the daily observations of the three indices to probe the relationship of the full-disk magnetic activity respectively with the indices. Cross correlation analyses of the daily magnetic field measurements at Mount Wilson observatory are taken with the daily observations of the three indices, and the statistical significance of the difference of the obtained correlation coefficients is investigated. The following results are obtained: (1) The sunspot number should be preferred to represent/reflect the full-disk magnetic activity of the Sun to which the weak magnetic fields (outside of sunspots) mainly contribute, the sunspot area should be recommended to represent the strong magnetic activity of the Sun (in sunspots), and the 10.7 cm radio flux should be preferred to represent the full-disk magnetic activity of the Sun (both the weak and strong magnetic fields) to which the weak magnetic fields mainly contribute. (2) On the other hand, the most recommendable index that could be used to represent/reflect the weak magnetic activity is the 10.7 cm radio flux, the most recommendable index that could be used to represent the strong magnetic activity is the sunspot area, and the most recommendable index that could be used to represent the full-disk magnetic activity of the Sun is the 10.7 cm radio flux. Additionally, the cycle characteristics of the magnetic field strengths on the solar disk are given.

  18. Wafer scale micromachine assembly method

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.

    2001-01-01

    A method for fusing together, using diffusion bonding, micromachine subassemblies which are separately fabricated is described. A first and second micromachine subassembly are fabricated on a first and second substrate, respectively. The substrates are positioned so that the upper surfaces of the two micromachine subassemblies face each other and are aligned so that the desired assembly results from their fusion. The upper surfaces are then brought into contact, and the assembly is subjected to conditions suited to the desired diffusion bonding.

  19. Fuel cell design and assembly

    DOEpatents

    Myerhoff, Alfred

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

  20. Protein crystal growth tray assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A protein crystal growth tray assembly includes a tray that has a plurality of individual crystal growth chambers. Each chamber has a movable pedestal which carries a protein crystal growth compartment at an upper end. The several pedestals for each tray assembly are ganged together for concurrent movement so that the solutions in the various pedestal growth compartments can be separated from the solutions in the tray's growth chambers until the experiment is to be activated.