Science.gov

Sample records for reproductive life span

  1. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke.

  2. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. PMID:26763090

  3. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution.

  4. Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ong, Ken K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Duell, Eric J.; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04–1.69), 1.09 (0.90–1.31), 0.97 (0.86–1.10), and 0.85 (0.70–1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40–44, 45–49, and ≥55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50–54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02–1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01–1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23230098

  5. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  6. Life-span extension by caloric restriction is determined by type and level of food reduction and by reproductive mode in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David B Mark

    2013-04-01

    We measured life span and fecundity of three reproductive modes in a clone of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas subjected to chronic caloric restriction (CCR) over a range of food concentrations or to intermittent fasting (IF). IF increased life span 50%-70% for all three modes, whereas CCR increased life span of asexual females derived from sexually or asexually produced eggs, but not that of sexual females. The main effect of CR on both asexual modes was to delay death at young ages, rather than to prevent death at middle ages or to greatly extend maximum life span; in contrast CR in sexual females greatly increased the life span of a few long-lived individuals. Lifetime fecundity did not decrease with CCR, suggesting a lack of resource allocation trade-off between somatic maintenance and reproduction. Multiple outcomes for a clonal lineage indicate that different responses are established through epigenetic programming, whereas differences in life-span allocations suggest that multiple genetic mechanisms mediate life-span extension.

  7. Life Span Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    This chapter, rooted in life span developmental research and theory, examines domains of subjective well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. What is the impact of these domains on the learner's experience of education? It invites the reader to consider implications for learning through the use of learners' narratives.

  8. Loneliness across the life span.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Vanhalst, Janne; Harris, Rebecca; Van Roekel, Eeske; Lodder, Gerine; Bangee, Munirah; Maes, Marlies; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-03-01

    Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of loneliness-a component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents the motivation to reconnect with others that is triggered by perceived social isolation. Loneliness is often a transient experience because the RAM leads to reconnection, but sometimes this motivation can fail, leading to prolonged loneliness. We review evidence of how aspects of the RAM change across development and how these aspects can fail for different reasons across the life span. We conclude with a discussion of age-appropriate interventions that may help to alleviate prolonged loneliness. PMID:25910393

  9. Loneliness across the life span.

    PubMed

    Qualter, Pamela; Vanhalst, Janne; Harris, Rebecca; Van Roekel, Eeske; Lodder, Gerine; Bangee, Munirah; Maes, Marlies; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-03-01

    Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of loneliness-a component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents the motivation to reconnect with others that is triggered by perceived social isolation. Loneliness is often a transient experience because the RAM leads to reconnection, but sometimes this motivation can fail, leading to prolonged loneliness. We review evidence of how aspects of the RAM change across development and how these aspects can fail for different reasons across the life span. We conclude with a discussion of age-appropriate interventions that may help to alleviate prolonged loneliness.

  10. Life-Span Learning: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, James E.

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses learning as embedded processes of development and aging, and as social activity over the life course. The concept of life-span learning is proposed and outlined to discuss these processes as aspects of and propositions in life-span development and aging theory. Life-span learning processes arise and continuously develop in a…

  11. Newer approaches in increasing life span.

    PubMed

    Dhar, H L

    1999-09-01

    Based on ideal conditions technical life span of human kind is approximately 110-120 years. Although number of studies including calorie restriction and antiparkinsonism drug (deprenyl) have indicated increased life span in animals, it is premature to expect them to increase life span in man. However, current studies like activation of immune system with DHEA in man and anticipation of antioxidant therapy contributing to increased life span are encouraging. Practice of meditation particularly TM and balanced diet might be contributory.

  12. Developing a reproductive life plan.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Frey, Keith A; David, Paru S; Hunt, Katherine S; Noble, Brie N; Mayer, Anita P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is 2-fold: to emphasize the importance of a reproductive life plan and to define its key elements. We review the 2006 recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regarding ways to improve the delivery of preconception health care to women in the United States, with particular focus on encouraging individual reproductive responsibility throughout the life span and on encouraging every woman to develop a reproductive life plan. We propose recommendations for the content of a reproductive life plan and explore ways to incorporate the guidelines from the CDC into clinical practice. By encouraging women to consider their plans for childbearing before they become pregnant, clinicians have the opportunity to influence behavior before pregnancy, which may decrease the incidence of unintended pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales.

    PubMed

    Foster, Emma A; Franks, Daniel W; Mazzi, Sonia; Darden, Safi K; Balcomb, Ken C; Ford, John K B; Croft, Darren P

    2012-09-14

    Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals.

  14. My Reproductive Life Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... use with their patients. How to Make a Plan First, think about your goals for school, for ...

  15. Sexual Conflict, Life Span, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Margo I.; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The potential for sexual conflict to influence the evolution of life span and aging has been recognized for more than a decade, and recent work also suggests that variation in life span and aging can influence sexually antagonistic coevolution. However, empirical exploration of these ideas is only beginning. Here, we provide an overview of the ideas and evidence linking inter- and intralocus sexual conflicts with life span and aging. We aim to clarify the conceptual basis of this research program, examine the current state of knowledge, and suggest key questions for further investigation. PMID:24938876

  16. Sexual conflict, life span, and aging.

    PubMed

    Adler, Margo I; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-08-01

    The potential for sexual conflict to influence the evolution of life span and aging has been recognized for more than a decade, and recent work also suggests that variation in life span and aging can influence sexually antagonistic coevolution. However, empirical exploration of these ideas is only beginning. Here, we provide an overview of the ideas and evidence linking inter- and intralocus sexual conflicts with life span and aging. We aim to clarify the conceptual basis of this research program, examine the current state of knowledge, and suggest key questions for further investigation. PMID:24938876

  17. Calendar life-span versus fission life-span of Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Sonneborn, J; Reed, J C

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesis that paramecia use fissions, not days, to measure length of cell life-span was investigated. Parallel cell lines were grown at 27 C and at 24 C. The daily fission rate of the cells at 24 C was lower than at 27 C. If the cells count fissions, not days, the life-span in fissions should remain unchanged, whereas the cell life-span in days should increase in the lines with reduced daily fission rate. The results showed a significant increase in cell life-span in days when the cells were cultivated for 70-100% of their life cycle at 24 C. The life-span as measured by fissions, however, remained unchanged regardless of the time of the life cycle when cells were shifted to 24 C. The data indicate that, as a model system for cellular aging, paramecia are comparable to cells which use cell doublings to measure life-span. PMID:1244399

  18. Families as Life Span Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Professionals dealing with challenging behavior frequently operate detached from the other relationships in the child's life. This narrow approach has been called the unilateral strategy based on the belief that the child's outside world can be ignored and behavior can be changed by administering specific corrective interventions. In contrast,…

  19. The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

  20. Life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, J. E.; Whitfield, M.

    1982-04-01

    Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological, Gaia hypothesis of Lovelock and Margulis (1974) for climate control, and Walker et al's (in press) model of automatic thermostasis, in which the abundance of such atmospheric greenhouse gases as CO2 adjusts to resist the warming tendency of the increased solar flux. It is concluded that, since atmospheric CO2 is now close to its partial pressure lower limit, the biosphere will on a geological time-scale be soon exposed, without protection, to the predicted solar luminosity increases.

  1. Life-Span Development of Affective Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    This paper presents a model of affective relationships and a review of a number of empirical studies based on the model. The fundamental aim of the model is to describe the life-span development of affective relationships, which are measured in terms of an individual's representation of a variety of significant interpersonal relationships. These…

  2. Sensorimotor Synchronization across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewing, Knut; Aschersleben, Gisa; Li, Shu-Chen

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the contribution of general processing resources as well as other more specific factors to the life-span development of sensorimotor synchronization and its component processes. Within a synchronization tapping paradigm, a group of 286 participants, 6 to 88 years of age, were asked to synchronize finger taps with…

  3. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  4. Pleiotropy and life history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster: uncoupling life span and early fecundity.

    PubMed

    Khazaeli, Aziz A; Curtsinger, James W

    2013-05-01

    Populations of Drosophila melanogaster that have been artificially selected for late age of reproduction evolve longer life spans and, in some cases, reduced early fecundity. The negative correlation is widely interpreted as evidence of antagonistic pleiotropy. Here, we show that the correlation breaks down in recombinant genomes. A major quantitative trait locus that increases adult life span by 20% has no detectable effect on early fecundity. Several recombinant genotypes are superflies, exhibiting both elevated early fecundity and long life. The genetic correlation of early fecundity and life span is not different from zero, while the midlife fecundity correlation is positive and statistically significant, suggesting age-specific adaptation. The results are not consistent with a dominant role for negative pleiotropy, but can be understood in terms of a mixture of pleiotropic and recombining nonpleiotropic elements. Life span and early fecundity can be genetically uncoupled.

  5. Ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome and life span

    PubMed Central

    Slettedal, Jon Klokk; Sandvik, Leiv; Ringvold, Amund

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare life span of persons with and without ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PES). Methods The study is based on an epidemiological survey conducted in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway, in 1985–86. All inhabitants over 64 years of age (2109 individuals) were invited. Mortality information was obtained from The Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2014, by which time 99% of the participants were deceased. Results When adjusting for age and gender, life span was not statistically different in persons with and without PES. Following the diagnosis of PES, patients' survival was up to, and beyond, 30 years. Conclusions Our observations suggest that, despite all the systemic aberrations reported in persons with ocular PES, none or only marginal functional changes are caused in extraocular organs and tissues. The present study supports the notion that systemic PES is not a life-threatening condition. PMID:26288849

  6. Methionine restriction and life-span control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending life span. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with or without adequate nutrition (e.g., particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend life span in various model organisms. We discuss the beneficial effects of a methionine-restricted diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions.

  7. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  8. How The Genome Got a Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Lappé, Martine; Landecker, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    In the space of little more than a decade, ideas of the human genome have shifted significantly, with the emergence of the notion that the genome an individual changes with development, age, disease, environmental inputs, and time. This paper examines the emergence of the genome with a life span, one that experiences drift, instability and mutability, and a host of other temporal changes. We argue that developments in chromatin biology have provided the basis for this genomic embodiment of experience and exposure. We analyze how time has come to matter for the genome through chromatin, providing analysis of examples in which the human life course is being explored as a set of material changes to chromatin. A genome with a lifespan aligns the molecular and the experiential in new ways, shifting ideas of life stages, their interrelation, and the temporality of health and disease. PMID:26213491

  9. Ovarian hormone level alterations during rat post-reproductive life-span influence CD8 + T-cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Kosec, Duško; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Pilipović, Ivan; Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Djikić, Jasmina; Bufan, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the putative role of ovarian hormones in shaping of rat peripheral T-cell compartment during post-reproductive period. In 20-month-old rats ovariectomized (Ox) at the very end of reproductive period, thymic output, cellularity and composition of major TCRαβ + peripheral blood lymphocyte and splenocyte subsets were analyzed. Ovariectomy led to the enlargement of CD8 + peripheral blood lymphocyte and splenocyte subpopulations. This reflected: (i) a more efficient thymic generation of CD8 + cells as indicated by increased number of CD4+CD8 + double positive and the most mature CD4-CD8+TCRαβhigh thymocytes and CD8 + recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) in peripheral blood, but not in the spleen of Ox rats, and (ii) the expansion of CD8 + memory/activated peripheral blood lymphocytes and splenocytes. The latter was consistent with a greater frequency of proliferating cells among freshly isolated memory/activated CD8 + peripheral blood lymphocytes and splenocytes and increased proliferative response of CD8 + splenocytes to stimulation with plate-bound anti-CD3 antibody. The former could be related to the rise in splenic IL-7 and IL-15 mRNA expression. Although ovariectomy affected the overall number of CD4 + T cells in none of the examined compartments, it increased CD4+FoxP3 + peripheral blood lymphocyte and splenocyte counts by enhancing their generation in periphery. Collectively, the results suggest that ovariectomy-induced long-lasting disturbances in ovarian hormone levels (mirrored in diminished progesterone serum level in 20-month-old rats) affects both thymic CD8 + cell generation and peripheral homeostasis and leads to the expansion of CD4+FoxP3 + cells in the periphery, thereby enhancing autoreactive cell control on account of immune system efficacy to combat infections and tumors. PMID:25716018

  10. 78. VIEW SHOWING PLACEMENT OF LIFE SPAN SHOE ON PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW SHOWING PLACEMENT OF LIFE SPAN SHOE ON PIER 6, LOOKING NORTH, March 5, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. The complex genetic architecture of Drosophila life span.

    PubMed

    Leips, Jeff; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2002-01-01

    Continuous phenotypic variation in life span results from segregating genetic variation at multiple loci, the environmental sensitivity of expression of these loci, and the history of environmental variation experienced by the organism throughout its life. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) that produce variation in the life span of mated Drosophila melanogaster using a panel of recombinant inbred lines (RIL) that were backcrossed to the parental strains from which they were derived. Five QTL were identified that influence mated life span, three were male-specific, one was female-specific, and one affected life span in both sexes. The additive allelic effects and dominance of QTL were highly sex-specific. One pair of QTL also exhibited significant epistatic effects on life span. We summarize all of the QTL mapping data for Drosophila life span, and outline future prospects for disentangling the genetic and environmental influences on this trait.

  12. Methionine restriction beyond life-span extension.

    PubMed

    Ables, Gene P; Hens, Julie R; Nichenametla, Sailendra N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary methionine restriction (MR) extends life span across species via various intracellular regulatory mechanisms. In rodents, MR induces resistance against adiposity, improves hepatic glucose metabolism, preserves cardiac function, and reduces body size, all of which can affect the onset of age-related diseases. Recent studies have shown that MR-affected biomarkers, such as fibroblast growth factor 21, adiponectin, leptin, cystathionine β synthase, and insulin-like growth factor 1, can potentially alter physiology. The beneficial effects of MR could be explained in part by its ability to reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress. Studies have revealed that MR can reduce reactive oxygen species that damage cells and promote cancer progression. It has been demonstrated that either MR or the targeting of specific genes in the methionine cycle could induce cell apoptosis while decreasing proliferation in several cancer models. The complete mechanism underlying the actions of MR on the cell cycle during cancer has not been fully elucidated. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as methylation and noncoding RNAs, are also possible downstream effectors of MR; future studies should help to elucidate some of these mechanisms. Despite evidence that changes in dietary methionine can affect epigenetics, it remains unknown whether epigenetics is a mechanism in MR. This review summarizes research on MR and its involvement in metabolism, cancer, and epigenetics.

  13. Life span variation in 13 Drosophila species: a comparative study on life span, environmental variables and stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Wit, J; Loeschcke, V; Kellermann, V

    2015-10-01

    Recently, heterogeneity of the environment has been suggested as an important player in the evolution of life span variation. Established ageing theories propose that life span variation is the result of coevolution with other traits, such as stress resistance. This study aimed to compare these alternative hypotheses by examining the relationship between four environmental variables and different types of stress resistance traits with life span in 13 Drosophila species originating from tropical, subtropical and temperate environments (ecotypes). Average life span was found to differ significantly both between species and sexes, but only male life span correlated with the environment and cold resistance. While controlling for phylogeny, the environmental variable precipitation seasonality and resistance against cold-induced stress explained most variation in male life span. Furthermore, male life span varied between species in a manner represented by environmental variables linked to the different ecotypes, such that tropical species lived longer and were less cold resistant. The current results suggest that general mechanisms underlying stress resistance and life span are unlikely. In addition, our results point to the environment independently shaping variation in life span and cold resistance rather than genetic interactions.

  14. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  15. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  16. Prosper and Live Long: Productive Life Span Tracks Increasing Overall Life Span Over Historical Time among Privileged Worker Groups.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Tomas; Solari, Catherine; Bains, William

    2015-06-01

    Life expectancy has increased continuously for at least 150 years, due at least in part to improving life conditions for the majority of the population. A substantial part of this historical increase is due to decreases in early life mortality. In this article, we analyze the longevity of four privileged sets of adults who have avoided childhood mortality and lived a life more similar to the modern middle class. Our analysis is focused on writers and musicians from the 17th through the 21st centuries. We show that their average age at death increased only slightly between 1600 and 1900, but in the 20th century increased at around 2 years/decade. We suggest that this confirms that modern life span extension is driven by delay of death in older life rather than avoidance of premature death. We also show that productive life span, as measured by writing and composition outputs, has increased in parallel with overall life span in these groups. Increase in age of death is confirmed in a group of the minor British aristocracy and in members of the US Congress from 1800 to 2010. We conclude that both life span and productive life span are increasing in the 20th and early 21st century, and that the modern prolongation of life is the extension of productive life and is not the addition of years of disabling illness to the end of life. PMID:25625915

  17. Prosper and Live Long: Productive Life Span Tracks Increasing Overall Life Span Over Historical Time among Privileged Worker Groups.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Tomas; Solari, Catherine; Bains, William

    2015-06-01

    Life expectancy has increased continuously for at least 150 years, due at least in part to improving life conditions for the majority of the population. A substantial part of this historical increase is due to decreases in early life mortality. In this article, we analyze the longevity of four privileged sets of adults who have avoided childhood mortality and lived a life more similar to the modern middle class. Our analysis is focused on writers and musicians from the 17th through the 21st centuries. We show that their average age at death increased only slightly between 1600 and 1900, but in the 20th century increased at around 2 years/decade. We suggest that this confirms that modern life span extension is driven by delay of death in older life rather than avoidance of premature death. We also show that productive life span, as measured by writing and composition outputs, has increased in parallel with overall life span in these groups. Increase in age of death is confirmed in a group of the minor British aristocracy and in members of the US Congress from 1800 to 2010. We conclude that both life span and productive life span are increasing in the 20th and early 21st century, and that the modern prolongation of life is the extension of productive life and is not the addition of years of disabling illness to the end of life.

  18. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    PubMed Central

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the action-phase model of developmental regulation with their original life-span theory of control to present a comprehensive theory of development. Third, they reviewed the relevant empirical literature testing key propositions of the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Finally, because the conceptual reach of their theory goes far beyond the current empirical base, they pointed out areas that deserve further and more focused empirical inquiry. PMID:20063963

  19. Microboards: An Option in Life Span Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeZonia, Krysti

    2009-01-01

    A caregiver of a child or adult with special needs, who is concerned about who will advocate for them when he/she no longer can, may want to consider developing a microboard to oversee their long-term life quality. A microboard is a legally recognized "agency" with the sole purpose of providing support to an individual with developmental or other…

  20. Heritability of life span is largely sex limited in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lehtovaara, Anne; Schielzeth, Holger; Flis, Ilona; Friberg, Urban

    2013-11-01

    Males and females differ with respect to life span and rate of aging in most animal species. Such sexual dimorphism can be associated with a complex genetic architecture, where only part of the genetic variation is shared between the sexes. However, the extent to which this is true for life span and aging is not known, because studies of life span have given contradictory results and aging has not been studied from this perspective. Here we investigate the additive genetic architecture of life span and aging in Drosophila melanogaster. We find substantial amounts of additive genetic variation for both traits, with more than three-quarters of this variation available for sex-specific evolutionary change. This result shows that the sexes have a profoundly different additive genetic basis for these traits, which has several implications. First, it translates into an, on average, three-times-higher heritability of life span within, compared to between, the sexes. Second, it implies that the sexes are relatively free to evolve with respect to these traits. And third, as life span and aging are traits that integrate over all genetic factors that contribute to mortal disease, it also implies that the genetics of heritable disease differs vastly between the sexes.

  1. If started early in life, metformin treatment increases life span and postpones tumors in female SHR mice

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Berstein, Lev M.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Egormin, Peter A.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Kovalenko, Irina G.; Poroshina, Tatiana E.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia accelerate both aging and cancer. Antidiabetic biguanides such as metformin decrease glucose, insulin and IGF-1 level. Metformin increases lifespan and prevents cancer in mice, although its effects vary, depending on mice strain and gender. Here we showed that chronic treatment of female outbred SHR mice with metformin started at the age of 3, 9 or 15 months decreased body temperature and postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function. Surprisingly, metformin did not affect levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Treatment with metformin started at the age of 3 months increased mean life span by 14% and maximum life span by 1 month. The treatment started at the age of 9 months insignificantly increased mean life span by only 6%, whereas the treatment started at the age of 15 months failed to increase life span. The mean life span of tumor-free mice was increased by 21% in ‘the youngest group’, by 7% in ‘middle-aged group’ and in contrast was reduced by 13% in ‘the oldest group’. When started at the age of 3 and 9 months, metformin delayed the first tumor detection by 22% and 25%, correspondingly. Thus, in female SHR mice, metformin increased life span and postponed tumors when started at the young and middle but not at the old age. In contrast, metformin improves reproductive function when started at any age. PMID:21386129

  2. Nutrition in women across the life span.

    PubMed

    Gizis, F C

    1992-12-01

    Recent recommendations on nutrition, such as the Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health, have emphasized the relationship between diet and disease. In the Surgeon General's report, Americans have been advised to limit their consumption of fat, cholesterol, sodium, and alcoholic beverages, and to increase their consumption of complex carbohydrates and fiber. Two of the recommendations in this report related to the consumption of iron and calcium are particularly important to women's health. Women are advised to increase their consumption of food high in calcium and to include foods containing iron, such as lean meats, fish, certain beans, iron-enriched cereals, and whole grain products. Iron is essential as a constituent of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and certain enzymes. Iron losses during menstruation and the increased need for iron during pregnancy place women at risk for iron deficiency. Bone mass continues to increase until the late twenties, and one method to prevent osteoporosis may be adequate calcium intake during these years of early adulthood. Food guides that list amounts and types of foods to be eaten are helpful for the individual or as an educational tool for the nurse or educator. A Daily Food Guide was recently designed to meet the nutritional needs of women throughout the life cycle, and the government has very recently released a Food Guide Pyramid. Although it is important for women to learn how to control certain dietary components, they should also be aware of the protective nature of certain nutrients, such as iron and calcium. PMID:1448370

  3. Understanding Aggressive Behavior Across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Lewis, Gary; Evans, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the observable manifestation of aggression and is often associated with developmental transitions and a range of medical and psychiatric diagnoses across the lifespan. As healthcare professionals involved in the medical and psychosocial care of patients from birth through death, nurses frequently encounter—and may serve as—both victims and perpetrators of aggressive behavior in the workplace. While the nursing literature has continually reported research on prevention and treatment approaches, less emphasis has been given to understanding the etiology, including contextual precipitants of aggressive behavior. This paper provides a brief review of the biological, social, and environmental risk factors that purportedly give rise to aggressive behavior. Further, many researchers have focused specifically on aggressive behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Less attention has been given to understanding the etiology of such behavior in young children and older adults. This paper emphasizes the unique risk factors for aggressive behavior across the developmental spectrum, including childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and late life. Appreciation of the risk factors of aggressive behavior, and, in particular, how they relate to age-specific manifestations, can aid nurses in better design and implementation of prevention and treatment programs. PMID:22471771

  4. A CRTCal link between energy and life span.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Cutting down calories prolongs life, but how this works remains largely unknown. A recent study in Nature (Mair et al., 2011) shows that life span extension triggered by the energy-sensing protein kinase AMPK is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional circuit involving CRTC-1 and CREB.

  5. Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei.

    PubMed

    Lind, Martin I; Zwoinska, Martyna K; Meurling, Sara; Carlsson, Hanne; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase.

  6. Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei.

    PubMed

    Lind, Martin I; Zwoinska, Martyna K; Meurling, Sara; Carlsson, Hanne; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase. PMID:26472877

  7. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span

    PubMed Central

    Strough, JoNell; Karns, Tara E.; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2013-01-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases—the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people’s everyday lives. PMID:22023568

  8. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span.

    PubMed

    Strough, Jonell; Karns, Tara E; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2011-10-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases-the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people's everyday lives.

  9. Women's Spirituality across the Life Span: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…

  10. Redesign of a Life Span Development Course Using Fink's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared a traditional lecture-based life span development course to the same course redesigned using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning. The goals, activities, and feedback within the course corresponded to Fink's 6 taxa (knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, learning how to learn). Undergraduates in…

  11. Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

  12. Longevity: potential life span and health span enhancement through practice of the basic yoga meditation regimen.

    PubMed

    Bushell, William C

    2009-08-01

    This chapter briefly reviews recent psychological, physiological, molecular biological, and anthropological research which has important implications, both direct and indirect, for the recognition and understanding of the potential life span and health span enhancing effects of the basic yoga meditational regimen. This regimen consists of meditation, yogic breath control practices, physical exercises (of both a postural- and movement-based, including aerobic nature), and dietary practices. While each of these component categories exhibit variations in different schools, lineages, traditions, and cultures, the focus of this chapter is primarily on basic forms of relaxation meditation and breath control, as well as postural and aerobic physical exercises (e.g., yogic prostration regimens, see below), and a standard form of yogic or ascetic diet, all of which constitute a basic form of regimen found in many if not most cultures, though with variations.

  13. Death education: enhancing competence across the life span.

    PubMed

    Eddy, J M; St Pierre, R W; Alles, W F; Monismith, S W

    1983-01-01

    Life is full of major and minor events analogous to dying and death that few people realize exist. Throughout life there are a variety of loss situations (e.g., death of a pet, divorce, loss of a job, retirement, death of a friend or relative, etc.) that help to prepare individuals for their own death. If death educators can enhance the life skills necessary to cope with these life events, then perhaps, the individual will be better able to cope with their own death and the death of a significant other. This paper will present an overview of the basic tenets of life span intervention, provide a discussion of life skills directly related to dying and death, and suggest key points of positive intervention.

  14. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life. PMID:23934728

  15. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-08-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life.

  16. Homeless aging veterans in transition: a life-span perspective.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carla J; Bridier, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N = 12) also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual's passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations. PMID:24286010

  17. Homeless Aging Veterans in Transition: A Life-Span Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Carla J.; Bridier, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N = 12) also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual's passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations. PMID:24286010

  18. Life-span cognitive activity, neuropathologic burden, and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that cognitive activity across the life span is related to late-life cognitive decline not linked to common neuropathologic disorders. Methods: On enrollment, older participants in a longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort study rated late-life (i.e., current) and early-life participation in cognitively stimulating activities. After a mean of 5.8 years of annual cognitive function testing, 294 individuals had died and undergone neuropathologic examination. Chronic gross infarcts, chronic microscopic infarcts, and neocortical Lewy bodies were identified, and measures of β-amyloid burden and tau-positive tangle density in multiple brain regions were derived. Results: In a mixed-effects model adjusted for age at death, sex, education, gross and microscopic infarction, neocortical Lewy bodies, amyloid burden, and tangle density, more frequent late-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.028, standard error [SE] = 0.008, p < 0.001) and early-life cognitive activity (estimate = 0.034, SE = 0.013, p = 0.008) were each associated with slower cognitive decline. The 2 measures together accounted for 14% of the residual variability in cognitive decline not related to neuropathologic burden. The early-life–activity association was attributable to cognitive activity in childhood (estimate = 0.027, SE = 0.012, p = 0.026) and middle age (estimate = 0.029, SE = 0.013, p = 0.025) but not young adulthood (estimate = −0.020, SE = 0.014, p = 0.163). Conclusions: More frequent cognitive activity across the life span has an association with slower late-life cognitive decline that is independent of common neuropathologic conditions, consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis. PMID:23825173

  19. Synchronizing Loss with Life Over a Life Span: A Dynamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Synchronizing loss with life is a dynamic journey. This article explores the myths, beliefs, and dynamics of loss and life. The purpose of the article is to help clinicians assist and support their clients with the difficulties of synchronizing loss with life as they progress on their life span journey.

  20. The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2012-01-01

    In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called “fairy circles” are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions. PMID:22761663

  1. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: A total of 496 students and alumni (age range, 17-84 year) at a large, NCAA Division I university, including student athletes and an age- and sex-matched nonathlete control group, completed anonymous, self-report health and exercise questionnaires. Age-stratified, cross-sectional analysis evaluated previous week’s total exercise volume (ExVol), self-rated exercise importance (ExImp), and compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) exercise guidelines for healthy adults. The association of ACSM guideline compliance with lifetime cardiopulmonary health outcomes was also assessed. Results: Current student athletes reported significantly greater ExVol (P < 0.001. Cohen d = 0.99, probability of clinically important difference [pCID] >99.5%), ExImp (P < 0.001, d = 1.96, pCID = 96%), and likelihood of compliance with ACSM guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.6, 11.0-84.6) compared with nonathletes. No significant differences were found between alumni student athletes and nonathletes. Alumni student athletes demonstrated substantially lower ExVol (P < 0.001, d = –0.94, pCID >99.5%) and guideline compliance (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.05-0.19) compared with current student athletes, whereas nonathletes had similar exercise behavior across the life span. Among alumni, ACSM guideline compliance was associated with significant attenuation of cardiopulmonary health concerns (P = 0.02, d = –0.50, pCID = 14%) independent

  2. C. elegans VANG-1 modulates life span via insulin/IGF-1-like signaling.

    PubMed

    Honnen, Sebastian J; Büchter, Christian; Schröder, Verena; Hoffmann, Michael; Kohara, Yuji; Kampkötter, Andreas; Bossinger, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and a PCP-like pathway has recently been described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The developmental function of this pathway is to coordinate the orientation of cells or structures within the plane of an epithelium or to organize cell-cell intercalation required for correct morphogenesis. Here, we describe a novel role of VANG-1, the only C. elegans ortholog of the conserved PCP component Strabismus/Van Gogh. We show that two alleles of vang-1 and depletion of the protein by RNAi cause an increase of mean life span up to 40%. Consistent with the longevity phenotype vang-1 animals also show enhanced resistance to thermal- and oxidative stress and decreased lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, vang-1 mutants show defects like reduced brood size, decreased ovulation rate and prolonged reproductive span, which are also related to gerontogenes. The germline, but not the intestine or neurons, seems to be the primary site of vang-1 function. Life span extension in vang-1 mutants depends on the insulin/IGF-1-like receptor DAF-2 and DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor. RNAi against the phase II detoxification transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf2 also reduced vang-1 life span that might be explained by gradual inhibition of insulin/IGF-1-like signaling in vang-1. This is the first time that a key player of the PCP pathway is shown to be involved in the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling dependent modulation of life span in C. elegans.

  3. Explanations of a magic trick across the life span.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jay A; Demacheva, Irina; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Studying how children and adults explain magic tricks can reveal developmental differences in cognition. We showed 167 children (aged 4-13 years) a video of a magician making a pen vanish and asked them to explain the trick. Although most tried to explain the secret, none of them correctly identified it. The younger children provided more supernatural interpretations and more often took the magician's actions at face value. Combined with a similar study of adults (N = 1008), we found that both young children and older adults were particularly overconfident in their explanations of the trick. Our methodology demonstrates the feasibility of using magic to study cognitive development across the life span.

  4. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes . E-mail: j.grillari@iam.boku.ac.at

    2006-04-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells.

  5. Exercise, brain, and cognition across the life span

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Michelle W.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This is a brief review of current evidence for the relationships between physical activity and exercise and the brain and cognition throughout the life span in non-pathological populations. We focus on the effects of both aerobic and resistance training and provide a brief overview of potential neurobiological mechanisms derived from non-human animal models. Whereas research has focused primarily on the benefits of aerobic exercise in youth and young adult populations, there is growing evidence that both aerobic and resistance training are important for maintaining cognitive and brain health in old age. Finally, in these contexts, we point out gaps in the literature and future directions that will help advance the field of exercise neuroscience, including more studies that explicitly examine the effect of exercise type and intensity on cognition, the brain, and clinically significant outcomes. There is also a need for human neuroimaging studies to adopt a more unified multi-modal framework and for greater interaction between human and animal models of exercise effects on brain and cognition across the life span. PMID:21527670

  6. Exercise, brain, and cognition across the life span.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-11-01

    This is a brief review of current evidence for the relationships between physical activity and exercise and the brain and cognition throughout the life span in non-pathological populations. We focus on the effects of both aerobic and resistance training and provide a brief overview of potential neurobiological mechanisms derived from non-human animal models. Whereas research has focused primarily on the benefits of aerobic exercise in youth and young adult populations, there is growing evidence that both aerobic and resistance training are important for maintaining cognitive and brain health in old age. Finally, in these contexts, we point out gaps in the literature and future directions that will help advance the field of exercise neuroscience, including more studies that explicitly examine the effect of exercise type and intensity on cognition, the brain, and clinically significant outcomes. There is also a need for human neuroimaging studies to adopt a more unified multi-modal framework and for greater interaction between human and animal models of exercise effects on brain and cognition across the life span.

  7. Partner preferences across the life span: online dating by older adults.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Sheyna Sears-Roberts; Mendelsohn, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Stereotypes of older adults as withdrawn or asexual fail to recognize that romantic relationships in later life are increasingly common. The authors analyzed 600 Internet personal ads from 4 age groups: 20-34, 40-54, 60-74, and 75+ years. Predictions from evolutionary theory held true in later life, when reproduction is no longer a concern. Across the life span, men sought physical attractiveness and offered status-related information more than women; women were more selective than men and sought status more than men. With age, men desired women increasingly younger than themselves, whereas women desired older men until ages 75 and over, when they sought men younger than themselves.

  8. Female life span and fertility are increased by the ejaculates of preferred males.

    PubMed

    Wagner, William E; Harper, Christopher J

    2003-09-01

    In animals with internal fertilization, sperm competition among males can favor the evolution of male ejaculate traits that are detrimental to females. Female mating preferences, in contrast, often favor traits in males that are beneficial to females, yet little is known about the effect of these preferences on the evolution of male ejaculates. A necessary condition for female preferences to affect the evolution of male ejaculate characteristics is that females select mates based on a trait correlated with ejaculate quality. Previous work has shown that females of the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, prefer males that produce calling songs containing faster and longer chirps. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that females receive more beneficial ejaculates from preferred males. Females were placed on either a high- or a reduced-nutrition diet then mated twice to a male of known song phenotype. Females received only sperm and seminal fluid from males during these matings. There was no effect of male song phenotype on any fitness component for females on the high-nutrition diet. Reduced-nutrition females mated to males that produced preferred song types, however, lived longer, produced more eggs, produced more fertile eggs, and had a higher proportion of their eggs fertilized than those mated to other males. The life-span benefit was positively associated with male chirp duration, and the reproductive benefits were positively associated with male chirp rate. We explored two possible mechanisms for the life span and reproductive benefits. First, a path analysis suggested that part of the effect of male chirp duration on female life span may have been indirect; females mated to males that produced longer chirps showed delayed oviposition, and females that delayed oviposition lived longer. Males that produce longer chirps may thus transfer fewer or less potent oviposition stimulants to females in their seminal fluid. Second, there was a positive

  9. 7 CFR 701.37 - Loss of control of the property during the practice life span.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... life span. 701.37 Section 701.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... THIS PART General § 701.37 Loss of control of the property during the practice life span. In the event... during the practice life-span, if the person or legal entity acquiring control elects not to become...

  10. 7 CFR 701.37 - Loss of control of the property during the practice life span.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... life span. 701.37 Section 701.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... THIS PART General § 701.37 Loss of control of the property during the practice life span. In the event... during the practice life-span, if the person or legal entity acquiring control elects not to become...

  11. 7 CFR 701.37 - Loss of control of the property during the practice life span.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... life span. 701.37 Section 701.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... THIS PART General § 701.37 Loss of control of the property during the practice life span. In the event... during the practice life-span, if the person or legal entity acquiring control elects not to become...

  12. 7 CFR 701.37 - Loss of control of the property during the practice life span.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... life span. 701.37 Section 701.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... the property during the practice life span. In the event of voluntary or involuntary loss of control of the land by the ECP cost-share recipient during the practice life-span, if the person...

  13. Change in photoperiodic cycle affects life span in a prosimian primate (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Perret, M

    1997-04-01

    The lesser mouse lemur, a small prosimian primate, exhibits seasonal rhythms strictly controlled by photoperiodic variations. Exposure to day lengths shorter than 12 h results in complete sexual rest, fattening, lethargy, and reduced behavioral activities; whereas exposure to day lengths greater than 12 h induces sexual activity, an increase in behavioral activities, and high hormonal levels. The objective of this study was to test whether long-term acceleration of seasonal rhythms may affect survival and longevity of this primate. In captivity, acceleration of seasonal rhythms was obtained by exposing the animals to an accelerated photoperiodic regimen consisting of 5 months of long photoperiod followed by 3 months of short photoperiod. The age-specific survival rate in animals exposed from birth to accelerated photoperiodic conditions (n = 89) was compared to the age-specific survival rate of animals maintained under a natural photoperiod (n = 68). Independent of sexes, the mean life span (45.5 +/- 2.1 months) and maximal survival (79.3 +/- 3.3 months) were significantly (p < .01) shortened in mouse lemurs exposed to the accelerated photoperiodic cycle compared to those in animals living under annual photoperiod (63.2 +/- 2.5 and 98 +/- 3.9 months for mean life span and maximal survival, respectively). This reduction of about 30% of life span was not accompanied by a desynchronization of biological rhythms under photoperiodic control and was not related to an increase in reproduction or in duration of time spent in active conditions. However, when the number of seasonal cycles experienced by 1 individual is considered rather than chronological age, the mean life span was 5 seasonal cycles and maximum survival reached 9-10 cycles, independent of sex or of photoperiodic regimen. These results suggest that in mouse lemurs, as in other seasonal mammals, longevity may depend on the expression of a fixed number of seasonal cycles rather than on a fixed biological age

  14. Emotional Egocentricity Bias Across the Life-Span

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Federica; Triscoli, Chantal; Lamm, Claus; Carnaghi, Andrea; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    In our daily lives, we often have to quickly estimate the emotions of our conspecifics in order to have successful social interactions. While this estimation process seems quite easy when we are ourselves in a neutral or equivalent emotional state, it has recently been shown that in case of incongruent emotional states between ourselves and the others, our judgments can be biased. This phenomenon, introduced to the literature with the term Emotional Egocentricity Bias (EEB), has been found to occur in young adults and, to a greater extent, in children. However, how the EEB changes across the life-span from adolescence to old age has been largely unexplored. In this study, we recruited 114 female participants subdivided in four cohorts (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, older adults) to examine EEB age-related changes. Participants were administered with a recently developed paradigm which, by making use of visuo-tactile stimulation that elicits conflicting feelings in paired participants, allows the valid and reliable exploration of the EEB. Results highlighted a U-shape relation between age and EEB, revealing enhanced emotional egocentricity in adolescents and older adults compared to young and middle-aged adults. These results are in line with the neuroscientific literature which has recently shown that overcoming the EEB is associated with a greater activation of a portion of the parietal lobe, namely the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSMG). This is an area that reaches full maturation by the end of adolescence and goes through an early decay. Thus, the age-related changes of the EEB could be possibly due to the life-span development of the rSMG. This study is the first one to show the quadratic relation between age and the EEB and set a milestone for further research exploring the neural correlates of the life-span development of the EEB. Future studies are needed in order to generalize these results to the male population and to explore gender

  15. Integrating the Life Course and Life-Span: Formulating Research Questions with Dual Points of Entry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Porfelli, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Life-span research typically begins with personal characteristics, life-course research with social context and roles. Using both points of entry will encourage interdisciplinary work as well as the study of person-context interactions. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  16. Explanations of a magic trick across the life span

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jay A.; Demacheva, Irina; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Studying how children and adults explain magic tricks can reveal developmental differences in cognition. We showed 167 children (aged 4–13 years) a video of a magician making a pen vanish and asked them to explain the trick. Although most tried to explain the secret, none of them correctly identified it. The younger children provided more supernatural interpretations and more often took the magician's actions at face value. Combined with a similar study of adults (N = 1008), we found that both young children and older adults were particularly overconfident in their explanations of the trick. Our methodology demonstrates the feasibility of using magic to study cognitive development across the life span. PMID:25798117

  17. Life span changes in the verbal categorization of odors.

    PubMed

    Russell, M J; Cummings, B J; Profitt, B F; Wysocki, C J; Gilbert, A N; Cotman, C W

    1993-03-01

    An odor description task was used to explore age-related change in odor perception based on 1.19 million U.S. and Canadian respondents (ages 10-90 years) to the National Geographic Smell Survey. Respondents sampled six microencapsulated odorants and selected 1 of 11 descriptors to characterize each smell. Four odors were characterized by strong consensus endorsement of a single descriptor. This consensus weakened with advancing age, and nonmodal descriptors were endorsed more frequently. Nonmodal responses were neither randomly selected, nor systematically biased across odors. Rather, they showed odor-specific patterns of change. Together, these results suggest a marked change in odor categorization across the life span. Odor descriptor profiles were used to generate age-specific multidimensional scaling maps. Stimulus configurations were stable from the third through fifth decades. Those from the sixth through ninth decades showed major displacements for two odors, and suggest that the sweet dimension of odor quality may be particularly variable with maturation.

  18. Growth negatively impacts the life span of mammals.

    PubMed

    Rollo, C David

    2002-01-01

    A negative intraspecific relationship between growth and longevity was proposed in the early 20th century. Indeed, stunting the growth of rodents by restricting their food dramatically extended life span. Subsequently, however, the hypothesis that growth exacerbates aging rates fell into disfavor. Contributing to this was (a) the establishment of a positive relationship between body size and longevity interspecifically, (b) purported antiaging impacts of growth hormone, and (c) the fact that the longevity of even mature rodents that had completed growth was extended by dietary restriction. Furthermore, intraspecific analytical studies failed to provide any clear resolution. This article presents the first global analyses of maximal longevity versus maximum mature mass for laboratory rats and mice, based on a relatively comprehensive compilation of research across the 20th century. Peak body mass (which reflects juvenile growth rates) was negatively associated with longevity within both species. Proximal mechanisms for impacts of growth on longevity appear congruent with the free radical and immunological theories of aging.

  19. Explanations of a magic trick across the life span.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jay A; Demacheva, Irina; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Studying how children and adults explain magic tricks can reveal developmental differences in cognition. We showed 167 children (aged 4-13 years) a video of a magician making a pen vanish and asked them to explain the trick. Although most tried to explain the secret, none of them correctly identified it. The younger children provided more supernatural interpretations and more often took the magician's actions at face value. Combined with a similar study of adults (N = 1008), we found that both young children and older adults were particularly overconfident in their explanations of the trick. Our methodology demonstrates the feasibility of using magic to study cognitive development across the life span. PMID:25798117

  20. Dendrin ablation prolongs life span by delaying kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Weins, Astrid; Wong, Jenny S; Basgen, John M; Gupta, Ritu; Daehn, Ilse; Casagrande, Lisette; Lessman, David; Schwartzman, Monica; Meliambro, Kristin; Patrakka, Jaakko; Shaw, Andrey; Tryggvason, Karl; He, John Cijiang; Nicholas, Susanne B; Mundel, Peter; Campbell, Kirk N

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte loss is central to the progression of proteinuric kidney diseases leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), requiring renal replacement therapy, such as dialysis. Despite modern tools and techniques, the 5-year mortality of some patients requiring dialysis remains at about 70% to 80%. Thus, there is a great unmet need for podocyte-specific treatments aimed at preventing podocyte loss and the ensuing development of ESKD. Here, we show that ablation of the podocyte death-promoting protein dendrin delays the onset of ESKD, thereby expanding the life span of mice lacking the adapter protein CD2AP. Ablation of dendrin delays onset and severity of proteinuria and podocyte loss. In addition, dendrin ablation ameliorates mesangial volume expansion and up-regulation of mesangial fibronectin expression, which is mediated by a podocyte-secreted factor. In conclusion, onset of ESKD and death can be markedly delayed by blocking the function of dendrin.

  1. Impact of height and weight on life span.

    PubMed

    Samaras, T T; Storms, L H

    1992-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate one aspect of the entropy theory of aging, which hypothesizes that aging is the result of increasing disorder within the body, and which predicts that increasing mass lowers life span. The first evaluation of the impact of human size on longevity or life span in 1978, which was based on data for decreased groups of athletes and famous people in the USA, suggested that shorter, lighter men live longer than their taller, heavier counterparts. In 1990, a study of 1679 decreased men and women from the general American population supported these findings. In the present study data on the height, weight, and age at death of 373 men were obtained from records at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. Men of height 175.3 cm or less lived an average of 4.95 years longer than those of height over 175.3 cm, while men of height 170.2 cm or less lived 7.46 years longer than those of at least 182.9 cm. An analysis by weight difference revealed a 7.72-year greater longevity for men of weight 63.6 kg or less compared with those of 90.9 kg or more. This corroborates earlier evidence and contradicts the popular notion that taller people are healthier. While short stature due to malnutrition or illness is undesirable, our study suggests that feeding children for maximum growth and physical development may not add to and may indeed be harmful to their long-term health and longevity.

  2. Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wuerger, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185) covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age) was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1) Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens) whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2) Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.

  3. Effects of calorie restriction on life span of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) in microorganisms such as budding and fission yeasts has a robust and well-documented impact on longevity. In order to efficiently utilize the limited energy during CR, these organisms shift from primarily fermentative metabolism to mitochondrial respiration. Respiration activates certain conserved longevity factors such as sirtuins and is associated with widespread physiological changes that contribute to increased survival. However, the importance of respiration during CR-mediated longevity has remained controversial. The emergence of several novel metabolically distinct microbial models for longevity has enabled CR to be studied from new perspectives. The majority of CR and life span studies have been conducted in the primarily fermentative Crabtree-positive yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but studies in primarily respiratory Crabtree-negative yeast and obligate aerobes can offer complementary insight into the more complex mammalian response to CR. Not only are microorganisms helping characterize a conserved cellular mechanism for CR-mediated longevity, but they can also directly impact mammalian metabolism as part of the natural gut flora. Here, we discuss the contributions of microorganisms to our knowledge of CR and longevity at the level of both the cell and the organism. PMID:20721547

  4. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  5. Oxygen analyzers: failure rates and life spans of galvanic cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R M

    1990-07-01

    Competing technologies exist for measuring oxygen concentrations in breathing circuits. Over a 4-year period, two types of oxygen analyzers were studied prospectively in routine clinical use to determine the incidence and nature of malfunctions. Newer AC-powered galvanic analyzers (North American Dräger O2med) were compared with older, battery-powered polarographic analyzers (Ohmeda 201) by recording all failures and necessary repairs. The AC-powered galvanic analyzer had a significantly lower incidence of failures (0.12 +/- 0.04 failures per machine-month) than the battery-powered polarographic analyzer (4.0 +/- 0.3 failures per machine-month). Disposable capsules containing the active galvanic cells lasted 12 +/- 7 months. Although the galvanic analyzers tended to remain out of service longer, awaiting the arrival of costly parts, the polarographic analyzers were more expensive to keep operating when calculations included the cost of time spent on repairs. Stocking galvanic capsules would have decreased the amount of time the galvanic analyzers were out of service, while increasing costs. In conclusion, galvanic oxygen analyzers appear capable of delivering more reliable service at a lower overall cost. By keeping the galvanic capsules exposed to room air during periods of storage, it should be possible to prolong their life span, further decreasing the cost of using them. In addition, recognizing the aberrations in their performance that warn of the exhaustion of the galvanic cells should permit timely recording and minimize downtime.

  6. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction

    PubMed Central

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson’s model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in ‘individualisation’ and ‘self-reflexivity’ as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work. PMID:27041774

  7. Counting the calories: the role of specific nutrients in extension of life span by food restriction.

    PubMed

    Piper, Matthew D W; Mair, William; Partridge, Linda

    2005-05-01

    Reduction of food intake without malnourishment extends life span in many different organisms. The majority of work in this field has been performed in rodents where it has been shown that both restricting access to the entire diet and restricting individual dietary components can cause life-span extension. Thus, for insights into the mode of action of this intervention, it is of great interest to investigate the aspects of diet that are critical for life span extension. Further studies on the mechanisms of how food components modify life span are well suited to the model organism Drosophila melanogaster because of its short life span and ease of handling and containment. Therefore, we summarize practical aspects of implementing dietary restriction in this organism, as well as highlight the major advances already made. Delineation of the nutritional components that are critical for life-span extension will help to reveal the mechanisms by which it operates. PMID:15972601

  8. Reduced TOR signaling extends chronological life span via increased respiration and upregulation of mitochondrial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Chatenay-Lapointe, Marc; Pan, Yong; Shadel, Gerald S

    2007-04-01

    The relationships between mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and life span are complex and remain controversial. Inhibition of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway extends life span in several model organisms. We show here that deletion of the TOR1 gene extends chronological life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, primarily by increasing mitochondrial respiration via enhanced translation of mtDNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation complex subunits. Unlike previously reported pathways regulating chronological life span, we demonstrate that deletion of TOR1 delays aging independently of the antioxidant gene SOD2. Furthermore, wild-type and tor1 null strains differ in life span only when respiration competent and grown in normoxia in the presence of glucose. We propose that inhibition of TOR signaling causes derepression of respiration during growth in glucose and that the subsequent increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption limits intracellular oxygen and ROS-mediated damage during glycolytic growth, leading to lower cellular ROS and extension of chronological life span.

  9. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  10. [Life span and longevity in representatives of creative professions].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, V N; Zharinov, G M

    2013-01-01

    90+ years among men. Centenarians were 8.33% of academicians and architects, 6.25% of harp-players and 4.22% of writers-poets among women, and only 0.76% of pianists, 0.45% of scientists and 0.42% of violinists were centenarians among men. Our data are in agreement with the opinion that high intellect and education directly correlate with longer life span and longevity.

  11. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabdtitis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  12. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new

  13. Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F

    2012-06-01

    We examined the life-span development of self-esteem and tested whether self-esteem influences the development of important life outcomes, including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, salary, positive and negative affect, depression, and physical health. Data came from the Longitudinal Study of Generations. Analyses were based on 5 assessments across a 12-year period of a sample of 1,824 individuals ages 16 to 97 years. First, growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases from adolescence to middle adulthood, reaches a peak at about age 50 years, and then decreases in old age. Second, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that self-esteem is best modeled as a cause rather than a consequence of life outcomes. Third, growth curve analyses, with self-esteem as a time-varying covariate, suggested that self-esteem has medium-sized effects on life-span trajectories of affect and depression, small to medium-sized effects on trajectories of relationship and job satisfaction, a very small effect on the trajectory of health, and no effect on the trajectory of occupational status. These findings replicated across 4 generations of participants--children, parents, grandparents, and their great-grandparents. Together, the results suggest that self-esteem has a significant prospective impact on real-world life experiences and that high and low self-esteem are not mere epiphenomena of success and failure in important life domains.

  14. A Learning Theory Critique of the Operant Approach to Life Span Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Criticizes the operant approach to the study of life span development from a theoretical behaviorism view. It is argued that the operant approach is too limited in its scope to enhance significantly the conceptualization and understanding of life span development. (Author/DB)

  15. 7 CFR 701.37 - Loss of control of the property during the practice life span.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... life span. 701.37 Section 701.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... THIS PART General § 701.37 Loss of control of the property during the practice life span. In the event of voluntary or involuntary loss of control of the land by the ECP or EFRP cost-share...

  16. The Time of Our Lives: Life Span Development of Timing and Event Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, J. Devin; Jones, Mari Riess; Holub, Shayla; Johnston, Heather M.; Miller, Nathaniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Life span developmental profiles were constructed for 305 participants (ages 4-95) for a battery of paced and unpaced perceptual-motor timing tasks that included synchronize-continue tapping at a wide range of target event rates. Two life span hypotheses, derived from an entrainment theory of timing and event tracking, were tested. A preferred…

  17. Qualitative Exploration of Acculturation and Life-Span Issues of Elderly Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jee Hyang; Heo, Nanseol; Lu, Junfei; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2013-01-01

    Awareness of aging issues across diverse populations begins the journey toward counselors becoming culturally competent across client life spans. Understanding the life-span experiences of cultural groups is important for helping professionals. The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the qualitative experiences of Asian American…

  18. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  19. Higher respiratory activity decreases mitochondrial reactive oxygen release and increases life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Barros, Mario H; Bandy, Brian; Tahara, Erich B; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2004-11-26

    Increased replicative longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because of calorie restriction has been linked to enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity. Here we have further investigated how mitochondrial respiration affects yeast life span. We found that calorie restriction by growth in low glucose increased respiration but decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production relative to oxygen consumption. Calorie restriction also enhanced chronological life span. The beneficial effects of calorie restriction on mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species release, and replicative and chronological life span could be mimicked by uncoupling agents such as dinitrophenol. Conversely, chronological life span decreased in cells treated with antimycin (which strongly increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation) or in yeast mutants null for mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (which removes superoxide radicals) and for RTG2 (which participates in retrograde feedback signaling between mitochondria and the nucleus). These results suggest that yeast aging is linked to changes in mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress and that mild mitochondrial uncoupling can increase both chronological and replicative life span.

  20. The yeast forkhead HCM1 controls life span independent of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Noam; Gabay, Orshay; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Cohen, Haim Y

    2015-04-01

    Regulation of life span by members of the forkhead transcription factor family of proteins is one of the most highly investigated pathways in the field of aging. Nevertheless, despite the existence of forkhead family homologues in yeast, our knowledge of these proteins' role in yeast longevity is limited. Here, we show that yeast Hcm1p forkhead is the closest homologue of the worm PHA-4 forkhead, which regulates Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Overexpressing the yeast forkhead HCM1 or its deficiency resulted in a significant extension or reduction in yeast replicative life span, respectively. HCM1 regulates stress resistance, significantly increases the mRNA levels of several stress response genes including the catalase enzymes CTA1 and CTT1, and positively regulates life span independently of calorie restriction. Thus, HCM1 is a key regulator of life span, through a mechanism independent of calorie restriction. PMID:24835838

  1. Antiquity of postreproductive life: are there modern impacts on hunter-gatherer postreproductive life spans?

    PubMed

    Blurton Jones, Nicholas G; Hawkes, Kristen; O'Connell, James F

    2002-01-01

    Female postreproductive life is a striking feature of human life history and there have been several recent attempts to account for its evolution. But archaeologists estimate that in the past, few individuals lived many postreproductive years. Is postreproductive life a phenotypic outcome of modern conditions, needing no evolutionary account? This article assesses effects of the modern world on hunter-gatherer adult mortality, with special reference to the Hadza. Evidence suggests that such effects are not sufficient to deny the existence of substantial life expectancy at the end of the childbearing career. Data from contemporary hunter-gatherers (Ache, !Kung, Hadza) match longevity extrapolated from regressions of lifespan on body and brain weight. Twenty or so vigorous years between the end of reproduction and the onset of significant senescence does require an explanation.

  2. Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingtao; Folk, Donna; Bradley, Timothy J; Tower, John

    2002-01-01

    A transgenic system ("FLP-out") based on yeast FLP recombinase allowed induced overexpression of MnSOD enzyme in adult Drosophila melanogaster. With FLP-out a brief heat pulse (HP) of young, adult flies triggered the rearrangement and subsequent expression of a MnSOD transgene throughout the adult life span. Control (no HP) and overexpressing (HP) flies had identical genetic backgrounds. The amount of MnSOD enzyme overexpression achieved varied among six independent transgenic lines, with increases up to 75%. Life span was increased in proportion to the increase in enzyme. Mean life span was increased by an average of 16%, with some lines showing 30-33% increases. Maximum life span was increased by an average of 15%, with one line showing as much as 37% increase. Simultaneous overexpression of catalase with MnSOD had no added benefit, consistent with previous observations that catalase is present in excess in the adult fly with regard to life span. Cu/ZnSOD overexpression also increases mean and maximum life span. For both MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD lines, increased life span was not associated with decreased metabolic activity, as measured by O2 consumption. PMID:12072463

  3. Sex Role Orientation Across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaks, Peggy M.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that four different "life lines" would affect sex role orientations, specifically intimacy, parenting, grandparenting, and work. Subjects were 74 men and 43 women, white, upper middle class with a mean education level of 14 years. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a Life Events…

  4. Self-Determination across the Life Span: Issues and Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Schindler, Abigail; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Parent, Wendy; Jenson, Ronda; Abery, Brian H.; Geringer, Wendy; Bacon, Ansley; O'Hara, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on self-determination across the lifespan with a focus on identifying gaps that exist between theory, research, and evidence-based practices. Using a life-stages approach, it first examines issues across life phases, and then examines cross-cutting topics (employment, abuse and neglect, and health) that are…

  5. Reduced growth hormone signaling and methionine restriction: interventions that improve metabolic health and extend life span.

    PubMed

    Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that improve health are often associated with longevity. Reduced growth hormone signaling has been shown to increase life span in mice by over 50%. Similarly, reductions in dietary intake of methionine, in rats and mice, result in life-span extension. Many factors affect metabolic health, mitochondrial function, and resistance to stressors, each of which influence aging and life span. This paper presents a comparison of these two interventions, as well as the results of a study combining these interventions, to understand potential mechanisms underlying their effectiveness in enhancing healthy aging.

  6. Life Span Evolution in Eusocial Workers—A Theoretical Approach to Understanding the Effects of Extrinsic Mortality in a Hierarchical System

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Boris H.; Schaible, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    While the extraordinary life span of queens and division of labor in eusocial societies have been well studied, it is less clear which selective forces act on the short life span of workers. The disparity of life span between the queen and the workers is linked to a basic issue in sociobiology: How are the resources in a colony allocated between colony maintenance and reproduction? Resources for somatic maintenance of the colony can either be invested into quality or quantity of workers. Here, we present a theoretical optimization model that uses a hierarchical trade-off within insect colonies and extrinsic mortality to explain how different aging phenotypes could have evolved to keep resources secure in the colony. The model points to the significance of two factors. First, any investment that would generate a longer intrinsic life span for workers is lost if the individual dies from external causes while foraging. As a consequence, risky environments favor the evolution of workers with a shorter life span. Second, shorter-lived workers require less investment than long-lived ones, allowing the colony to allocate these resources to sexual reproduction or colony growth. PMID:23596527

  7. Endosomal protein sorting and autophagy genes contribute to the regulation of yeast life span.

    PubMed

    Longo, Valter D; Nislow, Corey; Fabrizio, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Accumulating evidence from various organisms points to a role for autophagy in the regulation of life span. By performing a genome-wide screen to identify novel life span determinants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have obtained further insights into the autophagy-related and -unrelated degradation processes that may be important for preventing cellular senescence. The generation of multivesicular bodies and their fusion with the vacuole in the endosomal pathway emerged as novel cell functions involved in yeast chronological survival and longevity extension.

  8. Copper supplementation increases yeast life span under conditions requiring respiratory metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kirchman, Paul A; Botta, Gabriela

    2007-02-01

    To further exploit yeast as a model for cellular aging we have modified the replicative life span assay to force respiration, by replacing glucose with the non-fermentable carbon source glycerol. The growth rates of several different strains varied greatly, with doubling times ranging from 2.7 to 7 h. Life spans of all strains were lower on media containing glycerol than on media containing glucose. However, supplementation of glycerol-containing media with copper resulted in increases in life span of between 17 and 72%; life spans equivalent to or beyond those obtained on glucose media. Addition of copper to glucose medium had no effect on life span. Microarray analysis showed that genes responsible for high affinity import of copper display reduced expression upon addition of copper, while most genes showed no change in expression. No differences in growth rate, oxygen uptake, or the levels of subunit II of the copper-containing cytochrome c oxidase were found between cultures of yeast grown with or without copper supplementation. Copper supplementation greatly extended the life span of sod1 and sod2 strains, suggesting that addition of copper may reduce the generation of superoxide. Forcing yeast to respire places an emphasis on mitochondrial function and may aid in the identification of factors involved in aging in other respiratory-dependent organisms.

  9. Neuroendocrine and pharmacological manipulations to assess how caloric restriction increases life span.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, C V; Bray, G A; Atkinson, R L; Bartke, A; Finch, C E; Maratos-Flier, E; Crawley, J N; Nelson, J F

    2001-03-01

    As part of an effort to review current understanding of the mechanisms by which caloric restriction (CR) extends maximum life span, the authors of the present review were requested to develop a list of key issues concerning the potential role of neuroendocrine systems in mediating these effects. It has long been hypothesized that failure of specific neuroendocrine functions during aging leads to key age-related systemic and physiological failures, and more recently it has been postulated that physiological neuroendocrine responses to CR may increase life span. However, although the acute neuroendocrine responses to fasting have been well studied, it is not clear that these responses are necessarily identical to those observed in response to the chronic moderate (30% to 50% reduction) CR that increases maximum life span. Therefore the recommendations of this panel fall into two categories. First, further characterization of neuroendocrine responses to CR over the entire life span is needed. Second, rigorous interventional studies are needed to test the extent to which neuroendocrine responses to CR mediate the effects of CR on life span, or alternatively if CR protects the function of essential neuroendocrine cells whose impairment reduces life span. Complementary studies using rodent models, nonhuman primates, and humans will be essential to assess the generality of elucidated mechanisms, and to determine if such mechanisms might apply to humans. PMID:12088210

  10. Disentangling environmental effects on adult life span in a butterfly across the metamorphic boundary.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Perlick, Jana E C; Fischer, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    Life span is a central life history trait often showing tremendous variation within populations. Much of this variation can be attributed to environmental factors. In holometabolous insects life stages differ strikingly in physiology and energetic demands, and environmental variation before and after metamorphosis may not necessarily yield identical responses. In this study, we adopted a full-factorial experimental design with two larval and two adult temperatures as well as two larval and three adult feeding treatments (n(total)=1151). Identical temperatures yielded qualitatively different results depending on the developmental stage. While the lower compared to the higher developmental temperature slightly reduced adult life span, a lower adult temperature substantially increased life span. Food stress in the larval stage slightly reduced life span, as did food stress during the adult stage. Females lived generally longer than males. All factors investigated were involved in interactions with other factors, both within and across life stages. For instance, the qualitative impact of larval food stress depended on adult feeding treatment and adult temperature. Our results suggest that much insight into the causes of variation in life span is to be gained by explicitly considering environmental impacts across developmental stages and potential interactions among different environmental factors.

  11. Herbal Supplement Extends Life Span Under Some Environmental Conditions and Boosts Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Villeponteau, Bryant; Matsagas, Kennedy; Nobles, Amber C.; Rizza, Cristina; Horwitz, Marc; Benford, Gregory; Mockett, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100) that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span. PMID:25879540

  12. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy life span.

    PubMed

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R; Milner, John; Ross, A Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-08-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN's Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis.

  13. Life span of beef-type Bos taurus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus females in a dry, temperate climate.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C M

    1991-06-01

    Females representing Hereford, Red Poll, F1 Hereford x Red Poll, F1 Red Poll x Hereford, F1 Angus x Hereford, F1 Angus x Charolais, F1 Brahman x Hereford, and F1 Brahman x Angus breed types were evaluated from birth until 10 yr of age. Of 308 females born alive, 35.7% died or were culled because of injury, serious illness, or reproductive failure. Breed types differed (P less than .01) in total number of mating seasons per cow and total number of progeny born and weaned. Values for lifetime total number of calves weaned were as follows: Hereford, 4.54; Red Poll, 5.45; Hereford x Red Poll, 4.45; Red Poll x Hereford, 5.49; Angus x Hereford, 5.98; Angus x Charolais, 5.57; Brahman x Hereford, 6.96; and Brahman x Angus, 6.22. Brahman crosses (P less than .01) and Angus x Charolais (P less than .10) exceeded Hereford dams in lifetime total number of calves weaned but did not differ from Angus x Herefords. Analysis of the Hereford-Red Poll diallel showed no evidence of heterosis in life span traits. Results indicate that breed type was a major source of variation in reproductive life span of beef-type females. F1 Bos indicus crosses and Angus x Herefords were outstanding in longevity.

  14. 'Willpower' over the life span: decomposing self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Walter; Ayduk, Ozlem; Berman, Marc G; Casey, B J; Gotlib, Ian H; Jonides, John; Kross, Ethan; Teslovich, Theresa; Wilson, Nicole L; Zayas, Vivian; Shoda, Yuichi

    2011-04-01

    In the 1960s, Mischel and colleagues developed a simple 'marshmallow test' to measure preschoolers' ability to delay gratification. In numerous follow-up studies over 40 years, this 'test' proved to have surprisingly significant predictive validity for consequential social, cognitive and mental health outcomes over the life course. In this article, we review key findings from the longitudinal work and from earlier delay-of-gratification experiments examining the cognitive appraisal and attention control strategies that underlie this ability. Further, we outline a set of hypotheses that emerge from the intersection of these findings with research on 'cognitive control' mechanisms and their neural bases. We discuss implications of these hypotheses for decomposing the phenomena of 'willpower' and the lifelong individual differences in self-regulatory ability that were identified in the earlier research and that are currently being pursued.

  15. Life history implications of allocation to growth versus reproduction in dynamic energy budgets.

    PubMed

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M

    2003-09-01

    We compare the implications of determinate vs. indeterminate growth of a parthenogenetic iteroparous ectotherm at constant food density in the context of the dynamic energy budget theory, which specifies the tight links between life history traits, such as feeding, aging, growth and reproduction. We do a comparative analysis using, as measure of fitness, the life span reproduction, the population growth rate, and the conversion efficiency of food to biomass. When extrinsic mortality is constant, indeterminate growth cannot maximize fitness if measured by the population growth rate or the conversion efficiency, except when mortality is low, in which case both types of animals are similar. If the fitness measure is life span reproduction, indeterminate growth maximizes fitness even with constant mortality, provided it is not very high. When mortality decreases with size, indeterminate growth maximizes fitness for almost all measures of fitness. Finally, we suggest an evolutionary link between allocation strategies and expected life span. In populations of long living species, each type of animal can establish in the population of the other. In populations of short living species, determinate growers can invade, and displace, a population of indeterminate ones. However, when the mortality risk of organisms with small size is much higher than those of large size, indeterminate growers can be superior.

  16. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    PubMed

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.

  17. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span. PMID:26995762

  18. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span.

  19. The Writing Process: Effects of Life-Span Development on Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shock, Diane Hahn

    A qualitative study focused on incubation and illumination within the act of writing to determine if life-span development affects image production during these creative, cognitive acts. Sixteen subjects of both sexes from four age groups represented major developmental stages in the life cycle. The research design provided two 90-minute sessions…

  20. Life Span and Motility Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Sophora moorcroftiana Seeds on Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Han, Junxian; Zhu, Rongyan; Cui, Rongrong; Ma, Xingming; Dong, Kaizhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sophora moorcroftiana is an endemic shrub species with a great value in folk medicine in Tibet, China. In this study, relatively little is known about whether S. moorcroftiana is beneficial in animals' nervous system and life span or not. Materials and Methods: To address this question, under survival normal temperature (25°C), S. moorcroftiana seeds were extracted with 95% ethanol, and Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to three different extract concentrations (100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 400 mg/mL) from S. moorcroftiana seeds. Results: The 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could increase life span and slow aging-related increase in C. elegans and could not obviously influence the motility of C. elegans. Conclusion: Given these results by our experiment for life span and motility with 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds in C. elegans, the question whether S. moorcroftiana acts as an anti-aging substance in vivo arises. SUMMARY The 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds have no effect on the life span in C. elegans when extract concentrations from S. moorcroftiana seeds <400 mg/LThe 400 mg/L 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could increase life span in C. elegansThe 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could not obviously influence the motility in C. elegans. Abbreviation used: S. moorcroftiana: Sophora moorcroftiana; C. elegan: Caenorhabditis elegan; E. coli OP50: Escherichia coli OP50; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:27279712

  1. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J.; Kuballa, Petric; Xavier, Ramnik; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ω-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ω-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ω-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ω-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs. PMID:23392608

  2. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J; Kuballa, Petric; Xavier, Ramnik; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-02-15

    Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ω-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ω-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ω-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ω-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs.

  3. Quantitative trait loci for life span in Drosophila melanogaster: interactions with genetic background and larval density.

    PubMed Central

    Leips, J; Mackay, T F

    2000-01-01

    The genetic architecture of variation in adult life span was examined for a population of recombinant inbred lines, each of which had been crossed to both inbred parental strains from which the lines were derived, after emergence from both high and low larval density. QTL affecting life span were mapped within each sex and larval density treatment by linkage to highly polymorphic roo-transposable element markers, using a composite interval mapping method. We detected a total of six QTL affecting life span; the additive effects and degrees of dominance for all were highly sex- and larval environment-specific. There were significant epistatic interactions between five of the life span QTL, the effects of which also differed according to genetic background, sex, and larval density. Five additional QTL were identified that contributed to differences among lines in their sensitivity to variation in larval density. Further fine-scale mapping is necessary to determine whether candidate genes within the regions to which the QTL map are actually responsible for the observed variation in life span. PMID:10924473

  4. ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids extend life span through the activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Eyleen J; Kuballa, Petric; Xavier, Ramnik; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-02-15

    Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C. elegans induces the expression of a lipase, which in turn leads to an enrichment of ω-6 PUFAs. Supplementing C. elegans culture media with these ω-6 PUFAs increases their resistance to starvation and extends their life span in conditions of food abundance. Supplementation of C. elegans or human epithelial cells with these ω-6 PUFAs activates autophagy, a cell recycling mechanism that promotes starvation survival and slows aging. Inactivation of C. elegans autophagy components reverses the increase in life span conferred by supplementing the C. elegans diet with these fasting-enriched ω-6 PUFAs. We propose that the salubrious effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3/6 PUFAs (fish oils) that have emerged from epidemiological studies in humans may be due to a similar activation of autophagic programs. PMID:23392608

  5. Enhanced Energy Metabolism Contributes to the Extended Life Span of Calorie-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiyuan; Kadiyala, Chandra S.; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Hakimi, Parvin; Saha, Sudipto; Xu, Hua; Yuan, Chao; Mullangi, Vennela; Wang, Liwen; Fivenson, Elayne; Hanson, Richard W.; Ewing, Rob; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Miyagi, Masaru; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) markedly extends life span and improves the health of a broad number of species. Energy metabolism fundamentally contributes to the beneficial effects of CR, but the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for this effect remain enigmatic. A multidisciplinary approach that involves quantitative proteomics, immunochemistry, metabolic quantification, and life span analysis was used to determine how CR, which occurs in the Caenorhabditis elegans eat-2 mutants, modifies energy metabolism of the worm, and whether the observed modifications contribute to the CR-mediated physiological responses. A switch to fatty acid metabolism as an energy source and an enhanced rate of energy metabolism by eat-2 mutant nematodes were detected. Life span analyses validated the important role of these previously unknown alterations of energy metabolism in the CR-mediated longevity of nematodes. As observed in mice, the overexpression of the gene for the nematode analog of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase caused a marked extension of the life span in C. elegans, presumably by enhancing energy metabolism via an altered rate of cataplerosis of tricarboxylic acid cycle anions. We conclude that an increase, not a decrease in fuel consumption, via an accelerated oxidation of fuels in the TCA cycle is involved in life span regulation; this mechanism may be conserved across phylogeny. PMID:22810224

  6. Tequila Regulates Insulin-Like Signaling and Extends Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Horng-Dar; Bai, Hua; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Yen, Jui-Hung; Tatar, Marc; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2015-12-01

    The aging process is a universal phenomenon shared by all living organisms. The identification of longevity genes is important in that the study of these genes is likely to yield significant insights into human senescence. In this study, we have identified Tequila as a novel candidate gene involved in the regulation of longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that a hypomorphic mutation of Tequila (Teq(f01792)), as well as cell-specific downregulation of Tequila in insulin-producing neurons of the fly, significantly extends life span. Tequila deficiency-induced life-span extension is likely to be associated with reduced insulin-like signaling, because Tequila mutant flies display several common phenotypes of insulin dysregulation, including reduced circulating Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced body size, and altered glucose homeostasis. These observations suggest that Tequila may confer life-span extension by acting as a modulator of Drosophila insulin-like signaling.

  7. Effect of carbon ions on life span shortening and tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Shizuko; Kubo, Ayumi; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Nohima, Kumie; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2004-11-01

    One of the important concerns for astronauts in space is cancer risk associated with cosmic radiation, including heavy particle ions. But little information on cancer risk is available. We investigated the effect of carbon ions on life span shortening and tumor induction in B6C3F1 mice. The mice were exposed weekly to 0.4 and 2.0 Gy whole-body carbon-ion- or X-ray-irradiation for 4 consecutive weeks. The spectrum of induced tumors varied depending on the dose. The cause of death was thymic lymphomas and liver tumors at high and low dose, respectively. The life span shortening by X-rays was proportional to dose, while carbon ions produced a convex upward relationship. The relative biological effectiveness for the 50% life span shortening was about 1.4. The large effect of carbon ions encourages the study on tumor induction at low doses in the space. PMID:15900637

  8. Longevity in space; experiment on the life span of Paramecium cell clone in space.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Y; Tokunaga, N; Baba, S A

    1999-01-01

    Life span is the most interesting and also the most important biologically relevant time to be investigated on the space station. As a model experiment, we proposed an investigation to assess the life span of clone generation of the ciliate Paramecium. In space, clone generation will be artificially started by conjugation or autogamy, and the life span of the cell populations in different gravitational fields (microgravity and onboard 1 x g control) will be precisely assessed in terms of fission age as compared with the clock time. In order to perform the space experiment including long-lasting culture and continuous measurement of cell division, we tested the methods of cell culture and of cell-density measurement, which will be available in closed environments under microgravity. The basic design of experimental hardware and a preliminary result of the cultivation procedure are described.

  9. Learning From Leaders: Life-span Trends in Olympians and Supercentenarians

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Marck, Adrien; Noirez, Philippe; Latouche, Aurélien; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Life-span trends progression has worldwide practical implications as it may affect the sustainability of modern societies. We aimed to describe the secular life-span trends of populations with a propensity to live longer—Olympians and supercentenarians—under two hypotheses: an ongoing life-span extension versus a biologic “probabilistic barrier” limiting further progression. In a study of life-span densities (total number of life durations per birth date), we analyzed 19,012 Olympians and 1,205 supercentenarians deceased between 1900 and 2013. Among most Olympians, we observed a trend toward increased life duration. This trend, however, decelerates at advanced ages leveling off with the upper values with a perennial gap between Olympians and supercentenarians during the whole observation period. Similar tendencies are observed among supercentenarians, and over the last years, a plateau attests to a stable longevity pattern among the longest-lived humans. The common trends between Olympians and supercentenarians indicate similar mortality pressures over both populations that increase with age, scenario better explained by a biologic “barrier” forecast. PMID:25143003

  10. Service Learning in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Higher Exam Scores and Increased Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes research conducted to evaluate the impact of service learning on exam scores and emotional empathy in a life-span development course. Service learning was 1 of 3 project options offered in the course; others included an interview project and a research paper. With the exception of the first exam, scores were significantly…

  11. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  12. The Use of Digital Technologies across the Adult Life Span in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2010, a survey was carried out to explore access to digital technology, attitudes to digital technology and approaches to studying across the adult life span in students taking courses with the UK Open University. In total, 7000 people were surveyed, of whom more than 4000 responded. Nearly all these students had access to a computer and…

  13. Roles of the Operant Model and Its Methods in the Life Span Approach to Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltes, M. M.; Lerner, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that a better understanding of developmental processes is provided by three types of operant research -- laboratory behavioral descriptions, descriptions of naturalistic behavior-environment interdependencies, and predictive naturalistic studies. The usefulness of these processes are examined in light of the goals of life span developmental…

  14. Psychopathology in Williams Syndrome: The Effect of Individual Differences across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Helen F.; Porter, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to comprehensively explore psychopathology in Williams syndrome (WS) across the life span and evaluate the relationship between psychopathology and age category (child or adult), gender, and cognitive ability. The parents of 50 participants with WS, ages 6-50 years, were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders…

  15. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality.

    PubMed

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-10-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations; rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful.

  16. Yeast MRX deletions have short chronological life span and more triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Kanagavijayan, Dhanabalan; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism for lipid research. Here, we have used yeast haploid RAdiation Damage (RAD) deletion strains to study life span and lipid storage patterns. RAD genes are mainly involved in DNA repair mechanism and hence, their deletions have resulted in shorter life span. Viable RAD mutants were screened for non-polar lipid content, and some of the mutants showed significantly high amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) and steryl ester, besides short chronological life span. Among these, RAD50, MRE11 and XRS2 form a complex, MRX that is involved in homologous recombination that showed an increase in the amount of TAG. Microarray data of single MRX deletions revealed that besides DNA damage signature genes, lipid metabolism genes are also differentially expressed. Lipid biosynthetic genes (LPP1, SLC1) were upregulated and lipid hydrolytic gene (TGL3) was downregulated. We observed that rad50Δ, mre11Δ, xrs2Δ and mrxΔ strains have high number of lipid droplets (LDs) with fragmented mitochondria. These mutants have a short chronological life span compared to wild type. Aged wild-type cells also accumulated TAG with LDs of ∼2.0 μm in diameter. These results suggest that TAG accumulation and big size LDs could be possible markers for premature or normal aging. PMID:26678749

  17. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations, rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  18. Developmental Change in Proactive Interference across the Life Span: Evidence from Two Working Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Sandra V.; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M.; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) as the ability to temporarily maintain and manipulate various kinds of information is known to be affected by proactive interference (PI) from previously relevant contents, but studies on developmental changes in the susceptibility to PI are scarce. In the present study, we investigated life span development of item-specific…

  19. A Life-Span Analysis of Rural Kansas Children's Mental and Social Development: First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poresky, Robert H.; And Others

    This first year report of a life span analysis of rural Kansas children's mental and social development focuses on the children's cognitive development and the effect of family attitudes and child caring patterns on the children's development. The subjects, 62 rural children aged 3, 6, and 9 years, are to be interviewed annually. Initial analysis…

  20. Effects of a Short Strategy Training on Metacognitive Monitoring across the Life-Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Linden, Nicole; Löffler, Elisabeth; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the potential positive influence of a short strategy training on metacognitive monitoring competencies covering a life-span approach. Participants of four age groups (3rd-grade children, adolescents, younger and older adults) concluded a paired-associate learning task. Additionally, they gave delayed…

  1. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  2. D-Glucosamine supplementation extends life span of nematodes and of ageing mice

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Sandra; Priebs, Josephine; Kuhlow, Doreen; Groth, Marco; Priebe, Steffen; Mansfeld, Johannes; Merry, Troy L.; Dubuis, Sébastien; Laube, Beate; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.; Schulz, Tim J.; Guthke, Reinhard; Platzer, Matthias; Zamboni, Nicola; Zarse, Kim; Ristow, Michael

    2014-01-01

    D-Glucosamine (GlcN) is a freely available and commonly used dietary supplement potentially promoting cartilage health in humans, which also acts as an inhibitor of glycolysis. Here we show that GlcN, independent of the hexosamine pathway, extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span by impairing glucose metabolism that activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK/AAK-2) and increases mitochondrial biogenesis. Consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, GlcN promotes increased formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) culminating in increased expression of the nematodal amino acid-transporter 1 (aat-1) gene. Ameliorating mitochondrial ROS formation or impairment of aat-1-expression abolishes GlcN-mediated life span extension in an NRF2/SKN-1-dependent fashion. Unlike other calorie restriction mimetics, such as 2-deoxyglucose, GlcN extends life span of ageing C57BL/6 mice, which show an induction of mitochondrial biogenesis, lowered blood glucose levels, enhanced expression of several murine amino-acid transporters, as well as increased amino-acid catabolism. Taken together, we provide evidence that GlcN extends life span in evolutionary distinct species by mimicking a low-carbohydrate diet. PMID:24714520

  3. Gains and Losses in Creative Personality as Perceived by Adults across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Yeung, Dannii Y.; Sue-Chan, Christina; Chan, Kara; Hui, Desmond C. K.; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used a life span model to study the subjective perception of creative personality (CP) in emerging, young, middle-aged, and older Hong Kong Chinese adults. We also asked participants to estimate the approximate age by which people develop and lose CP across adulthood. We expected an interesting interplay between internalized age…

  4. Asynchronous Vowel-Pair Identification across the Adult Life Span for Monaural and Dichotic Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel; Kewley-Port, Diane; Humes, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal order abilities decrease with age. Declining temporal processing abilities may influence the identification of rapid vowel sequences. Identification patterns for asynchronous vowel pairs were explored across the life span. Method: Young, middle-aged, and older listeners completed temporal order tasks for pairs of 70-ms and 40-ms…

  5. Age, growth and size interact with stress to determine life span and mortality.

    PubMed

    Roach, Deborah Ann

    2012-10-01

    Individuals in a large experimental field population, of the short-lived perennial species Plantago lanceolata, were followed to determine the sources of variation that influence mortality and life span. The design included multiple age groups with initially similar genetic structure, which made it possible to separate age effects from period effects and to identify the genetic component to variation in life span. During a period of stress, individuals of all ages showed parallel increases in mortality but different cohorts experienced this period of high mortality at different ages. This then influenced the distribution of life spans across cohorts. Age and size-age interactions influenced mortality during the period of stress. Smaller individuals died but only if they were old. Additionally, growth and age interacted with stress such that older individuals had negative growth and high mortality whereas younger individuals had positive growth and relatively lower mortality during stress. The results of this study show that it is not simply the environment that can have a major impact on demography in natural populations; rather, age, size and growth can interact with the environment to influence mortality and life span when the environment is stressful. PMID:22664575

  6. Relationship between heat shock protein 70 expression and life span in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles; Handy, Indhira; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2014-07-01

    The longevity of an organism is directly related to its ability to effectively cope with cellular stress. Heat shock response (HSR) protects the cells against accumulation of damaged proteins after exposure to elevated temperatures and also in aging cells. To understand the role of Hsp70 in regulating life span of Daphnia, we examined the expression of Hsp70 in two ecotypes that exhibit strikingly different life spans. Daphnia pulicaria, the long lived ecotype, showed a robust Hsp70 induction as compared to the shorter lived Daphnia pulex. Interestingly, the short-lived D. pulex isolates showed no induction of Hsp70 at the mid point in their life span. In contrast to this, the long-lived D. pulicaria continued to induce Hsp70 expression at an equivalent age. We further show that the Hsp70 expression was induced at transcriptional level in response to heat shock. The transcription factor responsible for Hsp70 induction, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), although present in aged organisms did not exhibit DNA-binding capability. Thus, the decline of Hsp70 induction in old organisms could be attributed to a decline in HSF-1's DNA-binding activity. These results for the first time, present a molecular analysis of the relationship between HSR and life span in Daphnia. PMID:24814302

  7. Yeast MRX deletions have short chronological life span and more triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Kanagavijayan, Dhanabalan; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism for lipid research. Here, we have used yeast haploid RAdiation Damage (RAD) deletion strains to study life span and lipid storage patterns. RAD genes are mainly involved in DNA repair mechanism and hence, their deletions have resulted in shorter life span. Viable RAD mutants were screened for non-polar lipid content, and some of the mutants showed significantly high amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) and steryl ester, besides short chronological life span. Among these, RAD50, MRE11 and XRS2 form a complex, MRX that is involved in homologous recombination that showed an increase in the amount of TAG. Microarray data of single MRX deletions revealed that besides DNA damage signature genes, lipid metabolism genes are also differentially expressed. Lipid biosynthetic genes (LPP1, SLC1) were upregulated and lipid hydrolytic gene (TGL3) was downregulated. We observed that rad50Δ, mre11Δ, xrs2Δ and mrxΔ strains have high number of lipid droplets (LDs) with fragmented mitochondria. These mutants have a short chronological life span compared to wild type. Aged wild-type cells also accumulated TAG with LDs of ∼2.0 μm in diameter. These results suggest that TAG accumulation and big size LDs could be possible markers for premature or normal aging.

  8. Life-Span Development of Visual Working Memory: When Is Feature Binding Difficult?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Saults, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    We asked whether the ability to keep in working memory the binding between a visual object and its spatial location changes with development across the life span more than memory for item information. Paired arrays of colored squares were identical or differed in the color of one square, and in the latter case, the changed color was unique on…

  9. The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Life Span Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waszak, Florian; Li, Shu-Chen; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a population-based sample of 263 individuals ranging from 6 to 89 years of age, we investigated the gains and losses in the abilities to (a) use exogenous cues to shift attention covertly and (b) ignore conflicting information across the life span. The participants' ability to shift visual attention was tested by a typical Posner-type…

  10. Toward a Life Span Theory of Close Relationships: The Affective Relationships Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how close relationships can be conceptualized so that they can be accurately understood over the life span. First, two typical clusters of theories of close relationships, the attachment theory and the social network theory, are compared and discussed with regard to their fundamental but controversial assumptions regarding…

  11. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information across the Life Span: Theory and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the…

  12. Approaches to Teaching Adult Development within a Life Span Development Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Bertrand, Rosanna

    1999-01-01

    Describes two exercises that convey the ways in which social biases influence adult development and aging: (1) involves sorting pictures of people by age illustrating the diversity of opinions about how to divide the life span; and (2) demonstrates how physical and social factors shape individual well-being in old age. (DSK)

  13. [THE ANALYSIS OF LIFE SPAN AND MORTALITY OF PATIENTS WITH SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA TYPE I].

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, D G; Goldfarb, L G; Neustroeva, T S; Yakovleva, N V; Timofeev, L F; Luckan, I P; Platonov, F A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of investigation of certain unclear aspects of mortality of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type I including patients with the same number of CAG-repetitions. The analysis of mortality of patients observed from 1993 to nowadays was implemented. Sampling included 112 patients during that period 53 patients died. The comparative analysis was implemented concerning received data and results of analysis of mortality of patients died prior to 1980. According received data, average value of CAG-repetitions of normal allele was equal to 30.2, and ofpathologic allele--48.7. The average life span made up to 52.8 years, average age of disease onset--38 years and natural duration of disease--14.8 years. The analysis of life span of patients with equal length of repetitions demonstrated that range of life span of patients makes up to from 8 to 23 years. It is established that life of patients becomes shorter because of accidents, cancer and concomitant diseases of cardiovascular system. The presence of such concomitant disease as tuberculosis of lungs results in no shortening of life of patients. The comparative analysis of mortality during the period over 34 years demonstrated that age of disease onset turned out to be more conservative and stable indicator of morbidity. Despite of lacking of effective methods of treatment of disease, the natural duration of disease increased statistically reliable up to 1.8 times during period of observation. The analysis of life span ofpatients with spinocerebellar ataxia type I demonstrated that their life span except length of CAG-expansion depends on a number of factors accelerating and retarding development of disease. At that, life span of patients with the same number of CAG-repetitions can significantly differ The malignant neoplasms, diseases of cardiovascular system and external causes are to be referred to factors accelerating and retarding development of main disease. The addition oftuberculosis

  14. ETS-4 is a transcriptional regulator of life span in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Bargavi; Blaszczak, Adam G; Chandler, Katherine J; Watts, Jennifer L; Johnson, W Evan; Graves, Barbara J

    2010-09-01

    Aging is a complex phenotype responsive to a plethora of environmental inputs; yet only a limited number of transcriptional regulators are known to influence life span. How the downstream expression programs mediated by these factors (or others) are coordinated into common or distinct set of aging effectors is an addressable question in model organisms, such as C. elegans. Here, we establish the transcription factor ETS-4, an ortholog of vertebrate SPDEF, as a longevity determinant. Adult worms with ets-4 mutations had a significant extension of mean life span. Restoring ETS-4 activity in the intestine, but not neurons, of ets-4 mutant worms rescued life span to wild-type levels. Using RNAi, we demonstrated that ets-4 is required post-developmentally to regulate adult life span; thus uncoupling the role of ETS-4 in aging from potential functions in worm intestinal development. Seventy ETS-4-regulated genes, identified by gene expression profiling of two distinct ets-4 alleles and analyzed by bioinformatics, were enriched for known longevity effectors that function in lipid transport, lipid metabolism, and innate immunity. Putative target genes were enriched for ones that change expression during normal aging, the majority of which are controlled by the GATA factors. Also, some ETS-4-regulated genes function downstream of the FOXO factor, DAF-16 and the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. However, epistasis and phenotypic analyses indicate that ets-4 functioned in parallel to the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, daf-2 and akt-1/2 kinases. Furthermore, ets-4 required daf-16 to modulate aging, suggesting overlap in function at the level of common targets that affect life span. In conclusion, ETS-4 is a new transcriptional regulator of aging, which shares transcriptional targets with GATA and FOXO factors, suggesting that overlapping pathways direct common sets of lifespan-related genes. PMID:20862312

  15. D-chiro-inositol and pinitol extend the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hada, Binika; Yoo, Mi-Ra; Seong, Ki Moon; Jin, Young-Woo; Myeong, Hyeon-Koon; Min, Kyung-Jin

    2013-03-01

    D-chiro-inositol, a member of the inositol family, and pinitol, a 3-methoxy analogue of D-chiro-inositol, have been proposed to have antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, anticancer and stamina enhancing effects. We found that supplementing the diet of Drosophila with D-chiro-inositol and pinitol extended adult longevity in both male and female flies. Life span extension was accompanied by protection against oxidative and starvation stresses, improvement in health span, and no reduction in fecundity. Pinitol increased the fly life span, both in dietary restriction and in ad libitum conditions, suggesting that pinitol increased life span in a manner that was independent of the dietary restriction pathway. Nuclear localization of dFOXO increased in D-chiro-inositol and pinitol-fed flies when compared with controls. Pinitol treatment significantly activated JNK and S6K, but not AKT, indicating that the activation of dFOXO by pinitol is acquired by the activation of S6K and JNK signaling. Hence, our study indicated that D-chiro-inositol and pinitol could be novel food-derived antiaging compounds.

  16. Rapid growth and short life spans characterize pipefish populations in vulnerable seagrass beds.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, K L; Booth, D J

    2016-05-01

    The life-history traits of two species of pipefish (Syngnathidae) from seagrass meadows in New South Wales, Australia, were examined to understand whether they enhance resilience to habitat degradation. The spotted pipefish Stigmatopora argus and wide-bodied pipefish Stigmatopora nigra exhibit some of the shortest life spans known for vertebrates (longevity up to 150 days) and rapid maturity (male S. argus 35 days after hatching (DAH) and male S. nigra at 16-19 DAH), key characteristics of opportunistic species. Growth rates of both species were extremely rapid (up to 2 mm day(-1) ), with seasonal and sex differences in growth rate. It is argued that short life spans and high growth rates may be advantageous for these species, which inhabit one of the most threatened marine ecosystems on earth. PMID:27005315

  17. 20S proteasome activation promotes life span extension and resistance to proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chondrogianni, Niki; Georgila, Konstantina; Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Gonos, Efstathios S

    2015-02-01

    Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is one of the nodal points that need to be preserved to retain physiologic cellular/organismal balance. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins, with the proteasome being the downstream effector. The proteasome is the major cellular protease with progressive impairment of function during aging and senescence. Despite the documented age-retarding properties of proteasome activation in various cellular models, simultaneous enhancement of the 20S core proteasome content, assembly, and function have never been reported in any multicellular organism. Consequently, the possible effects of the core proteasome modulation on organismal life span are elusive. In this study, we have achieved activation of the 20S proteasome at organismal level. We demonstrate enhancement of proteasome levels, assembly, and activity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, resulting in life span extension and increased resistance to stress. We also provide evidence that the observed life span extension is dependent on the transcriptional activity of Dauer formation abnormal/Forkhead box class O (DAF-16/FOXO), skinhead-1 (SKN-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) factors through regulation of downstream longevity genes. We further show that the reported beneficial effects are not ubiquitous but they are dependent on the genetic context. Finally, we provide evidence that proteasome core activation might be a potential strategy to minimize protein homeostasis deficiencies underlying aggregation-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that 20S core proteasome up-regulation in terms of both content and activity is feasible in a multicellular eukaryotic organism and that in turn this modulation promotes extension of organismal health span and life span. PMID:25395451

  18. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  19. Marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors covary with life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Daniel Brian

    2012-12-01

    Theories of "life history evolution" suggest that individuals might adjust the timing of marriage and reproduction, as well as their propensity to terminate a marriage or pregnancy and invest in skill development, in response to indicators of the locally prevailing level of life expectancy. In particular, such theories generate the hypothesis that foreshortened time horizons lead to hastened reproduction and marriage whereas lengthier time horizons increase the likelihood of reproductive and marital termination and lead to greater investment in education. Here, I show that the scheduling and occurrence of marital and reproductive behavior (including both initiation and termination), as well as levels of educational attainment and investment, covary with life expectancy, even after controlling for the effects of affluence. In analyses of variation in marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors at two jurisdictional levels in Canada, life expectancy was positively correlated with patterns of age-specific fertility, age at first marriage, divorce, abortion, conferral of high school and higher education degrees (with the exception of the trades) and mean number of years of schooling. The large and highly consistent relationships observed between life expectancy and the behaviors under investigation suggest that these associations may be mediated by individual "perceptions" of life expectancy, though more research is needed before conclusions can be firmly reached. PMID:22484517

  20. Marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors covary with life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Daniel Brian

    2012-12-01

    Theories of "life history evolution" suggest that individuals might adjust the timing of marriage and reproduction, as well as their propensity to terminate a marriage or pregnancy and invest in skill development, in response to indicators of the locally prevailing level of life expectancy. In particular, such theories generate the hypothesis that foreshortened time horizons lead to hastened reproduction and marriage whereas lengthier time horizons increase the likelihood of reproductive and marital termination and lead to greater investment in education. Here, I show that the scheduling and occurrence of marital and reproductive behavior (including both initiation and termination), as well as levels of educational attainment and investment, covary with life expectancy, even after controlling for the effects of affluence. In analyses of variation in marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors at two jurisdictional levels in Canada, life expectancy was positively correlated with patterns of age-specific fertility, age at first marriage, divorce, abortion, conferral of high school and higher education degrees (with the exception of the trades) and mean number of years of schooling. The large and highly consistent relationships observed between life expectancy and the behaviors under investigation suggest that these associations may be mediated by individual "perceptions" of life expectancy, though more research is needed before conclusions can be firmly reached.

  1. Effect of habitat preference on frond life span in three Cyathea tree ferns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Tzu Yun; Wang, Hsiang Hua; Lun Kuo, Yao; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    It has been reported that plants living in various geographical areas had different physiological forms, as factors of microenvironment have strong impacts on physiological characters. However, the physiological characters of fronds have been scarcely reported in ferns. In this study, we investigated physiological differences in response to the habitat preference in the three tree ferns in northeast Taiwan, Cyathea lepifera, C. spinulosa, and C. podophylla, prefer to open site, edge of forest, and interior forest, respectively. The canopy openness above the individuals of C. lepifera, C. spinulosa and C. podophylla were 29.2 ± 14.10 , 7.0 ± 3.07 and 5.0 ± 2.24 %, respectively. Among three species, C. podophylla had the longest frond life span (13.0 ± 4.12 months) than the two others (C. lepifera (6.8 ± 1.29 months) and C. spinulosa (7.3 ±1.35 months). Our result supported the general patterns that shade intolerant species have a shorter leaf life span than shade tolerant species. The maximum net CO2 assimilation of C. lepifera, C. spinulosa and C. podophylla were 11.46 ± 1.34, 8.27 ± 0.69, and 6.34 ± 0.54 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively. As well, C. lepifera had the highest photosynthetic light saturation point (LSP), while C. podophylla had the lowest LSP among these three tree ferns. These suggested that C. lepifera could be more efficient for capturing and utilizing light resources under the larger canopy openness condition than the other two species. We also found that frond C : N ratio were positively correlated with frond life span among species. C. podophylla, with the longest frond life span, had the highest frond C : N ratio (22.17 ± 1.95), which was followed by C. spinulosa (18.58 ± 1.37) and C. lepifera (18.68 ± 2.63) with shorter frond life span. The results were consistent to the theory that the fronds and leaves of shade intolerant species have high photosynthetic abilities with low C : N ratio. Key words: Canopy openness, frond life span

  2. Gender differences in metformin effect on aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis in 129/Sv mice

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Egormin, Peter A.; Yurova, Maria N.; Rosenfeld, Svetlana V.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Kovalenko, Irina G.; Poroshina, Tatiana E.; Berstein, Lev M.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in mammals have led to the suggestion that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are important factors both in aging and in the development of cancer. It is possible that the life-prolonging effects of calorie restriction are due to decreasing IGF-1 levels. A search of pharmacological modulators of insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway (which mimetic effects of life span extending mutations or calorie restriction) could be a perspective direction in regulation of longevity. Antidiabetic biguanides are most promising among them. The chronic treatment of inbred 129/Sv mice with metformin (100 mg/kg in drinking water) slightly modified the food consumption but failed to influence the dynamics of body weight, decreased by 13.4% the mean life span of male mice and slightly increased the mean life span of female mice (by 4.4%). The treatment with metformin failed influence spontaneous tumor incidence in male 129/Sv mice, decreased by 3.5 times the incidence of malignant neoplasms in female mice while somewhat stimulated formation of benign vascular tumors in the latter. PMID:21164223

  3. Causes and consequences of variation in conifer leaf life-span

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, P.B.; Koike, T.; Gower, S.T.; Schoettle, A.W.

    1995-07-01

    Species with mutually supporting traits, such as high N{sub mass}, SLA, and A{sub mass}, and short leaf life-span, tend to inhabit either generally resource-rich environments or spatial and/or temporal microhabitats that are resource-rich in otherwise more limited habitats (e.g., {open_quotes}precipitation{close_quotes} ephemerals in warm deserts or spring ephemerals in the understory of temperate deciduous forests). In contrast, species with long leaf life-span often support foliage with low SLA, N{sub mass}, and A{sub mass}, and often grow in low-temperature limited, dry, and/or nutrient-poor environments. The contrast between evergreen and deciduous species, and the implications that emerge from such comparisons, can be considered a paradigm of modern ecological theory. However, based on the results of Reich et al. (1992) and Gower et al. (1993), coniferous species with foliage that persists for 9-10 years are likely to assimilate and allocate carbon and nutrients differently than other evergreen conifers that retain foliage for 2-3 years. Thus, attempts to contrast ecophysiological or ecosystem characteristics of evergreen versus deciduous life forms may be misleading, and pronounced differences among evergreen conifers may be ignored. Clearly, the deciduous-evergreen contrast, although useful in several ways, should be viewed from the broader perspective of a gradient in leaf life-span.

  4. Early-life nutritional effects on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M

    2015-02-01

    There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models.

  5. C. elegans miro-1 Mutation Reduces the Amount of Mitochondria and Extends Life Span.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanqing; Ng, Li Fang; Low, Natarie Pei Wen; Hagen, Thilo; Gruber, Jan; Inoue, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a critical role in aging, however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. We found that a mutation disrupting the C. elegans homolog of Miro GTPase (miro-1) extends life span. This phenotype requires simultaneous loss of miro-1 from multiple tissues including muscles and neurons, and is dependent on daf-16/FOXO. Notably, the amount of mitochondria in the miro-1 mutant is reduced to approximately 50% of the wild-type. Despite this reduction, oxygen consumption is only weakly reduced, suggesting that mitochondria of miro-1 mutants are more active than wild-type mitochondria. The ROS damage is slightly reduced and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response pathway is weakly activated in miro-1 mutants. Unlike previously described long-lived mitochondrial electron transport chain mutants, miro-1 mutants have normal growth rate. These results suggest that the reduction in the amount of mitochondria can affect the life span of an organism through activation of stress pathways. PMID:27064409

  6. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  7. C. elegans miro-1 Mutation Reduces the Amount of Mitochondria and Extends Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanqing; Ng, Li Fang; Low, Natarie Pei Wen; Hagen, Thilo; Gruber, Jan; Inoue, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a critical role in aging, however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. We found that a mutation disrupting the C. elegans homolog of Miro GTPase (miro-1) extends life span. This phenotype requires simultaneous loss of miro-1 from multiple tissues including muscles and neurons, and is dependent on daf-16/FOXO. Notably, the amount of mitochondria in the miro-1 mutant is reduced to approximately 50% of the wild-type. Despite this reduction, oxygen consumption is only weakly reduced, suggesting that mitochondria of miro-1 mutants are more active than wild-type mitochondria. The ROS damage is slightly reduced and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response pathway is weakly activated in miro-1 mutants. Unlike previously described long-lived mitochondrial electron transport chain mutants, miro-1 mutants have normal growth rate. These results suggest that the reduction in the amount of mitochondria can affect the life span of an organism through activation of stress pathways. PMID:27064409

  8. NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Wu, Yibo; Gariani, Karim; Wang, Xu; Luan, Peiling; D'Amico, Davide; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Lutolf, Matthias P; Aebersold, Ruedi; Schoonjans, Kristina; Menzies, Keir J; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-17

    Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence during aging. We demonstrate the importance of the amount of the oxidized form of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its effect on mitochondrial activity as a pivotal switch to modulate muscle SC (MuSC) senescence. Treatment with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) induced the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, and this rejuvenated MuSCs in aged mice. NR also prevented MuSC senescence in the mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J) mouse model of muscular dystrophy. We furthermore demonstrate that NR delays senescence of neural SCs and melanocyte SCs and increases mouse life span. Strategies that conserve cellular NAD(+) may reprogram dysfunctional SCs and improve life span in mammals. PMID:27127236

  9. Blood volume and red cell life span (M113), part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Prechamber, in-chamber, and postchamber blood samples taken from Skylab simulation crewmembers did not indicate significant shortening of the red cell life span during the mission. This does not suggest that the space simulation environment could not be associated with red cell enzyme changes. It does show that any changes in enzymes were not sufficiently great to significantly shorten red cell survival. There was no evidence of bone marrow erythropoetic suppression nor was there any evidence of increased red cell destruction.

  10. Verminoside mediates life span extension and alleviates stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pant, A; Asthana, J; Yadav, A K; Rathor, L; Srivastava, S; Gupta, M M; Pandey, R

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive molecules modulating aging in living organism promotes development of natural therapeutics for curing age-related afflictions. The progression in age-related disorders can be attributed to increment in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level. To this end, we isolated an iridoid verminoside (VMS) from Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. and evaluated its effect on Caenorhabditis elegans. The present study delineates VMS-mediated alteration of intracellular ROS, oxidative stress, and life span in C. elegans. The different tested doses of VMS (5 μM, 25 μM, and 50 μM) were able to enhance ROS scavenging and extend mean life span in C. elegans. The maximal life span extension was observed in 25 μM VMS, that is, 20.79% (P < 0.0001) followed by 9.84% (P < 0.0001) in 5 μM VMS and 8.54% (P < 0.0001) in 50 μM VMS. VMS was able to alleviate juglone-induced oxidative stress and enhanced thermotolerance in worms. The stress-modulating and ROS-scavenging potential of VMS was validated by increment in mean survival by 29.54% (P < 0.0001) in VMS-treated oxidative stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant strain. Furthermore, VMS modulates expression of DAF-16 (a FoxO transcription factor) promoting stress resistance and longevity. Altogether, our results suggest that VMS attenuates intracellular ROS and stress (oxidative and thermal) level promoting longevity. The longevity and stress modulation can be attributed to VMS-mediated alterations in daf-16 expression which regulates insulin signaling pathway. This study opens doors for development of phytomolecule-based therapeutics for prolonging life span and managing age-related severe disorders.

  11. Leaf life span spectrum of tropical woody seedlings: effects of light and ontogeny and consequences for survival

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Cordero, Roberto A.; Wright, S. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf life span is widely recognized as a key life history trait associated with herbivory resistance, but rigorous comparative data are rare for seedlings. The goal of this study was to examine how light environment affects leaf life span, and how ontogenetic development during the first year may influence leaf fracture toughness, lamina density and stem density that are relevant for herbivory resistance, leaf life span and seedling survival. Methods Data from three experiments encompassing 104 neotropical woody species were combined. Leaf life span, lamina and vein fracture toughness, leaf and stem tissue density and seedling survival were quantified for the first-year seedlings at standardized ontogenetic stages in shade houses and common gardens established in gaps and shaded understorey in a moist tropical forest in Panama. Mortality of naturally recruited seedlings till 1 year later was quantified in 800 1-m2 plots from 1994 to 2011. Key Results Median leaf life span ranged widely among species, always greater in shade (ranging from 151 to >1790 d in the understorey and shade houses) than in gaps (115–867 d), but with strong correlation between gaps and shade. Leaf and stem tissue density increased with seedling age, whereas leaf fracture toughness showed only a weak increase. All these traits were positively correlated with leaf life span. Leaf life span and stem density were negatively correlated with seedling mortality in shade, while gap mortality showed no correlation with these traits. Conclusions The wide spectrum of leaf life span and associated functional traits reflects variation in shade tolerance of first-year seedlings among coexisting trees, shrubs and lianas in this neotropical forest. High leaf tissue density is important in enhancing leaf toughness, a known physical defence, and leaf life span. Both seedling leaf life span and stem density should be considered as key functional traits that contribute to seedling survival

  12. Adaptive Physiological Response to Perceived Scarcity as a Mechanism of Sensory Modulation of Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Waterson, Michael J.; Chan, Tammy P.

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensation is a potent modulator of organismal physiology and longevity. In Drosophila, loss of recognition of diverse tastants has significant and bidirectional life-span effects. Recently published results revealed that when flies were unable to taste water, they increased its internal generation, which may have subsequently altered life span. To determine whether similar adaptive responses occur in other contexts, we explored the impact of sensory deficiency of other metabolically important molecules. Trehalose is a major circulating carbohydrate in the fly that is recognized by the gustatory receptor Gr5a. Gr5a mutant flies are short lived, and we found that they specifically increased whole-body and circulating levels of trehalose, but not other carbohydrates, likely through upregulation of de novo synthesis. dILP2 transcript levels were increased in Gr5a mutants, a possible response intended to reduce hypertrehalosemia, and likely a contributing factor to their reduced life span. Together, these data suggest that compensatory physiological responses to perceived environmental scarcity, which are designed to alleviate the ostensive shortage, may be a common outcome of sensory manipulation. We suggest that future investigations into the mechanisms underlying sensory modulation of aging may benefit by focusing on direct or indirect consequences of physiological changes that are designed to correct perceived disparity with the environment. PMID:25878032

  13. Neural recruitment and connectivity during emotional memory retrieval across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Morris, John A; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Although research has identified age-related changes in neural recruitment during emotional memory encoding, it is unclear whether these differences extend to retrieval. In this study, participants engaged in a recognition task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. They viewed neutral titles and indicated whether each title had been presented with an image during the study phase. Neural activity and connectivity during retrieval of titles associated with positive and negative images were compared with age (treated as a continuous variable) included as a regressor of interest. Aging was associated with increased prefrontal activation for retrieval of positive and negative memories, but this pattern was more widespread for negative memories. Aging also was associated with greater negative connectivity between a left hippocampal seed region and multiple regions of prefrontal cortex, but this effect of age occurred during negative retrieval only. These findings demonstrate that age-related changes in prefrontal recruitment and connectivity during retrieval depend on memory valence. The use of a life span approach also emphasized both continuities and discontinuities in recruitment and connectivity across the adult life span, highlighting the insights to be gained from using a full life span sample.

  14. Intermittent Administration of Rapamycin Extends the Life Span of Female C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Pumper, Cassidy P; Baar, Emma L; Cummings, Nicole E; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-07-01

    Inhibition of the mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling pathway by the FDA-approved drug rapamycin promotes life span in numerous model organisms and delays age-related disease in mice. However, the utilization of rapamycin as a therapy for age-related diseases will likely prove challenging due to the serious metabolic and immunological side effects of rapamycin in humans. We recently identified an intermittent rapamycin treatment regimen-2mg/kg administered every 5 days-with a reduced impact on glucose homeostasis and the immune system as compared with chronic treatment; however, the ability of this regimen to extend life span has not been determined. Here, we report for the first time that an intermittent rapamycin treatment regimen starting as late as 20 months of age can extend the life span of female C57BL/6J mice. Our work demonstrates that the anti-aging potential of rapamycin is separable from many of its negative side effects and suggests that carefully designed dosing regimens may permit the safer use of rapamycin and its analogs for the treatment of age-related diseases in humans. PMID:27091134

  15. Adaptive Physiological Response to Perceived Scarcity as a Mechanism of Sensory Modulation of Life Span.

    PubMed

    Waterson, Michael J; Chan, Tammy P; Pletcher, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Chemosensation is a potent modulator of organismal physiology and longevity. In Drosophila, loss of recognition of diverse tastants has significant and bidirectional life-span effects. Recently published results revealed that when flies were unable to taste water, they increased its internal generation, which may have subsequently altered life span. To determine whether similar adaptive responses occur in other contexts, we explored the impact of sensory deficiency of other metabolically important molecules. Trehalose is a major circulating carbohydrate in the fly that is recognized by the gustatory receptor Gr5a. Gr5a mutant flies are short lived, and we found that they specifically increased whole-body and circulating levels of trehalose, but not other carbohydrates, likely through upregulation of de novo synthesis. dILP2 transcript levels were increased in Gr5a mutants, a possible response intended to reduce hypertrehalosemia, and likely a contributing factor to their reduced life span. Together, these data suggest that compensatory physiological responses to perceived environmental scarcity, which are designed to alleviate the ostensive shortage, may be a common outcome of sensory manipulation. We suggest that future investigations into the mechanisms underlying sensory modulation of aging may benefit by focusing on direct or indirect consequences of physiological changes that are designed to correct perceived disparity with the environment. PMID:25878032

  16. Life span decrements in fluid intelligence and processing speed predict mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men. PMID:26098167

  17. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice display a reduced life span and are susceptible to spontaneous rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Metzger, Joseph; Reyes, Morayma; Townsend, DeWayne; Faulkner, John A

    2007-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common, lethal genetic disorder of children. A number of animal models of muscular dystrophy exist, but the most effective model for characterizing the structural and functional properties of dystrophin and therapeutic interventions has been the mdx mouse. Despite the approximately 20 years of investigations of the mdx mouse, the impact of the disease on the life span of mdx mice and the cause of death remain unresolved. Consequently, a life span study of the mdx mouse was designed that included cohorts of male and female mdx and wild-type C57BL/10 mice housed under specific pathogen-free conditions with deaths restricted to natural causes and with examination of the carcasses for pathology. Compared with wild-type mice, both mdx male and female mice had reduced life spans and displayed a progressively dystrophic muscle histopathology. Surprisingly, old mdx mice were prone to develop muscle tumors that resembled the human form of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a cancer associated with poor prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcomas have not been observed previously in nontransgenic mice. The results substantiate the mdx mouse as an important model system for studies of the pathogenesis of and potential remedies for DMD. PMID:17360850

  18. Life span decrements in fluid intelligence and processing speed predict mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men.

  19. Extension of chronological life span in yeast by decreased TOR pathway signaling

    PubMed Central

    Powers, R. Wilson; Kaeberlein, Matt; Caldwell, Seth D.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Fields, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Chronological life span (CLS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defined as the time cells in a stationary phase culture remain viable, has been proposed as a model for the aging of post-mitotic tissues in mammals. We developed a high-throughput assay to determine CLS for ∼4800 single-gene deletion strains of yeast, and identified long-lived strains carrying mutations in the conserved TOR pathway. TOR signaling regulates multiple cellular processes in response to nutrients, especially amino acids, raising the possibility that decreased TOR signaling mediates life span extension by calorie restriction. In support of this possibility, removal of either asparagine or glutamate from the media significantly increased stationary phase survival. Pharmacological inhibition of TOR signaling by methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin also increased CLS. Decreased TOR activity also promoted increased accumulation of storage carbohydrates and enhanced stress resistance and nuclear relocalization of the stress-related transcription factor Msn2. We propose that up-regulation of a highly conserved response to starvation-induced stress is important for life span extension by decreased TOR signaling in yeast and higher eukaryotes. PMID:16418483

  20. Factors in Early-Life Programming of Reproductive Fitness.

    PubMed

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining worldwide, with a growing number of young women suffering from infertility. Infectious and inflammatory diseases are important causes of infertility, and recent evidence points to the critical role of the early-life microbial environment in developmental programming of adult reproductive fitness. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that acute exposure to an immunological challenge early in life has a profound and prolonged impact on male and female reproductive development. This review presents evidence that perinatal exposure to immunological challenge by a bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide, acts at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in long-lasting changes in reproductive function, suggesting that disposition to infertility may begin early in life.

  1. Psychosocial stressors and the short life spans of legendary jazz musicians.

    PubMed

    Patalano, F

    2000-04-01

    Mean age at death of 168 legendary jazz musicians and 100 renowned classical musicians were compared to examine whether psychosocial stressors such as severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of jazz as an art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style may have contributed to shortened life spans for the jazz musicians. Analysis indicated that the jazz musicians died at an earlier age (57.2 yr.) than the classical musicians (73.3 yr.).

  2. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  3. Life span of C57 mice as influenced by radiation dose, dose rate, and age at exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, J.F.; Thomas, R.G.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1982-10-01

    This study was designed to measure the life shortening of C57BL/6J male mice as a result of exposure to five external doses from /sup 60/Co gamma radiation delivered at six different dose rates. Total doses ranged from 20 to 1620 rad at exposure rates ranging from 0.7 to 36,000 R/day. The ages of the mice at exposure were newborn, 2, 6, or 15 months. Two replications were completed. Although death was the primary endpoint, we did perform gross necropsies. The life span findings are variable, but we found no consistent shortening compared to control life spans. Therefore, we cannot logically extrapolate life shortening to lower doses, from the data we have obtained. In general, the younger the animals were at the beginning of exposure, the longer their life spans were compared to those of controls. This relationship weakened at the higher doses and dose rates, as mice in these categories tended not to have significantly different life spans from controls. Using life span as a criterion, we find this study suggests that some threshold dosage may exist beyond which effects of external irradiation may be manifested. Up to this threshold, there is no shortening effect on life span compared to that of control mice. Our results are in general agreement with the results of other researchers investigating human and other animal life span effects on irradiation.

  4. Evolution, reproduction and definition of life.

    PubMed

    Chodasewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic theory of evolution is a superior integrative biological theory. Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that multiple attempts of defining life are based on this theory. One of them even has a status of NASA's working definition. According to this definition, 'life is a self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution' Luisi (Orig Life Evol Bios 28:613-622, 1998); Cleland, Chyba (Orig Life Evol Bios 32:387-393, 2002). This definition is often considered as one of the more theoretically mature definitions of life. This Darwinian definition has nonetheless provoked a lot of criticism. One of the major arguments claims that this definition is wrong due to 'mule's problem'. Mules (and other infertile hybrids), despite being obviously living organisms, in the light of this definition are considered inanimate objects. It is strongly counterintuitive. The aim of this article was to demonstrate that this reasoning is false. In the later part of the text, I also discuss some other arguments against the Darwinian approach to defining life.

  5. Evolution, reproduction and definition of life.

    PubMed

    Chodasewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic theory of evolution is a superior integrative biological theory. Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that multiple attempts of defining life are based on this theory. One of them even has a status of NASA's working definition. According to this definition, 'life is a self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution' Luisi (Orig Life Evol Bios 28:613-622, 1998); Cleland, Chyba (Orig Life Evol Bios 32:387-393, 2002). This definition is often considered as one of the more theoretically mature definitions of life. This Darwinian definition has nonetheless provoked a lot of criticism. One of the major arguments claims that this definition is wrong due to 'mule's problem'. Mules (and other infertile hybrids), despite being obviously living organisms, in the light of this definition are considered inanimate objects. It is strongly counterintuitive. The aim of this article was to demonstrate that this reasoning is false. In the later part of the text, I also discuss some other arguments against the Darwinian approach to defining life. PMID:23674095

  6. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  7. Shorter Life Span of Microorganisms and Plants as a Consequence of Shielded Magnetic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrota, C.; Piso, I. M.; Bathory, D.

    The geomagnetic field is an essential environmental factor for life and health on this planet. In order to survey how magnetic fields affect the life span and the nitrogenase (an iron-sulphur enzyme) activity of Azotobacter chroococcum as well as the life span, the main organic synthesis and the water balance of plants (22 species), the biological tests were incubated under shielded magnetic field and also in normal geo-magnetic environment. The shielding level was about 10-6 of the terrestrial magnetic field.Life cycles of all organisms require the co-ordinated control of a complex set of interlocked physiological processes and metabolic pathways. Such processes are likely to be regulated by a large number of genes. Our researches suggest that the main point in biological structures, which seems to be affected by the low magnetic environment, is the water molecule. Magnetic field induces a molecular alignment. Under shielded conditions, unstructured water molecules with fewer hydrogen bonds, which are producing a more reactive environment, are occurring. As compared to control, the life span of both microorganisms and plants was shorter in shielded environment. A higher nitrogenase affinity for the substrate was recorded in normal geo-magnetic field compared to low magnetic field. The synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and enzymes was modified under experimental conditions. The stomatal conductance was higher between 158 and 300% in shielded environment indicating an important water loss from the plant cells.Our results support the idea that the shielded magnetic environment induces different reactions depending on the time of exposure and on the main metabolic pathways of the cells.

  8. Holistic Life-Span Health Outcomes Among Elite Intercollegiate Student–Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M.; Martin, Brandon E.; Gordon, James E.; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. Objective: To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student–athletes (SAs). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A large Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17–84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Results: Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P < .001; d = 1.05; pCID = 85%; OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.0, 16) and current students (P < .001; d = 2.25; pCID >99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = −0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs

  9. Provenance, life span, and phylogeny do not affect grass species' responses to nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Benfield, Cara D; Borer, Elizabeth T; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2011-09-01

    Successful conservation management requires an understanding of how species respond to intervention. Native and exotic species may respond differently to management interventions due to differences arising directly from their origin (i.e., provenance) or indirectly due to biased representations of different life history types (e.g., annual vs. perennial life span) or phylogenetic lineages among provenance (i.e., native or exotic origin) groups. Thus, selection of a successful management regime requires knowledge of the life history and provenance-bias in the local flora and an understanding of the interplay between species characteristics across existing environmental gradients in the landscape. Here we tested whether provenance, phylogeny, and life span interact to determine species distributions along natural gradients of soil chemistry (e.g., soil nitrogen and phosphorus) in 10 upland prairie sites along a 600-km latitudinal transect running from southern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, USA. We found that soil nitrate, phosphorus, and pH exerted strong control over community composition. However, species distributions along environmental gradients were unrelated to provenance, life span, or phylogenetic groupings. We then used a greenhouse experiment to more precisely measure the response of common grass species to nitrogen and phosphorus supply. As with the field data, species responses to nutrient additions did not vary as a function of provenance, life span, or phylogeny. Native and exotic species differed strongly in the relationship between greenhouse-measured tolerance of low nutrients and field abundance. Native species with the greatest ability to maintain biomass production at low nutrient supply rates were most abundant in field surveys, as predicted by resource competition theory. In contrast, there was no relationship between exotic-species biomass at low nutrient levels and field abundance. The

  10. Provenance, life span, and phylogeny do not affect grass species' responses to nitrogen and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Benfield, Cara D; Borer, Elizabeth T; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2011-09-01

    Successful conservation management requires an understanding of how species respond to intervention. Native and exotic species may respond differently to management interventions due to differences arising directly from their origin (i.e., provenance) or indirectly due to biased representations of different life history types (e.g., annual vs. perennial life span) or phylogenetic lineages among provenance (i.e., native or exotic origin) groups. Thus, selection of a successful management regime requires knowledge of the life history and provenance-bias in the local flora and an understanding of the interplay between species characteristics across existing environmental gradients in the landscape. Here we tested whether provenance, phylogeny, and life span interact to determine species distributions along natural gradients of soil chemistry (e.g., soil nitrogen and phosphorus) in 10 upland prairie sites along a 600-km latitudinal transect running from southern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, USA. We found that soil nitrate, phosphorus, and pH exerted strong control over community composition. However, species distributions along environmental gradients were unrelated to provenance, life span, or phylogenetic groupings. We then used a greenhouse experiment to more precisely measure the response of common grass species to nitrogen and phosphorus supply. As with the field data, species responses to nutrient additions did not vary as a function of provenance, life span, or phylogeny. Native and exotic species differed strongly in the relationship between greenhouse-measured tolerance of low nutrients and field abundance. Native species with the greatest ability to maintain biomass production at low nutrient supply rates were most abundant in field surveys, as predicted by resource competition theory. In contrast, there was no relationship between exotic-species biomass at low nutrient levels and field abundance. The

  11. Dead or alive: deformed wing virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honeybees.

    PubMed

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Elevated winter losses of managed honeybee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among the suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, and associated viruses. Here we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expectancy of winter bees, thereby constituting a proximate mechanism for colony losses. A monitoring of colonies was performed over 6 months in Switzerland from summer 2007 to winter 2007/2008. Individual dead workers were collected daily and quantitatively analyzed for deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), N. ceranae, and expression levels of the vitellogenin gene as a biomarker for honeybee longevity. Workers from colonies that failed to survive winter had a reduced life span beginning in late fall, were more likely to be infected with DWV, and had higher DWV loads. Colony levels of infection with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and individual infections with DWV were also associated with reduced honeybee life expectancy. In sharp contrast, the level of N. ceranae infection was not correlated with longevity. In addition, vitellogenin gene expression was significantly positively correlated with ABPV and N. ceranae loads. The findings strongly suggest that V. destructor and DWV (but neither N. ceranae nor ABPV) reduce the life span of winter bees, thereby constituting a parsimonious possible mechanism for honeybee colony losses.

  12. Lynx reproduction--long-lasting life cycle of corpora lutea in a feline species.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Painer, Johanna; Amelkina, Olga; Dehnhard, Martin; Goeritz, Frank

    2014-04-01

    A review of lynxes' reproductive biology and comparison between the reproductive cycles of the domestic cat and lynxes is presented. Three of the four lynx species (the bobcat excluded) express quite similar reproductive pattern (age at sexual maturity, estrus and pregnancy length, litter size). Similarly to the domestic cat, the bobcat is polyestric and can have more than one litter per year. Domestic cats and many other felid species are known to express anovulatory, pregnant and pseudo-pregnant reproductive cycles in dependence on ovulation induction and fertilization. The formation of corpora lutea (CLs) occurs after ovulation. In pregnant animals, luteal function ends with parturition, whereas during pseudo-pregnancy a shorter life span and lower hormone secretion are observed. The life cycle of corpora lutea in Eurasian lynxes is different from the pattern described in domestic cats. Lynx CLs produce progestagens in distinctive amounts permanently for at least two years, regardless of their origin (pregnancy or pseudo-pregnancy). It is suggested that long-lasting CLs induce a negative feedback to inactivate folliculogenesis, turning a normally polyestric cycle observed in most felids into a monoestric cycle in lynxes.

  13. Drosophila foxo acts in males to cause sexual-dimorphism in tissue-specific p53 life span effects

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Tower, John

    2009-01-01

    Sex-specific selective pressures are hypothesized to lead to sexually antagonistic gene functions that contribute to phenotypes such as aging and cancer. However, relatively little is known about the identity of such genes and possible mechanisms. Here we report that nervous system-specific over-expression of wild-type p53 in Drosophila caused decreased life span in males and increased life span in females. In contrast, tissue-general over-expression produced the opposite pattern: increased life span in males and decreased life span in females. In a foxo null background, p53 life span effects in males were reversed, becoming similar to the effects in females. In contrast, a Sir2 null background tended to reduce the magnitude of p53 effects. The data demonstrate that wild-type p53 over-expression can regulate life span independent of foxo, and suggest that foxo acts in males to produce sexually antagonistic life span effects of p53. PMID:19840842

  14. Patterns of Value Change During the Life Span: Some Evidence From a Functional Approach to Values.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Valdiney V; Vione, Kátia C; Milfont, Taciano L; Fischer, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    Little research has examined mean-level change in values across the life span. Using large cross-sectional data (N = 36,845) from the five geo-social regions in Brazil, this study examines how mean levels of basic values differ as a function of age (from age 12 to 65; M = 28) and whether age effects are moderated by gender. Results show that mean-level value change is substantial throughout the life course. We observed both linear and curvilinear patterns of change as well as differential patterns by gender. The observed value change is consistent with age-related life circumstances and psychosocial development. Age effects are also value dependent, supporting the notion that values have different functions for different developmental stages. PMID:26187119

  15. Meaning and Purpose in Life across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reker, Gary T.; And Others

    This paper explores the developmental changes in meaning and purpose across the life course. Thirty males and females at the developmental stages of young adulthood (16-29 years), early middle-age (30-49 years), late middle-age (50-64 years), young-old (65-74 years) and old-old (75+ years) completed the Reker and Peacock (1981) Life Attitude…

  16. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Garbe, James C.

    2016-06-28

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  17. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  18. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  19. [Effect of epitalon and melatonin on life span and spontaneous carcinogenesis in senescence accelerated mice (SAM)].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, V N; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Rozenfel'd, S V; Khavinson, V Kh; Semenchenko, A V; Iashin, A I

    2005-01-01

    Female senescence accelerated mice SAMP-1. (prone) and SAMR-1 (resistant) were exposed 5 times a week monthly to melatonin (with drinking water 20mg/ml during the night hours) or to s.c. injections of epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) at a single dose 1mkg/mouse. Control mice were intact or exposed to injection of 0.1 ml normal saline. The body weight and temperature, food consumption, estrous function were monitored regularly. The life span and tumor incidence were evaluated as well. As age advanced, the weight increased whereas food consumption and body temperature did not change. There was no significant substrain difference in these parameters. Exposure to melatonin or epitalon also failed to influence those indices. As age advanced, the incidence of irregular estrous cycles increased both in SAMP-1 and SAMR-1, whereas the treatment with both melatonin and epitalon prevented such disturbances. SAMP-1 revealed some features of accelerated aging as compared to SAMR-1. The mean life span of the 10% of the last survivors among treated SAMP-1 was shorter than that of SAMR-1, aging rate increased and mortality doubling time decreased. There was a direct correlation between body mass of the two substrains at the age of 3 and 12 months matched by body mass increase and longer life span. Melatonin or epitalon treatment was followed by longer mean and maximum survival in the 10% of the last survivors among SAMP-1. Melatonin involved decreased aging rate and increased mortality doubling time. Malignant lymphomas predominated in SAM without any significant difference in frequency between the substrains. While melatonin failed to influence tumor incidence or term of detection in SAMP-1, neither did epitalon affect frequency. However, it was followed by longer survival in tumor-free animals. No link between melatonin or epitalon treatment, on the one hand, and carcinogenesis, on the other, was reported in SAMR-1. PMID:15909815

  20. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people. PMID:26610722

  1. Stability and change in risk-taking propensity across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Josef, Anika K; Richter, David; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Gert G; Hertwig, Ralph; Mata, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Can risk-taking propensity be thought of as a trait that captures individual differences across domains, measures, and time? Studying stability in risk-taking propensities across the life span can help to answer such questions by uncovering parallel, or divergent, trajectories across domains and measures. We contribute to this effort by using data from respondents aged 18 to 85 in the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and by examining (a) differential stability, (b) mean-level differences, and (c) individual-level changes in self-reported general (N = 44,076) and domain-specific (N = 11,903) risk-taking propensities across adulthood. In addition, we investigate (d) the correspondence between cross-sectional trajectories of self-report and behavioral measures of social (trust game; N = 646) and nonsocial (monetary gamble; N = 433) risk taking. The results suggest that risk-taking propensity can be understood as a trait with moderate stability. Results show reliable mean-level differences across the life span, with risk-taking propensities typically decreasing with age, although significant variation emerges across domains and individuals. Interestingly, the mean-level trajectory for behavioral measures of social and nonsocial risk taking was similar to those obtained from self-reported risk, despite small correlations between task behavior and self-reports. Individual-level analyses suggest a link between changes in risk-taking propensities both across domains and in relation to changes in some of the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these results raise important questions concerning the role of common processes or events that shape the life span development of risk-taking across domains as well as other major personality facets. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820061

  2. Caffeine extends life span, improves healthspan, and delays age-associated pathology in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The longevity of an organism is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. With respect to genetic factors, a significant effort is being made to identify pharmacological agents that extend life span by targeting pathways with a defined role in the aging process. On the environmental side, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the positive influence of interventions such as dietary restriction are being explored. The environment experienced by humans in modern societies already contains countless compounds that may influence longevity. Understanding the role played by common compounds that substantially affect the aging process will be critical for predicting and interpreting the outcome of introducing new interventions. Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug worldwide. Prior studies in flies, worms, and mice indicate that caffeine may positively impact age-associated neurodegenerative pathology, such as that observed in Alzheimer’s disease. Results Here we report that caffeine is capable of extending life span and improving healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans, a finding that is in agreement with a recently published screen looking for FDA-approved compounds capable of extending worm life span. Life span extension using caffeine displays epistatic interaction with two known longevity interventions: dietary restriction and reduced insulin signaling. Caffeine treatment also delays pathology in a nematode model of polyglutamine disease. Conclusions The identification of caffeine as a relevant factor in aging and healthspan in worms, combined with prior work in both humans and rodents linking caffeine consumption to reduced risk of age-associated disease, suggests that caffeine may target conserved longevity pathways. Further, it may be important to consider caffeine consumption when developing clinical interventions, particularly those designed to mimic dietary restriction or modulate insulin/IGF-1-like signaling. The positive

  3. Beliefs about the "hot hand" in basketball across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Rossi, Aimee Drolet; McGillivray, Shannon

    2012-09-01

    Many people believe in streaks. In basketball, belief in the "hot hand" occurs when people think a player is more likely to make a shot if they have made previous shots. However, research has shown that players' successive shots are independent events. To determine how age would impact belief in the hot hand, we examined this effect across the adult life span. Older adults were more likely to believe in the hot hand, relative to younger and middle-aged adults, suggesting that older adults use heuristics and potentially adaptive processing based on highly accessible information to predict future events.

  4. Sex-linked Correlated Responses in Female Reproductive Traits to Selection on Male Eye Span in Stalk-eyed Flies.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Amitin, Emily G; Johns, Philip M

    2005-06-01

    Coevolution between male and female traits can result from correlated responses to selection or correlated selection on genetically independent traits. This study examines the possibility that traits involved in precopulatory sexual selection may influence the evolution of traits involved in postcopulatory sexual selection due to the existence of correlated selection or correlated responses to selection. Artificial selection on male eye span in Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly, is used to test for correlated changes in reproductive traits of male and female flies. Flies from replicate lines that had been under selection for 57 generations were matched for age and genotyped at four X-linked microsatellite loci. Egg number and testis size increased with age, but did not differ among lines. Spermathecal areas and duct lengths differed among replicates, but not among selection treatments. Female relative eye span, size of the ventral receptacle and egg size exhibited significant correlated responses to selection on male relative eye span. The absence of any change in sperm length or testis size between lines indicates that changes in female traits are unlikely due to correlated selection mediated by sperm competition. Significant effects of X-linked microsatellite genotypes indicate instead that the correlated responses to selection were due, in part, to X-linked genes in linkage disequilibrium or that exhibit pleiotropy. The presence of nonadditive allelic effects on genetically correlated female traits combined with additive allelic effects on a male ornament provides a previously unrecognized mechanism by which genetic variation could be maintained despite strong sexual selection.

  5. Reproduction in Strongyloides (Nematoda): a life between sex and parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Streit, A

    2008-03-01

    Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides parasitize the small intestines of vertebrates. In addition to a parasitic life-cycle, which is generally considered to be parthenogenetic, Strongyloides can also have a facultative, free-living generation involving male and female worms. The purpose of the present article was to review the literature on the modes of reproduction, the routes of development in the two generations of Strongyloides, discuss the controversial opinions in the literature regarding these aspects and point to new opportunities for addressing key questions in relation to the biology of reproduction of members of the genus employing genetic and genomic tools. PMID:18076772

  6. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Rigby, Francesca L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-08-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual's first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  7. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Rigby, Francesca L; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-08-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual's first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span.

  8. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    PubMed

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience. PMID:26438754

  9. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560768

  10. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Mixed emotions across the adult life span in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-06-01

    Mixed emotions involve the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect, such that people feel happy and sad at the same time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in the experience of mixed emotions across the adult life span in 2 nationally representative samples of U.S. residents. Data collected by the Princeton Affect and Time Survey (PATS, n = 3,948) and by the 2010 Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS, n = 12,828) were analyzed. In both surveys, respondents (aged 15 years or older) provided a detailed time diary about the preceding day and rated their happiness and sadness for 3 of the day's episodes. From these reports, 3 different indices of mixed emotions were derived. Results indicated small, but robust, increases in mixed emotions with age. Linear age increases were consistently evident in both PATS and ATUS, and replicated across the different indices of mixed emotions. There was no significant evidence for curvilinear age trends in either study. Several sociodemographic factors that could plausibly explain age-differences in mixed emotions (e.g., retirement, disability) did not alter the age-effects. The present study adds to the growing literature documenting vital changes in the complexity of emotional experience over the life span.

  12. NRF2 deficiency reduces life span of mice administered thoracic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Travis, Elizabeth L; Rachakonda, Girish; Zhou, Xinhui; Korhonen, Katrina; Sekhar, Konjeti R; Biswas, Swati; Freeman, Michael L

    2011-09-15

    Subsets of cancer survivors who have been subjected to thoracic irradiation face the prospect of developing pulmonary injury. Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is an insidious injury that presents 6 to 24 months after irradiation and continues to progress over a period of years. TGF-β and reactive oxygen species contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of this injury. The transcription factor NRF2 controls antioxidant gene expression and therefore regulates the cellular oxidant burden. This work demonstrates an additional paradigm for NRF2: suppression of TGF-β-mediated signaling, assessed by measuring expression of a surrogate TGF-β1 target gene (PAI-1) in lung fibroblasts. Thoracic irradiation of Nfe2l2(-/-) mice resulted in rapid expression of PAI-1 and FSP-1 compared to irradiated wild-type mice. Examination of lung tissue 16 weeks after thoracic irradiation of Nfe2l2(-/-) mice revealed the presence of distended alveoli and decreased numbers of alveoli compared to wild-type mice. Suppression of NRF2 expression shortened life span in mice administered 16 Gy to the thorax. Nfe2l2(+/-) and Nfe2l2(-/-) mice exhibited a mean life span of 176 days compared to wild-type mice, which lived an average of 212 days. These novel results identify NRF2 as a susceptibility factor for the development of late tissue injury.

  13. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span.

  14. Regulation of Yeast Chronological Life Span by TORC1 via Adaptive Mitochondrial ROS Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yong; Schroeder, Elizabeth A.; Ocampo, Alejandro; Barrientos, Antoni; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Here we show that yeast strains with reduced target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling have greater overall mitochondrial electron transport chain activity during growth that is efficiently coupled to ATP production. This metabolic alteration increases mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production that we propose supplies an adaptive signal during growth that extends chronological life span (CLS). In strong support of this concept, uncoupling respiration during growth or over-expressing mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase significantly curtails CLS extension in tor1Δ strains, and treatment of wild-type strains with either rapamycin (to inhibit TORC1) or menadione (to generate mitochondrial ROS) during growth is sufficient to extend CLS. Finally, extension of CLS by reduced TORC1/Sch9p-mitochondrial signaling occurs independently of Rim15p and is not a function of changes in media acidification/composition. Considering the conservation of TOR-pathway effects on life span, mitochondrial ROS signaling may be an important mechanism of longevity regulation in higher organisms. PMID:21641548

  15. Minocycline, but not ascorbic acid, increases motor activity and extends the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mora, Marylhi; Medina-Leendertz, Shirley J; Bonilla, Ernesto; Terán, Raikelin E; Paz, Milagros C; Arcaya, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    In the present study we compared the effects of minocycline and ascorbic acid in the life span, motor activity and lipid peroxidation of Drosophila melanogaster, in an effort to find a substance capable of providing protection against oxidative stress in aging. In the flies treated with minocycline a very significant increase in the life span (101 +/- 1.33 days) was observed when compared to those treated with ascorbic acid and controls (42.3% and 38.4%, respectively). The motor activity of minocycline treated flies also increased significantly with respect to control and ascorbic acid fed flies, from the 3rd to the 9th week of treatment. With regard to lipid peroxidation, it was found that the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in flies treated with minocycline showed no statistical differences to the control on the first day of treatment, but a significantly lower content on the day of 50% survival. In contrast, in flies treated with ascorbic acid significantly elevated levels of MDA compared to control and minocycline treated flies were detected throughout. These results suggest a protective effect of minocycline against oxidative stress and aging in D. melanogaster. An inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species production may be an important contributing factor.

  16. Vitamin E supplementation and intense selection increase clonal life span in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Nyberg, D

    1988-01-01

    Vitamin E added to standard Cerophyl medium at 0.025 mg/ml significantly increased the mean clonal life span of 32 lines of Paramecium tetraurelia from 52.5 days and 187 fissions to 59.9 days and 209 fissions (p less than .05) when compared to unsupplemented, paired controls. The age-specific death rates increased exponentially. Regression analyses found a significantly lower rate of increasing mortality for the supplemented lines compared to controls. Weekly fission rates of supplemented lines declined linearly; more slowly than controls, but not significantly so. A second experiment tested two higher levels of supplemental vitamin E (0.10 and 1.00 mg/ml). Sublines receiving 1.00 mg/ml of supplemental vitamin E had higher rates of mortality and lower fission rates initially, but the mortality rates increased and the fission rates decreased more slowly than in sublines receiving 0.10 mg/ml supplemental vitamin E, resulting in maximum clonal life spans of 141 days and 330 fissions (1.00 mg/ml sublines), compared to 74 days and 271 fissions (0.10 mg/ml sublines). Survivorship of the last individual cells (nondividing) of each clone followed an exponential decline, with a significant increase in mean survival time for supplemented compared to unsupplemented cells (p less than .05).

  17. Linking Peroxiredoxin and Vacuolar-ATPase Functions in Calorie Restriction-Mediated Life Span Extension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is an intervention extending the life spans of many organisms. The mechanisms underlying CR-dependent retardation of aging are still poorly understood. Despite mechanisms involving conserved nutrient signaling pathways proposed, few target processes that can account for CR-mediated longevity have so far been identified. Recently, both peroxiredoxins and vacuolar-ATPases were reported to control CR-mediated retardation of aging downstream of conserved nutrient signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on peroxiredoxin-mediated stress-defence and vacuolar-ATPase regulated acidification and pinpoint common denominators between the two mechanisms proposed for how CR extends life span. Both the activities of peroxiredoxins and vacuolar-ATPases are stimulated upon CR through reduced activities in conserved nutrient signaling pathways and both seem to stimulate cellular resistance to peroxide-stress. However, whereas vacuolar-ATPases have recently been suggested to control both Ras-cAMP-PKA- and TORC1-mediated nutrient signaling, neither the physiological benefits of a proposed role for peroxiredoxins in H2O2-signaling nor downstream targets regulated are known. Both peroxiredoxins and vacuolar-ATPases do, however, impinge on mitochondrial iron-metabolism and further characterization of their impact on iron homeostasis and peroxide-resistance might therefore increase our understanding of the beneficial effects of CR on aging and age-related diseases. PMID:24639875

  18. Life span and structure of ephemeral root modules of different functional groups from a desert system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; He, Junxia; Zeng, Fanjiang; Lei, Jiaqiang; Arndt, Stefan K

    2016-07-01

    The terminal branch orders of plant root systems have been proposed as short-lived 'ephemeral' modules specialized for resource absorption. The occurrence of ephemeral root modules has so far only been reported for a temperate tree species and it is unclear if the concept also applies to other woody (shrub, tree) and herb species. Fine roots of 12 perennial dicotyledonous herb, shrub and tree species were monitored for two growing seasons using a branch-order classification, sequential sampling and rhizotrons in the Taklamakan desert. Two root modules existed in all three plant functional groups. Among the first five branch orders, the first two (perennial herbs, shrubs) or three (trees) root orders were ephemeral and had a primary anatomical structure, high nitrogen (N) concentrations, high respiration rates and very short life spans of 1-4 months, whereas the last two branch orders in all functional groups were perennial, with thicker diameters, no or collapsed cortex, distinct secondary growth, low N concentrations, low respiration rates, but much longer life spans. Ephemeral, short-lived root modules and long-lived, persistent root modules seem to be a general feature across many plant functional groups and could represent a basic root system design.

  19. Vitamin E supplementation and intense selection increase clonal life span in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Nyberg, D

    1988-01-01

    Vitamin E added to standard Cerophyl medium at 0.025 mg/ml significantly increased the mean clonal life span of 32 lines of Paramecium tetraurelia from 52.5 days and 187 fissions to 59.9 days and 209 fissions (p less than .05) when compared to unsupplemented, paired controls. The age-specific death rates increased exponentially. Regression analyses found a significantly lower rate of increasing mortality for the supplemented lines compared to controls. Weekly fission rates of supplemented lines declined linearly; more slowly than controls, but not significantly so. A second experiment tested two higher levels of supplemental vitamin E (0.10 and 1.00 mg/ml). Sublines receiving 1.00 mg/ml of supplemental vitamin E had higher rates of mortality and lower fission rates initially, but the mortality rates increased and the fission rates decreased more slowly than in sublines receiving 0.10 mg/ml supplemental vitamin E, resulting in maximum clonal life spans of 141 days and 330 fissions (1.00 mg/ml sublines), compared to 74 days and 271 fissions (0.10 mg/ml sublines). Survivorship of the last individual cells (nondividing) of each clone followed an exponential decline, with a significant increase in mean survival time for supplemented compared to unsupplemented cells (p less than .05). PMID:3250885

  20. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  1. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  2. CTT1 overexpression increases life span of calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in Sod1.

    PubMed

    Rona, Germana; Herdeiro, Ricardo; Mathias, Cristiane Juliano; Torres, Fernando Araripe; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Eleutherio, Elis

    2015-06-01

    Studies using different organisms revealed that reducing calorie intake, without malnutrition, known as calorie restriction (CR), increases life span, but its mechanism is still unkown. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as eukaryotic model, we observed that Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1p) is required to increase longevity, as well as to confer protection against lipid and protein oxidation under CR. Old cells of sod1 strain also presented a premature induction of apoptosis. However, when CTT1 (which codes for cytosolic catalase) was overexpressed, sod1 and WT strains showed similar survival rates. Furthermore, CTT1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and delayed the induction of apoptotic process. Superoxide is rapidly converted to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase, but it also undergoes spontaneous dismutation albeit at a slower rate. However, the quantity of peroxide produced from superoxide in this way is two-fold higher. Peroxide degradation, catalyzed by catalase, is of vital importance, because in the presence of a reducer transition metal peroxide is reduced to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, which reacts indiscriminately with most cellular constituents. These findings might explain why overexpression of catalase was able to overcome the deficiency of Sod1p, increasing life span in response to CR. PMID:25573485

  3. Life-Span Exposure to Low Doses of Aspartame Beginning during Prenatal Life Increases Cancer Effects in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Tibaldi, Eva; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lauriola, Michelina

    2007-01-01

    Background In a previous study conducted at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation (CMCRC/ERF), we demonstrated for the first time that aspartame (APM) is a multipotent carcinogenic agent when various doses are administered with feed to Sprague-Dawley rats from 8 weeks of age throughout the life span. Objective The aim of this second study is to better quantify the carcinogenic risk of APM, beginning treatment during fetal life. Methods We studied groups of 70–95 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered APM (2,000, 400, or 0 ppm) with feed from the 12th day of fetal life until natural death. Results Our results show a) a significant dose-related increase of malignant tumor–bearing animals in males (p < 0.01), particularly in the group treated with 2,000 ppm APM (p < 0.01); b) a significant increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males treated with 2,000 ppm (p < 0.05) and a significant dose-related increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in females (p < 0.01), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.01); and c) a significant dose-related increase in incidence of mammary cancer in females (p < 0.05), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this carcinogenicity bioassay confirm and reinforce the first experimental demonstration of APM’s multipotential carcinogenicity at a dose level close to the acceptable daily intake for humans. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that when life-span exposure to APM begins during fetal life, its carcinogenic effects are increased. PMID:17805418

  4. Shoot life span in relation to successional status in deciduous broad-leaved tree species in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Seiwa, Kenji; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro; Kadowaki, Takahiro; Akasaka, Shigetoshi; Ueno, Naoto

    2006-01-01

    In trees, leaf life span is closely related to successional status. Although leaves are attached to shoots, shoot life span has been insufficiently studied in the context of ecological systems. Interspecific variation in shoot survivorship was investigated over 27 months in 15 temperate hardwood tree species. Relationships between shoot architecture and shoot survival were also investigated. Shoot life span was shortest in early successional species, and longest in late successional species, in each of the families Betulaceae and Fagaceae. In Salicaceae, all of which were early successional species, shoot life span was longer in mountainous than in riparian species. Early successional or riparian species distributed longer shoots densely, even in proximal positions on mother shoots, resulting in mutual shading and consequent early and massive shoot shedding. By contrast, late successional or mountainous species concentrated shoots in distal positions, allowing shoots to receive equally favorable light, resulting in a longer life span. These results reveal close relationships between shoot life span and environmental resource availability or successional status and suggest a causal relationship between shoot shedding and shoot architecture.

  5. Social network changes and life events across the life span: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Hänel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-01-01

    For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network changes and the effects of life events on social networks using 277 studies with 177,635 participants from adolescence to old age. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies consistently showed that (a) the global social network increased up until young adulthood and then decreased steadily, (b) both the personal network and the friendship network decreased throughout adulthood, (c) the family network was stable in size from adolescence to old age, and (d) other networks with coworkers or neighbors were important only in specific age ranges. Studies focusing on life events that occur at specific ages, such as transition to parenthood, job entry, or widowhood, demonstrated network changes similar to such age-related network changes. Moderator analyses detected that the type of network assessment affected the reported size of global, personal, and family networks. Period effects on network sizes occurred for personal and friendship networks, which have decreased in size over the last 35 years. Together the findings are consistent with the view that a portion of normative, age-related social network changes are due to normative, age-related life events. We discuss how these patterns of normative social network development inform research in social, evolutionary, cultural, and personality psychology.

  6. Spermatozoid life-span of two brown seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, as measured by fertilization efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin

    2013-07-01

    During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.

  7. Life-history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Gillespie, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    According to life-history theory, any organism that maximizes fitness will face a trade-off between female fertility and offspring survivorship. This trade-off has been demonstrated in a variety of species, but explicit tests in humans have found a positive linear relationship between fitness and fertility. The failure to demonstrate a maximum beyond which additional births cease to enhance fitness is potentially at odds with the view that human fertility behaviour is currently adaptive. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first clear evidence for the predicted nonlinear relationship between female fertility and reproductive success in a human population, the Dogon of Mali, West Africa. The predicted maximum reproductive success of 4.1+/-0.3 surviving offspring was attained at a fertility of 10.5 births. Eighty-three per cent of the women achieved a lifetime fertility level (7-13 births) for which the predicted mean reproductive success was within the confidence limits (3.4 to 4.8) for reproductive success at the optimal fertility level. Child mortality, rather than fertility, was the primary determinant of fitness. Since the Dogon people are farmers, our results do not support the assumptions that: (i) contemporary foragers behave more adaptively than agriculturalists, and (ii) that adaptive fertility behaviour ceased with the Neolithic revolution some 9000 years ago. We also present a new method that avoids common biases in measures of reproductive success. PMID:11916470

  8. [Psychoneuroimmunology of the life span: impact of childhood stress on immune dysregulation and inflammatory disease in later life].

    PubMed

    Schubert, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Studies have shown clearly that childhood mistreatment, abuse and neglect are associated with severe inflammatory disease in adulthood (e. g. cancer, heart disease, autoimmune disorder) and shortened life span. This review deals with the psychoneuroimmunological pathways of this connection. It shows that chronic stressors interfere very early in life with those protective mechanisms of the biological stress system that normally down-regulate potentially harmful inflammation. In the long term, serious inflammatory diseases, such as allergic asthma, can result. In this review, the pathogenetic connections between allergic asthma and early stress and stress system dysfunction are discussed. As our understanding of the dysfunctional psychophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory disease increases, psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of physical disease will become more specific.

  9. Metabotypes with properly functioning mitochondria and anti-inflammation predict extended productive life span in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Huber, K.; Dänicke, S.; Rehage, J.; Sauerwein, H.; Otto, W.; Rolle-Kampczyk, U.; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The failure to adapt metabolism to the homeorhetic demands of lactation is considered as a main factor in reducing the productive life span of dairy cows. The so far defined markers of production performance and metabolic health in dairy cows do not predict the length of productive life span satisfyingly. This study aimed to identify novel pathways and biomarkers related to productive life in dairy cows by means of (targeted) metabolomics. In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans. These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria. The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life. PMID:27089826

  10. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians’ subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model by which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in auditory function in humans. PMID:23988583

  11. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    PubMed

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function.

  12. Mitochondrial respiratory thresholds regulate yeast chronological life span and its extension by caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Alejandro; Liu, Jingjing; Schroeder, Elizabeth A; Shadel, Gerald S; Barrientos, Antoni

    2012-07-01

    We have explored the role of mitochondrial function in aging by genetically and pharmacologically modifying yeast cellular respiration production during the exponential and/or stationary growth phases and determining how this affects chronological life span (CLS). Our results demonstrate that respiration is essential during both growth phases for standard CLS, but that yeast have a large respiratory capacity, and only deficiencies below a threshold (~40% of wild-type) significantly curtail CLS. Extension of CLS by caloric restriction also required respiration above a similar threshold during exponential growth and completely alleviated the need for respiration in the stationary phase. Finally, we show that supplementation of media with 1% trehalose, a storage carbohydrate, restores wild-type CLS to respiratory-null cells. We conclude that mitochondrial respiratory thresholds regulate yeast CLS and its extension by caloric restriction by increasing stress resistance, an important component of which is the optimal accumulation and mobilization of nutrient stores.

  13. Protection throughout the life span: the psychoneuroimmunologic impact of Indo-Tibetan meditative and yogic practices.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Erin L

    2009-08-01

    The Indo-Tibetan tradition claims that proficiency in the suggested longevity practices of meditation, diet, and physical exercise (yoga), will result in profound anti-aging, stress-mediating and health enhancing effects. Western biomedical research has begun to demonstrate that the psychobiological states induced and cultivated by cognitive behavioral practices which are emblematic of those contained within the Indo-Tibetan tradition (hypnosis, meditation, visualization, systematic relaxation), indeed do have a profound impact on the body's protective and regulatory systems. Although continued study is necessary, much of the early research illuminating the mechanisms responsible for the life-span extending and health-enhancing effects of these cognitive behavioral practices points to the importance of their anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, and antioxidant effects as well as their impact in enhancing the production of endogenous substances that possess general longevity-enhancing, regenerative properties.

  14. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible.

  15. Aging and survival: the genetics of life span extension by dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Mair, William; Dillin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Reducing food intake to induce undernutrition but not malnutrition extends the life spans of multiple species, ranging from single-celled organisms to mammals. This increase in longevity by dietary restriction (DR) is coupled to profound beneficial effects on age-related pathology. Historically, much of the work on DR has been undertaken using rodent models, and 70 years of research has revealed much about the physiological changes DR induces. However, little is known about the genetic pathways that regulate the DR response and whether or not they are conserved between species. Elucidating these pathways may facilitate the design of targeted pharmaceutical treatments for a range of age-related pathologies. Here, we discuss how recent work in nonmammalian model organisms has revealed new insight into the genetics of DR and how the discovery of DR-specific transcription factors will advance our understanding of this phenomenon.

  16. Life spans of a Bellman-Harris branching process with immigration

    SciTech Connect

    Badalbaev, I.S.; Mashrabbaev, A.

    1987-09-10

    One considers two schemes of the Bellman-Harris process with immigration when a) the lifetime of the particles is an integral-valued random variable and the immigration is defined by a sequence of independent random variables; b) the distribution of the lifetime of the particles is nonlattice and the immigration is a process with continuous time. One investigates the properties of the life spans of such processes. The results obtained here are a generalization to the case of Bellman-Harris processes of the results of A.M. Zubkov, obtained for Markov branching processes. For the proof one makes use in an essential manner of the known inequalities of Goldstein, estimating the generating function of the Bellman-Harris process in terms of the generating functions of the imbedded Galton-Watson process.

  17. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible. PMID:23429724

  18. The Elderly Person With Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Implications for the Increasing Life-Span.

    PubMed

    Buhse, Marijean

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, unpredictable, progressive, and disabling autoimmune disease with significant neurodegenerative and inflammatory components. To effectively treat and care for older persons with MS, it is essential to examine the factors associated with a decrease in their quality of life. Typically, MS is diagnosed between 20 and 50 years old. Although not a fatal disease, the natural history data of persons with MS reveal survival approximately 38 years after diagnosis. With the advent of disease-modifying therapies, life-span has increased substantially over the past 2 decades among people with MS. Approximately 90% of people with MS now in their 20s may live into their 70s. Their quality of life as an older adult will be impacted by what we learn today. Currently, approximately a quarter of people with MS are mature adults over 65 years old. Older adults with MS are more likely to have a decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL). HRQOL is a multidimensional construct that refers to an individual's physical functioning, ability to perform activities of daily living, sense of well-being, satisfaction with life, perception of psychological status, and social functioning. This article focuses on the current literature in HRQOL in older persons with MS. A specific aim is to examine the factors associated with a decreased QOL in older persons with MS. Nursing screening and implementation of interventions that may reduce these factors and improve function of patients will be discussed. Although measures to improve HRQOL do not substitute for treatment of the disease, knowledge of factors that reduce HRQOL is essential to understand patient perceptions of their health and disease. PMID:26528951

  19. Rapamycin extends life span of Rb1+/− mice by inhibiting neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Livi, Carolina B.; Hardman, Rulon L.; Christy, Barbara A.; Dodds, Sherry G.; Jones, Diane; Williams, Charnae; Strong, Randy; Bokov, Alex; Javors, Martin A.; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton Dave

    2013-01-01

    Chronic treatment of mice with an enterically released formulation of rapamycin (eRapa) extends median and maximum life span, partly by attenuating cancer. The mechanistic basis of this response is not known. To gain a better understanding of these in vivo effects, we used a defined preclinical model of neuroendocrine cancer, Rb1+/− mice. Previous results showed that diet restriction (DR) had minimal or no effect on the lifespan of Rb1+/− mice, suggesting that the beneficial response to DR is dependent on pRb1. Since long-term eRapa treatment may at least partially mimic chronic DR in lifespan extension, we predicted that it would have a minimal effect in Rb1+/− mice. Beginning at 9 weeks of age until death, we fed Rb1+/− mice a diet without or with eRapa at 14 mg/kg food, which results in an approximate dose of 2.24 mg/kg body weight per day, and yielded rapamycin blood levels of about 4 ng/ml. Surprisingly, we found that eRapa dramatically extended life span of both female and male Rb1+/− mice, and slowed the appearance and growth of pituitary and decreased the incidence of thyroid tumors commonly observed in these mice. In this model, eRapa appears to act differently than DR, suggesting diverse mechanisms of action on survival and anti-tumor effects. In particular the beneficial effects of rapamycin did not depend on the dose of Rb1. PMID:23454836

  20. Altered Lipid Synthesis by Lack of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase Reduces Chronological Life Span.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonhee; Han, Gil-Soo; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Garrett, Teresa A; Carman, George M

    2015-10-16

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. This evolutionarily conserved enzyme also plays a negative regulatory role in controlling de novo membrane phospholipid synthesis through its consumption of phosphatidate. We found that the pah1Δ mutant was defective in the utilization of non-fermentable carbon sources but not in oxidative phosphorylation; the mutant did not exhibit major changes in oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, F1F0-ATP synthase activity, or gross mitochondrial morphology. The pah1Δ mutant contained an almost normal complement of major mitochondrial phospholipids with some alterations in molecular species. Although oxidative phosphorylation was not compromised in the pah1Δ mutant, the cellular levels of ATP in quiescent cells were reduced by 2-fold, inversely correlating with a 4-fold increase in membrane phospholipids. In addition, the quiescent pah1Δ mutant cells had 3-fold higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide and cellular lipid hydroperoxides, had reduced activities of superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase, and were hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, the pah1Δ mutant had a shortened chronological life span. In addition, the loss of Tsa1 thioredoxin peroxidase caused a synthetic growth defect with the pah1Δ mutation. The shortened chronological life span of the pah1Δ mutant along with its growth defect on non-fermentable carbon sources and hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide was suppressed by the loss of Dgk1 diacylglycerol kinase, indicating that the underpinning of pah1Δ mutant defects was the excess synthesis of membrane phospholipids. PMID:26338708

  1. [The morphofunctional condition of the basic organ systems, life span and fecundity of the domestic cricket, Acheta domestica, during normal imaginal development and following allatectomy].

    PubMed

    Chudakova, I V; Bocharova-Messner, O M; Romashkina, M P

    1975-01-01

    3 main periods of imaginal development: juvenility, reproduction, ageing, were established in Acheta domestica and characterized by morphological and functional features of some organs (integument, wings, fat body, wing muscles, ovaries, and body proportions). Allatectomized crickets remain in the first period up till the day of death; this allowed to suggest that the hormone of corpora allata in imago controls the normal correlated development of different organs and tissues and ensures the transition to subsequent periods of imaginal ontogenesis. In allatectomized crickets of both the sexes, the duration of imaginal life is markedly longer and the fecundity of females is much lower. It is suggested that the hormone of corpora allata controls the life span and the fecundity independently. PMID:1214983

  2. The activity-dependent histone variant H2BE modulates the life span of olfactory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Stephen W; Dulac, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    We have identified a replication-independent histone variant, Hist2h2be (referred to herein as H2be), which is expressed exclusively by olfactory chemosensory neurons. Levels of H2BE are heterogeneous among olfactory neurons, but stereotyped according to the identity of the co-expressed olfactory receptor (OR). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that changes in H2be expression affect olfactory function and OR representation in the adult olfactory epithelium. We show that H2BE expression is reduced by sensory activity and that it promotes neuronal cell death, such that inactive olfactory neurons display higher levels of the variant and shorter life spans. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of H2BE differ from those of the canonical H2B, consistent with a role for H2BE in altering transcription. We propose a physiological function for H2be in modulating olfactory neuron population dynamics to adapt the OR repertoire to the environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00070.001 PMID:23240083

  3. Expressions of ecological identity across the life span of eight environmental exemplars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydel, Jennifer

    While there is a substantial body of literature looking at various aspects of ecological identity and factors that influence it, there has been less work done on how an individual's ecological identity changes with time. Much of that work is limited to short segments of the life span (e.g. the impact of wilderness experiences). This dissertation attempts to address this perceived gap by investigating how the ecological identity of eight environmental exemplars changed during the course of his or her life. What has emerged from this qualitative grounded theory investigation of the lives and works of Charles Darwin, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Hazel Wolf, Rachel Carson, James Lovelock and E.O. Wilson are five sequential expressions of ecological identity. These 'stages' serve as a framework to explain ecological identity as a developmental process, both fluid and continuous, rather than at) end product. The development of an ecological identity is traced, through the development of five cognitive foundations and their alignment with five emotional foundations that reflect a progression from a sensory interaction and a kinship bond with nature into a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all aspects of the planet. The findings reveal the evolution of an ecological identity and suggest the importance of looking beyond content knowledge in the nurturing of ecological attitudes, values, and lifestyles.

  4. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. PMID:22023569

  5. Radiation effects on cancer risks in the Life Span Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Katayama, Hiroaki; Shore, Roy E; Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    To determine late health effects of radiation in atomic bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been conducting studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) population, which consists of 93,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 controls. A recent report on the incidence of solid cancers estimates that at the age of 70 y, after exposure at the age of 30 y, solid-cancer rates increase by about 35% per Gy for men and 58% per Gy for women. The age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. Furthermore, it seems that radiation-associated increases in cancer rates persist throughout life. In addition, radiation has similar effects upon first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. A recent report on leukemia mortality suggested that the effect of radiation on leukemia mortality persisted for more than five decades. In addition, a significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome is found in Nagasaki LSS members 40-60 y after radiation exposure. In view of the nature of the continuing increase in solid cancers, the LSS should continue to provide important new information on cancer risks, as most survivors still alive today were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation under the age of 20 y and are now entering their cancer-prone years.

  6. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda. PMID:25791963

  7. Octopamine controls starvation resistance, life span and metabolic traits in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Hoffmann, Julia; Li, Yang; Stephano, Flora; Bruchhaus, Iris; Fink, Christine; Roeder, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The monoamines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate numerous behaviours and physiological processes in invertebrates. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether these invertebrate counterparts of norepinephrine are important regulators of metabolic and life history traits. We show that flies (Drosophila melanogaster) lacking OA are more resistant to starvation, while their overall life span is substantially reduced compared with control flies. In addition, these animals have increased body fat deposits, reduced physical activity and a reduced metabolic resting rate. Increasing the release of OA from internal stores induced the opposite effects. Flies devoid of both OA and TA had normal body fat and metabolic rates, suggesting that OA and TA act antagonistically. Moreover, OA-deficient flies show increased insulin release rates. We inferred that the OA-mediated control of insulin release accounts for a substantial proportion of the alterations observed in these flies. Apparently, OA levels control the balance between thrifty and expenditure metabolic modes. Thus, changes in OA levels in response to external and internal signals orchestrate behaviour and metabolic processes to meet physiological needs. Moreover, chronic deregulation of the corresponding signalling systems in humans may be associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity or diabetes. PMID:27759117

  8. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning.

  9. Aging Theories for Establishing Safe Life Spans of Airborne Critical Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2003-01-01

    New aging theories have been developed to establish the safe life span of airborne critical structural components such as B-52B aircraft pylon hooks for carrying air-launch drop-test vehicles. The new aging theories use the equivalent-constant-amplitude loading spectrum to represent the actual random loading spectrum with the same damaging effect. The crack growth due to random loading cycling of the first flight is calculated using the half-cycle theory, and then extrapolated to all the crack growths of the subsequent flights. The predictions of the new aging theories (finite difference aging theory and closed-form aging theory) are compared with the classical flight-test life theory and the previously developed Ko first- and Ko second-order aging theories. The new aging theories predict the number of safe flights as considerably lower than that predicted by the classical aging theory, and slightly lower than those predicted by the Ko first- and Ko second-order aging theories due to the inclusion of all the higher order terms.

  10. Radiation effects on cancer risks in the Life Span Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Katayama, Hiroaki; Shore, Roy E; Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    To determine late health effects of radiation in atomic bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been conducting studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) population, which consists of 93,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 controls. A recent report on the incidence of solid cancers estimates that at the age of 70 y, after exposure at the age of 30 y, solid-cancer rates increase by about 35% per Gy for men and 58% per Gy for women. The age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. Furthermore, it seems that radiation-associated increases in cancer rates persist throughout life. In addition, radiation has similar effects upon first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. A recent report on leukemia mortality suggested that the effect of radiation on leukemia mortality persisted for more than five decades. In addition, a significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome is found in Nagasaki LSS members 40-60 y after radiation exposure. In view of the nature of the continuing increase in solid cancers, the LSS should continue to provide important new information on cancer risks, as most survivors still alive today were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation under the age of 20 y and are now entering their cancer-prone years. PMID:22908358

  11. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda.

  12. Reduced Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) signaling extends replicative life span by enhancing NAD+ homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Felicia; James, Christol; Kato, Michiko; Myers, Victoria; Ilyas, Irtqa; Tsang, Matthew; Lin, Su-Ju

    2015-05-15

    Attenuated nutrient signaling extends the life span in yeast and higher eukaryotes; however, the mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we identify the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) amino acid sensing pathway as a novel longevity factor. A null mutation of SSY5 (ssy5Δ) increases replicative life span (RLS) by ∼50%. Our results demonstrate that several NAD(+) homeostasis factors play key roles in this life span extension. First, expression of the putative malate-pyruvate NADH shuttle increases in ssy5Δ cells, and deleting components of this shuttle, MAE1 and OAC1, largely abolishes RLS extension. Next, we show that Stp1, a transcription factor of the SPS pathway, directly binds to the promoter of MAE1 and OAC1 to regulate their expression. Additionally, deletion of SSY5 increases nicotinamide riboside (NR) levels and phosphate-responsive (PHO) signaling activity, suggesting that ssy5Δ increases NR salvaging. This increase contributes to NAD(+) homeostasis, partially ameliorating the NAD(+) deficiency and rescuing the short life span of the npt1Δ mutant. Moreover, we observed that vacuolar phosphatase, Pho8, is partially required for ssy5Δ-mediated NR increase and RLS extension. Together, our studies present evidence that supports SPS signaling is a novel NAD(+) homeostasis factor and ssy5Δ-mediated life span extension is likely due to concomitantly increased mitochondrial and vacuolar function. Our findings may contribute to understanding the molecular basis of NAD(+) metabolism, cellular life span, and diseases associated with NAD(+) deficiency and aging. PMID:25825491

  13. Reduced Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) Signaling Extends Replicative Life Span by Enhancing NAD+ Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Felicia; James, Christol; Kato, Michiko; Myers, Victoria; Ilyas, Irtqa; Tsang, Matthew; Lin, Su-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated nutrient signaling extends the life span in yeast and higher eukaryotes; however, the mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we identify the Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) amino acid sensing pathway as a novel longevity factor. A null mutation of SSY5 (ssy5Δ) increases replicative life span (RLS) by ∼50%. Our results demonstrate that several NAD+ homeostasis factors play key roles in this life span extension. First, expression of the putative malate-pyruvate NADH shuttle increases in ssy5Δ cells, and deleting components of this shuttle, MAE1 and OAC1, largely abolishes RLS extension. Next, we show that Stp1, a transcription factor of the SPS pathway, directly binds to the promoter of MAE1 and OAC1 to regulate their expression. Additionally, deletion of SSY5 increases nicotinamide riboside (NR) levels and phosphate-responsive (PHO) signaling activity, suggesting that ssy5Δ increases NR salvaging. This increase contributes to NAD+ homeostasis, partially ameliorating the NAD+ deficiency and rescuing the short life span of the npt1Δ mutant. Moreover, we observed that vacuolar phosphatase, Pho8, is partially required for ssy5Δ-mediated NR increase and RLS extension. Together, our studies present evidence that supports SPS signaling is a novel NAD+ homeostasis factor and ssy5Δ-mediated life span extension is likely due to concomitantly increased mitochondrial and vacuolar function. Our findings may contribute to understanding the molecular basis of NAD+ metabolism, cellular life span, and diseases associated with NAD+ deficiency and aging. PMID:25825491

  14. Mode of inheritance of major genes controlling life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, I; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H

    1989-01-01

    Although life span is generally considered to be under polygenic control, we obtained experimental evidence of Mendelian genes exerting major effects on life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate two loci with major effects, one being autosomal and the other sex-linked. The alleles at the autosomal locus are designated A1 and A2, the latter producing longer life. Heterozygotes, A1A2, exhibit over-dominance. The alleles at the sex-linked locus, designated X1 and X2, produce life-extending effects. X1 revealed a dosage effect, causing homozygous females to live longer than hemizygous males; X2 showed no dosage effect. The identified genes are considered to control the period of activity of many genes maintaining life. PMID:2517284

  15. Mode of inheritance of major genes controlling life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yonemura, I; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H

    1989-01-01

    Although life span is generally considered to be under polygenic control, we obtained experimental evidence of Mendelian genes exerting major effects on life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate two loci with major effects, one being autosomal and the other sex-linked. The alleles at the autosomal locus are designated A1 and A2, the latter producing longer life. Heterozygotes, A1A2, exhibit over-dominance. The alleles at the sex-linked locus, designated X1 and X2, produce life-extending effects. X1 revealed a dosage effect, causing homozygous females to live longer than hemizygous males; X2 showed no dosage effect. The identified genes are considered to control the period of activity of many genes maintaining life.

  16. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.

  17. The complex nature of family support across the life span: Implications for psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and older adults (ages 50+). A sample of 881 adults (72% White; 26% Black) was drawn from the longitudinal Social Relations, Age, and Health Study. Structural equation modeling indicated that among young and middle-aged adults, increasing family negativity was associated with increases in depressive symptoms over time. In contrast, among older adults, lowered proportion of family in network and an increasing number of family members in the network (i.e., family size) were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms. These findings were moderated by family negativity. Among older adults with low family negativity, having a lower proportion of family and larger family size were associated with decreasing depressive symptoms, but there was no effect among those reporting high family negativity. Overall, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the complex, developmental nature of how family support influences well-being across the life span and highlights unique age differences. PMID:25602936

  18. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  19. [Intention for self-change across the life span: Focusing on concern about self-change].

    PubMed

    Chishima, Yuta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine intention for self-change across the life span using measures of self-esteem, frequency of self-reflection, and concern about self-change. We hypothesized that: (a) Intention for self-change decreases with age because of increased self-esteem, decreased self-reflection and concern about self-change, and (b) Associations among self-esteem, frequency of self-reflection, and intention for self-change are mediated by concern about self-change. Participants (N = 997; age range, 15 to 69 yrs) completed an internet survey. ANOVA results suggested that intention for self-change, concern about self-change, and frequency of self-reflection decreased with age, and that self-esteem-scores increased with age. Simultaneous analysis of multiple age groups showed that for all groups of low self-esteem and frequent self-reflection promoted intention for self-change and that there were significant mediating effects for concern about self-change. Therefore, these findings supported out research hypotheses. PMID:27476265

  20. The frequency of 4 common gene polymorphisms in nonagenarians, centenarians, and average life span individuals.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Vasiliadis, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Vasiliki; Mihas, Constantinos; Bilianou, Helen; Kollia, Aikaterini; Papadopoulou, Evaggelia; Marvaki, Apostolia; Goumas, Georgos; Kalogeropoulos, Petros; Limperi, Sotiria; Katsiki, Niki; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2014-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) such as rs1799752, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) such as rs28362491 and cholesteryl ester transport protein (CETP) such as rs708272 (TaqB1) and rs5882 (I405V) were evaluated in nonagenarians, centenarians, and average life span individuals (controls). The study population (n = 307; 190 nonagenarians, 12 centenarians and 105 middle-aged controls) was genotyped for ACE, NFkB, and CETP genetic variants. The age of nonagenarian and centenarian group ranged between 90 and 111 years; centenarians and controls age ranged from 99 to 111, and from 18 to 80 years, respectively. The I carriers of ACE I/D gene were fewer in nonagenarians compared to centenarians (37.6% vs 62.5%, P = .016). The I carriers of ACE gene were more frequent in centenarians compared to controls (62% vs 41%, P = .045). No differences in frequency of common NFkB and CETP genotypes between patients with exceptional longevity and middle-aged patients were observed.

  1. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anthony D.; Knutson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span. PMID:20501485

  2. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine induces neurological deficits and shortened life span in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianchong; Escala, Wilfredo; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Zhai, R Grace

    2010-11-01

    The neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), was first associated with the high incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in Guam. Recently, BMAA has been implicated as a fierce environmental factor that contributes to the etiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, in addition to ALS. However, the toxicity of BMAA in vivo has not been clearly demonstrated. Here we report our investigation of the neurotoxicity of BMAA in Drosophila. We found that dietary intake of BMAA reduced life span, locomotor functions, and learning and memory abilities in flies. The severity of the alterations in phenotype is correlated with the concentration of BMAA detected in flies. Interestingly, developmental exposure to BMAA had limited impact on survival rate, but reduced fertility in females, and caused delayed neurological impairment in aged adults. Our studies indicate that BMAA exposure causes chronic neurotoxicity, and that Drosophila serves as a useful model in dissecting the pathogenesis of ALS/PDC.

  3. From past to future: Temporal self-continuity across the life span.

    PubMed

    Rutt, Joshua L; Löckenhoff, Corinna E

    2016-09-01

    Although perceived continuity with one's future self has attracted increasing research interest, age differences in this phenomenon remain poorly understood. The present study is the first to simultaneously examine past and future self-continuity across multiple temporal distances using both explicit and implicit measures and controlling for a range of theoretically implicated covariates in an adult life span sample (N = 91, aged 18-92, M = 50.15, SD = 19.20, 56% female). Perceived similarity to one's self across 6 past and 6 future time points (1 month to 10 years) was assessed with an explicit self-report measure and an implicit me/not me trait rating task. In multilevel analyses, age was significantly associated with greater implicit and explicit self-continuity, especially for more distant intervals. Further, reaction times (RTs) in the implicit task remained stable with temporal distance for older adults but decreased with temporal distance for younger adults, especially for future ratings. This points toward age differences in the underlying mechanisms of self-continuity. Multilevel models examined the role of various covariates including personality, cognition, future horizons, and subjective health and found that none of them could fully account for the observed age effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that chronological age is associated with greater self-continuity although specific mechanisms and correlates may vary by age. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Aging-related elevation of sphingoid bases shortens yeast chronological life span by compromising mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jae Kyo; Xu, Ruijuan; Jeong, Eunmi; Mileva, Izolda; Truman, Jean-Philip; Lin, Chih-li; Wang, Kai; Snider, Justin; Wen, Sally; Obeid, Lina M.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Mao, Cungui

    2016-01-01

    Sphingoid bases (SBs) as bioactive sphingolipids, have been implicated in aging in yeast. However, we know neither how SBs are regulated during yeast aging nor how they, in turn, regulate it. Herein, we demonstrate that the yeast alkaline ceramidases (YPC1 and YDC1) and SB kinases (LCB4 and LCB5) cooperate in regulating SBs during the aging process and that SBs shortens chronological life span (CLS) by compromising mitochondrial functions. With a lipidomics approach, we found that SBs were increased in a time-dependent manner during yeast aging. We also demonstrated that among the enzymes known for being responsible for the metabolism of SBs, YPC1 was upregulated whereas LCB4/5 were downregulated in the course of aging. This inverse regulation of YPC1 and LCB4/5 led to the aging-related upregulation of SBs in yeast and a reduction in CLS. With the proteomics-based approach (SILAC), we revealed that increased SBs altered the levels of proteins related to mitochondria. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that increased SBs inhibited mitochondrial fusion and caused fragmentation, resulting in decreases in mtDNA copy numbers, ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potentials, and oxygen consumption. Taken together, these results suggest that increased SBs mediate the aging process by impairing mitochondrial structural integrity and functions. PMID:27008706

  5. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required.

  6. Effects of kaolin particle films on the life span of an orb-weaver spider.

    PubMed

    Benhadi-Marín, Jacinto; Pereira, José Alberto; Santos, Sónia A P

    2016-02-01

    Araniella cucurbitina (Araneae: Araneidae) is a widespread orb-weaver spider commonly found in agroecosystems. Mineral particle films such as kaolin, due to their protective or anti-feeding action, can represent an alternative to pesticides, especially in organic farming systems, but little is known about its effects on A. cucurbitina. Therefore, we tested the effect of kaolin sprays on the life span of A. cucurbitina under laboratory conditions. Four treatments were tested encompassing different exposure routes. Thus, kaolin sprays were applied on (i) the surface, (ii) the prey (fly), (iii) the spider and (iv) both spider & prey. A control group was tested with water in each treatment. Results showed that sprays of kaolin significantly affected the survival of A. curcubitina when applications were done on the surface and on both spider & prey registering a reduction of 48% and 56%, respectively. Spiders in control obtained higher probability of reaching alive at the end of the assay than those treated with kaolin. Differences observed can be explained by the feeding behavior of the species and may depend on the consumption of the web by the spider and the ratio spider/fly for body size.

  7. [Life Span of F1 Progeny of Female Drosophila Exposed to Low Intensity Terahertz Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V I; Weisman, N Ya

    2015-01-01

    Virgin female fruit flies were stressed by placement into a confined space without food for 3 hours. Some flies were subjected to terahertz irradiation (0,1-2,2 THz) for the last 30 min. Irradiated and nonirradiated females were then copulated with males. We investigated the F1 progeny of fruit flies with mature and immature oocytes at the moment of irradiation (days of oviposition: 1-2 and 9-10 after irradiation). Life span of individual flies was evaluated. It was demonstrated that terahertz radiation does not influence the absolute and average lifespan of the F1 progeny in both sexes. In response to terahertz irradiation the sexual dimorphism was detected. Survival curves of males, developed from mature and immature oocytes at the time of irradiation, differ significantly from the appropriate control, whereas in the case of females the survival curves are similar to the control. It is concluded that terahertz radiation has a remote effect on a survival of the F1 male progeny.

  8. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span.

  9. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    PubMed

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required. PMID:26673526

  10. Speech Recognition Across the Life Span: Longitudinal Changes From Middle-Age to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of evidence of age-related declines in speech recognition in middle age to older adulthood; to review contributions of pure-tone thresholds, age, and gender; and to report preliminary results from a longitudinal study. Method Pure-tone thresholds and word recognition in quiet and babble are being measured in a large sample of adults yearly or every 2 to 3 years. Analyses included >16,000 audiograms and speech recognition scores from >1,200 adults whose ages ranged from the 40s to the 90s. A multivariable generalized linear repeated mixed model assessed changes in thresholds and speech recognition over time. Results Word recognition in quiet declined significantly while controlling for threshold increases, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 65 to 70 years. Scores for men were poorer than those for women even after controlling for gender differences in thresholds, but rates of decline did not differ by gender. Smaller declines in key word recognition in babble were observed, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 75 to 80 years. Conclusions Additional evidence is needed from large-scale longitudinal cohort studies to determine rates of change of auditory function across the life span. These studies can identify associations with modifiable risk factors and potential mechanisms to reduce, to prevent, or to delay the onset of age-related hearing loss. PMID:25767998

  11. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. PMID:27481911

  12. Life-Span and Life-Space Literacy: Research and Policy in National and International Perspective. Occasional Paper OP92-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    A more literate society cannot be created in the United States or elsewhere without a more comprehensive conceptual framework. This framework attempts explicitly to link children's acquisition of literacy with that of adults and assumes there is no single normative theory to literacy development. In a life-span and life-space approach, literacy…

  13. A Life-Span, Relational, Public Health Model of Self-Regulation: Impact on Individual and Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniar, Swapnil; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors extend the ideas around the development of self-regulation and its impact on development by proposing a life-span, relational, public health model. They propose that the role of self-regulation should be understood across transitions from childhood to adulthood and through an individual and community perspective,…

  14. Living the Dream? A Qualitative Retrospective Study Exploring the Role of Adolescent Aspirations across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal research linking adolescent career aspirations to adult outcomes other than career and income attainment. Drawing on Nurmi's (2004) and Salmela-Aro, Aunola, and Nurmi's (2007) life-span model of motivation and using quantitative survey data at ages 16, 23, 33, 42, and 50 years, combined with retrospective interview…

  15. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  16. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  17. Sustained Attention Across the Life Span in a Sample of 10,000: Dissociating Ability and Strategy.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Grosso, Mallory; Russo, Kathryn; Esterman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Normal and abnormal differences in sustained visual attention have long been of interest to scientists, educators, and clinicians. Still lacking, however, is a clear understanding of how sustained visual attention varies across the broad sweep of the human life span. In the present study, we filled this gap in two ways. First, using an unprecedentedly large 10,430-person sample, we modeled age-related differences with substantially greater precision than have prior efforts. Second, using the recently developed gradual-onset continuous performance test (gradCPT), we parsed sustained-attention performance over the life span into its ability and strategy components. We found that after the age of 15 years, the strategy and ability trajectories saliently diverge. Strategy becomes monotonically more conservative with age, whereas ability peaks in the early 40s and is followed by a gradual decline in older adults. These observed life-span trajectories for sustained attention are distinct from results of other life-span studies focusing on fluid and crystallized intelligence.

  18. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  19. Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human Aβ. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

  20. Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Anagnostouli, Maria; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    We examined the contribution of demographics and cognitive background variables (processing speed, visuospatial skill, working memory, and interference control) on derived Trail Making Test (TMT) scores in a large sample of Greek healthy participants. We included 775 participants and administered the TMT (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Wechsler Intelligence Adult Scale (WAIS). Direct (TMT-A & TMT-B time-to-completion) and derived [difference TMT-(B - A) & ratio TMT-(B/A)] scores were calculated. Demographics (age, age(2), education, and gender) and WAIS Full Intelligence Quotient significantly predicted the direct TMT-A (R(2) = 0.426) and TMT-B (R(2) = 0.593) scores and to a lesser extent, the derived TMT-(B - A) (R(2) = 0.343) and TMT-(B/A) (R(2) = 0.088) scores. In a subsample of 537 healthy participants who also completed the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST), demographics (age and education), WAIS Digit Symbol, Block Design, Arithmetic, and SNST accounted for 44.8% and 59.7% of the variance on TMT-A and TMT-B, and 32.5% and 9.6% of the variance on TMT-(B - A) and TMT-(B/A), respectively. We found minimal influence of Block Design and Arithmetic on TMT-(B - A) and an absence of significant influence of any cognitive variable on TMT-(B/A) score. Concluding, derived TMT scores are suggested as indices to detect impairment in cognitive flexibility across the adult life span, since they minimize the effect of demographics and other cognitive background variables.

  1. Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations.

  2. Missing Doses in the Life Span Study of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations. PMID:23429722

  3. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-05-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease.

  4. Implicit Motor Sequence Learning and Working Memory Performance Changes Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Sarah Nadine; Keitel, Ariane; Südmeyer, Martin; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM) might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However, the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18–71 years) completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs) were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged) exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result. PMID:27199736

  5. Attachment and the processing of social information across the life span: theory and evidence.

    PubMed

    Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the patterns of results that have emerged from these studies. The central proposition is that individuals who possess secure experience-based internal working models of attachment will process--in a relatively open manner--a broad range of positive and negative attachment-relevant social information. Moreover, secure individuals will draw on their positive attachment-related knowledge to process this information in a positively biased schematic way. In contrast, individuals who possess insecure internal working models of attachment will process attachment-relevant social information in one of two ways, depending on whether the information could cause the individual psychological pain. If processing the information is likely to lead to psychological pain, insecure individuals will defensively exclude this information from further processing. If, however, the information is unlikely to lead to psychological pain, then insecure individuals will process this information in a negatively biased schematic fashion that is congruent with their negative attachment-related experiences. In a comprehensive literature review, we describe studies that illustrate these patterns of attachment-related information processing from childhood to adulthood. This review focuses on studies that have examined specific components (e.g., attention and memory) and broader aspects (e.g., attributions) of social information processing. We also provide general conclusions and suggestions for future research.

  6. Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations. PMID:23429722

  7. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  8. Cognitive ability influences reproductive life history variation in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Morand-Ferron, Julie; Hinks, Amy E; Quinn, John L

    2012-10-01

    Cognition has been studied intensively for several decades, but the evolutionary processes that shape individual variation in cognitive traits remain elusive [1-3]. For instance, the strength of selection on a cognitive trait has never been estimated in a natural population, and the possibility that positive links with life history variation [1-5] are mitigated by costs [6] or confounded by ecological factors remains unexplored in the wild. We assessed novel problem-solving performance in 468 wild great tits Parus major temporarily taken into captivity and subsequently followed up their reproductive performance in the wild. Problem-solver females produced larger clutches than nonsolvers. This benefit did not arise because solvers timed their breeding better, occupied better habitats, or compromised offspring quality or their own survival. Instead, foraging range size and day length were relatively small and short, respectively, for solvers, suggesting that they were more efficient at exploiting their environment. In contrast to the positive effect on clutch size, problem solvers deserted their nests more often, leading to little or no overall selection on problem-solving performance. Our results are consistent with the idea that variation in cognitive ability is shaped by contrasting effects on different life history traits directly linked to fitness [1, 3]. PMID:22940473

  9. Consilience and Life History Theory: From Genes to Brain to Reproductive Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Vasquez, Geneva; Brumbach, Barbara H.; Schneider, Stephanie M. R.; Sefcek, Jon A.; Tal, Ilanit R.; Hill, Dawn; Wenner, Christopher J.; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2006-01-01

    We describe an integrated theory of individual differences that traces the behavioral development of life history from genes to brain to reproductive strategy. We provide evidence that a single common factor, the K-Factor, underpins a variety of life-history parameters, including an assortment of sexual, reproductive, parental, familial, and…

  10. When does cognitive functioning peak? The asynchronous rise and fall of different cognitive abilities across the life span.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; Germine, Laura T

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how and when cognitive change occurs over the life span is a prerequisite for understanding normal and abnormal development and aging. Most studies of cognitive change are constrained, however, in their ability to detect subtle, but theoretically informative life-span changes, as they rely on either comparing broad age groups or sparse sampling across the age range. Here, we present convergent evidence from 48,537 online participants and a comprehensive analysis of normative data from standardized IQ and memory tests. Our results reveal considerable heterogeneity in when cognitive abilities peak: Some abilities peak and begin to decline around high school graduation; some abilities plateau in early adulthood, beginning to decline in subjects' 30s; and still others do not peak until subjects reach their 40s or later. These findings motivate a nuanced theory of maturation and age-related decline, in which multiple, dissociable factors differentially affect different domains of cognition. PMID:25770099

  11. [Effect of light deprivation on homeostasis, life span and development of spontaneous tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice].

    PubMed

    Baturin, D A; Alimova, I N; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Iashin, A I; Anisimov, V N

    2004-01-01

    Twenty five female HER-2/neu transgenic mice (FVB/N), aged 2 months, were surgically deprived of lighting; 30 intact transgenic mice, kept under standard conditions, were in control. Light deprivation was followed by inhibited intake of feed, decreased body mass and delayed age-associated estral disorders, as compared with control. Mean survival rate among experimental mice was higher by 13.5% than in control (p 0.001). Mean life span among the last surviving 10% of the experimental mice was longer than in control by 21.5% while maximum life span--by 21%. Although the number of tumor bearers under 7 months in the study group was twice that in control (p<0.05), they had almost equalized by the end of the experiment. The number of multiple malignancies and the size of tumor and metastases to the lung increased too. PMID:15318708

  12. The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castel, Alan D.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Galvan, Adriana; Balota, David A.; McCabe, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A…

  13. Ageing in a eusocial insect: molecular and physiological characteristics of life span plasticity in the honey bee

    PubMed Central

    Münch, D.; Amdam, G. V.; Wolschin, F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Commonly held views assume that ageing, or senescence, represents an inevitable, passive, and random decline in function that is strongly linked to chronological age. In recent years, genetic intervention of life span regulating pathways, for example, in Drosophila as well as case studies in non-classical animal models, have provided compelling evidence to challenge these views. Rather than comprehensively revisiting studies on the established genetic model systems of ageing, we here focus on an alternative model organism with a wild type (unselected genotype) characterized by a unique diversity in longevity – the honey bee. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) life span varies from a few weeks to more than 2 years. This plasticity is largely controlled by environmental factors. Thereby, although individuals are closely related genetically, distinct life histories can emerge as a function of social environmental change. Another remarkable feature of the honey bee is the occurrence of reverted behavioural ontogeny in the worker (female helper) caste. This behavioural peculiarity is associated with alterations in somatic maintenance functions that are indicative of reverted senescence. Thus, although intraspecific variation in organismal life span is not uncommon, the honey bee holds great promise for gaining insights into regulatory pathways that can shape the time-course of ageing by delaying, halting or even reversing processes of senescence. These aspects provide the setting of our review. We will highlight comparative findings from Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans in particular, and focus on knowledge spanning from molecular- to behavioural-senescence to elucidate how the honey bee can contribute to novel insights into regulatory mechanisms that underlie plasticity and robustness or irreversibility in ageing. PMID:18728759

  14. Proteotoxicity and the contrasting effects of oxaloacetate and glycerol on Caenorhabditis elegans life span: a role for methylglyoxal?

    PubMed

    Hipkiss, Alan R

    2010-10-01

    Because accumulation of altered proteins is the most common biochemical symptom of aging, it is at least possible that such proteotoxicity may cause aging and influence life span. The life span of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly influenced by changes in the intracellular concentration of methylglyoxal (MG), a putative source of much age-related proteotoxicity and organelle, cellular, and molecular dysfunction. Glycerol has recently been shown to shorten, whereas oxaloacetate has been found to extend, life span in C. elegans. It is suggested here that glycerol and oxaloacetate exert opposing effects on MG formation in C. elegans. It is proposed that, if not secreted by aquaporin, glycerol is converted to glycerol phosphate and then to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via a reaction requiring nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This inhibits operation of the glycerol phosphate cycle in which DHAP is converted into glycerol phosphate, which concomitantly regenerates NAD(+) from NADH, thereby ensuring glycolytic oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). Because DHAP and G3P spontaneously decompose into MG, and NAD(+) is required for conversion of G3P into phosphoglycerate, the glycerol-induced increased DHAP formation and decreased NAD(+) availability will increase the potential for MG generation. In contrast, oxaloacetate may decrease MG generation by stimulating the operation of the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle, in which oxaloacetate is converted to malate, which regenerates NAD(+) from NADH. By the ensuing G3P oxidation, increased NAD(+) availability will decrease the potential for MG formation. It should be noted that mitochondria are involved in the operation of the above cycle/shuttles and that increased NAD(+) availability also stimulates those sirtuin activities that increase mitogenesis and mitochondrial activity via effects on signal transduction and gene expression, which frequently accompany dietary restriction-induced life

  15. Maintenance of DNA methylation level in SV40-infected human fibroblasts during their in vitro limited proliferative life span.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, T; Hunter, J L; Farooq, M; Holliday, R

    1989-09-01

    Methylation level as expressed by the molar ratio of 5-methylcytosine content to the combined content of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine was determined by HPLC and uv adsorption of cellular DNA extracted from SV40-infected and pretransformed MRC-5 human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) during their limited in vitro life span. The level decreased slightly during early passages, and then was maintained within a certain range in the subsequent pretransformed stage of serial passages. When HDFs were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) at an effective concentration shortly after the SV40 infection, the level decreased and then increased or was maintained again within a certain range in the subsequent pretransformed state. The proliferative life span potential of SV40-infected HDFs was not significantly decreased by the 5-aza-CdR treatment. These results are in contrast to the established observations for uninfected HDFs, that methylation level decreases during serial passages, and that, after treatment with 5-aza-CdR, the level, as well as the proliferative life span, is decreased in comparison to untreated populations. These results show that SV40-infected pretransformed HDFs are in an intermediate state between normal finite growth and an established permanent line, in that they retain limited in vitro cell proliferation, while acquiring the ability to maintain methylation levels.

  16. rBmαTX14 Increases the Life Span and Promotes the Locomotion of Caenorhabditis Elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Zhang, Ju; Xu, Jie; Wan, Lu; Teng, Kaixuan; Xiang, Jin; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Zebo; Liu, Yongmei; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The scorpion has been extensively used in various pharmacological profiles or as food supplies. The exploration of scorpion venom has been reported due to the presence of recombinant peptides. rBmαTX14 is an α-neurotoxin extracted from the venom gland of the East Asian scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch and can affect ion channel conductance. Here, we investigated the functions of rBmαTX14 using the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Using western blot analysis, rBmαTX14 was shown to be expressed both in the cytoplasm and inclusion bodies in the E.coli Rosetta (DE3) strain. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that purified rBmαTX14 retained its biological structures. Next, feeding nematodes with E.coli Rosetta (DE3) expressing rBmαTX14 caused extension of the life span and promoted the locomotion of the nematodes. In addition, we identified several genes that play various roles in the life span and locomotion of C. elegans through microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, if the amino acid site H15 of rBmαTX14 was mutated, rBmαTX14 no longer promoted the C. elegans life span. In conclusion, the results not only demonstrated the functions and mechanism of rBmαTX14 in C. elegans, but also provided the new sight in the utility of recombinant peptides from scorpion venom. PMID:27611314

  17. Defective mitochondrial gene expression results in reactive oxygen species-mediated inhibition of respiration and reduction of yeast life span.

    PubMed

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Rodeheffer, Matthew S; Shadel, Gerald S

    2006-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction causes numerous human diseases and is widely believed to be involved in aging. However, mechanisms through which compromised mitochondrial gene expression elicits the reported variety of cellular defects remain unclear. The amino-terminal domain (ATD) of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is required to couple transcription to translation during expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation subunits. Here we report that several ATD mutants exhibit reduced chronological life span. The most severe of these (harboring the rpo41-R129D mutation) displays imbalanced mitochondrial translation, conditional inactivation of respiration, elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased oxidative stress. Reduction of ROS, via overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD1 or SOD2 product), not only greatly extends the life span of this mutant but also increases its ability to respire. Another ATD mutant with similarly reduced respiration (rpo41-D152A/D154A) accumulates only intermediate levels of ROS and has a less severe life span defect that is not rescued by SOD. Altogether, our results provide compelling evidence for the "vicious cycle" of mitochondrial ROS production and lead us to propose that the amount of ROS generated depends on the precise nature of the mitochondrial gene expression defect and initiates a downward spiral of oxidative stress only if a critical threshold is crossed.

  18. rBmαTX14 Increases the Life Span and Promotes the Locomotion of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Wan, Lu; Teng, Kaixuan; Xiang, Jin; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Zebo; Liu, Yongmei; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The scorpion has been extensively used in various pharmacological profiles or as food supplies. The exploration of scorpion venom has been reported due to the presence of recombinant peptides. rBmαTX14 is an α-neurotoxin extracted from the venom gland of the East Asian scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch and can affect ion channel conductance. Here, we investigated the functions of rBmαTX14 using the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Using western blot analysis, rBmαTX14 was shown to be expressed both in the cytoplasm and inclusion bodies in the E.coli Rosetta (DE3) strain. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that purified rBmαTX14 retained its biological structures. Next, feeding nematodes with E.coli Rosetta (DE3) expressing rBmαTX14 caused extension of the life span and promoted the locomotion of the nematodes. In addition, we identified several genes that play various roles in the life span and locomotion of C. elegans through microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, if the amino acid site H15 of rBmαTX14 was mutated, rBmαTX14 no longer promoted the C. elegans life span. In conclusion, the results not only demonstrated the functions and mechanism of rBmαTX14 in C. elegans, but also provided the new sight in the utility of recombinant peptides from scorpion venom. PMID:27611314

  19. Self-esteem development across the life span: a longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the life span, increasing during adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort effects on average levels of self-esteem or on the shape of the trajectory were found. Moreover, the trajectory did not differ across gender, level of education, or for individuals who had lived continuously in West versus East Germany (i.e., the 2 parts of Germany that had been separate states from 1949 to 1990). However, the results suggested that employment status, household income, and satisfaction in the domains of work, relationships, and health contribute to a more positive life span trajectory of self-esteem. The findings have significant implications, because they call attention to developmental stages in which individuals may be vulnerable because of low self-esteem (such as adolescence and old age) and to factors that predict successful versus problematic developmental trajectories.

  20. The extended life span of Drosophila melanogaster eye-color (white and vermilion) mutants with impaired formation of kynurenine.

    PubMed

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F

    2010-01-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that aging is associated with increased formation of kynurenine (KYN) from tryptophan (TRY). The rate-limiting factors of TRY-KYN metabolism are transmembrane transport of TRY, and activity of enzyme, TRY 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2). Eye-color mutants, white (w1118) (impaired TRY transport) and vermilion (v48a and v2) (deficient TDO activity), were compared with wild-type Oregon-R (Ore-R) strain of Drosophila melanogaster. Female 1-day-old adult flies maintained on a standard medium, and acclimatized to 12-h light:12-h dark cycle were collected, and then regularly transferred to fresh medium every 3-4 days. The number of dead flies was recorded at the time of transfer. Forty flies were studied in each experimental group. The life span of w1118 (mean = 45.5 days), and v48a (mean = 47.6 days) and v2 (mean = 43.8 days), were significantly longer than of wild-type Ore-R flies (27.1 days) (p < 0.001, Logrank test). There were no differences in life span between w1118 and v48a and v2 mutants. Present results suggest that prolongation of life span may be associated with slow rate of KYN formation from TRY. PMID:19941150

  1. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of

  2. Sex differences in aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis in 129/Sv mice neonatally exposed to metformin

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinski, Mark A; Egormin, Peter A; Yurova, Maria N; Semenchenko, Anna V; Tyndyk, Margarita L; Panchenko, Andrey V; Trashkov, Alexandr P; Vasiliev, Andrey G; Khaitsev, Nikolai V

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal (prenatal and early neonatal) period is a critical stage for hypothalamic programming of sexual differentiation as well as for the development of energy and metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that neonatal treatment with antidiabetic drug biguanide metformin would positively modify regulation of growth hormone – IGF-1 – insulin signaling pathway slowing down aging and improving cancer preventive patterns in rodents. To test this hypothesis male and female 129/Sv mice were s.c. injected with metformin (100 mg/kg) at the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after birth. Metformin-treated males consumed less food and water and their body weight was decreased as compared with control mice practically over their entire lifespan. There were no significant differences in age-related dynamics of food and water consumption in females and they were heavier than controls. The fraction of mice with regular estrous cycles decreased with age and demonstrated a tendency to decrease in the females neonatally treated with metformin. Neonatal exposure to metformin practically failed to change the extent of hormonal and metabolic parameters in blood serum of male and female mice. In males, neonatal metformin treatment significantly increased the mean life span (+20%, P < 0.05) and slightly increased the maximum life span (+3.5%). In females, the mean life span and median in metformin-treated groups were slightly decreased (−9.1% and −13.8% respectively, P > 0.05) in comparison to controls, whereas mean life span of last 10% survivors and maximum life span were the same as in controls. Almost half (45%) of control male mice and 71.8% male mice neonatally exposed to metformin survived up to 800 d of age, the same age was achieved by 54.3% of mice in control female group and 30% of metformin-treated females (P < 0.03). Thus, neonatal metformin exposure slows down aging and prolongs lifespan in male but not in female mice. PMID:25483062

  3. Influence of sources of dietary oils on the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, W M; Plouffe, L; Hollywood, R; L'Abbé, M R; Hidiroglou, N; Sarwar, G; Mueller, R

    2000-04-01

    In recent studies, the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats was altered by a variety of dietary fats. It was relatively shorter in rats fed canola oil as the sole source of fat. The present study was performed to find out whether the fatty acid profile and the high content of sulfur compounds in canola oil could modulate the life span of SHRSP rats. SHRSP rats (47 d old, n = 23/group) were matched by body weight and systolic blood pressure and fed semipurified diets containing 10% canola oil, high-palmitic canola oil, low-sulfur canola oil, soybean oil, high-oleic safflower oil, a fat blend that mimicked the fatty acid composition of canola oil, or a fat blend high in saturated fatty acids. A 1% sodium chloride solution was used as drinking water to induce hypertension. After consuming the diets for 37 d, five rats from each dietary group were killed for collection of blood and tissue samples for biochemical analysis. The 18 remaining animals from each group were used for determining their life span. The mean survival time of SHRSP rats fed canola oil (87.4+/-4.0 d) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those fed low-sulfur canola oil (89.7+/-8.5 d), suggesting that content of sulfur in canola oil has no effect on the life span of SHRSP rats. The SHRSP rats fed the noncanola oil-based diets lived longer (mean survival time difference was 6-13 d, P < 0.05) than those fed canola and low-sulfur canola oils. No marked differences in the survival times were observed among the noncanola oil-based groups. The fatty acid composition of the dietary oils and of red blood cells and liver of SHRSP rats killed after 37 d of treatment showed no relationship with the survival times. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of vegetable oils plays no important role on the life span of SHRSP rat. However, phytosterols in the dietary oils and in liver and brain were inversely correlated with the mean survival times,indicating that the

  4. Hormonal characteristics of the human menstrual cycle throughout reproductive life.

    PubMed

    Sherman, B M; Korenman, S G

    1975-04-01

    The changes in serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS), estradiol, and progesterone that occur both early and late in reproductive life were characterized and compared with findings in young, normal women and in patients with certain menstrual disorders. A total of 50 complete menstrual cycles in 37 were examined. Five distinct patterns of hormonal regulation were found, three of which are reported here: (a) A long follicular phase and delayed follicular maturation in young women with long, unpredictable intermenstrual intervals from menarche; (b) a short follicular phase with increasing age and in short cycles in perimenopausal women; and (c) true anovulatory vaginal bleeding in long cycles in perimenopausal women. The short cycles before and during the menopausal transition were found to have lower E2 levels and high FSH concentrations throughout, while LH remained in the normal range. During long cycles in perimenopausal women, concentrations of LH and FSH were in the menopausal range. However, follicular maturation was observed months after high levels of gonadotropins were attained. These studies permit the characterization of the menstrual history of the normal woman in terms of the hormonal changes that occur and provide a basis for the definition of several disorders of follicular maturation. PMID:1120778

  5. Quantitative proteomics of rat livers shows that unrestricted feeding is stressful for proteostasis with implications on life span

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Galit; Quadroni, Manfredo; Shtaif, Biana; Goloubinoff, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Studies in young mammals on the molecular effects of food restriction leading to prolong adult life are scares. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis of whole rat livers to address the molecular basis for growth arrest and the apparent life-prolonging phenotype of the food restriction regimen. Over 1800 common proteins were significantly quantified in livers of ad libitum, restriction- and re-fed rats, which summed up into 92% of the total protein mass of the cells. Compared to restriction, ad libitum cells contained significantly less mitochondrial catabolic enzymes and more cytosolic and ER HSP90 and HSP70 chaperones, which are hallmarks of heat- and chemically-stressed tissues. Following re-feeding, levels of HSPs nearly reached ad libitum levels. The quantitative and qualitative protein values indicated that the restriction regimen was a least stressful condition that used minimal amounts of HSP-chaperones to maintain optimal protein homeostasis and sustain optimal life span. In contrast, the elevated levels of HSP-chaperones in ad libitum tissues were characteristic of a chronic stress, which in the long term could lead to early aging and shorter life span. PMID:27508340

  6. Quantitative proteomics of rat livers shows that unrestricted feeding is stressful for proteostasis with implications on life span.

    PubMed

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Finka, Andrija; Pinto, Galit; Quadroni, Manfredo; Shtaif, Biana; Goloubinoff, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Studies in young mammals on the molecular effects of food restriction leading to prolong adult life are scares. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative proteomic analysis of whole rat livers to address the molecular basis for growth arrest and the apparent life-prolonging phenotype of the food restriction regimen. Over 1800 common proteins were significantly quantified in livers of ad libitum, restriction- and re-fed rats, which summed up into 92% of the total protein mass of the cells. Compared to restriction, ad libitum cells contained significantly less mitochondrial catabolic enzymes and more cytosolic and ER HSP90 and HSP70 chaperones, which are hallmarks of heat- and chemically-stressed tissues. Following re-feeding, levels of HSPs nearly reached ad libitum levels. The quantitative and qualitative protein values indicated that the restriction regimen was a least stressful condition that used minimal amounts of HSP-chaperones to maintain optimal protein homeostasis and sustain optimal life span. In contrast, the elevated levels of HSP-chaperones in ad libitum tissues were characteristic of a chronic stress, which in the long term could lead to early aging and shorter life span. PMID:27508340

  7. Extension of Life Span by Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans Is Accompanied by Structural Rearrangements of the Transcriptomic Network

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Steffen; Menzel, Uwe; Zarse, Kim; Groth, Marco; Platzer, Matthias; Ristow, Michael; Guthke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Glucose restriction mimicked by feeding the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG) - a glucose molecule that lacks the ability to undergo glycolysis - has been found to increase the life span of the nematodes considerably. To facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this life extension, we analyzed transcriptomes of DOG-treated and untreated roundworms obtained by RNA-seq at different ages. We found that, depending on age, DOG changes the magnitude of the expression values of about 2 to 24 percent of the genes significantly, although our results reveal that the gross changes introduced by DOG are small compared to the age-induced changes. We found that 27 genes are constantly either up- or down-regulated by DOG over the whole life span, among them several members of the cytochrome P450 family. The monotonic change with age of the temporal expression patterns of the genes was investigated, leading to the result that 21 genes reverse their monotonic behaviour under impaired glycolysis. Put simply, the DOG-treatment reduces the gross transcriptional activity but increases the interconnectedness of gene expression. However, a detailed analysis of network parameters discloses that the introduced changes differ remarkably between individual signalling pathways. We found a reorganization of the hubs of the mTOR pathway when standard diet is replaced by DOG feeding. By constructing correlation based difference networks, we identified those signalling pathways that are most vigorously changed by impaired glycolysis. Taken together, we have found a number of genes and pathways that are potentially involved in the DOG-driven extension of life span of C. elegans. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how the network structure of ageing-relevant signalling pathways is reorganised under impaired glycolysis. PMID:24204961

  8. Potentially Traumatic Events at Different Points in the Life Span and Mental Health: Findings From SHARE-Israel

    PubMed Central

    Shrira, Amit; Shmotkin, Dov; Litwin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the association between adversity cumulated at different points in the life span and present mental health. Data of 1,130 participants aged 50+ were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Measures included an inventory of potentially traumatic events, mental distress (depressive symptoms), and well-being (quality of life, life satisfaction). Adversity reported to have occurred early in life was positively related to mental health (i.e., to lower distress and higher well-being), whereas adversity reported to occur in late life was negatively related (i.e., to higher distress and lower well-being). Additional analyses showed that the positive association between early-life adversity and mental health was mainly restricted to adversity in which the primary harm was to another person (other-oriented adversity). In contrast, the negative association between late-life adversity and mental health was mainly restricted to adversity in which the primary harm was to the self (self-oriented adversity). This study suggests that the differential association between cumulative adversity and mental health is best captured when accounting for both time of occurrence and adversity type. PMID:22506527

  9. Mental health in adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities: the role of recent life events and traumatic experiences across the life span.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Almudena; Tsakanikos, Elias; Pereda, Amada; Gutiérrez-Recacha, Pedro; Bouras, Nick; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between recent life events and traumatic experiences across the life span and psychiatric disorders in people with ID. One hundred seventy-seven individuals with mild and moderate intellectual disability and their principal carers were assessed. Psychiatric disorders were evaluated with a semistructured psychiatric interview, the Psychiatric Assessment for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. This interview also includes a checklist of life events experienced over the previous 12 months, which was assessed through key informants. Presence of traumas was assessed through Allen's trauma history screen, also administered to key informants. After a descriptive analysis, binary logistic regression was used to see whether traumatic events and life events predicted the presence of ICD-10 disorders. A 75% of the participants had experienced at least 1 traumatic event during their life span, and 50% of the participants had experienced at least 1 life event in the 12 months previous to the study. Binary logistic regression showed that exposure to 1 or more traumatic experiences significantly increased the odds of a mental disorder (OR = 1.8), as did exposure to life events (OR = 1.4). However, when both life events and traumatic experiences were entered together in the model, calculation of odds ratios revealed that traumatic experiences significantly increased the odds of ICD-10 disorders (OR = 1.7) although life events were no longer significant. Though they have been less studied by the literature regarding predictors of mental illness in people with intellectual disability, traumatic experiences seem to play a more important role in psychopathology than life events.

  10. Factors controlling the proliferative rate, final cell density, and life span of bovine vascular smooth muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, D; Hirabayashi, K; Giguère, L; Tauber, J P

    1981-06-01

    Low density vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell cultures maintained on extracellular-matrix(ECM)-coated dishes and plated in the presence of either plasma or serum will proliferate actively when serum-containing medium is replaced by a synthetic medium supplemented with three factors: high density lipoprotein (HDL, 250 micrograms protein/ml); insulin (2.5 micrograms/ml) or somatomedin C (10 ng/ml); and fibroblast growth factor (FGF, 100 ng/ml) or epidermal growth factor (EGF, 50 ng/ml). The omission of any of these three factors from the synthetic medium results in a lower growth rate of the cultures, as well as in a lower final cell density once cultures reach confluence. When cells are plated in the total absence of serum, transferrin (10 micrograms/ml) is also required to induce optimal cell growth. The effects of the substrate and medium supplements on the life span of VSM cultures have also been analyzed. Cultures maintained on plastic and exposed to medium supplemented with 5% bovine serum underwent 15 generations. However, when maintained on ECM-coated dishes the serum-fed cultures had a life span of at least 88 generations. Likewise, when cultures were maintained in a synthetic medium supplemented with HDL and either FGF or EGF, an effect on the tissue culture life span by the substrate was observed. Cultures maintained on plastic underwent 24 generations, whereas those maintained on ECM-coated dishes could be passaged repeatedly for 58 generations. These experiments demonstrate the influence of the ECM-substrate only in promoting cell growth but also in increasing the longevity of the cultures.

  11. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonal A; Chaudhari, Amol; Gupta, Richa; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Kondratov, Roman V

    2016-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species by unknown mechanisms. The circadian clock was proposed as a potential mediator of CR. Deficiency of the core component of the circadian clock-transcriptional factor BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]-like protein 1)-results in accelerated aging. Here we investigated the role of BMAL1 in mechanisms of CR. The 30% CR diet increased the life span of wild-type (WT) mice by 20% compared to mice on anad libitum(AL) diet but failed to increase life span ofBmal1(-/-)mice. BMAL1 deficiency impaired CR-mediated changes in the plasma levels of IGF-1 and insulin. We detected a statistically significantly reduction of IGF-1 in CRvs.AL by 50 to 70% in WT mice at several daily time points tested, while inBmal1(-/-)the reduction was not significant. Insulin levels in WT were reduced by 5 to 9%, whileBmal1(-/-)induced it by 10 to 35% at all time points tested. CR up-regulated the daily average expression ofBmal1(by 150%) and its downstream target genesPeriods(by 470% forPer1and by 130% forPer2). We propose that BMAL1 is an important mediator of CR, and activation of BMAL1 might link CR mechanisms with biologic clocks.-Patel, S. A., Chaudhari, A., Gupta, R., Velingkaar, N., Kondratov, R. V. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

  12. Hour glass half full or half empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span.

    PubMed

    Strough, JoNell; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full-they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around Age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty-they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time, even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared with men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events, and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as 2 dimensions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Hour glass half full or half empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span.

    PubMed

    Strough, JoNell; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full-they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around Age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty-they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time, even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared with men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events, and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as 2 dimensions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267222

  14. Plant Reproduction. Plant Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Plants are vital to all other life on this planet - without them, there would be no food, shelter or oxygen. Luckily, over millions of years plants have developed many different features in order to survive and reproduce. In Plant Reproduction, students will discover that primitive mosses and algae are dependent upon water for their reproduction.…

  15. Characterization of the dairy farm environment in Great Britain and the effect of the farm environment on cow life span.

    PubMed

    Haskell, M J; Brotherstone, S; Lawrence, A B; White, I M S

    2007-11-01

    Dairy farms vary a great deal in the feeding and management systems that are used. These differences affect the performance of the cows, and some genotypes may be affected more than others. If effects of such genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) are large, then farmers must be made aware of them to make informed breeding decisions. To investigate GxE, a classification system for farm environments was developed based on national- and fine-level data from dairy herds across the United Kingdom. The national data included herd and yield characteristics and local weather information. The fine-level data included information on feeding and management systems on farms, and was obtained from survey results from 778 farms. A principal components analysis of the surveys identified 2 major dimensions characterizing the data. The first dimension explained 14.6% of the variation and was related to the level of production intensity. The second dimension explained 11.5% of the variation and was related to climate. Information on milk yield, herd characteristics, and climate was then extracted from national databases for the survey farms. A canonical correlation analysis was used to relate the survey data to the variables extracted from the national data set to determine the most relevant variables. The canonical correlation between the chosen sets of national data and survey variables was 0.62. This environmental classification was then used to determine how the farm environment affects the life span of dairy cows. The life span of the daughters of 1,000 sires was related to the type of farm environment. The daughters of a majority of sires showed a "plastic" response, with increased life span in less intensive farms. The daughters of a smaller number of sires showed a more generalized response, with life span being less affected by the environment. This GxE suggested that sires vary in the sensitivity of their daughters to different farm environments. This variation in

  16. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-19

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose-response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age.

  17. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose–response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age. PMID:26729882

  18. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008).

  19. Variables associated with circuit life span in critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Ni, Hongying; Lu, Baolong

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest problems in performing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is premature coagulation of the circuit. The aim of the current study was to monitor the circuit function prospectively and analyze patient-related variables that may affect circuit life. Critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital between August 2010 and August 2011 receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with systemic heparin anticoagulation were prospectively studied. Variables including body temperature, blood pH value, ionized calcium level, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, and heparin dose were collected and analyzed for their association with circuit life span. Fifty-four patients treated by CVVH were included, with 255 filters. The filter life was 29.7 ± 13.4 hours (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). Circuits with longer survival time appeared to have lower body temperature (37.80 ± 1.14 vs. 36.36 ± 1.09; p< 0.05), lower levels of serum ionized calcium (0.80 vs. 1.29; p< 0.05), and to be more acidic (7.233 vs. 7.377; p< 0.05). Cox regression showed that pH value and ionized calcium levels were significantly associated with circuit life. Other variables of hematocrit, albumin levels, platelet count, aPTT, PT, or dose of heparin were not significantly associated with circuit life.

  20. Sparing of the extraocular muscles in mdx mice with absent or reduced utrophin expression: A life span analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Abby A; Hebert, Sadie L; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-11-01

    Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and were similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears that these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:26429098

  1. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility. PMID:19416965

  2. Baicalein modulates stress-resistance and life span in C. elegans via SKN-1 but not DAF-16.

    PubMed

    Havermann, Susannah; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Wätjen, Wim

    2016-09-01

    The flavonoid baicalein has been demonstrated to be an activator of the transcription factor Nrf2 in mammalian cell lines. We show that it further modulates the Nrf2 homolog SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans and by this pathway mediates beneficial effects in the nematode: baicalein enhances the resistance of C. elegans against lethal thermal and sodium arsenite stress and dose-dependently prolongs the life span of the nematode. Using RNA interference against SKN-1 we were able to show that the induction of longevity and the enhanced stress-resistance were dependent on this transcription factor. DAF-16 (homolog to mammalian FOXO) is another pivotal aging-related transcription factor in the nematode. We demonstrate that DAF-16 does not participate in the beneficial effects of baicalein: since baicalein causes no increase in the nuclear translocation of DAF-16 (DAF-16::GFP expressing strain, incubation time: 1h) and it still induces longevity even in a DAF-16 loss-of-function strain, we conclude, that baicalein increases stress-resistance and life span in C. elegans via SKN-1 but not DAF-16. PMID:27370100

  3. Sparing of the extraocular muscles in mdx mice with absent or reduced utrophin expression: A life span analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Abby A; Hebert, Sadie L; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-11-01

    Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and were similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears that these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy.

  4. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    SciTech Connect

    Shitara, Shingo; Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo; Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tomizuka, Kazuma

    2008-05-09

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-{beta}-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells.

  5. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Reuben H.; Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K.

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  6. Life Span as the Measure of Performance and Learning in a Business Gaming Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the learning curve method of measuring learning to participants of a computer-assisted business gaming simulation that includes a multiple-life-cycle feature. The study involved 249 participants. It verified the workability of the feature and estimated the participants' rate of learning at 17.4% for every doubling of experience.…

  7. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    PubMed

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering.

  8. Mechanisms of age-related decline in memory search across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas T; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R

    2013-12-01

    Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in memory search have been proposed, which result from either reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis), overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance hypothesis). We investigated these 3 hypotheses by formally modeling the semantic recall patterns of 185 adults between 27 to 99 years of age in the animal fluency task (Thurstone, 1938). The results indicate that people switch between global frequency-based retrieval cues and local item-based retrieval cues to navigate their semantic memory. Contrary to the global slowing hypothesis that predicts no qualitative differences in dynamic search processes and the cluster-switching hypothesis that predicts reduced switching between retrieval cues, the results indicate that as people age, they tend to switch more often between local and global cues per item recalled, supporting the cue-maintenance hypothesis. Additional support for the cue-maintenance hypothesis is provided by a negative correlation between switching and digit span scores and between switching and total items recalled, which suggests that cognitive control may be involved in cue maintenance and the effective search of memory. Overall, the results are consistent with age-related decline in memory search being a consequence of reduced cognitive control, consistent with models suggesting that working memory is related to goal perseveration and the ability to inhibit distracting information.

  9. Recent Progress in Metabolic Signaling Pathways Regulating Aging and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Summit, Advances in Geroscience: Impact on Health Span and Chronic Disease, discusses several aspects of cellular degeneration that underlie susceptibility to chronic aging-associated diseases, morbidity, and mortality. In particular, the session on Metabolism focuses on the interrelationship between signal transduction, intermediary metabolism, and metabolic products and byproducts that contribute to pathophysiologic phenotypes and detrimental effects that occur during the aging process, thus leading to susceptibility to disease. Although it is well established that many metabolic pathways (ie, oxidative phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake) decline with age, it often remains uncertain if these are a cause or consequence of the aging process. Moreover, the mechanisms accounting for the decline in metabolic function remain enigmatic. Several novel and unexpected concepts are emerging that will help to define the roles of altered metabolic control in the degenerative mechanisms of aging. This brief review summarizes several of the topics to be discussed in the metabolism of aging session (http://www.geron.org/About%20Us/nih-geroscience-summit). PMID:24833582

  10. Increased iron supplied through Fet3p results in replicative life span extension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions requiring respiratory metabolism.

    PubMed

    Botta, Gabriela; Turn, Christina S; Quintyne, Nicholas J; Kirchman, Paul A

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that copper supplementation extends the replicative life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae when grown under conditions forcing cells to respire. We now show that copper's effect on life span is through Fet3p, a copper containing enzyme responsible for high affinity transport of iron into yeast cells. Life span extensions can also be obtained by supplementing the growth medium with 1mM ferric chloride. Extension by high iron levels is still dependent on the presence of Fet3p. Life span extension by iron or copper requires growth on media containing glycerol as the sole carbon source, which forces yeast to respire. Yeast grown on glucose containing media supplemented with iron show no extension of life span. The iron associated with cells grown in media supplemented with copper or iron is 1.4-1.8 times that of cells grown without copper or iron supplementation. As with copper supplementation, iron supplementation partially rescues the life span of superoxide dismutase mutants. Cells grown with copper supplementation display decreased production of superoxide as measured by dihydroethidium staining.

  11. Life Beyond the Eating Disorder: Education, Relationships, and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Millie; Thornton, Laura M.; Root, Tammy L.; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Strober, Michael; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L.; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Plotnicov, Kathy; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated sociodemographic characteristics in women with and without lifetime eating disorders. Method Participants were from a multi-site international study of eating disorders (N = 2096). Education level, relationship status, and reproductive status were examined across eating disorder subtypes and compared with a healthy control group. Results Overall, women with eating disorders were less educated than controls, and duration of illness and age of onset were associated with educational attainment. Menstrual status was associated with both relationship and reproductive status, but eating disorder subtypes did not differ significantly from each other or from healthy controls on these dimensions. Conclusion Differences in educational attainment, relationships, and reproduction do exist in individuals with eating disorders and are differentially associated with various eating disorder symptoms and characteristics. These data could assist with educating patients and family members about long-term consequences of eating disorders. PMID:20143323

  12. Rapid sexual maturity and short life span in the blue-legged frog and the rainbow frog from the arid Isalo Massif, southern-central Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Fabio M; Tessa, Giulia; Mercurio, Vincenzo; Andreone, Franco

    2010-12-01

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity were estimated in two anurans from the arid Isalo Massif (southern-central Madagascar), the blue-legged frog (Mantella expectata) and the rainbow frog (Scaphiophryne gottlebei). Phalanges from 69 individuals of M. expectata and 38 individuals of S. gottlebei were analyzed, using the skeletochronological method, in samples collected during two periods: January-February and November-December 2004. The male gonads of both species were also analyzed in order to better correlate reproductive activity with phenology. The phalangeal diaphysis in adults of both species was composed of two concentric bone layers: an innermost endosteal bone, which was less developed or sometimes lacking in S. gottlebei, and an outermost and broader layer of periosteal bone. Lines of arrested growth (LAGs) were observed in both species, although their recognition was more problematic and their distinctiveness much less evident in S. gottlebei. The results presented here indicate that M. expectata and S. gottlebei have a short life span and attain sexual maturity within the first active season after metamorphosis. Maximum longevity was 3 years in M. expectata and 2 years in S. gottlebei. In S. gottlebei the adult body size is likely attained during the same season in which metamorphosis occurs, but then breeding occurs only after the first latency period. Thus, mature individuals have only one LAG, corresponding to 1 year. The low number of individuals with two LAGs suggests that most animals die before the second latency period.

  13. Visualizing Life Zone Boundary Sensitivities Across Climate Models and Temporal Spans

    SciTech Connect

    Sisneros, Roberto R; Huang, Jian; Ostrouchov, George; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2011-01-01

    Life zones are a convenient and quantifiable method for delineating areas with similar plant and animal communities based on bioclimatic conditions. Such ecoregionalization techniques have proved useful for defining habitats and for studying how these habitats may shift due to environmental change. The ecological impacts of climate change are of particular interest. Here we show that visualizations of the geographic projection of life zones may be applied to the investigation of potential ecological impacts of climate change using the results of global climate model simulations. Using a multi-factor classification scheme, we show how life zones change over time based on quantitative model results into the next century. Using two straightforward metrics, we identify regions of high sensitivity to climate changes from two global climate simulations under two different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Finally, we identify how preferred human habitats may shift under these scenarios. We apply visualization methods developed for the purpose of displaying multivariate relationships within data, especially for situations that involve a large number of concurrent relationships. Our method is based on the concept of multivariate classification, and is implemented directly in VisIt, a production quality visualization package.

  14. Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Nussey, Daniel H

    2014-10-01

    The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence. There is now growing support for such trade-offs in wild vertebrates, but these exclusively come from females. Here, we test this prediction in male red deer (Cervus elaphus) using detailed longitudinal data collected over a 40-year field study. We show that males which had larger harems and thereby allocated more resources to reproduction during early adulthood experienced higher rates of senescence in both harem size and rut duration. Males that carried antlers with more points during early life did not show more pronounced declines in reproductive traits in later life. Overall, we demonstrate that sexual competition shapes male reproductive senescence in wild red deer populations and provide rare empirical support for the disposable soma theory of ageing in males of polygynous vertebrate species.

  15. Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Clutton-Brock, Tim H.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence. There is now growing support for such trade-offs in wild vertebrates, but these exclusively come from females. Here, we test this prediction in male red deer (Cervus elaphus) using detailed longitudinal data collected over a 40-year field study. We show that males which had larger harems and thereby allocated more resources to reproduction during early adulthood experienced higher rates of senescence in both harem size and rut duration. Males that carried antlers with more points during early life did not show more pronounced declines in reproductive traits in later life. Overall, we demonstrate that sexual competition shapes male reproductive senescence in wild red deer populations and provide rare empirical support for the disposable soma theory of ageing in males of polygynous vertebrate species. PMID:25122226

  16. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  17. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  18. Evaluation of resveratrol, green tea extract, curcumin, oxaloacetic acid, and medium-chain triglyceride oil on life span of genetically heterogeneous mice.

    PubMed

    Strong, Randy; Miller, Richard A; Astle, Clinton M; Baur, Joseph A; de Cabo, Rafael; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Guo, Wen; Javors, Martin; Kirkland, James L; Nelson, James F; Sinclair, David A; Teter, Bruce; Williams, David; Zaveri, Nurulain; Nadon, Nancy L; Harrison, David E

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP) was established to evaluate agents that are hypothesized to increase life span and/or health span in genetically heterogeneous mice. Each compound is tested in parallel at three test sites. It is the goal of the ITP to publish all results, negative or positive. We report here on the results of lifelong treatment of mice, beginning at 4 months of age, with each of five agents, that is, green tea extract (GTE), curcumin, oxaloacetic acid, medium-chain triglyceride oil, and resveratrol, on the life span of genetically heterogeneous mice. Each agent was administered beginning at 4 months of age. None of these five agents had a statistically significant effect on life span of male or female mice, by log-rank test, at the concentrations tested, although a secondary analysis suggested that GTE might diminish the risk of midlife deaths in females only.

  19. Impacts of early life exposure to estrogen on subsequent breeding behavior and reproductive success in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Coe, Tobias S; Söffker, Marta K; Filby, Amy L; Hodgson, David; Tyler, Charles R

    2010-08-15

    Impacts of exposure to environmental estrogens on reproductive development are well documented, but recently wider concern has been raised due to evidence that such exposures can disrupt normal patterns of reproductive behavior, dominance, and parentage, with potential population level implications. It is fundamental therefore to understand any such effects for effective risk assessment. This study investigated the impact of a transient exposure to ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) during early life (from 20-60 days post fertilization), including at a dosing level within the environmental range, on the subsequent reproductive behavior and success in both male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) in competitive breeding scenarios. There were no obvious effects of the early life EE(2) exposures on the subsequent gonadal phenotypes in either mature males or females. In fact, reproductive success in males exposed to 2.76 ng EE(2)/L was increased in competitive spawning scenarios. In contrast, exposure of females to EE(2) (9.86 ng/L) during early life reduced their subsequent reproductive success in competitive spawning scenarios. Mate choice experiments suggested this was a consequence of the females' diminished courting behavior toward males, rather than any male preference for unexposed females. Reproductive capability of females is generally considered a key determinant in population demographics and dynamics, and therefore the effect of exposure to EE(2) on female reproductive success may have significant implications for exposed fish populations.

  20. Minocycline increases the life span and motor activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in manganese treated Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, E; Contreras, R; Medina-Leendertz, S; Mora, M; Villalobos, V; Bravo, Y

    2012-03-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Minocycline in the life span, motor activity, and lipid peroxidation of Drosophila melanogaster treated with manganese. Two days after emerging from the pupa male wild-type D. melanogaster were fed for 13 days with corn media containing 15 mM manganese. Then, they were divided in six groups of 300 flies each: group (a) remained treated with manganese (Mn group); group (b) began treatment with Minocycline (0.05 mM) (Mn-Minocycline group); group (c) received no additional treatment (Mn-no treatment group); group (d) simultaneously fed with manganese and Minocycline (Mn+Minocycline group). Additionally, a control (group e) with no treatment and another group (f) fed only with Minocycline after emerging from the pupa were added. All the manganese treated flies (group a) were dead on the 25th day. The life span in group f (101.66±1.33 days, mean S.E.M.) and of group b (97.00±3.46 days) were similar, but in both cases it was significantly higher than in group e (68.33±1.76 days), group c (67.05±2.30 days) and in those of group d (37.33±0.88). Manganese (groups a and d) decreased motor activity in D. melanogaster. In the Minocycline fed flies (groups b and f) a higher motor activity was detected. In Mn-Minocycline and Mn+Minocycline treated flies a significant decrease of MDA levels was detected when compared to the Minocycline group indicating that Minocycline and Mn appear to have a synergistic effect. In conclusion, Minocycline increased the life span and motor activity and decreased MDA formation of manganese treated D. melanogaster, probably by an inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species. Manganese also exerted an antioxidant effect as shown by the significant decrease of MDA levels when compared to control flies.

  1. Sickle Cell Disease: An Opportunity for Palliative Care across the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bonnye; Mack, A. Kyle; Labotka, Richard; Molokie, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a chronic illness that impacts patients physically and emotionally and can do so at an early age. An ecological model of palliative care that involves improved communication among the health care team, patients, and their families can be beneficial. Open and honest communication regarding advance care planning, disease management, relief of pain and other symptoms, and bereavement and grief are all important for the patient, family, and health care team. Given the multiple acute and chronic complications of sickle cell disease, an approach to care that is holistic and comprehensive may help to improve a patient’s biological function and the perceived health, functional status, and quality of life of the patient and family. PMID:20804884

  2. ‘Willpower’ over the life span: decomposing self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ayduk, Ozlem; Berman, Marc G.; Casey, B. J.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Jonides, John; Kross, Ethan; Teslovich, Theresa; Wilson, Nicole L.; Zayas, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s, Mischel and colleagues developed a simple ‘marshmallow test’ to measure preschoolers’ ability to delay gratification. In numerous follow-up studies over 40 years, this ‘test’ proved to have surprisingly significant predictive validity for consequential social, cognitive and mental health outcomes over the life course. In this article, we review key findings from the longitudinal work and from earlier delay-of-gratification experiments examining the cognitive appraisal and attention control strategies that underlie this ability. Further, we outline a set of hypotheses that emerge from the intersection of these findings with research on ‘cognitive control’ mechanisms and their neural bases. We discuss implications of these hypotheses for decomposing the phenomena of ‘willpower’ and the lifelong individual differences in self-regulatory ability that were identified in the earlier research and that are currently being pursued. PMID:20855294

  3. Human evolution, life history theory, and the end of biological reproduction.

    PubMed

    Last, Cadell

    2014-01-01

    Throughout primate history there have been three major life history transitions towards increasingly delayed sexual maturation and biological reproduction, as well as towards extended life expectancy. Monkeys reproduce later and live longer than do prosimians, apes reproduce later and live longer than do monkeys, and humans reproduce later and live longer than do apes. These life history transitions are connected to increased encephalization. During the last life history transition from apes to humans, increased encephalization co-evolved with increased dependence on cultural knowledge for energy acquisition. This led to a dramatic pressure for more energy investment in growth over current biological reproduction. Since the industrial revolution socioeconomic development has led to even more energy being devoted to growth over current biological reproduction. I propose that this is the beginning of an ongoing fourth major primate life history transition towards completely delayed biological reproduction and an extension of the evolved human life expectancy. I argue that the only fundamental difference between this primate life history transition and previous life history transitions is that this transition is being driven solely by cultural evolution, which may suggest some deeper evolutionary transition away from biological evolution is already in the process of occurring.

  4. Diet-derived advanced glycation end products or lipofuscin disrupts proteostasis and reduces life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tsakiri, Eleni N; Iliaki, Kalliopi K; Höhn, Annika; Grimm, Stefanie; Papassideri, Issidora S; Grune, Tilman; Trougakos, Ioannis P

    2013-12-01

    Advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified proteins are formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of free amino groups of proteins and, along with lipofuscin (a highly oxidized aggregate of covalently cross-linked proteins, sugars, and lipids), have been found to accumulate during aging and in several age-related diseases. As the in vivo effects of diet-derived AGEs or lipofuscin remain elusive, we sought to study the impact of oral administration of glucose-, fructose-, or ribose-modified albumin or of artificial lipofuscin in a genetically tractable model organism. We report herein that continuous feeding of young Drosophila flies with culture medium enriched in AGEs or in lipofuscin resulted in reduced locomotor performance and in accelerated rates of AGE-modified proteins and carbonylated proteins accumulation in the somatic tissues and hemolymph of flies, as well as in a significant reduction of flies health span and life span. These phenotypic effects were accompanied by reduced proteasome peptidase activities in both the hemolymph and the somatic tissues of flies and higher levels of oxidative stress; furthermore, oral administration of AGEs or lipofuscin in flies triggered an upregulation of the lysosomal cathepsin B, L activities. Finally, RNAi-mediated cathepsin D knockdown reduced flies longevity and significantly augmented the deleterious effects of AGEs and lipofuscin, indicating that lysosomal cathepsins reduce the toxicity of diet-derived AGEs or lipofuscin. Our in vivo studies demonstrate that chronic ingestion of AGEs or lipofuscin disrupts proteostasis and accelerates the functional decline that occurs with normal aging. PMID:23999505

  5. Six-Year Change in Affect Optimization and Affect Complexity Across the Adult Life Span: A Further Examination

    PubMed Central

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Diehl, Manfred; Jain, Elizabeth; Zhang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the life course of 2 independent components of adult affective development, 1 aimed at differentiation and complexity, the other aimed at optimization and positive emotional balance. These 2 components are predicted to have different developmental trajectories over the adult life span and to become related in a compensatory fashion under conditions of resource restrictions, such as those related to late life. Using individual growth curve estimation, we modeled 6-year longitudinal changes in the 2 components in a total sample of 388 individuals ranging in age from 15 to 88 years. As predicted, initial level of affect optimization was positively associated with age up to late middle age with a subsequent leveling off; individual rates of change were found to decelerate with age up to age 60 years and accelerate again around age 80 years. For affect complexity, initial level of affect complexity was positively associated with age up to age 45 years and negatively associated with age from then on, whereas individual rates of change were negatively associated with age, and this association tended to get stronger with age. PMID:18179294

  6. Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Giambra, L M; Camp, C J; Grodsky, A

    1992-03-01

    Giambra (1977-1978, 1979-1980) found that 2 scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory measuring curiosity (i.e., information seeking) did not change across the adult life span, but 2 measuring stimulation seeking (i.e., boredom) for external stimulation need significantly decreased with age. In this study, these outcomes were replicated (1,356 men and 1,080 women 17 to 92 years old). In addition, a 6- to 8-year longitudinal repeat was obtained on 222 men and 124 women. Significant longitudinal declines were obtained for the stimulation-seeking measures. Furthermore, women showed an increase in impersonal-mechanical curiosity and a decline in interpersonal curiosity, though the amount of change was modest. Men were unchanged on both curiosity measures. Gender differences in longitudinal changes apparently reflected effects of socialization as well as tendencies toward displaying increased androgyny with advancing age. PMID:1558700

  7. Empowerment and physical violence throughout women's reproductive life in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro, Roberto; Casique, Irene; Brindis, Claire D

    2008-06-01

    This article analyzes intimate partner violence (IPV) against women aged 15 to 21, 30 to 34, and 45 to 49, based on the 2003 National Survey on the Dynamics of Household Relationships (in Spanish, ENDIREH) in Mexico. The authors examined the degree of women's empowerment and autonomy in relation to their partners. Logit regression analyses showed that variables significantly associated with physical violence varied between the three age groups, suggesting that women followed specific trajectories throughout their reproductive lives. Some dimensions of empowerment reduced the risk of violence (women's ability to decide whether to work, when to have sexual relations, and the extent of their partners' participation in household chores). Other dimensions (women's decision making regarding reproductive matters) increased such risk. Thus, access to resources meant to empower women did not automatically decrease the risk of violence. The authors recommend specific interventions tailored to each age group, aimed at breaking the cycle of violence. PMID:18535307

  8. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Matute, Esmeralda; Vélez-Uribe, Idaly

    2014-01-01

    Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge) and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability). Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:26317109

  9. Carbon dynamics in aboveground biomass of co-dominant plant species: related rather to leaf life span than to species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Lattanzi, Fernando A.; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the role of individual organisms in whole ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes. It is currently unknown if different plant community members share the same or different kinetics of C pools in aboveground biomass, thereby adding (or not) variability to the first steps in ecosystem C cycling. We assessed the residence times in metabolic and non-metabolic (or structural) C pools and the allocation pattern of assimilated C in aboveground plant parts of four co-existing, co-dominant species from different functional groups in a temperate grassland community. For this purpose continuous, 14-16 day long 13CO2/12CO2-labeling experiments were performed in Sept. 2006, May 2007 and Sept. 2007, and the tracer kinetics were analysed with compartmental modeling. In all experimental periods, the species shared vastly similar residence times in metabolic C (5-8 d). In contrast, the residence times in non-metabolic C ranged from 20 to 58 d (except one outlier) and the fraction of fixed C allocated to the non-metabolic pool from 7 to 45%. These variations in non-metabolic C kinetics were not systematically associated with species or experimental periods, but exhibited close relationships with (independent estimates of) leaf life span, particularly in the grasses. This adds new meaning to leaf life span as a functional trait in the leaf and plant economics spectrum and its implication for C cycle studies in grassland and also forest systems. As the four co-dominant species accounted for ~80% of total community shoot biomass, we should also expect that the observed similarities in pool kinetics and allocation will scale up to similar relationships at the community level.

  10. Human adipose tissue derived pericytes increase life span in Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice.

    PubMed

    Valadares, M C; Gomes, J P; Castello, G; Assoni, A; Pellati, M; Bueno, C; Corselli, M; Silva, H; Bartolini, P; Vainzof, M; Margarido, P F; Baracat, E; Péault, B; Zatz, M

    2014-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is still an untreatable lethal X-linked disorder, which affects 1 in 3500 male births. It is caused by the absence of muscle dystrophin due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. The potential regenerative capacity as well as immune privileged properties of mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) has been under investigation for many years in an attempt to treat DMD. One of the questions to be addressed is whether stem cells from distinct sources have comparable clinical effects when injected in murine or canine muscular dystrophy animal models. Many studies comparing different stem cells from various sources were reported but these cells were obtained from different donors and thus with different genetic backgrounds. Here we investigated whether human pericytes obtained from 4 different tissues (muscle, adipose tissue, fallopian tube and endometrium) from the same donor have a similar clinical impact when injected in double mutant Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice, a clinically relevant model for DMD. After a weekly regimen of intraperitoneal injections of 10(6) cells per 8 weeks we evaluated the motor ability as well as the life span of the treated mice as compared to controls. Our experiment showed that only adipose tissue derived pericytes are able to increase significantly (39 days on average) the life span of affected mice. Microarray analysis showed an inhibition of the interferon pathway by adipose derived pericytes. Our results suggest that the clinical benefit associated with intraperitoneal injections of these adult stem cells is related to immune modulation rather than tissue regeneration.

  11. Aging in the cerebellum and hippocampus and associated behaviors over the adult life span of CB6F1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Brown, Kevin L.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effects of normal aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as behaviors associated with these substrates. A total of 67 CB6F1 hybrid mice were tested at one of five ages (4, 8, 12, 18 or 25 months) on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect modification of fear conditioning (CPFE), rotorod, Barnes maze, acoustic startle, Morris water maze (MWM) and 500 ms trace eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC). Behavioral tasks were chosen to increase the ability to detect age-related changes in learning, as trace EBCC is considered a more difficult paradigm (compared to delay EBCC) and the CPFE has been found to be more sensitive to hippocampus insults than standard contextual fear conditioning. To assess the effects of age on the brain, hippocampus volume was calculated and unbiased stereology was used to estimate the number of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellar cortex. A significant, age-related loss of Purkinje neurons was found—beginning at 12 months of age—and hippocampus volume remained stable over the adult life span. Age-related impairment was found, beginning at 12–18 months in the rotorod, and mice with fewer Purkinje neurons showed greater impairment in this task. CB6F1 mice retained auditory acuity across the life span and mice aged 25 months showed significant age-related impairment in the EBCC task; however, deficits were not associated with the loss of Purkinje neurons. Although the CPFE task is considered more sensitive to hippocampus insult, no age-related impairment was found. Spatial memory retention was impaired in the Barnes maze at 25 months, but no significant deficits were seen in the MWM. These results support the finding of differential aging in the hippocampus and cerebellum. PMID:23764510

  12. Similar causes of various reproductive disorders in early life

    PubMed Central

    Svechnikov, Konstantin; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Savchuck, Iuliia; Söder, Olle

    2014-01-01

    During the past few decades, scientific evidence has been accumulated concerning the possible adverse effects of the exposure to environmental chemicals on the well-being of wildlife and human populations. One large and growing group of such compounds of anthropogenic or natural origin is referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), due to their deleterious action on the endocrine system. This concern was first focused on the control of reproductive function particularly in males, but has later been expanded to include all possible endocrine functions. The present review describes the underlying physiology behind the cascade of developmental events that occur during sexual differentiation of males and the specific role of androgen in the masculinization process and proper organogenesis of the external male genitalia. The impact of the genetic background, environmental exposures and lifestyle factors in the etiology of hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are reviewed and the possible role of EDCs in the development of these reproductive disorders is discussed critically. Finally, the possible direct and programming effects of exposures in utero to widely use therapeutic compounds, environmental estrogens and other chemicals on the incidence of reproductive abnormalities and poor semen quality in humans are also highlighted. PMID:24369133

  13. An evolutionary and life history perspective on human male reproductive senescence.

    PubMed

    Bribiescas, Richard G

    2010-08-01

    Unlike menopause, male reproductive senescence does not involve an acute drop in fertility. Men do, however, manifest distinct changes in somatic and gonadal function with age. Moreover, population variation in male reproductive senescence reveals phenotypic plasticity resulting from environmental, lifestyle, and genetic factors. An evolutionary and life history perspective is vital for understanding male reproductive senescence because aging involves biological constraint as well as adjustments to reproductive strategies and the allocation of somatic resources. An awareness of life history-related tradeoffs between energetic and time constraints is especially useful because biological aspects of male senescence are products of environmental challenges and natural selection. This article reviews the adaptive significance of the evolutionary biology of human male senescence with particular attention to population variation. An evolutionary perspective cannot only shed light on the origins and biology of human male senescence but also provide insights into contemporary issues of male aging and health.

  14. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  15. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  16. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  17. Feeding into old age: long-term effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on tissue composition and life span in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Smaller mammals, such as mice, possess tissues containing more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than larger mammals, while at the same time live shorter lives. These relationships have been combined in the ‘membrane pacemaker hypothesis of aging’. It suggests that membrane PUFA content might determine an animal’s life span. PUFAs in general and certain long-chain PUFAs in particular, are highly prone to lipid peroxidation which brings about a high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of either n-3 or n-6 PUFAs might affect (1) membrane phospholipid composition of heart and liver tissues and (2) life span of the animals due to the altered membrane composition, and subsequent effects on lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we kept female laboratory mice from the C57BL/6 strain on three diets (n-3 PUFA rich, n-6 PUFA rich, control) and assessed body weights, life span, heart, and liver phospholipid composition after the animals had died. We found that while membrane phospholipid composition clearly differed between feeding groups, life span was not directly affected. However, we were able to observe a positive correlation between monounsaturated fatty acids in cardiac muscle and life span. PMID:20981551

  18. Genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, biosynthetic, and tRNA methylation genes involved in life span regulation.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Paola; Hoon, Shawn; Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Galbani, Abdulaye; Wei, Min; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Longo, Valter D

    2010-07-15

    The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved.

  19. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's "Grade Span and…

  20. Rejuvenescence and extension of an urochordate life span following a single, acute administration of an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Reznick, Abraham Z; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2002-05-01

    Two commonly accepted metabolic theories of aging interpret senescence either in terms of the rate of living, where a fixed total metabolic potential is consumed over an expected lifetime (after which the organism wears out and dies) or, in terms of accumulative oxidative damage resulting in progressive and irreversible changes in metabolic pathways. Protocols based on restricted diets, chronically administered anti-oxidants and the use of established lines of organisms resistant to free radical damage support the metabolic theories of aging by revealing, in many cases, significant extensions of life spans or dramatic anti-aging effects. To test the universality of these metabolic hypotheses of aging, we acutely treated ramets (clonal replicates) from old, long-lived colonies of the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri with lethal doses of the anti-oxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). This group of organisms has a weekly cyclical and highly synchronized developmental process (blastogenesis), during which all existing zooids are removed by massive apoptosis and phagocytosis processes. In animals treated with BHT, blastogenesis was completely arrested and colonies deteriorated to a morphologically chaotic state. Rescued ramets resorbed BHT treated zooids, regenerated entirely new sets of zooids and then revealed: (1) rejuvenescence and enhanced growth rates and in many cases, (2) up to 4.6 times extension of post-treatment life expectancy. Both metabolic theories for senescence were therefore falsified in B. schlosseri. The possible existence of an aging clock that can be set by the environment is suggested.

  1. Preventive nutritional supplementation throughout the reproductive life cycle.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ballart, J; Murphy, M M

    2001-12-01

    Current interest in preventive nutritional supplementation strategies during the reproductive cycle in developed countries focuses mainly on iron and folic acid. Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia. Inadequate iron nutrition is mainly a problem in developing countries but it also seems to affect a large proportion of pregnant women in the industrialised world. There is no chance for diet modification alone to meet iron requirements during pregnancy. However, dietary advice must be provided to increase iron intake and iron bioavailability. The best choice is prescribed supplementation adapted to the individual's needs. Folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period reduces the occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). According to the updated edition of American Dietary Reference Intakes, recommended dietary allowance for folate for women of childbearing age varies throughout the reproductive cycle from 400 microg day(-1) of dietary folate equivalents (DFEs) for non-pregnant women, to 600 microg day(-1) DFEs for pregnant women and 500 microg day(-1) DFEs in lactating women. Increasing dietary folate, fortifying staple foods with folic acid or use of folic acid supplements can increase folate intake. PMID:11918481

  2. [Observations on oviposition, hatching and the life span of Triatoma matogrossensis Leite & Barbosa, 1953 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) as a function of their feeding on pigeons and rabbits].

    PubMed

    Marassá, A M; Veiga-Barreiros, R M; Moraes, R H; de Andrade, R M; Castillo, A; Corrêa, F M

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was carried out concerning the influence of two kinds of blood-meal on egg laying, egg hatching and life span of Triatoma matogrossensis. 68 couples in 4 different groups with 20, 12, 20 and 16 individuals of each sex per group were formed. Maintained under laboratory conditions groups A1 and A2 were fed on pigeons and groups C1 and C2 were fed on rabbits. In relation to egg laying the best results were found in group A1. No differences on egg hatching were found between the groups fed on rabbits and those fed on pigeons. Concerning the life span, no differences between males and females in the 4 groups were observed but group A1 presented the longest life span and group C2 the shortest.

  3. Environmental enrichment improves age-related immune system impairment: long-term exposure since adulthood increases life span in mice.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Lorena; De Castro, Nuria M; Baeza, Isabel; Maté, Ianire; Viveros, Maria Paz; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2010-08-01

    Age-related changes in immunity have been shown to highly influence morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) (8-16 weeks) on several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes, previously described as health and longevity markers, in mice at different ages, namely adult (44 +/- 4 weeks), old (69 +/- 4 weeks), and very old (92 +/- 4 weeks). Mortality rates were monitored in control and enriched animals, and effects on survival of long-term exposure to EE until natural death were determined. The results showed that exposure to EE was efficient in improving the function (i.e., macrophage chemotaxis and phagocytosis, lymphocyte chemotaxis and proliferation, natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels) and decreasing the oxidative-inflammatory stress (i.e., lowered oxidized glutathione content, xanthine oxidase activity, expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on CD4 and CD8 cells, and increased reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) of immune cells. These positive effects of EE were especially remarkable in animals at older ages. Importantly, long-term exposure to EE from adult age and until natural death stands out as a useful strategy to extend longevity. Thus, the present work confirms the importance of maintaining active mental and/or physical activity aiming to improve quality of life in terms of immunity, and demonstrates that this active life must be initiated at early stages of the aging process and preserved until death to improve life span.

  4. Fast–slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R.; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P.; Hodgson, David J.; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A.; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast–slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast–slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments. PMID:26699477

  5. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide.

    PubMed

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P; Hodgson, David J; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast-slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments.

  6. [The effect of mithochondria targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on aging, life span and spontaneous carcinogenesis in three mice strains].

    PubMed

    Iurova, M H; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Piskunova, T S; Tyndyk, M L; Popovich, I G; anisimov, V N

    2010-01-01

    Female outbred SHR mice, inbred 129/Sv mice and transgenic HER-2/neu mice were given mitochondria targeted antioxidant SkQ1 with drinking water in the various doses (0,5-2500 nmol/kg day) since the age of 2 months, whereas control animals received tap water. Age-related dynamics of the body weight and temperature, the amount of drinking water and consumed food, estrous function, as well as parameters of the life span and spontaneous carcinogenesis were estimated. As compared with controls, no difference in the parameters of body weight and temperature or amount of consumed food and water in the treated mice of all studied mice strains was revealed. In SkQ1-treated SHR mice, the tendencies of inhibition of the age-dependent disturbances of estrous function and aging appearance were observed. No effect of SkQ1 on estrous function and external view in inbred and transgenic mice was shown. SkQ1 treatment significantly decreased locomotor activity (in 12-15 months old SHR and 129/Sv mice) and exercise tolerance in old (20 months) SHR mice. The treatment with SkQ1 (0,5-50 nmol/kg day) increased parameters of the life span in SHR mice (mean life span, mean life span of the last 10% of survival, median and maximum life span) without significant effect on the life span in 129/Sv and HER-2/neu mice. There was no reliable difference in tumor development in all SkQ1-treated mice strains as compared with the control. The drug considerably inhibited the incidence of age-associated non-tumor pathology in SHR mice. Our data suggest geroprotective activity of SkQ1, and a lack of toxic or carcinogenic activities during long term use. PMID:21137217

  7. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context.

  8. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. PMID:25542633

  9. Targeted disruption of Pten in ovarian granulosa cells enhances ovulation and extends the life span of luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; Cahill, Nicola; Richards, JoAnne S

    2008-09-01

    FSH activates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway and thereby enhances granulosa cell differentiation in culture. To identify the physiological role of the PI3K pathway in vivo we disrupted the PI3K suppressor, Pten, in developing ovarian follicles. To selectively disrupt Pten expression in granulosa cells, Ptenfl/fl mice were mated with transgenic mice expressing cAMP response element recombinase driven by Cyp19 promoter (Cyp19-Cre). The resultant Pten mutant mice were fertile, ovulated more oocytes, and produced moderately more pups than control mice. These physiological differences in the Pten mutant mice were associated with hyperactivation of the PI3K/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway, decreased susceptibility to apoptosis, and increased proliferation of mutant granulosa cells. Strikingly, corpora lutea of the Pten mutant mice persisted longer than those of control mice. Although the follicular and luteal cell steroidogenesis in Ptenfl/fl;Cyp19-Cre mice was similar to controls, viable nonsteroidogenic luteal cells escaped structural luteolysis. These findings provide the novel evidence that Pten impacts the survival/life span of granulosa/luteal cells and that its loss not only results in the facilitated ovulation but also in the persistence of nonsteroidogenic luteal structures in the adult mouse ovary.

  10. The ALS-associated proteins FUS and TDP-43 function together to affect Drosophila locomotion and life span

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Wu; Brent, Jonathan R.; Tomlinson, Andrew; Shneider, Neil A.; McCabe, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The fatal adult motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) shares some clinical and pathological overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder. The RNA/DNA-binding proteins fused in sarcoma (FUS; also known as TLS) and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) have recently been shown to be genetically and pathologically associated with familial forms of ALS and FTD. It is currently unknown whether perturbation of these proteins results in disease through mechanisms that are independent of normal protein function or via the pathophysiological disruption of molecular processes in which they are both critical. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants in which the homolog of FUS is disrupted exhibit decreased adult viability, diminished locomotor speed, and reduced life span compared with controls. These phenotypes were fully rescued by wild-type human FUS, but not ALS-associated mutant FUS proteins. A mutant of the Drosophila homolog of TDP-43 had similar, but more severe, deficits. Through cross-rescue analysis, we demonstrated that FUS acted together with and downstream of TDP-43 in a common genetic pathway in neurons. Furthermore, we found that these proteins associated with each other in an RNA-dependent complex. Our results establish that FUS and TDP-43 function together in vivo and suggest that molecular pathways requiring the combined activities of both of these proteins may be disrupted in ALS and FTD. PMID:21881207

  11. Targeted Disruption of Pten in Ovarian Granulosa Cells Enhances Ovulation and Extends the Life Span of Luteal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; Cahill, Nicola; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2008-01-01

    FSH activates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway and thereby enhances granulosa cell differentiation in culture. To identify the physiological role of the PI3K pathway in vivo we disrupted the PI3K suppressor, Pten, in developing ovarian follicles. To selectively disrupt Pten expression in granulosa cells, Ptenfl/fl mice were mated with transgenic mice expressing cAMP response element recombinase driven by Cyp19 promoter (Cyp19-Cre). The resultant Pten mutant mice were fertile, ovulated more oocytes, and produced moderately more pups than control mice. These physiological differences in the Pten mutant mice were associated with hyperactivation of the PI3K/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway, decreased susceptibility to apoptosis, and increased proliferation of mutant granulosa cells. Strikingly, corpora lutea of the Pten mutant mice persisted longer than those of control mice. Although the follicular and luteal cell steroidogenesis in Ptenfl/fl;Cyp19-Cre mice was similar to controls, viable nonsteroidogenic luteal cells escaped structural luteolysis. These findings provide the novel evidence that Pten impacts the survival/life span of granulosa/luteal cells and that its loss not only results in the facilitated ovulation but also in the persistence of nonsteroidogenic luteal structures in the adult mouse ovary. PMID:18606860

  12. The Concept of Homology as a Basis for Evaluating Developmental Mechanisms: Exploring Selective Attention Across the Life-Span

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Research with human infants as well as non-human animal embryos and infants has consistently demonstrated the benefits of intersensory redundancy for perceptual learning and memory for redundantly specified information during early development. Studies of infant affect discrimination, face discrimination, numerical discrimination, sequence detection, abstract rule learning, and word comprehension and segmentation have all shown that intersensory redundancy promotes earlier detection of these properties when compared to unimodal exposure to the same properties. Here we explore the idea that such intersensory facilitation is evident across the life-span and that this continuity is an example of a developmental behavioral homology. We present evidence that intersensory facilitation is most apparent during early phases of learning for a variety of tasks, regardless of developmental level, including domains that are novel or tasks that require discrimination of fine detail or speeded responses. Under these conditions, infants, children, and adults all show intersensory facilitation, suggesting a developmental homology. We discuss the challenge and propose strategies for establishing appropriate guidelines for identifying developmental behavioral homologies. We conclude that evaluating the extent to which continuities observed across development are homologous can contribute to a better understanding of the processes of development. PMID:22711341

  13. The Lignan Pinoresinol Induces Nuclear Translocation of DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans but has No Effect on Life Span.

    PubMed

    Koch, Karoline; Büchter, Christian; Havermann, Susannah; Wätjen, Wim

    2015-06-01

    The lignan pinoresinol is a constituent of flaxseed, sesame seeds and olive oil. Because of different molecular effects reported for this compound, e.g. antioxidative activity, pinoresinol is suggested to cause positive effects on humans. Because experimental data are limited, we have analysed the effects of the lignan on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: in spite of a strong antioxidative capacity detected in an in vitro assay, no antioxidative effects were detectable in vivo. In analogy to this result, no modulation of the sensitivity against thermal stress was detectable. However, incubation with pinoresinol caused an enhanced nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor DAF-16 (insulin/IGF-like signalling pathway). Using a strain with an enhanced oxidative stress level (mev-1 mutant), we clearly see an increase in stress resistance caused by this lignan, but no change in reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of pinoresinol on the life span of the nematode, but no modulation was found, neither in wild-type nor in mev-1 mutant nematodes. These results suggest that pinoresinol may exert pharmacologically interesting effects via modulation of the insulin-like signalling pathway in C. elegans as well as in other species like mammals due to the evolutionary conservation of this signalling pathway.

  14. A review of methionine dependency and the role of methionine restriction in cancer growth control and life-span extension.

    PubMed

    Cavuoto, Paul; Fenech, Michael F

    2012-10-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid with many key roles in mammalian metabolism such as protein synthesis, methylation of DNA and polyamine synthesis. Restriction of methionine may be an important strategy in cancer growth control particularly in cancers that exhibit dependence on methionine for survival and proliferation. Methionine dependence in cancer may be due to one or a combination of deletions, polymorphisms or alterations in expression of genes in the methionine de novo and salvage pathways. Cancer cells with these defects are unable to regenerate methionine via these pathways. Defects in the metabolism of folate may also contribute to the methionine dependence phenotype in cancer. Selective killing of methionine dependent cancer cells in co-culture with normal cells has been demonstrated using culture media deficient in methionine. Several animal studies utilizing a methionine restricted diet have reported inhibition of cancer growth and extension of a healthy life-span. In humans, vegan diets, which can be low in methionine, may prove to be a useful nutritional strategy in cancer growth control. The development of methioninase which depletes circulating levels of methionine may be another useful strategy in limiting cancer growth. The application of nutritional methionine restriction and methioninase in combination with chemotherapeutic regimens is the current focus of clinical studies.

  15. COPEPOD REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES: LIFE-HISTORY THEORY, PHYLOGENETIC PATTERN AND INVASION OF INLAND WATERS. (R824771)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven ...

  16. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  17. The role of early life nutrition in programming of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life.

  18. Life-Span Data on Continuous-Naming Speeds of Numbers, Letters, Colors, and Pictured Objects, and Word-Reading Speed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Kees P.; Zijlstra, Bonne J. H.; lutje Spelberg, Henk C.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses life-span developmental relations between naming and reading speed. Finds word-reading speed and naming speeds of colors and pictures increased into mature adulthood, but for letter and number naming, asymptotes were reached at around 16 years of age. Supports the theory that describes reading recognition development as a domain-specific…

  19. Physical Attractiveness and Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood: Do Recent Life-Span Developmental Texts Perpetuate or Challenge Gender Stereotypes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Beth H.

    This document reports on an investigation focusing on how the content of introductory college psychology texts' content related to physical attractiveness and self-esteem. The primary objective of this study was to review how recently published life-span developmental texts present physical development in middle childhood as related to traditional…

  20. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart J

    2007-01-01

    for ideological and economic reasons. To contrast this, I propose a different model of care together with a different model of selfhood. Here I develop and apply Foucault's late work on the "care of the self." In this understanding of "care," I suggest that we might work towards an ethical self that is more commensurable both with recent theoretical views on subjectivity and--more pressingly--with the challenges of emergent biotechnologies. I end this paper with a discussion on ethical parenthood, which offers a practical reading of the "care of the self" in relation to new reproductive technologies (NRTs). PMID:17480234

  1. Care and the self: biotechnology, reproduction, and the good life

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Stuart J

    2007-01-01

    model for ideological and economic reasons. To contrast this, I propose a different model of care together with a different model of selfhood. Here I develop and apply Foucault's late work on the "care of the self." In this understanding of "care," I suggest that we might work towards an ethical self that is more commensurable both with recent theoretical views on subjectivity and – more pressingly – with the challenges of emergent biotechnologies. I end this paper with a discussion on ethical parenthood, which offers a practical reading of the "care of the self" in relation to new reproductive technologies (NRTs). PMID:17480234

  2. Reproductive conflict and the separation of reproductive generations in humans

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Michael A.; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2008-01-01

    An enduring puzzle of human life history is why women cease reproduction midway through life. Selection can favor postreproductive survival because older females can help their offspring to reproduce. But the kin-selected fitness gains of helping appear insufficient to outweigh the potential benefits of continued reproduction. Why then do women cease reproduction in the first place? Here, we suggest that early reproductive cessation in humans is the outcome of reproductive competition between generations, and we present a simple candidate model of how this competition will be resolved. We show that among primates exhibiting a postreproductive life span, humans exhibit an extraordinarily low degree of reproductive overlap between generations. The rapid senescence of the human female reproductive system coincides with the age at which, in natural fertility populations, women are expected to encounter reproductive competition from breeding females of the next generation. Several lines of evidence suggest that in ancestral hominids, this younger generation typically comprised immigrant females. In these circumstances, relatedness asymmetries within families are predicted to give younger females a decisive advantage in reproductive conflict with older females. A model incorporating both the costs of reproductive competition and the benefits of grandmothering can account for the timing of reproductive cessation in humans and so offers an improved understanding of the evolution of menopause. PMID:18378891

  3. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments.

  4. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

  5. Differential reproductive responses to stress reveal the role of life-history strategies within a species

    PubMed Central

    Schultner, J.; Kitaysky, A. S.; Gabrielsen, G. W.; Hatch, S. A.; Bech, C.

    2013-01-01

    Life-history strategies describe that ‘slow’- in contrast to ‘fast’-living species allocate resources cautiously towards reproduction to enhance survival. Recent evidence suggests that variation in strategies exists not only among species but also among populations of the same species. Here, we examined the effect of experimentally induced stress on resource allocation of breeding seabirds in two populations with contrasting life-history strategies: slow-living Pacific and fast-living Atlantic black-legged kittiwakes. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive responses in kittiwakes under stress reflect their life-history strategies. We predicted that in response to stress, Pacific kittiwakes reduce investment in reproduction compared with Atlantic kittiwakes. We exposed chick-rearing kittiwakes to a short-term (3-day) period of increased exogenous corticosterone (CORT), a hormone that is released during food shortages. We examined changes in baseline CORT levels, parental care and effects on offspring. We found that kittiwakes from the two populations invested differently in offspring when facing stress. In response to elevated CORT, Pacific kittiwakes reduced nest attendance and deserted offspring more readily than Atlantic kittiwakes. We observed lower chick growth, a higher stress response in offspring and lower reproductive success in response to CORT implantation in Pacific kittiwakes, whereas the opposite occurred in the Atlantic. Our findings support the hypothesis that life-history strategies predict short-term responses of individuals to stress within a species. We conclude that behaviour and physiology under stress are consistent with trade-off priorities as predicted by life-history theory. We encourage future studies to consider the pivotal role of life-history strategies when interpreting inter-population differences of animal responses to stressful environmental events. PMID:24089339

  6. Effects of polyploidy and reproductive mode on life history trait expression.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Katelyn; Tucci, Claire; Neiman, Maurine

    2016-02-01

    Ploidy elevation is increasingly recognized as a common and important source of genomic variation. Even so, the consequences and biological significance of polyploidy remain unclear, especially in animals. Here, our goal was to identify potential life history costs and benefits of polyploidy by conducting a large multiyear common garden experiment in Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is a model system for the study of ploidy variation, sexual reproduction, host-parasite coevolution, and invasion ecology. Sexual diploid and asexual triploid and tetraploid P. antipodarum frequently coexist, allowing for powerful direct comparisons across ploidy levels and reproductive modes. Asexual reproduction and polyploidy are very often associated in animals, allowing us to also use these comparisons to address the maintenance of sex, itself one of the most important unresolved questions in evolutionary biology. Our study revealed that sexual diploid P. antipodarum grow and mature substantially more slowly than their asexual polyploid counterparts. We detected a strong negative correlation between the rate of growth and age at reproductive maturity, suggesting that the relatively early maturation of asexual polyploid P. antipodarum is driven by relatively rapid growth. The absence of evidence for life history differences between triploid and tetraploid asexuals indicates that ploidy elevation is unlikely to underlie the differences in trait values that we detected between sexual and asexual snails. Finally, we found that sexual P. antipodarum did not experience discernable phenotypic variance-related benefits of sex and were more likely to die before achieving reproductive maturity than the asexuals. Taken together, these results suggest that under benign conditions, polyploidy does not impose obvious life history costs in P. antipodarum and that sexual P. antipodarum persist despite substantial life history disadvantages relative to their asexual

  7. Effects of polyploidy and reproductive mode on life history trait expression.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Katelyn; Tucci, Claire; Neiman, Maurine

    2016-02-01

    Ploidy elevation is increasingly recognized as a common and important source of genomic variation. Even so, the consequences and biological significance of polyploidy remain unclear, especially in animals. Here, our goal was to identify potential life history costs and benefits of polyploidy by conducting a large multiyear common garden experiment in Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is a model system for the study of ploidy variation, sexual reproduction, host-parasite coevolution, and invasion ecology. Sexual diploid and asexual triploid and tetraploid P. antipodarum frequently coexist, allowing for powerful direct comparisons across ploidy levels and reproductive modes. Asexual reproduction and polyploidy are very often associated in animals, allowing us to also use these comparisons to address the maintenance of sex, itself one of the most important unresolved questions in evolutionary biology. Our study revealed that sexual diploid P. antipodarum grow and mature substantially more slowly than their asexual polyploid counterparts. We detected a strong negative correlation between the rate of growth and age at reproductive maturity, suggesting that the relatively early maturation of asexual polyploid P. antipodarum is driven by relatively rapid growth. The absence of evidence for life history differences between triploid and tetraploid asexuals indicates that ploidy elevation is unlikely to underlie the differences in trait values that we detected between sexual and asexual snails. Finally, we found that sexual P. antipodarum did not experience discernable phenotypic variance-related benefits of sex and were more likely to die before achieving reproductive maturity than the asexuals. Taken together, these results suggest that under benign conditions, polyploidy does not impose obvious life history costs in P. antipodarum and that sexual P. antipodarum persist despite substantial life history disadvantages relative to their asexual

  8. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  9. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  10. Integration-independent Transgenic Huntington Disease Fragment Mouse Models Reveal Distinct Phenotypes and Life Span in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Robert; DeGiacomo, Francesco; Holcomb, Jennifer; Bonner, Akilah; Ring, Karen L.; Zhang, Ningzhe; Zafar, Khan; Weiss, Andreas; Lager, Brenda; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W.; Chen, Sylvia; Kwak, Seung; Ellerby, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The cascade of events that lead to cognitive decline, motor deficits, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington disease (HD) is triggered by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. A significant mechanism in HD is the generation of mutant HTT fragments, which are generally more toxic than the full-length HTT. The protein fragments observed in human HD tissue and mouse models of HD are formed by proteolysis or aberrant splicing of HTT. To systematically investigate the relative contribution of the various HTT protein proteolysis events observed in vivo, we generated transgenic mouse models of HD representing five distinct proteolysis fragments ending at amino acids 171, 463, 536, 552, and 586 with a polyglutamine length of 148. All lines contain a single integration at the ROSA26 locus, with expression of the fragments driven by the chicken β-actin promoter at nearly identical levels. The transgenic mice N171-Q148 and N552-Q148 display significantly accelerated phenotypes and a shortened life span when compared with N463-Q148, N536-Q148, and N586-Q148 transgenic mice. We hypothesized that the accelerated phenotype was due to altered HTT protein interactions/complexes that accumulate with age. We found evidence for altered HTT complexes in caspase-2 fragment transgenic mice (N552-Q148) and a stronger interaction with the endogenous HTT protein. These findings correlate with an altered HTT molecular complex and distinct proteins in the HTT interactome set identified by mass spectrometry. In particular, we identified HSP90AA1 (HSP86) as a potential modulator of the distinct neurotoxicity of the caspase-2 fragment mice (N552-Q148) when compared with the caspase-6 transgenic mice (N586-Q148). PMID:26025364

  11. Deletion of Brca2 exon 27 causes hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinks, chromosomal instability, and reduced life span in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoho, Greg; Brenneman, Mark A.; Cui, Tracy X.; Donoviel, Dorit; Vogel, Hannes; Goodwin, Edwin H.; Chen, David J.; Hasty, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Brca2 tumor-suppressor gene contributes to genomic stability, at least in part by a role in homologous recombinational repair. BRCA2 protein is presumed to function in homologous recombination through interactions with RAD51. Both exons 11 and 27 of Brca2 code for domains that interact with RAD51; exon 11 encodes eight BRC motifs, whereas exon 27 encodes a single, distinct interaction domain. Deletion of all RAD51-interacting domains causes embryonic lethality in mice. A less severe phenotype is seen with BRAC2 truncations that preserve some, but not all, of the BRC motifs. These mice can survive beyond weaning, but are runted and infertile, and die very young from cancer. Cells from such mice show hypersensitivity to some genotoxic agents and chromosomal instability. Here, we have analyzed mice and cells with a deletion of only the RAD51-interacting region encoded by exon 27. Mice homozygous for this mutation (called brca2(lex1)) have a shorter life span than that of control littermates, possibly because of early onsets of cancer and sepsis. No other phenotype was observed in these animals; therefore, the brca2(lex1) mutation is less severe than truncations that delete some BRC motifs. However, at the cellular level, the brca2(lex1) mutation causes reduced viability, hypersensitivity to the DNA interstrand crosslinking agent mitomycin C, and gross chromosomal instability, much like more severe truncations. Thus, the extreme carboxy-terminal region encoded by exon 27 is important for BRCA2 function, probably because it is required for a fully functional interaction between BRCA2 and RAD51. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Body Size, Growth and Life Span: Implications for the Polewards Range Shift of Octopus tetricus in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge E.; Pecl, Gretta T.; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A.; Strugnell, Jan M.; León, Rafael I.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  13. Evaluation of platelet thromboxane radioimmunoassay method to measure platelet life-span: Comparison with /sup 111/indium-platelet method

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1985-05-01

    The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37/sup 0/C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient.

  14. Radiation exposure and the risk of mortality from noncancer respiratory diseases in the life span study, 1950-2005.

    PubMed

    Pham, Truong-Minh; Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Shimizu, Yukiko; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Ikuno; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Soda, Midori; Suyama, Akihiko; Shore, Roy E; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2013-11-01

    An apparent association between radiation exposure and noncancer respiratory diseases (NCRD) in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors has been reported, but the biological validity of that observation is uncertain. This study investigated the possibility of radiation causation of noncancer respiratory diseases in detail by examining subtypes of noncancer respiratory diseases, temporal associations, and the potential for misdiagnosis and other confounding factors. A total of 5,515 NCRD diagnoses listed as the underlying cause of death on the death certificate were observed among the 86,611 LSS subjects with estimated weighted absorbed lung doses. Radiation dose-response analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazard regression for pneumonia/influenza, other acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The linear excess relative risks (ERR) per gray (Gy) were 0.17 (95% CI 0.08, 0.27) for all NCRD and 0.20 (CI 0.09, 0.34) for pneumonia/influenza, which accounted for 63% of noncancer respiratory disease deaths. Adjustments for lifestyle and sociodemographic variations had almost no impact on the risk estimates. However, adjustments for indications of cancer and/or cardiovascular disease decreased the risk estimates, with ERR for total noncancer respiratory diseases declined by 35% from 0.17 to 0.11. Although it was impossible to fully adjust for the misdiagnosis of other diseases as noncancer respiratory diseases deaths in this study because of limitations of available data, nevertheless, the associations were reduced or eliminated by the adjustment that could be made. This helps demonstrates that the association between noncancer respiratory diseases and radiation exposure in previous reports could be in part be attributed to coincident cancer and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24148011

  15. A structured population model suggests that long life and post-reproductive lifespan promote the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Caitlin; Rychtář, Jan; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-03-21

    Social organization correlates with longevity across animal taxa. This correlation has been explained by selection for longevity by social evolution. The reverse causality is also conceivable but has not been sufficiently considered. We constructed a simple, spatially structured population model of asexually reproducing individuals to study the effect of temporal life history structuring on the evolution of cooperation. Individuals employed fixed strategies of cooperation or defection towards all neighbours in a basic Prisoner's Dilemma paradigm. Individuals aged and transitioned through different life history stages asynchronously without migration. An individual's death triggered a reproductive event by one immediate neighbour. The specific neighbour was chosen probabilistically according to the cumulative payoff from all local interactions. Varying the duration of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive life history stages, long-term simulations allowed a systematic evaluation of the influence of the duration of these specific life history stages. Our results revealed complex interactions among the effects of the three basic life history stages and the benefit to defect. Overall, a long post-reproductive stage promoted the evolution of cooperation, while a prolonged pre-reproductive stage has a negative effect. In general, the total length of life also increased the probability of the evolution of cooperation. Thus, our specific model suggests that the timing of life history transitions and total duration of life history stages may affect the evolution of cooperative behaviour. We conclude that the causation of the empirically observed association of life expectancy and sociality may be more complex than previously realized.

  16. Life History and Reproductive Timing of the Endangered Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venarsky, M. P.; Wilhelm, F. M.; Anderson, F. A.; Taylor, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    To aid the recovery of endangered species requires an understanding of their basic biology. Armed with such knowledge, meaningful management plans with realistic objectives can be established. We examined the life history and reproductive biology of Gammarus acherondytes, a federally endangered cave amphipod, in Reverse Stream, Monroe Co., Illinois. The population was sampled non-destructively at monthly intervals from October 2003 to February 2005. The density of gravid females peaked twice annually, (November-December and June-July) indicating major reproductive events. Gravid females also occurred at other times of the year but at low densities. Two major peaks in the density of newborn young were also observed, which lagged the density of gravid females by approximately 1-2 months. We believe this reproductive pattern is related to the influx of organic matter from mid summer storm events and leaf abscission in autumn. Young grew at a rate of 0.034 mm/day and likely reach reproductive size in one year. Adults are iteroparous and may live for several years. Our results suggest that limiting cave access in highly visited caves during peak reproduction may be a simple strategy to increase the abundance of G. acherondytes.

  17. Copepod reproductive strategies: life-history theory, phylogenetic pattern and invasion of inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Bohonak, Andrew J.

    1998-06-01

    Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven by tradeoffs that are mediated by the environment in which the organisms live. At the same time, phylogenetic history may circumscribe natural selection by dictating the range of phenotypes upon which selection can act, or by limiting the range of environments encountered. Comparisons of life-history patterns in related organisms provide a powerful tool for understanding both the nature of selection on life-history characters and the diversity of life-history patterns observed in nature. Here, we explore reproductive strategies of the Copepoda, a well defined group with many phylogenetically independent transitions from free-living to parasitic life styles, from marine to inland waters, and from active development to diapause. Most species are iteroparous annuals, and most (with the exception of some parasitic taxa) develop through a relatively restricted range of life-history stages (nauplii and copepodids, or some modification thereof). Within these bounds, we suggest that there may be a causal relationship between the success of numerous copepod taxa in inland waters and the prevalence of either diapause or parasitism within these groups. We hypothesize that inland waters are more variable spatially and temporally than marine habitats, and accordingly, we interpret diapause and parasitism as mechanisms for coping with environmental variance.

  18. Inheritance of immune responsiveness, life span, and disease incidence in interline crosses of mice selected for high or low multispecific antibody production.

    PubMed

    Covelli, V; Mouton, D; Di Majo, V; Bouthillier, Y; Bangrazi, C; Mevel, J C; Rebessi, S; Doria, G; Biozzi, G

    1989-02-15

    High (H) and low (L) antibody responder lines of mice separated by selective breeding present a maximal interline difference in antibody (Ab) response to Ag of different specificities (general genetic regulation). The analysis of SRBC agglutinin response in H line, L line, F1 hybrids, F2, and backcross segregants demonstrates that Ab responsiveness is a polygenic trait regulated by the additive interaction of 5 to 7 independent loci, with an incomplete dominance (44% +/- 7%) of the high response character, and a 30% +/- 10% impact of the environmental factors. The life span of H, L, F1, F2, and backcross populations is correlated positively with 2-ME-resistant agglutinin response (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001) and negatively with 2-ME-sensitive agglutinin response (r = 0.95, p = 0.01) (interpopulation correlation). Similar correlations are also observed in individuals of the various populations, especially in F1 x L backcross, in which the largest phenotypic variance is found. The positive correlation between Ab responsiveness and life span was confirmed by ELISA titration for distinct IgG isotypes (intrapopulation correlation). Malignant lymphomas and chronic nephritis were the two most common diseases observed. The age-adjusted incidence of such diseases, which is largely affected by environmental factors, accounts for the longer life span of H, as compared with L, mouse populations. The longevity of the 30% or less survivors, chiefly determined by the rate of physiologic aging, is a polygenic character regulated by the cumulative interaction of 3 to 7 independent loci, with a complete dominance of the long life trait and an impact of the environmental factors of about 60%. Thus we have grounds for regarding general Ab responsiveness and life span as polygenic traits regulated by a small number of identical or closely linked gene loci, and immune responsiveness as a defense mechanism against neoplastic and inflammatory diseases.

  19. Colony life history and lifetime reproductive success of red harvester ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Krista K; Pilko, Anna; Heer, Jeffrey; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-05-01

    1. We estimate colony reproductive success, in numbers of offspring colonies arising from a colony's daughter queens, of colonies of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. 2. A measure of lifetime reproductive success is essential to understand the relation of ecological factors, phenotype and fitness in a natural population. This was possible for the first time in a natural population of ant colonies using data from long-term study of a population of colonies in south-eastern Arizona, for which ages of all colonies are known from census data collected since 1985. 3. Parentage analyses of microsatellite data from 5 highly polymorphic loci were used to assign offspring colonies to maternal parent colonies in a population of about 265 colonies, ages 1-28 years, sampled in 2010. 4. The estimated population growth rate Ro was 1.69 and generation time was 7.8 years. There was considerable variation among colonies in reproductive success: of 199 possible parent colonies, only 49 (˜ 25%) had offspring colonies on the site. The mean number of offspring colonies per maternal parent colony was 2.94 and ranged from 1 to 8. A parent was identified for the queen of 146 of 247 offspring colonies. There was no evidence for reproductive senescence; fecundity was about the same throughout the 25-30 year lifespan of a colony. 5. There were no trends in the distance or direction of the dispersal of an offspring relative to its maternal parent colony. There was no relationship between the number of gynes produced by a colony in 1 year and the number of offspring colonies subsequently founded by its daughter reproductive females. The results provide the first estimate of a life table for a population of ant colonies and the first estimate of the female component of colony lifetime reproductive success. 6. The results suggest that commonly used measures of reproductive output may not be correlated with realized reproductive success. This is the starting point for future

  20. Variation in reproductive life history traits between two populations of Blackbanded Darters (Percina nigrofasciata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughey, Myra C.; Heins, David C.; Jelks, Howard L.; Ory, Bridget A.; Jordan, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We examined the life history of Blackbanded Darters (Percina nigrofasciata) from two streams in the Choctawhatchee River drainage, Florida, over a three-year study period. Blackbanded Darters from Turkey Creek were longer than fish from Ten Mile Creek; however, size-adjusted clutch and egg sizes were similar between populations. Larger females produced larger clutches, whereas egg size did not vary with female body size. Seasonally, clutch sizes were greater in May than in August. When contrasted with previous studies of Blackbanded Darters in Alabama and Louisiana, the reproductive season of Blackbanded Darters in Florida was unusually long, ceasing for only a few months in late fall. The reproductive season was longer in Turkey Creek than in Ten Mile Creek. Differences in thermal regime among streams may explain differences in life history traits among local and distant populations of Blackbanded Darters. This research, alone and in combination with previous studies of this species, emphasizes two main points. First, it reaffirms that life history studies based on a single locality or conducted at a single point in time may fail to capture the full range of variation in life history traits. Second, it highlights the extensive phenotypic variation found in species with broad geographic ranges. Such species lend themselves to comparative and experimental research on patterns and causes of life history variation.

  1. Maternal thermal environment induces plastic responses in the reproductive life history of oviparous lizards.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Shu-Ran; Sha, Wei; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive plasticity may shift phenotypic traits close to a new optimum for directional selection and probably facilitates adaptive evolution in new environments. However, such plasticity has rarely been reported in life-history evolution, despite overwhelming evidence of life-history variation both among and within species. In this study, the temperatures experienced by gravid females of Scincella modesta were manipulated to identify maternally induced plasticity in reproductive traits and the significance of such changes in the evolution of life history. Consistent with the geographic pattern of life history, the study demonstrated that low temperatures delayed egg oviposition, resulting in a more advanced embryonic developmental stage at oviposition and shorter incubation periods compared with warm temperatures. In addition, females maintained at low temperatures produced larger eggs and hence heavier hatchlings than those at warm temperatures. This study demonstrated that environmental temperatures can induce plastic responses in egg retention and offspring size, and these maternally mediated changes in reproductive life history seem to be adaptive in the light of latitudinal clines of these traits in natural populations.

  2. Life history and reproductive ecology of the endangered Itasenpara bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis (Cyprinidae) in the Himi region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishio, M; Kawamoto, T; Kawakami, R; Edo, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-09-01

    The life history, reproductive ecology and habitat utilization of the Itasenpara (deepbody) bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis were investigated in a lowland segment of the Moo River in Toyama Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Analysis of 1285 individuals revealed that the study population comprised a single size class, an age at maturation of 3 months and a life span of 1 year. On the basis of the growth pattern, the life cycle was divided into two stages: the juvenile stage, characterized by rapid growth, and the adult stage at which growth ceased. Spawning by A. longipinnis was recorded between early September and late October. Female A. longipinnis in the 0+ year age class began to mature when they reached a standard length (LS ) of 56·4 mm. Mature females had a large clutch size (maximum 273 eggs) and deposited highly adhesive and relatively large eggs (2·55 mm(3) ; major axis, 3·12 mm; minor axis, 1·22 mm) via a short ovipositor (mean length, 21·5 mm) into freshwater mussels. The embryos remained in the gill cavities of the freshwater mussels (used as a spawning substratum) and emerged as juveniles (LS , 9 mm). Habitat utilization during spawning was analysed using a generalized linear model. The best-fit model showed that three environmental factors (freshwater mussel availability, water depth and vegetation cover) were important variables for habitat utilization by A. longipinnis. Shallow areas (water depth, 250-330 mm) created for rice paddy management and areas with an abundance of cover were particularly effective for predator avoidance. These results suggest that maintenance of water level fluctuations corresponding with rice cultivation and the abundance of vegetation on the river bank (particularly avoidance of concrete revetments) is essential for conservation of this species under current practices for rice cultivation in Japan. PMID:26255608

  3. Life history and reproductive ecology of the endangered Itasenpara bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis (Cyprinidae) in the Himi region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishio, M; Kawamoto, T; Kawakami, R; Edo, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2015-09-01

    The life history, reproductive ecology and habitat utilization of the Itasenpara (deepbody) bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis were investigated in a lowland segment of the Moo River in Toyama Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. Analysis of 1285 individuals revealed that the study population comprised a single size class, an age at maturation of 3 months and a life span of 1 year. On the basis of the growth pattern, the life cycle was divided into two stages: the juvenile stage, characterized by rapid growth, and the adult stage at which growth ceased. Spawning by A. longipinnis was recorded between early September and late October. Female A. longipinnis in the 0+ year age class began to mature when they reached a standard length (LS ) of 56·4 mm. Mature females had a large clutch size (maximum 273 eggs) and deposited highly adhesive and relatively large eggs (2·55 mm(3) ; major axis, 3·12 mm; minor axis, 1·22 mm) via a short ovipositor (mean length, 21·5 mm) into freshwater mussels. The embryos remained in the gill cavities of the freshwater mussels (used as a spawning substratum) and emerged as juveniles (LS , 9 mm). Habitat utilization during spawning was analysed using a generalized linear model. The best-fit model showed that three environmental factors (freshwater mussel availability, water depth and vegetation cover) were important variables for habitat utilization by A. longipinnis. Shallow areas (water depth, 250-330 mm) created for rice paddy management and areas with an abundance of cover were particularly effective for predator avoidance. These results suggest that maintenance of water level fluctuations corresponding with rice cultivation and the abundance of vegetation on the river bank (particularly avoidance of concrete revetments) is essential for conservation of this species under current practices for rice cultivation in Japan.

  4. Differential longitudinal changes in cortical thickness, surface area and volume across the adult life span: regions of accelerating and decelerating change.

    PubMed

    Storsve, Andreas B; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Westlye, Lars T; Overbye, Knut; Aasland, Hilde W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2014-06-18

    Human cortical thickness and surface area are genetically independent, emerge through different neurobiological events during development, and are sensitive to different clinical conditions. However, the relationship between changes in the two over time is unknown. Additionally, longitudinal studies have almost invariably been restricted to older adults, precluding the delineation of adult life span trajectories of change in cortical structure. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in cortical thickness, surface area, and volume after an average interval of 3.6 years in 207 well screened healthy adults aged 23-87 years. We hypothesized that the relationships among metrics are dynamic across the life span, that the primary contributor to cortical volume reductions in aging is cortical thinning, and that magnitude of change varies with age and region. Changes over time were seen in cortical area (mean annual percentage change [APC], -0.19), thickness (APC, -0.35), and volume (APC, -0.51) in most regions. Volume changes were primarily explained by changes in thickness rather than area. A negative relationship between change in thickness and surface area was found across several regions, where more thinning was associated with less decrease in area, and vice versa. Accelerating changes with increasing age was seen in temporal and occipital cortices. In contrast, decelerating changes were seen in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In conclusion, a dynamic relationship between cortical thickness and surface area changes exists throughout the adult life span. The mixture of accelerating and decelerating changes further demonstrates the importance of studying these metrics across the entire adult life span. PMID:24948804

  5. Differential longitudinal changes in cortical thickness, surface area and volume across the adult life span: regions of accelerating and decelerating change.

    PubMed

    Storsve, Andreas B; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Westlye, Lars T; Overbye, Knut; Aasland, Hilde W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2014-06-18

    Human cortical thickness and surface area are genetically independent, emerge through different neurobiological events during development, and are sensitive to different clinical conditions. However, the relationship between changes in the two over time is unknown. Additionally, longitudinal studies have almost invariably been restricted to older adults, precluding the delineation of adult life span trajectories of change in cortical structure. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in cortical thickness, surface area, and volume after an average interval of 3.6 years in 207 well screened healthy adults aged 23-87 years. We hypothesized that the relationships among metrics are dynamic across the life span, that the primary contributor to cortical volume reductions in aging is cortical thinning, and that magnitude of change varies with age and region. Changes over time were seen in cortical area (mean annual percentage change [APC], -0.19), thickness (APC, -0.35), and volume (APC, -0.51) in most regions. Volume changes were primarily explained by changes in thickness rather than area. A negative relationship between change in thickness and surface area was found across several regions, where more thinning was associated with less decrease in area, and vice versa. Accelerating changes with increasing age was seen in temporal and occipital cortices. In contrast, decelerating changes were seen in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In conclusion, a dynamic relationship between cortical thickness and surface area changes exists throughout the adult life span. The mixture of accelerating and decelerating changes further demonstrates the importance of studying these metrics across the entire adult life span.

  6. Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside Elicits Life-span Extension and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Yadav, Deepti; Pant, Aakanksha; Yadav, A K; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The advancements in the field of gerontology have unraveled the signaling pathways that regulate life span, suggesting that it might be feasible to modulate aging. To this end, we isolated a novel phytomolecule Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside (ARX) from Premna integrifolia and evaluated its antiaging effects in Caenorhabditis elegans The spectral data analysis revealed the occurrence of a new compound ARX. Out of the three tested pharmacological doses of ARX, viz. 5, 25, and 50 µM, the 25-µM dose was able to extend life span in C. elegans by more than 39%. The present study suggests that ARX affects bacterial metabolism, which in turn leads to dietary restriction (DR)-like effects in the worms. The effect of ARX on worms with mutations (mev-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, skn-1, daf-16, and hsf-1) indicates that ARX-mediated life-span extension involves mechanisms associated with DR and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. This study is the first time report on longevity-promoting activity of ARX in C. elegans mediated by stress and DR-regulating genes. This novel phytomolecule can contribute in designing therapeutics for managing aging and age-related diseases.

  7. Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside Elicits Life-span Extension and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Yadav, Deepti; Pant, Aakanksha; Yadav, A K; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The advancements in the field of gerontology have unraveled the signaling pathways that regulate life span, suggesting that it might be feasible to modulate aging. To this end, we isolated a novel phytomolecule Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside (ARX) from Premna integrifolia and evaluated its antiaging effects in Caenorhabditis elegans The spectral data analysis revealed the occurrence of a new compound ARX. Out of the three tested pharmacological doses of ARX, viz. 5, 25, and 50 µM, the 25-µM dose was able to extend life span in C. elegans by more than 39%. The present study suggests that ARX affects bacterial metabolism, which in turn leads to dietary restriction (DR)-like effects in the worms. The effect of ARX on worms with mutations (mev-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, skn-1, daf-16, and hsf-1) indicates that ARX-mediated life-span extension involves mechanisms associated with DR and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. This study is the first time report on longevity-promoting activity of ARX in C. elegans mediated by stress and DR-regulating genes. This novel phytomolecule can contribute in designing therapeutics for managing aging and age-related diseases. PMID:26433219

  8. Flow cytometric analysis of material-induced platelet activation in a canine model: elevated microparticle levels and reduced platelet life span.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, C H; Yeo, E L; Sefton, M V

    1997-11-01

    Assessment of material-induced platelet activation is important given that it is thought to be a major mechanism of biomaterials thrombogenicity. We monitored, by flow cytometry, platelet microparticle (MP) levels in the circulation during the connection of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and polyethylene (PE) test segments (3.18 mm ID, 20 and 50 cm L) to our chronically shunted beagle dogs. We report that circulating microparticle levels were dependent on test segment material, length, and time. The connection of 50-cm lengths of PVA hydrogel test segments led to MP levels two to three times greater than background at 48 h, while the connection of polyethylene test segments did not lead to elevated microparticle levels. MP levels were near background 24 h after removal of the PVA test segment. To determine platelet life span during the connection of test segments, platelets were labeled in vivo with biotin and their disappearance monitored flow cytometrically. While platelet life span for shunted dogs (no test segment) was 4.7 +/- 0.2 days, the connection of PVA hydrogel test segments led to a platelet life span of < 2 days.

  9. The development of memory efficiency and value-directed remembering across the life span: a cross-sectional study of memory and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Galván, Adriana; Balota, David A; McCabe, David P

    2011-11-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A selectivity task was used in which participants were asked to study and recall items worth different point values in order to maximize their point score. This procedure allowed for measures of memory quantity/capacity (number of words recalled) and memory efficiency/selectivity (the recall of high-value items relative to low-value items). Age-related differences were found for memory capacity, as young adults recalled more words than the other groups. However, in terms of selectivity, younger and older adults were more selective than adolescents and children. The dissociation between these measures across the life span illustrates important age-related differences in terms of memory capacity and the ability to selectively remember high-value information.

  10. Excess omega-3 fatty acid consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation caused shorter life span and abnormal ABRs in old adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Church, M W; Jen, K-L C; Anumba, J I; Jackson, D A; Adams, B R; Hotra, J W

    2010-01-01

    Consuming omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) during pregnancy and lactation is beneficial to fetal and infant development and might reduce the incidence and severity of preterm births by prolonging pregnancy. Consequently, supplementing maternal diets with large amounts of omega-3 FA is gaining acceptance. However, both over- and under-supplementation with omega-3 FA can harm offspring development. Adverse fetal and neonatal conditions in general can enhance age-related neural degeneration, shorten life span and cause other adult-onset disorders. We hypothesized that maternal over- and under-nutrition with omega-3 FA would shorten the offspring's life span and enhance neural degeneration in old adulthood. To test these hypotheses, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the three diet conditions starting from day 1 of pregnancy through the entire period of pregnancy and lactation. The three diets were Control omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0.14), Excess omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 14.5) and Deficient omega-3 FA (omega-3/omega-6 ratio approximately 0% ratio). When possible, one male and female offspring from each litter were assessed for life span and sensory/neural degeneration (n=15 litters/group). The Excess offspring had shorter life spans compared to their Control and Deficient cohorts (mean+/-SEM=506+/-24, 601+/-14 and 585+/-21 days, plife span and sensory/neurological function in old adulthood. The adverse outcomes in the Excess offspring were likely due to a "nutritional toxicity" during fetal and/or neonatal development

  11. The roles of the immune system in women's reproduction: evolutionary constraints and life history trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Elizabeth T; Miller, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    Life history theory posits that, as long as survival is assured, finite resources are available for reproduction, maintenance, and growth/storage. To maximize lifetime reproductive success, resources are subject to trade-offs both within individuals and between current and future investment. For women, reproducing is costly and time-consuming; the bulk of available resources must be allocated to reproduction at the expense of more flexible systems like immune function. When reproducing women contract infectious diseases, the resources required for immune activation can fundamentally shift the patterns of resource allocation. Adding to the complexity of the reproductive-immune trade-offs in women are the pleiotropic effects of many immune factors, which were modified to serve key roles in mammalian reproduction. In this review, we explore the complex intersections between immune function and female reproduction to situate proximate immunological processes within a life history framework. After a brief overview of the immune system, we discuss some important physiological roles of immune factors in women's reproduction and the conflicts that may arise when these factors must play dual roles. We then discuss the influence of reproductive-immune trade-offs on the patterning of lifetime reproductive success: (1) the effect of immune activation/infectious disease on the timing of life history events; (2) the role of the immune system, immune activation, and infectious disease on resource allocation within individual reproductive events, particularly pregnancy; and (3) the role of the immune system in shaping the offspring's patterns of future life history trade-offs. We close with a discussion of future directions in reproductive immunology for anthropologists.

  12. Older Motherhood and the Changing Life Course in the Era of Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Carrie; Becker, Gay; Nachtigall, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Midlife, once a focus of particular interest to gerontologists because of its implications for later life, has recently received little attention. But as new reproductive technologies have expanded in the United States, motherhood is occurring at older ages. While older motherhood is not a new social practice, what is unique is that an increasing number of women are becoming pregnant through technological means, often for the first time, at the end of their reproductive cycle. These women can be understood as part of a new middle age, engaging in new life course possibilities that respond to changing social, cultural, physical, and economic realities, and potentially extending much later in the life course. Drawing on interviews with 79 couples, we utilize symbolic interactionist conceptualizations of identity and stigma to consider how women negotiate the shifting social identities associated with older motherhood. We conclude that older motherhood will be one phenomenon contributing to an enduring change in views of what constitutes old age, and that it will be seen as occurring much later in the life course. PMID:18443646

  13. Environmental Contingency in Life History Strategies: The Influence of Mortality and Socioeconomic Status on Reproductive Timing

    PubMed Central

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Delton, Andrew W.; Robertson, Theresa E.; Tybur, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Why do some people have children early, whereas others delay reproduction? By considering the trade-offs between using one’s resources for reproduction versus other tasks, the evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that reproductive timing should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced the desire to have children sooner rather than later. The effects of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals growing up relatively poor, mortality cues produced a desire to reproduce sooner—to want children now, even at the cost of furthering one’s education or career. Conversely, for individuals growing up relatively wealthy, mortality cues produced a desire to delay reproduction—to further one’s education or career before starting a family. Overall, mortality cues appear to shift individuals into different life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors can influence fertility and family size. PMID:20873933

  14. Rapid weight gain after birth predicts life history and reproductive strategy in Filipino males.

    PubMed

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; McDade, Thomas W; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette

    2010-09-28

    Ecological cues during prenatal and postnatal development may allow organisms to adjust reproductive strategy. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a prime candidate for adaptive plasticity as a result of its critical period of birth to 6 mo (B6M) in humans and the role of testosterone in the development and maintenance of costly sexually dimorphic somatic and behavioral traits. We hypothesized that weight velocity specific to B6M would predict male life history characteristics, including maturational timing, reproductive hormones, adult size, strength, and sexual activity. Data come from 770 Filipino men (age 20.5-22.5 y) followed since birth, with predictor variables including birth weight and weight velocities calculated at 6-mo intervals during the first 2 y of life. As expected, infants who were breastfed experienced less diarrhea, lived in wealthier households with better hygiene, and grew faster from B6M. Males with rapid B6M growth reached puberty earlier and, as young adults, had higher testosterone levels, were taller, more muscular, and had higher grip strength. They also had sex earlier and were more likely to report having had sex in the past month, resulting in more lifetime sex partners. Relationships between B6M weight gain and physical outcomes were generally not present or weaker in female subjects. We conclude that rapid weight gain specific to the brief postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal critical period predicts early maturation and sexual activity, elevated hormone production, and more costly adult somatic characteristics among the male subjects in this sample. These findings provide evidence for early life developmental plasticity in male life history and reproductive strategy in humans.

  15. Rapid weight gain after birth predicts life history and reproductive strategy in Filipino males

    PubMed Central

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    Ecological cues during prenatal and postnatal development may allow organisms to adjust reproductive strategy. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a prime candidate for adaptive plasticity as a result of its critical period of birth to 6 mo (B6M) in humans and the role of testosterone in the development and maintenance of costly sexually dimorphic somatic and behavioral traits. We hypothesized that weight velocity specific to B6M would predict male life history characteristics, including maturational timing, reproductive hormones, adult size, strength, and sexual activity. Data come from 770 Filipino men (age 20.5–22.5 y) followed since birth, with predictor variables including birth weight and weight velocities calculated at 6-mo intervals during the first 2 y of life. As expected, infants who were breastfed experienced less diarrhea, lived in wealthier households with better hygiene, and grew faster from B6M. Males with rapid B6M growth reached puberty earlier and, as young adults, had higher testosterone levels, were taller, more muscular, and had higher grip strength. They also had sex earlier and were more likely to report having had sex in the past month, resulting in more lifetime sex partners. Relationships between B6M weight gain and physical outcomes were generally not present or weaker in female subjects. We conclude that rapid weight gain specific to the brief postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal critical period predicts early maturation and sexual activity, elevated hormone production, and more costly adult somatic characteristics among the male subjects in this sample. These findings provide evidence for early life developmental plasticity in male life history and reproductive strategy in humans. PMID:20837542

  16. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific. PMID:26470307

  17. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific.

  18. Reproductive health and quality of life of young Burmese refugees in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Of the 140 000 Burmese* refugees living in camps in Thailand, 30% are youths aged 15-24. Health services in these camps do not specifically target young people and their problems and needs are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess their reproductive health issues and quality of life, and identifies appropriate service needs. Methods We used a stratified two-stage random sample questionnaire survey of 397 young people 15-24 years from 5,183 households, and 19 semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess and explore health and quality of life issues. Results The young people in the camps had very limited knowledge of reproductive health issues; only about one in five correctly answered at least one question on reproductive health. They were clear that they wanted more reproductive health education and services, to be provided by health workers rather than parents or teachers who were not able to give them the information they needed. Marital status was associated with sexual health knowledge; having relevant knowledge of reproductive health was up to six times higher in married compared to unmarried youth, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic factors. Although condom use was considered important, in practice a large proportion of respondents felt too embarrassed to use them. There was a contradiction between moral views and actual behaviour; more than half believed they should remain virgins until marriage, while over half of the youth experienced sex before marriage. Two thirds of women were married before the age of 18, but two third felt they did not marry at the right age. Forced sex was considered acceptable by one in three youth. The youth considered their quality of life to be poor and limited due to confinement in the camps, the limited work opportunities, the aid dependency, the unclear future and the boredom and unhappiness they face. Conclusions The long conflict in Myanmar and the resultant long stay in refugee camps

  19. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p < 0.001). Conclusion A high prevalence of pain was found in women from the city of São Paulo. However, neither the presence of musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women.

  20. Individual quality, early-life conditions, and reproductive success in contrasted populations of large herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2009-07-01

    Variations among individuals in phenotypic quality and fitness often confound analyses of life-history strategies assessed at the population level. We used detailed long-term data from three populations of large herbivores with generation times ranging from four to nine years to quantify heterogeneity in individual quality among females, and to assess its influence on mean annual reproductive success over the lifetime (MRS). We also determined how environmental conditions in early life shaped individual quality and tested A. Lomnicki's hypothesis that variance in individual quality should increase when environmental conditions deteriorate. Using multivariate analyses (PCA), we identified one (in sheep and deer) or two (in goats) covariations among life-history traits (longevity, success in the last breeding opportunity, adult mass, and social rank) as indexes of individual quality that positively influenced MRS of females. Individual quality was reduced by unfavorable weather, low resource availability, and high population density in the year of birth. Early-life conditions accounted for 35-55% of variation in individual quality. In roe deer, we found greater variance in individual quality for cohorts born under unfavorable conditions as opposed to favorable ones, but the opposite was found in bighorn sheep and mountain goats. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneity in female quality can originate from environmental conditions in early life and can markedly influence the fitness of females in species located at different positions along the slow-fast continuum of life-history strategies. PMID:19694145

  1. Individual quality, early-life conditions, and reproductive success in contrasted populations of large herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2009-07-01

    Variations among individuals in phenotypic quality and fitness often confound analyses of life-history strategies assessed at the population level. We used detailed long-term data from three populations of large herbivores with generation times ranging from four to nine years to quantify heterogeneity in individual quality among females, and to assess its influence on mean annual reproductive success over the lifetime (MRS). We also determined how environmental conditions in early life shaped individual quality and tested A. Lomnicki's hypothesis that variance in individual quality should increase when environmental conditions deteriorate. Using multivariate analyses (PCA), we identified one (in sheep and deer) or two (in goats) covariations among life-history traits (longevity, success in the last breeding opportunity, adult mass, and social rank) as indexes of individual quality that positively influenced MRS of females. Individual quality was reduced by unfavorable weather, low resource availability, and high population density in the year of birth. Early-life conditions accounted for 35-55% of variation in individual quality. In roe deer, we found greater variance in individual quality for cohorts born under unfavorable conditions as opposed to favorable ones, but the opposite was found in bighorn sheep and mountain goats. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneity in female quality can originate from environmental conditions in early life and can markedly influence the fitness of females in species located at different positions along the slow-fast continuum of life-history strategies.

  2. Use of a Modified Reproductive Life Plan to Improve Awareness of Preconception Health in Women with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Pooja; Dandekar, Aparna; Hessler, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity pose unique reproductive challenges for women. Preconception health results in improved reproductive outcomes. We designed an interventional study testing the use of a reproductive life plan to improve knowledge of preconception and contraception health in women with chronic diseases. Methods: Primarily underserved, English-and Spanish-speaking women aged 18 to 40 years with active diabetes, hypertension, or obesity were recruited. We developed a revised reproductive life plan specific to these diseases. Two resident physicians performed reproductive plan counseling. Pre- and postcounseling surveys were administered to evaluate knowledge and attitudes about chronic disease and the effects on a potential pregnancy. Results: Twenty-seven women (average age = 31 years) were surveyed. Of the subjects, 85.2% were obese, 29.6% had hypertension, and 7.4% had diabetes. Significant increases were reported in understanding risks of pregnancy associated with diabetes (p < 0.001), hypertension (p < 0.001), and obesity (p < 0.01). After counseling, women increased their knowledge about a reproductive plan (p < 0.001) and increased support and information to make reproductive health choices (p = 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The largest improvements in postcounseling variables occurred in women with the lowest precounseling test scores and in women without children. Conclusion: A reproductive life plan is a brief, cost-effective preconception and contraception counseling tool in the primary care setting for women with chronic diseases. This tool increases knowledge about reproductive health and enables women with chronic diseases to make informed decisions about their reproductive future. PMID:24867547

  3. Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. PMID:25740893

  4. Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-04-01

    The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness.

  5. Much more than a gene: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, reproductive choices and family life.

    PubMed

    Dekeuwer, Catherine; Bateman, Simone

    2013-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigates the way in which carriers of a mutation on the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene, associated with a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer, make their reproductive decisions. Using semi-structured interviews, the study explored the way in which these persons reflected on the acceptability of taking the risk of transmitting this mutation to the next generation, the arguments they used in favor or against taking that risk, and in the light of these arguments, their opinion on the acceptability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) as a reproductive option. The findings suggest that when carriers are planning to have a(nother) child, they are mainly concerned by the risk of transmitting 'much more than a gene': essentially painful experiences not only with respect to health, such as undergoing cancer surveillance or combatting one's own illness, but also with regards to family life, such as witnessing the illness and death of a close relative, encountering difficulties in finding a partner or reconsidering one's plans to have a family. As for opinions concerning the acceptability of PGD as a reproductive option, opinions about personal recourse were varied but all expressed the understanding that PGD should be made available to those persons who consider it their best option.

  6. Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robert M; Lovern, Matthew B; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-07-01

    The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in reproductive investment was created using unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) along with intact (SHAM) control. Next, this manipulation was decoupled from its downstream effects on energy storage by surgically ablating the abdominal fat stores from half of the females in each reproductive treatment. As predicted, unilateral OVX (intermediate reproductive investment) induced levels of growth, body condition, fat storage and breeding-season survival that were intermediate between the high levels of bilateral OVX (no reproductive investment) and the low levels of SHAM (full reproductive investment). Ablation of abdominal fat bodies had a strong and persistent effect on energy stores, but it did not influence post-breeding survival in any of the three reproductive treatments. This suggests that the energetic savings of reduced reproductive investment do not directly enhance post-breeding survival, with the caveat that only one aspect of energy storage was manipulated and OVX itself had no overall effect on post-breeding survival. This study supports the emerging view that simple energy-allocation models may often be insufficient as explanations for the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival.

  7. Introducing reproductive life plan-based information in contraceptive counselling: an RCT

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J.; Larsson, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Tydén, T.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can reproductive life plan (RLP)-based information in contraceptive counselling before pregnancy increase women's knowledge of reproduction, and of the importance of folic acid intake in particular? SUMMARY ANSWER The RLP-based information increased women's knowledge of reproduction including knowledge of folic acid intake. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Many women have insufficient knowledge of reproduction, including a health-promoting lifestyle prior to conception, and highly educated women in particular postpone childbearing until an age when their fertile capacity has started to decrease. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was an randomized controlled trial with one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1, CG2). A sample size calculation indicated that 82 women per group would be adequate. Recruitment took place during 3 months in 2012 and 299 women were included. The women were randomized in blocks of three. All groups received standard care (contraceptive counselling, Chlamydia testing, cervical screening). In addition, women in the IG were given oral and written RLP-based information about reproduction. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS A total of 299 out of 338 (88%) Swedish-speaking women visiting a Student Health Centre were included (mean age 23 years); response rate was 88%. Before the counselling, women in the IG and the CG1 completed a baseline questionnaire, including questions about lifestyle changes in connection to pregnancy planning, family planning intentions and knowledge of reproduction (e.g. the fecundity of an ovum). At follow-up 2 months after inclusion, a structured telephone interview was performed in all groups (n = 262, 88% participation rate). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no difference between the groups regarding the mean knowledge score at baseline. The IG scored higher at follow-up than at baseline (P < 0.001); the mean increased from 6.4 to 9.0 out of a maximum 20 points. The women in

  8. Antioxidant Capacity of “Mexican Arnica” Heterotheca inuloides Cass Natural Products and Some Derivatives: Their Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation and Effect on C. elegans Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Delgado-Lamas, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the accumulation of biomolecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to aging. The antioxidant activity is related to the ability of certain compounds to protect against the potentially harmful effect of processes or reactions involving ROS. This ability is associated with the termination of free radical propagation in biological systems. From Heterotheca inuloides various compounds which have shown to possess antioxidant capacity and scavenging ROS. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of additional natural components isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives, their anti-inflammatory activity and the effect on Caenorhabditis elegans nematode life span. Compounds showed ability to inhibit various biological processes such as lipid peroxidation, scavenge nonbiological important oxidants such as 1O2, OH∙, H2O2, and HOCl and scavenge non biological stable free radicals (DPPH). Some cadinane type compounds showed possess antioxidant, ROS scavenging capacity, anti-inflammatory activity, and effect on the C. elegans life span. Flavonoid type compounds increased the life of the nematode and quercetin was identified as the compound with the greatest activity. The modification of chemical structure led to a change in the antioxidant capacity, the anti-inflammatory activity, and the survival of the worm. PMID:25821555

  9. Genetic loci modulating fitness and life span in Caenorhabditis elegans: categorical trait interval mapping in CL2a x Bergerac-BO recombinant-inbred worms.

    PubMed Central

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Ayyadevara, Rajani; Vertino, Anthony; Galecki, Andrzej; Thaden, John J; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) can implicate an unbiased sampling of genes underlying a complex, polygenic phenotype. QTL affecting longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans were mapped using a CL2a x Bergerac-BO recombinant-inbred population. Genotypes were compared at 30 transposon-specific markers for two paired sample sets totaling 171 young controls and 172 longevity-selected worms (the last-surviving 1%) from a synchronously aged population. A third sample set, totaling 161 worms from an independent culture, was analyzed for confirmation of loci. At least six highly significant QTL affecting life span were detected both by single-marker (chi(2)) analysis and by two interval-mapping procedures--one intended for nonparametric traits and another developed specifically for mapping of categorical traits. These life-span QTL were located on chromosomes I (near the hP4 locus), III (near stP127), IV (near stP44), V (a cluster of three peaks, near stP192, stP23, and stP6), and X (two distinct peaks, near stP129 and stP2). Epistatic effects on longevity were also analyzed by Fisher's exact test, which indicated a significant life-span interaction between markers on chromosomes V (stP128) and III (stP127). Several further interactions were significant in the initial unselected population; two of these, between distal loci on chromosome V, were completely eliminated in the long-lived subset. Allelic longevity effects for two QTL, on chromosomes IV and V, were confirmed in backcrossed congenic lines and were highly significant in two very different environments-growth on solid agar medium and in liquid suspension culture. PMID:12618395

  10. Effect of coenzyme Q10 intake on endogenous coenzyme Q content, mitochondrial electron transport chain, antioxidative defenses, and life span of mice.

    PubMed

    Sohal, Rajindar S; Kamzalov, Sergey; Sumien, Nathalie; Ferguson, Melissa; Rebrin, Igor; Heinrich, Kevin R; Forster, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether intake of coenzyme Q10, which can potentially act as both an antioxidant and a prooxidant, has an impact on indicators of oxidative stress and the aging process. Mice were fed diets providing daily supplements of 0, 93, or 371 mg CoQ10 /kg body weight, starting at 3.5 months of age. Effects on mitochondrial superoxide generation, activities of oxidoreductases, protein oxidative damage, glutathione redox state, and life span of male mice were determined. Amounts of CoQ9 and CoQ10, measured after 3.5 or 17.5 months of intake, in homogenates and mitochondria of liver, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and brain increased with the dosage and duration of CoQ10 intake in all the tissues except brain. Activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain oxidoreductases, rates of mitochondrial O2-* generation, state 3 respiration, carbonyl content, glutathione redox state of tissues, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, determined at 19 or 25 months of age, were unaffected by CoQ10 administration. Life span studies, conducted on 50 mice in each group, showed that CoQ10 administration had no effect on mortality. Altogether, the results indicated that contrary to the historical view, supplemental intake of CoQ10 elevates the endogenous content of both CoQ9 and CoQ10, but has no discernable effect on the main antioxidant defenses or prooxidant generation in most tissues, and has no impact on the life span of mice.

  11. Transcriptional remodeling in response to transfer upon carbon-limited or metformin-supplemented media in S. cerevisiae and its effect on chronological life span.

    PubMed

    Borklu-Yucel, Esra; Eraslan, Serpil; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2015-08-01

    One of the factors affecting chronological life span (CLS) in budding yeast is nutrient, especially carbon limitation. Aside from metabolites in the growth medium such as glucose, amino acids, and acetic acid, many pharmaceuticals have also been proven to alter CLS. Besides their impact on life span, these drugs are also prospective chemicals to treat the age-associated diseases, so the identification of their action mechanism and their potential side effects is of crucial importance. In this study, the effects of caloric restriction and metformin, a dietary mimetic pharmaceutical, on yeast CLS are compared. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in synthetic dextrose complete (SDC) up to mid-exponential phase were either treated with metformin or were subjected to glucose limitation. The impacts of these perturbations were analyzed via transcriptomics, and the common (stimulation of glucose uptake, induction of mitochondrial maintenance, and reduction of protein translation) and divergent (stimulation of aerobic respiration and reprogramming of respiratory electron transport chain (ETC)) cellular responses specific to each treatment were determined. These results revealed that both glucose limitation and metformin treatment stimulate CLS extension and involve the mitochondrial function, probably by creating an efficient mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling of either aerobic respiration or ETC signaling stimulation, respectively.

  12. Vitamin C modulates the metabolic and cytokine profiles, alleviates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increases the life span of Gulo-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Aumailley, Lucie; Warren, Alessandra; Garand, Chantal; Dubois, Marie Julie; Paquet, Eric R; Le Couteur, David G; Marette, André; Cogger, Victoria C; Lebel, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Suboptimal intake of dietary vitamin C (ascorbate) increases the risk of several chronic diseases but the exact metabolic pathways affected are still unknown. In this study, we examined the metabolic profile of mice lacking the enzyme gulonolactone oxidase (Gulo) required for the biosynthesis of ascorbate. Gulo-/- mice were supplemented with 0%, 0.01%, and 0.4% ascorbate (w/v) in drinking water and serum was collected for metabolite measurements by targeted mass spectrometry. We also quantified 42 serum cytokines and examined the levels of different stress markers in liver. The metabolic profiles of Gulo-/- mice treated with ascorbate were different from untreated Gulo-/- and normal wild type mice. The cytokine profiles of Gulo-/-mice, in return, overlapped the profile of wild type animals upon 0.01% or 0.4% vitamin C supplementation. The life span of Gulo-/- mice increased with the amount of ascorbate in drinking water. It also correlated significantly with the ratios of serum arginine/lysine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, and the ratio of specific species of saturated/unsaturated phosphatidylcholines. Finally, levels of hepatic phosphorylated endoplasmic reticulum associated stress markers IRE1α and eIF2α correlated inversely with serum ascorbate and life span suggesting that vitamin C modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress response and longevity in Gulo-/- mice.

  13. S-linolenoyl glutathione intake extends life-span and stress resistance via Sir-2.1 upregulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Roberta; Evangelisti, Elisa; Zampagni, Mariagioia; Becatti, Matteo; D'Adamio, Giampiero; Goti, Andrea; Liguri, Gianfranco; Fiorillo, Claudia; Cecchi, Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Oxidative stress has a prominent role in life-span regulation of living organisms. One of the endogenous free radical scavenger systems is associated with glutathione (GSH), the most abundant nonprotein thiol in mammalian cells, acting as a major reducing agent and in antioxidant defense by maintaining a tight control over redox status. We have recently designed a series of novel S-acyl-GSH derivatives capable of preventing amyloid oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction in Alzheimer disease models, upon an increase in GSH intake. In this study we show that the longevity of the wild-type N2 Caenorhabditis elegans strain was significantly enhanced by dietary supplementation with linolenoyl-SG (lin-SG) thioester with respect to the ethyl ester of GSH, linolenic acid, or vitamin E. RNA interference analysis and activity inhibition assay indicate that life-span extension was mediated by the upregulation of Sir-2.1, a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase ortholog of mammalian SIRT1. In particular, lin-SG-mediated overexpression of Sir-2.1 appears to be related to the Daf-16 (FoxO) pathway. Moreover, the lin-SG derivative protects N2 worms from the paralysis and oxidative stress induced by Aβ/H2O2 exposure. Overall, our findings put forward lin-SG thioester as an antioxidant supplement triggering sirtuin upregulation, thus opening new future perspectives for healthy aging or delayed onset of oxidative-related diseases.

  14. Needle life span, photosynthetic rate and nutrient concentration of Picea glehnii, P. jezoensis and P. abies planted on serpentine soil in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Masazumi; Sasa, Kaichiro; Koike, Takayoshi

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the adaptation of three spruce species (Picea glehnii Masters, P. jezoensis Carr. and P. abies Karst.) to growth in northern Japan on serpentine soils (characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals and Mg, a low Ca/Mg ratio and low fertility) and fertile brown forest soils. Among species, seedling survival on serpentine soil was highest in P. glehnii. Shoot growth of P. glehnii was similar whether grown on serpentine or brown forest soil, whereas shoot growth of the other species was significantly less on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil. On serpentine soil, needle life span of P. glehnii was at least 3 years longer than that of the other two species. Needle area per shoot of P. glehnii was significantly higher on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil up to a shoot age of 8 years. In all three species, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) decreased with needle age independently of soil type. However, on serpentine soil, Pmax in P. glehnii was higher, particularly in older needles, than in the other species. Furthermore, on serpentine soil, needle concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were higher in P. glehnii than in the other species. We conclude that P. glehnii is better adapted to serpentine soil than P. jezoensis and P. abies at least in part because of its greater needle life span and higher needle nutrient concentrations.

  15. Polyphenolic drug composition based on benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BP-C3) increases life span and inhibits spontaneous tumorigenesis in female SHR mice

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Yurova, Maria N.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Anikin, Ivan V.; Egormin, Peter A.; Baldueva, Irina A.; Fedoros, Elena I.; Pigarev, Sergey E.; Panchenko, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of long-term application of novel polyphenolic composition BP-C3, containing polyphenolic benzenepolycarboxylic acids, vitamins and minerals on some biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis has been studied in female SHR mice. Administration of BP-C3 with drinking water (0.005%) did not exert any toxic effect (did not have effect on general condition of animals, weight dynamics and consumption of food), postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function, caused slight reduction of body temperature. An increased survival was observed in mice treated with BP-C3 (p=0.00164, log rank test). BP-C3 increased mean lifespan – by 8.4%, lifespan of the last 10% of animals – by 12.4%, and life span of tumor-free mice – by 11.6%. A tendency in ability of BP-C3 to inhibit development of spontaneous tumors in mice was detected, though it did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.166, log rank test). The number of malignant mammary tumors was 1.5 times less and total number of tumors of various localizations was 1.6 times less in BP-C3 treated animals. Multiple tumors were registered in 8% of mice in the control group and no cases – in BP-C3 treated group. Thus, BP-C3 demonstrated some anti-carcinogenic and a pronounced geroprotective activity. PMID:27574962

  16. Vitamin C modulates the metabolic and cytokine profiles, alleviates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increases the life span of Gulo−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Aumailley, Lucie; Warren, Alessandra; Garand, Chantal; Dubois, Marie Julie; Paquet, Eric R.; Le Couteur, David G.; Marette, André; Cogger, Victoria C.; Lebel, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal intake of dietary vitamin C (ascorbate) increases the risk of several chronic diseases but the exact metabolic pathways affected are still unknown. In this study, we examined the metabolic profile of mice lacking the enzyme gulonolactone oxidase (Gulo) required for the biosynthesis of ascorbate. Gulo−/− mice were supplemented with 0%, 0.01%, and 0.4% ascorbate (w/v) in drinking water and serum was collected for metabolite measurements by targeted mass spectrometry. We also quantified 42 serum cytokines and examined the levels of different stress markers in liver. The metabolic profiles of Gulo−/− mice treated with ascorbate were different from untreated Gulo−/− and normal wild type mice. The cytokine profiles of Gulo−/− mice, in return, overlapped the profile of wild type animals upon 0.01% or 0.4% vitamin C supplementation. The life span of Gulo−/− mice increased with the amount of ascorbate in drinking water. It also correlated significantly with the ratios of serum arginine/lysine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, and the ratio of specific species of saturated/unsaturated phosphatidylcholines. Finally, levels of hepatic phosphorylated endoplasmic reticulum associated stress markers IRE1α and eIF2α correlated inversely with serum ascorbate and life span suggesting that vitamin C modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress response and longevity in Gulo−/− mice. PMID:26922388

  17. Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown and polyphenol gallic acid increase life span and locomotor activity in a Drosophila Parkinson’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Arellano, Hector Flavio; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism(s) by which dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are eroded in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is critical for effective therapeutic strategies. By using the binary tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Gal4/UAS-X RNAi Drosophila melanogaster system, we report that Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown in dopaminergic neurons prolong life span (p < 0.05; log-rank test) and locomotor activity (p < 0.05; χ2 test) in D. melanogaster lines chronically exposed to (1 mM) paraquat (PQ, oxidative stress (OS) generator) compared to untreated transgenic fly lines. Likewise, knockdown flies displayed higher climbing performance than control flies. Amazingly, gallic acid (GA) significantly protected DAergic neurons, ameliorated life span, and climbing abilities in knockdown fly lines treated with PQ compared to flies treated with PQ only. Therefore, silencing specific gene(s) involved in neuronal death might constitute an excellent tool to study the response of DAergic neurons to OS stimuli. We propose that a therapy with antioxidants and selectively “switching off” death genes in DAergic neurons could provide a means for pre-clinical PD individuals to significantly ameliorate their disease condition. PMID:24385865

  18. L-carnitine suppresses the onset of neuromuscular degeneration and increases the life span of mice with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kira, Yukimi; Nishikawa, Manabu; Ochi, Akemi; Sato, Eisuke; Inoue, Masayasu

    2006-01-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease caused by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex. Although the etiology of ALS remains unknown, a mutation of the gene encoding Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been reported in 20% of familial cases of ALS (FALS). Transgenic mice that overexpress a mutated human SOD1 exhibit a phenotype and pathology similar to those observed in patients with FALS. Mitochondrial abnormality has been reported in patients with ALS and in animal models of FALS. We recently reported that L-carnitine, an essential cofactor for the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, effectively inhibits various types of mitochondrial injury and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The present study demonstrates that oral administration of L-carnitine prior to disease onset significantly delayed the onset of signs of disease (log-rank P=0.0008), delayed deterioration of motor activity, and extended life span (log-rank P=0.0001) in transgenic mice carrying a human SOD1 gene with a G93A mutation (Tg). More importantly, subcutaneous injection of L-carnitine increased the life span of Tg mice (46% increase in male, 60% increase in female) even when given after the appearance of signs of disease.

  19. Dead or alive: Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated winter losses of managed honey bee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae and associated viruses. Here, we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expecta...

  20. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  1. Fertility and Markers of Male Reproductive Function in Inuit and European Populations Spanning Large Contrasts in Blood Levels of Persistent Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Giwercman, Aleksander; Spano, Marcello; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Bizzaro, Davide; Ludwicki, Jan K.; Zvyezday, Valentina; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective We synthesized the main findings from an international epidemiologic study on the impact of biopersistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human reproductive function. Data sources and extraction We used a database with interview and biological data from 2,269 women and their spouses, and 18 published core papers. Data synthesis The study did not provide direct evidence of hormone-like activity of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 and the main dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE), as serum concentrations of these compounds were not consistently related to either endogenous or exogenous hormone activity in serum. Nevertheless several links bewteen POP exposure and biomarkers of male reproductive function were identified. First, an association between high CB-153 serum levels and low sperm counts was detected within a subgroup of men with short androgen receptor CAG repeat length. Second, a relationship between increased CB-153 serum concentrations and decreased sperm motility was seen in all four studied regions, and indications of reduced neutral α-glucosidase activity in seminal plasma point to a post-testicular effect. Third, damage of sperm chromatin integrity was considerably less frequent in Greenlandic Inuits compared with that in European groups, and only in the latter was impairment of sperm chromatin integrity related to POPs. Despite these effects, fertility in terms of time taken to conceive was not related to POPs except in Inuits. A likely explanation of the latter was not identified. Conclusions POPs may interfere with male reproductive function without major impact on fertility. The data do not provide direct evidence for endocrine disruption, hence other mechanisms should also be considered. PMID:18335090

  2. Growth, reproductive biology and life cycle of the vermicomposting earthworm, Perionyx ceylanensis Mich. (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    PubMed

    Karmegam, Natchimuthu; Daniel, Thilagavathy

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the growth, reproduction and life cycle of the earthworm, Perionyx ceylanensis Mich. in cowdung for the period of 340 days. Results showed that the overall mean growth rate was 1.79, 1.57 and 1.34 mg/worm/day respectively for the worms cultured singly, in batches of four and eight. Cocoon production rate was found between 0.85 and 0.94 cocoons/worm/day and the hatching success between 74.67% and 82.67%. The majority of the cocoons (95.16-96.77%) hatched only one hatchling. Worms raised singly also produced viable cocoons indicating that P. ceylanensis reproduce parthenogenetically. The life cycle of the worms cultured singly was +/-57 days and it was +/-50 days for the worms cultured in batches of four and eight. There is a vast scope to utilize P. ceylanensis for vermiculture practices due to short period of life cycle.

  3. Life cycle specialization of filamentous pathogens - colonization and reproduction in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Haueisen, Janine; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-08-01

    Filamentous plant pathogens explore host tissues to obtain nutrients for growth and reproduction. Diverse strategies for tissue invasion, defense manipulation, and colonization of inter and intra-cellular spaces have evolved. Most research has focused on effector molecules, which are secreted to manipulate plant immunity and facilitate infection. Effector genes are often found to evolve rapidly in response to the antagonistic host-pathogen co-evolution but other traits are also subject to adaptive evolution during specialization to the anatomy, biochemistry and ecology of different plant hosts. Although not directly related to virulence, these traits are important components of specialization but little is known about them. We present and discuss specific life cycle traits that facilitate exploration of plant tissues and underline the importance of increasing our insight into the biology of plant pathogens. PMID:27153045

  4. On the Life History of Planktonic Foraminifera: Lunar Reproduction Cycle in Globigerinoides Sacculifer (Brady)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erez, Jonathan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Avraham, Sophie

    1991-06-01

    Detailed plankton sampling in the Gulf of Elat, Red Sea, demonstrates a lunar periodicity in the abundance of the foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer in surface water as well as below the photic zone. Shell size distribution coupled with abundance changes and laboratory observations suggests the following scheme for the life cycle of this spinose foraminifer: Young individuals of roughly 200 µm (average diameter) are found in surface water 7-8 days after the full moon. During the course of 1 week they grow rapidly to an average size of 300-400 µm. The larger and mature individuals, many of which having a saclike chamber, start to sink down below the photic zone. They add a final chamber, shed their spines, thicken their shell, continue to sink well within the main thermocline, digest their symbionts, and eventually reproduce via gametogenesis at the full moon. We do not have information about the fusion of the gametes, the embryonic growth stages, and the vertical migration of the young foraminifera. However, 1 week after the full moon, small individuals appear again in surface waters and the cycle repeats itself. Although the mechanism by which the moon is synchronizing the reproduction cycle is not clear, it obviously offers better chances for the gametes to fuse. Sinking to deeper water may provide the following advantages: avoidance of predators at the crucial stage of their life cycle when they are without their spine protection; synchronization of reproduction by triggering gametogenesis due to the change from light/dark cycle to complete darkness; better chances for the gametes to concentrate and fuse on a narrow sigma-t surface at the zone where the pycnocline is steeper; and finally, better chances for survival for the young unprotected foraminifera who start their growth in an environment that contains fewer potential predators.

  5. The Study of Life Review. An Approach to the Investigation of Intellectual Development across the Life Span. Studien und Berichte 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudinger, Ursula M.

    A study looked for age differences in the quality of responses to the Life Review Task (LRT), studied the LRT itself as a tool for exploring wisdom and intellectual functioning in adulthood, and considered personality characteristics and life experience as alternative predictors of response quality. Sixty-three West German women of different ages…

  6. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long

  7. Estrogenic environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical effects on reproductive neuroendocrine function and dysfunction across the life cycle.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Sarah M; Gore, Andrea C

    2007-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the normal function of an organism's endocrine system. Many EDCs are resistant to biodegradation, due to their structural stability, and persist in the environment. The focus of this review is on natural and artificial EDCs that act through estrogenic mechanisms to affect reproductive neuroendocrine systems. This endocrine axis comprises the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary gonadotropins, and gonadal steroid hormones, including estrogens. Although it is not surprising that EDCs that mimic or antagonize estrogen receptors may exert actions upon reproductive targets, the mechanisms for these effects are complex and involve all three levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) system. Nevertheless, considerable evidence links exposure to estrogenic environmental EDCs with neuroendocrine reproductive deficits in wildlife and in humans. The effects of an EDC are variable across the life cycle of an animal, and are particularly potent when exposure occurs during fetal and early postnatal development. As a consequence, abnormal sexual differentiation, disrupted reproductive function, or inappropriate sexual behavior may be detected later in life. This review will cover the effects of two representative classes of estrogenic EDCs, phytoestrogens and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on neuroendocrine reproductive function, from molecules to behavior, across the vertebrate life cycle. Finally, we identify the gaps of knowledge in this field and suggest future directions for study.

  8. A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Krueger, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span.

  9. A unifying perspective on personality pathology across the life span: Developmental considerations for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    TACKETT, JENNIFER L.; BALSIS, STEVE; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.; KRUEGER, ROBERT F.

    2010-01-01

    Proposed changes in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) include replacing current personality disorder (PD) categories on Axis II with a taxonomy of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. Most of the work on dimensional models of personality pathology, and on personality disorders per se, has been conducted on young and middle-aged adult populations. Numerous questions remain regarding the applicability and limitations of applying various PD models to early and later life. In the present paper, we provide an overview of such dimensional models and review current proposals for conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V. Next, we extensively review existing evidence on the development, measurement, and manifestation of personality pathology in early and later life focusing on those issues deemed most relevant for informing DSM-V. Finally, we present overall conclusions regarding the need to incorporate developmental issues in conceptualizing PDs in DSM-V and highlight the advantages of a dimensional model in unifying PD perspectives across the life span. PMID:19583880

  10. The effects of lifelong ubiquinone Q10 supplementation on the Q9 and Q10 tissue concentrations and life span of male rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Lönnrot, K; Holm, P; Lagerstedt, A; Huhtala, H; Alho, H

    1998-04-01

    The effect of lifelong oral supplementation with ubiquinone Q10 (10 mg/kg/day) was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57/B17 mice. There were no significant differences in survival or life-span found in either rats or mice. Histopathologic examination of different rat tissues showed no differences between the groups. In Q10 supplemented rats, plasma and liver Q10 levels were 2.6 to 8.4 times higher at all age points than in control rats. Interestingly, in supplemented rats the Q9 levels also were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plasma and liver at ages 18 and 24 months. Neither Q9 nor Q10 levels were affected by supplementation in kidney, heart, or brain tissues. In spite of the significant changes in plasma and liver ubiquinone concentrations, lifelong Q10 supplementation did not prolong or shorten the lifespan of either rats or mice.

  11. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part I: the topography of light detection and temporal-information processing.

    PubMed

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Temporal performance parameters vary across the visual field. Their topographical distributions relative to each other and relative to basic visual performance measures and their relative change over the life span are unknown. Our goal was to characterize the topography and age-related change of temporal performance. We acquired visual field maps in 95 healthy participants (age: 10-90 years): perimetric thresholds, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times (RTs), and letter contrast thresholds. DPR and perimetric thresholds increased with eccentricity and age; the periphery showed a more pronounced age-related increase than the center. RT increased only slightly and uniformly with eccentricity. It remained almost constant up to the age of 60, a marked change occurring only above 80. Overall, age was a poor predictor of functionality. Performance decline could be explained only in part by the aging of the retina and optic media. In Part II, we therefore examine higher visual and cognitive functions.

  12. Behavioral reactivity to novelty during youth as a predictive factor of stress-induced corticosterone secretion in the elderly--a life-span study in rats.

    PubMed

    Dellu, F; Mayo, W; Vallée, M; Maccari, S; Piazza, P V; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1996-07-01

    Inter- and intra-individual differences in hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity and behavioral reactivity to novelty between young and old rats were evidenced in this longitudinal life-span study. Higher responders to novelty (HR) had a higher corticosterone secretion which showed a quicker increase with age than did the others (LR); the differences in response to novelty observed in youth were no longer apparent in the old rats. Response to novelty in youth is a predictive factor of accelerated aging of the HPA axis. These early changes, which precede the appearance of the memory deficits, may be a causal factor. Disappearance of behavioral and endocrinological inter-individual differences at 21 months highlights the importance of not restricting aging studies to old subjects. PMID:8888367

  13. The population determines whether and how life-history traits vary between reproductive events in an insect with maternal care.

    PubMed

    Ratz, Tom; Kramer, Jos; Veuille, Michel; Meunier, Joël

    2016-10-01

    The last reproductive event of a female is often associated with major changes in terms of both maternal and offspring life-history traits. However, the nature of these changes and the importance of population-specific environmental constraints in shaping their expression are difficult to predict and, as a consequence, poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether and how life-history traits vary between reproductive events and whether this variation is population-dependent in the European earwig Forficula auricularia. In this insect species, females produce up to two clutches during their lifetime and express extensive forms of maternal care. We conducted a common garden experiment, in which we measured 11 life-history traits of the first and second clutches of 132 females originating from three populations. Our results showed that clutch size was higher and the level of care expressed towards juveniles lower in second as compared to the first clutches in all three populations. In contrast, we found a population-specific effect on whether and how the reproductive event shaped juvenile quality and a trade-off between egg developmental time and female weight at hatching. Overall, these findings emphasise that the last reproductive event of a female entails both positive and negative effects on various life-history traits of the female herself and her clutch of juveniles. Moreover, our study stresses the importance of population idiosyncrasies on the expression and nature of such cohort-specific effects.

  14. Extension of chronological life span by reduced TOR signaling requires down-regulation of Sch9p and involves increased mitochondrial OXPHOS complex density

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yong; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    The nutrient-sensing target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway appears to have a conserved role in regulating life span. This signaling network is complex, with many downstream physiological outputs, and thus the mechanisms underlying its age-related effects have not been elucidated fully. We demonstrated previously that reduced TOR signaling (intor1Δ strains) extends yeast chronological life span (CLS) by increasing mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in part, by up-regulating translation of mtDNA-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits. Here, we have examined in greater detail how TOR signaling influences mitochondrial function and CLS and the role of the Sch9p kinase in the TOR-mitochondria pathway. As is the case for oxygen consumption, mitochondrial translation is elevated in tor1Δ strains only during active growth and early stationary phase growth points. This is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the abundance of both mtDNA-encoded and nucleus-encoded OXPHOS subunits per mitochondrial mass. However, this increased OXPHOS complex density is not associated with more mitochondria/cell or cellular ATP and leads to an overall decrease in membrane potential, suggesting that TOR signaling may influence respiration uncoupling. Finally, we document that the Sch9p kinase is a key downstream effector of OXPHOS, ROS and CLS in the TOR-mitochondria pathway. Altogether, our results demonstrate that TOR signaling has a global role in regulating mitochondrial proteome dynamics and function that is important for its role in aging and provide compelling evidence for involvement of a "mitochondrial pre-conditioning" effect in CLS determination. PMID:20157595

  15. Continuity of genetic and environmental influences on cognition across the life span: a meta-analysis of longitudinal twin and adoption studies.

    PubMed

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-07-01

    The longitudinal rank-order stability of cognitive ability increases dramatically over the life span. Theoretical perspectives differ in their emphasis on genetic mechanisms in explaining the longitudinal stability of cognition and how stability changes with development. However, the patterns of stability of genetic and environmental influences on cognition over the life span remain poorly understood. We searched for longitudinal studies of cognition that reported raw genetically informative longitudinal correlations or parameter estimates from longitudinal behavior genetic models. We identified 150 combinations of time points and measures from 15 independent longitudinal samples. In total, longitudinal data came from 4,548 monozygotic twin pairs raised together, 7,777 dizygotic twin pairs raised together, 34 monozygotic twin pairs raised apart, 78 dizygotic twin pairs raised apart, 141 adoptive sibling pairs, and 143 nonadoptive sibling pairs, ranging in age from infancy through late adulthood. At all ages, cross-time genetic correlations and shared environmental correlations were substantially larger than cross-time nonshared environmental correlations. Cross-time correlations for genetic and shared environmental components were, respectively, low and moderate during early childhood, increased sharply over child development, and remained high from adolescence through late adulthood. Cross-time correlations for nonshared environmental components were low across childhood and gradually increased to moderate magnitudes in adulthood. Increasing phenotypic stability over child development was almost entirely mediated by genetic factors. Time-based decay of genetic and shared environmental stability was more pronounced earlier in child development. Results are interpreted in reference to theories of gene-environment correlation and interaction.

  16. Beneficial effects of natural antioxidants EGCG and alpha-lipoic acid on life span and age-dependent behavioral declines in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marishka K; Evans, Joseph L; Luo, Yuan

    2006-11-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with both the aging process and the development of age-dependent tissue degenerative pathologies. Beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies to abrogate the deleterious consequences of elevated free radicals are implicated in disease prevention and cost-effective strategy. Previous data have shown protective effects of the polyphenol green tea constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and a classic natural antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (LA) against oxidative stress and aging. In this study, EGCG and alpha-lipoic acid were applied to model Caenorhabditis elegans, and their ability to modulate the life span and several age-associated behavioral declines were examined, including: pharyngeal pumping, chemotaxic behavior and amyloid beta-associated pathological behavior. It was demonstrated that both antioxidants attenuated the levels of hydrogen peroxide in C. elegans, but their effects on age-dependent decline in behaviors were different. EGCG, but not alpha-lipoic acid, attenuated the rate of decline in pharyngeal pumping behavior in C. elegans. In contrast, alpha-lipoic acid, but not EGCG, extended mean and maximal life span in C. elegans. Both EGCG and alpha-lipoic acid were able to facilitate the chemotaxis index and this effect was additive. Furthermore, EGCG, but not alpha-lipoic acid, moderately alleviated an Abeta-induced pathological behavior in a transgenic C. elegans strain. These results indicate that natural antioxidants can protect against age-dependent behavioral declines. Other protective mechanisms, in addition to their antioxidant properties, may underlie their differential beneficial effects on aging and physiological behaviors. PMID:17156833

  17. Leaf lifespan is positively correlated with periods of leaf production and reproduction in 49 herb and shrub species.

    PubMed

    Lan Li, Fang; Liu, Xin; Bao, Wei Kai

    2016-06-01

    Leaf life span and plant phenology are central elements in strategies for plant carbon gain and nutrient conservation. Although few studies have found that leaf life span correlate with the patterns of leaf dynamics and reproductive output, but there have not been sufficient conclusive tests for relationships between leaf life span and plant phenological traits, the forms and strengths of such relationships are poorly understood. This study was conducted with 49 herb and shrub species collected from the eastern portion of the Tibetan Plateau and grown together in a common garden setting. We investigated leaf life span, the periods of leaf production and death, the time lag between leaf production and death, and the period of plant reproduction (i.e., flowering and fruiting). Interspecific relationships of leaf life span with leaf dynamics and reproduction period were determined. Leaf production period was far longer than leaf death period and largely reflected the interspecific variation of leaf life span. Moreover, leaf life span was positively correlated with the length of reproduction (i.e., flowering and fruiting) period. These relationships were generally consistent across different subgroups of species (herbs vs. shrubs) and indicate potentially widely applicable relationships between LLS and aboveground phenology. We concluded that leaf life span is associated not simply with the dynamics of the leaf itself but with reproduction period. The results demonstrate a plant trade-off in resource allocation between production and reproduction and a coordinated arrangement of leaves, flowers, and fruits in their time investment. Our results provide insight into the relationship between leaf life span and plant phenology. PMID:27398191

  18. Transgenerational Effects of Early Life Starvation on Growth, Reproduction, and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jobson, Meghan A.; Jordan, James M.; Sandrof, Moses A.; Hibshman, Jonathan D.; Lennox, Ashley L.; Baugh, L. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Starvation during early development can have lasting effects that influence organismal fitness and disease risk. We characterized the long-term phenotypic consequences of starvation during early larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine potential fitness effects and develop it as a model for mechanistic studies. We varied the amount of time that larvae were developmentally arrested by starvation after hatching (“L1 arrest”). Worms recovering from extended starvation grew slowly, taking longer to become reproductive, and were smaller as adults. Fecundity was also reduced, with the smallest individuals most severely affected. Feeding behavior was impaired, possibly contributing to deficits in growth and reproduction. Previously starved larvae were more sensitive to subsequent starvation, suggesting decreased fitness even in poor conditions. We discovered that smaller larvae are more resistant to heat, but this correlation does not require passage through L1 arrest. The progeny of starved animals were also adversely affected: Embryo quality was diminished, incidence of males was increased, progeny were smaller, and their brood size was reduced. However, the progeny and grandprogeny of starved larvae were more resistant to starvation. In addition, the progeny, grandprogeny, and great-grandprogeny were more resistant to heat, suggesting epigenetic inheritance of acquired resistance to starvation and heat. Notably, such resistance was inherited exclusively from individuals most severely affected by starvation in the first generation, suggesting an evolutionary bet-hedging strategy. In summary, our results demonstrate that starvation affects a variety of life-history traits in the exposed animals and their descendants, some presumably reflecting fitness costs but others potentially adaptive. PMID:26187123

  19. Life-cycle exposure to the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Patrick; Bucheli, Thomas D; Wettstein, Felix E; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Zearalenone (ZON) is one of the worldwide most common mycotoxin and exhibits estrogenic activity in the range of natural steroid estrogens. The occurrence of ZON has been reported in soil, drainage water, wastewater effluents, and rivers, but its ecotoxicological effects on fish have hardly been investigated. The consequences of continuous long-term ZON exposure, including a subsequent depuration period, as well as transgenerational effects of F0 short-term exposure on F1 generation were investigated. Effects on growth, reproduction activity, physiology, and morphology of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were examined in a 182 day live-cycle experiment. Life-long exposure to ZON for 140 days increased wet weight, body length, and condition factor of female fish at 1000 ng/L, and sex ratio was shifted toward female from 320 ng/L ZON. Only females at 1000 ng/L ZON revealed a 1.5-fold induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Relative fecundity at 1000 ng/L recovered significantly during the depuration period. An increased condition factor in adult female F1 fish implies that exposure of F0 generation to 1000 ng/L ZON affected growth of F1 generation. A negative correlation between relative fecundity in the F1 generation (all groups exposed to 320 ng/L ZON) and the nominal ZON concentrations of the F0 exposure might indicate an influence of F0 exposure on reproductive performance of F1 generation. No exposure scenario affected fertility, hatch, embryo survival, and gonad morphology of zebrafish. Evaluating the environmental relevance of this data, the risk for fish to be harmed by exposure to ZON solely seems rather marginal, but ZON might contribute to the overall estrogenicity in the environment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 2013.

  20. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Duval, Camille; Zimmer, Cédric; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, Phillip; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-11-01

    Physiological constraints on colouration have been widely reported; especially in birds, which trade-off antioxidant responses against colourful costly signals. One female extended phenotypic trait, which might also highlight important physiological trade-offs, is the pigmentation of their eggshells. In ground-nesting species, producing eggs that are visually undetectable by predators is the best camouflage strategy. However, the condition-dependence of eggshell pigmentation, and the pigments role in oxidative stress, may constrain females to trade-off between their antioxidant capacity and maximising the camouflage of their eggs when they deposit eggshell pigments. Developmental stress is one factor that influences female antioxidant capacity, and could lead to variations in eggshell pigmentation that might have crucial consequences on individual fitness if egg crypsis is compromised especially under stressful conditions. We investigated the interaction between developmental and breeding conditions with respect to eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail. We studied 30 females that bred under both control and stressful conditions, and were exposed to pre- and/or post-natal stress, or neither. Pre- and post-natal stress independently influenced eggshell pigmentation strategies under stressful breeding conditions. Under stressful reproduction, eggshell protoporphyrin concentration and maculation were affected by pre-natal stress, whereas eggshell reflectance and biliverdin concentration were influenced by post-natal stress. These changes may reflect potential adaptive strategies shaped by developmental stress, but additional data on the benefit of egg crypsis in quail, combined with studies on the role of both pigments on chick survival, will help to clarify whether early life stress can enhance fitness through eggshell pigmentation when developmental and reproductive environments match.

  1. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Vaughan, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as the unit in which to calculate the burden of disease associated with reproductive ill-health has given rise to considerable debate. Criticisms include the failure to address the problem of missing and inadequate epidemiological data, inability to deal adequately with co-morbidities, and lack of transparency in the process of ascribing disability weights to sexual and reproductive health conditions. Many of these criticisms could be addressed within the current DALY framework and a number of suggestions to do so are made. These suggestions include: (1) developing an international research strategy to determine the incidence and prevalence of reproductive ill-health and diseases, including the risk of long-term complications; (2) undertaking a research strategy using case studies, population-based surveillance data and longitudinal studies to identify, evaluate and utilize more of the existing national data sources on sexual and reproductive health; (3) comprehensively mapping the natural history of sexual and reproductive health conditions--in males and in females--and their sequelae, whether physical or psychological; (4) developing valuation instruments that are adaptable for both chronic and acute health states, that reflect a range of severity for each health state and can be modified to reflect prognosis; (5) undertaking a full review of the DALY methodology to determine what changes may be made to reduce sources of methodological and gender bias. Despite the many criticisms of the DALY as a measurement unit, it represents a major conceptual advance since it permits the combination of life expectancy and levels of dysfunction into a single measure. Measuring reproductive ill-health by counting deaths alone is inadequate for a proper understanding of the dimensions of the problem because of the young age of many of the deaths associated with reproductive ill-health and the large component of years lived with

  2. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martí, María L.; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27–36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37–46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47–57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span. PMID:25408678

  3. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martí, María L; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span. PMID:25408678

  4. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Eniko; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; MacIver, Nancie J.; Hale, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC), using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 (“T/I” mice). Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 (“T/I-het” dams) that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het) dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT) pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and for

  5. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Eniko; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; MacIver, Nancie J; Hale, Laura P

    2016-01-01

    Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC), using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice). Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams) that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het) dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT) pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and for development

  6. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters.

    PubMed

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Hass, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study examined late-life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates, pesticides, u.v.-filters, bisphenol A, parabens, and the drug paracetamol. The groups received vehicle (control), a mixture of all 13 chemicals at 150-times (TotalMix150) or 450-times (TotalMix450) high-end human exposure, or 450-times a mixture of nine predominantly anti-androgenic chemicals (AAMix450). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450 group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.

  7. Genetic basis for reproductive diapause is correlated with life history traits within the Culex pipiens complex.

    PubMed

    Mori, A; Romero-Severson, J; Severson, D W

    2007-10-01

    The evolution of late season reproductive arrest (diapause) among female Culex pipiens mosquitoes allows them to overwinter in temperate climates, while females of the sibling species Culex quinquefasciatus do not exhibit the diapause phenotype. We present results for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses of two independent segregating populations derived from crosses between C. pipiens and C. quinquefasciatus. QTL for diapause and three life history traits were identified and compared for genome positions and gene effects. Using a combination of composite interval mapping, single-marker analysis and all possible subsets regression, we identified multiple QTL for each trait, totalling 14 and 17 QTL for each population, respectively. Individual QTL across traits often mapped to similar genome locations, suggesting these traits may be controlled in part by genes with pleiotropic effects or multiple tightly linked genes. The majority of QTL were intermediate in magnitude in that they explained 10-25% of the phenotypic variation. The majority of QTL showed overdominance effects. We suggest that this could impact natural populations, as increased heterosis across hybrid zones may allow populations to adapt to environmental conditions via stabilizing selection, and yet maintain species identity outside these regions because of strong morphological integration, wherein related traits evolve as an integrated unit.

  8. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  9. Prior chronic in vivo glucocorticoid excess leads to an anabolic phenotype and an extension of cellular life span of skin fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kletsas, Dimitris; Pratsinis, Harris; Gioni, Vassiliki; Pilichos, Konstantinos; Yiacoumettis, Andreas M; Tsagarakis, Stylianos

    2007-04-01

    Intense stress can be detrimental for tissue homeostasis and accelerates aging. On the other hand, repeated mild stresses can have beneficial and even life-prolonging effects. Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) represents the major hormonal response to stress. However, besides its life-sustaining role, GC excess can promote a "catabolic" phenotype. Accordingly, we have studied the effect of long-lasting exposure to high GC levels in vivo on several parameters of tissue homeostasis, as well as cellular senescence, in cells removed from the high-GC milieu in vivo and then cultured in vitro. To this end, we have used human skin fibroblasts from (a) Cushing's syndrome patients that are characterized by chronic endogenous GC excess and (b) patients treated with exogenous GC administration. Interestingly, when Cushing's syndrome fibroblasts were cultured in vitro under standard conditions they express an "anabolic" phenotype, i.e., they restore their ability for collagen synthesis, secrete reduced levels of metalloproteases, and have an increased proliferative capacity and contractility. Furthermore, these cells exhibit a significant extension of their proliferative life span, while they respond better to exogenous stress by producing significantly higher levels of heat-shock protein-70 (HSP70). In addition, preliminary results with fibroblasts from patients subjected to chronic exogenous GC administration indicate that they express a similar behavior in vitro, at least with regard to the restoration of collagen expression. These data suggest that prior exposure to elevated GC concentrations is not associated with persisting adverse effects on fibroblasts and may also have a beneficial outcome in some aspects of cell physiology, including longevity in vitro.

  10. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  11. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-05-11

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health.

  12. A widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B; Willis, John H

    2010-09-28

    The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and multiple reproductive

  13. Suicide: Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jeffery

    2016-06-01

    Suicide remains a major public health issue. There have been more than 40,000 deaths by suicide in 2014. Understanding both the neuroscience and psychological development is key for nursing care so adequate interventions and treatment strategies are developed when working with people thinking about suicide. It is critical to assess and recognize risk and protective factors to ensure patient safety. The older adult, children, and adolescent populations remain vulnerable to suicide. A discussion regarding the psychiatric, psychosocial, and treatment considerations for these populations is included. An overview of communication, suicide assessment, and safety planning is discussed. PMID:27229281

  14. Life span in online communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users’ activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users’ lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  15. Life span in online communities.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, A; Kosiński, R A

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users' activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users' lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation. PMID:21230706

  16. Suicide: Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jeffery

    2016-06-01

    Suicide remains a major public health issue. There have been more than 40,000 deaths by suicide in 2014. Understanding both the neuroscience and psychological development is key for nursing care so adequate interventions and treatment strategies are developed when working with people thinking about suicide. It is critical to assess and recognize risk and protective factors to ensure patient safety. The older adult, children, and adolescent populations remain vulnerable to suicide. A discussion regarding the psychiatric, psychosocial, and treatment considerations for these populations is included. An overview of communication, suicide assessment, and safety planning is discussed.

  17. Life span in online communities.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, A; Kosiński, R A

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users' activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users' lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  18. Resource allocation in a social wasp: effects of breeding system and life cycle on reproductive decisions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Cunningham, Tyler W; Marriner, Sarah M; Kovacs, Jennifer L; Hunt, Brendan G; Bhakta, Dimpal B; Goodisman, Michael A D

    2009-07-01

    Organisms must make important decisions on how to allocate resources to reproduction. We investigated allocation decisions in the social wasp Vespula maculifrons to understand how social insects make reproductive choices. We first determined how annual colonies apportioned resources to growth and reproduction by analysing developing brood. In contrast to expectations, colonies invested in both growth (workers) and reproduction (males) simultaneously. In addition, colonies showed evidence of producing males in pulses and reversing their reproductive choices by decreasing investment in males late in the season. This reversal is consistent with theory suggesting that colonies decrease production in males if fitness of late emerging males is low. To further investigate reproductive decisions within colonies, we determined if the male mates of multiply-mated queens varied in their reproductive success over time. Sperm use by queens did vary over time suggesting that male success may depend on sperm clumping within the female reproductive tract. Finally, we tested if colony sex ratio conformed to expectations under kin selection theory that nestmate relatedness would positively correlate with investment in new queens if workers controlled sex allocation. Surprisingly, the proportion of queens produced by colonies was negatively correlated with nestmate relatedness, suggesting that allocation may be shaped by advantages arising from increased genetic diversity resulting from multiple mating by queens. Overall, our study suggests that the reproductive decisions of colonies are flexible and may depend both on environmental cues arising from energetic needs of the colony and genetic cues arising from mating behaviours of queens.

  19. Chapter 2: hypothalamic neural systems controlling the female reproductive life cycle gonadotropin-releasing hormone, glutamate, and GABA.

    PubMed

    Maffucci, Jacqueline A; Gore, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis undergoes a number of changes throughout the reproductive life cycle that are responsible for the development, puberty, adulthood, and senescence of reproductive systems. This natural progression is dictated by the neural network controlling the hypothalamus including the cells that synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their regulatory neurotransmitters. Glutamate and GABA are the primary excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, and as such contribute a great deal to modulating this axis throughout the lifetime via their actions on receptors in the hypothalamus, both directly on GnRH neurons as well as indirectly through other hypothalamic neural networks. Interactions among GnRH neurons, glutamate, and GABA, including the regulation of GnRH gene and protein expression, hormone release, and modulation by estrogen, are critical to age-appropriate changes in reproductive function. Here, we present evidence for the modulation of GnRH neurosecretory cells by the balance of glutamate and GABA in the hypothalamus, and the functional consequences of these interactions on reproductive physiology across the life cycle.

  20. Young women's life experiences and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health in rural KwaZulu-Natal South Africa.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Aliza M; Humphries, Hilton; Frohlich, Janet; Dlamini, Sarah; Ntombela, Fanelesibonge

    2016-10-01

    Women in South Africa bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Female-controlled HIV prevention methods offer promising interventions to reduce this burden but cannot be effectively employed without a better understanding of young women's perceptions of their sexual and reproductive health. This study examines social, environmental and cultural factors contributing to young women's perceptions of, and experiences with, sexual and reproductive health to identify the challenges of engaging adolescent girls in HIV prevention. Twenty-five 15-19-year-old women were interviewed using semi-structured in-depth interview questions to discover their life context, future goals and relationships with men, and to understand how these factors influence their sexual and reproductive health decisions and outcomes. A thematic analysis of interview findings indicates that although participants are aware of the risks posed by engaging in risky sexual behaviour, life context shapes their perceptions and prioritisation of their health, which presents a barrier to achieving healthy behaviours and positive health outcomes. These findings may influence future research into how young women's health perceptions influence their sexual health behaviours, and how they utilise sexual and reproductive health services in a clinical setting. This has implications for introducing forms of female-controlled HIV prevention for this population. PMID:27216483

  1. Alteration of pathogenicity-linked life-history traits by resistance of its host Solanum tuberosum impacts sexual reproduction of the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Clément, J A J; Magalon, H; Pellé, R; Marquer, B; Andrivon, D

    2010-12-01

    Although sexual reproduction implies a cost, it represents an evolutionary advantage for the adaptation and survival of facultative sexual pathogens. Understanding the maintenance of sex in pathogens requires to analyse how host resistance will impact their sexual reproduction through the alteration of their life-history traits. We explored this experimentally using potato (Solanum tuberosum) and one of its pathogens, the heterothallic oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Sexual reproduction was highest on hosts favouring asexual multiplication of the pathogen, suggesting similar nutritional requirements for both sexual and asexual sporulation. Sexual reproduction was also highest on hosts decreasing the latent period, probably because of a trade-off between growth and reproduction. Distinguishing host effects on each pathogenic trait remains however uneasy, as most life-history traits linked to pathogenicity were not independent of each other. We argue that sexual reproduction of P. infestans is an adaptation to survive when the host is susceptible and rapidly destroyed.

  2. Knockdown of the Drosophila FIG4 induces deficient locomotive behavior, shortening of motor neuron, axonal targeting aberration, reduction of life span and defects in eye development.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Akane; Azuma, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Itaru; Yoshida, Hideki; Mizuta, Ikuko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tokuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene have been identified in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J), Yunis-Varon syndrome and epilepsy with polymicrogyria. FIG4 protein regulates a cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), a signaling lipid on the cytosolic surface of membranes of the late endosomal compartment. PI(3,5)P2 is required for retrograde membrane trafficking from lysosomal and late endosomal compartments to the Golgi. However, it is still unknown how the neurodegeneration that occurs in these diseases is related to the loss of FIG4 function. Drosophila has CG17840 (dFIG4) as a human FIG4 homolog. Here we specifically knocked down dFIG4 in various tissues, and investigated their phenotypes. Neuron-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in axonal targeting aberrations of photoreceptor neurons, shortened presynaptic terminals of motor neurons in 3rd instar larvae and reduced climbing ability in adulthood and life span. Fat body-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in enlarged lysosomes in cells that were detected by staining with LysoTracker. In addition, eye imaginal disk-specific knockdown of dFIG4 disrupted differentiation of pupal ommatidial cell types, such as cone cells and pigment cells, suggesting an additional role of dFIG4 during eye development.

  3. A Werner syndrome protein homolog affects C. elegans development, growth rate, life span and sensitivity to DNA damage by acting at a DNA damage checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Jin; Yook, Jong-Sung; Han, Sung Min; Koo, Hyeon-Sook

    2004-06-01

    A Werner syndrome protein homolog in C. elegans (WRN-1) was immunolocalized to the nuclei of germ cells, embryonic cells, and many other cells of larval and adult worms. When wrn-1 expression was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi), a slight reduction in C. elegans life span was observed, with accompanying signs of premature aging, such as earlier accumulation of lipofuscin and tissue deterioration in the head. In addition, various developmental defects, including small, dumpy, ruptured, transparent body, growth arrest and bag of worms, were induced by RNAi. The frequency of these defects was accentuated by gamma-irradiation, implying that they were derived from spontaneous or induced DNA damage. wrn-1(RNAi) worms showed accelerated larval growth irrespective of gamma-irradiation, and pre-meiotic germ cells had an abnormal checkpoint response to DNA replication blockage. These observations suggest that WRN-1 acts as a checkpoint protein for DNA damage and replication blockage. This idea is also supported by an accelerated S phase in wrn-1(RNAi) embryonic cells. wrn-1(RNAi) phenotypes similar to those of Werner syndrome, such as premature aging and short stature, suggest wrn-1-deficient C. elegans as a useful model organism for Werner syndrome. PMID:15115755

  4. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 prolongs the life span of adult human keratinocytes, enhances skin equivalent development, and facilitates lentiviral transduction.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Jansen, Patrick A M; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; van Erp, Piet E; Joosten, Irma; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost

    2012-09-01

    The use of tissue-engineered human skin equivalents (HSE) for fundamental research and industrial application requires the expansion of keratinocytes from a limited number of skin biopsies donated by adult healthy volunteers or patients. A pharmacological inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinases, Y-27632, was recently reported to immortalize neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the potential use of Y-27632 to expand human adult keratinocytes and evaluated its effects on HSE development and in vitro gene delivery assays. Y-27632 was found to significantly increase the life span of human adult keratinocytes (up to five to eight passages). The epidermal morphology of HSEs generated from high-passage, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes resembled the native epidermis and was improved by supplementing Y-27632 during the submerged phase of HSE development. In addition, Y-27632-treated keratinocytes responded normally to inflammatory stimuli, and could be used to generate HSEs with a psoriatic phenotype, upon stimulation with relevant cytokines. Furthermore, Y-27632 significantly enhanced both lentiviral transduction efficiency of primary adult keratinocytes and epidermal morphology of HSEs generated thereof. Our study indicates that Y-27632 is a potentially powerful tool that is used for a variety of applications of adult human keratinocytes. PMID:22519508

  5. Long-term oral administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine extends life span in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Akira; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2015-04-10

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by extension of a CAG repeat in the Sca1gene. Although the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of SCA1 have not been determined, aberrant neuronal activation potentially contributes to the neuronal cell death characteristic of the disease. Here we examined the potential involvement of extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation in the pathogenesis of SCA1 by administering memantine, a low-affinity noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, in SCA1 knock-in (KI) mice. In KI mice, the exon in the ataxin 1 gene is replaced with abnormally expanded 154CAG repeats. Memantine was administered orally to the SCA1 KI mice from 4 weeks of age until death. The treatment significantly attenuated body-weight loss and prolonged the life span of SCA1 KI mice. Furthermore, memantine significantly suppressed the loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and motor neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, which are critical for motor function and parasympathetic function, respectively. These findings support the contribution of aberrant activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs to neuronal cell death in SCA1 KI mice and suggest that memantine may also have therapeutic benefits in human SCA1 patients.

  6. Knockdown of the Drosophila FIG4 induces deficient locomotive behavior, shortening of motor neuron, axonal targeting aberration, reduction of life span and defects in eye development.

    PubMed

    Kyotani, Akane; Azuma, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Itaru; Yoshida, Hideki; Mizuta, Ikuko; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tokuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene have been identified in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J), Yunis-Varon syndrome and epilepsy with polymicrogyria. FIG4 protein regulates a cellular abundance of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), a signaling lipid on the cytosolic surface of membranes of the late endosomal compartment. PI(3,5)P2 is required for retrograde membrane trafficking from lysosomal and late endosomal compartments to the Golgi. However, it is still unknown how the neurodegeneration that occurs in these diseases is related to the loss of FIG4 function. Drosophila has CG17840 (dFIG4) as a human FIG4 homolog. Here we specifically knocked down dFIG4 in various tissues, and investigated their phenotypes. Neuron-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in axonal targeting aberrations of photoreceptor neurons, shortened presynaptic terminals of motor neurons in 3rd instar larvae and reduced climbing ability in adulthood and life span. Fat body-specific knockdown of dFIG4 resulted in enlarged lysosomes in cells that were detected by staining with LysoTracker. In addition, eye imaginal disk-specific knockdown of dFIG4 disrupted differentiation of pupal ommatidial cell types, such as cone cells and pigment cells, suggesting an additional role of dFIG4 during eye development. PMID:26708557

  7. Relating Life-Span Research to the Development of Gifted and Talented Children. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from] The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (3rd, Lawrence, Kansas, February 19-20, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    This monograph presents abstracts of 29 papers that relate life-span research to the development of gifted and talented children. Sample topics include: attitudes about rural schools and programs for the gifted; social competence, self-esteem, and parent-child time and interaction in an advantaged subculture; helping families of gifted children…

  8. Reproductive adaptation in Drosophila exposed to oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloek, G.; Winkle, L.

    1979-01-01

    Ten successive generations of a Drosophila melanogaster population were exposed to an atmospheric mix of 50% oxygen/50% nitrogen at standard pressure. This atmospheric mix has been shown to be toxic to this species and causes significantly shortened life span. By the fifth generation, survivorship and life span for the first 25-30 days were identical to control populations and total life span was shorter by only a few days. Egg-laying rates were stable in the experimental populations but below those of the controls. Hatching success was identical between experimental and control populations. Even though the egg-laying rates were lower in 50% oxygen, it was concluded that the population had adapted and could maintain a stable population in these conditions. The near-normal life spans, normal hatching rates, and overall population stability, exhibited following five generations of adaptation, were considered sufficient to allow continued reproduction in spite of a reduced egg-laying rate.

  9. Reproduction and early life history of ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on the St. Louis River, a Lake Superior tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, William P.; Selgeby, James H.; Collins, Hollie L.

    1998-01-01

    Reproduction and early life history of ruffe (Gymnocephalus ceriums) was investigated during April to July in 1993 and 1994 in the St. Louis River, a western Lake Superior tributary. This study was conducted to assist fishery managers in determining possible interactions among the early life stages of ruffe and other North American percids, and in obtaining information useful in developing control methods targeted at the early life stages of ruffe. Ruffe had a prolonged spawning period that extended from late April to late June with peak spawning in mid to late May when water temperatures were between 12 and 14°C. The majority of ruffe protolarva were captured 1 to 2 weeks after egg deposition between mid May and late June and most were captured in water 0.5-m deep. Onshore-offshore movements were not observed, but diel vertical movements of larval ruffe were observed on several occasions. The greatest chance of ballast water transport of pelagic larval ruffe is between mid May and July. Information on reproduction and early life history in this report will assist fishery mangers in development of ruffe control methods, and assist Great Lakes shipping in ballast water management to prevent the spread of ruffe.

  10. Viruses' life history: towards a mechanistic basis of a trade-off between survival and reproduction among phages.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Marianne; Taddei, François

    2006-07-01

    Life history theory accounts for variations in many traits involved in the reproduction and survival of living organisms, by determining the constraints leading to trade-offs among these different traits. The main life history traits of phages-viruses that infect bacteria-are the multiplication rate in the host, the survivorship of virions in the external environment, and their mode of transmission. By comparing life history traits of 16 phages infecting the bacteria Escherichia coli, we show that their mortality rate is constant with time and positively [corrected] correlated to their multiplication rate in the bacterial host. Even though these viruses do not age, this result is in line with the trade-off between survival and reproduction previously observed in numerous aging organisms. Furthermore, a multiple regression shows that the combined effects of two physical parameters, namely, the capsid thickness and the density of the packaged genome, account for 82% of the variation in the mortality rate. The correlations between life history traits and physical characteristics of virions may provide a mechanistic explanation of this trade-off. The fact that this trade-off is present in this very simple biological situation suggests that it might be a fundamental property of evolving entities produced under constraints. Moreover, such a positive correlation between mortality and multiplication reveals an underexplored trade-off in host-parasite interactions.

  11. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed. PMID:25115228

  12. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale. PMID:26313991

  13. Reproductive Requirements and Life Cycle of Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Potential Biological Control Agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Branco, M

    2015-06-01

    Several pine bast scales (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) are important pests of pine trees in the Northern Hemisphere. Some species are invasive and cause significant economic and environmental impacts. Such is the case with Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, an invasive pest of maritime pine forests in Southeastern France, Italy, and Corsica. The ladybird Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Eizaguirre) is a recently described species that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and is a potential candidate for the biological control of M. feytaudi. However, little is known of the biology of I. rondensis. As part of the risk assessment study for a classical biological control program, the phenology and reproductive mechanisms of the beetle were analyzed. I. rondensis is univoltine and is seasonally synchronized with the phenology of the prey M. feytaudi, which is also univoltine. An obligatory reproductive diapause of 5-6 mo and the need to feed on the eggs of the prey to begin oviposition emerged as the two primary mechanisms that assure life cycle synchronization of the ladybird with its prey. Female fecundity was also higher when the ladybirds were fed M. feytaudi eggs. Life cycle synchronization with M. feytaudi and reproduction triggered by consumption of prey eggs indicate that I. rondensis is a promising biological control agent of the pine bast scale.

  14. Patterns of hippocampal-neocortical interactions in the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories across the entire life-span of aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Viard, Armelle; Lebreton, Karine; Chételat, Gaël; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Young, Alan; De La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Episodic Autobiographical Memories (EAMs) rely on a network of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and distributed neocortical regions regardless of their remoteness. The findings supported the model of memory consolidation which proposes a permanent role of MTL during EAM retrieval (Multiple-Trace Theory or MTT) rather than a temporary role (standard model). Our present aim was to expand the results by examining the interactions between the MTL and neocortical regions (or MTL-neocortical links) during EAM retrieval with varying retention intervals. We used an experimental paradigm specially designed to engage aged participants in the recollection of EAMs, extracted from five different time-periods, covering their whole life-span, in order to examine correlations between activation in the MTL and neocortical regions. The nature of the memories was checked at debriefing by means of behavioral measures to control the degree of episodicity and properties of memories. Targeted correlational analyses carried out on the MTL, frontal, lateral temporal and posterior regions revealed strong links between the MTL and neocortex during the retrieval of both recent and remote EAMs, challenging the standard model of memory consolidation and supporting MTT instead. Further confirmation was given by results showing that activation in the left and right hippocampi significantly correlated during the retrieval of both recent and remote memories. Correlations among extra-MTL neocortical regions also emerged for all time-periods, confirming the critical role of the prefrontal, temporal (lateral temporal cortex and temporal pole), precuneus and posterior cingulate regions in EAM retrieval. Overall, this paper emphasizes the role of a bilateral network of MTL and neocortical areas whose activation correlate during the recollection of rich phenomenological recent and remote EAMs. PMID:19338022

  15. Correlations of life-span variation parameters in 128 successive generations of Drosophila melanogaster with changes in atmospheric pressure and geomagnetic activity.

    PubMed

    Izmaylov, D M; Obukhova, L K; Konradov, A A

    2005-05-01

    Correlations between the parameters of life-span (LS) distribution of Drosophila melanogaster, including mean LS (MLS) and the time of 10 and 90% population mortality, and some geophysical parameters that are usually beyond the control of researchers dealing with laboratory cultures, including atmospheric pressure, solar activity indices (Wolf's sunspot numbers and 2,800-MHz radio flux), and geomagnetic activity (planetary index, K(p)), were studied. Geophysical data were obtained from free-access official web sites of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration of the US Department of Commerce and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism and Radiowave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The geophysical parameters were calculated only for the period corresponding to 10 days of preimaginal development of the flies from egg to imago. Canonical correlation analysis, calculation of the non-parametric Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients, and graphical data analysis were used. Highly significant correlations between parameters of LS distribution in males and females and environmental factors, such as the atmospheric pressure on the 4th and 5th day of development and geomagnetic activity indices (K(p)) on the 6th and 10th day of development were found, with correlation coefficients varying from 0.31 to 0.37 (P<0.02). Assuming a causal relationship between geophysical factors and LS, it may be hypothesized that energetically weak environmental factors determine the formation of LS oscillatory dynamics in laboratory populations. The possible mechanisms underlying the contribution of these environmental factors to the LS variation in successive generations are discussed.

  16. Overexpression of hsp27 Rescued Neuronal Cell Death and Reduction in Life- and Health-Span in Drosophila melanogaster Against Prolonged Exposure to Dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Saini, Sanjay; Khatoon, Rehana; Sharma, Divya; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Kar Chowdhuri, Debapratim

    2016-07-01

    Long-term exposure to dichlorvos (O,O-dimethyl-2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP), an organophosphate pesticide) is reported to exert neurotoxicity, i.e., generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative damage, and neuronal cell death along with life- and health-span reduction in nontarget organisms including humans. However, studies on genetic modulation towards neuroprotection against prolonged DDVP exposure are elusive. Hsp27 (a small heat shock protein) is involved in various cellular processes and thus has attained emphasis as a therapeutic target. We aimed to examine the protective effect of hsp27 overexpression against prolonged DDVP exposure using an in vivo model Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were exposed to 15.0 ng