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Sample records for republiky za rok

  1. Characterization of DNA Binding Sites of RokB, a ROK-Family Regulator from Streptomyces coelicolor Reveals the RokB Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Bekiesch, Paulina; Forchhammer, Karl; Apel, Alexander Kristian

    2016-01-01

    ROK-family proteins have been described to act either as sugar kinases or as transcriptional regulators. Few ROK-family regulators have been characterized so far and most of them are involved in carbon catabolite repression. RokB (Sco6115) has originally been identified in a DNA-affinity capturing approach as a possible regulator of the heterologously expressed novobiocin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor M512. Interestingly, both, the rokB deletion mutants as well as its overexpressing mutants showed significantly reduced novobiocin production in the host strain S.coelicolor M512. We identified the DNA-binding site for RokB in the promoter region of the novobiocin biosynthetic genes novH-novW. It overlaps with the novH start codon which may explain the reduction of novobiocin production caused by overexpression of rokB. Bioinformatic screening coupled with surface plasmon resonance based interaction studies resulted in the discovery of five RokB binding sites within the genome of S. coelicolor. Using the genomic binding sites, a consensus motif for RokB was calculated, which differs slightly from previously determined binding motifs for ROK-family regulators. The annotations of the possible members of the so defined RokB regulon gave hints that RokB might be involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. This hypothesis was supported by feeding experiments with casamino acids and L-tyrosine, which could also explain the reduced novobiocin production in the deletion mutants. PMID:27145180

  2. The Balance of the ROK and North Korean Ground Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    the ROK can not deploy troops rear away from front because of North Korean surprise attack. For this situation, what is best for the ROK? The ROK...F-16 fighter’ground attack aircraft. The F-16 is widely regarded as the best airplane of its type in the world. Currently, the F-5 aircraft is the...considered one of the world’s best ground attack aircraft, better than the F-5s. It is fast, powerful, and versa- tile. The ROK is phasing out its F-86F

  3. ROK Military Policy Recommendations Toward North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S...last year ( 2011 ), North Korea’s navy attacked a South Korean warship and fired artillery against Yeonpyung Island. But the ROK armed forces showed...restraint and did not take aggressive measures against North Korea. This military policy was a part of the political policy. This paper traces the

  4. Description of Axial Detail for ROK Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Trellue, Holly R; Galloway, Jack D

    2012-04-20

    For the purpose of NDA simulations of the ROK fuel assemblies, we have developed an axial burnup distribution to represent the pins themselves based on gamma scans of rods in the G23 assembly. For the purpose of modeling the G23 assembly (both at ORNL and LANL), the pin-by-pin burnup map as simulated by ROK is being assumed to represent the radial burnup distribution. However, both DA and NDA results indicate that this simulated estimate is not 100% correct. In particular, the burnup obtained from the axial gamma scan of 7 pins does not represent exactly the same 'average' pin burnup as the ROK simulation. Correction for this discrepancy is a goal of the well-characterized assembly task but will take time. For now, I have come up with a correlation for 26 axial points of the burnup as obtained by gamma scans of 7 different rods (C13, G01, G02, J11, K10, L02, and M04, neglecting K02 at this time) to the average burnup given by the simulation for each of the rods individually. The resulting fraction in each axial zone is then averaged for the 7 different rods so that it can represent every fuel pin in the assembly. The burnup in each of the 26 axial zones of rods in all ROK assemblies will then be directly adjusted using this fraction, which is given in Table 1. Note that the gamma scan data given by ROK for assembly G23 included a length of {approx}3686 mm, so the first 12 mm and the last 14 mm were ignored to give an actual rod length of {approx}366 cm. To represent assembly F02 in which no pin-by-pin burnup distribution is given by ROK, we must model it using infinitely-reflected geometry but can look at the effects of measuring in different axial zones by using intermediate burnup files (i.e. smaller burnups than 28 GWd/MTU) and determining which axial zone(s) each burnup represents. Details for assembly F02 are then given in Tables 2 and 3, which is given in Table 1 and has 44 total axial zones to represent the top meter in explicit detail in addition to the

  5. U.S.-ROK Frictions: Causes for Anti-Americanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-02

    CUSAWC MILITARY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPER U.S.-ROK FRICTIONS: CAUSES FOR ANTI-AMERICANISM An Individual Study Project Intended for Publication by...Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED U.S.-ROK Frictions: Causes for Anti-Americanism 1Individual Study Project 6 PERFORMING ORG, REPORT NL.IBER 7...and Identify by block number) 20. ASTRACT Cof- fm e m revere., stit Ff nacoeary m a denittr by block number) This study focuses on frictions between

  6. Transfer of Authority: The US-ROK Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-09

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t TRANSFER OF AUTHORITY: THE US-ROK ALLIANCE BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL TERRY A. IVESTER United States...Myong Chol , “Kim Jong-il’s Military-First Policy a Silver Bullet,” Asia Times Online, available at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Korea/IA04Dg02.html

  7. Underwater Explosion (UWE) Analysis of the ROKS Cheonan Incident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Gu; Gitterman, Yefim

    2013-04-01

    The underwater explosion (UWE) resulting in the sinking of the South Korean warship, ROKS Cheonan occurred on March 26 2010. Raw data was analyzed from several 3-component stations—Baengyeong-do Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) station (BAR), Ganghwa KMA station (GAHB), Incheon Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) station (INCN), the short-period station—Deokjeok-do KMA station (DEI), as well as from the seismo-acoustic array Baengyeong-do Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) station (BRDAR). The ROKS Cheonan incident has been investigated by both the Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (Ministry of National Defense, 2010) and Hong (Bull Seism Soc Am 101:1554-1562, 2011). Their respective methods and conclusions are also presented in this study. One of the main differences between their findings and ours is that we deducted that the fundamental bubble frequency was 1.01 Hz with a subsequent oscillation of 1.72 Hz. Also, in contrast to findings by the MCMJIG and Hong, our analysis shows the first reverberation frequency to be 8.5 Hz and the subsequent one to be ≈25 Hz. The TNT-equivalent charge weight (seismic yield) and seismic magnitude were estimated from an observed bubble frequency of 1.01 Hz and the analytical model of a bubble pulse. From the data analyzed, we deducted that the seismic yield would be about 136 kg of TNT, which is equivalent to the individual yield of a large number of land control mines (LCM) which were abandoned in the vicinity of the ROKS Cheonan incident by the Republic of Korea (ROK) Navy in the 1970s (Ministry of National Defense 2010). Also, whereas both the MCMJIG and HONG estimated the local magnitude at 1.5, our findings came to the conclusion of a local magnitude of approximately 2.04 based on the bubble frequency of 1.01 Hz measured on the vertical component of BAR station data considering the empirical relationship between charge weight (TNT yield) and

  8. ROK and Arteriolar Myogenic Tone Generation: Molecular Evidence in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F.; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S.

    2017-01-01

    The myogenic response is an inherent property of resistance arteries that warrants a relatively constant blood flow in response to changes in perfusion pressure and protect delicate organs from vascular insufficiencies and excessive blood flow. This fundamental phenomenon has been extensively studied aiming to elucidate the underlying mechanisms triggering smooth muscle contraction in response to intraluminal pressure elevation, particularly, Rho-associated kinase (ROK)-mediated Ca2+-independent mechanisms. The size of the resistance arteries limits the capacity to examine changes in protein phosphorylation/expression levels associated with ROK signaling. A highly sensitive biochemical detection approach was beneficial in examining the role of ROK in different force generation mechanisms along the course of myogenic constriction. In this mini review, we summarize recent results showing direct evidence for the contribution of ROK in development of myogenic response at the level of mechanotransduction, myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition and dynamic actin cytoskeleton reorganization. We will also present evidence that alterations in ROK signaling could underlie the progressive loss in myogenic response in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28280468

  9. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc

    PubMed Central

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  10. Functional diversification of ROK-family transcriptional regulators of sugar catabolism in the Thermotogae phylum

    PubMed Central

    Kazanov, Marat D.; Li, Xiaoqing; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    Large and functionally heterogeneous families of transcription factors have complex evolutionary histories. What shapes specificities toward effectors and DNA sites in paralogous regulators is a fundamental question in biology. Bacteria from the deep-branching lineage Thermotogae possess multiple paralogs of the repressor, open reading frame, kinase (ROK) family regulators that are characterized by carbohydrate-sensing domains shared with sugar kinases. We applied an integrated genomic approach to study functions and specificities of regulators from this family. A comparative analysis of 11 Thermotogae genomes revealed novel mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the sugar utilization networks, DNA-binding motifs and specific functions. Reconstructed regulons for seven groups of ROK regulators were validated by DNA-binding assays using purified recombinant proteins from the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. All tested regulators demonstrated specific binding to their predicted cognate DNA sites, and this binding was inhibited by specific effectors, mono- or disaccharides from their respective sugar catabolic pathways. By comparing ligand-binding domains of regulators with structurally characterized kinases from the ROK family, we elucidated signature amino acid residues determining sugar-ligand regulator specificity. Observed correlations between signature residues and the sugar-ligand specificities provide the framework for structure functional classification of the entire ROK family. PMID:23209028

  11. Korean Unification and the Future of the U.S.-ROK Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    the United States could play in setting the regional conditions for unifica- tion and, along with the broader international commu- nity, helping to...unified, nonnuclear Korea aligned with the United States and Japan and would see a Korea that shared Japan’s political values and eco- nomic system as...By providing security to the ROK, the United States could help ensure that Ko- rea, as well as Japan , remain nuclear free. A post-unifi- cation

  12. The Future of the U.S.-ROK Alliance and the Rise of China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    proximate power. The ROK may even consider pursuing diplomacy separately from business. While this may have served Roh Moo -hyun’s “balancer” policy, the...comprehensive, cooperative partnership” during the Roh Moo -hyun administration.92 Still, China’s closest diplomatic relationship is with the DPRK, termed a...melamine as there had been against the importation of the U.S. beef on the perceived fear of Mad- Cow Disease, anti-Chinese sentiment may emerge as

  13. Conversational Russian in Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Thomas W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews materials relating to Russian speech which have appeared in the journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" since its first issue in 1967. The articles reviewed are divided into three categories: the stylistics of Russian speech, specific conversation expressions, and methodology. (CLK)

  14. Spontaneously tonic smooth muscle has characteristically higher levels of RhoA/ROK compared with the phasic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag A; Rattan, Satish

    2006-11-01

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone is important for the rectoanal continence. The RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway has been associated with the agonist-induced sustained contraction of the smooth muscle, but its role in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle is not known. Present studies compared expression of different components of the RhoA/ROK pathway between the IAS (a truly tonic SM), the rectal smooth muscle (RSM) (a mixture of phasic and tonic), and anococcygeus smooth muscle (ASM) (a purely phasic SM) of rat. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine RhoA, ROCK-II, CPI-17, MYPT1, and myosin light-chain 20 (MLC20). Phosphorylated CPI-17 at threonine-38 residue (p(Thr38)-CPI-17), MYPT1 at threonine-696 residue (p(Thr696)-MYPT1), and MLC20 at threonine-18/serine-19 residues (p(Thr18/Ser19)-MLC20) were also determined in the basal state and after pretreatment with the ROK inhibitor Y 27632. In addition, we compared the effect of Y 27632 on the basal isometric tension and ROK activity in the IAS vs. the RSM. Our data show the highest levels of RhoA, ROCK-II, CPI-17, MLC20, and of phospho-MYPT1, -CPI-17, and -MLC20 in the IAS followed by in the RSM and ASM. Conversely, MYPT1 levels were lowest in the IAS and highest in the ASM. In the IAS, Y 27632 caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tone, levels of phospho-MYPT1, -CPI-17, and -MLC20, and ROK activity. We conclude that RhoA/ROK plays a critical role in the basal tone in the IAS by the inhibition of MLC phosphatase via the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and CPI-17.

  15. A pre-ribosomal RNA interaction network involving snoRNAs and the Rok1 helicase.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roman; Hackert, Philipp; Ruprecht, Maike; Simm, Stefan; Brüning, Lukas; Mirus, Oliver; Sloan, Katherine E; Kudla, Grzegorz; Schleiff, Enrico; Bohnsack, Markus T

    2014-08-01

    Ribosome biogenesis in yeast requires 75 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and a myriad of cofactors for processing, modification, and folding of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). For the 19 RNA helicases implicated in ribosome synthesis, their sites of action and molecular functions have largely remained unknown. Here, we have used UV cross-linking and analysis of cDNA (CRAC) to reveal the pre-rRNA binding sites of the RNA helicase Rok1, which is involved in early small subunit biogenesis. Several contact sites were identified in the 18S rRNA sequence, which interestingly all cluster in the "foot" region of the small ribosomal subunit. These include a major binding site in the eukaryotic expansion segment ES6, where Rok1 is required for release of the snR30 snoRNA. Rok1 directly contacts snR30 and other snoRNAs required for pre-rRNA processing. Using cross-linking, ligation and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH) we identified several novel pre-rRNA base-pairing sites for the snoRNAs snR30, snR10, U3, and U14, which cluster in the expansion segments of the 18S rRNA. Our data suggest that these snoRNAs bridge interactions between the expansion segments, thereby forming an extensive interaction network that likely promotes pre-rRNA maturation and folding in early pre-ribosomal complexes and establishes long-range rRNA interactions during ribosome synthesis. © 2014 Martin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. A pre-ribosomal RNA interaction network involving snoRNAs and the Rok1 helicase

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Roman; Hackert, Philipp; Ruprecht, Maike; Simm, Stefan; Brüning, Lukas; Mirus, Oliver; Sloan, Katherine E.; Kudla, Grzegorz; Schleiff, Enrico; Bohnsack, Markus T.

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis in yeast requires 75 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and a myriad of cofactors for processing, modification, and folding of the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). For the 19 RNA helicases implicated in ribosome synthesis, their sites of action and molecular functions have largely remained unknown. Here, we have used UV cross-linking and analysis of cDNA (CRAC) to reveal the pre-rRNA binding sites of the RNA helicase Rok1, which is involved in early small subunit biogenesis. Several contact sites were identified in the 18S rRNA sequence, which interestingly all cluster in the “foot” region of the small ribosomal subunit. These include a major binding site in the eukaryotic expansion segment ES6, where Rok1 is required for release of the snR30 snoRNA. Rok1 directly contacts snR30 and other snoRNAs required for pre-rRNA processing. Using cross-linking, ligation and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH) we identified several novel pre-rRNA base-pairing sites for the snoRNAs snR30, snR10, U3, and U14, which cluster in the expansion segments of the 18S rRNA. Our data suggest that these snoRNAs bridge interactions between the expansion segments, thereby forming an extensive interaction network that likely promotes pre-rRNA maturation and folding in early pre-ribosomal complexes and establishes long-range rRNA interactions during ribosome synthesis. PMID:24947498

  17. A Study of the Tolerance of ROK Air Force Personnel to Gz Centrifugation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-09

    TO +Gz CENTRIFUGATION AaJ. Byung Kook Lee, M.D., Capt. Jung Min Hwang, M.D., Capt. Jong Sang Chois, M.D.7-C-pt. Sang Goo Shin , M.D., Joung K. Park...Centrifugation Aeromedical Research Center Maj., Byung Kook Lee, M.D. Capt., Jung Min Hwang, M.D. Capt., Jong Sang Chois, M.D. Capt., Sang Goo Shin , M.D...DIVISION A STUDY OF THE TOLERANCE OF ROK AIR FORCE PERSONNEL TO+Gz CENTRIFUGATION by Byung Kook Lee, Jung Min Hwang, et al. 0 L..I IA -J Approved for public

  18. Do the Ties Still Bind? The U.S.-ROK Security Relationship After 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    significantly strengthened the analysis. General Kim Dong- Shin (ret.), former ROK Minister of National Defense, also read the draft report and graciously shared...represented an attempt by then–Defense Minister Kim Dong- Shin and Deputy Minister Cha Yong-Koo to explain the history of the alliance to a Korean...Jilted Envoy Back from North,” JoongAng Daily, January 29, 2003 (online edition). 37 Byung -joon Ahn, “South Korea’s Dangerous New Dawn,” The Korea

  19. Forensic seismology and boundary element method application vis-à-vis ROKS Cheonan underwater explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Gu

    2013-12-01

    On March 26, 2010 an underwater explosion (UWE) led to the sinking of the ROKS Cheonan. The official Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (MCMJIG) report concluded that the cause of the underwater explosion was a 250 kg net explosive weight (NEW) detonation at a depth of 6-9 m from a DPRK "CHT-02D" torpedo. Kim and Gitterman (2012a) determined the NEW and seismic magnitude as 136 kg at a depth of approximately 8m and 2.04, respectively using basic hydrodynamics based on theoretical and experimental methods as well as spectral analysis and seismic methods. The purpose of this study was to clarify the cause of the UWE via more detailed methods using bubble dynamics and simulation of propellers as well as forensic seismology. Regarding the observed bubble pulse period of 0.990 s, 0.976 s and 1.030 s were found in case of a 136 NEW at a detonation depth of 8 m using the boundary element method (BEM) and 3D bubble shape simulations derived for a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8 m approximately 5 m portside from the hull centerline. Here we show through analytical equations, models and 3D bubble shape simulations that the most probable cause of this underwater explosion was a 136 kg NEW detonation at a depth of 8m attributable to a ROK littoral "land control" mine (LCM).

  20. Genetic and biochemical interactions between the bacterial replication initiator DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Seid, Charlotte A; Smith, Janet L; Grossman, Alan D

    2017-03-01

    We identified interactions between the conserved bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok of Bacillus subtilis. DnaA binds directly to clusters of DnaA boxes at the origin of replication and elsewhere, including the promoters of several DnaA-regulated genes. Rok, an analog of H-NS from gamma-proteobacteria that affects chromosome architecture and of Lsr2 from Mycobacteria, binds A+T-rich sequences throughout the genome and represses expression of many genes. Using crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that DnaA was associated with eight previously identified regions containing clusters of DnaA boxes, plus 36 additional regions that were also bound by Rok. Association of DnaA with these additional regions appeared to be indirect as it was dependent on Rok and independent of the DNA-binding domain of DnaA. Gene expression and mutant analyses support a model in which DnaA and Rok cooperate to repress transcription of yxaJ, the yybNM operon and the sunA-bdbB operon. Our results indicate that DnaA modulates the activity of Rok. We postulate that this interaction might affect nucleoid architecture. Furthermore, DnaA might interact similarly with Rok analogues in other organisms.

  1. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za) of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Patrut, Adrian; Patrut, Roxana T; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A; von Reden, Karl F

    2016-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old.

  2. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za) of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Patrut, Adrian; Patrut, Roxana T.; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A.; von Reden, Karl F.

    2016-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old. PMID:26760300

  3. A Metafunctional Analysis of the News "ROK, DPRK Agree to Defuse Tension after Talks" on China Daily

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the three metafunctions in Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL): experiential, interpersonal and textual, the paper makes an analysis of the current news "ROK, DPRK Agree to Defuse Tension after Talks" on China Daily. The paper finds out that the political news has unique features in terms of experiential, interpersonal…

  4. 77 FR 36031 - ROK Entertainment Group, Inc., RussOil Corp., Tricell, Inc., Tunex International, Inc. (n/k/a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ROK Entertainment Group, Inc., RussOil Corp., Tricell, Inc., Tunex International, Inc. (n/k/a Aone Dental International Group, Inc.), and Wireless Age Communications, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 13, 2012. It appears to the...

  5. A Study on the Decision Factors in the Delay of the ROK-U.S. Wartime OPCON Transfer: Focusing on the Domestic Determinants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    DECISION FACTORS IN THE DELAY OF THE ROK-U.S. WARTIME OPCON TRANSFER: FOCUSING ON THE DOMESTIC DETERMINANTS by Jinhak Jung December 2015...THE DELAY OF THE ROK- U.S. WARTIME OPCON TRANSFER: FOCUSING ON THE DOMESTIC DETERMINANTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jung, Jinhak 7...has continuously been delayed. To answer this question, the author studies how domestic politics have affected the continuous delay. To investigate

  6. Characterization of the RokA and HexA broad-substrate-specificity hexokinases from Bacteroides fragilis and their role in hexose and N-acetylglucosamine utilization.

    PubMed

    Brigham, Christopher J; Malamy, Michael H

    2005-02-01

    Bacteroides fragilis, a human gastrointestinal commensal and an opportunistic pathogen, utilizes simple and complex sugars and polysaccharides for growth in the large intestine and at sites of infection. Because B. fragilis lacks transport-linked sugar phosphorylation systems, cytoplasmic kinase(s) was expected to be required for the phosphorylation of hexoses and hexosamines. We have now identified two hexose kinases that are important for growth of B. fragilis on glucose, mannose, and other sugars. One kinase (RokA), a member of the ROK family of proteins, was found to be the sole kinase for activation of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG). The other kinase (HexA) is responsible for the majority of the glucose kinase activity in the cell, although a hexA deletion mutant strain was not defective for growth on any substrate tested. Deletion of both the rokA and hexA kinase genes resulted in inability of the cell to use glucose, mannose, NAG, and many other sugars. We purified RokA and determined its approximate molecular mass to be 36.5 kDa. The purified RokA protein was shown to phosphorylate several substrates, including glucose, NAG, and mannose, but not N-acetylmannosamine or N-acetylneuraminic acid. Phylogenetic analysis of RokA showed that it is most similar to kinases from the Cytophaga-Flavibacterium-Bacteroides group, while HexA was most similar to other bacterial hexokinases and eukaryotic hexokinases.

  7. ROK Army Manpower Force Structure: Validation of Organizational (Officer, NCO, and Enlisted Personnel) Staffing of an Infantry Battalion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    conformity to the ROK military rank systems, personnel whose pay grades are E -5 and above are considered as NCOs while E -4 and below are enlisted personnel...AUTHOR( S ): Ki Hwan Kim 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000...8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY

  8. Roles and Missions for ROK and U.S. Combined Marine Corps Forces in a New Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    time that Korea could do everything without any cooperation, even in defense and security requirements. hl the military aspect, the ROK and U.S. had...an effect on the security situation on the Korean Peninsula. The policy of reconciliation, coordinated by South Korea , and the open/reform policy by...NOlih Korea will be seen on the Korean Peninsula. The unexpected situation would be predicted on the relationship between the 3

  9. Ankylosing spondylitis in two Zaïrian brothers.

    PubMed

    Mbuyi-Muamba, J M; Malonda, N; Yuma, O

    1993-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis has never been described in Zaïre and is considered to be rare in black African populations. We report two cases observed in the University Hospital of Kinshasa. The two patients are brothers. The diagnosis is based on anaemnestic, clinical and radiological findings. We therefore demonstrate the existence of this disease in Zaïre and presume that other similar cases may be diagnosed.

  10. A Review of the R.O.K. Decision to Coassemble F-5E/F Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    DECISION TO COASSEM3LE F-5E/F AIRCRAFT.. ’( A\\~ THESIS ’ ./AFIT/GSfl/SM/80M-j/ou, Kun Woo -.- trc ROKAF IJ 3 1930) 80 5 066 ~. AFIT/GSM/SM/80M-16 A...REVIEW OF THE R.O.K. DECISION TO COASSEMBLE r-5E/F AIRCRAFT THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of...potential problem areas and makes recommendations for solutions. CHAVIFP I I NIROUtICT I ON Background Security assistance (S.A.) has been a major

  11. Angiogenic sprouting requires the fine tuning of endothelial cell cohesion by the Raf-1/Rok-α complex.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Reiner; Cseh, Botond; Maier, Barbara; Scherrer, Karina; Baccarini, Manuela

    2012-01-17

    Sprouting angiogenesis, crucial for the development of new blood vessels, is a prime example of collective migration in which endothelial cells migrate as a group joined via cadherin-containing adherens junctions (AJ). The actomyosin apparatus is connected to AJ and generates contractile forces, which, depending on their strength and duration, increase or decrease cell cohesion. Thus, appropriate spatiotemporal control of junctional myosin is critical, but the mechanisms underlying it are incompletely understood. We show that Raf-1 is an essential component of this regulatory network and that its ablation impairs endothelial cell cohesion, sprouting, and tumor-induced angiogenesis. Mechanistically, Raf-1 is recruited to VE-cadherin complexes by a mechanism involving the small G protein Rap1 and is required to bring the Rho effector Rok-α to nascent AJs. This Raf-1-mediated fine tuning of Rok-α signaling allows the activation of junctional myosin and the timely maturation of AJ essential for maintaining cell cohesion during sprouting angiogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural studies of ROK fructokinase YdhR from Bacillus subtilis : insights into substrate binding and fructose specificity.

    SciTech Connect

    Nocek, B.; Stein, A.; Jedrzejczak, R.; Cuff, M.; Li, H.; Volkart, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division

    2011-02-18

    The main pathway of bacterial sugar phosphorylation utilizes specific phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzymes. In addition to the classic PTS system, a PTS-independent secondary system has been described in which nucleotide-dependent sugar kinases are used for monosaccharide phosphorylation. Fructokinase (FK), which phosphorylates d-fructose with ATP as a cofactor, has been shown to be a member of this secondary system. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that FK is a member of the 'ROK' (bacterial Repressors, uncharacterized Open reading frames, and sugar Kinases) sequence family. In this study, we report the crystal structures of ROK FK from Bacillus subtilis (YdhR) (a) apo and in the presence of (b) ADP and (c) ADP/d-fructose. All structures show that YdhR is a homodimer with a monomer composed of two similar {alpha}/{beta} domains forming a large cleft between domains that bind ADP and d-fructose. Enzymatic activity assays support YdhR function as an ATP-dependent fructose kinase.

  13. New nematotoxic indoloditerpenoid produced by Gymnoascus reessii za-130

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical investigation of the fungal strain Gymnoascus reessii za-130, which was previously isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants infected by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, led to the isolation and identification of a new indoloditerpenoid metabolite designated gymnoascole ac...

  14. Brazilein-induced contraction of rat arterial smooth muscle involves activation of Ca2+ entry and ROK, ERK pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Yip, Siewting; Wang, Zhixing; Wang, Wei; Xing, Dongming; Du, Lijun

    2008-02-12

    Brazilein (6a,7-dihydro-3,6a,10-trihydroxy-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]pyran-9(6H)-one) is a compound isolated from Caesalpinia sappan. The vasoactivities of brazilein were evaluated in isolated rat thoracic aorta. The results showed that brazilein can dose-dependently induce contraction of rat thoracic aorta in the resting and phenylephrine pre-evoked state. The average response to 100 microM of brazilein was 30% of the 50 mM KCl contraction, 26% of the 10 muM phenylephrine and 116% of the 20 mM caffeine contraction in comparison. The effects of vasocontraction were proved not to be endothelial dependent and could not be inhibited by alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker phentolamine, beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol, M-adrenaline receptor blocker atropine, angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan or the non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME). However the influx of extracellular calcium seemed to be required for this action, because depletion of extracellular calcium and the addition of L-type calcium ion channel antagonist (nimodipine and diltiazem), calcium ion channel activator (BAY-K8644) and potassium ion channel opener (pinacidil) could significantly affect the contraction induced by brazilein. We also investigated the possible signal mechanisms underlying brazilein-induced contraction using selective inhibitors. The inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), Rho-kinase (ROK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) can suppress the effect of brazilein respectively, whereas inhibitors of other signaling or receptor molecules such as protein kinase C (PKC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor had no effect. All these results demonstrated that brazilein can induce contraction of rat aorta, that the Ca2+ influx, ROK and ERK signal pathways and MLCK activation must be involved in the contractile processes.

  15. The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Nelson, B. A.; Crawford, E. A.; Forbes, E. T.; den Hartog, D. J.; Holly, D. J.; Nagata, M.

    2000-10-01

    Linear analysis shows that a sheared axial plasma flow can stabilize the m=1 kink instability in Z-pinches. This threshold value of flow shear can be satisfied with a peak flow velocity which is less than the Alfven speed for wavelengths typically seen in Z-pinch plasmas. Nonlinear simulations support the stabilizing effect. The ZaP>ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project seeks to experimentally verify this theory by generating Z-pinch plasmas with an inherent axial flow. The experiment produces Z-pinch plasmas which are 50 cm in length by initiating the plasma with a one meter coaxial gun. The coaxial gun generates the axial plasma flows. After leaving the coaxial gun the plasma assembles along the axis to form a flow Z-pinch. Magnetic probes measure the acceleration and assembly process, as well as, the evolution of the azimuthal mode fluctuation level. Axial flow profiles are determined by measurements of the Doppler shifts of impurity lines. Time-dependent density measurements are made using a laser interferometer. Gross plasma motion is determined by using a fast framing camera to detect visible emission. Recent results show a period of diminished fluctuation level when the plasma flow velocity is large. An overview of the experimental program and results will be presented.

  16. The RhoA-Rok-Myosin II Pathway is Involved in Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Regulation of Prolactin Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jyun-Yi; Chen, Meng-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Wang, Jen-Hsing; Brackenbury, Lisa; Lin, Ting-Hui; Wu, Yi-Ying; Yang, Zhihong; Streuli, Charles H; Lee, Yi-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In mammary epithelial cells (MECs), prolactin-induced signaling and gene expression requires integrin-mediated cell adhesion to basement membrane (BM). In the absence of proper cell–BM interactions, for example, culturing cells on collagen-coated plastic dishes, signal propagation is substantially impaired. Here we demonstrate that the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway accounts for the ineffectiveness of prolactin signaling in MECs cultured on collagen I. Under these culture conditions, the RhoA pathway is activated, leading to downregulation of prolactin receptor expression and reduced prolactin signaling. Enforced activation of RhoA in MECs cultured on BM suppresses prolactin receptor levels, and prevents prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and β-casein expression. Overexpression of dominant negative RhoA in MECs cultured on collagen I, or inhibiting Rok activity, increases prolactin receptor expression, and enhances prolactin signaling. In addition, inhibition of myosin II ATPase activity by blebbistatin also exerts a beneficial effect on prolactin receptor expression and prolactin signaling, suggesting that tension exerted by the collagen substratum, in collaboration with the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway, contributes to the failure of prolactin signaling. Furthermore, MECs cultured on laminin-coated plastic have similar morphology and response to prolactin as those cultured on collagen I. They display high levels of RhoA activity and are inefficient in prolactin signaling, stressing the importance of matrix stiffness in signal transduction. Our results reveal that RhoA has a central role in determining the fate decisions of MECs in response to cell–matrix interactions. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 1553–1560, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21678418

  17. Probing the infiltrating character of brain tumors: inhibition of RhoA/ROK-mediated CD44 cell surface shedding from glioma cells by the green tea catechin EGCg.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Borhane; Bouzeghrane, Mounia; Moumdjian, Robert; Moghrabi, Albert; Béliveau, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Glioma cell-surface binding to hyaluronan (HA), a major constituent of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, is regulated through a complex membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)/CD44/caveolin interaction that takes place at the leading edges of invading cells. In the present study, intracellular transduction pathways required for the HA-mediated recognition by infiltrating glioma cells in brain was investigated. We show that the overexpression of the GTPase RhoA up-regulated MT1-MMP expression and triggered CD44 shedding from the U-87 glioma cell surface. This potential implication in cerebral metastatic processes was also observed in cells overexpressing the full-length recombinant MT1-MMP, while the overexpression of a cytoplasmic domain truncated from of MT1-MMP failed to do so. This suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP transduces intracellular signaling leading to RhoA-mediated CD44 shedding. Treatment of glioma cells with the Rho-kinase (ROK) inhibitor Y27632, or with EGCg, a green tea catechin with anti-MMP and anti-angiogenesis activities, antagonized both RhoA- and MT1-MMP-induced CD44 shedding. Conversely, overexpression of recombinant ROK stimulated CD44 release. Taken together, our results suggest that RhoA/ROK intracellular signaling regulates MT1-MMP-mediated CD44 recognition of HA. These molecular processes may partly explain the diffuse brain-infiltrating character of glioma cells within the surrounding parenchyma and thus be a target for new approaches to anti-tumor therapy.

  18. [Collation between Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang and Xin Xiu Ben Cao].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Jiang, Li-Sheng; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-10-01

    To analyze specific content of Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang, this essay compares its content with related content of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, finding that Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang is derived from the part of Jin An of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, which complements with herbal chapters from volume II to IV of Qian Jin Yi Fang. The texts in Za Liao can verify and collate part of Jin An, and thereby showing important literature value and great help for further studies on traditional Chinese medicines of Tang dynasty.

  19. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Johnson, Matthew C; Dattolo, Maria D; Young-Erdos, Crystal L; Stroupe, M Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed "helicases," their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked.

  20. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Dattolo, Maria D.; Young-Erdos, Crystal L.; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed “helicases,” their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked. PMID:27280440

  1. Microstructure and Tensile Behaviour of B4C Reinforced ZA43 Alloy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaveesh, B.; Halesh, G. M.; Nagaral, Madeva; Mohan Kumar, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    The work is carried out to investigate and study the mechanical properties of B4C reinforced ZA43 alloy metal matrix composites. In the present work ZA43 alloy is taken as the base matrix and B4C particulates as reinforcement material to prepare metal matrix composites by stir casting method. For metal matrix composites the reinforcement material was varied from 0 to 6 wt.% in steps of 3 wt.%. For each composite, the reinforcement particulates were preheated to a temperature of 300°C and dispersed into a vortex of molten ZA43 alloy. The microstructural characterization was done using scanning electron microscope. Mechanical properties like hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength were evaluated as per ASTM standards. Further, scanning electron microphotographs revealed that there was uniform distribution of B4C particulates in ZA43 alloy matrix. Hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength increased as wt.% of B4C increased in the base matrix.

  2. Why Baby Why: Howard Broomfield's Documentation of the Dunne-za Soundscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridington, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Examines the acoustic environment and aural culture of the Dunne-za of northeastern British Columbia. Discusses the changing soundscape of a northern hunting people, techniques for recording and cataloging an ethnographic soundscape archive, and the use of audio actualities in producing ethnographic audio documentaries. (Author/SV)

  3. Sedimentation survey of Lago Loíza, Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, July 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Licha-Soler, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Loíza is a reservoir formed at the confluence of Río Gurabo and Río Grande de Loíza in the municipality of Trujillo Alto in central Puerto Rico, about 10 kilometers (km) north of the town of Caguas, about 9 km northwest of Gurabo, and about 3 km south of Trujillo Alto (fig. 1). The Carraizo Dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1953 as a water-supply reservoir for the San Juan Metropolitan area. The dam is a concrete gravity structure that is located in a shallow valley and has a gently sloping left abutment and steep right abutment. Non-overflow sections flank the spillway section. Waterways include an intake structure for the pumping station and power plant, sluiceways, a trash sluice, and a spillway. The reservoir was built to provide a storage capacity of 26.8 million cubic meters (Mm3) of water at the maximum pool elevation of 41.14 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl) for the Sergio Cuevas Filtration Plant that serves the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir has a drainage area of 538 square kilometers (km2) and receives an annual mean rainfall that ranges from 1,600 to 5,000 millimeters per year (mm/yr). The principal streams that drain into Lago Loíza are the Río Grande de Loíza, Río Gurabo, and Río Cañas. Two other rivers, the Río Bairoa and Río Cagüitas, discharge into the Río Grande de Loíza just before it enters the reservoir. The combined mean annual runoff of the Río Grande de Loíza and the Río Gurabo for the 1960–2009 period of record is 323 Mm3. Flow from these streams constitutes about 89 percent of the total mean annual inflow of 364 Mm3 to the reservoir (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009). Detailed information about Lago Loíza reservoir structures, historical sediment accumulation, and a dredge conducted in 1999 are available in Soler-López and Gómez-Gómez (2005). During July 8–15, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science

  4. The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian A.

    2013-12-31

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project is a project to extend the performance of the flow Z-pinch experiment at the University of Washington to investigate and isolate the relevant physics of the stabilizing effect of plasma flow. Experimental plasmas have exhibited an enhanced stability under certain operating parameters which generate a flow state (axial flows in Z-pinches and VH mode in tokamaks). Flow has also been suggested as the stabilizing mechanism in astrophysical jets.

  5. [The life and work of Zaíra Cintra Vidal].

    PubMed

    Lopes, G T; Caldas, N P; Lima, T C; Martingil, I C

    2001-01-01

    This is a social-historical study that aims at describing the trajectory of Zaíra Cintra Vidal, her participation in the Nursing School Rachel Haddock Lobo and in the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). The study is based on the concepts of symbolic power, habitus and symbolic struggle of Pierre Bourdieu. The primary sources are documents which were collected in the Documentation Center of Escola de Enfermagem Ana Neri (EEAN--Ana Neri School of Nursing) in the Federeal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and at the Memory Center of the Faculty of Nursing (FENF) in the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). The data was collected between August 2000 and April 2001 by means of document analysis script. The outcomes showed that Zaíra Cintra Vidal was born on 5 May 1903; graduated from the Nursing School of the National Public Health Department in 1926; studied and post-graduated in the United States from 1927 until 1929 and returned to Brazil in 1943. Zaíra Cintra Vidal was the founder of the Nursing School Rachel Haddock Lobo and was its first director for nine years. She also and took part in ABEn's Direction Board and in the Revista Anais de Enfermagem (Nursing Magazine).

  6. Effects on asylum seekers of ill treatment in Zaïre.

    PubMed Central

    Peel, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    To describe the health effects of the political system in Zaïre on asylum seekers seen at the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture a retrospective study was performed of the records of 92 asylum seekers from Zaïre who were seen for medical reports at the medical foundation in 1993 and 1994. Eighty one had been imprisoned; the others had been severely treated at home by the security services. Sixty six had been detained for up to one year. Prison conditions were invariably unsanitary, and food of poor quality when provided. All had been beaten on arrest, and all but two had been beaten repeatedly in prison. Nearly all the women and some of the men described sexual abuse. Almost all left prison through bribery or because a guard had a similar background. Seventy two asylum seekers had scarring, consider to be consistent with the history, and 70 were considered to have suffered persistent psychological damage. Asylum seekers from Zaïre will have health effects from experiences unimaginable to the ordinary Briton. An understanding of the background will help clinicians manage them. PMID:8611788

  7. Effects on asylum seekers of ill treatment in Zaïre.

    PubMed

    Peel, M R

    1996-02-03

    To describe the health effects of the political system in Zaïre on asylum seekers seen at the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture a retrospective study was performed of the records of 92 asylum seekers from Zaïre who were seen for medical reports at the medical foundation in 1993 and 1994. Eighty one had been imprisoned; the others had been severely treated at home by the security services. Sixty six had been detained for up to one year. Prison conditions were invariably unsanitary, and food of poor quality when provided. All had been beaten on arrest, and all but two had been beaten repeatedly in prison. Nearly all the women and some of the men described sexual abuse. Almost all left prison through bribery or because a guard had a similar background. Seventy two asylum seekers had scarring, consider to be consistent with the history, and 70 were considered to have suffered persistent psychological damage. Asylum seekers from Zaïre will have health effects from experiences unimaginable to the ordinary Briton. An understanding of the background will help clinicians manage them.

  8. Pak4 Is Required during Epithelial Polarity Remodeling through Regulating AJ Stability and Bazooka Retention at the ZA

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Rhian F.; Nunes de Almeida, Francisca; Vlassaks, Evi; Burden, Jemima J.; Pichaud, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of epithelial cells to assemble into sheets relies on their zonula adherens (ZA), a circumferential belt of adherens junction (AJ) material, which can be remodeled during development to shape organs. Here, we show that during ZA remodeling in a model neuroepithelial cell, the Cdc42 effector P21-activated kinase 4 (Pak4/Mbt) regulates AJ morphogenesis and stability through β-catenin (β-cat/Arm) phosphorylation. We find that β-catenin phosphorylation by Mbt, and associated AJ morphogenesis, is needed for the retention of the apical determinant Par3/Bazooka at the remodeling ZA. Importantly, this retention mechanism functions together with Par1-dependent lateral exclusion of Par3/Bazooka to regulate apical membrane differentiation. Our results reveal an important functional link between Pak4, AJ material morphogenesis, and polarity remodeling during organogenesis downstream of Par3. PMID:27052178

  9. Effect of molybdenum addition to ZA22 grain refined by titanium in the cast and after pressing by ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Al-Hunetti, N. S.; Eyal-Awwad, K. Y. S.

    2016-08-01

    Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing many industrial and engineering parts due to their attractive properties. The ZA22 has the extra advantage of possessing super plastic behavior within the temperature range from 350 to 375°C. The equal channel angular pressing, ECAP is a relatively recent manufacturing process by which heavy plastic deformation can be produced in materials resulting in grain refinement of its microstructure. It is, therefore, anticipated that if the ECAP process is applied to the ZA22 alloy after being grain refined by certain grain refiners may produce super plastic behavior in this alloy at room temperature, by this eliminating the heating process and its costs, hence widening its applications rendering it to be cost effective. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition at a rate of 0.1 % wt. to ZA22 grain refined by Ti on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after applying the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of Mo to ZA22 either in the nonrefined or the refined by Ti resulted in refining its structure being more refined in the latter. The ECAP process resulted in further refinement of its structure of the ZA22-Ti, ZA22-Mo and the ZA22-Ti-Mo alloys. Regarding the mechanical behavior, it was found that addition of Mo to ZA22 resulted in pronounced reduction of its mechanical strength presented by the following values of the flow stress at 20% strain: from 451 MPa to 346 MPa, whereas pronounced increase in case of Ti addition i.e. by 22.22% and only increase of 1.1% when Mo is added in the presence of Ti. However the Vickers hardness HV was increased by 5% in case of Ti addition and 2.5% increase in case of Mo addition. Finally it was concluded that super plastic behavior was obtained at room temperature by the addition of Mo and the ECAP process.

  10. The generalized Uhlenbeck-Goudsmit hypothesis: 'magnetic' Sa and 'electric' Za spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezić, Tomislav

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, the connection between the dipole moment tensor Dab and the spin four-tensor Sab is formulated in the form of the generalized Uhlenbeck-Goudsmit hypothesis, Dab=gSSab. It is also found that the spin four-tensor Sab can be decomposed into two 4-vectors, the usual 'space-space' intrinsic angular momentum Sa, which will be called 'magnetic' spin (mspin), and a new one, the 'time-space' intrinsic angular momentum Za, which will be called 'electric' spin (espin). Both spins are equally good physical quantities. Taking into account the generalized Uhlenbeck-Goudsmit hypothesis, the decomposition of Sab and the decomposition of Dab into the dipole moments ma and da, we find that an electric dipole moment (EDM) of a fundamental particle, as a four-dimensional (4D) geometric quantity, is determined by Za and not, as generally accepted, by the spin S as a 3-vector. Also it is shown that neither the T inversion nor the P inversion are good symmetries in the 4D spacetime. In this geometric approach, only the world parity W, Wxa=- xa, is well defined in the 4D spacetime. Some consequences for elementary particle theories and experiments that search for EDM are briefly discussed. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality. H Minkowski

  11. Influence of Refiner in ZA-12 Alloys During Centrifugal Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Shailesh, Rao A.; Jagath, M. C.; Channakeshavalu, K.

    2014-05-01

    The behavior of the molten melt plays a predominant role in determining the quality cast product. In continuous casting, addition of refiner 1% (Al+Ti+B2) onto the molten metal increases its mechanical properties as a result of the nucleation within the process. In this article, the effect of refiners in the centrifugal casting process was studied. Eutectic ZA-12 alloys were taken for our experiment and cast at various rotational speeds (400 rpm, 600 rpm, and 800 rpm) with and without the addition of refiners. Rather than increase in the solidification rate as in continuous casting, these refiners diminish the solidification rate, which in turn forms an irregular-shaped cast tube. The microstructure and hardness for the entire cast specimen were discussed finally.

  12. Effect of Ce melt treatment on solidification path of ZA8 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, R.; Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    The solidification path of ZA8 alloy with Ce addition was characterized using Newtonian technique of thermal analysis. The solidification events were determined using cooling curve and its first derivative curve. The microstructure and chemical composition of various phases in the alloy were studied using EDS, SEM and XRD techniques. It was found that the addition of Ce did not cause formation of new phases. However, it hinders the nucleation of stable β dendrites in the alloy. The presence of Ce promotes the eutectoid phase transformation and increases the hardness of the alloy. Latent heat of solidification and heat of eutectoid transformation were found to increase on Ce addition. The upward solidification of the alloy against Cu chill was analysed. Chilling had significant influence on solidification parameters, and caused refinement of the microstructure. The addition of Ce to the melt had no effect during chill casting of the alloy.

  13. Effect of copper addition at a rate of 4% weight on the machininability of ZA-21A1 cast alloy by CNC milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqawabah, S. M. A.; Zaid, A. I. O.

    2014-06-01

    Little work is published on the effect of copper addition to zinc-aluminium ZA-21Al alloy on its surface quality machined by milling. In this paper, the effect of copper addition at a rate 4 % weight to the ZA-21Al alloy on its hardness and surface quality is investigated. It was found that the addition of 4% Cu resulted in 18.3% enhancement in microhardness whereas the mechanical characteristics were reduced (softening) about 14.5% at 0.2% strain. It was found that the best surface finish for this alloy before copper addition ZA21 was achieved at a feed rate of 100 mm/min and 1.25 mm depth of cut whereas the best surface finish for ZA21-4% Cu was achieved at feed rate 250 mm/min, 1600 rpm cutting velocity and 1.25 mm depth of cut.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of Za'atar (Thymbra spicata) essential oils as natural antioxidant for stability of palm olein during deep-fat frying process.

    PubMed

    Maskan, Medeni; Horuz, Erhan

    2017-06-01

    The yield of Za'atar (Thymbra spicata) essential oils were found to be 2.5-3.4% at extraction process temperatures of 100-175 °C. The essential oils contained 79.5-86.2% carvacrol. Effects of BHT and Za'atar essential oil on stability of palm olein during deep-fat frying of potato slices were studied at 180 °C. Changes in peroxide, para-anisidine, iodine values, free fatty acid and color were determined. Za'atar essential oil and BHT reduced free fatty acid content of olein from 0.27 to 0.21% (oleic acid) after 50 frying cycles. Antioxidant addition did not change the peroxide value of oil. Frying decreased Hunter L value and increased a, b, and total color difference values of used oils. The P-anisidine value changed from 15 to 33 for control oil during frying. BHT and Za'atar essential oil reduced this value to 28. The iodine values of olein reduced from an initial value of 54.5 to 45, 49 and 49 for control, BHT and Za'atar essential oil added frying oils, respectively. Za'atar essential oils could be used for preserving palm olein during deep-fat frying process.

  15. Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weed, Jonathan Robert

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment investigates the stabilizing effect of sheared axial flows while scaling toward a high-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP > 100 GPa). Stabilizing flows may persist until viscous forces dissipate a sheared flow profile. Plasma viscosity is investigated by measuring scale lengths in turbulence intentionally introduced in the plasma flow. A boron nitride turbulence-tripping probe excites small scale length turbulence in the plasma, and fast framing optical cameras are used to study time-evolved turbulent structures and viscous dissipation. A Hadland Imacon 790 fast framing camera is modified for digital image capture, but features insufficient resolution to study turbulent structures. A Shimadzu HPV-X camera captures the evolution of turbulent structures with great spatial and temporal resolution, but is unable to resolve the anticipated Kolmogorov scale in ZaP-HD as predicted by a simplified pinch model.

  16. Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Flyash Reinforced ZA-27 Alloy Based Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Krishna, M.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the wear rate of ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with fly ash particles from 1 to 3 wt% in steps of 1 wt%. The compo-casting method has been used to fabricate the composites using Raichur fly ash of average size 3-5 microns. The wear specimens are tested under dry conditions using a pin-on-disc sliding wear testing machine with wear loads of 20-120 N in steps of 20 N, and the sliding distances in the range of 0.5 km to 2.5 km. The results indicate that the wear rate of the composites is less than that of the matrix alloy and it further decreases with the increase in fly ash content. However, the material loss in terms of wear rate and wear volume increases with the increase in load and sliding distance, both in the cases of composites and the matrix alloy. An increase in the applied load increases the wear severity by changing the wear mechanism from abrasion to particle-cracking induced delamination wear. It is found that with the increase in fly ash content, the wear resistance increases monotonically. The observations have been explained using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surfaces of the composites.

  17. Hot Deformation Behavior and Intrinsic Workability of Carbon Nanotube-Aluminum Reinforced ZA27 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Geng, Cong; Zhu, Yunke; Peng, Jinfeng; Xu, Junrui

    2017-03-01

    Using a controlled thermal simulator system, hybrid carbon nanotube-aluminum reinforced ZA27 composites were subjected to hot compression testing in the temperature range of 473-523 K with strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. Based on experimental results, a developed-flow stress model was established using a constitutive equation coupled with strain to describe strain softening arising from dynamic recrystallization. The intrinsic workability was further investigated by constructing three-dimensional (3D) processing maps aided by optical observations of microstructures. The 3D processing maps were constructed based on a dynamic model of materials to delineate variations in the efficiency of power dissipation and flow instability domains. The instability domains exhibited adiabatic shear band and flow localization, which need to be prevented during hot processing. The recommended domain is predicated to be within the temperature range 550-590 K and strain rate range 0.01-0.35 s-1. In this state, the main softening mechanism is dynamic recrystallization. The results from processing maps agree well with the microstructure observations.

  18. Hot Deformation Behavior and Intrinsic Workability of Carbon Nanotube-Aluminum Reinforced ZA27 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Geng, Cong; Zhu, Yunke; Peng, Jinfeng; Xu, Junrui

    2017-04-01

    Using a controlled thermal simulator system, hybrid carbon nanotube-aluminum reinforced ZA27 composites were subjected to hot compression testing in the temperature range of 473-523 K with strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. Based on experimental results, a developed-flow stress model was established using a constitutive equation coupled with strain to describe strain softening arising from dynamic recrystallization. The intrinsic workability was further investigated by constructing three-dimensional (3D) processing maps aided by optical observations of microstructures. The 3D processing maps were constructed based on a dynamic model of materials to delineate variations in the efficiency of power dissipation and flow instability domains. The instability domains exhibited adiabatic shear band and flow localization, which need to be prevented during hot processing. The recommended domain is predicated to be within the temperature range 550-590 K and strain rate range 0.01-0.35 s-1. In this state, the main softening mechanism is dynamic recrystallization. The results from processing maps agree well with the microstructure observations.

  19. The Chloroplast Tubulin Homologs FtsZA and FtsZB from the Red Alga Galdieria sulphuraria Co-assemble into Dynamic Filaments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaodong; Porter, Katie; Osawa, Masaki; Augustus, Anne Marie; Milam, Sara L; Joshi, Chandra; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Erickson, Harold P

    2017-03-31

    FtsZ is a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin and is present in almost all bacteria and many archaea, where it is the major cytoskeletal protein in the Z ring, required for cell division. Unlike some other cell organelles of prokaryotic origin, chloroplasts have retained FtsZ as an essential component of the division machinery. However, chloroplast FtsZs have been challenging to study because they are difficult to express and purify. To this end, we have used a FATT tag expression system to produce as soluble proteins the two chloroplast FtsZs from Galdieria sulphuraria, a thermophilic red alga. GsFtsZA and GsFtsZB assembled individually in the presence of GTP, forming large bundles of protofilaments. GsFtsZA also assembled in the presence of GDP, the first member of the FtsZ/tubulin superfamily to do so. Mixtures of GsFtsZA and GsFtsZB assembled protofilament bundles and hydrolyzed GTP at a rate approximately equal to the sum of their individual rates, suggesting a random co-assembly. GsFtsZA assembly by itself in limiting GTP gave polymers that remained stable for a prolonged time. However, when GsFtsZB was added, the co-polymers disassembled with enhanced kinetics, suggesting that the GsFtsZB regulates and enhances disassembly dynamics. GsFtsZA-mts (where mts is a membrane-targeting amphipathic helix) formed Z ring-like helices when expressed in Escherichia coli Co-expression of GsFtsZB (without an mts) gave co-assembly of both into similar helices. In summary, we provide biochemical evidence that GsFtsZA assembles as the primary scaffold of the chloroplast Z ring and that GsFtsZB co-assembly enhances polymer disassembly and dynamics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The ROK Army’s Role When North Korea Collapses Without a War with the ROK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    zone, the Mt. Kumgang tourism project and sales of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Internationally, the North has established diplomatic... tourism project, and the possible further establishment of new special economic zones in the vicinity of Haeju, Nampo, and Wonson. These attempts have...Kumgang Tourism project.16 Recent reports suggest that North Korea is coming out of the bottom of the curve.17 However, the North Korean regime can

  1. Assessing Global Transcriptome Changes in Response to South African Cassava Mosaic Virus [ZA-99] Infection in Susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Erica J.; Rey, M. E. Chrissie

    2013-01-01

    In susceptible plant hosts, co-evolution has favoured viral strategies to evade host defenses and utilize resources to their own benefit. The degree of manipulation of host gene expression is dependent on host-virus specificity and certain abiotic factors. In order to gain insight into global transcriptome changes for a geminivirus pathosystem, South African cassava mosaic virus [ZA:99] and Arabidopsis thaliana, 4×44K Agilent microarrays were adopted. After normalization, a log2 fold change filtering of data (p<0.05) identified 1,743 differentially expressed genes in apical leaf tissue. A significant increase in differential gene expression over time correlated with an increase in SACMV accumulation, as virus copies were 5-fold higher at 24 dpi and 6-fold higher at 36 dpi than at 14 dpi. Many altered transcripts were primarily involved in stress and defense responses, phytohormone signalling pathways, cellular transport, cell-cycle regulation, transcription, oxidation-reduction, and other metabolic processes. Only forty-one genes (2.3%) were shown to be continuously expressed across the infection period, indicating that the majority of genes were transient and unique to a particular time point during infection. A significant number of pathogen-responsive genes were suppressed during the late stages of pathogenesis, while during active systemic infection (14 to 24 dpi), there was an increase in up-regulated genes in several GO functional categories. An adaptive response was initiated to divert energy from growth-related processes to defense, leading to disruption of normal biological host processes. Similarities in cell-cycle regulation correlated between SACMV and Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV), but differences were also evident. Differences in gene expression between the two geminiviruses clearly demonstrated that, while some global transcriptome responses are generally common in plant virus infections, temporal host-specific interactions are required for

  2. Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi Region (République du Zaïre).

    PubMed

    Casimir, M J

    1975-01-01

    An eastern gorilla group of the Mt. Kahuzi region (République du Zaïre) was studied over 15 months. Its migration route was determined, and the various biotopes it visited are described. A record was made of its main food plants, and of the plant parts eaten. For nine important food plants the protein content, the concentration of the individual amino acids and the water content were measured for the plant parts eaten and for those not eaten. For some of these plant parts the Na, K, Ca and Mg content were also determined. No general correlation between food selection and one or several of these factors could be found. The development and value of a traditionally determined mixed diet is discussed.

  3. Characterization of a Novel Fibrinolytic Enzyme, BsfA, from Bacillus subtilis ZA400 in Kimchi Reveals Its Pertinence to Thrombosis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Min-Ju; Ku, Hye-Jin; Lee, Se-Hui; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2015-12-28

    Recently, the cardiovascular disease has been widely problematic in humans probably due to fibrin formation via the unbalanced Western style diet. Although direct (human plasmin) and indirect methods (plasminogen activators) have been available, bacterial enzyme methods have been studied because of their cheap and mass production. To detect a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme, 111 bacterial strains with fibrinolytic activity were selected from kimchi. Among them, 14 strains were selected because of their stronger activity than 0.02 U of plasmin. Their 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Bacillus, Leuconostoc, Propionibacterium, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Bifidobacterium. The strain B. subtilis ZA400, with the highest fibrinolytic activity, was selected and the gene encoding fibrinolytic enzyme (bsfA) was cloned and expressed in the E. coli overexpression system. The purified enzyme was analyzed with SDS-PAGE, western blot, and MALDI-TOF analyses, showing to be 28.4 kDa. Subsequently, the BsfA was characterized to be stable under various stress conditions such as temperature (4-40°C), metal ions (Mn(2+), Ca(2+), K(2+), and Mg(2+)), and inhibitors (EDTA and SDS), suggesting that BsfA could be a good candidate for development of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme for thrombosis treatment and may even be useful as a new bacterial starter for manufacturing functional fermented foods.

  4. The ROKS Nomogram for Predicting a Second Symptomatic Stone Episode

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Li, Xujian; Melton, L. Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E.; Bergstralh, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. PMID:25104803

  5. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Wartime OPCON Transition and the ROK-U.S. Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting...Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized...same basic values of liberal democracy and a market economy. The two countries raised their level of cooperation in various areas based on these

  7. Charting a Path Toward a Sustainable ROK Space Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Fostering the Electronics Company . a. Promotion Act The Electronics Industry Promotion Act was established on Jan 28, 1969 for the first time ...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching...ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii

  8. Centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc alloy and composite A356/silicon carbide: Study and modeling of phases' and particles' segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balout, Bahaa

    Centrifugation is a casting technology that allows the production of cylindrical and graduated parts with different mechanical properties through the section. The need for materials with good quality and specific mechanical properties has been driven this technology in order to produce different types of materials such as zinc alloys and graduated metal matrix composites reinforced by hard and wear resistant particles. The goal of this research project is to study and model the eutectic macrosegregation, the solidification speed, and the speeds of solidification fronts during centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc-aluminum alloy in order to improve the part quality and increase its strength and field reliability. Moreover, the segregation of the particles during centrifugal casting of an aluminum matrix composite reinforced by silicon carbide particles (A356/SiC) is also studied to improve and control the graduation of the parts. The cooling rate, the speed, acceleration/deceleration, displacement, and segregation of the particles across the section will be modeled by discretization of Stokes' law in time in order to take into consideration the change in the centrifugal radius and melt viscosity during cooling process. This study will allow the control of the graduation degree of particles across the section in order to improve the properties and wear resistance of the composite. This composite can be used in systems where friction is critical and load is high (reinforcements of parts for the cylinders of pneumatic systems). The results show that the maximum macrosegregation zone of the eutectic across the casting section corresponds to the last point of solidification. The eutectic macrosegregation produced during centrifugal casting of thin walled part is a normal segregation which varies depending on the solidification speed and the ratio between the speeds of solidification fronts. On the other hand, it was found that the position and volume fraction of the particles

  9. Investigating the compatibility of the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea IK726 with prodigiosin-producing Serratia rubidaea S55 and phenazine-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis ToZa7.

    PubMed

    Kamou, Nathalie N; Dubey, Mukesh; Tzelepis, Georgios; Menexes, Georgios; Papadakis, Emmanouil N; Karlsson, Magnus; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Jensen, Dan Funck

    2016-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess the compatibility of the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea IK726 with the phenazine-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis ToZa7 or with the prodigiosin-producing Serratia rubidaea S55 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. The pathogen was inhibited by both strains in vitro, whereas C. rosea displayed high tolerance to S. rubidaea but not to P. chlororaphis. We hypothesized that this could be attributed to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. The results of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR showed an induction of seven genes (abcB1, abcB20, abcB26, abcC12, abcC12, abcG8 and abcG25) from subfamilies B, C and G. In planta experiments showed a significant reduction in foot and root rot on tomato plants inoculated with C. rosea and P. chlororaphis. This study demonstrates the potential for combining different biocontrol agents and suggests an involvement of ABC transporters in secondary metabolite tolerance in C. rosea.

  10. The Balancer Policy Reviewed from the Perspective of the ROK-U.S. Alliance: Toward a Mature ROK-U.S. Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    constituencies. See Dr. William Perry, “Comprehensive Commenting Remarks,” Alliance Tomorrow Workshop Proceedings, GFRS, December 6, 1998. 83 Kim Dong- shin ...arisen since the end of the Cold War if it is to become more than the simple 86 Kim Byung -kook, “The U.S...wung, “Recent Anti- Americanism in South Korea,” Asian Survey 29, no. 3 (1989): 749–63; Shin Gi-wook, “South Korean Anti-Americanism: A Comparative

  11. Zakon za srednoto obrazovanie (Secondary Education Act).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the Macedonian Secondary Education Act of 1970. Secondary Education is an integral part of the consolidated system of education and training. All citizens have an equal right to acquire the knowledge and skills they need in any type of secondary level institution.…

  12. Oo-Za-We-Kwun Centre Incorporated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, P. R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Centre is described as being designed to help native people participate more effectively in a modern Canadian environment. The residential family program includes a five-week Life Skills course followed by a two-year transfer of learning period during which counseling, paid employment, and community activities are available. (Author/MS)

  13. Zakon za srednoto obrazovanie (Secondary Education Act).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the Macedonian Secondary Education Act of 1970. Secondary Education is an integral part of the consolidated system of education and training. All citizens have an equal right to acquire the knowledge and skills they need in any type of secondary level institution.…

  14. The 2015 Transition of Wartime Operational Control: A Threat or Opportunity for the ROK /US Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    effects in regional stability. In other words, as Matthew J. Jordan pointed out, multilateral efforts will complement and not supplant established...operations. 46Matthew J. Jordan , “Multilateralism in North East Asia” (Master’s Naval War College...dismantling DPRK’s nuclear program. The impetus for these talks emerged in 2003 when the DPRK revealed its uranium enrichment program. This enrichment

  15. Workshop Report: The Future of ROK Navy-US Navy Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0605154N 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER R0148 McDevitt, Michael 50. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) S . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Center for Naval Analyses REPORT NUMBER 4825 Mark Center Drive DOO16788.A l Alexandria, VA...22311 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESSES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) US Fleet Forces Command 1562 Mitscher Ave Norfolk VA 23551

  16. Democratic Consolidation and Comparative Political Perspective on the 2002 Presidential Election in the ROK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    combining presidential system with legislature where no single party has majority status is a kiss of death.”52 According to Giovanni Sartori , the...Cheibub and Limongi, “What Makes Democracies Endure?” p. 46. 53 Giovanni Sartori , Parties and Party Systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  17. ROK-U.S. Security Relations: The China Factor and a Turning Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    the unified Silla kingdom, China established the traditional priorities of its Korea policy based on sinocentrism . First, China wanted to maintain...the status quo in the Korean peninsula under the sinocentric tributary system. In other words, China wanted a stable Korean regime that was...friendly but not strong enough to challenge the sinocentric order. Second, China tried to sustain its dominance on the Korean peninsula. While China

  18. Feasibility of Implementing an All-Volunteer Force for the ROK Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    pushing for automation and outsourcing . Aside from downsizing or streamlining, Korean firms are increasingly reluctant to hire new workers, given the...56 Samsung Economic Research Institute, “Korea Economic Trends,” Vol. 12, No.1, 2007, p. 14. 57 Ibid., p. 15. 48...KIDA paper No. 9, March 2005. Rostker, Bernard D., I Want You! The Evolution of the All-Volunteer Force, Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2006. Samsung

  19. ROK (Republic of Korea)-US (United States) Military Relations: Transition of Defense Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-23

    Korea," The Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 41, No. 1, Summer/Fall 1987, p. 82. 22. Kwang Soo Choi , "The Situation on the Korean Peninsula and in...Daily Report, East Asia, (herein refered to as FBIS-EAS), 3 January 1989, p. 31. Original source KYONGHYANG SINMUN, 1 January 1989, p. 10. 39. Suk Bok Lee

  20. Application of Multidimensional Data Visualization by Means of Self-Organizing Kohonen Maps to Evaluate Classification Possibilities of Various Coal Types / Zastosowanie Wizualizacji Wielowymiarowych Danych Za Pomocą Sieci Kohonena Do Oceny Możliwości Klasyfikacji Różnych Typów Węgla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Dariusz; Niedoba, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Multidimensional data visualization methods are a modern tool allowing to classify some analysed objects. In the case of grained materials e.g. coal, many characteristics have an influence on the material quality. The paper presents the possibility of applying visualization techniques for coal type identification and determination of significant differences between various types of coal. To achieve this purpose, the method of Kohonen maps was applied by means of which three types of coal - 31, 34.2 and 35 (according to Polish classification of coal types) were investigated. It was stated that the applied methodology allows to identify certain coal types efficiently and can be used as a qualitative criterion for grained materials. Metody wizualizacji wielowymiarowych danych są nowoczesnym narzędziem umożliwającym klasyfikację analizowanych obiektów, którymi mogą być różnego typu dane opisujące wybrane zjawisko lub materiał. W przypadku materiałów uziarnionych, jakim jest np. węgiel, wiele cech ma wpływ na jakość materiału, tj. np. gęstość, wielkość ziaren, ciepło spalania, zawartość popiołu, zawartość siarki itp. Na potrzeby artykułu przeprowadzono rozdział węgli z trzech wybranych kopalni węgla kamiennego, zlokalizowanych w Górnośląskim Okręgu Przemysłowym. Każda z tych kopalni pracuje na innego typu węglu. W tym przypadku były to węgle o typach 31, 34.2 oraz 35 (według polskiej klasyfikacji typów węgla). Najpierw, materiał został podzielony na klasy ziarnowe a następnie za pomocą rozdziale w cieczy ciężkiej (roztwór chlorku cynku) na frakcje gęstościowe. Dla tak przygotowanego materiału przeprowadzono następnie analizy chemiczne mające na celu określenie takich parametrów, jak zawartość siarki, zawartość popiołu, zawartość części lotnych, ciepło spalania oraz wilgotność analityczną. W ten sposób, dla każdej klaso-frakcji uzyskano bogate charakterystyki badanego

  1. Hoengsong, ROK AFS K46, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-10

    64.3 65.2 65.9 65.9 66.2 66.3 66.3 66.3 66.3 66.3 66. 66. 66. 66.500 ISo : 11] 6 1 6.51 7:3 8:11 8 1 68.4 68.5 68.5] 68.51 68.5 68.5.6. 685 68. 68."J A...76.9 77.0 786 78.7 78. 79.N 79.8 79.8 80. 80. 80. 80. 1 iso 6.5 64.r 7C.3 75*0 78.5 78.6 80.3 80.5 80.5 81.5 81.6 81. 81. 81. 82. 82. a 1500 6.5 66.1... 22000 1.9 56. 58.6 60.7 62.C 62.5 63.1 63.1 63.1 63.3 63.3 63.3 63.4 63.4 63. 63. 18000o 1.9 56.C 58.6 60.7 62.2 62.7 63.3 63.3 63.3 63.4 63.4 63.4 63.5

  2. The Relationship Between U.S. Military Spending and the Cohesion of the Rok-U.S. Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering...RESEARCH QUESTION China’s power in Asia has risen dramatically since 2002. In response , U.S. policy has emphasized a Pivot to Asia (or Rebalancing...alliance cohesion as the extent of the security policy corporation within the countries of an alliance.46 To measure the cohesion, he suggested

  3. US-ROK Action Sheet 34: Safeguards Application of a Hand-held Mechanically Cooled Germanium Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, J.; Burks, M.; Ham, Y.; Kwak, S.

    2015-10-20

    This report summarizes results of Action Sheet 34 - for the cooperative efforts on the field testing and evaluation of a high-resolution, hand-held, gamma-ray spectrometer, known as SPG (Spectroscopic Planar Germanium), for safeguards application such as short notice inspections, UF6 analysis, enrichment determination, and other potential applications. The Spectroscopic Planar Germanium (SPG) has been demonstrated IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) in South Korea. This field test was a success and the feedback provided by KINAC, IAEA, and national laboratory staff was used to direct efforts to improve the instrument this year. Key points in this report include measurement results from PIV, analysis of spectra with commercially available Ortec U235 and PC-FRAM, and completion of tripod and tungsten collimator and integration of user feedback.

  4. Multinational Force Integration: The ROK Army’s Integration With The US Army In The Vietnam War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    organized and trained two new army groups under the AEF, totaling over two million troops, before committing American forces ...2014), 4-1, 4-12, 4-13. The corps HQ is organized, trained , and equipped to serve as the Army Forces in campaigns and major operations, with command of...were able to form national governments and have trained and equipped security forces . However, the conflicts are still too recent as for the time of

  5. Report on the Second KIMS-CNA Conference: The PLA Navys Build-Up and ROK-USN Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    strategy” which does not neglect relations with China. For reasons of geography, history, culture and growing economic connections our ROKN...their relationship with China since it is China that is perpetuating the North Korean regime by its economic and political support. Other ROKN... economic interests Increasing the PLAN’s priority for modernization Weighing a potential strategic transition from “offshore” to “open ocean

  6. RhoA/ROK pathway related to the mechanism of higher susceptibility to spasm in RA than in IMA.

    PubMed

    Kun, Xia; Lefeng, Wang; Rongjing, Ding; Xincun, Yang

    2009-01-01

    By investigating the expression and function of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in the radial artery (RA), internal mammary artery (IMA), and great saphenous vein (GSV), this study aimed to elucidate the mechanism for a higher susceptibility of spasm in the RA and provide an effective drug candidate to prevent and treat RA spasm. RA, IMA, and GSV that would otherwise have been discarded were collected from 25 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Eleven matched rings of RA, IMA, and GSV were used to evaluate the vasodilatory properties of 10(-7-)10(-4) mol/l of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, by using in vitro organ chambers. Another 14 matched RA, IMA, and GSV were used to demonstrate the immunohistochemistry (IHC) of RhoA and mRNA of RhoA and Rho kinase. The maximal vasodilation of RA to fasudil was significantly greater than IMA. RhoA protein IHC staining was different in IMA, RA, and GSV (RA > GSV >IMA). The expression of RhoA and Rho kinase mRNA in the RA was significantly greater than in the IMA. The expression of RhoA/Rho kinase mRNA and protein and function in the RA were significantly stronger than in the IMA, suggesting that RhoA/Rho kinase pathway may be one mechanism by which RA is more susceptible to spasm than IMA. Rho kinase inhibitors can be effective drug candidates to prevent and treat vasospasm.

  7. Chinae, ROK AFS K-10, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-10

    34 . T2 A . : . . . . T .I’-.E (S ! . I . . A ._-" ., " ," . . . " ("L .- 2 i* * - * . ,. - . . S IF ......... MEA ..2 .’ TP ] ?RC C *C 2• . .. .:.. . , C...FVILLE. N. C. 2e,01 43?-78 Ch[NNhAE KCREA/ PCV AFS K-1 51-54956-61,64-C7 _ ’___ PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE L-- 7. (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS

  8. Cooperative Security in Northeast Asia: Ramifications of Change in the U.S. and ROK Maritime Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    acquisition of the Philippines stemmed from the unexpected outcome of the Spanish -American War. In the end, “the war with Spain annihilated the arguments...Northeast Asia, Navy, Maritime, Naval History , Naval Strategy, Naval Security 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified...Admiral Yi Sun-shin, the great figure of Korean naval history , repelled the Japanese invasions of the peninsula in the 1590’s due to his invention of

  9. U.S. FMS (Foreign Military Sales) and ROK (Republic of Korea) Economic Acquisition of Weapon Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    30 2.6 Channels of Request--All Other Foreign Military Sales.6 ................. 31 2.7 Flow of Funds. 9...Tok. COP f ]VO CfOu SeaP ’Govt. Ushum,’ * SOM4ty Ibm-wŜ ka O&Met Ihawn Tw A K I I wat GeV "e Cal PcAW A ’NII Der."a J Gala.. DSAA, Dfn. U SOuatW LA...qualitative increases in flows into these areas. [Ref. 13: pp.2-3] Lastly, in the mid-1980s commercial arms sales began to rival the long- dominant security

  10. Changgai Gap, ROK AFB K-3, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-02-23

    99.5 99.5 99.6 99.6 S- 1200 172 WD19 9900 9972 9973 9973 99.5 9 197 1975 9. r 975 99f 5 99.5 99.6 99.6 1 000 1.2 98.9 99.2 99.2 99.3 99.3 99.5 99.5 99.5...98.2 98.7 98.7 98.7 99.0 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.2 . 700 Y ° -37 .V 771 17 9a.6 9a.6 99.1 997l 991 9973 99.6 9 97.6’ 1997 .96 99.6 96 > 600 35.2...99.3 99.8 99.8 99.8 00.0 00.I0 00.0100.0 4 00 24 90) 992 0 5 4 9 . 9973 911 9 99.8 I9. 99o8 U87O7iO .GICO,7 * 2oo 2.4 90.8 94.2 95.9 9804 90.4 99.3

  11. ROK AFS, Kwandae-ri, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-15

    99.6 99.2 99. 99. 99. 99. 1 500 7.0 95.8 96.9 97.8 98.7 98.7 99.3 99.3 99.5 99.8 99.9 99*6 CC. CC. 00qC0i,. 00 7.0 95 8 96 9 97.8 98.7 9807 99.3 99.5...39.8 4C. 1 40 .5 40.8 4C.8 4C.9 4-?IF9 4C.9 41.9 40 .9 4’.9 41.C 41.C 4 1.01 4 1 :0 -12000 2.4 6, 42.9 43.4 43 443 . 7 43 .81 43 8 43. 43 8 43.8 3.8 43...SAFET Kor.- .... FcAir orce t v -’,n en- ,: ’ c h r : . . i Ap.il Center[Scott", UAr e -T-. 1 9 Apr, 68 Scott 1 ZL" 2 K A?’ ~d :.Uic*jv~. ist-Ŗ tior n

  12. A Case Analysis Explaining the Main Factors that Contribute to ROK’s Decision Making in Procurement of Defense Articles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    competitiveness by 2010. The increasing number of weapon systems imported from foreign countries results in a weakened South Korea’s R&D and military industry ...foreign countries if circumstances allow. To do this, DAPA will strengthen competitiveness in the defense industry and will join academic institutions...licies in prove motion is ilitary ctive 21 strengthening the defense technology and the competitiveness of the defense industry are as

  13. Military Authoritarian Regimes and Economic Development: The ROK’s Economic Take-Off Under Park Chung Hee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    compensation. This compensation was used as important funding for South Korea’s economic 69 Byung Chul ...the Korean Peninsula. New York: Praeger, 1977. Koh, Byung Chul . The Foreign Policy Systems of North and South Korea. Berkeley: University of...important role in the process of modernization through manpower 13 Stephan Haggard, Byung -kook Kim

  14. Plexin-B1 and Semaphorin 4D Cooperate to Promote Perineural Invasion in a RhoA/ROK-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Binmadi, Nada O.; Yang, Ying-Hua; Zhou, Hua; Proia, Patrizia; Lin, Yi-Ling; Batista De Paula, Alfredo M.; Sena Guimarães, André L.; Poswar, Fabiano O.; Sundararajan, Devaki; Basile, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is a tropism of tumor cells for nerve bundles located in the surrounding stroma. It is a pathological feature observed in certain tumors, referred to as neurotropic malignancies, that severely limits the ability to establish local control of disease and results in pain, recurrent growth, and distant metastases. Despite the importance of PNI as a prognostic indicator, its biological mechanisms are poorly understood. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, compose a family of proteins originally shown to be important in nerve cell adhesion, axon migration, and proper central nervous system development. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that these factors are expressed in tissues outside of the nervous system and represent a widespread signal transduction system that is involved in the regulation of motility and adhesion in different cell types. We believe that the plexins and semaphorins, which are strongly expressed in both axons and many carcinomas, play a role in PNI. In this study, we show that plexin-B1 is overexpressed in tissues and cell lines from neurotropic malignancies and is attracted to nerves that express its ligand, semaphorin 4D, in a Rho/Rho kinase-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that nerves are attracted to tumors through this same system of proteins, suggesting that both plexin-B1 and semaphorin 4D are important in the promotion of PNI. PMID:22252234

  15. The Impact of Changes in Dominant U.S. Threat Perception on the Cohesion of the U.S.-ROK Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office...Assistance Service Fund MLSA Mutual Logistics Support Agreement MND Ministry of Defense MOU Memorandum of Understanding NPT Nuclear Non...strengthened because of China’s rapid economic growth . Based on strong economic power, China has pursued political status matching its economic

  16. Press Freedom in the Republic of Korea: Coping with the Authoritarian Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salwen, Michael B.

    To examine press freedom in the Republic of Korea (ROK, South Korea) and the role the ROK's press plays as the advantages of democracy and authoritarianism are being publicly debated, this paper looks back at where the ROK has been in terms of its social and political freedoms and where it is going in its attempts to break from its authoritarian…

  17. Life Skills Manual = Les Practiques d'une Vie Saine = Mwongozo wa Stadi za Maisha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Kathleen

    The Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange makes available its information resources to other organizations. This document, made available in English, French, and Swahili, is one such resource. The focus of this document is a comprehensive behavior change approach that concentrates on the development of skills needed for life, such as…

  18. Russkij jazyk za rubezom. Jahrgang 1974 ("The Russian Language Abroad." Volume 1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Wolfgang

    1975-01-01

    Articles in the 1974 volume of this periodical are briefly reviewed, preponderantly under the headings of teaching materials, methodology, linguistics, scientific reports, and chronicle. Reviews and supplements, tapes and other materials are also included. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. Bulgarski ezik za dobrovoltsi ot Korpusa na mira (Bulgarian Language for Peace Corps Volunteers. Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Aneta; Tomova, Christina; Tasseva, Mila

    This workbook and class guide for basic-to-intermediate Bulgarian provides a communicative orientation to the language. With its emphasis on social situations and everyday language, the book includes vocabulary, dialogs, discussion topics, and cultural-historical background information about Bulgaria. (CNP)

  20. Habari Za Kiswahili: The History of Swahili Instruction at the K-12 Level in Madison, Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    Since the enactment of the 1958 National Defense Education Act, funded universities have provided African language instruction at the postsecondary level. With an increased interest in the less commonly taught languages (LCT) demonstrated by the 1988 Foreign Language Assistance Act, several African Studies Center universities provide instruction…

  1. Life Skills Manual = Les Practiques d'une Vie Saine = Mwongozo wa Stadi za Maisha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Kathleen

    The Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange makes available its information resources to other organizations. This document, made available in English, French, and Swahili, is one such resource. The focus of this document is a comprehensive behavior change approach that concentrates on the development of skills needed for life, such as…

  2. Bulgarski ezik za dobrovoltsi ot Korpusa na mira (Bulgarian Language for Peace Corps Volunteers. Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Aneta; Tomova, Christina; Tasseva, Mila

    Designed for continued language learning beyond the intermediate level, this workbook provides practice and sets of exercises for improving speaking and listening skills in Bulgarian through class participation and discussion, and reading and writing. The book includes grammar explanations, news reports, brief biographies of prominent Bulgarians,…

  3. Everyday Physical Activity of Students in Nyíregyháza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fintor, János Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of physical education lessons has already been demonstrated by a lot of essays, however, it has also been revealed that this popularity, as well as the frequency of doing sports, tends to decrease at later ages of life. Pursuing sports has a positive effect on academic performance. Introducing PE as an everyday lesson at schools was…

  4. Optical Tomography of the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the Abel inversion through the use of linear algebra and a numerical methods program such as MATLAB. The Abel inversion follows the general equation Le...θ, where e0 (r) = { r3 for 0 < r ≤ 0.5 (1− r)3 for 0.5 < r ≤ 1.0 . 29 linear algebra routine as the one-dimensional case allows for the generation of...algorithm, the two-dimensional profile lends itself to matrix computation and linear algebra . Rewriting equation 3.15 so that each shell 30 profile e (r) = e0

  5. Everyday Physical Activity of Students in Nyíregyháza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fintor, János Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of physical education lessons has already been demonstrated by a lot of essays, however, it has also been revealed that this popularity, as well as the frequency of doing sports, tends to decrease at later ages of life. Pursuing sports has a positive effect on academic performance. Introducing PE as an everyday lesson at schools was…

  6. Report on the KIMS-CNA Conference (2nd): The PLA Navy’s Build-Up and ROK-USN Cooperation, Held in Seoul, Korea on 20 November 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    China. For reasons of geography, history, culture and growing economic connections our ROKN panelists argued that the most important strategic...perpetuating the North Korean regime by its economic and political support. Other ROKN Concerns About China The ROKN has specific concerns about the PLAN...important maritime and overseas economic interests > Increasing the PLAN’s priority for modernization > Weighing a potential strategic transition from

  7. Transcription of Two Adjacent Carbohydrate Utilization Gene Clusters in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 Is Controlled by LacI- and Repressor Open Reading Frame Kinase (ROK)-Type Regulators

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Kerry Joan; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Liedtke, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Zomer, Aldert

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of mammals, including humans, where their growth is presumed to be dependent on various diet- and/or host-derived carbohydrates. To understand transcriptional control of bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism, we investigated two genetic carbohydrate utilization clusters dedicated to the metabolism of raffinose-type sugars and melezitose. Transcriptomic and gene inactivation approaches revealed that the raffinose utilization system is positively regulated by an activator protein, designated RafR. The gene cluster associated with melezitose metabolism was shown to be subject to direct negative control by a LacI-type transcriptional regulator, designated MelR1, in addition to apparent indirect negative control by means of a second LacI-type regulator, MelR2. In silico analysis, DNA-protein interaction, and primer extension studies revealed the MelR1 and MelR2 operator sequences, each of which is positioned just upstream of or overlapping the correspondingly regulated promoter sequences. Similar analyses identified the RafR binding operator sequence located upstream of the rafB promoter. This study indicates that transcriptional control of gene clusters involved in carbohydrate metabolism in bifidobacteria is subject to conserved regulatory systems, representing either positive or negative control. PMID:24705323

  8. Primary School Teacher's Need for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajncic, Antonija Milivojevic

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and social changes in Slovenia, especially the formation of an independent country, adoption of the new constitution and implementation of a multi-party political system have caused changes in the education system as well ("Bela knjiga o vzgoji in izobrazevanju v Republiki Sloveniji," 1996, p. 5). Razdevsek Pucek (1997)…

  9. Mathematics Curriculum Guide for Serbocroatian-Speaking Students, Levels A, B, C, Field Test. Working Draft = Uputstvo Za Planiranje Nastave Matematike Za Ucenike koji Govore Srpskohrvatski Jezik, Stepeni A, B, C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The introductory level curriculum guide for bilingual education for Serbocroatian-speaking children in the Chicago public schools is divided into three difficulty levels and is designed to facilitate acquisition of mathematical concepts by presenting them in the children's native language. At each level, the concepts covered include the meaning of…

  10. Strategic Flexibility to Deter in the Asia Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    region— Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK)—and consider modifi- cations in the regional force structure that offer persistent presence but without...key allies like Japan and the ROK.7 Assuring allies has risen in importance for the United States of late because partners and potential adversaries...coupled to a strong US- Japan -ROK defense agreement and a force structure less tied to precise responses to specific threats, the dissuasive effects

  11. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  12. Dobro Dosli U Sjedinjene Drzave. Prirucnik za Izbjeglice. (Welcome to the United States. A Guidebook for Refugees).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This guidebook provides Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies, refugees overseas who have been approved for U.S. admission,…

  13. Use of EBSD to study electropulsing induced reverse phase transformations in a Zn-Al alloy (ZA22).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y H; To, S; Liu, X M

    2011-04-01

    Multi-phase identification and phase transformations in electropulsing treated Zn-Al based alloy wire specimens were studied using electron back-scattered diffraction, back-scattered scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. By using electron back-scattered diffraction, two phases: η'(S) and η'(T) with a small difference of about 1% in lattice parameters (c(0)/a(0) ) were identified, based on the determined lattice parameters of the phases, and the reverse eutectoid phase transformations: η'(T) +ɛ'(T) +α'(T) →η'(S) and ɛ+α→T'+η were successfully detected. Electron back-scattered diffraction appeared to be an effective technique for studying complex electropulsing induced phase transformations. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. [Transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus from a pediatric to adult diabetes clinic - problems, challenges and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Modrzyńska, Katarzyna; Szadkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Cukrzyca typu 1 jest chorobą przewlekłą, związaną z ryzykiem wystąpienia ostrych i przewlekłych powikłań. Pacjenci wymagają zatem stałej kontroli w poradni specjalistycznej niezależnie od swojego wieku, a zaprzestanie opieki diabetologicznej skutkuje pogorszeniem wyrównania metabolicznego cukrzycy i wcześniejszym rozwojem jej przewlekłych powikłań. Kiedy dziecko dorasta i osiąga 18 rok życia, musi przejść spod opieki poradni pediatrycznej pod opiekę poradni internistycznej. Jest to bardzo ważny moment w życiu młodego pacjenta. Jeśli proces przejścia zostanie dobrze zaplanowany, może pomóc młodym dorosłym w samodzielnym życiu z cukrzycą. W pracy przedstawiono różnice między opieką pediatryczną i internistyczną oraz czynniki wpływające na wyrównanie cukrzycy w okresie zmiany poradni. Ponadto opisano wdrażane w innych krajach programy ułatwiające młodym osobom z cukrzycą proces transmisji. Zaprezentowano również zalecenia różnych towarzystw naukowych dotyczące przygotowania i organizacji procesu przejścia, aby mógł on przebiegać w sposób optymalny i nie wiązał się z pogorszeniem kontroli metabolicznej cukrzycy.Skróty: DMT1 – cukrzyca typu 1, HbA1c – hemoglobina glikowana, PTD – Polskie Towarzystwo Diabetologiczne, ADA – Amerykańskie Towarzystwo Diabetologiczne, SEARCH – SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, NICE – National Institute for Excellence.

  15. Climate Change Education and Education for Sustainable Development in the Republic of Korea: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has officially declared its national vision of green growth, and actively develops and implements policies related to education for sustainable development (ESD), green growth education (GGE) and climate change education (CCE). Over the Decade of ESD, the ROK experienced three administrations which have taken different…

  16. Evaluation of infectivity, virulence and transmission of FDMV field strains of serotypes O and A isolated in 2010 from outbreaks in the Republic of Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been described in several previously FMD-free Asian nations, including the Republic of Korea (ROK). One outbreak with FMD virus (FDMV) serotype A and two with serotype O occurred in ROK in 2010/2011. The causative viruses belong t...

  17. United Nations Command Armistice Roles on the Korean Peninsula: Is December 2015 the End?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    Commission MC Military Committee ix MCM Military Committee Meeting MDL Military Demarcation Line MND Ministry of National Defense MNF ...The ROK JCS will take a key role to lead a multinational force ( MNF ) by establishing MNF HQ led by a ROK General. The ambiguity of the command

  18. Climate Change Education and Education for Sustainable Development in the Republic of Korea: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has officially declared its national vision of green growth, and actively develops and implements policies related to education for sustainable development (ESD), green growth education (GGE) and climate change education (CCE). Over the Decade of ESD, the ROK experienced three administrations which have taken different…

  19. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    PubMed

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  20. Introduction of the Republic of Korea–the United States of America's Joint Exercise Against Biothreats in 2013: Able Response 13

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Sun; Oh, Dong Whan; Jo, Hyun Jung; Chu, Chaeshin

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) and the the United States of America (USA) has held joint exercises to respond to biothreats in the Korean Peninsula since 2011. The exercise was called Able Response (AR) and it aims to coordinate interministerial procedures inside Korea and international procedures in requesting the medical resources urgently between ROK and USA, and among ROK and the United Nations, and nongovernmental organizations. AR13 was a functional exercise with a scenario that presumed a series of attack by terrorists, dispersing Bacillus anthracis in Seoul. The participants conducted exercises with action cells and using point-to-point communication system. It was followed by Senior Leadership Seminar participated by high-ranking officials in ROK and USA to discuss possible collaboration in advance. AR and its following actions will fortify collaboration between ROK and USA and enhance the capability of countermeasures against biothreats in Korea. PMID:24298445

  1. United States - Republic of Korea security relations: Policy/strategy for the future. Executive summary report, March-June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kristick, D.M.

    1990-06-01

    US domestic budget difficulties, and growing East Asian economics might now require the US to change its relationship with South Korea. The ROK's growing global stature, its economic vitality, and military strength indicate it is ready to take a more pronounced role in its own self-defense. US-ROK relations must become more reciprocal, giving the ROK more decision-sharing opportunities. The Nunn-Warner report does not go far enough in prescribing a US strategy toward East Asia in the next century. US must take a more active role in diplomatic initiatives aimed at reducing tensions in East Asia, specifically the Korean peninsula. The US and the ROK should be developing combined strategies to deal with an eventual Korean unification. These two allies should also begin developing arms control strategies for the Korean peninsula. US should facilitate better ROK-Japan security relations. US should maintain diligence in Korea until North Korea opens.

  2. Intercultural Education: Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Conference=Obrazovanje za interkulturalizam: Zbornik radova S.2 Medunarodne znanstvene konferencije

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peko, Andelka, Ed.; Sablic, Marija, Ed.; Jindra, Ranka, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The democratic changes that occurred in Croatia within last two decades are oriented towards European values and multi-intercultural perspectives. Let us remember that, according to the census from 1991, Croatia was inhabited with people from 27 nations, with Croats being a majority. During the Homeland war, basically a defensive war against the…

  3. Intercultural Education: The Position of Roma in Education=Obrazovanje za interkulturalizam: Položaj Roma u odgoju i obrazovanju

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlinarevic, Vesnica, Ed.; Brust Nemet, Maja, Ed.; Bushati, Jozef, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Faculty of Educational Sciences has recognized the importance of education for interculturalism, and it organizes the conference entitled "Education for interculturalism" every five years, so that all participants could gain new insights about interculturalism and strengthen their intercultural competencies. Modern interculturalism, as a…

  4. SPEED AND VOLTAGE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES WITH THE AID OF THYRYSTORS (TRANSISTORS) (REGULACJA PREDKOSCI I NAPIECIA W MASZYNACH ELECTROYCZNYCH ZA POMOCQ TYRYSTOROW),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of a system for automatic control of voltage and current of a three-phase rectifier using SCRs and its application to the control of speed of a DC ... motor with external excitation are considered. The relative advantages of using either semiconductor devices or magnetic devices in rectifier control

  5. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... ones to see which helps. Products with benzoyl peroxide (say: BEN-zoil peh - ROK - side) or salicylic ( ... are usually pretty helpful for treating acne. Benzoyl peroxide kills the bacteria that can lead to acne ...

  6. Korean Affairs Report No. 286

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-08

    mand to surrender independence and self -reliance—the basic factors for the settlement of the question of the nation—was the expression of his sinister...Color TV 92 ROK-Bangladesh Convention 92 Canadian Chief of Defense Staff 92 Minister Supports Palestinian Autonomy 92 FOREIGN TRADE ROK...specific example, the puppet North Korea proclaimed a semi-war state, ordered the entire armed forces to enter into a combat state and has purchased a

  7. The United States-Republic of Korea Alliance: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    current term of service ranges from twenty-one months for the ROK Army and Marines to twenty-four months for the ROK Air Force. Young women are...percent of North Korea’s population, approximately 8.7 million people, mostly young children, pregnant and nursing women and the elderly were in...War. In July 1969, President Nixon articulated a policy of nonintervention. Central to this new policy, referred to as the Nixon Doctrine, was the

  8. Anopheles belenrae, a Potential Vector of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    study confirmed that An. belenrae was infected by P. vivax, and implicated this species as a potential vector of vivax malaria in the ROK. KEY WORDS...Yamada are considered the primary vectors of Plasmodium vivax Grassi and Feletti malaria , while An. sinensis Wiedemann is a secondary vector (Lee et al...lesteri are very low, its role in malaria transmission in the ROK is questionable. We collected about 7,000 adult anopheline mosquitoes by New Jersey light

  9. A Cost Analysis for Deciding Service Levels in Korean Army with a Constraint for Single Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    LEVELS IN KOREAN ARMY WITH A CONSTRAINT FOR SINGLE PERIOD by Yoo, Choong Keun Major, Republic of Korea Army B.S., Korea Military Academy, 1981...Sciences ABSTRACT Since the Korean War there has been a fierce military competition between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s...Republic of Korea (DPRK). The DPRK has committed over 10 percent of its GNP since 1963 to defense expenditures, whereas, the ROK has spent a relatively

  10. Korean War Logistics, The First One Hundred Days, 25 June 1950 to 2 October 1950

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-16

    delay along the 38th Parallel with subsequent defensive lines along the Ban, Taejon and Andong Rivers. Once the North Koreans attacked, ROK Army...officers soon realized that they had insufficient time to implement their defensive plan due to the swift, tank led, North Korean thrust. The ROK Army was...North Korean attack and asked the United States to appoint the commander for United Nations forces and form a unified command to repel aggression in Korea

  11. The Key to Stability on the Korean Peninsula - United States, Japan and China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    US diplomatic, defense , and economic efforts on the Korean 7 Peninsula rest. Our treaty commitment and the presence of US troops in South Korea help...the Korean people and ROK service members. —Kim Dae-jung President, Republic of Korea , 1998-2003 Mutual Defense Treaty To deter the North... Korean threat of attack, the Republic of Korea entered into a defense alliance with the United States. This was formalized when the “ROK-US Mutual

  12. The Origin of the United States Security Commitment to the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    to end or even significantly change them. In much the same manner as the administration, the bureaucracy can acquire a stake in the commitment as a...of the struggle between the US and the USSR and between democracy and Cornunism. As this view has changed over the years, as the Cold War has ebbed and...flowed, the perceived utility of the security commitment to the ROK has changed also. By contrast, the ROK has been constantly confronted with a

  13. The Lynchpin Grapples with Frustration and Distrust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Gromoll ROK speaker: Byung -Se Yun 12:30 Lunch 13:45 Session 3: Domestic politics: transition and the deterrent Here we explore the impact of...contingency? What are its implications for the extended deterrent and the alliance? US speaker: Van Jackson ROK speaker: Shin Beomchul 12:30 Lunch...Studies Yonsei University Mr. Rhee Sang Woo President New Asia Research Institute Dr. Shin Beomchul Director, North Korea Studies

  14. [The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.

  15. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy.

  16. Treatment of chemical warfare agent casualties: retention of knowledge and self-perceived competency among military physicians and paramedics.

    PubMed

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Statlender, Liran; Abu-Tailakh, Muhammad; Plakht, Ygal; Shrot, Shai; Kassirer, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Specialized training of medical teams for chemical warfare agent (CWA) events is important to save lives. We aimed to evaluate the retention of knowledge (ROK) and self-perceived competency (SPC) of military medical personnel in delivering treatment during CWA events. A questionnaire and a multiple-choice examination were sent to military physicians and paramedics, evaluating their CWA, ROK, and SPC (study group [SG]). Their assessment was compared to medical personnel immediately post training (reference group [RG]). SG was subdivided into two groups: G1 ≤ 1 year and G2 > 1 year, past training. Overall, 135 participants responded (35-RG, 65% physicians). Self-reported ROK and SPC were significantly higher in RG compared to SG and in G1 compared to G2. Test scores were higher in RG compared to SG, but similar in G1 and G2 groups. SPC was lower compared to ROK in the entire cohort and subgroups. A moderate correlation was found between the self-and test-assessed scores (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.45, p < 0.001). Physicians received significantly (p = 0.01) higher test scores in RG compared with paramedics. ROK and SPC among military medical personnel for treatment of CWA casualties deteriorate significantly as early as 1 year post training, SPC > ROK. Thus, we recommend CWA refresher training at least every year. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Inhibition of Rho-kinase abrogates migration of human transitional cell carcinoma cells: results of an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    vom Dorp, Frank; Sanders, Harald; Boergermann, Christof; Lümmen, Gerd; Rübben, Herbert; Jakobs, Karl H; Schmidt, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Migration of cells involves a complex signaling network. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the impact of Rho-kinase (ROK) on G protein-coupled receptor-induced migration of human transitional cell carcinoma cells in an in vitro experimental setting. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured with the indicator dye Fura-2 in response to lysophosphatidic acid, thrombin and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Phospholipase C activity was determined in myo-[(3)H]inositol- (0.5 μCi/ml) labeled cells. Migration was performed using a Boyden chamber. Transient transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of ROK was done with calcium phosphate. For staining of actin filaments, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-conjugated phalloidin was used. Lysophosphatidic acid, thrombin and sphingosine-1-phosphate cause increases in [Ca(2+)](i), cellular responses being accompanied by an enhancement of phospholipase C activity and sensitive to the G(i) inhibitor pertussis toxin. Agonists potently stimulated migration of T24 and J82 cells. Inhibition of Rho proteins by Clostridium difficile toxin B abrogated cell migration. Inhibition of ROK using HA1077 and Y-27632 mimicked the properties of toxin B. Expression of a ROK mutant drastically reduced migration. G protein-coupled receptors potently stimulated cell migration in T24 and J82 cells. Rho proteins and ROK play a pivotal role in this signaling cascade. Rho and ROK may be putative targets for new therapy options in bladder cancer. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. JPRS Report, East Europe, Reference Aid, Abbreviations in the Yugoslav Press.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    institute instr. instrument instrument INSl Institut za naucna sumarska istraSivanja Forestry Research Institute INT Institut " Nikola Tesla " Nikola ... Tesla Institute INTDI Institut za naucnotehnicku dokumentaciju i informacije (Beograd) Institute for Scientific and Technical Documentation

  19. How to Prune Trees, Jinsi Kupogoa Mti, Swahili version

    Treesearch

    Peter Bedker; Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke

    1995-01-01

    Utangulizi-Lengo la kupogoa miti ni kupata mimea yenye afya, nguvu, na ya kuvutia. Lengo hilo litafikiwa kwa kufuata taratibu za kupogoa, na kwa kuelewa namna gani, wakati gani, na sababu za kupogoa miti.

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis exacerbates the severity of osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in mice. A randomized, prospective, controlled animal study

    PubMed Central

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Hsu, Chingyun; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M.; Pirih, Flavia Q.; Soundia, Akrivoula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, results in persistent synovitis with severe bone and cartilage destruction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often utilized in RA patients to reduce bone destruction and manage osteoporosis. However, BPs, especially at high doses, are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models, we are exploring interactions between RA and ONJ incidence and severity. DBA1/J-mice were divided in 4 groups: control, zoledronic acid (ZA), collagen induced arthritis (CIA), and CIA-ZA. Animals were pre-treated with vehicle or ZA. Bovine collagen II emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant was injected to induce arthritis (CIA) and the mandibular molar crowns were drilled to induce periapical disease. Vehicle or ZA treatment continued for 8-weeks. ONJ indices were measured by micro-CT and histological examination of maxillae and mandibles. Arthritis development was assessed by visual scoring of paw swelling, and by micro-CT and histology of interphalangeal and knee joints. Maxillae and mandibles of control and CIA mice showed bone loss, PDL space widening, lamina dura loss and cortex thinning. ZA prevented theses changes in both ZA and CIA-ZA groups. Epithelial to alveolar crest distance was increased in the control and CIA mice. This distance was preserved in ZA and CIA-ZA animals. Empty osteocytic lacunae and areas of osteonecrosis were present in ZA and CIA-ZA but more extensively in CIA-ZA animals, indicating more severe ONJ. CIA and CIA-ZA groups developed severe arthritis in the paws and knees. Interphalangeal and knee joints of CIA mice showed advanced bone destruction with cortical erosions and trabecular bone loss, and ZA treatment reduced these effects. Importantly, no osteonecrosis was noted adjacent to areas of articular inflammation in CIA-ZA mice. Our data suggest that ONJ burden was more pronounced in ZA treated CIA mice and that RA could be a risk factor for ONJ

  1. [Joining WHO of Republic of Korea and the projects in the 1950s].

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Ho

    2014-04-01

    The Republic of Korea(ROK) and the World Health Organization(WHO) have done many projects successfully from 1949, in which the government of First Republic joined the WHO. However the relation between the ROK and the WHO have not been studied very much so far. The main purpose of this research, which could be done by the support of WHO, is connected with three questions. First research point would be "how could the ROK joined WHO in 1949 and what's the meaning of it? And the what's the difference in the process for the WHO between the ROK of 1949 and the DPRK(Democratic People's Republic of Korea) of 1973?" The first president of the ROK, Rhee Syngman, who had received his Ph. D.(about international politics) from Princeton University in 1910, was strongly interested in joining international institutes like UN, WHO. The ROK that could join WHO on 17 August 1949, with the approval of Assembly on 25 May 1949, was one of the founder members of the Western Pacific Region. By joining WHO, the ROK could get chance to increase the level of public health and its administration in 1950's. But the DPRK manage to became a member of WHO on 19 May 1973 and joined the South-East Asia Region. The joining of DPRK was influenced by the easing of the cold war after the Nixon Doctrine and the joining of the China(People's Republic of China). Second research point would be "What kind of roll did the WHO take in the First Republic?" Yet the public health administration of the First Republic that had been made in the period of US army military government was been strongly influenced by USA, the roll of WHO was also important in the 1950's. Last research point would be "What kind of the projects did the ROK and the WHO take part in during the period of he First Republic? How could evaluate the results?" The ROK and the WHO handled the projects including health services, communicable disease prevention and control, control of noncommunicable diseases, and protection of health. Specially

  2. Seroconversion to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among U.S. Infantry Forces in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Eick-Cost, Angelia A.; Hu, Zheng; Klein, Terry A.; Putnak, Robert J.; Jarman, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is endemic in the Republic of Korea (ROK), posing a medical threat to more than 29,000 U.S. Forces military personnel currently deployed in the ROK. The objective of this study was to provide data on the risk of JEV exposure among U.S. Forces in the ROK. One thousand U.S. Army Soldiers were randomly selected for the study from the cohort of infantry Soldiers deployed in the ROK for a period of at least 330 days from 2008 to 2011. Pre- and post-deployment serum specimens were tested for the presence of JEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test. A total of 2/1,000 (0.2%) U.S. Army Soldiers post-deployment specimens tested positive for JEV antibody. Results from the pre-deployment specimens indicated one true seroconversion and one with titers suggestive of a JEV infection. These results indicate a low, but nonzero risk of JEV exposure among U.S. Army Soldiers in the ROK. PMID:26240157

  3. Seroconversion to Japanese Encephalitis Virus Among U.S. Infantry Forces in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eick-Cost, Angelia A; Hu, Zheng; Klein, Terry A; Putnak, Robert J; Jarman, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is endemic in the Republic of Korea (ROK), posing a medical threat to more than 29,000 U.S. Forces military personnel currently deployed in the ROK. The objective of this study was to provide data on the risk of JEV exposure among U.S. Forces in the ROK. One thousand U.S. Army Soldiers were randomly selected for the study from the cohort of infantry Soldiers deployed in the ROK for a period of at least 330 days from 2008 to 2011. Pre- and post-deployment serum specimens were tested for the presence of JEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test. A total of 2/1,000 (0.2%) U.S. Army Soldiers post-deployment specimens tested positive for JEV antibody. Results from the pre-deployment specimens indicated one true seroconversion and one with titers suggestive of a JEV infection. These results indicate a low, but nonzero risk of JEV exposure among U.S. Army Soldiers in the ROK. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. How Parallel Are Excited State Potential Energy Surfaces from Time-Independent and Time-Dependent DFT? A BODIPY Dye Case Study.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Keenan T; Kowalczyk, Tim

    2016-10-06

    To support the development and characterization of chromophores with targeted photophysical properties, excited-state electronic structure calculations should rapidly and accurately predict how derivatization of a chromophore will affect its excitation and emission energies. This paper examines whether a time-independent excited-state density functional theory (DFT) approach meets this need through a case study of BODIPY chromophore photophysics. A restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS) treatment of the S1 excited state of BODIPY dyes is contrasted with linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Vertical excitation energies predicted by the two approaches are remarkably different due to overestimation by TDDFT and underestimation by ROKS relative to experiment. Overall, ROKS with a standard hybrid functional provides the more accurate description of the S1 excited state of BODIPY dyes, but excitation energies computed by the two methods are strongly correlated. The two approaches also make similar predictions of shifts in the excitation energy upon functionalization of the chromophore. TDDFT and ROKS models of the S1 potential energy surface are then examined in detail for a representative BODIPY dye through molecular dynamics sampling on both model surfaces. We identify the most significant differences in the sampled surfaces and analyze these differences along selected normal modes. Differences between ROKS and TDDFT descriptions of the S1 potential energy surface for this BODIPY derivative highlight the continuing need for validation of widely used approximations in excited state DFT through experimental benchmarking and comparison to ab initio reference data.

  5. Key role of the RhoA/Rho kinase system in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michelle J; Aaronson, Philip I

    2011-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a general term comprising a spectrum of pulmonary hypertensive disorders which have in common an elevation of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). The prototypical form of the disease, termed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a rare but lethal syndrome with a complex aetiology characterised by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and progressive elevation of mPAP; patients generally die from heart failure. Current therapies are inadequate and median survival is less than three years. PH due to chronic hypoxia (CH) is a condition separate from PAH and is strongly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). An early event in the pathogenesis of this form of PH is hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), an acute homeostatic process that maintains the ventilation-perfusion ratio during alveolar hypoxia. The mechanisms underlying HPV remain controversial, but RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK)-mediated Ca²+-sensitisation is considered important. Increasing evidence also implicates RhoA/ROK in PASMC proliferation, inflammatory cell recruitment and the regulation of cell motility, all of which are involved in the pulmonary vascular remodelling occurring in all forms of PH. ROK is therefore a potential therapeutic target in treating PH of various aetiologies. Here, we examine current concepts regarding the aetiology of PAH and also PH due to CH, focusing on the contribution that RhoA/ROK-mediated processes may make to their development and on ROK inhibitors as potential therapies.

  6. Zoledronic acid therapy impacts risk and frequency of skeletal complications and follow-up duration in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hatoum, Hind T.; Lin, Swu-Jane; Guo, Amy; Lipton, Allan; Smith, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of timing and length of zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment on outcomes for patients with prostate cancer in clinical practice. Materials and methods Patients with prostate cancer and first bone metastasis diagnosed from January 2003 to October 2006 were included. Patients were considered ‘untreated’ if no ZA was given, ‘early ZA-treated’ if ZA was initiated before skeletal complication (SC) occurrence or ‘late ZA-treated’ if one or more SC was documented before or at ZA initiation. Patients were classified with short (≤90 days), medium (91–180 days) or long (>180 days) treatment persistence. Assessments included follow-up duration (FUP) and risk of developing one or more SC. Results Among eligible patients, 847 were untreated, 243 were early ZA-treated and 218 were late ZA-treated. For untreated versus early ZA-treated groups, median FUP was 263 versus 357 days (p<0.0001), respectively, and time to first SC was 199 versus 273 days (p<0.0001), respectively. ZA treatment was associated with significantly longer FUP and lower SC risk. The early ZA-treated group had significantly longer FUP versus the late ZA-treated group (median days, 357 vs. 299.5); the late ZA-treated group experienced significantly higher SC risk vs. the early ZA-treated group (odds ratio, 1.51). Compared with the long-persistence group, FUP was 56% and 40% shorter in the short and medium groups, respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusion Treatment with and early initiation of ZA for patients with prostate cancer and bone metastasis significantly prolonged time to and reduced risk of developing SC, while extending FUP. PMID:21083514

  7. Teriparatide and the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ersan, N; van Ruijven, L J; Bronckers, A L J J; Olgaç, V; İlgüy, D; Everts, V

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to establish a bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) rat model and to analyse the effects of teriparatide (TP) on this model. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: I—zoledronic acid (ZA, n = 10); II—ZA and teriparatide (ZA + TP, n = 10); III—control (n = 10). Osteonecrosis was induced by administering zoledronic acid to groups ZA and ZA + TP. A week after the injections, rats underwent extraction of the first left mandibular molar. Following a four week period, TP was administered to the ZA + TP group for 28 days. Upon killing, extraction sockets were examined clinically, radiologically and histopathologically. Results: Clinical examination revealed necrotic bone exposure in none of the animals. MicroCT (µCT) examination showed that bone mineral density of the newly formed bone in the extraction socket was lower in the ZA group than in the ZA + TP group (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that only the ZA and ZA + TP groups developed osteonecrosis, and the osteonecrotic bone area in the ZA group was larger than that in the ZA + TP group (p < 0.05). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP) enzyme histochemistry revealed that the number of detached and large osteoclasts were higher in the ZA group than in other groups, whereas the number of apoptotic osteoclasts in both ZA and ZA + TP groups were higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our data indicate that bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw model used in the present study is an attractive model to investigate treatment modalities and that TP might be an effective treatment in BRONJ. PMID:24170800

  8. Complete genome sequence of a novel zantedeschia mild mosaic virus isolate: the first report from Australia and from Alocasia sp.

    PubMed

    Kidanemariam, Dawit B; Abraham, Adane D; Sukal, Amit C; Holton, Timothy A; Dale, James L; James, Anthony P; Harding, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    The complete genome of an Australian isolate of zantedeschia mild mosaic virus (ZaMMV) causing mosaic symptoms on Alocasia sp. (designated ZaMMV-AU) was cloned and sequenced. The genome comprises 9942 nucleotides (excluding the poly-A tail) and encodes a polyprotein of 3167 amino acids. The sequence is most closely related to a previously reported ZaMMV isolate from Taiwan (ZaMMV-TW), with 82 and 86 % identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Unlike the amino acid sequence of ZaMMV-TW, however, ZaMMV-AU does not contain a polyglutamine stretch at the N-terminus of the coat-protein-coding region upstream of the DAG motif. This is the first report of ZaMMV from Australia and from Alocasia sp.

  9. Strategy for cryptanalysis of optical encryption in the Fresnel domain.

    PubMed

    Situ, Guohai; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-01-20

    Traditionally, cryptanalysis of optical security systems attempts to find original keys. Usually, by use of this kind of method, one can find a set of keys located close to the original keys in the key space. We call such a set the region of original key (ROK). For an optical encryption system in the Fresnel domain, such a strategy is ineffective since it needs to perform an exhaustive search to determine the system geometry or to solve an extremely large set of system equations. We propose to employ an alternative search strategy: to find a region of possible key (RPK). Since there is only one ROK for a cypher system but there are many RPKs, the probability to find a key in the RPK would be higher than in the ROK. Our analysis reveals that even a Fresnel-based encryption system has larger key space, but there are also serious security problems to be resolved.

  10. Reinforcement of Existing Cast-Iron Structural Elements by Means of Fiber Reinforced Composites / Wzmacnianie Istniejących, Żeliwnych Elementów Konstrukcyjnych za Pomocą Włóknokompozytów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinowski, Jakub; Różycki, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The paperdeals with tubular, cast-iron columns which should be reinforced due to the planned new structural function of these elements. According to the requirements of the monument conservator the general appearance of columns should not be altered significantly. Reinforcement with an external, thin coating (sleeve or jacket) made of composite (carbon fibre reinforced polymer - CFRP) was proposed. Details of the proposedtechniquewerepresented. The reinforcementeffect was verifiedin destructivetestsperformed on two columns without reinforcement and the two other columns reinforced with the chosentechnique. Due to the expected very high load capacity of the axially loaded column, the test rig was designed in such a manner that the force could be applied on big eccentricity. For this purpose a specialbase was prepared(comp. Fig. 1). Destructivetests have confirmed the high effectiveness of the adopted strengthening technique.

  11. Relation of Health Condition and Quality of Life: Examination of the Quality of Life of the Disadvantaged Population in Nyíregyháza by the FT Quality of Life Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jávorné-Erdei, Renáta; Takács, Péter; Fábián, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Improving the health of the population, stopping and changing the disadvantage trends have long been one of the health policy objectives in the regions. Unfortunately, in spite of the declared goals Hungary is far away from giving priority to health issues as they are not given proper attention either on individual or societal level. In modern…

  12. Transient states of air parameters after a stoppage and re-start of the main fan / Stany przejściowe parametrów powietrza po postoju i załączeniu wentylatora głównego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Stanisław

    2012-12-01

    A stoppage of the main ventilation fan constitutes a disturbance of ventilation conditions of a deepmine and its effects can cause serious hazards by generating transient states of air and gas flow. Main ventilation fans are the basic deep-mine facilities; therefore, under mining regulations it is only allowed to stop them with the consent and under the conditions specified by the mine maintenance manager. The stoppage of the main ventilation fan may be accompanied by transient air parameters, including the air pressure and flow patterns. There is even the likelihood of reversing the direction of air flow, which, in case of methane mines, can pose a major hazard, particularly in sections of the mine with fire fields or large goaf areas. At the same time, stoppages of deep-mine main ventilation fans create interesting research conditions, which if conducted under the supervision of the monitoring systems, can provide much information about the transient processes of pressure, air and gas flow in underground workings. This article is a discussion of air parameter observations in mine workings made as part of such experiments. It also presents the procedure of the experiments, conducted in three mines. They involved the observation of transient processes of mine air parameters, and most interestingly, the recording of pressure and air and gas flow in the workings of the mine ventilation networks by mine monitoring systems and using specialist recording instruments. In mining practice, both in Poland and elsewhere, software tools and computer modelling methods are used to try and reproduce the conditions prior to and during disasters based on the existing network model and monitoring system data. The use of these tools to simulate the alternatives of combating and liquidation of the gas-fire hazard after its occurrence is an important issue. Measurement data collected during the experiments provides interesting research material for the verification and validation of the software tools used for the simulation of processes occurring in deep-mine ventilation systems.

  13. Relation of Health Condition and Quality of Life: Examination of the Quality of Life of the Disadvantaged Population in Nyíregyháza by the FT Quality of Life Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jávorné-Erdei, Renáta; Takács, Péter; Fábián, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Improving the health of the population, stopping and changing the disadvantage trends have long been one of the health policy objectives in the regions. Unfortunately, in spite of the declared goals Hungary is far away from giving priority to health issues as they are not given proper attention either on individual or societal level. In modern…

  14. The role of major donors in health aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

  15. Rho-kinase Controls Cell Shape Changes during Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, Gilles R.X.; Echard, Arnaud; O’Farrell, Patrick H.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background: Animal cell cytokinesis is characterized by a sequence of dramatic cortical rearrangements. How these are coordinated and coupled with mitosis is largely unknown. To explore the initiation of cytokinesis, we focused on the earliest cell shape change, cell elongation, which occurs during anaphase B and prior to cytokinetic furrowing. Results: Using RNAi and live video microscopy in Drosophila S2 cells, we implicate Rho-kinase (Rok) and myosin II in anaphase cell elongation. rok RNAi decreased equatorial myosin II recruitment, prevented cell elongation, and caused a remarkable spindle defect where the spindle poles collided with an unyielding cell cortex and the interpolar microtubules buckled outward as they continued to extend. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with Latrunculin A, which abolishes cortical rigidity, suppressed the spindle defect. rok RNAi also affected furrowing, which was delayed and slowed, sometimes distorted, and in severe cases blocked altogether. Co-depletion of the myosin binding subunit (Mbs) of myosin phosphatase, an antagonist of myosin II activation, only partially suppressed the cell-elongation defect and the furrowing delay, but prevented cytokinesis failures induced by prolonged rok RNAi. The marked sensitivity of cell elongation to Rok depletion was highlighted by RNAi to other genes in the Rho pathway, such as pebble, racGAP50C, and diaphanous, which had profound effects on furrowing but lesser effects on elongation. Conclusions: We show that cortical changes underlying cell elongation are more sensitive to depletion of Rok and myosin II, in comparison to other regulators of cytokinesis, and suggest that a distinct regulatory pathway promotes cell elongation. PMID:16488869

  16. Further Evidence of Increasing Diversity of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Zo, Young-Gun; Ji, So-Young; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; To, Sheren; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated from the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the late 1970s but re-emerged in 1993. Two decades later as the ROK enters the final stages of malaria elimination, dedicated surveillance of the local P. vivax population is critical. We apply a population genetic approach to gauge P. vivax transmission dynamics in the ROK between 2010 and 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax positive blood samples from 98 autochthonous cases were collected from patients attending health centers in the ROK in 2010 (n = 27), 2011 (n = 48) and 2012 (n = 23). Parasite genotyping was undertaken at 9 tandem repeat markers. Although not reaching significance, a trend of increasing population diversity was observed from 2010 (HE = 0.50 ± 0.11) to 2011 (HE = 0.56 ± 0.08) and 2012 (HE = 0.60 ± 0.06). Conversely, linkage disequilibrium declined during the same period: IAS = 0.15 in 2010 (P = 0.010), 0.09 in 2011 (P = 0.010) and 0.05 in 2012 (P = 0.010). In combination with data from other ROK studies undertaken between 1994 and 2007, our results are consistent with increasing parasite divergence since re-emergence. Polyclonal infections were rare (3% infections) suggesting that local out-crossing alone was unlikely to explain the increased divergence. Cases introduced from an external reservoir may therefore have contributed to the increased diversity. Aside from one isolate, all infections carried a short MS20 allele (142 or 149 bp), not observed in other studies in tropical endemic countries despite high diversity, inferring that these regions are unlikely reservoirs. Conclusions Whilst a number of factors may explain the observed population genetic trends, the available evidence suggests that an external geographic reservoir with moderate diversity sustains the majority of P. vivax infection in the ROK, with important implications for malaria elimination. PMID:26990869

  17. The Role of Major Donors in Health Aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y.; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases. PMID:23766869

  18. E-Unification of Koreas: Dreams, Plans and Realities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Acclaim among Animation Film Fan in Europe,” The People’s Korea website, December 2001 Some of these projects have been joint ventures with ROK...12, 2000; “First animation project planned by South, North Korea,” The Korea Herald, Seoul, ROK, February 3, 2001; “Firm to produce animation with...someone takes away its pizza or remote control” was launched on May 5, 2001, Children’s Day in both Koreas. It is a joint project between the

  19. Military Exercises in Korea: A Provocation or a Deterrent to War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-13

    Review 30, No. 4 (Winter 2004): 280-282. 7 General Ri Chan Bok , a DPRK military leader, said during an interview with 60 Minutes correspondent Dan...infantry brigade. 66 James J. Przystup and Kang Choi , “The U.S.-ROK Alliance: Building a Mature Partnership,” INSS Special Report, (Washington, DC...Alliance. Cambridge, MA: The Institute of Foreign Policy Analysis, Aug 2003. Przystup, James J. and Kang Choi . “The U.S.-ROK Alliance: Building a

  20. Influence of sodium aluminosilicate, hydroxy-sodalite, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate on performance of commercial Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Roland, D A; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M

    1991-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if the high ion-exchange capacity of sodium aluminosilicate (ZA) marketed as ETHACAL Feed Component or its aluminum content or both are related to the beneficial effect of ZA on egg specific gravity (ESG). In Experiments 1 and 2, ZA was compared with hydroxy-sodalite (HS) and carnegieite, which have the same chemical formula as ZA but little or no ion-exchange capacity. Two levels of ZA (0 and 1.5% of the diet) and three levels of HS (0, .75, and 1.5%) were fed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, 0, .75, and 1.5% of ZA and carnegieite were fed. In Experiment 3, ZA, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate were fed at levels calculated to contain .148 and .101% aluminum. Criteria evaluated were ESG, egg production, feed consumption, and egg weight. Egg specific gravity was significantly improved by ZA in all experiments and was not affected by HS, carnegieite (Experiments 1 and 2), aluminum sulfate (.148% Al), or aluminum phosphate (Experiment 3). Carnegieite and aluminum (.101%) from aluminum sulfate increased ESG in Experiment 3. In Experiments 1 and 3, egg production and feed consumption were not influenced by various treatments. Carnegieite and ZA reduced egg production and feed consumption in Experiment 2. It was concluded that the ion-exchange capacity and aluminum content of ZA may contribute to its beneficial effect on ESG.

  1. Realignment of the Army Government Purchase Card Program in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    17  c.  Data Mining ............................................................................17  d.  Risk Assessment ...Purchase Card On-line System PCPMO Purchase Card Program Management Office RA Risk Assessment RM resource manager ROK Republic of Korea SCCS...coding process that identifies the type of business a merchant provides. A few examples of blocked merchants are antique shops, casinos , escort services

  2. Senior Leadership: Succession Effects on Organizational Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    Baseball ....................................................................... 12 M. Craig Brown: Head Coach Succession in National Football League ( NFL ...Least Square MLB Major League Baseball NFL National Football League NKPA North Korean People’s Army PRC People’s Republic of China ROK Republic of...National Football League ( NFL )16 In 1982, M. Craig Brown wrote an article in Administrative Science Quarterly further exploring the arguments made by

  3. Distribution and Larval Habitats of Anopheles Species in Northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    tray (25 x 20 x 4 cm) (BioQuip...alcohol or reared to the adult stage and mounted on paper points in accordance with standard practices (Tanaka et al. 1979, Lee 1998, Rueda et al...ROK. Mosquito populations are also impacted by winter survival, as overwintering adults and/or eggs impact on initial

  4. Dynamic Circulation and Genetic Exchange of a Shrew-borne Hantavirus, Imjin virus, in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jin Il; Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011–2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses. PMID:28295052

  5. Information Technology Revolution in the Republic of Korea: Socio Economic Development Issues and Policy Making Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    NASDAQ. An early effort to promote ICT-oriented capital markets, the ROK established KOSDAQ in 1996 as an alternate exchange for new startup...companies. Although KOSDAQ was hit hard only a year later during the Asian financial crisis, the volume of KOSDAQ presently exceeds that of the Korean

  6. Intelligent Educational Dialogue Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    grammar (Rumelharl, 19 75), simplified by using assumptions such as that an algorithm is selected either because its properties meet a goal’s...Sciences Co. Communication Satellite Applications 7600 Old Springhouse Rd. McLean VA 22101 1 Dr. Diane M. Ramsey- Klee ROK Research t System

  7. Agreed Framework and KEDO: The role of the United States in Korean security

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, A.J.

    1999-06-01

    The US is moving from a leading security guarantor of the ROK to a mediator of the Korean dispute. The US should understand this fundamental change and adjust its relationship with the ROK and the DPRK to maintain the possibility of Korean reunification. The Agreed Framework is a deal between the US and the DPRK to stop the DPRK`s nuclear program in exchange for energy resources. The Agreed Framework forces the US to go beyond its traditional ROK supportive policy to deal with the DPRK`s nuclear ambition. The US should assess the goals of the PRC, ROK, DPRK, and Japan on the Korean peninsula to determine if a change in policy will enhance the probability of a soft landing by the DPRK. To conduct this assessment, the goals of all nations and the DPRK`s nuclear ambition have been developed. A graphical summary of the subjective analysis was used to pick the US policy option that shows the best credible and clear logic, and mitigates most effectively any international criticism that may dilute the sound reasoning of future policy. The US should change its current policy to mediate the Korean dispute and increase the probability that all concerned actors meet their goals on the Korean peninsula.

  8. Understanding Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-21

    pincers .’ The problem was when the 24th Divi- sion landed, the enemy drove them back along with the remnant of the ROK Army. MacArthur had to send in both...life on the battlefield.. .a condition of war. Leaders must come to grips with risk and use it to their advantage or the enemy will. Commanders must take

  9. Tick-borne encephalitis in Japan, Republic of Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Kentaro; Song, Joon Young; Park, Seong-Beom; Yang, Junfeng; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef

    2017-09-20

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes mild or moderate febrile illness in humans that may progress to encephalitis, leading to severe long-term complications and sometimes death. TBEV is prevalent in the Eurasian continent and has been isolated in China, Japan and Republic of Korea (ROK). The TBEV isolates from Japan are of the Far-Eastern subtype; in ROK, the isolates are of the Western subtype; and all TBEV isolates in China are of the Far-Eastern subtype, except one strain that was identified most recently as the Siberian subtype. TBE is endemic to the northeast, northwest and southeast of China; only two confirmed TBE cases have been reported in Japan to date; and no TBE case has been confirmed in ROK. For TBE patients in China, the onset of disease is acute with no biphasic course for disease presentation. The clinical spectrum of disease phenotypes may be wider than currently understood, since serological evidence suggests the presence of TBEV infections in healthy people, indicating that asymptomatic or unspecific manifestations of TBEV infection may exist. The current treatment for TBE is supportive care. In China, vaccines against TBEV have been developed and are available with demonstrated immunogenicity and safety, although efficacy data are lacking. No vaccines are available in ROK or Japan.

  10. Supplement to the History of United States Army Engineer District Far East 1976 to 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    most items, and the attendant delays in construction. The following extract from a letter by the District Engineer, vividly illustrates the...Jr, FED District Engineer, to Noh, Chin Slk, ROK Chairman, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, 6 October 1976, and 11 Octoper 1976. -21- signed

  11. Almost Quiet on the Asia-Pacific Front: An Assessment of Asia-Pacific Responses to U.S. Security Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    ultimately prove to be more fleeting than the present media maelstrom suggests. The most immediate of these gaps is the confrontation with Iraq. Second...Indian Ocean , has consolidated gains to the alliance. The U.S. relationship with the Republic of Korea (ROK) remains complicated primarily due to the

  12. Dynamic Circulation and Genetic Exchange of a Shrew-borne Hantavirus, Imjin virus, in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jin Il; Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Jin-Won

    2017-03-15

    Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011-2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses.

  13. 78 FR 66338 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Republic of Korea... Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. ] POLICY JUSTIFICATION The Republic of Korea--Patriot Anti-Tactical Missiles The Republic of Korea (ROK) has requested a possible sale to procure 112 Patriot Anti...

  14. Association of temperature and historical dynamics of malaria in the Republic of Korea, including reemergence in 1993

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993 after it had been declared malaria free in 1979. Malaria rapidly increased and peaked in 2000 with 4,142 cases. Lower but variable numbers of cases were reported through 2011. We examined the association of regional climate tr...

  15. Nuclear's role in 21. century Pacific rim energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Clifford; Taylor, J'Tia

    2007-07-01

    Extrapolations contrast the future of nuclear energy use in Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) to that of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Japan can expect a gradual rise in the nuclear fraction of a nearly constant total energy use rate as the use of fossil fuels declines. ROK nuclear energy rises gradually with total energy use. ASEAN's total nuclear energy use rate can rapidly approach that of the ROK if Indonesia and Vietnam make their current nuclear energy targets by 2020, but experience elsewhere suggests that nuclear energy growth may be slower than planned. Extrapolations are based on econometric calibration to a utility optimization model of the impact of growth of population, gross domestic product, total energy use, and cumulative fossil carbon use. Fractions of total energy use from fluid fossil fuels, coal, water-driven electrical power production, nuclear energy, and wind and solar electric energy sources are fit to market fractions data. Where historical data is insufficient for extrapolation, plans for non-fossil energy are used as a guide. Extrapolations suggest much more U.S. nuclear energy and spent nuclear fuel generation than for the ROK and ASEAN until beyond the first half of the twenty-first century. (authors)

  16. Assessing Command and Control System Vulnerabilities in Underdeveloped, Degraded and Denied Operational Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Pretoria, CSIR , South Africa; roosthuizen@csir.co.za) Leon Pretorius (Professor, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Leon.Pretorius@up.ac.za...Point of Contact Rudolph Oosthuizen ( CSIR , South Africa; roosthuizen@csir.co.za) Name of Organization: Council for...499 Master’s • 300 PhDs © CSIR 2013 2 CSIR : A synopsis • Introduction • Command and Control • Degraded and Denied Operational Environments

  17. Antibody-Mediated Targeting of Alpha PDGF Receptor to Inhibit the Progression of Skeletal Micro-Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    derived growth factor receptor is a necessary intermediate in lysophosphatidic , acid 鄄 stimulated mitogenic activity in L cells [J]. Proc Natl...bisphosphonate Zoledronic Acid (ZA) and was able to prolong overall survival. Finally, we tested IMC-3G3 and ZA on the initial phase of bone...41] .  Zoledronic acid (ZA) shows a potent analgesic effect that  can significantly delay the time to SREs [42] . However, Qingxin Liu et al. PDGFR

  18. Dose-dependent inhibitory effects of zoledronic acid on osteoblast viability and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, XIN; HUANG, SHILONG; GUO, FENGJIN; XU, FEI; CHENG, PENG; YE, YAPING; DONG, YONGHUI; XIANG, WEI; CHEN, ANMIN

    2016-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), which is one of the most potent and efficacious bisphosphonates, has been commonly used in clinical practice for the treatment of various bone disorders. The extensive use of ZA has been associated with increasing occurrence of jaw complications, now known as bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). However, the mechanism underlying BRONJ remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of ZA on the MC3T3-E1 murine preosteoblast cell line cells and examine the possible pathogenesis of BRONJ. In the present study, the effect of ZA on the viability, apoptosis, differentiation and maturation of MC3T3-E1 cells, as well as its relevant molecular mechanism, were examined The results of a Cell Counting Kit 8 assay, a flow cytometric Annexin-V/propidium iodide assay and western blot analysis demonstrated that ZA exhibited a significant inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis at concentrations >10 µM. Subsequently, the effect of ZA on cell differentiation at concentrations <1 µM were investigated. In this condition, ZA inhibited bone nodule formation and decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses indicated that ZA downregulated the expression levels of the marker genes and proteins associated with osteogenic differentiation. Further investigation revealed that the suppression of differentiation by ZA was associated with decreased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and downregulation of the phosphorylation levels in the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 pathways. These adverse effects of ZA were observed to be concentration-dependent. The results from the present study suggested that ZA at higher concentrations induces cytotoxicity towards osteoblasts, and ZA at lower concentrations suppresses

  19. Ca2+ sensitization due to myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition and cytoskeletal reorganization in the myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Domínguez, Alejandro; Colinas, Olaia; El-Yazbi, Ahmed; Walsh, Emma J; Hill, Michael A; Walsh, Michael P; Cole, William C

    2013-01-01

    The myogenic response of resistance arteries to intravascular pressure elevation is a fundamental physiological mechanism of crucial importance for blood pressure regulation and organ-specific control of blood flow. The importance of Ca2+ entry via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels leading to phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin regulatory light chains (LC20) in the myogenic response is well established. Recent studies, however, have suggested a role for Ca2+ sensitization via activation of the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROK) pathway in the myogenic response. The possibility that enhanced actin polymerization is also involved in myogenic vasoconstriction has been suggested. Here, we have used pressurized resistance arteries from rat gracilis and cremaster skeletal muscles to assess the contribution to myogenic constriction of Ca2+ sensitization due to: (1) phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1) by ROK; (2) phosphorylation of the 17 kDa protein kinase C (PKC)-potentiated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein (CPI-17) by PKC; and (3) dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton evoked by ROK and PKC. Arterial diameter, MYPT1, CPI-17 and LC20 phosphorylation, and G-actin content were determined at varied intraluminal pressures ± H1152, GF109203X or latrunculin B to suppress ROK, PKC and actin polymerization, respectively. The myogenic response was associated with an increase in MYPT1 and LC20 phosphorylation that was blocked by H1152. No change in phospho-CPI-17 content was detected although the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, suppressed myogenic constriction. Basal LC20 phosphorylation at 10 mmHg was high at ∼40%, increased to a maximal level of ∼55% at 80 mmHg, and exhibited no additional change on further pressurization to 120 and 140 mmHg. Myogenic constriction at 80 mmHg was associated with a decline in G-actin content by ∼65% that was blocked by inhibition of ROK or PKC. Taken together, our findings indicate

  20. Synthesis of nanometer-scale porphyrin wheels of variable size.

    PubMed

    Hori, Takaaki; Peng, Xiaobin; Aratani, Naoki; Takagi, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kawai, Tomoji; Yoon, Zin Seok; Yoon, Min-Chul; Yang, Jaesung; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 1,3-phenylene linked diporphyrin zinc(II) complex 2ZA, repeated stepwise Ag I-promoted coupling reactions provided linear oligomers from 2nZA up to 128ZA. Of these zigzag shaped porphyrin arrays, the Ag I-promoted intramolecular cyclization reaction of 2 nZA (n=5, 6, 8, 9, 12, and 16) under dilute conditions gave the corresponding cyclic porphyrin wheels C2nZA (n=5, 6, 8, 9, 12, and 16), whereas large arrays 2nZA (n=24, 32, and 48) did not provide cyclic porphyrin products. These large discrete porphyrin arrays and wheels were fully characterized by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, GPC-HPLC analysis, and the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique. The STM images of C12ZA and C18ZA reveal their large circular structures. In the cyclic structures of C2nZA in solution, however, the gradual decrease in fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are observed, reflecting some conformational heterogeneities. Collectively, the present work provides an important contribution to the construction of fully covalently linked large cyclic arranged porphyrin arrays with ample electronic interactions as a model of light-harvesting antenna.

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis Exacerbates the Severity of Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice. A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Animal Study.

    PubMed

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Hsu, Chingyun; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M; Pirih, Flavia Q; Soundia, Akrivoula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, results in persistent synovitis with severe bone and cartilage destruction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often utilized in RA patients to reduce bone destruction and manage osteoporosis. However, BPs, especially at high doses, are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models, we are exploring interactions between RA and ONJ incidence and severity. DBA1/J mice were divided into four groups: control, zoledronic acid (ZA), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and CIA-ZA. Animals were pretreated with vehicle or ZA. Bovine collagen II emulsified in Freund's adjuvant was injected to induce arthritis (CIA) and the mandibular molar crowns were drilled to induce periapical disease. Vehicle or ZA treatment continued for 8 weeks. ONJ indices were measured by micro-CT (µCT) and histological examination of maxillae and mandibles. Arthritis development was assessed by visual scoring of paw swelling, and by µCT and histology of interphalangeal and knee joints. Maxillae and mandibles of control and CIA mice showed bone loss, periodontal ligament (PDL) space widening, lamina dura loss, and cortex thinning. ZA prevented these changes in both ZA and CIA-ZA groups. Epithelial to alveolar crest distance was increased in the control and CIA mice. This distance was preserved in ZA and CIA-ZA animals. Empty osteocytic lacunae and areas of osteonecrosis were present in ZA and CIA-ZA but more extensively in CIA-ZA animals, indicating more severe ONJ. CIA and CIA-ZA groups developed severe arthritis in the paws and knees. Interphalangeal and knee joints of CIA mice showed advanced bone destruction with cortical erosions and trabecular bone loss, and ZA treatment reduced these effects. Importantly, no osteonecrosis was noted adjacent to areas of articular inflammation in CIA-ZA mice. Our data suggest that ONJ burden was more pronounced in ZA treated CIA mice and that RA could

  2. Influence of titanium diboride reinforcements on the microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behavior of cast zinc-aluminum composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, Sylvie

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between the microstructure, mechanical properties and failure mechanisms which control the performance of TiB2 particle reinforced Zn-8 wt.% Al (ZA-8) composites. Unreinforced ZA-8 and four composite heats with nominal particle contents of 5, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% were prepared using stir casting and permanent mold casting techniques. Tensile, compression, Charpy impact and short bar chevron-notch fracture toughness tests were conducted at room temperature. The microstructure and fracture surfaces of the specimens were characterized using optical, scanning electron, transmission electron and focused ion beam microscopy. These experimental results were compared with relevant MMC models and with published data on Zn-based composites. The TiB2/ZA-8 composites had a homogeneous distribution of particles in a matrix similar to unreinforced ZA-8. The matrix grain size decreased as the TiB2 content increased. No interfacial reaction products were detected. A good correlation was obtained between the measured composite stiffness and the values predicted using an Eshelby model. The yield strength and work hardening rate of TiB2/ZA-8 were only marginally higher than those of unreinforced ZA-8. The strength properties did not increase with the particle content as predicted by the Eshelby model. The premature activation of relaxation processes limited the extent to which particle reinforcement improved the strength of the ZA-8 matrix. Temperature-activated relaxation processes such as diffusion and dislocation motion can occur readily in ZA-8 at room temperature, which corresponds to 0.44 TM. Particle reinforcement of the ZA-8 alloy produced a degradation of the toughness which was sensitive to the loading rate. The Charpy energy of TiB 2/ZA-8 was up to 85% smaller than that of ZA-8, while the corresponding loss in fracture toughness was only 15%. The moderate fracture toughness decrease was explained by the

  3. Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry for rapid environmental trace analysis of highly polar hydrophilic compounds - Application for the antiviral drug Zanamivir.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Richard H; Fedorova, Ganna; Blum, Kristin M; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta; Gillman, Anna; Järhult, Josef; Appelblad, Patrik; Söderström, Hanna

    2015-08-15

    Zanamivir (Za) is a highly polar and hydrophilic antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza A viruses. Za has been detected in rivers of Japan and it's environmental occurrence has the risk of inducing antiviral resistant avian influenza viruses. In this study, a rapid automated online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography method using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS) for trace analysis of Za was developed. Furthermore, an internal standard (IS) calibration method capable of quantifying Za in Milli-Q, surface water, sewage effluent and sewage influent was evaluated. Optimum pre-extraction sample composition was found to be 95/5 v/v acetonitrile/water sample and 1% formic acid. The developed method showed acceptable linearities (r(2)≥0.994), filtration recovery (≥91%), and intra-day precisions (RSD≤16%), and acceptable and environmentally relevant LOQs (≤20ngL(-1)). Storage tests showed no significant losses of Za during 20 days and +4/-20°C (≤12%) with the exception of influent samples, which should be kept at -20°C to avoid significant Za losses. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on phototransformation of Za in unfiltered and filtered surface water during 28 days of artificial UV irradiation exposure. No significant (≤12%) phototransformation was found in surface water after 28 days suggesting a relatively high photostability of Za and that Za should be of environmental concern.

  4. Molecular detection and genotyping of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Lee, Ji-Hyee; Kyung, Soon-Goo; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, In-Soo; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis. To reduce the impact of Japanese encephalitis among children in the Republic of Korea (ROK), the government established a mandatory vaccination program in 1967. Through the efforts of this program only 0-7 (mean 2.1) cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported annually in the ROK during the period of 1984-2009. However, in 2010 there was an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis, including 7 deaths. This represented a >12-fold increase in the number of confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK as compared to the mean number reported over the last 26 years and a 3.7-fold increase over the highest annual number of cases during this same period (7 cases). Surveillance of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the 2010 outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK. A total of 6,328 culicine mosquitoes belonging to 12 species from 5 genera were collected at 6 survey sites from June through October 2010 and assayed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of JEV. A total of 34/371 pooled samples tested positive for JEV (29/121 Culex tritaeniorhynchus, 4/64 Cx. pipiens, and 1/26 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) as confirmed by sequencing of the pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes. The maximum likelihood estimates of JEV positive individuals per 1,000 culicine vectors for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 11.8, 5.6, and 2.8, respectively. Sequences of the JEV pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes amplified from the culicine mosquitoes by RT-PCR were compared with those of JEV genotypes I-V. Phylogenetic analyses support the detection of a single genotype (I) among samples collected from the ROK in 2010.

  5. Androgens Induce Nongenomic Stimulation of Colonic Contractile Activity through Induction of Calcium Sensitization and Phosphorylation of LC20 and CPI-17

    PubMed Central

    González-Montelongo, María C.; Marín, Raquel; Gómez, Tomás; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Díaz, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We show that androgens, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), acutely (∼40 min) provoke the mechanical potentiation of spontaneous and agonist-induced contractile activity in mouse colonic longitudinal smooth muscle. The results using flutamide, finasteride, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D indicate that androgen-induced potentiation is dependent on androgen receptors, requires reduction of testosterone to DHT, and occurs independently of transcriptional and translational events. Using permeabilized colonic smooth muscle preparations, we could demonstrate that mechanical potentiation is entirely due to calcium sensitization of contractile machinery. In addition, DHT (10 nm) increased phosphorylation of both 20-kDa myosin light chain (LC20) [regulatory myosin light chain, (MLC)] and CPI-17 (an endogenous inhibitor of MLC phosphatase). Paralleling these findings, inhibition of Rho-associated Rho kinase (ROK) and/or protein kinase C (PKC) with, respectively, Y27632 and chelerythrine, prevented LC20 phosphorylation and abolished calcium sensitization. In addition, inhibition of ROK prevents CPI-17 phosphorylation, indicating that ROK is located upstream PKC-mediated CPI-17 modulation in the signalling cascade. Additionally, androgens induce a rapid activation of RhoA and its translocation to the plasma membrane to activate ROK. The results demonstrate that androgens induce sensitization of colonic smooth muscle to calcium through activation of ROK, which in turn, activates PKC to induce CPI-17 phosphorylation. Activation of this pathway induces a potent steady stimulation of LC20 by inhibiting MLC phosphatase and displacing the equilibrium of the regulatory subunit towards its phosphorylated state. This is the first demonstration that colonic smooth muscle is a physiological target for androgen hormones, and that androgens modulate force generation of smooth muscle contractile machinery through nongenomic calcium sensitization pathways. PMID:20207835

  6. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes during a 2010 Outbreak in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kyung, Soon-Goo; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis. To reduce the impact of Japanese encephalitis among children in the Republic of Korea (ROK), the government established a mandatory vaccination program in 1967. Through the efforts of this program only 0–7 (mean 2.1) cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported annually in the ROK during the period of 1984–2009. However, in 2010 there was an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis, including 7 deaths. This represented a >12-fold increase in the number of confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK as compared to the mean number reported over the last 26 years and a 3.7-fold increase over the highest annual number of cases during this same period (7 cases). Surveillance of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the 2010 outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK. A total of 6,328 culicine mosquitoes belonging to 12 species from 5 genera were collected at 6 survey sites from June through October 2010 and assayed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of JEV. A total of 34/371 pooled samples tested positive for JEV (29/121 Culex tritaeniorhynchus, 4/64 Cx. pipiens, and 1/26 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) as confirmed by sequencing of the pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes. The maximum likelihood estimates of JEV positive individuals per 1,000 culicine vectors for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 11.8, 5.6, and 2.8, respectively. Sequences of the JEV pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes amplified from the culicine mosquitoes by RT-PCR were compared with those of JEV genotypes I-V. Phylogenetic analyses support the detection of a single genotype (I) among samples collected from the ROK in 2010. PMID:23390520

  7. Tendencies in the development of operational quality of ballasted and ballastless track superstructure and transition areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ižvolt, Libor; Šestáková, Janka; Šmalo, Michal

    2017-09-01

    Department of Railway Engineering and Track Management is cooperating with Slovak Railways (Železnice Slovenskej republiky – ŽSR) on assessment of quality of railway tracks, structures of railway tracks and parts of these structures. One of diagnostics methods is monitoring of track geometry focused on durability of ballastless track quality and its transition area to ballasted track. The diagnostics is carried out by continuous method and results are used for prediction of future degradation of construction. The first part of the paper deals with a brief recapitulation of information about the experimental sections and the methods of diagnostics of track geometry. The second part of the paper is carrying out the analysis and prognosis of development of the quality of construction of the experimental sections, which is a tool for the track superstructure maintenance planning.

  8. Is administration of trastuzumab an independent risk factor for developing osteonecrosis of the jaw among metastatic breast cancer patients under zoledronic acid treatment?

    PubMed

    Pilanci, Kezban Nur; Alco, Gul; Ordu, Cetin; Sarsenov, Dauren; Celebi, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Tecimer, Coskun; Demir, Gokhan; Eralp, Yesim; Okkan, Sait; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important adverse effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) is osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). In previous literature, several risk factors have been identified in the development of ONJ. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of trastuzumab, an antiangiogenic agent, as an independent risk factor for the development of this serious side effect.Our study included 97 patients (mean age: 54 ± 10 years) with breast cancer, recorded in the archives of the Istanbul Florence Nightingale Breast Study Group, who received ZA therapy due to bone metastases between March 2006 and December 2013. We recorded the patients' ages, weights, duration of treatment with ZA, number of ZA infusions, dental procedures, anticancer treatments (chemotherapy, aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab), the presence of diabetes mellitus or renal dysfunction, and smoking habits.Thirteen patients (13.40%) had developed ONJ. Among the patients with ONJ, the mean time of exposure to ZA was 41 months (range: 13-82) and the mean number of ZA infusions was 38 (range: 15-56). The duration of treatment with ZA and the use of trastuzumab were observed to be 2 factors that influenced the development of ONJ (P = 0.049 and P = 0.028, respectively).The development of ONJ under ZA treatment may be associated solely with the duration of ZA treatment and the concurrent administration of trastuzumab. These findings show that patients who are administered trastuzumab for metastatic breast cancer while undergoing ZA treatment are prone to developing ONJ. Therefore, we recommend intense clinical observation to avoid this particular condition in patients receiving ZA and trastuzumab.

  9. Short-Term Safety of Zoledronic Acid in Young Patients With Bone Disorders: An Extensive Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    George, Sobenna; Weber, David R.; Kaplan, Paige; Hummel, Kelly; Monk, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Zoledronic acid (ZA) is increasingly used in young patients with bone disorders. However, data related to the safety of ZA administration in this population are limited. Objective: The study aimed to characterize the short-term safety profile of ZA and identify risk factors for ZA-related adverse events (AEs) in young patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective chart review of inpatients and outpatients less than 21 years old who received at least one ZA infusion between July 2010 and January 2014 at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Results: Eighty-one patients (56% male; median age, 12 y; age at first infusion, 0.5 to 20 y) with diverse skeletal disorders received a total of 204 infusions. The most common indications were osteoporosis (33% of cohort) and osteogenesis imperfecta (27.2%). The median ZA dose was 0.025 mg/kg (interquartile range, 0.025–0.05); the median dosing interval was 6 months (range, 1 to 25.6 mo). AEs were mild and more common after the first ZA infusion in patients with no previous bisphosphonate exposure: hypophosphatemia (25.2% of infusions), acute phase reactions (19.1%), and hypocalcemia (16.4%). Symptomatic hypocalcemia requiring iv calcium occurred after two infusions. ZA dose was significantly associated with hypophosphatemia, but not other AEs. Hypocalcemia was more common in patients with high bone turnover as assessed by preinfusion alkaline phosphatase levels. AEs were not associated with diagnosis, baseline serum calcium, or calcium/calcitriol supplementation. Conclusion: Acute AEs related to ZA infusion in youths are common, occur principally after the first ZA infusion in bisphosphonate-naive patients, and are typically mild and easily managed. Future prospective studies are needed to determine the potential long-term risks, as well as benefits, of ZA therapy in the pediatric population. PMID:26308295

  10. Is Administration of Trastuzumab an Independent Risk Factor for Developing Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Among Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Under Zoledronic Acid Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Pilanci, Kezban Nur; Alco, Gul; Ordu, Cetin; Sarsenov, Dauren; Celebi, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Tecimer, Coskun; Demir, Gokhan; Eralp, Yesim; Okkan, Sait; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the most important adverse effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) is osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). In previous literature, several risk factors have been identified in the development of ONJ. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of trastuzumab, an antiangiogenic agent, as an independent risk factor for the development of this serious side effect. Our study included 97 patients (mean age: 54 ± 10 years) with breast cancer, recorded in the archives of the Istanbul Florence Nightingale Breast Study Group, who received ZA therapy due to bone metastases between March 2006 and December 2013. We recorded the patients’ ages, weights, duration of treatment with ZA, number of ZA infusions, dental procedures, anticancer treatments (chemotherapy, aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab), the presence of diabetes mellitus or renal dysfunction, and smoking habits. Thirteen patients (13.40%) had developed ONJ. Among the patients with ONJ, the mean time of exposure to ZA was 41 months (range: 13–82) and the mean number of ZA infusions was 38 (range: 15–56). The duration of treatment with ZA and the use of trastuzumab were observed to be 2 factors that influenced the development of ONJ (P = 0.049 and P = 0.028, respectively). The development of ONJ under ZA treatment may be associated solely with the duration of ZA treatment and the concurrent administration of trastuzumab. These findings show that patients who are administered trastuzumab for metastatic breast cancer while undergoing ZA treatment are prone to developing ONJ. Therefore, we recommend intense clinical observation to avoid this particular condition in patients receiving ZA and trastuzumab. PMID:25950681

  11. Official Guard and Reserve Manpower Strengths and Statistics. FY 2002 Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    ARPERSCOM. ARPC PPO ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZA ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZPP ARPERSCOM. ARPC ALP-T ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZAP T ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZAP TS ARMY RESERVE...TAACM 1 ARMY AUDIT AGENCY. SAAG AFF 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC-PPO 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC-ZA 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC- ZPP 2 ARPERSCOM. ARPC ALP-T 9 ARPERSCOM. ARPC

  12. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  13. Sulfation mediates activity of zosteric acid against biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Cavas, Levent; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Zosteric acid (ZA), a metabolite from the marine sea grass Zostera marina, has attracted much attention due to its attributed antifouling (AF) activity. However, recent results on dynamic transformations of aromatic sulfates in marine phototrophic organisms suggest potential enzymatic desulfation of metabolites like ZA. The activity of ZA was thus re-investigated using biofilm assays and simultaneous analytical monitoring by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Comparison of ZA and its non-sulfated form para-coumaric acid (CA) revealed that the active substance was in all cases the non-sulfated CA while ZA was virtually inactive. CA exhibited a strong biofilm inhibiting activity against Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens. The LC/MS data revealed that the apparent biofilm inhibiting effects of ZA on V. natriegens can be entirely attributed to CA released from ZA by sulfatase activity. In the light of various potential applications, the (a)biotic transformation of ZA to CA has thus to be considered in future AF formulations.

  14. Multicomponent Analysis of Junctional Movements Regulated by Myosin II Isoforms at the Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Smutny, Michael; Wu, Selwin K.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Mangold, Sabine; Yap, Alpha S.; Hamilton, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    The zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelial cells is a site of cell-cell adhesion where cellular forces are exerted and resisted. Increasing evidence indicates that E-cadherin adhesion molecules at the ZA serve to sense force applied on the junctions and coordinate cytoskeletal responses to those forces. Efforts to understand the role that cadherins play in mechanotransduction have been limited by the lack of assays to measure the impact of forces on the ZA. In this study we used 4D imaging of GFP-tagged E-cadherin to analyse the movement of the ZA. Junctions in confluent epithelial monolayers displayed prominent movements oriented orthogonal (perpendicular) to the ZA itself. Two components were identified in these movements: a relatively slow unidirectional (translational) component that could be readily fitted by least-squares regression analysis, upon which were superimposed more rapid oscillatory movements. Myosin IIB was a dominant factor responsible for driving the unilateral translational movements. In contrast, frequency spectrum analysis revealed that depletion of Myosin IIA increased the power of the oscillatory movements. This implies that Myosin IIA may serve to dampen oscillatory movements of the ZA. This extends our recent analysis of Myosin II at the ZA to demonstrate that Myosin IIA and Myosin IIB make distinct contributions to junctional movement at the ZA. PMID:21799860

  15. Molecular identification and functional characterisation of uncoupling protein 4 in larva and pupa fat body mitochondria from the beetle Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2012-08-01

    Uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) is a member of the UCP subfamily that mediates mitochondrial uncoupling, and sequence alignment predicts the existence of UCP4 in several insects. The present study demonstrates the first molecular identification of a partial Zophobas atratus UCP4-coding sequence and the functional characterisation of ZaUCP4 in the mitochondria of larval and pupal fat bodies of the beetle. ZaUCP4 shows a high similarity to predicted insect UCP4 isoforms and known mammalian UCP4s, both at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels. Bioenergetic studies clearly demonstrate UCP function in mitochondria from larval and pupal fat bodies. In non-phosphorylating mitochondria, ZaUCP activity was stimulated by palmitic acid and inhibited by the purine nucleotide GTP. In phosphorylating mitochondria, ZaUCP4 activity decreased the yield of oxidative phosphorylation. ZaUCP4 was immunodetected with antibodies raised against human UCP4 as a single 36-kDa band. A lower expression of ZaUCP4 at the level of mRNA and protein and a decreased ZaUCP4 activity were observed in the Z. atratus pupal fat body compared with the larval fat body. The different expression patterns and activity of ZaUCP4 during the larval-pupal transformation indicates an important physiological role for UCP4 in insect fat body development and function during insect metamorphosis.

  16. Regulating Prostate Cancer Sensitivity to Chemotherapy through Translational Control of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    9092. 47. Senft D, Ronai ZA. UPR, autophagy, and mitochondria crosstalk underlies the ER stress response. Trends Biochem Sci. 40 (2015) 141-148...1997) 9086–9092. [49] D. Senft, Z.A. Ronai, UPR, autophagy, and mitochondria crosstalk underlies the ER stress response, Trends Biochem. Sci. 40 (2015

  17. Zoledronic acid induces dose-dependent increase of antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses in combination with peptide/poly-IC vaccine.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Mi; Cho, Hyun-Il; Shin, Chang-Ae; Shon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2016-03-04

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is used for treating osteoporosis and for preventing skeletal fractures in cancer patients suffering from myeloma and prostate cancer. It is also reported to directly induce cancer cell apoptosis and indirectly modulate T-cell immune response as an antitumor agent. In this study, the effect of ZA following peptide/polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) vaccination was investigated in a murine tumor model. The combination of ZA with peptide/poly-IC vaccine showed a synergistic effect on the induction of antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response. Three consecutive intravenous administrations of ZA was defined to induce the highest CD8 T-cell response. Further, total splenocyte counts and antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response gradually increased depending on the dose of ZA. In tumor-bearing mice, ZA showed a dose-dependent decrease of growth and prolonged survival. Treatment with ZA only decreased the number of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells in blood. Our results demonstrate that the use of ZA could improve antitumor immune responses induced by the peptide/poly-IC vaccine.

  18. Zoledronic acid impairs stromal reactivity by inhibiting M2-macrophages polarization and prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Comito, Giuseppina; Segura, Coral Pons; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Lanciotti, Michele; Serni, Sergio; Morandi, Andrea; Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a biphosphonate used for osteoporosis treatment and also proved to be effective to reduce the pain induced by bone metastases when used as adjuvant therapy in solid cancers. However, it has been recently proposed that ZA could have direct anti-tumour effects, although the molecular mechanism is unknown. We herein unravel a novel anti-tumour activity of ZA in prostate cancer (PCa), by targeting the pro-tumorigenic properties of both stromal and immune cells. Particularly, we demonstrate that ZA impairs PCa-induced M2-macrophages polarization, reducing their pro-invasive effect on tumour cells and their pro-angiogenic features. Crucially, ZA administration reverts cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) activation by targeting the mevalonate pathway and RhoA geranyl-geranylation, thereby impairing smooth muscle actin-α fibers organization, a prerequisite of fibroblast activation. Moreover, ZA prevents the M2 macrophages-mediated activation of normal fibroblast, highlighting the broad efficacy of this drug on tumour microenvironment. These results are confirmed in a metastatic xenograft PCa mouse model in which ZA-induced stromal normalization impairs cancer-stromal cells crosstalk, resulting in a significant reduction of primary tumour growth and metastases. Overall these findings reinforce the efficacy of ZA as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce cancer aggressiveness, by abrogating the supportive role of tumour microenvironment. PMID:27223431

  19. Effects of Zn content and initial grain size on double peak basal textures of Mg-Zn-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung Woo; Shin, Kwang Seon

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of Zn content on the double peak basal textures of extruded Mg-Zn-Al alloys. Two-step plane strain compression (PSC) tests (PSC at room temperature as a first step and PSC at high temperature as a second step) were conducted under various temperatures (200-340 °C) and initial strain rates (0.0002 s-1 and 0.04 s-1) using the extruded ZA11, ZA31 and ZA61 alloys. Additionally, to examine the effects of initial grain size on the double peak basal texture, two-step PSC tests were conducted using annealed ZA61 and cast ZA63 alloys. Tilt angle corresponding to the peak in the double peak basal texture increased with increasing Zn content. This correlation was clearly shown especially at low temperature and high initial strain rate. The tilt angle corresponding to the peak increased with decreasing initial grain size.

  20. Guided bone regeneration with local zoledronic acid and titanium barrier: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Dundar, Serkan; Ozgur, Cem; Yaman, Ferhan; Cakmak, Omer; Saybak, Arif; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Alan, Hilal; Artas, Gokhan; Nacakgedigi, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on new bone formation of autogenous blood alone or in combination with zoledronic acid (ZA), a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) graft or ZA plus a β-TCP graft placed under titanium barriers. For this purpose, eight adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used in the study, each with four titanium barriers fixed around four sets of nine holes drilled in the calvarial bones. The study included four groups, each containing 2 rabbits. In the autogenous blood (AB group), only autogeneous blood was placed under the titanium barriers. The three experimental groups were the AB+ZA group, with autogenous blood plus ZA, the AB+β-TCP group, with autogeneous blood plus a β-TCP graft, and the AB+β-TCP+ZA group, with autogeneous blood plus a β-TCP graft and ZA mixture under the titanium barriers. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months. The amounts of new bone formation identified histomorphometrically were found to be higher after 3 months than at the time of surgery in all groups. The differences between the groups were examined with histomorphometric analysis, and statistically significant differences were identified at the end of the 3 months. The bone formation rate in the AB+β-TCP+ZA group was determined to be significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.05). In the AB+ZA and AB+β-TCP groups, the bone formation rate was determined to be significantly higher than that in the AB group (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference in bone formation rate was observed between the AB+β-TCP and AB+ZA groups. Local ZA used with autogeneous blood and/or graft material appears to be a more effective method than the use of autogeneous blood or graft alone in bone augmentation executed with a titanium barrier. PMID:27698687

  1. MIV-150 and zinc acetate combination provides potent and broad activity against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Mizenina, Olga; Hsu, Mayla; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Aravantinou, Meropi; Levendosky, Keith; Paglini, Gabriela; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernández-Romero, José A

    2017-08-15

    We previously showed that the combination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 with zinc acetate (ZA) formulated in a carrageenan (CG; MZC) gel provided macaques significant protection against vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus-RT (SHIV-RT) challenge, better than either MIV-150/CG or ZA/CG. The MZC gel was shown to be safe in a phase 1 clinical trial. Herein, we used in vitro approaches to study the antiviral properties of ZA and the MIV-150/ZA combination, compared to other NNRTIs. Like other NNRTIs, MIV-150 has EC50 values in the subnanomolar to nanomolar range against wild type and NNRTI or RT-resistant HIVs. While less potent than NNRTIs, ZA was shown to be active in primary cells against laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates and HIV-1 isolates/clones with NNRTI and RT resistance mutations, with EC50 values between 20 and 110 μM. The MIV-150/ZA combination had a potent and broad antiviral activity in primary cells. In vitro resistance selection studies revealed that previously described NNRTI-resistant mutations were selected by MIV-150. ZA-resistant virus retained susceptibility to MIV-150 (and other RTIs) and MIV-150-selected virus remained sensitive to ZA. Notably, resistant virus was not selected when cultured in the presence of both ZA and MIV-150. This underscores the potency and breadth of the MIV-150/ZA combination, supporting preclinical macaque studies and the advancement of MZC microbicides into clinical testing.

  2. A Single Dose of a MIV-150/Zinc Acetate Gel Provides 24 h of Protection Against Vaginal Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase Infection, with More Limited Protection Rectally 8–24 h After Gel Use

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Jessica; Singer, Rachel; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Abraham, Ciby J.; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Zhang, Shimin; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Fernández-Romero, José A.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previously we showed that repeated vaginal application of a MIV-150/zinc acetate carrageenan (MIV-150/ZA/CG) gel and a zinc acetate carrageenan (ZA/CG) gel significantly protected macaques from vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection. Gels were applied either daily for 2 weeks or every other day for 4 weeks, and the animals were challenged 4–24 h later. Herein, we examined the effects of a single vaginal dose administered either before or after virus challenge. Encouraged by the vaginal protection seen with MIV-150/ZA/CG, we also tested it rectally. Vaginal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG, ZA/CG, and CG gel were performed once 8–24 h before, 1 h after, or 24 h before and 1 h after vaginal challenge. Rectal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG and CG gel were performed once 8 or 24 h before rectal challenge. While vaginal pre-challenge and pre/post-challenge application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel offered significant protection (88%, p<0.002), post-challenge application alone did not significantly protect. ZA/CG gel reduced infection prechallenge, but not significantly, and the effect was completely lost post-challenge. Rectal application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel afforded limited protection against rectal challenge when applied 8–24 h before challenge. Thus, MIV-150/ZA/CG gel is a highly effective vaginal microbicide that demonstrates 24 h of protection from vaginal infection and may demonstrate efficacy against rectal infection when given close to the time of HIV exposure. PMID:22737981

  3. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory utilizing density functional description of monomers for high-spin open-shell complexes.

    PubMed

    Zuchowski, Piotr S; Podeszwa, Rafał; Moszyński, Robert; Jeziorski, Bogumił; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2008-08-28

    We present an implementation of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) to interactions of high-spin open-shell monomers forming high-spin dimers. The monomer spin-orbitals used in the expressions for the electrostatic and exchange contributions to the interaction energy are obtained from density functional theory using a spin-restricted formulation of the open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS) method. The dispersion and induction energies are expressed through the density-density response functions predicted by the time-dependent ROKS theory. The method was applied to several systems: NH...He, CN...Ne, H2O...HO2, and NH...NH. It provides accuracy comparable to that of the best previously available methods such as the open-shell coupled-cluster method with single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, RCCSD(T), with a significantly reduced computational cost.

  4. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-30

    the districts of Waris and Web here returned to their home villages from Papua New Guinea on their own initiative last week. A team from the...books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language...Aug 85) 3 MPs on Cambodia, MIAs, Vietnamese Refugees (ANTARA NEWS BULLETIN, 27 Aug 85) 5 ROK-Indonesia Joint Oil Venture To Start

  5. The Potential of the Republic of Korea Navy for Cooperation with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force in the Security of Greater East Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    DPRK’s fishing vessels, he said: The ROK naval officer, Ensign Un Soo Koo, was a bright, extrovert type. On many occasions he managed to get information...U.S. perspective, the entry into the Pacific war States was concerned that the final war for control of Japan sense , therefore, to invite the Soviets...rearmament could bring with it the chance for a recurrence of the events that brought atomic destruction to the homeland. Nothing, they feel , is worth

  6. U.S. Strategy Towards North Korea: A New Way of Thinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-05

    later we still see no change to Pyongyang‘s erratic behavior or progress on denuclearization . This should not come of great surprise to anyone...is a denuclearized North, and a peaceful reunification of the Korean peninsula. The ROK has displayed a willingness to ease tensions by initiatives...in creating stability in the region, then it must take an entirely different approach towards North Korea. Denuclearization is quite likely not

  7. Overwintering of Anopheles Lindesayi Japonicus Larvae in the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    instars. and by the end of April, pupae were collected. This is the first report of An. lindesClyi JClponicus overwintering as larvae in the ROK. KEY ...egg), Culex pipiens n7.olestus Forskal (egg, larvae, pupa , and adults), Aedes dorsalis (Meigen) (egg), and Aedes togoi (Theobald) (egg and larvae) (Hong...mostly on the adult resting sites of 2 primary vectors, Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann (malaria) and Culex tritaeniorhvnchus Giles (Japanese

  8. Early Birds in Korea: Exporting Defense AT and L Has Far Reaching Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    photos. 53 Defense AT&L: November–December 2015 2006, Yu, Park, Maj. Hansoo Park and Lt. Col. Hyeok Seo gathered at the conference room of the JUSMAG...the members of the EBS. The members evolve from acquisition professionals to acquisition leaders themselves. EBS President Col. Hyeok Seo of the ROK...Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, and James Woolsey, President of DAU. Seo currently is working on the HR development of the DAPA by

  9. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    the balance of power in Northeast Asia has been significantly shaped by an enduring Republic of Korea (ROK)-US alliance. Despite the constant threat of...a resumption of hostilities between the two Koreas, the current structure maintains a status quo that assures the balance of power in Northeast Asia...the balance of power imposed on the region since 1953. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report

  10. Field Scale Spatial Modelling of Surface Soil Quality Attributes in Controlled Traffic Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    The employment of controlled traffic farming (CTF) can yield improvements to soil quality attributes through the confinement of equipment traffic to tramlines with the field. There is a need to quantify and explain the spatial heterogeneity of soil quality attributes affected by CTF to further improve our understanding and modelling ability of field scale soil dynamics. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. We contrasted standard geostatistical methods such as ordinary kriging (OK) and covariate kriging (COK) as well as the hybrid method of regression kriging (ROK) to predict the spatial distribution of soil properties across two annual cropland sites actively employing CTF in Alberta, Canada. Field scale variability was quantified more accurately through the inclusion of covariates; however, the use of ROK was shown to improve model accuracy despite the regression model composition limiting the robustness of the ROK method. The exclusion of traffic from the un-trafficked areas displayed significant improvements to bulk density, macroporosity and Km while subsequently enhancing AN, STN and SOC. The ability of the regression models and the ROK method to account for spatial trends led to the highest goodness-of-fit and lowest error achieved for the soil physical properties, as the rigid traffic regime of CTF altered their spatial distribution at the field scale. Conversely, the COK method produced the most optimal predictions for the soil nutrient properties and Km. The use of terrain covariates derived from light ranging and detection (LiDAR), such as of elevation and topographic position index (TPI), yielded the best models in the COK method at the field scale.

  11. Toward a Regional Triad -- The Nature of Future US Strategic Engagement in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    generally focused on Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the north . The East Sea Fleet, focused upon Taiwan in the center, is homeported at...Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Burma ( Myanmar ), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. 30Colloquially, “the ASEAN Way”--their charter stresses the non...United States Department of Defense Foreign Military Sales Program INF Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty MEU U.S. Marine Expeditionary Unit

  12. Measuring the Return on Investment and Real Option Value of Weather Sensor Bundles for Air Force Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    value of WeatherNow technology in terms of return on investment (ROI) and uses integrated risk management (IRM) to provide a way to value implementation...further detail in the study. The quantitative framework for this research is known as ROI-IRM ( return on investment with integrated risk management...ROK estimates are precisely comparable with regard to value for cost return estimates. Integrated risk management (IRM) uses the KVA results to

  13. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-28

    well as research and development work on safety, safeguards, advanced nuclear reactors , and fuel cycle technologies. On June 15, 2015, the United...related to nuclear energy as a whole. Others see fuel cycle capabilities as part of a long-term nuclear reactor export strategy, envisioning that South...based in the ROK and South Korea is included under the U.S. “ nuclear umbrella.” Second, Washington and Seoul cooperate in addressing the challenges

  14. Hazard categorization of K Basin water filtration upgrade project

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, K.R.

    1995-10-19

    This supporting document provides the hazards categorization for the K Basin Water Filtration Upgrade Project at K East. All activities associated with the project are less than Hazard Category 3, except for the handling of the ECO-ROK liners containing spent filter cartridges. All activities involving the handling of liners, containing spent cartridges, by monorail, forklift or mobile crane are classified as Hazard Category 3.

  15. The relationship between mosquito abundance and rice field density in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Richards, Erin E; Masuoka, Penny; Brett-Major, David; Smith, Matthew; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung Chul; Anyamba, Assaf; Grieco, John

    2010-06-23

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis (JE), is endemic to the Republic of Korea (ROK) where unvaccinated United States (U.S.) military Service members, civilians and family members are stationed. The primary vector of the JEV in the ROK is Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The ecological relationship between Culex spp. and rice fields has been studied extensively; rice fields have been shown to increase the prevalence of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. This research was conducted to determine if the quantification of rice field land cover surrounding U.S. military installations in the ROK should be used as a parameter in a larger risk model that predicts the abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus populations. Mosquito data from the U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) mosquito surveillance program were used in this project. The average number of female Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected per trap night for the months of August and September, 2002-2008, was calculated. Rice fields were manually digitized inside 1.5 km buffer zones surrounding U.S. military installations on high-resolution satellite images, and the proportion of rice fields was calculated for each buffer zone. Mosquito data collected from seventeen sample sites were analyzed for an association with the proportion of rice field land cover. Results demonstrated that the linear relationship between the proportion of rice fields and mosquito abundance was statistically significant (R2 = 0.62, r = .79, F = 22.72, p < 0.001). The analysis presented shows a statistically significant linear relationship between the two parameters, proportion of rice field land cover and log10 of the average number of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected per trap night. The findings confirm that agricultural land cover should be included in future studies to develop JE risk prediction models for non-indigenous personnel living at military installations in the ROK.

  16. First evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in vivax malaria endemic regions in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Ji, So-Young; Shin, Hyun-Il; Moon, Jun-Hye; Cho, Shin-Hyung; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jung-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect and affects more than 400 million people worldwide. This deficiency is believed to protect against malaria because its global distribution is similar. However, this genetic disorder may be associated with potential hemolytic anemia after treatment with anti-malarials, primaquine or other 8-aminoquinolines. Although primaquine is used for malaria prevention, no study has previously investigated the prevalence of G6PD variants and G6PD deficiency in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Two commercialized test kits (Trinity G-6-PDH and CareStart G6PD test) were used for G6PD deficiency screening. The seven common G6PD variants were investigated by DiaPlexC kit in blood samples obtained living in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Of 1,044 blood samples tested using the CareStart G6PD test, none were positive for G6PD deficiency. However, a slightly elevated level of G6PD activity was observed in 14 of 1,031 samples tested with the Trinity G-6-PDH test. Forty-nine of the 298 samples with non-specific amplification by DiaPlexC kit were confirmed by sequencing to be negative for the G6PD variants. No G6PD deficiency was observed using phenotypic- or genetic-based tests in individuals residing in vivax malaria endemic regions in the ROK. Because massive chemoprophylaxis using primaquine has been performed in the ROK military to kill hypnozoites responsible for relapse and latent stage vivax malaria, further regular monitoring is essential for the safe administration of primaquine.

  17. The relationship between mosquito abundance and rice field density in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis (JE), is endemic to the Republic of Korea (ROK) where unvaccinated United States (U.S.) military Service members, civilians and family members are stationed. The primary vector of the JEV in the ROK is Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The ecological relationship between Culex spp. and rice fields has been studied extensively; rice fields have been shown to increase the prevalence of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. This research was conducted to determine if the quantification of rice field land cover surrounding U.S. military installations in the ROK should be used as a parameter in a larger risk model that predicts the abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus populations. Mosquito data from the U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) mosquito surveillance program were used in this project. The average number of female Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected per trap night for the months of August and September, 2002-2008, was calculated. Rice fields were manually digitized inside 1.5 km buffer zones surrounding U.S. military installations on high-resolution satellite images, and the proportion of rice fields was calculated for each buffer zone. Results Mosquito data collected from seventeen sample sites were analyzed for an association with the proportion of rice field land cover. Results demonstrated that the linear relationship between the proportion of rice fields and mosquito abundance was statistically significant (R2 = 0.62, r = .79, F = 22.72, p < 0.001). Conclusions The analysis presented shows a statistically significant linear relationship between the two parameters, proportion of rice field land cover and log10 of the average number of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected per trap night. The findings confirm that agricultural land cover should be included in future studies to develop JE risk prediction models for non-indigenous personnel living at military installations in the ROK. PMID:20573242

  18. Genetic Diversity and Reassortment of Hantaan Virus Tripartite RNA Genomes in Nature, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Kho, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Daesang; Song, Dong Hyun; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Seong Tae; Park, Man-Seong; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-06-01

    Hantaan virus (HTNV), a negative sense tripartite RNA virus of the Family Bunyaviridae, is the most prevalent hantavirus in the Republic of Korea (ROK). It is the causative agent of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in humans and maintained in the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, the primary zoonotic host. Clinical HFRS cases have been reported commonly in HFRS-endemic areas of Gyeonggi province. Recently, the death of a member of the ROK military from Gangwon province due to HFRS prompted an investigation of the epidemiology and distribution of hantaviruses in Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces that border the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea. To elucidate the geographic distribution and molecular diversity of HTNV, whole genome sequences of HTNV Large (L), Medium (M), and Small (S) segments were acquired from lung tissues of A. agrarius captured from 2003-2014. Consistent with the clinical incidence of HFRS established by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC), the prevalence of HTNV in naturally infected mice in Gangwon province was lower than for Gyeonggi province. Whole genomic sequences of 34 HTNV strains were identified and a phylogenetic analysis showed geographic diversity of the virus in the limited areas. Reassortment analysis first suggested an occurrence of genetic exchange of HTNV genomes in nature, ROK. This study is the first report to demonstrate the molecular prevalence of HTNV in Gangwon province. Whole genome sequencing of HTNV showed well-supported geographic lineages and the molecular diversity in the northern region of ROK due to a natural reassortment of HTNV genomes. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. Also, the full-length of HTNV tripartite genomes will provide a database for phylogeographic analysis of spatial and temporal outbreaks of hantavirus infection.

  19. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and tick-borne encephalitis viruses in ixodid ticks collected from vegetation, Republic of Korea, 2014.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, WooYoung; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Coburn, Jordan M; Klein, Terry A; Lee, Won-Ja

    2016-07-01

    Ticks play an important role in transmission of arboviruses responsible for emerging infectious diseases, and have a significant impact on human, veterinary, and wildlife health. In the Republic of Korea (ROK), little is known about information regarding the presence of tick-borne viruses and their vectors. A total of 21,158 ticks belonging to 3 genera and 6 species collected at 6 provinces and 4 metropolitan areas in the ROK from March to October 2014 were assayed for selected tick-borne pathogens. Haemaphysalis longicornis (n=17,570) was the most numerously collected, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (n=3317), Ixodes nipponensis (n=249), Amblyomma testudinarium (n=11), Haemaphysalis phasiana (n=8), and Ixodes turdus (n=3). Ticks were pooled (adults 1-5, nymphs 1-30, and larvae 1-50) and tested by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or nested RT-PCR for the detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia virus (SFTSV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Powassan virus (POWV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), and Langat virus (LGTV). The overall maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) [estimated numbers of viral RNA positive ticks/1000 ticks] for SFTSV and TBEV was 0.95 and 0.43, respectively, while, all pools were negative for POWV, OHFV, and LGTV. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of SFTSV, TBEV, POWV, OHFV, and LGTV in ixodid ticks collected from vegetation in the ROK to aid our understanding of the epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases. Results from this study emphasize the need for continuous tick-based arbovirus surveillance to monitor the emergence of tick-borne diseases in the ROK.

  20. Korea: Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-03-01

    03-1959 1 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Korea : Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Force 5b. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Support and Korean officers and officials concerned with nutrition and feeding, Mr. Kim Chung Yul, Minister for National Defense , made a formal...2. Annex 1, prepared by the Acting UNC Economic Coordinator, sets forth the effect of the above shift on Korean Economy and the ROK defense effort

  1. Community Response to Terrorism: The South Korean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    KOREA Ever since the division of the Korean peninsula at the conclusion of the Second World War, South Koreans have lived with real and imagined...threats from communist North Korea (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , or DPRK). The authorities have been unable to prevent all North Korean ...on three lines of defense . First, an authoritarian government kept firm control over Korean society. Second, the police and the ROK army were visibly

  2. The Economic Implications of Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The eventual reunification of the Korean peninsula will offer many challenges for...in the development of two very different governments and economies. The two Koreas are technically still at war; the Korean War ended with the signing...96 Korea actually began to become industrialized during the last fifteen years of Japanese occupation. The number of Koreans employed in heavy

  3. Air Power in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    was simply to expel the North Korean communists from the free country in the south called the Republic of Korea . The U.S. national objective was to... Korea reasoning that the forces could best be used elsewhere. During the three years prior to the Korean War, Truman’s policy toward the ROK was...increasing Chinese Communist interests in North Korea .4 On 10 March 1950, Truman was further warned that the North Koreans would “invade sometime in

  4. Log-centric Airbase-opening Strategies in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    is becoming politically less viable.”4 In the Korean theater of operations (KTO), Republic of Korea (ROK) and U.S. plan- ners, from Combined Forces...in the Korean War. —Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker, Commander, 8th U.S. Army, Korea , 19501 South Korean military members participate with U.S...pallet buildup and cargo loading Supplies are loaded onto Korean C–130 at Hickam Air Base, Hawaii Republic of Korea air force security advisor speaks

  5. Lessons from the Past: Vital Factors Influencing Military Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Military Advisory Group ROK Republic of Korea RVNAF Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces SAO Security Assistance Operations SCO Security Cooperation...Reconstruction. 2010. Quarterly report to the United States Congress. Third Quarter. 14 3 Rod Norland. “Showcase Afghan Army Mission Turns Into Debacle...Assistance Operations ( SAO ), such as those conducted by the United States and NTM-A in Afghanistan, military advisors play a key role. In order to assess

  6. Markers of bone metabolism in multiple myeloma patients switched from zoledronic acid to denosumab.

    PubMed

    Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Sato, Tsutomu; Ibata, Soushi; Hashimoto, Akari; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Ono, Kaoru; Takada, Kohichi; Iyama, Satoshi; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

    2014-11-01

    To date, intravenous drip infusion of zoledronic acid (ZA) has mainly been used for the treatment and prevention of skeletal-related events (SRE) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, denosumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), has also become available for the same purpose, but little is known about the impact of switching from ZA to denosumab. Herein, we present a retrospective study on bone metabolic markers in 10 MM patients initially treated with ZA and then switched to denosumab. Consequently, the levels of bone resorption markers, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) and serum type-I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide (sNTX), significantly decreased after denosumab treatment, while the levels of bone formation markers, osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), showed no apparent changes. No patient developed severe hypocalcemia with denosumab treatment. In one patient not given chemotherapy, the M-protein level increased after switching from ZA to denosumab and plateaued when ZA was restarted. Based on this finding, we anticipate that switching from ZA to denosumab would exert a stronger suppressive effect on osteoclasts, but the anti-myeloma activity of ZA must be taken into consideration.

  7. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Ryan C.; Custis, James T.; Ehrhart, Nicole P.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Condon, Keith W.; Gookin, Sara E.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA) have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy). Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total). Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis) 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH) treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma. PMID:27332712

  8. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Ryan C; Custis, James T; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ehrhart, E J; Condon, Keith W; Gookin, Sara E; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA) have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy). Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total). Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis) 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH) treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma.

  9. Cytoprotective effects of melatonin on zoledronic acid-treated human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco Javier; García-Bernal, David; Ros-Roca, Maria de Los Ángeles; Algueró, Maria del Carmen; Oñate-Sánchez, Ricardo Elías; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Moraleda, Jose María

    2015-07-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a common clinical complication in patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy. Furthermore, melatonin has been proposed as a therapeutic drug for the oral cavity due to its antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of melatonin on zoledronic acid (ZA)-treated human mesenchymal stem cells from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) and bone marrow (BMMSCs). PDLSCs and BMMSCs were exposed to ZA, melatonin or ZA + melatonin for 72 h. Cell proliferation was measured by a colorimetric assay, whereas their mesenchymal phenotype was analyzed by flow cytometry. Proliferation assays showed that BMMSCs presented higher ZA resistance than PDLSCs, as well as a difference in response to the simultaneous treatment of ZA + melatonin. Using PDLSCs, high doses of melatonin significantly increased their proliferation, whereas lower concentrations were enough to enhance ZA-treated BMMSC proliferation. Moreover, PDLSCs displayed a CD90/CD105 downregulation and CD73 upregulation in response to ZA, which was more pronounced in response to melatonin. Furthermore, ZA or ZA + low doses of melatonin induced a decrease of expression of CD90/CD105/CD73 on BMMSCs, while a higher concentration recovered CD73 levels. These results suggest that melatonin has a cytoprotective effect on ZA-treated PDLSCs and BMMSCs. Thus, it could be used for BRONJ prevention. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Zoledronic acid causes γδ T cells to target monocytes and down-modulate inflammatory homing

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Daniel W; Copier, John; Dalgleish, Angus G; Bodman-Smith, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potential immunotherapy for cancer because it can induce potent γδ T-cell-mediated anti-tumour responses. Clinical trials are testing the efficacy of intravenous ZA in cancer patients; however, the effects of systemic ZA on the activation and migration of peripheral γδ T cells remain poorly understood. We found that γδ T cells within ZA-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were degranulating, as shown by up-regulated expression of CD107a/b. Degranulation was monocyte dependent because CD107a/b expression was markedly reduced in the absence of CD14+ cells. Consistent with monocyte-induced degranulation, we observed γδ T-cell-dependent induction of monocyte apoptosis, as shown by phosphatidylserine expression on monocytes and decreased percentages of monocytes in culture. Despite the prevailing paradigm that ZA promotes tumour homing in γδ T cells, we observed down-modulation of their tumour homing capacity, as shown by decreased expression of the inflammatory chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, and reduced migration towards the inflammatory chemokine CCL5. Taken together our data suggest that ZA causes γδ T cells to target monocytes and down-modulate the migratory programme required for inflammatory homing. This study provides novel insight into how γδ T cells interact with monocytes and the possible implications of systemic use of ZA in cancer. PMID:24912747

  11. The Effects of Zoledronic Acid in the Bone and Vasculature Support of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Soki, Fabiana N.; Li, Xin; Berry, Janice; Koh, Amy; Sinder, Benjamin P.; Qian, Xu; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Taichman, Russell S.; McCauley, Laurie K.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are maintained in a tightly regulated bone microenvironment constituted by a rich milieu of cells. Bone cells such as osteoblasts are associated with niche maintenance as regulators of the endosteal microenvironment. Bone remodeling also plays a role in HSC mobilization although it is poorly defined. The effects of zoledronic acid (ZA), a potent bisphosphonate that inhibits bone resorption, were investigated on bone marrow cell populations focusing on HSCs, and the endosteal and vascular niches in bone. ZA treatment significantly increased bone volume and HSCs in both young and adult mice (4 week and 4 month old, respectively). ZA increased vessel numbers with no overall change in vascular volume in bones of young and had no effect on vasculature in adult mice. Since both young and adult mice had increased HSCs and bone mass with differing vasculature responses, this suggests that ZA indirectly supports HSCs via the osteoblastic niche and not the vascular niche. Additionally, gene expression in Lin- cells demonstrated increased expression of self-renewal-related genes Bmi1 and Ink4a suggesting a role of ZA in the modulation of cell commitment and differentiation toward a long-term self-renewing cell. Genes that support the osteoblastic niche, BMP2 and BMP6 were also augmented in ZA treated mice. In conclusion, ZA-induced HSC expansion occurs independent of the vascular niche via indirect modulation of the osteoblastic niche. PMID:22833499

  12. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  13. Combover/CG10732, a novel PCP effector for Drosophila wing hair formation.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeremy K; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh.

  14. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Sapovirus Detected in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Lim; Suh, Chang-Il; Park, Seung-Won; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Sapovirus (SaV), a virus residing in the intestines, is one of the important causes of gastroenteritis in human beings. Human SaV genomes are classified into various genogroups and genotypes. Whole-genome analysis and phylogenetic analysis of ROK62, the SaV isolated in South Korea, were carried out. The ROK62 genome of 7429 nucleotides contains 3 open-reading frames (ORF). The genotype of ROK62 is SaV GI-1, and 94% of its nucleotide sequence is identical with other SaVs, namely Manchester and Mc114. Recently, SaV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighboring South Korea; however, very few academic studies have been done nationally. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of SaV in South Korea, this research will help provide reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemic spread, and development of diagnosis methods for SaV.

  15. Pelvic organ prolapse is associated with alteration of sphingosine-1-phosphate/Rho-kinase signalling pathway in human vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Rhee, S H; Zhang, P; Hunter, K; Mama, S T; Caraballo, R; Holzberg, A S; Seftel, R H; Seftel, A D; Echols, K T; DiSanto, M E

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a debilitating condition of unknown aetiology affecting > 50% of women over 40 years of age. In POP patients, the vaginal walls are weakened allowing descent of pelvic organs through the vagina. We sought to determine if sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling, which regulates smooth muscle contractility and apoptosis via the RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROK) pathway, is altered in the vagina of women with POP. Utilising anterior vaginal wall specimens, we provide novel demonstration of the S1P pathway in this organ. Additionally, comparing specimens from women having pelvic reconstructive surgery for POP and control subjects, we reveal increases in mRNA expression of the three major mammalian S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P3), and RhoA and the ROK isoforms: ROKα and ROKβ in POP patients, which correlates with a decrease in elastic fibre assembly pathway constituents. Taken together, our data suggest the S1P/ROK pathway as a novel area for future POP research and potential therapeutic development.

  16. The importance of Rho-associated kinase-induced Ca2+ sensitization as a component of electromechanical and pharmacomechanical coupling in rat ureteric smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Borysova, Lyudmyla; Shabir, S.; Walsh, Michael P.; Burdyga, Theodor

    2012-01-01

    Ureteric peristalsis, which occurs via alternating contraction and relaxation of ureteric smooth muscle, ensures the unidirectional flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ureteric excitation–contraction coupling, however, is limited. To address these knowledge deficits, and in particular to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ sensitization via activation of the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROK) pathway plays an important role in ureteric smooth muscle contraction, we carried out a thorough characterization of the electrical activity, Ca2+ signaling, MYPT1 (myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, MLCP) and myosin regulatory light chain (LC20 ) phosphorylation, and force responses to membrane depolarization induced by KCl (electromechanical coupling) and carbachol (CCh) (pharmacomechanical coupling). The effects of ROK inhibition on these parameters were investigated. We conclude that the tonic, but not the phasic component of KCl- or CCh-induced ureteric smooth muscle contraction is highly dependent on ROK-catalyzed phosphorylation of MYPT1 at T855, leading to inhibition of MLCP and increased LC20 phosphorylation. PMID:21839512

  17. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  18. Measurements of radioxenon in ground level air in South Korea following the claimed nuclear test in North Korea on October 9, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ringbom, Anders; Elmgren, K.; Lindh, Karin; Peterson, Jenny; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Panisko, Mark E.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-12-03

    Abstract Following the claimed nuclear test in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) on October 9, 2006, and a reported seismic event, a mobile system for sampling of atmospheric xenon was transported to the Republic of South Korea (ROK) in an attempt to detect possible emissions of radioxenon in the region from a presumed test. Five samples were collected in the ROK during October 11–14, 2006 near the ROK–DPRK border, and thereafter transported to the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) in Stockholm, Sweden, for analysis. Following the initial measurements, an automatic radioxenon sampling and analysis system was installed at the same location in the ROK, and measurements on the ambient atmospheric radioxenon background in the region were performed during November 2006 to February 2007. The measured radioxenon concentrations strongly indicate that the explosion in October 9, 2006 was a nuclear test. The conclusion is further strengthened by atmospheric transport models. Radioactive xenon measurement was the only independent confirmation that the supposed test was in fact a nuclear explosion and not a conventional (chemical) explosive.

  19. Determination of Two-Liquid Mixture Composition by Assessing Dielectric Parameters 1. Precise Measuring System / Divu Šķidrumu Maisījuma Sastāva Noteikšana, Izvērtējot to Dielektriskos Parametrus 1. Precīza Mērīšanas Sistēma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.

    2013-08-01

    Concentration measurements are important in bioethanol industries, in the R&D areas, for chemical, medical and microbiological analyses and processing as well as for diagnostics, manufacturing, etc. The overview shows development of the structural design of a system for measuring the concentration of solutions and mixtures consisting of two dielectric liquids. The basic principles of the system's design are given along with relevant equations. The concentration of dielectric liquids is measured using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300 pF). The operational frequency of the developed measuring system is 100.000 kHz. Configuration of the system excludes some errors usually arising at measurements, and broadens its applicability. For testing, the system was calibrated for measuring the concentration of anhydrous ethanol + de-ionized water mixture. Experimental results have shown a stable resolution of ±0.005 pF at measuring the sensor capacitance and a reproducible resolution better than ±0.01% at measuring the ethanol volume concentration Rakstā esam parādījuši iespējas izveidot augstas precizitātes, kompaktu, lētu un ērtu lietošanai dielektrisku šķidrumu mērīšanas sistēmu koncentrācijas noteikšanai. Šī sistēma ir piemērojama kapacitīviem sensoriem, kuru kapacitāte ir atkarīga no sensora izveidojuma kā arī mērāmā šķidruma dielektriskās konstantes vērtības, un kapacitāte var tikt noteikta pie frekvences 100,000 kHz robežās no 1 F līdz 300 pF. Mērīšanas sistēmas pārbaudei, sistēma tika kalibrēta etanola koncentrācijas mērīšanai tilpuma procentos sertificēta bezūdens etanola un dejonizēta ūdens maisījumiem. Pārbaužu rezultāti pierādīja, ka sensora kapacitātes vērtības ir stabili nosakāmas ar izšķirtspēju ne mazāku par ±0,005 pF. Sensora kapacitāšu vērtībām atbilstošā etanola tilpuma koncentrācijas atkārtojamu mērījumu izšķirtspēja visā mērīšanas diapazonā nebija mazāka par ±0,01%. Šajā darbā piedāvātajā jaunajā mērīšanas sistēmas struktūras risinājumā iekļautas divas tiešas signālu digitālās sintēzes mikrosistēmas, kas ar augstu precizitāti ģenerē mērīšanai nepieciešamās formas, fāzes un amplitūdas signālus ar 100,000 kHz frekvenci un tiek vadītas no mikrokontrolera. Mērīšanas sistēmā izmantota mērsignālu sinhronizētās detektēšanas tehnika. Izstrādātās sistēmas konigurācija, mērīšanas režīma uzstādījums un vadība automātiski praktiski izslēdz virkni mērīšanas signālu parazītisko fāzes nobīžu un fāzes uzstādījumu kļūdas. Izstrādātā mērīšanas sistēma ērti piemērojama vispārējai izmantošanai kapacitātes vai impedances mērierīcēs. Samērā nelielā prognozējamā mērīšanas sistēmas pašizmaksa un kompaktā, portatīvā konstrukcija, kā arī iepriekš minētās priekšrocības paplašina sistēmas lietojumu ne tikai etanola koncentrācijas mērīanai bioetanola ražošanas procesā, bet šī sistēma var tikt izmantota arī eļļas, benzīna un citu degvielu testēšanai, ķīmiskajā, farmācijas un pārtikas industrijā, mikrobioloģijā un medicīnā, lai noteiktu glikozes, antigēnu, antivielu, proteīna, DNS fragmentu un citu vielu saturu šķīdumos u.c.

  20. Méthode quantitative d'étude des formations détritiques azoïques: grès anté-panafricains du Centrafrique et du Nord de la République Démocratique du Congo (ex-Zaïre)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, P.

    2000-08-01

    The stratigraphical correlation of discontinuous outcrops without biostratigraphical markers requires specific methods: a statistical distribution analysis of noteworthy components that allows characterisation of sediment source areas and reconstitution of particle supply variations; and a frequency histogram study that allows comparison and grouping, and subsequent correlation. These methods, applied to Pal˦oproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sandstone formations of the Central African Republic, suggest a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian fluvio-deltaic system with a paludal-lacustrine outlet. The sediment source area corresponded to a weathered and laterised grano-gneissic basement associated with a quartzite cover with acid volcanism. The fluvio-deltaic system settled during an interglacial period between a lower fluvio-giacial episode and an upper glacial episode of global character. It was marked by a substantial detntal flow, contemporaneous with basic volcanism, which filled up extensional basins. The sedimentary dynamics of this detrital system has been determined in the Central African Republic. It forms an integral part of a global model not only peculiar to the northern periphery of the Central African Craton (Congo, Cameroon, the northern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo), but also to its southeastern (Congo, Lower-Zaire, Angola) and southwestern (Democratic Republic of Congo) borders. In the Central African Republic and Congo, the channalised and conglomeratic base of this fluvio-deltaic system are favoured for diamond prospecting.

  1. Determination of Dynamic Loads of Sprocket Drum Teeth and Seats by Means of a Mathematical Model of the Longwall Conveyor / Wyznaczenie Obciążeń Dynamicznych Zębów I Gniazd Bębna Łańcuchowego Za Pomocą Modelu Matematycznego Przenośnika Ścianowego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolipski, Marian; Remiorz, Eryk; Sobota, Piotr

    2012-12-01

    Scraper conveyors are one of the key machines forming part of mechanised longwall systems. They are currently the only means of transporting the mined rock from longwalls in hard coal mines. The hauling force caused by the drive is transmitted onto a link chain through drive wheels with their external shape corresponding to a geometric polygon. The number of teeth (seats) in such wheels ranges between 5 and 8. The horizontal links running on the drum are arranged in the drive wheel seats and are meshing with the teeth segments. The geometric relationships between the sprocket drum and the links are decisive for the position of the chain links in the seats. The abrasive wear of the chain parts and of the drive drum parts occurring due to conveyor operation is increasing the chain pitch and decreasing the wheel pitch. The position of a link in the seats changes as a result along with the load on the sprocket drum teeth and seats. Sprocket drums are the weakest element in longwall conveyors. It is, therefore, urgently necessary to determine the dynamic loads of such drums' teeth and seats. The article presents a physical model and a mathematical model of a longwall conveyor created for the purpose of determination of dynamic loads of the sprocket drum teeth and seats. The results of computer simulations are also presented (dynamic loads: in chains, dynamic loads of sprocket drums and dynamic loads of sprocket drums' teeth and seats) carried out using the created mathematical model for a 350 m long face conveyor.

  2. Modeling of Accurate Variable Slope Angles in Open-Pit Mine Design Using Spline Interpolation / Modelowanie Zmiennego Kąta Nachylenia Stoku W Projektowaniu Kopalni Odkrywkowych Za Pomocą Interpolacji Funkcjami Sklejającymi (Metodą Spline'Ów)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishvan, Masoud Soleymani; Sattarvand, Javad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper a new method of modeling variable slope angles has been presented based on the spline interpolation method. Slope angle modeling and defining precedency of the blocks are the vital parts of almost any open pit optimization algorithm. Traditionally heuristic patterns such as 1:5 or 1:9 have been used to generate slope angles. Cone template based models were later employed in developing variable slope angles. They normally use a linear interpolation process for determination of slope angles between the given directions which leads to sharp and non-realistic pits. The other elliptical alternatives suffer from having limitations in defining slope angles in non-geographical directions. The method is capable to consider any number of slope angles in any desired direction as well as creating quite accurate and realistic pit shapes. Three major types of the spline interpolation including cubic, quadratic and cardinal are tested, however, the cubic form is preferred due to more realistic outcomes. Main steps of the method are described through a numerical case study.

  3. The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the Δ(3)Δ (2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Justus, Jennifer; Weigand, Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Auxiliary enzymes participate in β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderate zinc deficiency and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat on Δ(3)Δ(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) in the liver and other tissues. Five groups of eight weanling rats each were fed moderately zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-adequate (ZA) semisynthetic diets (7 or 50 mg Zn/kg) enriched with 22 % cocoa butter (CB) or 22 % safflower oil (SO) for 4 weeks: (1) ZD-CB, fed free choice; (2) ZA-CBR, ZA-CB diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-CB group; (3) ZD-SO, fed free choice; (4) ZA-SOR, ZA-SO diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-SO group; and (5) ZA-SO, fed free choice. Growth and Zn status markers were markedly reduced in the ZD groups. ECI activity in the liver of the animals fed the ZD- and ZA-SO diets were significantly higher (approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively) as compared with the CB-fed animals, whereas activities in extrahepatic tissues (kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, testes, adipose tissue) were not altered by dietary treatments. Transcript levels of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver did not significantly differ between ZD and ZA rats, but were 1.6-fold higher in the ZA-SO- than in the ZD-CB-fed animals (P < 0.05). It is concluded that diets enriched with safflower oil as a source high in linoleic acid induce markedly increased hepatic ECI activities and that a moderate Zn deficiency does not affect transcription of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver.

  4. Intermittent zoledronic Acid prevents bone loss in adults after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hari, Parameswaran; DeFor, Todd E; Vesole, David H; Bredeson, Christopher N; Burns, Linda J

    2013-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) loss is common in survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). We performed a multicenter, phase II, randomized open-label trial of intravenous zoledronic acid (ZA) to prevent BMD loss in adult recipients of alloHCT with osteopenia before HCT. The treatment group received ZA 4 mg intravenously within 28 days pre-HCT and at 3 and 6 months after HCT. Both treatment and control groups received calcium carbonate and vitamin D supplements. Of 61 patients, 32 were randomized to the ZA cohort and 29 to the control cohorts. More patients in the ZA group had an HCT comorbidity index high-risk score of ≥3 (50% versus 21%, P < .01). Baseline BMD, T-scores, serum osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urine N-telopeptide (UNTX) levels were similar in both cohorts. Thirty patients were evaluable for outcomes (11 from the treatment and 19 from the control group). At 12 months, subjects in the treatment group had an improvement in BMD at the femoral neck (mean change, .018 for ZA group versus -.054 for controls; P = .04) and a significant decline in levels of UNTX (-56 for ZA group versus -9 for control; P = .04) compared with baseline. ZA was well tolerated and not associated with any cases of osteonecrosis of jaw or renal impairment. Lower survival observed in the ZA cohort was likely related to baseline imbalance in HCT-CI scores. Intermittent ZA is effective in preserving long-term bone health in adult alloHCT recipients at risk for osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential Effect of Zoledronic Acid on Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Albadawi, Hassan; Haurani, Mounir J.; Oklu, Rahmi; Trubiano, Jordan P.; Laub, Peter J.; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Watkins, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The activation of human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, adhesion and migration is essential for intimal hyperplasia formation. These experiments were designed to test whether Zoledronic Acid (ZA) would modulate indices of human smooth muscle cell activation, exert differential effects on proliferating vs. quiescent cells and determine whether these effects were dependent on GTPase binding proteins prenylation. ZA was chosen for testing in these experiments because it is clinically used in humans with cancer, and has been shown to modulate rat smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Methods Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) were cultured under either proliferating or growth arrest (quiescent) conditions in the presence or absence of ZA for 48 hours, whereupon the effect of ZA on HASMC proliferation, cellular viability, metabolic activity and membrane integrity were compared. In addition, the effect of ZA on adhesion and migration were assessed in proliferating cells. The effect of increased concentration of ZA on the mevalonate pathway and genomic/cellular stress related poly ADP Ribose polymerase (PARP) enzyme activity were assessed using the relative prenylation of Rap-1A/B protein and the formation of poly ADP- ribosylated proteins (PAR) respectively. Results There was a dose dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, adhesion and migration following ZA treatment. ZA treatment decreased indices of cellular viability and significantly increased membrane injury in proliferating vs. quiescent cells. This was correlated with the appearance of unprenylated Rap-1A protein and dose dependent down regulation of PARP activity. Conclusions These data suggest that ZA is effective in inhibiting HASMC proliferation, adhesion and migration which coincide with the appearance of unprenylated RAP-1A/B protein, thereby suggesting that the mevalonate pathway may play a role in the inhibition of HASMC activation. PMID:23164362

  6. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: Effects on growth and concentrations of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus calves of intra-testicular injection of either saline (n=9) or one of two doses of zinc acetate ((ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10, or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) or surgical castration (n=9) on circulating concentrations of testostosterone and liveweight. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 1500IU) was administered 202 and 525 days after treatment on Day 0 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. In animals left intact treatment with ZA reduced mean serum concentrations of testosterone (Saline: 5.58±0.79ng/mL, ZA1: 1.28±0.27ng/mL, ZA2: 1.01±0.17ng/mL; P<0.001) and concentrations 48h following administration of hCG. The maximum concentration of testosterone recorded throughout the study in six out of 19 animals treated with ZA was ≤0.21ng/mL. Treatment with ZA did not significantly affect live weights or carcass weights or result in any detectable scrotal lesions. Animals with concentrations of testosterone ≥1.0ng/mL exhibited greater liveweights throughout most of the study and yielded heavier carcass weights (340.9±7.02 versus 309.3±6.17kg, P=0.002). It is concluded that a single, intra-testicular administration of either 57.75mg or 71.75mg of ZA was able to similarly reduce circulating concentrations of testosterone without significantly affecting liveweights or carcass weights. Treatment with ZA can result in variation in circulating concentrations of testosterone which could lead to differences in behaviour, liveweights and carcass characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the anti-tumoral effects of zoledronic acid in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fragni, M; Bonini, S A; Bettinsoli, P; Bodei, S; Generali, D; Bottini, A; Spano, P F; Memo, M; Sigala, S

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical data indicate a direct anti-tumor effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) outside the skeleton, but its molecular mechanism is still not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ZA in human breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that they may in part be mediated via the miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. The effect of ZA on cell viability was measured by MTT assay, and cell death induction was analyzed using either a double AO/EtBr staining and M30 ELISA assay. A Proteome Profiler Human Apoptosis Array was executed to evaluate the molecular basis of ZA-induced apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis was executed by flow cytometry. The effect of ZA on miR-21 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and the amount of PTEN protein and its targets were analyzed by Western blot. ZA inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, through the activation of cell death pathways and arrest of cell cycle progression. ZA downregulated the expression of miR-21, resulting in dephosphorilation of Akt and Bad and in a significant increase of p21 and p27 proteins expression. These results were observed also in MDA-MB-231 cells, commonly used as an experimental model of bone metastasis of breast cancer. This study revealed, for the first time, an involvement of the miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway in the mechanism of ZA anti-cancer actions in breast cancer cells. We would like to underline that this pathway is present both in the hormone responsive BC cell line (MCF-7) as well as in a triple negative cell line (MDA-MB-231). Taken together these results reinforce the use of ZA in clinical practice, suggesting the role of miR-21 as a possible mediator of its therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Giant porphyrin wheels with large electronic coupling as models of light-harvesting photosynthetic antenna.

    PubMed

    Hori, Takaaki; Aratani, Naoki; Takagi, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Takuya; Kawai, Tomoji; Yoon, Min-Chul; Yoon, Zin Seok; Cho, Sung; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2006-02-01

    Starting from a 1,3-phenylene-linked diporphyrin zinc(II) complex 2ZA, repeated stepwise Ag(I)-promoted coupling reactions provided linear oligomers 4ZA, 6ZA, 8ZA, and 12ZA. The intramolecular cyclization reaction of 12ZA under dilute conditions (1x10(-6) M) gave porphyrin ring C12ZA with a diameter of approximately 35 A in 60% yield. This synthetic strategy has been applied to a 1,3-phenylene-linked tetraporphyrin 4ZB to provide 8ZB, 12ZB, 16ZB, 24ZB, and 32ZB. The intramolecular coupling reaction of 24ZB gave a larger 24-mer porphyrin ring C24ZB with a diameter of approximately 70 A in 34% yield. These two large porphyrin rings were characterized by means of 1H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. The STM images of C12ZA reveal largely circular structures, whereas those of C24ZB exhibit mostly ellipsoidal shapes, indicating more conformational flexibility of C24ZB. Similar to the case of C12ZA, the efficient excitation energy transfer along the ring has been confirmed for C24ZB by using the time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and picosecond transient absorption anisotropy (TAA) measurements, and occurs with a rate of (35 ps)(-1) for energy hops between neighboring tetraporphyrin subunits. Collectively, the present work provides an important step for the construction of large cyclic-arranged porphyrin arrays with ample electronic interactions as a model of light-harvesting antenna.

  10. Capillary liquid chromatographic fingerprint used for discrimination of Zingiber montanum from related species.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamad; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Darusman, Latifah Kosim

    2013-08-01

    Fingerprint analysis using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) has been developed for discrimination of Zingiber montanum (ZM) from related species, for example Z. americans (ZA) and Z. zerumbet (ZZ). By comparing the fingerprint chromatograms of ZM, ZA, and ZZ we could identify ZM samples and discriminate them from ZA and ZZ by using their marker peaks. We also combined CLC fingerprint with multivariate analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA); all three species were discriminated successfully. This result indicates that CLC fingerprint analysis in combination with PCA and CVA can be used for discrimination of ZM samples from samples of related species.

  11. The Explosion of Commercial Space and the Implications for National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    space as an approach to this di­ lemma. On the one hand, commer ciali za tion is not a total panacea. To be sure, some functions are not ame na ble to...com mer ciali za tion, such as mis sile warning, signals intel li gence, certain sur veil lance functions inte grated into weapon sys tems, heroi...commer ciali za tion of launch is inexo ra ble. Conse quently, I think that the Air Force will follow NASA’s lead and ul ti mately purchase launch as

  12. 78 FR 23617 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Exchange introduced new Flags ZA (Retail Order, adds liquidity) and ZR (Retail Order, removes liquidity... involved Member acts as an intermediary to effect the transaction.\\12\\ \\11\\ As defined in Exchange Rule 1.5...

  13. Survey of Ergonomics Databases in Member Countries of the International Ergonomics Association.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Sociale Engineering Materials and Design. Archiv Za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju Environmental Health Artificial Intelligence Ergonomia (Hungary) At the...Centre (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health Ergonomia (Poland) and Safety) Ergonomiatiedote Australian Department of Transport. Road Safety In

  14. 75 FR 6627 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-ZA28 Broadband Technology Opportunities...) announcing general policy and application procedures for the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program...

  15. Supersaturation of zafirlukast in fasted and fed state intestinal media with and without precipitation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Boyd, Ben; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-08-25

    Poor water solubility is a bottle neck in the development of many new drug candidates, and understanding and circumventing this is essential for a more effective drug development. Zafirlukast (ZA) is a leukotriene antagonist marketed for the treatment of asthma (Accolate®). ZA is poorly water soluble, and is formulated in an amorphous form (aZA) to improve its solubility and oral bioavailability. It has been shown that upon dissolution of aZa, the concentration of ZA in solution is supersaturated with respect to its stable crystalline form (ZA monohydrate), and thus, in theory, the bioavailability increases upon amorphization of ZA. The polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), often used as stabilizers of the supersaturated state, are in the excipient list of Accolate®. It is not recommended to take Accolate® with food, as this reduces the bioavailability by 40%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of simulated fasted and fed state intestinal media as well as the effect of HPMC and PVP on the supersaturation and precipitation of ZA in vitro. Supersaturation of aZA was studied in vitro in a small scale setup using the μDiss Profiler™. Several media were used for this study: One medium simulating the fasted state intestinal fluids and three media simulating different fed state intestinal fluids. Solid state changes of the drug were investigated by small angle x-ray scattering. The duration wherein aZA was maintained at a supersaturated state was prolonged in the presence of HPMC and lasted more than 20h in the presence of PVP in a fasted state intestinal medium. The presence of PVP increased the concentration of drug dissolved in the supersaturated state. The duration of supersaturation was shorter in fed than in a fasted state simulated intestinal media, but the concentration during supersaturation was higher. It was thus not possible to predict any positive or negative food effects from the dissolution

  16. A Study of Zoledronic Acid as Neo-Adjuvant, Perioperative Therapy in Patients with Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Dominic E; Porembka, Matthew R; Panni, Roheena Z; Mitchem, Jonathan B; Belt, Brian A; Plambeck-Suess, Stacey M; Lin, Goldie; Denardo, David G; Fields, Ryan C; Hawkins, William G; Strasberg, Steven M; Lockhart, A Craig; Wang-Gillam, Andrea; Goedegebuure, Simon Peter; Linehan, David C

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by abundant granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSC = CD45(+)/Lin(-)/CD33(+)/CD11b(+)/CD15(+)), which infiltrate tumors and suppress anti-tumor immunity. We have previously demonstrated in a murine model of PDAC that zoledronic acid (ZA) depletes G-MDSC resulting in decreased tumor growth and improved survival. We report here the results of a phase 1 clinical trial (NCT00892242) using ZA as neo-adjuvant, perioperative therapy in patients with non-metastatic, resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Eligible PDAC patients received ZA (4mg) IV 2 weeks prior to surgery. Patients then received 2 additional doses of ZA 4 weeks apart. Blood and bone marrow were obtained from patients prior to treatment with ZA and 3 months after surgery for analysis of G-MDSC by flow cytometry. Twenty-three patients received pre-operative ZA with at least 6 months of follow-up Only 15 PDAC patients had non-metastatic PDAC, which was amenable to resection. ZA was well tolerated, and all adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The most common adverse events were fatigue, abdominal pain/discomfort, anorexia, and arthralgia. Of resected PDAC patients treated with ZA, 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) was 85.7% and 33.3%, respectively, with a median OS of 18 months. This group had a 1- and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 26.9% and 8.9%, respectively, with a median PFS of 12 months. The prevalence of G-MDSC was unchanged in the blood and bone marrow of PDAC patients pre- and post-treatment with ZA. ZA is safe and well tolerated as neo-adjuvant, peri-operative therapy in PDAC patients. In this small study, we did not observe a difference in OS or PFS compared to historical controls. Also, there was no difference in the prevalence of G-MDSC in the blood and bone marrow of PDAC patients pre- and post-treatment with ZA.

  17. Analysis of a Stochastic Model to Determine Failure Rates for Communication-Electronic Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    and Uses. Report Number R-2886-AF. The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica CA, July 1984. 13. Swokowski , Earl W. Calculus with Analytical Geometry. Boston... Swokowski (13:539): Given: i j k A Xa 0 Za B 0 Y b Z b Then: -- i - j + jXa 0jk Yb z b 0 Z b 0 YbI - YbZa(i) - XaZb(j) + XaYb(k) 26 And: IPA X PBI * (PA

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with the Combination of Zeolite and Attapulgite on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Secretion of Digestive Enzymes and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, P.; Tan, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y. M.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of basal diets supplemented with a clay product consisting of zeolite and attapulgite (ZA) at 1:1 ratio on growth performance, digestibility of feed nutrients, activities of digestive enzymes in small intestine and intestinal health in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 112 one-day-old male chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates of 7 chickens each. In experiment 2, 84 one-day-old male chickens were randomly allocated into 2 groups consisting 6 replicates of 7 chickens each. The experimental diets both consisted of a maize-soybean basal control diet supplemented with 0% or 2% ZA. The diets were fed from 1 to 42 days of age. The results showed that ZA supplementation could increase body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI), but had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. The apparent digestibility values of crude protein and gross energy were significantly increased (p<0.05) by ZA from 14 to 16 d and 35 to 37 d. Dietary ZA treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in jejunal digesta and the activities of maltase and sucrase in jejunal mucosa on days 21 and 42. The ZA supplementation also significantly increased (p<0.05) the catalase activity, reduced (p<0.05) the malondialdehyde concentration in the jejunal mucosa. In addition, a decrease of serum diamine oxidase activity and an increase (p<0.05) in concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A in jejunal mucosa were observed in birds treated with ZA on 21 and 42 days. It is concluded that ZA supplementation (2%) could partially improve the growth performance by increasing BWG and FI. This improvement was achieved through increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes, enhancing the digestibilites of nutrients, promoting intestinal health of broiler chickens. PMID:25178375

  19. Wind Measuring and Indication System Maintenance Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    00002 DO 799 BNS SANTA CATARINA zB OnO01 PF 107 RTNS TAPI TB 00002 00 S44 TNS ISKENOERUN ZB 00001 PF 108 RTNS KRIRIRAT ZR 00002 ICLG 4 INS VENETO ITALY...CATARINA ZA O0 100 PF 107 RTNS TAPI ZR 00001 DO 544 TNS ISKENDERUN ZA OOOO P 108 RTNS KRIRIRAT Z5 00001 ICLG 4 INS VENETO ITALY TB 00001 DO 87? THS

  20. Zoledronic acid inhibits aromatase activity and phosphorylation: potential mechanism for additive zoledronic acid and letrozole drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Schech, Amanda J; Nemieboka, Brandon E; Brodie, Angela H

    2012-11-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate originally indicated for use in osteoporosis, has been reported to exert a direct effect on breast cancer cells, although the mechanism of this effect is currently unknown. Data from the ABCSG-12 and ZO-FAST clinical trials suggest that treatment with the combination of ZA and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in increased disease free survival in breast cancer patients over AI alone. To determine whether the mechanism of this combination involved inhibition of aromatase, AC-1 cells (MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with an aromatase construct) were treated simultaneously with combinations of ZA and AI letrozole. This combination significantly increased inhibition of aromatase activity of AC-1 cells when compared to letrozole alone. Treatment of 1 nM letrozole in combination with 1 μM or 10 μM ZA resulted in an additive drug interaction on inhibition of cell viability, as measured by MTT assay. Treatment with ZA was found to inhibit phosphorylation of aromatase on serine residues. Zoledronic acid was also shown to be more effective in inhibiting cell viability in aromatase transfected AC-1 cells when compared to inhibition of cell viability observed in non-transfected MCF-7. Estradiol was able to partially rescue the effect of 1 μM and 10 μM ZA on cell viability following treatment for 72 h, as shown by a shift to the right in the estradiol dose-response curve. In conclusion, these results indicate that the combination of ZA and letrozole results in an additive inhibition of cell viability. Furthermore, ZA alone can inhibit aromatase activity through inhibition of serine phosphorylation events important for aromatase enzymatic activity and contributes to inhibition of cell viability.

  1. Determining the extragalactic extinction law with SALT - II. Additional sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelman, Ido; Brosch, Noah; Kniazev, Alexei Y.; Väisänen, Petri; Buckley, David A. H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Gulbis, Amanda; Hashimoto, Yas; Loaring, Nicola; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Sefako, Ramotholo

    2010-12-01

    We present new results from an ongoing programme to study the dust extragalactic extinction law in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance verification phase. The wavelength dependence of the dust extinction for seven galaxies is derived in six spectral bands ranging from the near-ultraviolet atmospheric cut-off to the near-infrared. The derivation of an extinction law is performed by fitting model galaxies to the unextinguished parts of the image in each spectral band, and subtracting from these the actual images. We compare our results with the derived extinction law in the Galaxy and find them to run parallel to the Galactic extinction curve with a mean total-to-selective extinction value of RV = 2.71 +/- 0.43. We use total optical extinction values to estimate the dust mass for each galaxy, compare these with dust masses derived from IRAS measurements, and find them to range from 104 to 107 Msolar. We study the case of the well-known dust-lane galaxy NGC2685 for which Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (HST/WFPC2) data are available to test the dust distribution on different scales. Our results imply a scale-free dust distribution across the dust lanes, at least within ~1arcsec (~60 pc) regions. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). E-mail: ido@wise.tau.ac.il (IF); noah@wise.tau.ac.il (NB); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); petri@saao.ac.za (PV); dibnob@saao.ac.za (DAHB); dod@saao.ac.za (DO); amanda@saao.ac.za (AG); hashimot@ntnu.edu.tw (YH); nsl@saao.ac.za (NL); erc@saao.ac.za (ER-C); rrs@saao.ac.za (RS)

  2. Extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of cytocidal potency of zoledronic acid in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sayaka; Arai, Naoya; Tomihara, Kei; Takashina, Michinori; Hattori, Yuichi; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-08-15

    Direct antitumor effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) have been demonstrated in various cancer cells in vitro. However, the effective concentrations of BPs are typically much higher than their clinically relevant concentrations. Oral cancers frequently invade jawbone and may lead to the release of Ca(2+) in primary lesions. We investigated the effects of the combined application of zoledronic acid (ZA) and Ca(2+) on proliferation and apoptosis of oral cancer cells. Human oral cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells were treated with ZA at a wide range of concentrations in different Ca(2+) concentration environments. Under a standard Ca(2+) concentration (0.6mM), micromolar concentrations of ZA were required to inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations greatly enhanced the potency of the ZA cytocidal effect. The ability of Ca(2+) to enhance the cytocidal effects of ZA was negated by the Ca(2+)-selective chelator EGTA. In contrast, the cytocidal effect of ZA was less pronounced in breast and colon cancer cells regardless of whether extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated. In oral cancer cells incubated with 1.6mM Ca(2+), ZA up-regulated mitochondrial Bax expression and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c. We suggest that ZA can specifically produce potent cytocidal activity in oral cancer cells in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner, implying that BPs may be useful for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with jawbone invasion leading to the hypercalcemic state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Computational Cluster for Advanced Plasma Physics Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-08

    Lowrie, V.S. Lukin, U. Shumlak. 2010 ICC: ”Multi-block capabilities in HiFi and its application to modeling the ZaP z-pinch experiment”. W. Lowrie, V.S...W. Lowrie, V.S. Lukin, and U. Shumlak, “Multi-block capabilities in HiFi and its application to modeling the ZaP Z-pinch experiment”, poster

  4. Characterization of a siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Frolova, T V; Zhankov, A I; Armesto, M; Turner, S L; Frolova, M P; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus belongs to the Siberian subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison of Za virus with two related viruses, a Far Eastern isolate, Sofjin, and a Siberian isolate, Vasilchenko, revealed differences among the three viruses in pathogenicity for Syrian hamsters, cytopathogenicity for PS cells, plaque morphology, and the electrophoretic profiles of virus-specific nonstructural proteins. Comparative amino acid alignments revealed 10 individual amino acid substitutions in the Za virus polyprotein sequence that were different from those of other tick-borne flaviviruses. Notably, the dimeric form of the Za virus NS1 protein migrated in polyacrylamide gels as a heterogeneous group of molecules with a significantly higher electrophoretic mobility than those of the Sofjin and Vasilchenko viruses. Two amino acid substitutions, T(277)-->V and E(279)-->G, within the NS1 dimerization domain are probably responsible for the altered oligomerization of Za virus NS1. These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis.

  5. Scaling of the Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch: The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment ``FuZE''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Shumlak, U.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch ZaP experiment was constructed based on calculations [1] showing stabilization of kink and sausage instabilities. ZaP experimentally demonstrated production and sustainment of an SFS Z-pinch for a wide range of plasma parameters, with densities up to n =1023 m-3 and a pinch radius of a = 1 cm. [2-4] The SFS Z-pinch is resistant to the instabilities of conventional Z-pinches, yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling, making it an energy-efficient way to achieve fusion-relevant conditions. The ZaP-HD (high density) experiment has demonstrated scaling of the SFS Z-pinch to 2-3 × smaller a and 10 × higher n. [5] Supported by ZaP and ZaP-HD, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE) project investigates scaling plasma parameters toward fusion conditions by decreasing a 2-3 × to 1 mm, and increasing n 10 × to 1025 m-3. The approach combines improved gas injection and flexible power supplies with the successful ZaP SFS Z-pinch formation. Detailed fluid and kinetic simulations complement the experimental studies to gain scientific insight into the plasma behavior and predict scaling to higher performance. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  6. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Zanthoxylum armatum in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Syed Naeemuddin; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the gut, airways and cardiovascular modulatory activities of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) to rationalize some of its medicinal uses. The crude extract of Zanthoxylum armatum (Za.Cr) caused concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, being more effective against K(+) and suggestive of Ca(++) antagonist effect, which was confirmed when pretreatment of the tissues with Za.Cr shifted Ca(++) concentration-response curves to the right, like that caused by verapamil. Za.Cr inhibited the castor-oil-induced diarrhea in mice at 300-1000 mg/kg. In rabbit tracheal preparations, Za.Cr relaxed the carbachol (1 microM) and high K(+)-induced contractions, in a pattern similar to that of verapamil. In isolated rabbit aortic rings, Za.Cr exhibited vasodilator effect against phenylephrine (1 microM) and K(+)-induced contractions. When tested in guinea pig atria, Za.Cr caused inhibition of both atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions, like that caused by verapamil. These results indicate that Zanthoxylum armatum exhibits spasmolytic effects, mediated possibly through Ca(++) antagonist mechanism, which provides pharmacological base for its medicinal use in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

  7. The effects of zoledronic acid treatment on depression and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: A clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Gokosmanoglu, Feyzi; Varim, Ceyhun; Atmaca, Aysegul; Atmaca, Mehmet Hulusi; Colak, Ramis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis affects quality of life (QoL) and may lead to depression in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment on depression and QoL in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO). Materials and Methods: A total of 88 newly diagnosed women with PO were included in this study. All patients were treated with once-yearly ZA (5 mg). A QoL questionnaire from the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Beck Depression Inventory were given to patients at baseline and at 12 months. The results for baseline and post - 12th month were compared, and bone mineral density (BMD) levels were compared. Results: The consumption of once-yearly ZA (5 mg) treatment increases BMD at levels of lumbers 1–4 (P = 0.026), total Hip T score's P value is same as femoral neck (P: 0,033). ZA 5 mg treatment also improved QoL (P = 0.001) and reduced depression (P = 0.001). Conclusion: ZA treatment increases BMD levels and QoL while reducing depression. Once-yearly ZA (5 mg) may be considered for postmenopausal women as a first-line treatment. PMID:28255320

  8. A combination of methotrexate and zoledronic acid prevents bone erosions and systemic bone mass loss in collagen induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Osteoclasts play a key role in the pathogenesis of bone erosion and systemic bone mass loss during rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of methotrexate (MTX) and zoledronic acid (ZA), used alone or in combination, on osteoclast-mediated bone erosions and systemic bone mass loss in a rat model of collagen induced arthritis (CIA). We hypothesized that MTX and ZA could have an additive effect to prevent both bone erosion and systemic bone loss. Methods Arthritis was induced in 64 female Sprague-Dawley rats. After the clinical onset of CIA, rats were assigned to treatment with MTX (1 mg/kg/week), ZA (100 μg/kg twice weekly), both treatments at the same regimens, or vehicle. Arthritis score and paw thickness were recorded twice weekly. The rats were sacrificed on D28 and hind paws were removed for radiographic, histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The effects of treatments on osteoclastogenesis were determined by Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Micro-CT of the tibia was carried out for histomorphometric analysis. Bone mass density was evaluated by densitometry. Results MTX significantly decreased the severity of CIA, whereas ZA slightly exacerbated it. When these two drugs were used in combination, MTX prevented the pro-inflammatory effect of ZA. The combination of ZA with MTX was more effective than MTX alone for reducing structural joint damage with a dramatic decrease of osteoclasts' number in the eroded joints. However, MTX alone also significantly reduced the number of osteoclasts and the number of CD68+ mononuclear cells. ZA alone, or ZA with MTX, significantly increased the systemic bone mass density measured by densitometry and bone volume on histomorphometric analysis. Conclusions A combination of MTX and ZA prevented both bone erosion and systemic bone loss in a rat model of arthritis. Both treatments independently decreased the number of osteoclasts in the eroded joint. However

  9. Meta-analysis comparing denosumab and zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Chang, B; Lin, F X; Xie, D; Hu, Q X; Yu, G Y; Du, S X; Li, X D

    2016-07-19

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of denosumab, compared with zoledronic acid (ZA), in delaying skeletal-related events (SREs) and enhancing overall survival in patients with advanced solid tumours and bone metastases. A systematic literature search of several electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CKNI and Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, was performed. Only randomised controlled trials assessing denosumab in comparison with ZA, in patients with advanced solid tumours and metastatic-stage disease, were included. The primary outcome was the time to first SRE. The risk of developing subsequent on-study SREs and overall survival were also evaluated. Three randomised controlled trials with a total of 5,544 patients with advanced solid tumours and bone metastases were included in the meta-analysis. There were 2,776 patients treated with denosumab and 2,768 treated with ZA. The pooled analysis showed that denosumab was superior to ZA in delaying time to first on-study SRE (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75-0.89, p < 0.0001) and multiple SREs (risk ratio: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74-0.88, p < 0.0001). However, no significant difference was found in overall survival improvement between denosumab and ZA (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91-1.15, p = 0.71). This meta-analysis indicates that denosumab is superior to ZA in delaying SREs for patients with bone metastases. No significant difference was observed between denosumab and ZA, regarding overall survival. We support denosumab as a potential novel treatment option for the management of bone metastases in advanced solid tumours.

  10. Trends of Antibiotic Consumption in Korea According to National Reimbursement Data (2008-2012): A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Park, Gi Chan; An, Hyonggin; Chun, Byung Chul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the trends in the quantities and patterns of nationwide antibiotic consumption in the Republic of Korea (ROK).This nationwide descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in the ROK between 2008 and 2012. The quantities and patterns of total systemic antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed using National Health Insurance claims data collected through the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. Data concerning systemic antibiotics were collected using measurement units of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 people per day according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification.Over the 5-year study period, the annual consumption of systemic antibiotics ranged from 21.68 to 23.12 DDD per 1000 people per day. Outpatient antibiotic use accounted for 80.9% of total consumption. A regression model with autoregressive errors showed significant increased consumption of major antibiotic subgroups, including 3rd-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and glycopeptides (P < 0.001). However, the antibiotic use of 1st- (P = 0.003), 2nd- (P = 0.004), and 3rd-generation (P = 0.018) cephalosporins among patients who underwent surgery under monitoring by the antimicrobial stewardship programs for perioperative prescription was significantly lower than in those who underwent surgery without monitoring programs. In time-series analysis, total antibiotic consumption demonstrated significant seasonality (P < 0.001).The consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics was noted to have increased in the ROK from 2008 to 2012, providing a possible explanation for the changing epidemiology of multidrug resistance. Larger prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact on public health of monitoring programs of perioperative antibiotic usage.

  11. Effect of a Home Bleaching Agent on the Fracture Toughness of Resin Composites, Using Short Rod Design

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, R.; Fani, M.; Barfi Ghasrodashti, AR.; Nouri Yadkouri, N.; Mousavi, SM.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Resin composites are brittle materials and their major shortcomings are manifested in their sensitivity to flaws and defects. Although various mechanical properties of resin composites have been described, few studies are available on assessing the effect of bleaching agents on resin composites using the short rod design. Purpose: To place various resin composites into distilled water at 37°C for 21 days and determine the effect of immersion time in distilled water, with and without exposure to 10% carbamide peroxide by employing short rod design fracture toughness test. Materials and Method: Specimens were prepared from three resin composites; Rok (SDI), Esthet (Dentsply), and Estelite (Tokuyama). For each material, a total of 24 disc-shaped specimens were prepared using a custom-made mould. Specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 8 and conditioned in 37°C distilled water for either 24 hours, or 21 days. 21 day specimens were tested both with and without applying bleaching agent; Polanight (SDI). Study group specimens were bleached for 21 days, 2 hours a day. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm per minute. The maximum load at specimen failure was recorded and the KIc (MPa. M 0.5) was calculated. Results: Statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA showed a significant relationship between material and time (p< 0.05).Tukey’s test showed that after 24 h of immersion in distilled water, Rok revealed the highest KIc followed by Esthet and Estelite. The bleaching agent significantly improved the fracture toughness values of Esthet while it decreased that of Estelite. Conclusion: The fracture toughness of the resin composites was affected by the bleaching agent and distilled water. In comparison with Rok and Estelite, fracture toughness of Esthet was increased due to aging and application of bleaching agent. PMID:24883344

  12. Can we Predict Quantum Yields Using Excited State Density Functional Theory for New Families of Fluorescent Dyes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Alexander W.; Lin, Zhou; Shepherd, James J.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2016-06-01

    For a fluorescent dye, the quantum yield characterizes the efficiency of energy transfer from the absorbed light to the emitted fluorescence. In the screening among potential families of dyes, those with higher quantum yields are expected to have more advantages. From the perspective of theoreticians, an efficient prediction of the quantum yield using a universal excited state electronic structure theory is in demand but still challenging. The most representative examples for such excited state theory include time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS). In the present study, we explore the possibility of predicting the quantum yields for conventional and new families of organic dyes using a combination of TDDFT and ROKS. We focus on radiative (kr) and nonradiative (knr) rates for the decay of the first singlet excited state (S_1) into the ground state (S_0) in accordance with Kasha's rule. M. Kasha, Discuss. Faraday Soc., 9, 14 (1950). For each dye compound, kr is calculated with the S_1-S_0 energy gap and transition dipole moment obtained using ROKS and TDDFT respectively at the relaxed S_1 geometry. Our predicted kr agrees well with the experimental value, so long as the order of energy levels is correctly predicted. Evaluation of knr is less straightforward as multiple processes are involved. Our study focuses on the S_1-T_1 intersystem crossing (ISC) and the S_1-S_0 internal conversion (IC): we investigate the properties that allow us to model the knr value using a Marcus-like expression, such as the Stokes shift, the reorganization energy, and the S_1-T_1 and S_1-S_0 energy gaps. Taking these factors into consideration, we compare our results with those obtained using the actual Marcus theory and provide explanation for discrepancy. T. Kowalczyk, T. Tsuchimochi, L. Top, P.-T. Chen, and T. Van Voorhis, J. Chem. Phys., 138, 164101 (2013). M. Kasha, Discuss. Faraday Soc., 9, 14 (1950).

  13. Trends of Antibiotic Consumption in Korea According to National Reimbursement Data (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Park, Gi Chan; An, Hyonggin; Chun, Byung Chul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study determined the trends in the quantities and patterns of nationwide antibiotic consumption in the Republic of Korea (ROK). This nationwide descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in the ROK between 2008 and 2012. The quantities and patterns of total systemic antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed using National Health Insurance claims data collected through the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. Data concerning systemic antibiotics were collected using measurement units of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 people per day according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification. Over the 5-year study period, the annual consumption of systemic antibiotics ranged from 21.68 to 23.12 DDD per 1000 people per day. Outpatient antibiotic use accounted for 80.9% of total consumption. A regression model with autoregressive errors showed significant increased consumption of major antibiotic subgroups, including 3rd-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and glycopeptides (P < 0.001). However, the antibiotic use of 1st- (P = 0.003), 2nd- (P = 0.004), and 3rd-generation (P = 0.018) cephalosporins among patients who underwent surgery under monitoring by the antimicrobial stewardship programs for perioperative prescription was significantly lower than in those who underwent surgery without monitoring programs. In time-series analysis, total antibiotic consumption demonstrated significant seasonality (P < 0.001). The consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics was noted to have increased in the ROK from 2008 to 2012, providing a possible explanation for the changing epidemiology of multidrug resistance. Larger prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact on public health of monitoring programs of perioperative antibiotic usage. PMID:26579825

  14. Membrane depolarization-induced RhoA/Rho-associated kinase activation and sustained contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Mita, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Hayato; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Hishinuma, Shigeru; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.; Shoji, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROK) activation plays an important role in K+-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle (Mita et al., Biochem J. 2002; 364: 431–40). The present study investigated a potential role for tyrosine kinase activity in K+-induced RhoA activation and contraction. The non-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, but not the src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, inhibited K+-induced sustained contraction (IC50 = 11.3 ± 2.4 µM). Genistein (10 µM) inhibited the K+-induced increase in myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation without affecting the Ca2+ transient. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate induced contraction that was reversed by genistein (IC50 = 6.5 ± 2.3 µM) and the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 (IC50 = 0.27 ± 0.04 µM). Vanadate also increased LC20 phosphorylation in a genistein- and Y-27632-dependent manner. K+ stimulation induced translocation of RhoA to the membrane, which was inhibited by genistein. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr855 and Thr697 by K+ stimulation in a genistein- and Y-27632-sensitive manner. Finally, K+ stimulation induced genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of ∼55, 70 and 113 kDa. We conclude that a genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinase, activated by the membrane depolarization-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, is involved in the RhoA/ROK activation and sustained contraction induced by K+. Ca2+ sensitization, myosin light chain phosphatase, RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, tyrosine kinase PMID:24133693

  15. Analyzing Landslide Damage Cost and Adaptation Benefit and Cost Considering Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Heo, H. K.; Lee, D. K.; Sungho, K.; Sung, S.; Mo, Y.; Park, C.; Myung-Kyoon, L.

    2016-12-01

    Damages due to climate change have increased in various fields. Especially, extreme weathers related to climate change such as typhoon and heavy rainfall are the most important reason of damages in Republic of Korea (ROK). Seventy percent of ROK were mountainous area, thus landslide is one of the biggest natural disaster caused by extreme weathers. The study site, Gangwon-do has the largest mountainous area in ROK and is vulnerable to landslide damages. We must establish adaptation plan for landslide to prevent loss of properties and lives in Gangwon-do. To support establishment of adaptation plan, many researchers used spatial distribution models (SDMs) to find landslide susceptible areas. Spatial priority can be good information for decision makers. Meanwhile, there are many items and fields related to climate change issue. Therefore, we also should consider priority among various items and fields. Economic cost can support decision making process very effectively. However, a few articles analyzed damage cost and few articles analyzed adaptation benefit and cost of landslide. The objective of this study is analyzing landslide susceptible areas and economic damage cost and benefit and cost of adaptation plans. We found landslide susceptible areas by using SDM and estimated damage cost by using past damage records for 12 years. To assess adaptation benefit, we assessed adaptation effect by using modified model with modified variables and analyzed reduction of damage cost according to application of adaptation plans. Finally we analyzed adaptation benefit / cost for landslide in Gangwon-do. Decision makers can use the results of this study to compare priority among adaptation plans and establish effective adaptation plans. Additionally, researchers can refer the framework of this study to estimate damage cost and adaptation benefit / cost for landslide.

  16. Commentary on "the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity." Qi J, Tripathi M, Mishra R, Sahgal N, Fazli L, Ettinger S, Placzek WJ, Claps G, Chung LW, Bowtell D, Gleave M, Bhowmick N, Ronai ZA, Signal Transduction Program, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(6):332-46.

    PubMed

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.

  17. Smart sensors wireless measurement network based on Bluetooth standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jablonski, Michal

    2003-09-01

    The paper briefly describes Bluetooth standard and authors" Bluetoth sensors modules construction. At the beginning the short comparison of existing on the market standards of wireless data transmission (IEEE802.11, IEEE802.11b/g, IEEE802.11a, HomeRF, Bluetooth, Radiometrix, Motorola, IrDA) brought out by main firms is presented. Next selected Bluetooth features and functions useful to sensors wireless network creations are discussed. At the end our own Bluetooth sensor based on the newest Ericsson ROK 101 007 module is specified.

  18. Environment Assessment: Mill Creek - South Slough, Deauthorization Project, Milan, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    2004 Rock Island, Illinois 61204-2004 Sincerely, John R. Brown Colonel, U.S. Army District Engineer Enclosure DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ROCK ISLAND...the project area are anticipated. John R. Brown Date Colonel, U.S. Army District Engineer lt DAVErIL 4-- 1W ROK SLNDERý A ;;Q!-. -’.-.---- -r 4 .41a Vý...61201 COM: 309/793-5800 FTS: 782-5800 February 13, 1992 Colonel John R. Brown District Engineer U.S. Army Engineer District ATTN: Planning Division

  19. Korean Affairs Report No. 299

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-11

    certainly win victory. Ladies and gentlemen, the South Korean masses and the Latin American masses are close freinds fighting in the same ranks of the...DAILY ON ’WEAK-KNEED’ ROK DIPLOMACY SK151246 Seoul TONG-A ILBO in Korean 15 Jul 83 p 2 iArticle from the column "Tidbits"] IText] Yi Ki-chu, political...Korean 16 Jul 83 p 2 lEditorial: "The Dignity of the Constitution"] [Text] We are observing the 35th Constitution Day. On 17 July 1948, our

  20. Isolation of Genes Involved in Rac Induced Invasion and Metastasis of Breast Carcinoma Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    IQGAP Par-6 Dia - tLC LIM-I M- MLC- a-catenin kinase #phosphAr2/ z-catenin Par- Arp2/3 P-catenin aPKCs MLC-P cofilin adducin ERM NHE1 profilin E...a include MLC, the myosin-binding subunit of MLC sixth ROK substrate, namely NHE1 , is a ubiquitous phosphatase, LIM-kinase, adducin, the ERM (ezrin...Na÷/H’ exchange protein which potentiates stress fi- radixin/moesin) family of proteins, and a Na÷/IHI ex- ber formation [103]. change protein ( NHE1

  1. Evaluation of New Reverse Osmosis Membranes for the Separation of Toxic Compounds from Wastewater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    was injected and swept by an air stream into a high-temperature (950 0C) catalytic combustion tube where the total carbon in the sample was oxidized to...34 **** I I ifx ov XrAL I on’ ROO I 1,r~1 WRTTF(6, lQ Tpy I )PP)(T )pXrAL ’p01 FnfROAT( 12 .bri2.’. ’.00 rok’TTNUF F =Fn F =F .F (1) *X e I xI~l

  2. Between Heroes and Guardians: General Lyman L. Lemnitzer and General Charles H. Bonesteel III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Strategic Services ROK Republic of Korea SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander Europe SHAPE Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe SIOP Single Integrated...Motors Corporation naming acronym meaning ‘D’ designed in 1942, ‘U’ utility vehicle, ‘K’ all-wheel drive, and ‘W’ dual rear axles.56 The DUKW is a six...and a political officer.100 The Soviet presence was limited to the parameter of one man who spoke English so as not to make the covert negotiation

  3. Ssang Yong 2014 Remote Sensing Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    were used during SY’14. Other key print and electronic resource findings are described in the annotated bibliography found in Appendix B. Figure 2...A001-(N/A) (N/A) / 130031 3D MEB G-2 / 3D MEB G-2 Yeongdeok 1:50,000 (3-KAMC)-L754- 3518-I L754X35181 / 35181 ROK / NGA Pohang 1:50,000 (2-KAMC)-L754...Division, South Korea: A Country Study (Area Handbook Series), 4th Edition, Washington, DC: United States Government Printing , 1992. Available online. URL

  4. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  5. The Effects of Korean Unification on the US Military Presence in Northeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    Journal of Defense Analysis, 10 (Summer 1998); William O. Odom, “The US Military in Unified Korea ,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 12 (Summer...Michael O’Hanlon, “Keep US Forces in Korea after Reunification,” Korean Journal of Defense Anal- ysis, 10 (Summer 1998), internet, http://www.kida.re.kr...War. The United States has forward deployed approximately 91,500 personnel to the Republic of Korea (ROK) and Japan, in part to deter North Korean

  6. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Norfolk Brook Dam (CT 00485), Housatonic River, Norfolk, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Haestad, Inc. under a letter of October 28, 1980, .- from William E. Hodgson, Jr ., Colonel, Corps of Engineers. Contract L No. DACW33-81-0005 has been...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRAWING NO SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE CN-4O8-RENGINEERING & WATERSHED PLANNING UNIT SHEET 1 OF UPPER DARSY , PENNSYLVANIA N...o -d * WOODCRE Ul NOFL ROK/ ~ A; ’’l ---- -I- -’- - 0 L IT0,7 - - LOATO OF~ R*AL HASA- N ~ LIMIT OF POTN IALF * /Irc4S 0 FLOODIN (TYP) JR I M- , I 1

  7. Effect of zoledronic acid on lumbar spinal fusion in osteoporotic patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qirui; Chen, Jian; Fan, Jin; Li, Qingqing; Yin, Guoyong; Yu, Lipeng

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) on lumbar spinal fusion in patients with osteoporosis. This retrospective study includes 94 osteoporotic patients suffering from lumbar degenerative diseases or lumbar fracture who underwent lumbar spinal fusion in our institution from January 2013 to August 2014. They were divided into ZA group and control group according to whether the patient received ZA infusion or not. The patients in ZA group were given 5 mg intravenous ZA at the 3rd-5th days after operation. All patients took daily oral supplement of 600 mg calcium carbonate and 800 IU vitamin D during the follow-up after operation. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) scores were recorded preoperatively and post-operatively to evaluate the clinic outcomes; the spinal fusion was assessed by X-ray or CT Scan. 64 patients finished the final follow-up, including 30 patients in ZA group and 34 patients in control group. No significant difference was observed in gender, age, and preoperative BMI VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). The post-operative VAS and ODI scores decreased rapidly at 3 and 6 months, but rose back slightly at 12 and 24 months in both groups. On the contrary, post-operative SF-36 scores increased rapidly at 3 and 6 months, while fell back slightly at 12 and 24 months, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups at 12 months, but not at 3 and 6 month post-operation. The spinal fusion rate in ZA group was 90% at 6 months, 92% at 12 months, while it was 75% at 6 months, 92.86% at 12 months in control group, significantly different between the two groups at 12 months, but not at 6 months. In the whole follow-up period, adjacent vertebral compressing fracture occurred in five patients in control group, none in ZA group. No pedicle screw loosening was observed in ZA group, with six in control group. Zoledronic acid accelerates

  8. An amino-bisphosphonate targets MMP-9–expressing macrophages and angiogenesis to impair cervical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Enrico; Inoue, Masahiro; Hanahan, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    A mouse model involving the human papillomavirus type-16 oncogenes develops cervical cancers by lesional stages analogous to those in humans. In this study the angiogenic phenotype was characterized, revealing intense angiogenesis in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN-3) and carcinomas. MMP-9, a proangiogenic protease implicated in mobilization of VEGF, appeared in the stroma concomitant with the angiogenic switch, expressed by infiltrating macrophages, similar to what has been observed in humans. Preclinical trials sought to target MMP-9 and angiogenesis with a prototypical MMP inhibitor and with a bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA), revealing both to be antiangiogenic, producing effects comparable to a Mmp9 gene KO in impairing angiogenic switching, progression of premalignant lesions, and tumor growth. ZA therapy increased neoplastic epithelial and endothelial cell apoptosis without affecting hyperproliferation, indicating that ZA was not antimitotic. The analyses implicated cellular and molecular targets of ZA’s actions: ZA suppressed MMP-9 expression by infiltrating macrophages and inhibited metalloprotease activity, reducing association of VEGF with its receptor on angiogenic endothelial cells. Given its track record in clinical use with limited toxicity, ZA holds promise as an “unconventional” MMP-9 inhibitor for antiangiogenic therapy of cervical cancer and potentially for additional cancers and other diseases where MMP-9 expression by infiltrating macrophages is evident. PMID:15343380

  9. Binding modes of zaragozic acid A to human squalene synthase and staphylococcal dehydrosqualene synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-I; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Chang, Wei-Jung; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2012-05-25

    Zaragozic acids (ZAs) belong to a family of fungal metabolites with nanomolar inhibitory activity toward squalene synthase (SQS). The enzyme catalyzes the committed step of sterol synthesis and has attracted attention as a potential target for antilipogenic and antiinfective therapies. Here, we have determined the structure of ZA-A complexed with human SQS. ZA-A binding induces a local conformational change in the substrate binding site, and its C-6 acyl group also extends over to the cofactor binding cavity. In addition, ZA-A effectively inhibits a homologous bacterial enzyme, dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM), which synthesizes the precursor of staphyloxanthin in Staphylococcus aureus to cope with oxidative stress. Size reduction at Tyr(248) in CrtM further increases the ZA-A binding affinity, and it reveals a similar overall inhibitor binding mode to that of human SQS/ZA-A except for the C-6 acyl group. These structures pave the way for further improving selectivity and development of a new generation of anticholesterolemic and antimicrobial inhibitors.

  10. Zoledronic acid in vivo increases in vitro proliferation of rat mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Terhi J; Alm, Jessica J; Halkosaari, Heikki J; Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of bone loss, but they might also have positive effects on osteoblastic cells and bone formation. We evaluated the effect of in vivo zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment and possible concomitant effects of ZA and fracture on the ex vivo osteogenic capacity of rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Methods A closed femoral fracture model was used in adult female rats and ZA was administered as a single bolus or as weekly doses up to 8 weeks. Bone marrow MSCs were isolated and cultured for in vitro analyses. Fracture healing was evaluated by radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology. Results Both bolus and weekly ZA increased fracture-site bone mineral content and volume. MSCs from weekly ZA-treated animals showed increased ex vivo proliferative capacity, while no substantial effect on osteoblastic differentiation was observed. Fracture itself did not have any substantial effect on cell proliferation or differentiation at 8 weeks. Serum biochemical markers showed higher levels of bone formation in animals with fracture than in intact animals, while no difference in bone resorption was observed. Interestingly, ex vivo osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was found to correlate with in vivo serum bone markers. Interpretation Our data show that in vivo zoledronic acid treatment can influence ex vivo proliferation of MSCs, indicating that bisphosphonates can have sustainable effects on cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms. PMID:27196705

  11. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny

    2016-08-01

    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  12. OPG-Fc but Not Zoledronic Acid Discontinuation Reverses Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Bezouglaia, Olga; Pirih, Flavia Q; Dry, Sarah M; Kostenuik, Paul; Boyce, Rogely W; Dwyer, Denise; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a significant complication of antiresorptive medications, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab. Antiresorptive discontinuation to promote healing of ONJ lesions remains highly controversial and understudied. Here, we investigated whether antiresorptive discontinuation alters ONJ features in mice, employing the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) or the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor OPG-Fc, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models. Mice were treated with vehicle (veh), ZA, or OPG-Fc for 11 weeks to induce ONJ, and antiresorptives were discontinued for 6 or 10 weeks. Maxillae and mandibles were examined by µCT imaging and histologically. ONJ features in ZA and OPG-Fc groups included periosteal bone deposition, empty osteocyte lacunae, osteonecrotic areas, and bone exposure, each of which substantially resolved 10 weeks after discontinuing OPG-Fc but not ZA. Full recovery of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) osteoclast numbers occurred after discontinuing OPG-Fc but not ZA. Our data provide the first experimental evidence demonstrating that discontinuation of a RANKL inhibitor, but not a bisphosphonate, reverses features of osteonecrosis in mice. It remains unclear whether antiresorptive discontinuation increases the risk of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases or fracture risk in osteoporosis patients, but these preclinical data may nonetheless help to inform discussions on the rationale for a “drug holiday” in managing the ONJ patient. PMID:25727550

  13. Impact of Actinomyces naeslundii on bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws in ovariectomized rats with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Lei; Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Huo, Lei; Lu, Weijia William; Zheng, Li Wu

    2015-10-01

    Bisphosphonates-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is a severe complication of BPs therapy with unknown pathogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) on the progression of BRONJ in ovariectomized (OVX) rat model with periodontal diseases. Sixty rats were randomly assigned into four groups. All rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy. Six weeks after surgery, animals with periodontitis induced by ligature placement were administrated with normal saline (NS), NS &A. naeslundii inoculation, zolecdronic acid (ZA) and ZA &A. naeslundii inoculation for 12 weeks, respectively. Loads of total bacteria and A. naeslundii in the mouth were assessed by real time PCR. After sacrifice, the mandibles were harvested for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological examination. Real-time PCR demonstrated that A. naeslundii was not routinely found in the rats and ZA treatment did not promote its accumulation. Micro-CT examination disclosed that ligature placement induced significant alveolar bone loss, which was greatly attenuated by ZA treatment and aggravated by A. naeslundii. Histological assessment demonstrated that ZA treatment increased the risk of developing BRONJ-like disease but this condition was not worsen with the presence of A. naeslundii. Our study suggested that oral A. naeslundii inoculation aggravated periodontal disease but not BRONJ in our animal model. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. UCP4 expression changes in larval and pupal fat bodies of the beetle Zophobas atratus under adipokinetic hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Golebiowski, Marek; Kuczer, Mariola; Stepnowski, Piotr; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the influence of adipokinetic hormone (AKH), an insect neurohormone, on uncoupling protein 4 (ZaUCP4) expression and activity in larval and pupal fat body mitochondria of the beetle Zophobas atratus in relation to intermediary metabolism. Homologous Tenmo-AKH was administered to the beetle larvae and pupae as either a single dose or as two doses of 20pmol during a 24h interval. In the larval and pupal fat bodies, downregulation of ZaUCP4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was observed 24h and 48h after AKH treatment, respectively. In both developmental stages, ZaUCP4 activity was lowered in fat body mitochondria 48h after AKH treatment. In the AKH-injected larvae, changes in ZaUCP4 expression were accompanied by the mobilization of carbohydrate reserves, no change in the concentration of total lipids and an increase in the free fatty acid level. In contrast, AKH had no effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the pupal fat body but induced lipid mobilization. It seems that AKH influences ZaUCP4 expression by triggering multiple events and that it has different physiological roles in controlling intermediary metabolism in the fat body of the beetle larvae and pupae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of parathyroid hormone on healing in osteoporotic fractures via a phospholipase C-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Long; Yu, Xiao; Huang, Zhi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to investigate the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on healing in osteoporotic fractures via a phospholipase C (PLC)-independent pathway and explore the mechanism of PTH-mediated bone formation. Methods Ninety-six 12-week-old C57BL/6J female mice underwent bilateral ovariectomy. One month later, the lower third of the femur was fractured and the mice were treated using saline, PTH(1-28), PTH(1-34), zoledronic acid (ZA), PTH(1-28)+ZA, and PTH(1-34)+ZA. The mice were killed at weeks 2 and 4 in each group. Biomechanical testing and micro-computed tomography were performed. Results The formation and strength of the callus increased in all but the saline group. The mice treated with PTH(1-34) showed a significantly higher ultimate bending force, bending rigidity, bone mineral density, percent bone volume, and trabecular thickness than those treated with PTH(1-28). The PTH(1-34)+ZA group demonstrated the greatest improvements in the ultimate bending force, bending rigidity, bone mineral density, and relative bone volume. Conclusions PTH can promote fracture healing and callus hardness in ovariectomized mice by increasing callus formation and reconstructing trabecular bone via a PLC-independent pathway. PTH combined with ZA has a cumulative effect on the healing of fractures in ovariectomized mice. PMID:28534698

  16. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone.

    PubMed

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-05-18

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm(3)) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm(3)) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone.

  17. Unravelling the Structural and Molecular Basis Responsible for the Anti-Biofilm Activity of Zosteric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cattò, Cristina; Dell’Orto, Silvia; Villa, Federica; Villa, Stefania; Gelain, Arianna; Vitali, Alberto; Marzano, Valeria; Baroni, Sara; Forlani, Fabio; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The natural compound zosteric acid, or p-(sulfoxy)cinnamic acid (ZA), is proposed as an alternative biocide-free agent suitable for preventive or integrative anti-biofilm approaches. Despite its potential, the lack of information concerning the structural and molecular mechanism of action involved in its anti-biofilm activity has limited efforts to generate more potent anti-biofilm strategies. In this study a 43-member library of small molecules based on ZA scaffold diversity was designed and screened against Escherichia coli to understand the structural requirements necessary for biofilm inhibition at sub-lethal concentrations. Considerations concerning the relationship between structure and anti-biofilm activity revealed that i) the para-sulfoxy ester group is not needed to exploit the anti-biofilm activity of the molecule, it is the cinnamic acid scaffold that is responsible for anti-biofilm performance; ii) the anti-biofilm activity of ZA derivatives depends on the presence of a carboxylate anion and, consequently, on its hydrogen-donating ability; iii) the conjugated aromatic system is instrumental to the anti-biofilm activities of ZA and its analogues. Using a protein pull-down approach, combined with mass spectrometry, the herein-defined active structure of ZA was matrix-immobilized, and was proved to interact with the E. coli NADH:quinone reductase, WrbA, suggesting a possible role of this protein in the biofilm formation process. PMID:26132116

  18. TRAPEZE: a randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy with zoledronic acid, strontium-89, or both, in men with bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas; Pirrie, Sarah; Pope, Ann; Barton, Darren; Andronis, Lazaros; Goranitis, Ilias; Collins, Stuart; McLaren, Duncan; O'Sullivan, Joe; Parker, Chris; Porfiri, Emilio; Staffurth, John; Stanley, Andrew; Wylie, James; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison; Brown, Janet; Chakraborti, Prabir; Russell, Martin; Billingham, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer is associated with a poor prognosis and high morbidity. TRAPEZE was a two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial of zoledronic acid (ZA) and strontium-89 (Sr-89), each combined with docetaxel. All have palliative benefits, are used to control bone symptoms and are used with docetaxel to prolong survival. ZA, approved on the basis of reducing skeletal-related events (SREs), is commonly combined with docetaxel in practice, although evidence of efficacy and cost-effectiveness is lacking. Sr-89, approved for controlling metastatic pain and reducing need for subsequent bone treatments, is generally palliatively used in patients unfit for chemotherapy. Phase II analysis confirmed the safety and feasibility of combining these agents. TRAPEZE aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of each agent. METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive six cycles of docetaxel plus prednisolone: alone, with ZA, with a single Sr-89 dose after cycle 6, or with both. Primary outcomes were clinical progression-free survival (CPFS: time to pain progression, SRE or death) and cost-effectiveness. Secondary outcomes were SRE-free interval (SREFI), total SREs, overall survival (OS) and quality of life (QoL). Log-rank test and Cox regression modelling were used to determine clinical effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from the NHS perspective and expressed as cost per additional quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). An additional analysis was carried out for ZA to reflect the availability of generic ZA. RESULTS: PATIENTS: 757 randomised (median age 68.7 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale score 0, 40%; 1, 52%; 2, 8%; prior radiotherapy, 45%); median prostate-specific antigen 143.78 ng/ml (interquartile range 50.8-353.9 ng/ml). Stratified log-rank analysis of CPFS was statistically non-significant for either agent (Sr-89, p = 0.11; ZA, p = 0.45). Cox regression

  19. TRAPEZE: a randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy with zoledronic acid, strontium-89, or both, in men with bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    James, Nicholas; Pirrie, Sarah; Pope, Ann; Barton, Darren; Andronis, Lazaros; Goranitis, Ilias; Collins, Stuart; McLaren, Duncan; O'Sullivan, Joe; Parker, Chris; Porfiri, Emilio; Staffurth, John; Stanley, Andrew; Wylie, James; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison; Brown, Janet; Chakraborti, Prabir; Russell, Martin; Billingham, Lucinda

    2016-07-01

    Bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer is associated with a poor prognosis and high morbidity. TRAPEZE was a two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial of zoledronic acid (ZA) and strontium-89 (Sr-89), each combined with docetaxel. All have palliative benefits, are used to control bone symptoms and are used with docetaxel to prolong survival. ZA, approved on the basis of reducing skeletal-related events (SREs), is commonly combined with docetaxel in practice, although evidence of efficacy and cost-effectiveness is lacking. Sr-89, approved for controlling metastatic pain and reducing need for subsequent bone treatments, is generally palliatively used in patients unfit for chemotherapy. Phase II analysis confirmed the safety and feasibility of combining these agents. TRAPEZE aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of each agent. Patients were randomised to receive six cycles of docetaxel plus prednisolone: alone, with ZA, with a single Sr-89 dose after cycle 6, or with both. Primary outcomes were clinical progression-free survival (CPFS: time to pain progression, SRE or death) and cost-effectiveness. Secondary outcomes were SRE-free interval (SREFI), total SREs, overall survival (OS) and quality of life (QoL). Log-rank test and Cox regression modelling were used to determine clinical effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from the NHS perspective and expressed as cost per additional quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). An additional analysis was carried out for ZA to reflect the availability of generic ZA. 757 randomised (median age 68.7 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale score 0, 40%; 1, 52%; 2, 8%; prior radiotherapy, 45%); median prostate-specific antigen 143.78 ng/ml (interquartile range 50.8-353.9 ng/ml). Stratified log-rank analysis of CPFS was statistically non-significant for either agent (Sr-89, p = 0.11; ZA, p = 0.45). Cox regression analysis adjusted for stratification

  20. Measuring rare and exclusive Higgs boson decays into light resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Andrew S.; Kuttimalai, Silvan; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We evaluate the LHC's potential of observing Higgs boson decays into light elementary or composite resonances through their hadronic decay channels. We focus on the Higgs boson production processes with the largest cross sections, pp → h and pp → h+{jet}, with subsequent decays h → ZA or h → Z η _c, and comment on the production process pp → hZ. By exploiting track-based jet substructure observables and extrapolating to 3000 {fb}^{-1} we find {BR}(h → ZA) ≃ {BR}(h → Z η _c) ≲ 0.02 at 95 % CL. We interpret this limit in terms of the 2HDM Type 1. We find that searches for h→ ZA are complementary to existing measurements and can constrain large parts of the currently allowed parameter space.

  1. Seismic analyses of equipment in 2736-Z complex. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ocoma, E.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the structural qualification for the existing equipment when subjected to seismic loading in the Plutonium Storage Complex. It replaces in entirety Revision 0 and reconciles the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) comments on Revision 0. The Complex consists of 2736-Z Building (plutonium storage vault), 2736-ZA Building (vault ventilation equipment building), and 2736-ZB Building (shipping/receiving, repackaging activities). The existing equipment structurally qualified in this report are the metal storage racks for 7 inch and lard cans in room 2 of Building 2736-Z; the cubicles, can holders and pedestals in rooms 1, 3, and 4 of Building 2736-Z; the ventilation duct including exhaust fans/motors, emergency diesel generator, and HEPA filter housing in Building 2736-ZA; the repackaging glovebox in Building 2736-ZB; and the interface duct between Buildings 2736-Z and 2736-ZA.

  2. Seasonal distribution of ticks in four habitats near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M; Sancho, Alfredo R; Sames, William J; Chae, Joon-Seok; Klein, Terry A

    2013-06-01

    This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests.

  3. Disruption of the Cdc42/Par6/aPKC or Dlg/Scrib/Lgl Polarity Complex Promotes Epithelial Proliferation via Overlapping Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schimizzi, Gregory V; Maher, Meghan T; Loza, Andrew J; Longmore, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity is a defining characteristic and essential feature of functioning epithelia. Apical-basal polarity (ABP) proteins are also tumor suppressors that are targeted for disruption by oncogenic viruses and are commonly mutated in human carcinomas. Disruption of these ABP proteins is an early event in cancer development that results in increased proliferation and epithelial disorganization through means not fully characterized. Using the proliferating Drosophila melanogaster wing disc epithelium, we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional vs. basal polarity complexes results in increased epithelial proliferation via distinct downstream signaling pathways. Disruption of the basal polarity complex results in JNK-dependent proliferation, while disruption of the junctional complex primarily results in p38-dependent proliferation. Surprisingly, the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus appears to play opposite roles in the regulation of the proliferative phenotype based on which polarity complex is disrupted. In contrast, non-autonomous Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) signaling appears to suppress the proliferation that results from apical-basal polarity disruption, regardless of which complex is disrupted. Finally we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional polarity complex activates JNK via the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus independent of the cortical actin regulator, Moesin.

  4. Leptospirosis in the republic of Korea: historical perspectives, current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ja

    2013-06-01

    Leptospirosis is an important public health problem in the Republic of Korea (ROK), occurring sporadically or in outbreaks during the autumn season. Wild rodents, Apodemus agrarius, have been mainly involved in human leptospirosis. The majority of carrier animals are infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar lai. The characteristic pulmonary involvement or hemorrhage may increase the clinical severity or result in fatal outcomes, and these aspects continue to be a threat to people in endemic areas. While the disease incidence has been relatively low in recent years, there have been newer findings of livestock (zoo animals and racing horses) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) captured in urban environments as potential animal carriers. Many avenues of research are still open to define current changes in ecology, epidemiology, and the disease burden in both humans and animals in the ROK, together with global warming and climate change issues. In addition, national policy regarding the weighted wildlife monitoring system and the enhanced disease surveillance program is required to facilitate better monitoring and understanding of this disease.

  5. Current status of personnel and infrastructure resources for infection prevention and control programs in the Republic of Korea: A national survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Seo, Beom Sam; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Kyung Sook; Kim, Min Ja; Sohn, Jang Wook

    2016-11-01

    There is significant variability in personnel and infrastructural resources for infection prevention and control (IPC) among health care institutions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current status of individual hospital-based IPC programs in the Republic of Korea (ROK). A multicenter cross-sectional survey of 100 hospitals participating in the national surveillance programs for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the ROK was conducted in September 2015. The survey consisted of 140 standardized Web-based questionnaires. The survey response rate was 41.0%. The responding hospitals are largely organized with multibed rooms, with an insufficient numbers of single rooms. Employment status of infection specialists and hand hygiene resources were better in larger hospitals. The responding hospitals had 1 full-time infection control nurse per 400.3 ± 154.1 beds, with wide variations in training and experience. Facilities have great diversity in their approach to preventing MDROs. There appeared to be no difference in supplies consumption and protocols for IPC among the hospitals, stratified according to size. A greater availability of specialist personnel, single rooms, and a comprehensive IPC program, with the support of a policy-oriented management, is necessary to achieve effective IPC. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hantaan virus surveillance in small mammals at firing points 10 and 60, Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Sames, William J; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Moon, Sungsil; Lee, Sook-Young; Chun, YuJin; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-08-01

    We used epidemiological data and indirect fluorescent antibody tests to determine the Hantaan virus (HTNV) antibody-positive (Ab+) prevalence in small mammals captured at firing point 10 (FP-10) and firing point 60 (FP-60), Gyeonggi Province, near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea (ROK), from 2001 to 2005. We used these data, combined with the partial M segment amplified from HTNV recovered from lung tissues of Apodemus agrarius, to clarify the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among HTNV strains in the ROK. Of the eight species of rodents and one insectivore species captured, A. agrarius accounted for 93.4% and 88.5% at FP-10 and FP-60, respectively. Only two species of rodents, A. agrarius and Micromys minutus, were HTNV Ab+. The overall HTNV Ab+ prevalence for A. agrarius captured at FP-10 and FP-60 was 23.3% (121/520) and 14.5% (94/647), respectively. The hantaviral reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive rate of Ab+ A. agrarius was 74.2% (167/215), and the phylogenetic trees, based on the 269-nucleotide G2-encoding M segment, demonstrated that HTNV strains from FP-10 and FP-60 were distantly segregated from HTNV of other geographic regions in Korea and China. These data are useful in the development of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of hantavirus infections among military personnel, especially during training or the event of hostilities, and civilian populations.

  7. Recurrence rate of vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ki Tae; Kim, Young Keun; Ko, Dong Hoon; Park, Inho; Shin, Dong Chun; Kim, Changsoo

    2009-12-01

    In the Republic of Korea (ROK), military antimalarial chemoprophylaxis was initiated in 1997. Although chemoprophylaxis reduces malaria cases, long-term chemoprophylaxis could increase resistance. In this study, the recurrence rate of vivax malaria was investigated. All vivax malaria cases that occurred before 31 December 2003 among soldiers and veterans who entered the ROK army between 1 January 1998 and 28 February 2001 were reviewed. Of the 3881 reported cases (2375 soldiers and 1506 veterans), 62 (1.6%) experienced a second attack and 2 (0.05%) experienced a third attack. Fifteen cases (24.2%) recurred < or =60 days and 43 cases (69.4%) recurred >180 days after the start of initial treatment. Most of the second attacks (54/62) were exposed to malaria risk after initial treatment. Among 1506 veterans, 5 (0.3%) recurred and they had not been exposed to malaria risk after retirement; 1 recurred 43 days and 4 recurred >180 days after the start of initial treatment. All recurring cases were completely cured using the same dosage and regimen used for the first or second treatments. In conclusion, few cases of vivax malaria recurred after standard treatment. It is suggested that recurrences of vivax malaria are effectively prevented by the current treatment regimen and dosage.

  8. Selection of the Methods of Soil Analysis for Phyto-available Arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Junghwan; Lee, Dan-Bi; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Won-Il; Kim, Kye-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a trace element of major public health concern. Many of As contaminated agricultural lands in the Republic of Korea (ROK) are located at the areas nearby abandoned mines. Therefore, management of contaminated agricultural lands is important for safe crop cultivation. In ROK, soils contaminated with As have managed according to the As concentration determined after aqua regia digestion (total As). Many soil scientists reported that management of As in soils by phyto-available As is more effective than that by total As for safety of the crop cultivation point-of-view since As concentration in crops has a significant correlation with phyto-available As. Therefore, this study was carried out to select method of soil analysis for phyto-available As. For that purpose, five extracting solutions (0.1M Ca(NO?), 0.1M (NH?)?HPO?), 0.5M EDTA, Mehlich 3, 0.5M NaHCO?) were examined with 35 soil samples used for cultivation of three crops (bean, red pepper, rice). Correlation analysis was conducted between phyto-available As concentrations in soils and As concentration in edible part of the crops. Results of the correlation analysis showed that phyto-available As concentrations in soils using Mehlich 3 solution and As concentrations in edible part of red pepper and rice were significantly correlated. For soils used for bean cultivation, Mehlich 3 (R

  9. Disruption of the Cdc42/Par6/aPKC or Dlg/Scrib/Lgl Polarity Complex Promotes Epithelial Proliferation via Overlapping Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schimizzi, Gregory V.; Maher, Meghan T.; Loza, Andrew J.; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity is a defining characteristic and essential feature of functioning epithelia. Apical-basal polarity (ABP) proteins are also tumor suppressors that are targeted for disruption by oncogenic viruses and are commonly mutated in human carcinomas. Disruption of these ABP proteins is an early event in cancer development that results in increased proliferation and epithelial disorganization through means not fully characterized. Using the proliferating Drosophila melanogaster wing disc epithelium, we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional vs. basal polarity complexes results in increased epithelial proliferation via distinct downstream signaling pathways. Disruption of the basal polarity complex results in JNK-dependent proliferation, while disruption of the junctional complex primarily results in p38-dependent proliferation. Surprisingly, the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus appears to play opposite roles in the regulation of the proliferative phenotype based on which polarity complex is disrupted. In contrast, non-autonomous Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) signaling appears to suppress the proliferation that results from apical-basal polarity disruption, regardless of which complex is disrupted. Finally we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional polarity complex activates JNK via the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus independent of the cortical actin regulator, Moesin. PMID:27454609

  10. Insecticidal and repellent activities of insecticide-sucrose solutions to Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ehyun; Park, Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Chang, Kyu-Sik

    2011-06-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal has been reported as a dominant species in underground structures of urban areas in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during all seasons and becomes bothersome to humans in late autumn and winter. Most Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks are controlled in the ROK using larvicides such as Bt and IGR. However, there are a number of problems associated with larvicides, such as high cost and requirement for frequent use. In the present work, a new control method for Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks by using mixtures of sucrose solution with insecticides was investigated. The insecticidal and repellent activities of ten insecticides were evaluated for best control of Cx. pipiens molestus in septic tanks. Firstly, differences in susceptibilities to insecticides were evaluated in topical assays by forced direct contact bioassay and in a screened wire cage by free direct contact bioassay. The difference in insecticide susceptibility in the mosquitoes was the result of repellency by the insecticides. In three septic tanks, the density of Culex mosquitoes was sharply reduced by a deltamethrin-sucrose solution kit. The results demonstrated the potential for mosquito control by deltamethrin-sucrose solution, and the study offers basic information related to mosquito control in septic tanks. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Overwintering of Anopheles lindesayi japonicus larvae in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Chul; Sames, William J; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Doo; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Klein, Terry A

    2009-03-01

    Mosquito larval surveillance for environmental monitoring and pest-control purposes was conducted monthly at dredged soil-dumping areas during the construction of a new harbor in Yongcheon Bay, approximately 5 km SE of Jinhae, on the SW side of Namsan (Mt. Nam) and across the bay from Su-do (Su Island) in Gyeongsangnam Province, Republic of Korea (ROK) from November 2007 through April 2008. During this study, mosquitoes collected as overwintering larvae were Aedes togoi in brackish rock pools along the seashore and Anopheles lindesayi japonicus along the vegetated margins of a slow-flowing drainage ditch and associated freshwater ground pools containing green algae. Overwintering An. lindesayi larvae also were collected along stream margins and stream pools of moderate- to fast-flowing mountain streams near Chungju (Chungcheongbuk Province) (October 2007 and March 2008) and Munsan (Gyeonggi Province) (September 2007 and April 2008). First and second instars were collected and identified in late September 2007 through February 2008. During March and April, collections were primarily 3rd and 4th instars, and by the end of April, pupae were collected. This is the first report of An. lindesayi japonicus overwintering as larvae in the ROK.

  12. Measles Elimination Activities in the Western Pacific Region: Experience from the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Jee, Youngmee; Oh, Myoung-don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2015-11-01

    We describe the global status of measles control and elimination, including surveillance and vaccination coverage data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since 2000, two doses of measles vaccine (MCV2) became recommended globally and the achievement of high vaccination coverage has led to dramatic decrease in the measles incidence. Our finding indicates that, in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), substantial progress has been made to control measles transmission in some countries; however, the measles virus continues to circulate, causing outbreaks. The Republic of Korea (ROK) experienced a series of resurgence of measles due to the importation and healthcare-associated transmission in infants, however overall incidence and surveillance indicators met the WHO criteria for measles elimination. The ROK was verified to be measles-free along with Australia, Mongolia, and Macau, China in 2014. One of the effective elimination activities was the establishment of solid keep-up vaccination system in school settings. The lessons learnt from the measles elimination activities in Korea may contribute to enhancing the surveillance schemes and strengthening of vaccination programs in member countries and areas of WPR.

  13. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M J; Tark, D S; Sohn, H J; Yun, E I; Cho, I S; Choi, Y P; Kim, C L; Lee, J H; Kweon, C H; Joo, Y S; Chung, G S; Lee, J H

    2012-12-01

    National surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) began in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1996. Surveillance programmes changed overtime to comply with the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy was designated as a notifiable disease in 1997. From July 2008, the BSE surveillance programme was intensified to test cattle in designated high-risk populations more effectively. New measures included the compulsory testing of all non-ambulatory cattle at abattoirs, and encouraging the testing of all dead cattle examined and recorded under the Mutual Aid Insurance Scheme (fallen stock). In addition, there was a vigorous search for animals suspected of being clinically infected. As a result, a total of 426,919 OIE points were achieved over a period of seven consecutive years to the end of October 2009. This enabled the submission of a successful application to the OIE in 2010 for recognition of the ROK's BSE disease status as being one of controlled risk, in accordance with Chapter 11.5. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

  14. Seasonal Distribution of Ticks in Four Habitats near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M.; Sancho, Alfredo R.; Sames, William J.; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests. PMID:23864743

  15. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of commercial composites.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Guilherme Machado; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2011-10-01

    Our study aimed to test the null hypothesis that whitening and non-whitening dentifrices affect similarly the surface roughness of commercial microhybrid composites, independent of the brushing time. One hundred and ninety-two disc-shaped specimens of Filtek Z250 (3 M/ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) and Rok (SDI, Australia) were built up and randomly assigned to 24 groups, based on the dentifrices used (two whitening dentifrices: Colgate Max White-Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil and Close Up Extra Whitening-Unilever, Brasil Higiene Pessoal e Limpeza Ltda, Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil; and one non-whitening dentifrice: Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint-Colgate-Palmolive), and on the simulated brushing times (24 hours, 6, 12 and 24 months). The specimens were submitted to the toothbrushing regimens after which the surface roughness (Ra) was measured. Data was submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). The composite's surface roughness was significantly affected by the composites (p=0.0007), the dentifrices (p=0.0001), and the simulated brushing time (p=0.0001). Higher roughness was observed when the whitening dentifrices were used and when the brushing time increased. Filtek Z250 was more affected than Rok, especially after 24 months of simulated brushing. Whitening dentifrices produced higher surface roughness in the composites tested. The degree of surface compromising increased with brushing time and depends on the composite's microstructure and composition. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Efficient partially implicit integration method for stiff chemistry in high-fidelity simulations of turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    High-fidelity turbulent reactive flow simulations are typically associated with small time step sizes (h <=10-8 sec) due to the CFL condition imposed by the fine gird. Although the step size is not sufficiently small to allow fully explicit time integration in the presence of stiff chemistry, it makes the use of classical implicit multi-step ODE solvers (e.g. VODE) an inefficient approach in combustion simulations due to the reduced number of internal iterations and excessive implicitness. In this study, an improved 4th-order Rosenbrock-Krylov (ROK4L) scheme is developed for the system of chemical reactions. This class of schemes replaces the Jacobian matrix by its low-rank Krylov approximation, thus introducing partial implicitness. The scheme is improved in both accuracy and efficiency by fulfilling additional order conditions and reducing the number of function evaluations. The ROK4L scheme is demonstrated to possess superior efficiency in comparison to CVODE due to the minimal degree of implicitness for small time-step sizes and the avoidance of other overhead associated with the start-up process of multi-step methods. Financial support from NASA Transformational Tools and Technologies Project with Award No. NNX15AV04A.

  17. The influence of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, H-C; Lee, S G; Han, K-T; Park, E-C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Reports of sexual harassment are becoming more frequent in Republic of Korea (ROK) Armed Forces. This study aimed to analyse the impact of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the ROK Armed Forces. Methods Data from the 2014 Military Health Survey were used. Instances of sexual harassment were recorded as ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 (K-10) scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sexual harassment and K-10 scores. Results Among 228 female military personnel, 13 (5.7%) individuals experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual harassment had a significantly negative impact on K-10 scores (3.486, p<0.04). Higher K-10 scores among individuals experiencing sexual harassment were identified in the unmarried (including never-married) group (6.761, p<0.04), the short-term military service group (12.014, p<0.03) and the group whose length of service was <2 years (11.067, p<0.02). Conclusions Sexual harassment has a negative impact on mental health. Factors associated with worse mental health scores included service classification and length of service. The results provide helpful information with which to develop measures for minimising the negative psychological effects from sexual harassment and promoting sexual harassment prevention policy. PMID:27084842

  18. Maltose-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of the mal Regulon by MalR in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman; Manzoor, Irfan; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    The maltose regulon (mal regulon) has previously been shown to consist of the mal gene cluster (malMP, malXCD and malAR operons) in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we have further elucidated the complete mal regulon in S. pneumoniae D39 using microarray analyses and β-galactosidase assays. In addition to the mal gene cluster, the complete mal regulon of S. pneumoniae D39 consists of a pullulanase (PulA), a glucosidase (DexB), a glucokinase (RokB), a PTS component (PtsG) and an amylase (AmyA2). Our microarray studies and β-galactosidase assays further showed that the LacI-family transcriptional regulator MalR represses the expression of the mal regulon in the absence of maltose. Furthermore, the role of the pleiotropic transcriptional regulator CcpA in the regulation of the mal regulon in the presence of maltose was explored. Our microarray analysis with a ΔccpA strain showed that CcpA only represses the expression of the malXCD operon and the pulA gene in the presence of maltose. Hence, we extend the mal regulon now consisting of pulA, dexB, rokB, ptsG and amyA2 in addition to malMP, malXCD and malAR operons.

  19. Report on Project Action Sheet PP05 task 3 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Republic of Korea Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST).

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 3 of Project Action Sheet PP05 between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Republic of Korea (ROK) Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST) for Support with Review of an ROK Risk Evaluation Process. This task was to have Sandia National Laboratories collaborate with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) on several activities concerning how to determine the Probability of Neutralization, PN, and the Probability of System Effectiveness, PE, to include: providing descriptions on how combat simulations are used to determine PN and PE; comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of two neutralization models (the Neutralization.xls spreadsheet model versus the Brief Adversary Threat-Loss Estimator (BATLE) software); and demonstrating how computer simulations can be used to determine PN. Note that the computer simulation used for the demonstration was the Scenario Toolkit And Generation Environment (STAGE) simulation, which is a stand-alone synthetic tactical simulation sold by Presagis Canada Incorporated. The demonstration is provided in a separate Audio Video Interleave (.AVI) file.

  20. In-situ Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation on the Aircraft Altitude over Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Kim, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the comparison between the measured and modeled cosmic radiation on aircraft altitude over Korean peninsula. We performed the measurement with a radiation spectrometer, Liulin-6K on board a Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force aircraft accomplishing the high-altitude (above 9 km) flight over Korea, and the modeled data was obtained from the operational modeling program, CARI-6M developed by FAA. A number of measurements for the flight mission at high-altitude have been executed to evaluate the exposed dose of cosmic radiation. Both the measured and the calculated data show that the exposed radiation dose enhances dramatically as the altitude increases. The results reveal that the exposed dose rate of aircrews at high-altitude flight is 2-3 orders of magnitude (1-2 mSv/hour) higher than the exposure rate at sea level. It is inferred that the annual total dose of radiation for the aircrews at high-altitude could be higher than the annually public limit (1 mSv) recommended by ICRP. Finally, since neutrons are the dominant components reflecting among total cosmic radiation above 9 km, we try to analyze the relationship between the neutron count from the neutron monitor on the ground and the effective dose from the on board spectrometer. Based on these results, it is suggested that the annual criterion and the proper managing procedure of exposed dose for the flight aircrews of ROK Air Force should be regulated.

  1. PTH(1-34) and zoledronic acid have differing longitudinal effects on juvenile mouse femur strength and morphology.

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Christopher M; Oest, Megan E; Mann, Kenneth A; Zimmerman, Nicholas D; Butt, Bilal B; Damron, Timothy A

    2016-09-21

    Treatment of secondary pediatric osteoporosis-particularly that due to chronic diseases, immobilization, and necessary medical treatments-is currently limited by a poor understanding of the long-term efficacy and safety of skeletal metabolism modifying drugs. This study aimed to characterize longitudinal effects of representative anabolic (parathyroid hormone, PTH) and anti-catabolic (zoledronic acid, ZA) drugs on skeletal morphology, mechanical strength, and growth in juvenile mice. BALB/cJ mice aged 4 weeks were given PTH(1-34) or vehicle (control) daily for 8 weeks, or 4 weekly doses of ZA, and evaluated at time points 0-26 weeks after treatment initiation. There were no enduring differences in body length or mass between treatment groups. ZA increased femur size as early as week 0, including increased distal femur bone volume and diaphyseal cross-sectional area, persisting through week 26. PTH treatment only transiently increased bone size, including distal femur volume at weeks 4-12. ZA decreased diaphyseal cortical tissue mineral density (TMD) at 12-26 weeks versus controls; PTH decreased TMD only at 2 weeks (vs. controls). ZA increased bending strength at 0-12 weeks and flexural strength at week 4 (vs. controls), but decreased flexural strength and modulus at week 26. PTH treatment increased bending strength only at 4 weeks, and did not affect flexural strength. Overall, ZA rapidly and persistently increased femur strength and size, but compromised bone material quality long-term. In healthy juvenile mice, limited-duration PTH treatment did not exert a strong anabolic effect, and had no adverse effects on femur strength, morphology, or growth. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  2. Transient changes in thyroid functions tests after zoledronic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Karga, Helen; Giagourta, Irene; Papaioannou, Garyphallia; Katsichti, Paraskevi; Pardalakis, Argyris; Kassi, Georgia; Zagoreou, Apostolia; Triantaphyllopoulou, Maria; Zerva, Cherry

    2011-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) induces an acute phase response in association with elevation of serum cytokines, which possibly alter the 3 types of iodothyronine deiodinase activity. We therefore studied the possible alteration in thyroid function tests by ZA. We investigated the acute changes in serum thyroid hormones, TSH, cortisol, white blood cells, CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), before (0) and 1, 2 and 3 days after iv infusion of 5 mg ZA in 24 asymptomatic postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (ZA group) in comparison with a placebo group. In the majority of patients the ZA infusion was associated with acute phase response and fever within 24h after infusion which became attenuated on day three. Concurrently with increase in serum cortisol, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α, on day 1 and 2, total serum T3 (TT3), free T3 (fT3), total T4 (TT4) and fT4 decreased with a nadir on day 2 in association with an increase in the fT4/fT3 ratio and reverse T3 (rT3) levels. All thyroid function changes returned to the baseline levels on day 3, with cytokines still at higher levels, although lower than those on day 2. Serum TSH remained essentially unchanged throughout the study. The changes in thyroid hormones were at least in part explained by the increased TNF-α, but not by IL-6. ZA induces short term changes in thyroid hormones, characteristic of nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), in association with an increase in TNF-α and IL-6.

  3. Response of a co-culture model of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts to zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Pansani, Taisa Nogueira; Turrioni, Ana Paula Silveira; Scheffel, Débora Lopes; Hebling, Josimeri; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2016-11-28

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an adverse effect of bisphosphonates. While the etiopathogenesis of this condition has been investigated, the interactions and effects of bisphosphonates on oral mucosa cells remain unclear. It is hypothesized that cell culture models, such as co-culture or three-dimensional cell culture models, can provide valuable insight. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts in a co-culture model. Briefly, epithelial cells were seeded on transwell inserts and gingival fibroblasts were seeded in the lower well of 24-well plates. The latter were treated with ZA (5 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability and synthesis of the inflammatory chemokine, CCL2, were subsequently assessed. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. In the presence of ZA, the epithelial cells exhibited significant toxicity in both cell culture models and at both time points. However, greater cytotoxicity was observed in the co-culture model. Greater viability for the gingival fibroblasts was also associated with the co-culture model, and ZA-mediated toxicity was observed for the 48 h time point. ZA promoted a significant increase in CCL2 synthesis in both sets of cells, with greater CCL2 synthesis detected in the gingival fibroblasts. However, this effect was diminished in the co-culture model. Taken together, these results confirm the specific response patterns of the cells seeded in the co-culture model and also demonstrate the protective mechanism that is mediated by epithelial/mesenchymal cell interactions upon exposure to ZA.

  4. Increased Numbers of Nonattached Osteoclasts After Long-Term Zoledronic Acid Therapy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuroshima, Shinichiro; Go, Virginia-Arlene A.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are key players in the maintenance of bone, which is an endocrine target and organ. Bisphosphonates, used for the management of metastatic bone diseases and osteoporosis, suppress osteoclasts. However, the impact of continuously suppressed osteoclasts is unknown. In this study, mice received zoledronic acid (ZA) for 13 months, nearly half the lifespan of mice, and the effects of continual osteoclast suppression on the bone environment and oral wound healing were determined. ZA therapy suppressed osteoclasts, resulting in significantly more bone mass compared with control. Despite continuous and intense suppression of bone loss in mice receiving ZA, serum calcium levels were maintained in the normal range. No differences were noted in serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b levels between ZA-treated and control mice. Histomorphometric analyses of bones revealed that ZA therapy significantly decreased osteoclasts on the bone surface but, instead, substantially increased TRAP+ mononuclear cells and osteoclasts that were not on the bone surface. When oral trauma was induced, such TRAP+ mononuclear and nonattached osteoclasts increased considerably with increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the wounds. As a result, oral wound healing was hindered at the connective tissue level. Healing of the epithelium was unaffected. These findings indicate that the continual suppression of osteoclasts does not affect serum calcium levels and that long-term ZA therapy stimulates nonattached osteoclast and TRAP+ mononuclear cell formation that are expanded rapidly in response to oral trauma. Caution should be exercised when using the serum TRAcP5b to estimate the efficacy of antiresorptive therapy. PMID:22109892

  5. Zoledronic Acid for Prevention of Bone Loss in Patients Receiving Primary Therapy for Lymphomas: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Westin, Jason R.; Thompson, Michael A.; Cataldo, Vince D.; Fayad, Luis E.; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A.; Neelapu, Saatva; Samaniego, Felipe; Romaguera, Jorge; Shah, Jatin; McLaughlin, Peter; Pro, Barbara; Kwak, Larry W.; Sanjorjo, Perpetua; Murphy, William A.; Jimenez, Camillo; Toth, Bela; Dong, Wenli; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma, low bone mineral density (BMD) is common at diagnosis and worsens with therapy. Our randomized phase III trial demonstrates that 2 doses of zoledronic acid (ZA) and supplementation with calcium and vitamin D effectively prevent further bone loss. Background Patients with lymphoma are at risk of development of bone mineral density (BMD) loss from therapy with high-dose corticosteroids and alkylating agents. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate, may prevent this complication of therapy. We evaluated the effect of ZA on the change in BMD and surrogate biomarkers in patients with lymphoma receiving initial chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Our phase III trial randomized 74 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma and a baseline BMD of ≥ −2.0 to receive oral calcium and vitamin D daily with or without ZA at enrollment and at 6 months after enrollment. BMD was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after enrollment. Secondary biomarker endpoints were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after enrollment. Results Forty-three percent of patients had baseline osteopenia. Fifty-three patients were evaluable for response: 24 received ZA and had stable BMD during the observation period, whereas 29 patients in the control group had decreased BMD (P < .05 at lumbar spine and bilateral femoral neck). Twenty-one randomized patients were not evaluable for response because of lymphoma progression or death, withdrawn consent/incomplete testing, or ineligibility. Bone biomarkers were higher in the control group at all intervals after treatment (P < .001). No fractures or intervention-related toxicities were observed during this trial. Conclusions Newly diagnosed patients with lymphoma are at risk of low BMD, which may worsen with therapy. Treatment with ZA effectively stabilizes BMD and prevents bone loss. Our data suggest that BMD testing and prophylaxis should be considered as an early intervention for a preventable problem

  6. Evaluation of Bone Metastasis Using Serial Measurements of Serum N-Telopeptides of Type I Collagen in Patients with Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Motohiro; Tokunaga, Shinya; Okada, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Sasada, Shinji; Okamoto, Norio; Morishita, Naoko; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Natsuko; Taira, Koichi; Daga, Haruko; Takeda, Koji; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2015-07-01

    The bone resorption biomarker cross-linked N-Telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx) has been shown to aid in the diagnosis of metastatic bone disease from lung cancer (MBDLC). Patients with MBDLC are often treated with zoledronic acid (ZA). ZA reduces the levels of NTx and also lowers the risk of skeletal adverse events in patients with MBDLC. Patients with MBDLC at initial diagnosis were included in the study. NTx was measured in serum (sNTx) once a month using the OSTEOMARKTM sNTx assay. MBDLC was assessed by monthly physical examinations and bone scintigraphy every 3 months for 12 months. Twenty patients were enrolled between June and December 2010. The sNTx concentration at baseline was 19.8 ± 5.8 nmol bone collagen equivalents (nmol BCE)/l. In the 16 patients receiving ZA, the level of sNTx significantly decreased after the first month of treatment (baseline vs. 1 month of treatment: 21.3 ± 5.5 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7 nmol BCE/l; p<0.01). During the follow-up period, 13 of the patients treated with ZA experienced worsening of bone metastasis. There were statistically significant differences in the levels of sNTx at baseline (20.3 ± 4.8 nmol BCE/l), at the lowest levels after administration of ZA (11.8 ± 2.9 nmol BCE/l vs. baseline; p<0.001), and at the time of measurable disease progression (14.1 ± 4.6 nM BCE/l vs. baseline; p<0.05). Serial measurements of sNTx in patients with MBDLC treated with ZA may effectively predict disease progression. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Zhibitai and low-dose atorvastatin reduce blood lipids and inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuhong; Peng, Ran; Zhao, Wang; Liu, Qiong; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Atorvastatin decreases blood lipids but is associated with side effects. Zhibitai is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat blood lipid disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect, antiinflammatory effect, and adverse events of zhibitai combined to atorvastatin in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). Methods: Patients with CHD (n = 150) were randomized to: zhibitai 480 mg + atorvastatin 10 mg (ZA10 group), atorvastatin 20 mg (A20 group), and atorvastatin 40 mg (A40 group). Lipid profile, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Self-reported side effects, liver function, kidney function, and creatine kinase levels were monitored. Results: After 8 weeks, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) levels were decreased in the ZA10 group (−64%, −37%, −46%, and −54%, respectively, compared with baseline), and these changes were similar to those of the A40 group (P > 0.05). CT-1 and high sensitivity-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly decreased in the ZA10 group after 4 and 8 weeks (4 weeks: −73% and 96%; 8 weeks: −89% and −98%; all P < 0.01), without differences among the 3 groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks of treatment, adverse events (abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, and hunger) were found in 4, 5, and 7 patients in the ZA10, A20, and A40 groups, respectively. Conclusion: ZA10 significantly reduced triglycerides, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, CT-1, and hs-CRP levels in patients with CHD, similar to the effects of A40 and A20, but ZA10 lead to fewer adverse events. PMID:28207527

  8. Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys Under Spectrum Loading. Volume 2. Aluminum Lithium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    to these), and Rioja and Ludwiczak ( 4 3 ) (a very thorough discussion of the Al-Cu-Li system). Figure 12a shows a (100) zone axis (ZA) electron...a [1001 habit plane. Rioja and Ludwiczak ( 4 3 ) believed that this is the "T 2’-T 21 phase identified by Guinier analysis in Table 4. Because these...can be seen from the [112] ZA EDP’s in Figure 17. These [112] patterns are especially relevant, since Rioja and Ludwiczak ( 4 3 ) have shown that this

  9. Derivations of a Prime Ring Which Satisfy a Polynomial Identity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    or Just Q, the set of equiva- lence classes. Addition and multiplication are then defined by [U,f] + [Vg] - [U A V, f + g] and [U,f] [V,g] - [ VU , fg...ibkh kh khi ak b a. +2 kb -2 (chd)A akhXk z’ khy = Ch [dA kh+2x ZA kh y _ t c ai k b i+r-2 bi k-1 a i+r-2 ci(A xA -zy - A x - zA x)]i-i and , (d

  10. The Zeldovich & Adhesion approximations and applications to the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidding, Johan; van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, Sergei

    2016-10-01

    The Zeldovich approximation (ZA) predicts the formation of a web of singularities. While these singularities may only exist in the most formal interpretation of the ZA, they provide a powerful tool for the analysis of initial conditions. We present a novel method to find the skeleton of the resulting cosmic web based on singularities in the primordial deformation tensor and its higher order derivatives. We show that the A 3 lines predict the formation of filaments in a two-dimensional model. We continue with applications of the adhesion model to visualise structures in the local (z < 0.03) universe.

  11. Theory Support of Pulsed Power Experiments. Volume 3. E-Beam Chamber Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    unlimited. 4 -ERFOCR1 NG DRGANiZA ON REPORT 𔃾LMBER(S) S MONITOPING DRGAN’ZA"ON REPGR’ . V8E:S) SSS -R-84-6709-III DNA-TR-84-288-V3 -a ’ 3C’?E P ERFORMi.G...34Multigun Test Tank Simulation With Magnetic Field," SSS -R-81-5028, June 1981 - 5 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page A-I Geometry of a one meter electrically...special ir)t C ED. APPENDIX MULTIGUN TEST TANK SIMULATION WITH MAGNETIC FIELD (TOPICAL REPORT SSS -R-81-5028, JUNE 1981) A-1 INTRODUCTION The simulation of

  12. The Design of a Navigator for a Testbed Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    discussion of the AUV sonar simulation which will be used to evaluate the proposed navigator. B. OVERVIEW OF NAVIGATOR OPERATION This section provides...a Ya (3.10) -SOa cOaca cO aCO zaI 00 0 1_ The elements xa, Ya and za in this matrix refer to the location of the center of the AUV sonar scan...filtering used by the AUV navigator. The next chapter will present a description of the AUV sonar and navigation simulation, an operating manual for the

  13. Synthesis, biocompatibility and mechanical properties of ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramics composites.

    PubMed

    Nevarez-Rascon, Alfredo; González-Lopez, Santiago; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Nevarez-Rascon, Martina Margarita; Orrantia-Borunda, Erasmo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated cell viability, microhardness and flexural strength of two ceramic composites systems (ZA and AZ), pure alumina and zirconia. There were prepared homogeneous mixtures of 78wt%Al2O3+20wt%3Y-TZP+2wt%Al2O3w (AZ) and 80wt%3YTZP+18wt%Al2O3+2wt%Al2O3w (ZA), as well as 3Y-TZP (Z), pure Al2O3 (A) and commercial monolithic 3Y-TZP (Zc). Also mouse fibroblast cells 3T3-L1 and a MTT test was carried out at 24, 48 and 72 h. The surfaces were observed with SEM and the microhardness and three-point flexural strength values were estimated. The absolute microhardness values were: A>AZ>Z>Zc>ZA. Flexural strength of Zc, Z, and ZA were around double than AZ and A. All groups showed high biocompatibility trough cell viability values at 24, 48 and 72 h. Factors like grain shape, grain size and homogeneous or heterogeneous grain distributions may play an important role in physical, mechanical and biological properties of the ceramic composites.

  14. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 RIN 0910-ZA26 Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reopening...

  15. Infra Red Dye and Endostar Loaded Poly Lactic Acid Nano Particles as a Novel Theranostic Nanomedicine for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Du, Yang; Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Li, Yaqian; Li, Xiaofeng; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been proven to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and is utilized as an anticancer drug. While free drugs can display limited efficacy, nanoscaled anticancer drugs have been fabricated and proven to possess superior therapeutic effects. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a FDA-approved biomaterial displaying excellent biocompatibility and low toxicity. In this study, Endostar-loaded PLA nanoparticles (EPNPs) were first prepared, and a near-infrared (NIR) dye, IRDye 800CW, was conjugated to the surface for detecting nanoparticle biodistribution through fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) using an orthotopic breast tumor mouse model. The antitumor efficacy of EPNPs was examined using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and immunohistology. To further improve the antitumor effects, we combined EPNPs with zoledronic acid monohydrate (ZA), which is known to decrease the tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and inhibit tumor progression. We found that EPNPs decreased human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) viability by inhibiting tumor growth gene expression more significantly than free Endostar in vitro. In vivo, EPNPs displayed better tumor growth inhibitory effects compared with free Endostar, and the combination of EPNPs with ZA exhibited more significant antitumor effects. As confirmed by CD31 and CD11b immunohistochemistry, the combination of EPNPs and ZA showed synergistic effects in reducing tumor angiogenesis and TAM accumulation in tumor regions. Taken together, this study presents a novel and effective form of nanoscaled Endostar for the treatment of breast cancer that displays synergistic antitumor effects in combination with ZA.

  16. Reactive oxygen species are required for zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yu; Su, Fong-Chin; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Jou, I.-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Inhibiting osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors to reduce bone resorption is an important strategy to treat osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory bone loss, and malignant bone metastasis. However, the mechanism by which apoptosis is induced in the osteoclasts and their precursors are not completely understood. Here, we used nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) to induce cell apoptosis in human and murine osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells. Caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis occurred following the ZA (100 μM) treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also generated in a time-dependent manner. Following knock-down of the p47phox expression, which is required for ROS activation, or co-treatment with the ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ZA-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed in both osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells. The ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways did not trigger cell apoptosis. However, a ROS-regulated Mcl-1 decrease simultaneously with glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β promoted cell apoptosis. These findings show that ZA induces apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells by triggering ROS- and GSK-3β-mediated Mcl-1 down-regulation. PMID:28281643

  17. 76 FR 13508 - Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA29 Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes..., call or e-mail Mr. Doug McCann, Ninth District Resources Planning Branch, U.S. Coast Guard, telephone...

  18. Computational and experimental verification of a wide-angle metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Jun, Wang

    2017-04-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11547196), the Key Projects of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 15ZA0224), the Project of Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence, China (Grant No. 2014RYJ01), and the Key Plan Projects of Science and Technology of Zigong, China (Grant No. 2016CXM05).

  19. Russia’s Military Aviation Industry. Strategy for Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Aleksander Bekker, “Yakov Urinson-Voennaya Reforma Za tronet Vsyu Economiku Rossii,” Se godnya, 17 Octo ber 1996, 3; and Vladislav Kuz’michev...bite lei SU-30MK,” Se godnya, 2 De cem ber 1996, 1. 32. Nikolay Novichkov and Lyubov’ Milo ba nova, “La­ tinskaya Amerika Mozhet Stat’ Perspek tiv

  20. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 RIN 2070-ZA16 Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental... methyl bromide in or on cotton, undelinted seed under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA... to establish a tolerance for residues of methyl bromide, including metabolites and degradates in or...

  1. Soviet Nationalities in German Wartime Strategy, 1941-1945.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    at War, 1 939-1945, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1966. Steiner , Felix, Die Armee der Geachteten, Plesse Verlag, Gettingen, 1963. -,Die...Baumeister, Rudolf , "Erfahrungen mit Ostfreiwilligen," Wehrkunde, April 1955. Davydov, I. V., "Propaganda idei druzby narodov v period bitvy za Kavkaz

  2. Maize pathogens suppress inducible phytoalexin production to thwart innate plant immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kauralexins (KA) and zealexins (ZA) are newly described secondary metabolites in maize that serve as inducible chemical defenses against insects and pathogens. In contrast to the abundance of terpene volatiles in leaves, these non-volatile terpenoid phytoalexins are only mildly produced in response ...

  3. 78 FR 966 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... value of the transaction. These include Flags N, W, 6, BB, MT, PI, PR, and ZR.\\7\\ \\6\\ This fee is... and ZR. The Exchange defined a Retail Order in Footnote 4 to mean ``(i) an agency order that...-order basis via FIX in order to qualify for the rates on Flags ZA (rebate of $0.0032 per share) and ZR...

  4. 77 FR 71860 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... for, the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose The Exchange proposes to introduce new flags ZA and ZR for... Orders that add liquidity to EDGX and is proposed to be assigned a rebate of $0.0032 per share. Flag ZR... will earn the lower removal rate on Flag ZR instead of its assigned rate. A Member would be required to...

  5. ROCK1 but not ROCK2 contributes to RhoA signaling and NMIIA-mediated contractility at the epithelial zonula adherens

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Rashmi; Liang, Xuan; Teo, Jessica L.; Duszyc, Kinga; Yap, Alpha S.; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    Rho kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) function downstream of the small GTPase RhoA to drive actomyosin cytoskeletal remodeling. It has often been believed that ROCK1 and ROCK2 may be functionally redundant, as they share a highly conserved kinase domain. However, in this study, we report differential functional effects for these ROCKs at the epithelial zonula adherens (ZA). Using specific siRNA, we found that ROCK1 depletion disrupted cadherin organization at the ZA, accompanied by loss of F-actin and NMIIA, whereas ROCK2 knockdown had no significant effect. Further, ROCK1, but not ROCK2, was necessary to stabilize GTP-RhoA at the ZA, thereby sustaining junctional tension and inhibiting intraepithelial cell movement. We also found that nonmuscle myosin IIA is a major determinant of ROCK1 cortical stability. Thus, despite sharing the catalytic domain with ROCK2, ROCK1 appears to be the dominant kinase essential for junctional integrity and contractile tension at epithelial ZA. PMID:28035042

  6. ROCK1 but not ROCK2 contributes to RhoA signaling and NMIIA-mediated contractility at the epithelial zonula adherens.

    PubMed

    Priya, Rashmi; Liang, Xuan; Teo, Jessica L; Duszyc, Kinga; Yap, Alpha S; Gomez, Guillermo A

    2017-01-01

    Rho kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) function downstream of the small GTPase RhoA to drive actomyosin cytoskeletal remodeling. It has often been believed that ROCK1 and ROCK2 may be functionally redundant, as they share a highly conserved kinase domain. However, in this study, we report differential functional effects for these ROCKs at the epithelial zonula adherens (ZA). Using specific siRNA, we found that ROCK1 depletion disrupted cadherin organization at the ZA, accompanied by loss of F-actin and NMIIA, whereas ROCK2 knockdown had no significant effect. Further, ROCK1, but not ROCK2, was necessary to stabilize GTP-RhoA at the ZA, thereby sustaining junctional tension and inhibiting intraepithelial cell movement. We also found that nonmuscle myosin IIA is a major determinant of ROCK1 cortical stability. Thus, despite sharing the catalytic domain with ROCK2, ROCK1 appears to be the dominant kinase essential for junctional integrity and contractile tension at epithelial ZA. © 2017 Priya et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Approximate Subgraph Isomorphism for Image Localization (Author’s Manuscript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-18

    In Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, pages 3816–3823. IEEE, 2010. 1 [16] G. Schindler, M. Brown , and...Clements, R. Townshend, and A. Za- khor. User-driven geolocation of untagged desert imagery using digital elevation models. In Computer Vision and Pat

  8. Modeling and Synthesis Methods for Retrofit Design of Submarine Actuation Systems. Energy Storage for Electric Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-15

    1983. [73] E. Rossingnal and J. L. Hennolter, “Kinematical and dynamical control of robotic ma- nipulators,” tech. rep., Universite Libre de Bruxelles...The error G vector for Za(s) is given by, Gerror = [ 1.5235 0.8543 0.0972 0.0026 ]T The order of magnitude drop between the second and third entries

  9. Design Considerations for a UCAV Wing for Subsonic and Transonic Aeroelastic and Flight Mechanic Wind Tunnel Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    actuation device in the wing will increase the model complexity considerably and very probably stiffen the wing considerably. Figure 6: Desing ...7] http://www.denel.co.za/Aerospace/UAV.asp [8] http://www.aoe.vt.edu/ research /groups/ucav/ [9] Kudva, J.N.: Overview of the DARPA Smart Wing

  10. 75 FR 24737 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZA94 Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for... TPS Beneficiaries AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland...

  11. 75 FR 24734 - Extension of the Designation of Honduras for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZA93 Extension of the Designation of Honduras for...: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security (Secretary) has extended the designation... applications, the Department of Homeland Security recognizes the possibility that all re-registrants may...

  12. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZA95 Extension of the Designation of El... Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security has extended the designation of El Salvador for temporary protected status (TPS) for 18...

  13. Fekete-Szegö inequalities for Sakaguchi type functions and fractional derivative operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhindi, Khadeejah Rasheed; Darus, Maslina

    2013-11-01

    In this particular paper, sharp upper bounds of |a3-μa22| for the functions f(z) = z+a2z2+a3z3+… belonging to a new subclass of Sakaguchi type functions are obtained. Furthermore, Fekete-Szegö inequalities for certain classes of functions defined through fractional derivatives are also obtained.

  14. Biostimulatory effects of low-level laser therapy on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, F. G.; Pansani, T. N.; Turrioni, A. P. S.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hebling, J.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, presenting positive clinical outcomes. However, there are no data regarding the effect of LLLT on oral tissue cells exposed to bisphosphonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts exposed to a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate—zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were seeded in wells of 24-well plates, incubated for 48 h and then exposed to ZA at 5 μM for an additional 48 h. LLLT was performed with a diode laser prototype—LaserTABLE (InGaAsP—780 nm ± 3 nm, 25 mW), at selected energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J cm-2 in three irradiation sessions, every 24 h. Cell metabolism, total protein production, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen type I (Col-I), and cell morphology were evaluated 24 h after the last irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance. Selected LLLT parameters increased the functions of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with ZA. Gene expression of VEGF and Col-I was also increased. Specific parameters of LLLT biostimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells treated with ZA. Analysis of these in vitro data may explain the positive in vivo effects of LLLT applied to osteonecrosis lesions.

  15. 75 FR 58329 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Expenses Test Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... 3090-ZA01 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Expenses Test Programs AGENCY: Office of... relocation expenses test programs for Federal employees, made by the passage of Public Law 111-112 on... General Services to authorize Federal agencies to test new and innovative methods of reimbursing...

  16. Integrating Language Lab Materials into Advanced Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allar, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of language lab materials supplied by the pedagogical journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" in an advanced Russian-language class. Each week students were given a relevant picture and vocabulary list prior to listening to a taped story. The story was used as the basis for conversation. (LMO)

  17. The LAOM Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Measuring Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Addressing the Psychometric Properties of the Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces a new anxiety scale, called the LAOM (Lestvica anksioznosti za otroke in mladostnike [The anxiety scale for children and adolescents]) for measuring self-reported multidimensional anxiety. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using one sample from an elementary school which is…

  18. Aerodynamic Noise and Suppressors,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-29

    not only disturbs people, it also excites the chickens and dogs, causes milk cows to stop producing milk , and pigs, horses, and cows to be affected...Figure 3.34, when the distance between holes is greater than the diameter of the holes, the acoustic impedance per area a is ZA - r, + llaMA , (3. 1)9

  19. Humboldt Bay Wetlands Review and Baylands Analysis. Volume I. Summary and Findings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    fresh marsh is dominated by water parsley . or occa:iornally marsh pennywort (Hc-oootil sp.) . Rush (,>’s ."- _t ), sedge, bulrush (Scirpue miorocar...these areas, such as cattails, bulrushes (Scirp)us spp.), silverweed (Potenti Za pacifica), pennywort (Hsdioootit sp.) and numerous other species

  20. The Department of Defense Role in African Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-17

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPO ER(S; SO 5, MONITORING ORGANiZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) ACN 93011 68 NAME O; PERFORMNC . ORGANiZA’IO% 6o O9;CE SYMBOL 7a NAME...reasons in mid-intensity conflicts. The resulting financial , and roles and missions costs to DOD are substantial. It is far wiser and much cheaper to head

  1. 75 FR 7591 - Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RIN 2050-ZA05 Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at... draft Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at...

  2. Novel high-K with low specific on-resistance high voltage lateral double-diffused MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Zhong-Jie; Song, Yue; Yang, Hang; Hu, Li-Min; Yuan, Na

    2017-02-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306094), the Project of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No.13ZA0089), the Introduction of Talents Project of Changsha University of Science & Technology, China (Grant No. 1198023), and the Construct Program of the Key Discipline in Hunan Province, China.

  3. Apparent Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Anopheles Species on Grenada Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    population genetics of this species from the southern United States to north- ern Argentina, including the Caribbean region. Anopheles...species has become numerically dom- Manguin, S., E. L. Peyton and R. Femandez Loay- za. 1993. Population genetics of Anopheles pseudo

  4. 77 FR 60917 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 RIN 2070-ZA16 Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental..., is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory Public...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC...

  5. Developing Chiefs of Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Includes introduction to toe Air Fo’ce S.p;:y Syso"’ Za, ic fundamcttais of suoplv !ssue and requisitioning proceses . repair fyce management and supDort...Liberal Arts (Emlish. Hstory, Music. etc.) 2. Social Sciences (Psyhology, Soiology, etc.) 3. Busine (Manaerment, Accounting, etc. ) 4. Engineering ( Civil

  6. Corrections to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift induced by diagrams with second order radiative insertions in the electron line

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1994-12-31

    Contributions to HFS and to the Lamb shift intervals of order a{sup 2}(Za){sup 5} induced by gauge invariant set of nineteen topologically different graphs with two radiative photons inserted in the electron line are considered. Corrections both to HFS and Lamb shift induced by nine diagrams are calculated in the Fried-Yennie gauge.

  7. Automated Q-Gert Source Code Generation Using Computer Aided Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    17. Shannon , Robert E..a ysars S&Lmfla.Ln.za- ±ba Sat and Saciana. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1975. 18. Sippl , Charles J. tinn...34Notes on Absolute Location Interfaces to Apple Pascal." BYTE. pp 324-325, (September 1980). 21. Spoonamore , Janet, Kenneth Crawford, Edgar Neely

  8. 75 FR 984 - Draft Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and RCRA Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... AGENCY RIN 2050-ZA05 Draft Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA...) developed in the Draft Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at Comprehensive... draft recommended interim PRGs for dioxin in soil. These draft recommended interim PRGs were calculated...

  9. 76 FR 56682 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information Regarding... on certain dosage forms of over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products marketed without approved..., 2011, ANPRM), FDA published an ANPRM that requested data and information on OTC sunscreen...

  10. Z-pinch equilibrium and instability analysis with digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Hughes, M. C.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Doty, S.; Kim, B.

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma and fusion reactor conditions. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii ( 1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structures are measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 ×1020 m-2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This work is supported by Grants from the US DoE and NNSA.

  11. Projecting impacts of climate change on water availability using artificial neural network techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta; Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo

    2017-01-01

    Lago Loíza reservoir in east-central Puerto Rico is one of the primary sources of public water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. To evaluate and predict the Lago Loíza water budget, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique is trained to predict river inflows. A method is developed to combine ANN-predicted daily flows with ANN-predicted 30-day cumulative flows to improve flow estimates. The ANN application trains well for representing 2007–2012 and the drier 1994–1997 periods. Rainfall data downscaled from global circulation model (GCM) simulations are used to predict 2050–2055 conditions. Evapotranspiration is estimated with the Hargreaves equation using minimum and maximum air temperatures from the downscaled GCM data. These simulated 2050–2055 river flows are input to a water budget formulation for the Lago Loíza reservoir for comparison with 2007–2012. The ANN scenarios require far less computational effort than a numerical model application, yet produce results with sufficient accuracy to evaluate and compare hydrologic scenarios. This hydrologic tool will be useful for future evaluations of the Lago Loíza reservoir and water supply to the San Juan metropolitan area.

  12. SigmaPlot 2000, Version 6.00, SPSS Inc. Computer Software Project Management, Requirements, and Design Document

    SciTech Connect

    HURLBUT, S.T.

    2000-10-24

    SigmaPlot is a vendor software product that will be used to convert the area under an absorbance curve generated by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) to a relative area. SigmaPlot will be used in conjunction with procedure ZA-565-301, ''Determination of Moisture by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Infrared Detection.''

  13. Overlay improvement by zone alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ai-Yi; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Yang, Richer; Yuan, Michael; Chen, Henry; Chang, Ray

    2008-03-01

    It is evident that DRAM ground rule continues to shrink down to 90nm and beyond, overlay performance has become more and more critical and important. Wafer edge shows different behavior from center by processes, e.g. a tremendous misalignment at wafer edge makes yield loss . When a conventional linear model is used for alignment correction, higher uncorrectable overlay residuals mostly happen at wafer edge. Therefore, it's obviously necessary to introduce an innovational alignment correction methdology to reduce unwanted wafer edge effect. In this study, we demonstrate the achievement of moderating poor overlay in wafer edge area by a novel zone-dependent alignment strategy, the so-called "Zone Alignment (ZA)". The main difference between the conventional linear model and zone alignment strategy is that the latter compensates an improper averaging effect from first modeling through weighting all surrounding marks with a nonlinear model. In addition, the effects of mark quantity and sampling distribution from "Zone Alignment" are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that ZA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual and improve wafer-to-wafer variation significantly. Furthermore, obvious yield improvement is verified by ZA strategy. In conclusion, Zone alignment is the noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, suitable alignment map and mark numbers should be taken into consideration carefully when ZA is applied for further technology node.

  14. Human zygote morphological indicators of higher rate of arrest at the first cleavage stage.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Raquel Blanes; Sánchez, Rebeca Vaca; Pérez, Jonay González; Díaz, Rubí Rodríguez; Quintana, Delia Báez; Bethencourt, José C Alberto

    2011-11-01

    A little studied aspect of developmental arrest (DA) in ART is zygote arrest (ZA). Etiologically, blockage at the first cleavage stage includes molecular and chromosomal anomalies, some of which manifest morphologically. Given considerations on embryo culture, transfer and cryopreservation, optimal zygote selection is very important. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether zygote morphological features were indicators of increased ZA. In this study we performed a prospective, observational study of 2105 zygotes obtained from consecutive patients who were undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, of which 43 (2%) suffered ZA. Morphological features observed under the inverted microscope were qualitatively categorized: pronuclear size, nucleolar precursor bodies (NPB) alignment, light and dark halos, polar body placement and fragmentation observed at 16-18 h post-insemination. We compared these features in blocked versus cleaved zygotes at 48 h and found significant correlations (p < 0.05) between ZA and three features: the absence of a light halo (p = 0.001), the absence of a dark halo (p < 0.005), and non-aligned NPB (p < 0.05). We can say that certain morphological features are indicators of significantly increased zygote arrest. These findings may be of utility for optimal zygote selection and culture strategies, especially in countries under restrictive conditions.

  15. 75 FR 10464 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-ZA28 Broadband Technology Opportunities... Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is extended until 5:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on March...

  16. Catastrophic Reaction of Compartmentalized Ammunition - Causes and Preventive Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    fabricated, "\\1 ZA,,,INMm with internal manganin pressure.1. gauges and externally mounted constantan strain gauges (see Figure 2). These charges...the hypothesis that initiation resulted from rupture of the casing and extrusion of the explosive into cracks. Constantan strain gauges and manganin

  17. Challenges of Regional Collective Security: Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Standby Force: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    international assistance, the dream of a peaceful Africa will never come true. For this reason, the G8 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia , the...operations.” http://www.iss.co.za/AF/RegOrg/unity_to_union/ECOWAS.html (accessed 27 October 2007). Medcalf, J. 2006. NATO; a beginners guide. Oxford

  18. 75 FR 58304 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA25 Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Puget Sound, WA; Correction AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...

  19. The influence of type and token frequency on the acquisition of affixation patterns: implications for language processing.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Hauser, Marc D

    2011-01-01

    Rules, and exceptions to such rules, are ubiquitous in many domains, including language. Here we used simple artificial grammars to investigate the influence of 2 factors on the acquisition of rules and their exceptions, namely type frequency (the relative numbers of different exceptions to different regular items) and token frequency (the number of exception tokens relative to the number of regular tokens). We familiarized participants to either a prefixation pattern (where regulars started with /ZaI/ and exceptions ended with /ZaI/) or a suffixation pattern (where regulars ended with /ZaI/ and exceptions started with /ZaI/). We show that the type and the token frequency of regular items and exceptions influence in different ways what participants can learn. For the exceptions to be learned, they have to occur sufficiently often so that participants can memorize them; this can be achieved by a high token frequency. However, a high token frequency of the exceptions also impaired the acquisition of the regular pattern. In contrast, the type frequency of the patterns seemed to determine whether the regular pattern could be learned: When the type frequency of the regular items was sufficiently high, participants successfully learned the regular pattern even when the exceptions were played so often that 66% of the familiarization items were exceptions. We discuss these findings in the context of general learning mechanisms and the role they may play in language acquisition.

  20. 76 FR 9709 - Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... and San Joaquin Rivers.\\1\\ The Bay Delta Estuary is the hub of California's water distribution system... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I RIN-2009-ZA00 Water Quality Challenges in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San... water quality conditions affecting aquatic resources in the San Francisco Bay/ Sacramento-San Joaquin...

  1. The Burgundy-blood phenomenon: a model of buoyancy change explains autumnal waterblooms by Planktothrix rubescens in Lake Zürich.

    PubMed

    Walsby, Anthony E; Schanz, Ferdinand; Schmid, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Buoyancy changes of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens- the Burgundy-blood alga - were modelled from its buoyancy response to light and irradiance changes in Lake Zürich during autumnal mixing. The daily insolation received by filaments at fixed depths and circulating to different depths was calculated from the measured light attenuation and surface irradiance. The active mixing depth, za5, was determined from the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient, Kz, calculated from the wind speed, heat flux and temperature gradients. The fixed depth resulting in filament buoyancy, zn, decreased from 13 to 2 m between August and December 1998; the critical depth for buoyancy, zq, to which filaments must be circulated to become buoyant, decreased from >60 m in the summer to <10 m in winter. When za5 first exceeded zn, in September, P. rubescens was mixed into the epilimnion. In October, zq > za5: circulating filaments would have lost buoyancy in the high insolation. Often in November and December, after deeper mixing and lower insolation, za5 > zq: filaments would have become buoyant but would have floated to the lake surface (the Burgundy-blood phenomenon) only under subsequent calm conditions, when Kz was low. The model explains the Burgundy-blood phenomenon in deeper lakes; waterblooms near shallow leeward shores arise from populations floating up in deeper regions of the lake.

  2. 75 FR 32273 - Representation Election Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... 29 CFR Parts 1202 and 1206 RIN 3140-ZA00 Representation Election Procedure AGENCY: National Mediation... delaying the effective date of its rule regarding representation election procedures from June 10, 2010 to... Representation Election Procedure Rule have been made. The NMB will notify participants if there are any further...

  3. Steady-state gating of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels. Variability and electrolyte-dependent modulation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The steady-state gating of individual batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neutral phospholipid bilayers exhibits spontaneous, reversible changes in channel activation, such that the midpoint potential (Va) for the gating curves may change, by 30 mV or more, with or without a change in the apparent gating valence (za). Consequently, estimates for Va and, in particular, za from ensemble-averaged gating curves differ from the average values for Va and za from single-channel gating curves. In addition to these spontaneous variations, the average Va shifts systematically as a function of [NaCl] (being -109, -88, and - 75 mV at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 M NaCl), with no systematic variation in the average za (approximately 3.7). The [NaCl]-dependent shifts in Va were interpreted in terms of screening of fixed charges near the channels' gating machinery. Estimates for the extracellular and intracellular apparent charge densities (sigma e = -0.7 and sigma i = -0.08 e/nm2) were obtained from experiments in symmetrical and asymmetrical NaCl solutions using the Gouy-Chapman theory. In 0.1 M NaCl the extracellular and intracellular surface potentials are estimated to be - 94 and -17 mV, respectively. The intrinsic midpoint potential, corrected for the surface potentials, is thus about -30 mV, and the standard free energy of activation is approximately -12 kJ/mol. In symmetrical 0.1 M NaCl, addition of 0.005 M Ba2+ to the extracellular solution produced a 17-mV depolarizing shift in Va and a slight reduction in za. The shift is consistent with predictions using the Gouy-Chapman theory and the above estimate for sigma e. Subsequent addition of 0.005 M Ba2+ to the intracellular solution produced a approximately 5-mV hyperpolarizing shift in the ensemble-averaged gating curve and reduced za by approximately 1. This Ba(2+)-induced shift is threefold larger than predicted, which together with the reduction in za implies that Ba2+ may bind at the intracellular channel surface. PMID

  4. Spin-adapted open-shell random phase approximation and time-dependent density functional theory. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2010-08-14

    The spin-adaptation of single-reference quantum chemical methods for excited states of open-shell systems has been nontrivial. The primary reason is that the configuration space, generated by a truncated rank of excitations from only one component of a reference multiplet, is spin-incomplete. Those "missing" configurations are of higher ranks and can, in principle, be recaptured by a particular class of excitation operators. However, the resulting formalisms are then quite involved and there are situations [e.g., time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) under the adiabatic approximation] that prevent one from doing so. To solve this issue, we propose here a tensor-coupling scheme that invokes all the components of a reference multiplet (i.e., a tensor reference) rather than increases the excitation ranks. A minimal spin-adapted n-tuply excited configuration space can readily be constructed by tensor products between the n-tuple tensor excitation operators and the chosen tensor reference. Further combined with the tensor equation-of-motion formalism, very compact expressions for excitation energies can be obtained. As a first application of this general idea, a spin-adapted open-shell random phase approximation is first developed. The so-called "translation rule" is then adopted to formulate a spin-adapted, restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS)-based TD-DFT (ROKS-TD-DFT). Here, a particular symmetry structure has to be imposed on the exchange-correlation kernel. While the standard ROKS-TD-DFT can access only excited states due to singlet-coupled single excitations, i.e., only some of the singly excited states of the same spin (S(i)) as the reference, the new scheme can capture all the excited states of spin S(i)-1, S(i), or S(i)+1 due to both singlet- and triplet-coupled single excitations. The actual implementation and computation are very much like the (spin-contaminated) unrestricted Kohn-Sham-based TD-DFT. It is also shown that spin-contaminated spin

  5. AB302. SPR-29 Sphingosine-1-phosphate in vitro and in vivo modulates corpus cavernosum smooth muscle tone

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Yin, Jing; Kanika, Nirmala D.; Tong, Yuehong; Villegas, Guillermo; Melman, Arnold; DiSanto, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates smooth muscle (SM) contractility predominantly via three G protein-coupled receptors. The S1P1 receptor is associated with nitric oxide-mediated SM relaxation while S1P2 & S1P3 receptors are linked to SM contraction via activation of the Rho-kinase (ROK) pathway. The objective of this study was to determine the role of S1P in the modulation of corpus cavernosum (CC) SM (CCSM) tone. Methods Human and rat samples were used. Plasma S1P levels were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of S1P1-3 receptors and sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) was determined by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. In vitro organ bath contractility and in vivo intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurements were performed. Results were expressed as mean ± SEM for n experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using either the Student’s t-test (when two sample treatments were being compared) or using ANOVA when multiple means were compared. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Plasma S1P levels were determined to be ~200 nanomolar. Human and rat CC both express SphK1 and all S1P1-3 receptors. Exogenous S1P and the S1P receptor agonist FTY720-P contracted while antagonist JTE-013 relaxed CCSM in vitro. Meanwhile, force produced by S1P and agonists could be totally reversed by ROK inhibitor. Also, intracavernous injection of FTY720-P inhibited ICP rise induced by submaximal electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve, while JTE-013 alone induced ICP increase in vivo. Finally, SphK1 siRNA knocked down rat CC SphK1 by 80% and ICP were significantly potentiated. Conclusions In conclusion, we provide novel data that S1P, possibly coupling S1P2 and S1P3 receptors via RhoA/ROK pathway, mediates CCSM in vitro and in vivo. Antagonizing S1P or its receptors induces CCSM relaxation and proerectile effects. Thus, we provide the first clear evidences that the S1P system is another key contractile regulatory

  6. L-MTP-PE and zoledronic acid combination in osteosarcoma: preclinical evidence of positive therapeutic combination for clinical transfer

    PubMed Central

    Biteau, Kevin; Guiho, Romain; Chatelais, Mathias; Taurelle, Julien; Chesneau, Julie; Corradini, Nadège; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor in pediatric patients is characterized by osteolysis promoting tumor growth. Lung metastasis is the major bad prognosis factor of this disease. Zoledronic Acid (ZA), a potent inhibitor of bone resorption is currently evaluated in phase III randomized studies in Europe for the treatment of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The beneficial effect of the liposomal form of Muramyl-TriPeptide-Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (L-mifamurtide, MEPACT®), an activator of macrophage populations has been demonstrated to eradicate lung metastatic foci in osteosarcoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefit and the safety of the ZA and L-mifamurtide combination in preclinical models of osteosarcoma, as a prerequisite before translation to patients. The effects of ZA (100 μg/kg) and L-mifamurtide (1 mg/kg) were investigated in vivo in xenogeneic and syngeneic mice models of osteosarcoma, at clinical (tumor proliferation, spontaneous lung metastases development), radiological (bone microarchitecture by microCT analysis), biological and histological levels. No interference between the two drugs could be observed on ZA-induced bone protection and on L-mifamurtide-induced inhibition of lung metastasis development. Unexpectedly, ZA and L-mifamurtide association induced an additional and in some cases synergistic inhibition of primary tumor progression. L-mifamurtide has no effect on tumor proliferation in vitro or in vivo, and macrophage population was not affected at the tumor site whatever the treatment. This study evidenced for the first time a significant inhibition of primary osteosarcoma progression when both drugs are combined. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle for clinical application in osteosarcoma patients. PMID:27152244

  7. Systemic and local zoledronic acid treatment with hydroxyapatite bone graft: A histological and histomorphometric experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Günes, Nedim; Dundar, Serkan; Saybak, Arif; Artas, Gökhan; Acikan, Izzet; Ozercan, I. Hanifi; Atilgan, Serhat; Yaman, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to compare the relative efficacy of systemic and local zoledronic acid (ZA) on a hydroxyapatite (HA) bone graft in a rat critical-size calvarial bone defect. In total, 84 female rats were divided into four groups: Empty control (EC) group with no treatment applied; HA group, in which only HA bone graft material was used in the calvarium; and HA plus local ZA (HA+LZA) and HA plus systemic ZA (HA+SZA) groups, in which animals received ZA locally or systemically, respectively, with HA bone graft material in the calvarium. A 5-mm standardised critical-size calvarial bone defect was created with a standard trephine drill and the respective treatment was applied. Rats were sacrificed 7, 14 and 28 days later. The numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and degree of bone formation were evaluated histopathologically and histomorphometrically. Statistically significant differences were detected between the HA, HA+LZA and HA+SZA groups and the EC group for new bone formation (P<0.05). Osteoblast numbers in the HA+LZA and HA+SZA groups were significantly higher compared with those in the EC and HA groups (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was detected between the HA+LZA and HA+SZA groups in new bone formation or osteoblast number (P>0.05). Bone formation was significantly higher in the HA group than in the EC group (P<0.05). The numbers of osteoclasts in the HA+LZA and HA+SZA groups were significantly higher than those in the groups EC and HA (P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between groups HA+LZA and HA+SZA (P>0.05). Within the limitations of this study, systemic or local administration of ZA enhanced new bone formation with a HA bone graft in a rat critical-size calvarial defect model. PMID:27698743

  8. Comparison of retention forces with various fabrication methods and materials in double crowns.

    PubMed

    Çelik Güven, Melahat; Tuna, Meral; Bozdağ, Ergun; Öztürk, Gizem Nur; Bayraktar, Gulsen

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the retention force changes and wear behaviours of double-crown systems over long-term use. Ten groups, each consisting of six samples, were evaluated. Specifically, casting gold alloy primary crown - casting gold alloy secondary crown (AA), laser sintering primary crown - laser sintering secondary crown (LL), casting Cr alloy primary crown - casting Cr alloy secondary crown, (CC) zirconia primary crown - electroformed secondary crown (ZA), and CAD/CAM titanium alloy primary crown - CAD/CAM titanium alloy secondary crown (TT) groups were evaluated at cone angles of 4° and 6°. The samples were subjected to 5,000 insertion-separation cycles in artificial saliva, and the retention forces were measured every 500 cycles. The wear levels were analyzed via SEM at the beginning and end of the 5,000 cycles. In all samples, the retention forces increased when the conus angle decreased. The highest initial and final retention force values were found in the LL-4° group (32.89 N-32.65 N), and the lowest retention force values were found in the ZA6° group (5.41 N-6.27 N). The ZA groups' samples showed the least change in the retention force, and no wear was observed. In the other groups, wear was observed mostly in the primary crowns. More predictable, clinically relevant, and less excursive retention forces can be observed in the ZA groups. The retention force values of the LL groups were statically similar to those of the other groups, except the ZA groups.

  9. Osteoclast activity modulates B-cell development in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anna; Anginot, Adrienne; Mancini, Stéphane J C; Schiff, Claudine; Carle, Georges F; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2011-07-01

    B-cell development is dependent on the interactions between B-cell precursors and bone marrow stromal cells, but the role of osteoclasts (OCLs) in this process remains unknown. B lymphocytopenia is a characteristic of osteopetrosis, suggesting a modulation of B lymphopoiesis by OCL activity. To address this question, we first rescued OCL function in osteopetrotic oc/oc mice by dendritic cell transfer, leading to a restoration of both bone phenotype and B-cell development. To further explore the link between OCL activity and B lymphopoiesis, we induced osteopetrosis in normal mice by injections of zoledronic acid (ZA), an inhibitor of bone resorption. B-cell number decreased specifically in the bone marrow of ZA-treated mice. ZA did not directly affect B-cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, but induced a decrease in the expression of CXCL12 and IL-7 by stromal cells, associated with reduced osteoblastic engagement. Equivalent low osteoblastic engagement in oc/oc mice confirmed that it resulted from the reduced OCL activity rather than from a direct effect of ZA on osteoblasts. These dramatic alterations of the bone microenvironment were disadvantageous for B lymphopoiesis, leading to retention of B-cell progenitors outside of their bone marrow niches in the ZA-induced osteopetrotic model. Altogether, our data revealed that OCLs modulate B-cell development in the bone marrow by controlling the bone microenvironment and the fate of osteoblasts. They provide novel basis for the regulation of the retention of B cells in their niche by OCL activity.

  10. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron . E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G.

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  11. Effects of combined teriparatide and zoledronic acid on posterior lumbar vertebral fusion in an aged ovariectomized rat model of osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Yishake, Mumingjiang; Yasen, Miersalijiang; Jiang, Libo; Liu, Wangmi; Xing, Rong; Chen, Qian; Lin, Hong; Dong, Jian

    2017-08-10

    There has been no study regarding the effect of a combination of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZA) on vertebral fusion. In this study, we investigate the effect of single and combined TPTD and ZA treatment on lumbar vertebral fusion in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty two-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and underwent bilateral L4-5 posterolateral intertransverse fusion after ten months. The OVX rats received vehicle (control) treatment, or ZA (100µg/kg, once), or TPTD (60µg/kg/2 d for 42 d), or ZA + TPTD until they were euthanized at six weeks following lumbar vertebral fusion. The lumbar spine was harvested. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone fusion, bone volume (BV), and bone formation rate (BFR)were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), radiography, micro-computed tomography, and histomorphometry. Compared with vehicle (control) treatment, ZA and TPTD monotherapy increased bone volume (BV) at fusion site, and ZA + TPTD combined therapy had an additive effect. Treatment with TPTD and ZA + TPTD increased the bone fusion rate when compared with the control group. ZA monotherapy did not alter the rate of bone fusion. The TPTD and ZA + TPTD treatment groups had increased mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralizing surfaces/bone surface ((MS/BS) and BFR/BS compared with the OVX group. Our experiment confirm that the monotherapy with TPTD and combination therapy with ZA + TPTD in an OVX rat model of osteopenia following lumbar vertebral fusion surgery increased bone fusion mass and bone fusion rate, and ZA + TPTD combined therapy had an additive effect on bone fusion mass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between zinc malnutrition and alterations in murine peripheral blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.E.; Morford, L.A.; Fraker, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Studies using a murine model have shown that the immune system responds rapidly and adversely to zinc deficiency. The extent of alteration of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and immunoglobulin levels were investigated in four zinc dietary groups: zinc adequate (ZA); restricted fed zinc adequate (RZA); marginal zinc deficient (MZD, 72-76% of ZA mouse weight); and severely zinc deficient. The peripheral white blood cell count was 3.66 {plus minus} 1.08 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/ml for ZA mice decreasing by 21%, 28% and 54% for RZA, MZD and SZD mice respectively. An equally dramatic change in the flow cytometric light scatter profile was found. ZA mice had 66% lymphocytes and 21% polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in their peripheral blood while MZD and SZD mice contained 43% and 30% lymphocytes and 40% and 60% PMNs respectively. Analysis of the phenotypic distribution of specific classes of lymphocytes revealed ZA blood contained 25% B-cells and 40% T-cells (CD5{sup +}). B-cells decreased 40-50% for RZA and MZD mice and 60-70% for SZD mice. The decline in CD5{sup +} T-cells was more modest at 30% and 45% for MZD and SZD mice. A nearly 40% decline in both T{sub h} and T{sub c/s} cells was noted for both MZD and SZD mice. Radioimmunoassay of serum for changes in IgM and IgG content revealed no change among dietary groups while serum zinc decreased 10% for RZA mice and 50% for both MZD and SZD mice. The authors conclude that peripheral blood differential counts in concert with total B and T-cell phenotype may serve as indicators of zinc status while serum zinc and Ig will not.

  13. 5-year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Immediate versus Delayed Zoledronic Acid for Prevention of Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Starting Letrozole after Tamoxifen: N03CC (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan; Kearns, Ann E.; Hines, Stephanie L.; Puttabasavaiah, Suneetha; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Lafky, Jacqueline M.; Perez, Edith A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal women with breast cancer (BC) receiving aromatase inhibitors are at increased risk for bone loss. The current study was undertaken to determine whether upfront versus delayed treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) impacted bone loss. This report describes the 5-year follow-up results. Methods 551 postmenopausal women with BC completing tamoxifen and undergoing daily letrozole treatment were randomized to upfront (274) or delayed (277) ZA 4 mg IV every 6 months. In the delayed arm, ZA was initiated for post-baseline bone mineral density (BMD) T-score < -2.0 or fracture. Results The incidence of a 5% decrease in total lumbar spine BMD at 5 years was 10.2% in the upfront arm versus 41.2% in the delayed arm, p < 0.0001. 41 patients in the delayed arm were eventually started on ZA. With the exception of increased grade 1/2 elevated creatinine and fever in the upfront arm and cerebrovascular ischemia in the delayed arm, there were no significant differences between arms with respect to the most common adverse events of arthralgia and back pain. Osteoporosis occurred less frequently in the upfront arm (2 versus 8 cumulative cases) though this difference was not statistically significant. Bone fractures occurred in 24 patients in the upfront arm versus 25 patients in the delayed arm. Conclusions Immediate treatment with ZA prevented bone loss compared with delayed treatment in postmenopausal women on letrozole and these differences were maintained at 5 years. The incidence of osteoporosis or fractures was not different between arms. PMID:25930719

  14. Role of periodontal disease in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun Lei; Lu, Weijia William; Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Leung, Wai Keung; Zwahlen, Roger A; Zheng, Li Wu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of progressive periodontal disease in inducing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model mimicking human intracortical remodeling process. Thirty 12-week-old Spraque-Dawly (SD) female rats were randomly assigned into two groups. All rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy. Six weeks after surgery, zoledronic acid (ZA) or vehicle control was administered intraperitoneally for 12 weeks. On the same day of injection, a cotton ligature was placed subgingivally around the first left lower molar to induce periodontitis. All animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after injection. The entire mandibles were harvested for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological examinations. Micro-CT examination showed that ligature placement caused significant alveolar bone loss both in ZA (0.63 ± 0.13 vs. 0.38 ± 0.06 mm, P < 0.001) and in control (0.88 ± 0.19 vs. 0.40 ± 0.06 mm, P < 0.001) groups. Whereas in the ZA group, bone loss was attenuated compared with the control group (P < 0.01); the bone mineral density in the ZA group (1.00 ± 0.02 g/cm(3)) was significantly higher than that in vehicle control group (0.96 ± 0.03 g/cm(3), P < 0.001). Histological examination found necrotic bone tissue with extensive, empty lacunae in two of 15 rats in ZA group, but in none of the control group. Bisphosphonates inhibit alveolar bone resorption in progressive periodontal disease, which might benefit the management of periodontitis, but increase the risk of developing BRONJ. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm3) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm3) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone. PMID:27189411

  16. L-MTP-PE and zoledronic acid combination in osteosarcoma: preclinical evidence of positive therapeutic combination for clinical transfer.

    PubMed

    Biteau, Kevin; Guiho, Romain; Chatelais, Mathias; Taurelle, Julien; Chesneau, Julie; Corradini, Nadège; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor in pediatric patients is characterized by osteolysis promoting tumor growth. Lung metastasis is the major bad prognosis factor of this disease. Zoledronic Acid (ZA), a potent inhibitor of bone resorption is currently evaluated in phase III randomized studies in Europe for the treatment of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The beneficial effect of the liposomal form of Muramyl-TriPeptide-Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (L-mifamurtide, MEPACT®), an activator of macrophage populations has been demonstrated to eradicate lung metastatic foci in osteosarcoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefit and the safety of the ZA and L-mifamurtide combination in preclinical models of osteosarcoma, as a prerequisite before translation to patients. The effects of ZA (100 μg/kg) and L-mifamurtide (1 mg/kg) were investigated in vivo in xenogeneic and syngeneic mice models of osteosarcoma, at clinical (tumor proliferation, spontaneous lung metastases development), radiological (bone microarchitecture by microCT analysis), biological and histological levels. No interference between the two drugs could be observed on ZA-induced bone protection and on L-mifamurtide-induced inhibition of lung metastasis development. Unexpectedly, ZA and L-mifamurtide association induced an additional and in some cases synergistic inhibition of primary tumor progression. L-mifamurtide has no effect on tumor proliferation in vitro or in vivo, and macrophage population was not affected at the tumor site whatever the treatment. This study evidenced for the first time a significant inhibition of primary osteosarcoma progression when both drugs are combined. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle for clinical application in osteosarcoma patients.

  17. Comparison of retention forces with various fabrication methods and materials in double crowns

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Meral; Bozdağ, Ergun; Öztürk, Gizem Nur; Bayraktar, Gulsen

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to analyze the retention force changes and wear behaviours of double-crown systems over long-term use. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten groups, each consisting of six samples, were evaluated. Specifically, casting gold alloy primary crown - casting gold alloy secondary crown (AA), laser sintering primary crown - laser sintering secondary crown (LL), casting Cr alloy primary crown - casting Cr alloy secondary crown, (CC) zirconia primary crown - electroformed secondary crown (ZA), and CAD/CAM titanium alloy primary crown - CAD/CAM titanium alloy secondary crown (TT) groups were evaluated at cone angles of 4° and 6°. The samples were subjected to 5,000 insertion-separation cycles in artificial saliva, and the retention forces were measured every 500 cycles. The wear levels were analyzed via SEM at the beginning and end of the 5,000 cycles. RESULTS In all samples, the retention forces increased when the conus angle decreased. The highest initial and final retention force values were found in the LL-4° group (32.89 N-32.65 N), and the lowest retention force values were found in the ZA6° group (5.41 N-6.27 N). The ZA groups' samples showed the least change in the retention force, and no wear was observed. In the other groups, wear was observed mostly in the primary crowns. CONCLUSION More predictable, clinically relevant, and less excursive retention forces can be observed in the ZA groups. The retention force values of the LL groups were statically similar to those of the other groups, except the ZA groups. PMID:28874999

  18. Emergence of New Alleles of the MSP-3α Gene in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Deok Hwa; Oh, Jun Seo; Nam, Myoung Hyun; Park, Hae Chul; Lim, Chae Seung; Lee, Won Ja; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Klein, Terry A.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Plasmodium vivax PvMSP-3α gene was conducted on blood from 143 malaria patients admitted to Korea University Medical Center from 1996 to 2007 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). From 1996 to 2002, the PvMSP-3α alleles were of two types, SKOR-67 (2.53 kb) and SKOR-69 (1.78 kb), which differed in length and amino acid sequence. Two new variants with similar size to SKOR-67 were first observed in 2002 and in 2006–2007 accounted for nearly 50% (25/51) of the sampled isolates. The new variants had the same amino acid sequence as SKOR-69 in the N-terminal region, but in Blocks I and II and in the C-terminal region, they were similar to previously reported isolates from Thailand, Papua New Guinea, India, Brazil, and Ecuador strains. PMID:20348492

  19. Cooperation needed for securing Japan`s imports of refined products from neighbors

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Yasuo; Ogawa, Yoshike

    1996-08-26

    As of April 1996, Japan repealed the Provisional Law on Importation of Specified Petroleum Products (Plispp), thus further freeing imports from regulation. Since the dawn of the 1990s, Asia has suffered an imbalance of soaring oil demand and lack of refining capacity. In addition, to intraregional trade, product imports from outside the region, such as the US West Coast and the Mediterranean Sea, have expanded. Given such conditions in Asia, as well as japan`s stringent product specifications for environmental reasons, potential exporters of the three specified products (gasoline, diesel, and kerosene) in Asia should virtually be limited to the Republic of Korea (ROK), Taiwan, and Singapore. This study is designed to make an in-depth examination of the current and future supply/demand and trade for refined products of the three countries with respect to Japan`s potential import needs.

  20. Ornithodoros sawaii (Ixodida: Argasidae) Larvae Collected from Hydrobates monorhis on Sogugul and Gaerin Islands, Jeollanam-do (Province), Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung-Chul; Choi, Chang-Yong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Won-Ja; Chong, Sung-Tae; Robbins, Richard G.; Klein, Terry A.

    2016-01-01

    The 65th Medical Brigade and Public Health Command District-Korea, in collaboration with the Migratory Bird Research Center, National Park Research Institute, conducted migratory bird tick surveillance at Sogugul and Gaerin Islands (small rocky bird nesting sites), Jeollanam-do (Province), Republic of Korea (ROK), on 30 July and 1 August 2009. Breeding seabirds captured by hands in their nesting burrows were banded, identified to species, and carefully examined for ticks during the nesting season. A total of 9 Ornithodoros sawaii larvae were removed from 4 adult Hydrobates monorhis (Swinhoe’s storm petrel). The identification of the larvae of O. sawaii collected from migratory seabirds were molecularly confirmed using mitochondrial 16S rDNA primer sets. PMID:27180585

  1. National Dam Safety Program. Nanticoke Creek Watershed Project Site 10 Dam (Inventory I.D. Number NY 713, DEC 85D-3946, Susquehanna River Basin, Broome County, New York, Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    ai * C r I f ’ ’ NI . 0r ’C I i *I l r iJlC’- I ’j f...34 ]. _’_ .- . --," II*.. D :MI 4~I I.TVMEfl of’ AI P TA"L ST "I" TEST S )i :ONSzIEVA’IIN S, CE i. I ",*; F,[ko ’. ikt NO Otol " i. GLOLOGIC ORIIN / TYPE OF 5AMPE...82170,, 4PPRO1. LC i ~ iGe,3 ept"APPOLAOE XD ROKS _B NN FOUNDATO EXCAVATON 25~ - (A c R EPRSETE Br 19~ 50 c l ’ TH O Bc p[ ITH O Dw 1 DH42 51 / L5

  2. Structure to function of an α-glucan metabolic pathway that promotes Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Light, Samuel H; Cahoon, Laty A; Halavaty, Andrei S; Freitag, Nancy E; Anderson, Wayne F

    2016-11-07

    Here we employ a 'systems structural biology' approach to functionally characterize an unconventional α-glucan metabolic pathway from the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Crystal structure determination coupled with basic biochemical and biophysical assays allowed for the identification of anabolic, transport, catabolic and regulatory portions of the cycloalternan pathway. These findings provide numerous insights into cycloalternan pathway function and reveal the mechanism of repressor, open reading frame, kinase (ROK) transcription regulators. Moreover, by developing a structural overview we were able to anticipate the cycloalternan pathway's role in the metabolism of partially hydrolysed starch derivatives and demonstrate its involvement in Lm pathogenesis. These findings suggest that the cycloalternan pathway plays a role in interspecies resource competition-potentially within the host gastrointestinal tract-and establish the methodological framework for characterizing bacterial systems of unknown function.

  3. A spindle-independent cleavage pathway controls germ cell formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cinalli, Ryan M.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first cells to form during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. While the process of somatic cell formation has been studied in detail, the mechanics of PGC formation are poorly understood. Here, using 4D multi-photon imaging combined with genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we find that PGC formation requires an anaphase spindle-independent cleavage pathway. In addition to utilizing core regulators of cleavage, including the small GTPase RhoA (Drosophila Rho) and the Rho associated kinase, ROCK (Drosophila Rok), we show that this pathway requires Germ cell-less (Gcl), a conserved BTB-domain protein not previously implicated in cleavage mechanics. This alternate form of cell formation suggests that organisms have evolved multiple molecular strategies for regulating the cytoskeleton during cleavage. PMID:23728423

  4. On the Importance of Composability of Ad Hoc Mobile Middleware and Trust Management

    SciTech Connect

    Drugan, Ovidiu VALENTIN.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Bakken, David E.; Plagemann, Thomas P.; Hauser, Carl H.; Frincke, Deb A.

    2005-11-01

    Deciphering trust, using a universally acceptable set of rules and mechanisms, is a challenging process because of trust?s varying interpretations. Researchers have defined trust concepts for many perspectives, with the result that trust definitions overlap or contradict each other [8]. There are numerous models of trust, although the classification of neither trust nor its models has been identified yet. Nevertheless, there is a subtle feature that differentiates a generic trust model from a trust management system; the former category focuses on modeling specific aspects of trust, such as authentication, reputation, and cooperation, whereas the second focuses on dynamically managing the lifespan of trust relationships. The majority of trust models and trust management systems have been studied and their limitations are well known, ranging from being too complex to being too simple. This paper addresses that issue. http://www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/rok/isas2005.html

  5. Diversity of vir Genes in Plasmodium vivax from Endemic Regions in the Republic of Korea: an Initial Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Son, Ui-Han; Dinzouna-Boutamba, Sylvatrie-Danne; Lee, Sanghyun; Yun, Hae Soo; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Joo, So-Young; Jeong, Sookwan; Rhee, Man Hee; Hong, Yeonchul; Chung, Dong-Il; Kwak, Dongmi; Goo, Youn-Kyoung

    2017-04-01

    Variant surface antigens (VSAs) encoded by pir families are considered to be the key proteins used by many Plasmodium spp. to escape the host immune system by antigenic variation. This attribute of VSAs is a critical issue in the development of a novel vaccine. In this regard, a population genetic study of vir genes from Plasmodium vivax was performed in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Eighty-five venous blood samples and 4 of the vir genes, namely vir 27, vir 21, vir 12, and vir 4, were selected for study. The number of segregating sites (S), number of haplotypes (H), haplotype diversity (Hd), DNA diversity (π and Θw), and Tajima's D test value were conducted. Phylogenetic trees of each gene were constructed. The vir 21 (S=143, H=22, Hd=0.827) was the most genetically diverse gene, and the vir 4 (S=6, H=4, Hd=0.556) was the opposite one. Tajima's D values for vir 27 (1.08530, P>0.1), vir 12 (2.89007, P<0.01), and vir 21 (0.40782, P>0.1) were positive, and that of vir 4 (-1.32162, P>0.1) was negative. All phylogenetic trees showed 2 clades with no particular branching according to the geographical differences and cluster. This study is the first survey on the vir genes in ROK, providing information on the genetic level. The sample sequences from vir 4 showed a clear difference to the Sal-1 reference gene sequence, whereas they were very similar to those from Indian isolates.

  6. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  7. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  8. Structure-function studies of the staphylococcal methicillin resistance antirepressor MecR2.

    PubMed

    Arêde, Pedro; Botelho, Tiago; Guevara, Tibisay; Usón, Isabel; Oliveira, Duarte C; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2013-07-19

    Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is elicited by the MecI-MecR1-MecA axis encoded by the mec locus. Recently, MecR2 was also identified as a regulator of mec through binding of the methicillin repressor, MecI. Here we show that plasmid-encoded full-length MecR2 restores resistance in a sensitive S. aureus mecR2 deletion mutant of the resistant strain N315. The crystal structure of MecR2 reveals an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, an intermediate scaffold domain, and a C-terminal dimerization domain that contributes to oligomerization. The protein shows structural similarity to ROK (repressors, open reading frames, and kinases) family proteins, which bind DNA and/or sugar molecules. We found that functional cell-based assays of three point mutants affecting residues participating in sugar binding in ROK proteins had no effect on the resistance phenotype. By contrast, MecR2 bound short double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides nonspecifically, and a deletion mutant affecting the N-terminal DNA-binding domain showed a certain effect on activity, thus contributing to resistance less than the wild-type protein. Similarly, a deletion mutant, in which a flexible segment of intermediate scaffold domain had been replaced by four glycines, significantly reduced MecR2 function, thus indicating that this domain may likewise be required for activity. Taken together, these results provide the structural basis for the activity of a methicillin antirepressor, MecR2, which would sequester MecI away from its cognate promoter region and facilitate its degradation.

  9. Prevalence, Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Bartonella Species in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, S; Kang, J-G; Kim, H-C; Klein, T A; Choi, K-S; Song, J-W; Youn, H-Y; Chae, J-S

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and identify which species of Bartonella naturally infects the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in the Republic of Korea (ROK), spleens from 200 mice were assayed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for members of the genus Bartonella. Utilizing PCR techniques, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. ranged from 31.5% (63/200) to 62.0% (124/200) for the rpoB and ITS gene fragments, respectively. The most prevalent species, Bartonella grahamii, was assigned to 17 genotypes and closely related to the zoonotic pathogens, B. taylorii, B. tribocorum, B. phoceensis and B. henselae, which also were detected. Two Bartonella isolates (KRBG28 and KRBG32) were recovered from blood of A. agrarius captured in Gyeonggi Province, ROK. Comparison of the 16S rRNA, hemin-binding protein E (hbpE), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (gdh1), invasion-associated protein B (ialB), cell division protein (ftsZ), citrate synthase (gltA), 60 kDa heat shock protein (groEL), rpoB gene fragments and the ITS region sequences from the isolates with GenBank was confirmed as B. grahamii. Phylogenetic analysis based on the alignment of concatenated sequences (4933 bp) of KRBG28 and KRBG32 clustered with B. grahamii, forming an independent clade between Asian and American/European B. grahamii genogroups.

  10. Ligands of Thermophilic ABC Transporters Encoded in a Newly Sequenced Genomic Region of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 Screened by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    The chromosome of Thermotoga maritima strain MSB8 was found to have an 8,870-bp region that is not present in its published sequence. The isolate that was sequenced by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in 1999 is apparently a laboratory variant of the isolate deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSM 3109) in 1986. This newly sequenced region from the DSMZ culture was located between TM1848 (cbp, cellobiose phosphorylase) and TM1847 (the 3′ end of a truncated ROK regulator). The new region contained seven genes: a beta glucosidase gene (bglA), three trehalose ABC transporter genes (treEFG), three xylose ABC transporter genes (xylE2F2K2), and the 5′ end of a gene encoding the ROK regulator TM1847. We present a new differential scanning fluorimetry method using a low pH that was necessary to screen potential ligands of these exceptionally thermostable periplasmic substrate-binding proteins. This method showed that trehalose, sucrose, and glucose stabilized TreE, and their binding was confirmed by measuring changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon ligand binding. Binding constants of 0.024 μM, 0.300 μM, and 56.78 μM at 60°C, respectively, were measured. XylE2 ligands were similarly determined and xylose, glucose, and fucose bound with Kd (dissociation constant) values of 0.042 μM, 0.059 μM, and 1.436 μM, respectively. Since there is no discernible phenotypic difference between the TIGR isolate and the DSMZ isolate despite the variance in their genomes, we propose that they be called genomovars: T. maritima MSB8 genomovar TIGR and T. maritima MSB8 genomovar DSM 3109, respectively. PMID:21764944

  11. The association between perceived unmet medical need and mental health among the Republic of Korea Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, S G; Han, K-T; Choi, Y; Lee, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effect of unmet medical need on the mental health of Republic of Korea (ROK) Armed Forces personnel, as most of the service members work in remote areas and often experience such unmet needs. This study used secondary data from the 2014 Military Health Survey (MHS), conducted by the ROK School of Military Medicine and designed to collect military health determinants. Descriptive statistics showed the general characteristics of the study populations by variable. We specifically compared the population after stratifying participants by suicide ideation. An analysis of variance was also carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 Scores. Additionally, dependent spouses and children of both active-duty service members and retirees are included among those entitled to Military Health System healthcare. Among the 4967 military personnel, 681 (13.7%) individuals reported an experience of unmet medical need within the past 12 months and gave reasons of 'no time (5.15%)', 'long office wait (2.6%)', 'no money (0.22%)', 'long distance from base (1.19%)', 'illness but not very serious (1.65%)', 'mistrust in doctors (1.95%)' and 'pressure due to performance appraisal (0.95%)'. Regression analysis revealed that unmet medical need was significantly associated with negative mental health (β=1.753, p<0.0001) and increased suicide ideation (OR=2.649, 95% CI 1.84 to 3.82). Also, soldiers reporting unmet medical need due to 'no money', 'no time' or 'pressure due to performance appraisal' were significantly more likely to experience similar negative mental health effects. Our study indicates that unmet medical need is significantly associated with soldiers' mental health decline and suicide ideation, highlighting the importance of providing military personnel with timely, affordable and sufficient medical care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Retrospective analysis of the epidemiologic literature, 1990–2015, on wildlife-associated diseases from the Republic of Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwang, Jusun; Lee, Kyunglee; Kim, Young-Jun; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Lee, Hang

    2017-01-01

    To assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the ROK. We identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. The majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. Most studies that focused on human and livestock health were cross-sectional whereas wildlife health studies were mostly case reports. Fifteen diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health were identified and 21 diseases were identified as notifiable to either the Korean Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs or the Korean Ministry of Agriculture. Two diseases were reported as occurring as epidemics; highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and virulent Newcastle disease. Six diseases or disease agents were described in the literature as emerging including HPAI, rabies, Babesia microti, avian coronaviruses, scrub typhus, and severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. The diseases for which there were the largest number of publications were HPAI and rabies. The majority of wildlife-associated zoonotic disease publications focused on food-borne parasitic infections or rodent-associated diseases. Several publications focused on the potential of wildlife as reservoirs of livestock diseases; in particular, water deer (Hydropotes inermis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). In contrast, there were few publications on diseases of concern for wildlife populations or research to understand the impacts of these diseases for wildlife management. Increased focus on prospective studies would enhance understanding of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. For the high-consequence diseases that impact multiple sectors, a One Health approach, with coordination among the public health, agricultural, and environmental sectors

  13. Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Wild Animals and Ixodidae Ticks in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Hur, Moon-Suk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Jeong, Soo-Myoung; Shin, Nam-Shik; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern China, southern Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). To investigate SFTSV infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. Using serum samples and ticks, SFTSV-specific genes were amplified by one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR and sequenced. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody levels in wild animals. Serum samples were collected from a total of 91 animals: 21 Korean water deer (KWD), 3 Siberian roe deer, 5 gorals, 7 raccoon dogs, 54 wild boars (WBs), and 1 carrion crow. The SFTSV infection rate in wild animals was 3.30% (3 of 91 animals: 1 KWD and 2 WBs). The seropositive rate was 6.59% (6 of 91 animals: 5 KWD and 1 WB). A total of 891 ticks (3 species) were collected from 65 wild animals (9 species). Of the attached tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis (74.86%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (20.20%) and Ixodes nipponensis (4.94%). The average minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in ticks was 4.98%. The MIRs of H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. nipponensis were 4.51%, 2.22%, and 22.73%, respectively. The MIRs of larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks were 0.68%, 6.88%, and 5.53%, respectively. In addition, the MIRs of fed and unfed ticks were 4.67% and 4.96%, respectively. We detected a low SFTSV infection rate in wild animals, no differences in SFTSV infection rate with respect to bloodsucking in ticks, and SFTSV infection for all developmental stages of ticks. This is the first report describing the detection of SFTSV in wild animals in the ROK.

  14. Update on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle contractile pathways in erectile function: a role for testosterone?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Hua; Melman, Arnold; Disanto, Michael E

    2011-07-01

    Normal erectile function (EF) involves a coordinated relaxation of the arteries that supply the penis and the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM), resulting in expansion of the sinusoids and increased intracavernous pressure. But the CCSM spends the majority of its time in the contracted state which is mediated by norepinephrine released from nerve endings and other vasoconstrictors like endothelins released from the endothelium. These agents cause smooth muscle myosin (SMM) phosphorylation by elevating intracellular calcium. When calcium returns to basal levels, the calcium sensitivity increases and prevents myosin dephosphorylation, which involves the RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROK) mechanism, thus maintaining force. Although mounting evidences demonstrate that androgens have a major influence on EF that is not just centrally mediated, this notion remains quite controversial. To summarize the current knowledge on CCSM contractile pathways, the role they play in modulating EF, and the influence of androgens. The article reviews the literature and contains some previously unpublished data on CCSM contraction signaling including the role that androgens are known to play in modulating these pathways. Data from peer-reviewed publications and previously unpublished observations. In addition to downregulation of many pro-erectile molecular mechanisms, decreased testosterone (T) levels upregulate CCSM contractility, including hyperresponsiveness to α-adrenergic agonists, increased SMM phosphorylation, alteration of SMM isoform composition, activation of RhoA/ROK signaling and modulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate regulation of CCSM tone. Decreased T levels upregulate CCSM contractile signaling. Meanwhile, it downregulates CCSM relaxation pathways synergizing to produce erectile dysfunction (ED). Although some urologists and researchers are still skeptical of the influence of androgens on penile erection, understanding these molecular control mechanisms as well as the influence

  15. A Role for the Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 in Depolarization-induced Contraction of Vascular Smooth Muscle*♦

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Ryan D.; Mita, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Shoji, Masaru; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Depolarization of the vascular smooth muscle cell membrane evokes a rapid (phasic) contractile response followed by a sustained (tonic) contraction. We showed previously that the sustained contraction involves genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation upstream of the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROK) pathway leading to phosphorylation of MYPT1 (the myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP)) and myosin regulatory light chains (LC20). In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that membrane depolarization elicits activation of the Ca2+-dependent tyrosine kinase Pyk2 (proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2). Pyk2 was identified as the major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in response to membrane depolarization. The tonic phase of K+-induced contraction was inhibited by the Pyk2 inhibitor sodium salicylate, which abolished the sustained elevation of LC20 phosphorylation. Membrane depolarization induced autophosphorylation (activation) of Pyk2 with a time course that correlated with the sustained contractile response. The Pyk2/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-431396 inhibited both phasic and tonic components of the contractile response to K+, Pyk2 autophosphorylation, and LC20 phosphorylation but had no effect on the calyculin A (MLCP inhibitor)-induced contraction. Ionomycin, in the presence of extracellular Ca2+, elicited a slow, sustained contraction and Pyk2 autophosphorylation, which were blocked by pre-treatment with PF-431396. Furthermore, the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine inhibited peak and sustained K+-induced force and Pyk2 autophosphorylation. Inhibition of Pyk2 abolished the K+-induced translocation of RhoA to the particulate fraction and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr-697 and Thr-855. We conclude that depolarization-induced entry of Ca2+ activates Pyk2 upstream of the RhoA/ROK pathway, leading to MYPT1 phosphorylation and MLCP inhibition. The resulting sustained elevation of LC20 phosphorylation then accounts for the tonic

  16. The influence of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, H-C; Lee, S G; Han, K-T; Park, E-C

    2017-04-01

    Reports of sexual harassment are becoming more frequent in Republic of Korea (ROK) Armed Forces. This study aimed to analyse the impact of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the ROK Armed Forces. Data from the 2014 Military Health Survey were used. Instances of sexual harassment were recorded as 'yes' or 'no'. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 (K-10) scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sexual harassment and K-10 scores. Among 228 female military personnel, 13 (5.7%) individuals experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual harassment had a significantly negative impact on K-10 scores (3.486, p<0.04). Higher K-10 scores among individuals experiencing sexual harassment were identified in the unmarried (including never-married) group (6.761, p<0.04), the short-term military service group (12.014, p<0.03) and the group whose length of service was <2 years (11.067, p<0.02). Sexual harassment has a negative impact on mental health. Factors associated with worse mental health scores included service classification and length of service. The results provide helpful information with which to develop measures for minimising the negative psychological effects from sexual harassment and promoting sexual harassment prevention policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC LITERATURE, 1990-2015, ON WILDLIFE-ASSOCIATED DISEASES FROM THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jusun; Lee, Kyunglee; Kim, Young-Jun; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Lee, Hang

    2017-01-01

    To assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the ROK. We identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. The majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. Most studies that focused on human and livestock health were cross-sectional whereas wildlife health studies were mostly case reports. Fifteen diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health were identified and 21 diseases were identified as notifiable to either the Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare or the Korea Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Two diseases were reported as occurring as epidemics; highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and virulent Newcastle disease. Six diseases or disease agents were described in the literature as emerging including HPAI, rabies, Babesia microti , avian coronaviruses, scrub typhus, and severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. The diseases for which there were the largest number of publications were HPAI and rabies. The majority of wildlife-associated zoonotic disease publications focused on food-borne parasitic infections or rodent-associated diseases. Several publications focused on the potential of wildlife as reservoirs of livestock diseases; in particular, Korean water deer ( Hydropotes inermis argyropus ) and wild boar ( Sus scrofa ). In contrast, there were few publications on diseases of concern for wildlife populations or research to understand the impacts of these diseases for wildlife management. Increased focus on prospective studies would enhance understanding of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. For the high-consequence diseases that impact multiple sectors, a One Health approach, with coordination among the public health, agricultural

  18. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts.

  19. Sequence polymorphisms in Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 gametocyte and gamete surface proteins in Plasmodium vivax isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Mi Kyung; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, JuYeon; Oh, Jun Seo; Han, Eun Taek; An, Seong Soo A; Lim, Chae Seung

    2013-05-01

    Nucleotide sequence analyses of the Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 genes were conducted in 46 malaria patients from the Republic of Korea (ROK) (n = 40) and returning travellers from India (n = 3) and Indonesia (n = 3). The domain structures, which were based on cysteine residue position and secondary protein structure, were similar between Plasmodium vivax (Pvs48/45 and Pvs47) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs48/45 and Pfs47). In comparison to the Sal-1 reference strain (Pvs48/45, PVX_083235 and Pvs47, PVX_083240), Korean isolates revealed seven polymorphisms (E35K, H211N, K250N, D335Y, A376T, I380T and K418R) in Pvs48/45. These isolates could be divided into five haplotypes with the two major types having frequencies of 47.5% and 20%, respectivelfy. In Pvs47, 10 polymorphisms (F22L, F24L, K27E, D31N, V230I, M233I, E240D, I262T, I273M and A373V) were found and they could be divided into four haplotypes with one major type having a frequency of 75%. The Pvs48/45 isolates from India showed a unique amino acid substitution site (K26R). Compared to the Sal-1 and ROK isolates, the Pvs47 isolates from travellers returning from India and Indonesia had amino acid substitutions (S57T and I262K). The current data may contribute to the development of the malaria transmission-blocking vaccine in future clinical trials.

  20. Chemoprophylaxis and the epidemiological characteristics of re-emergent P. vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun; Yong, Tai Soon; Oh, Dae Kyu; Kim, Rock Kwon; Park, Keeho; Suh, I. L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Republic of Korea (ROK), soldiers stationed where there is a risk of contracting malaria have received antimalarial chemoprophylaxis since 1997. However, chemoprophylaxis may facilitate the development of drug resistance, and late primary attacks in individuals who have received chemoprophylaxis are becoming more frequent. We investigated the association between chemoprophylaxis and the epidemiological characteristics and effectiveness of treatment for re-emergent Plasmodium vivax malaria, using a nationwide malaria database. METHODS: Among soldiers at risk of malaria between 1999 and 2001, we reviewed all P. vivax malaria cases (1158) that occurred before 31 December 2003. Early and late primary attacks were defined as cases occurring 2 months after the last day of exposure to risk of malaria, respectively. FINDINGS: Of these cases, 634 (72.0%) had received chemoprophylaxis, and 324 (28.0%) had not. Cases occurred mostly in summer, with a peak in July-August. Stratification by chemoprophylaxis history revealed different times to onset. Early primary attacks were more prevalent in the group not receiving chemoprophylaxis, while in the group receiving chemoprophylaxis most cases were late primary attacks. Of the latter, 312 out of 461 (67.7%) did not take primaquine regularly. After treatment of the first attack, 14 (1.2%) of 1158 were re-treated; all re-treated cases were cured using the same doses and regimen used for the first treatment. CONCLUSION: In ROK, the increase in late primary episodes of re-emergent P. vivax malaria is associated with the use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. PMID:17128363

  1. Epidemiologic Aspects of Medical Retirement from the Republic of Korea Army due to Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to report the epidemiologic characteristics of medical retirement from the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army due to visual impairment and to suggest a practical screening system for the draft. The medical records of 423 eyes of 301 patients who retired from the ROK Army due to visual impairment were reviewed retrospectively between January 2010 and December 2014. The patients were grouped by the presence of trauma, and each group was subdivided by military rank. We analyzed demographic and ophthalmic data, including the etiology of ophthalmologic disease. The etiology was classified into 5 anatomical categories (ocular surface, lens, retina, optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway, and extraocular muscle and orbit), which were then subdivided into the type of disease. The mean age was 24.5 years, and non-traumatic mechanisms accounted for 81.1% (343/423 eyes) of medical retirements. Visual acuity was better in patients without trauma. In enlisted soldiers, disease in the optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway was the most common anatomical category (40.5%), and primary open angle glaucoma (30.8%), retinal dystrophy (18.3%), congenital cataract (14.5%), and retinal detachment (9.7%) were the four most common diseases. Most medical retirements due to visual impairment resulted from non-traumatic mechanisms, even though patients were young. The fundus examination and visual field test would be more useful tools than a conventional vision test for large-scale draft screening for the most common two disease types: primary open angle glaucoma and retinal dystrophy.

  2. A self-organized biomechanical network drives shape changes during tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Akankshi; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Munro, Edwin; Lecuit, Thomas

    2015-08-20

    Tissue morphogenesis is orchestrated by cell shape changes. Forces required to power these changes are generated by non-muscle myosin II (MyoII) motor proteins pulling filamentous actin (F-actin). Actomyosin networks undergo cycles of assembly and disassembly (pulses) to cause cell deformations alternating with steps of stabilization to result in irreversible shape changes. Although this ratchet-like behaviour operates in a variety of contexts, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigate the role of MyoII regulation through the conserved Rho1-Rok pathway during Drosophila melanogaster germband extension. This morphogenetic process is powered by cell intercalation, which involves the shrinkage of junctions in the dorsal-ventral axis (vertical junctions) followed by junction extension in the anterior-posterior axis. While polarized flows of medial-apical MyoII pulses deform vertical junctions, MyoII enrichment on these junctions (planar polarity) stabilizes them. We identify two critical properties of MyoII dynamics that underlie stability and pulsatility: exchange kinetics governed by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles of the MyoII regulatory light chain; and advection due to contraction of the motors on F-actin networks. Spatial control over MyoII exchange kinetics establishes two stable regimes of high and low dissociation rates, resulting in MyoII planar polarity. Pulsatility emerges at intermediate dissociation rates, enabling convergent advection of MyoII and its upstream regulators Rho1 GTP, Rok and MyoII phosphatase. Notably, pulsatility is not an outcome of an upstream Rho1 pacemaker. Rather, it is a self-organized system that involves positive and negative biomechanical feedback between MyoII advection and dissociation rates.

  3. Prevention of bone metastases in patients with high-risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic acid: efficacy and safety results of the Zometa European Study (ZEUS).

    PubMed

    Wirth, Manfred; Tammela, Teuvo; Cicalese, Virgilio; Gomez Veiga, Francisco; Delaere, Karl; Miller, Kurt; Tubaro, Andrea; Schulze, Matthias; Debruyne, Frans; Huland, Hartwig; Patel, Anup; Lecouvet, Frederic; Caris, Christien; Witjes, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer (PCa) are at risk of developing bone metastases (BMs). Zoledronic acid (ZA) significantly reduces the incidence of skeletal complications in castration-resistant metastatic PCa versus placebo. To investigate ZA for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa. Randomised open-label multinational study with patients having at least one of the following: prostate-specific antigen ≥20 ng/ml, node-positive disease, or Gleason score 8-10. Standard PCa therapy alone or combined with 4mg ZA intravenously every 3 mo for ≤4 yr. BMs were assessed using locally evaluated bone-imaging procedures (BIPs), with subsequent blinded central review. Patients with BMs, time to BMs, overall survival, and adverse events were compared between treatment groups. A total of 1393 of 1433 randomised patients were used for intention-to-treat (ITT) efficacy analyses, with 1040 patients with BIP-BM outcome status at 4±0.5 yr. The local urologist/radiologist diagnosed BIP-BMs in 88 of 515 patients (17.1%) in the ZA group and 89 of 525 patients (17.0%) in the control group (chi-square test: p=0.95), with a difference between proportions of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.4 to 4.7) in favour of the control group. In the ITT population (n=1393), the Kaplan-Meier estimated proportion of BMs after a median follow-up of 4.8 yr was 14.7% in the ZA group versus 13.2% in the control group (log-rank: p=0.65). Low hot spot numbers on bone scans were confirmed as metastases with additional imaging. Central reviews of BIPs were possible only on a subset of patients. ZA administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa patients at 4 yr. Zoledronic acid administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of bone metastases in high-risk nonmetastatic PCa patients at 4 yr. The ZEUS trial is registered in the Dutch trial register www.trialregister.nl and the

  4. MD-TASK: a software suite for analyzing molecular dynamics trajectories.

    PubMed

    Brown, David K; Penkler, David L; Sheik Amamuddy, Olivier; Ross, Caroline; Atilgan, Ali Rana; Atilgan, Canan; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2017-09-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) determines the physical motions of atoms of a biological macromolecule in a cell-like environment and is an important method in structural bioinformatics. Traditionally, measurements such as root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, radius of gyration, and various energy measures have been used to analyze MD simulations. Here, we present MD-TASK, a novel software suite that employs graph theory techniques, perturbation response scanning, and dynamic cross-correlation to provide unique ways for analyzing MD trajectories. MD-TASK has been open-sourced and is available for download from https://github.com/RUBi-ZA/MD-TASK , implemented in Python and supported on Linux/Unix. o.tastanbishop@ru.ac.za.

  5. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  6. Structural Technology Evaluation Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0025: Laser Peening for Reliable Fatigue Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    6 ]. Shot peening is a cold working process in which the surface of the 4 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...for the ZA Model Parameter Value σa 945.1961MPa B 246.6467MPa β0 1.1636×10− 6 β1 0.1065 B0 1481.249 MPa εr 0.0538 α0 10− 6 α1 3.1564×10− 4 Figures 15 and...16 show the strain rate dependence curves at different strains for the JC and ZA models. 10 − 6 10 − 4 10 −2 10 0 10 2 10 4 10 6 1000 1100 1200

  7. Analysis of Solar Potential of Roofs Based on Digital Terrain Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorički, M.; Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2017-09-01

    One of the basic goals of the smart city concept is to create a high-quality environment that is long sustainable and economically justifiable. The priority and concrete goal today is to promote and provide sustainable sources of energy (SSE). Croatia is rich with sun energy and as one of the sunniest European countries, it has a huge insufficiently used solar potential at its disposal. The paper describes the procedure of analysing the solar potential of a pilot area Sveti Križ Začretje by means of digital surface model (DSM) and based on the data available in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of the Republic of Croatia. Although a more detailed analysis would require some additional factors, it is clear that the installation of 19,6m2 of solar panels in each household could cover annual requirements of the household in the analysed area, the locality Sveti Križ Začretje.

  8. Hepatoprotective and TNF-α inhibitory activity of Zosima absinthifolia extracts and coumarins.

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Ozlem; Çitoğlu, Gülçin Saltan; Ozbek, Hanefi; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Hošek, Jan; Smejkal, Karel

    2011-04-01

    Zosima absinthifolia (ZA) extracts and the coumarins (+)-columbianadin and (-)-deltoin were evaluated for their potential hepatoprotective and antiinflamatory effects in a CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity assay in rats and by the inhibition of TNF-α production on LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages, respectively. Both the ZA extracts and the coumarins showed hepatoprotective activity confirmed by monitoring the ALT/AST levels and by histopathological examination. The antiinflamatory activity, proved by the inhibition of TNF-α production, was found to be higher for the n-hexane root extract than for coumarins, suggesting synergic potential of the extract. The concentration of (-)-deltoin and (+)-columbianadin in extracts was determined by HPLC analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Detection of HIV antibodies in a rural region of a developing country].

    PubMed

    Courtois, X; Baccard-Longere, M; Dibi, K

    1991-01-01

    A HIV seroprevalence among 312 antenatal mothers at their first visit to the Idjwi isle's hospital, in Zaïre, near Rwanda, and among 61 other patients, was made with the HIV1 Immunocomb of PBS Orgenics during one year: 1989. The seroprevalence is 0.32%, in this rural area, as was confirmed by Western-Blot. A panel of this 51 "false and true positive" and 13 negative african sera was tested with one other ELISA and two new rapid tests used in France, HIV CHEK 1 + 2 and TEST PACK HIV1/HIV2 to evaluate efficacy under conditions in which transfusions are normally given. These were performed within 15 mn of receipt of blood from a donor in Zaïre.

  10. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling. PMID:28262786

  11. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-03-01

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.

  12. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-03-06

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.

  13. N-point statistics of large-scale structure in the Zel'dovich approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Tassev, Svetlin

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by the results presented in a companion paper, here we give a simple analytical expression for the matter n-point functions in the Zel'dovich approximation (ZA) both in real and in redshift space (including the angular case). We present numerical results for the 2-dimensional redshift-space correlation function, as well as for the equilateral configuration for the real-space 3-point function. We compare those to the tree-level results. Our analysis is easily extendable to include Lagrangian bias, as well as higher-order perturbative corrections to the ZA. The results should be especially useful for modelling probes of large-scale structure in the linear regime, such as the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We make the numerical code used in this paper freely available.

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 5 (Columbia Asphalt & Gravel Inc - Dela Tek Inc).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    FOR INF.. 1965 UNCLASSIFIED DIOR/STT-85-PT- 5 F/ IS/ 5 NL’ EIIIIIIIEEEEEE EIIIIIEIIIIIIE IIIIEIIIIIEEIIE IIIIIIIIIIEEEE IIIIIIIEIIEEEE IIIIIIIIEIIEEE 1...MARKINGS a ),C -4 .~~ 3 LUiSTk1BUT!3N;AvA1LAB!L1TY Or REPORT Approved for public release, * . A~K) ~ Di’tribu’ticn -’s unlimited . i,\\ A) L N~rJPASEA(S) 5 ...NOIOI;G HAN,ZATICN REPORTNUERS - 5 0i _9KA4.zA7ICN 6o OHrCE S9MBOL a. AME O MON.TORNG ORGANiZA7ION ~ i~rr. (If applicable) 1_ * C:yS~dfe aid ZlPccie

  15. Notched bar Izod impact properties of zinc die castings

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2007-03-01

    Notched bar Izod impact testing of zinc die cast Alloy 3, Alloy 5, ZA-8, and AcuZinc 5 was performed at five temperatures between -40\\mDC and room temperature in accordance with ASTM E23 for impact testing of metallic materials. A direct comparison between ASTM D256 for impact testing of plastics and ASTM E23 was performed using continuously cast zinc specimens of Alloy 5 and ZA-8 at -40\\mDC and room temperature. There are differences in sample sizes, impact velocity, and striker geometry between the two tests. Bulk zinc tested according to ASTM E23 resulted in higher impact energies at -40\\mDC and lower impact energies at room temperature then did the same alloys when tested according to ASTM D256.

  16. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  17. The tumor-educated-macrophage increase of malignancy of human pancreatic cancer is prevented by zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Hassanein, Mohamed K; Menen, Rhiana; Momiyama, Masashi; Murakami, Takashi; Miwa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Mako; Uehara, Fuminari; Yano, Shuya; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    We previously defined macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic tumors as "tumor-educated-macrophages" (Edu) and macrophages harvested from mice without tumors as "naïve-macrophages" (Naïve), and demonstrated that Edu-macrophages promoted tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, Edu- and Naïve-macrophages were compared for their ability to enhance pancreatic cancer malignancy at the cellular level in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory efficacy of Zoledronic acid (ZA) on Edu-macrophage-enhanced metastasis was also determined. XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells in Gelfoam co-cultured with Edu-macrophages proliferated to a greater extent compared to XPA1 cells cultured with Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.014). XPA1 cells exposed to conditioned medium harvested from Edu culture significantly increased proliferation (P = 0.016) and had more migration stimulation capability (P<0.001) compared to cultured cancer cells treated with the conditioned medium from Naïve. The mitotic index of the XPA1 cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, significantly increased in vivo in the presence of Edu- compared to Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.001). Zoledronic acid (ZA) killed both Edu and Naïve in vitro. Edu promoted tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of the XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. ZA reduced primary tumor growth (P = 0.006) and prevented metastasis (P = 0.025) promoted by Edu-macrophages. These results indicate that ZA inhibits enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer induced by Edu-macrophages.

  18. Vaporous Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of a C-141B Starlifter Aircraft: Validation of VHP and Modified VHP (mVHP) Fumigation Decontamination Process via VHP-Sensor, Biological Indicator, and HD Simulant in a Large-Scale Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Air in to modules ’,-,• Exhaust air Mobile e Laboratory zA D ’ A = Air dryer ...mVHP system components include: "* Air handling system ( air dryer and blower) - provides dehumidified process air to the vaporizer modules, ensuring... air handling system consists of an air dryer and a blower (Figure 10). The air dryer , a Trane air conditioning unit and a Munters industrial

  19. Trim Effects on Motion Stability of Submersible Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-07

    the nominal depth ZGB Vehicle metacentric height Z Heave force Za Partial derivative of Z w.r.t. a I. INTRODUCTION The fundamental goal of submarine...control is to reach and maintain ordered depth. Experimental designs involve expensive model testing such as Darpa Suboff Model (DTRC Model 5470) [Ref...Appendix. II. EQUATIONS OF NOTION The motion of the submersible in the vertical plane can be modeled by four coupled nonlinear differential equations

  20. Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for Depth Control of Submersible Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-30

    form z deviation off the nominal depth ZGB vehicle metacentric height Z heave force Za derivative of Z with respect to a WO frequency at the...as a practical vessel. Current evaluation schemes involve extensive model testing such as those done on the DARPA SUBOFF Model (DTRC Model 5470) [ref...design. Much work has been done on depth control and modelling of submarines in the vertical plane [ref’s. 1, 2, & 3] but this work has assumed the

  1. Freeze-dried Plasma at the Point of Injury: from Concept to Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2008. 12. Matijevic N, Wang YW, Cotton BA, Hartwell E, Barbeau JM, Wade CE, Holcomb JB: Better hemostatic profiles of never-frozen liquid plasma com...cell products transfused improves mortality in trauma patients. Transfusion 50(2):493Y500, 2010. 28. Radwan ZA, Bai Y, Matijevic N, del Junco DJ...table of contents. 31. Pati S, Matijevic N, Doursout MF, Ko T, Cao Y, Deng X, Kozar RA, Hartwell E, Conyers J, Holcomb JB: Protective effects of fresh

  2. Deploying TSP on a National Scale: An Experience Report from Pilot Projects in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Juan Antonio Vega, and Antonio Mejorado for all the hours we have passed together teaching and coaching students and industry engineers; David Gar- za...the TSP as a National Initia- tive. From the Mexican Software Industry: Gerardo Lopez for his passion and help to convince his peers in the industry to...make Mexico No.1 in software quality in the world through the use of TSP; Blanca Trevino, Hector Gonzalez, Ignacio Sanchez , Gonzalo Soio, Francisco

  3. Visual Analysis of Social Networks in a Counter-Insurgency Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    12 developed methods to overcome such an issue and encompass communities’ overlaps in the real world. Figure 6 is a screenshot of Meerkat , a...2008]. Figure 6. MeerKat – Screenshot with the community overlap option enabled [Chen J. et al 2010] 13 Krempel [2009] also summarizes...Erlbaum Assoc Inc. Chen, J., Fagnan, J., Goebel, R., Rabbany, R., Sangi, F., Takaffoli, M., Verbeek, E., & Zaïane, O., (2010), Meerkat : Community

  4. The Effect of China’s Scramble for Resources and African Resource Nationalism on the Supply of Strategic Southern African Minerals: What Can the United States Do?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Jisco) purchased 26% of South 13 Africa’s International Ferro Metals (IFM) which owns the Buffelsfontein chromite mine and smelter . A Chinese...Shabangu. https://www.moneyweb.co.za/ mw /view/ mw /en/page295025?oid=533229&sn=2009+Detail&pid=289766. 18 Michael Spicer, Vice President, Business...inherently dangerous, given the depth and heat in the mines. Mining industry experts point out that it is impossible to maintain perfect safety and

  5. Hematopoiesis Primer Modeling Combined Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    2010 Feb; 125( Suppl 2):S3-23. Dainiak N, J.K. Waselenko. Biology and clinical features of radiation injury in adults [Internet]. UpToDate ® 2004...Available from: http://www.sassit.co.za/Journals/General%20complications/ UpToDate %C2%AE%20%27Biolog y%20and%20clinical%20features%20of%20radiation

  6. Army Science Conference Proceedings Held in Orlando, Florida on June 22 - 25, 1992. Volume 3, Principal Authors N Through Z.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-25

    Plans, ATTN: DAMO-FD, Wash, DC 20310-0400 HQDA, Director of Information Systems for C4, ATTN: SAIS-ZA, Wash, DC 20310-0400 HQDA, Deputy Chief of... Systems Engineering Command, Ft. Huachuca, AZ 85613-5000 USA Strategic Defense Command, P. 0. Box 15280, Arlington, VA 22215-0150 USA Materiel Command...ATTN: AMCLD, 5001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-0001 USA Materiel Systems Analysis Activity, ATTN: AMXSY-D, APG, MD 21005-5071 USA

  7. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  8. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    UNORMAL STREAM N. J. FLOODWAY DESIGN FLOOD (NJFDF) I PROFILES in the Flod Pain /nformation Report~shw elevoti-~o A c W0 0 forthe entire study area TO...INFORMATION TOMS RIVER OCEAN COUNTY, N.J. FLOODED AREAS JUNE 1972 L E j ",’.PLATE6 ui DOVEI zA XC RV! crCN.J. FL 0ESIG M+II MILI ZE CRC GROI G.S. TOW 1

  9. United States Air Force Statistical Digest, Fiscal Year 1968. Twenty Third Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-09-30

    113 13 52 1800 1 102 203 3035 23 595 ~ 8)87 U() 4 7 4 4 6~𔄁 5 38 6 4 2 399 6117 219926 TOTAL . ’c’ ’ .. ITEM DESCRIPTION TOfU ...LOSs I_M. ". GENERAL COLONEL COLo.NEL MAJOR’ cAPTAIN ’.’ ’L!EtlTENANT ~EltAN’l OFFICER .; . .. GAiNS 11 . .. , .. .... TOfU . . . . ~ ~ J2 m .’ za ~ W2

  10. Safety Testing of Seed and Vaccines for Dengue Viruses in Mice, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Bacterial and Mycoplasma Culture Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-20

    MICROBIOLOGICAL5?ASSOCIATES INC. CORPORATE OFFICES BETHESDA LABORATCRIES UWe Sciences Center 5221 River Road - Bethesda - MaryLand 20816 9900 Blackwell Road s...MICROBIOLOGICAL 5? ASSOCIATES, INC. ZA356.005102 VIII. APPENDIX -105 - MICROBIOLOGICAL 𔃿 ASSOCIATES, INC. 2 MICROBIOLOGICAL 𔃿 ASSOCIATES INC. CORPORATE ...ASSOCIATES INC. CORPORATE OFFICES O-ETHESDA LABORATORIES Life Sciences Center 5221 River Road • Bethesda. Maryland 20816 9900 Blackwell Road - Rockville

  11. National Dam Safety Program. Patterson Brixius Grey Creek Watershed Project, Site 2 (Inventory Number NY 725). Susquehanna River Basin, Broome County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    4. kci-.ve the veL ticn f -za the irlet and cutlet cf the auxiliary spillway, and the downstream channel. Provide a program of periodic cutt.in- and...the downstream channel;., Provide a program of periodic cutting and mowing of the dam and appurtenant surfaces. 5. Investigate the conditions of the...the 6 feet diameter highway culvert, A..’ A 7. Provide a program of periodic inspection and maintenance of the dam and appurtenances, including yearly

  12. Visual outcome and optical quality after bilateral implantation of aspheric diffractive multifocal, aspheric monofocal and spherical monofocal intraocular lenses: a prospective comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Pan-Pan; Li, Xia; Yao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the visual function after bilateral implantation of aspheric diffractive multifocal Tecnis ZMA00, aspheric monofocal ZA9003 versus spherical monofocal Akreos Adapt intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS Tecnis ZMA00, Tecnis ZA9003 or Akreos Adapt IOLs were bilaterally implanted in 180 eyes from 90 patients. The following parameters were assessed 3 months postoperatively: monocular and binocular uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and distance-corrected visual acuity (DCVA) for distance, intermediate and near, spherical aberration (SA), contrast and glare sensitivity, near point refractive power, uncorrected and best-corrected near stereoscopic acuity (NSA). Patient satisfaction was assessed by a questionnaire. RESULTS Three months postoperatively, the monocular and binocular UCVA and DCVA at near of Tecnis ZMA00 were significantly better than other two groups. The mean SA for 5.0mm optical zone in Tecnis ZMA00 and Tecnis ZA9003 was significantly lower than that in Akreos Adapt. Mean contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were better for Tecnis ZA9003 group than for other two groups. Patients with Tecnis ZMA00 had higher monocular and binocular near point refractive power and uncorrected NSA than monofocal groups. The patients in Tecnis ZMA00 had higher mean values for halo compared with other two groups. CONCLUSION Tecnis ZMA00 provided better near VA and uncorrected NSA and higher near point refractive power than monofocal IOLs and patients were spectacle independent. The IOLs with Tecnis aspheric design improved contrast and glare sensitivity. Patients with Tecnis ZMA00 reported more disturbances on visual phenomena of halo. PMID:23826522

  13. Profiles in Success: Navy Transition Assistance Program, Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Sensors, Inc., KaZaK Composites, Inc., Kronos Air Technologies, Inc., Lambda Technologies, Linearizer Technology, Inc., Management Sciences, Inc... Kronos Air Technologies, Inc., Belmont, MA I www.kronosati.com 2003-2004 Navy TAP Participant The Navy SBIR Program Funding has been...critical to the success of Kronos Air Technologies. -Rich Tusing, Kronos COO Using funding from the Navy SBIR program, Kronos Air and EOL, LLC, a

  14. Efficacy and safety of denosumab versus zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Yu, Shiying

    2013-08-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) has been used as the standard treatment for patients with solid cancer or myeloma that has metastasized into bone. A new potential therapeutic strategy, denosumab, is being investigated in a variety of tumors. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of denosumab in comparison with ZA in patients with bone metastases secondary to malignancy. A systematic literature search of several electronic databases till July 2011 and a review of reference lists of relevant articles was conducted. Summary relative estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Seven reports from 3 randomized controlled trials involving 5723 patients were identified. The pooled analysis showed that denosumab significantly delayed time to first on-study skeletal-related event [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.90, P < 0.001], time to multiple skeletal-related events (HR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.90, P < 0.001), and pain worsening (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99, P = 0.026) for patients with bone metastases compared with ZA. Similar results of the 2 groups were obtained with respect to overall survival (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06), disease progression (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09), and pain improvement. Summary of the adverse effects revealed similar safety profiles for the 2 drugs. Denosumab is superior to ZA in preventing complications for patients with bone metastases. However, further studies are still needed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy of denosumab.

  15. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites Within the 9-Foot Navigation Channel Project for the St. Paul District, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1977 - 1979. Volume II. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-10

    as caz’nata A J T R H Ligwnia recta L. subrost rat a Carunculina parva Lampsilis terea L. higginsi L. radiata siliquoidea L. ovata ventricosa Plagio ...radiata siZiquc’idea 1 1 0.?2 X L. ovata ventricosa 2 2 0. 3 Plagio Za trique tra X Arcidens con fragosus 2 2 0.3 Lasmiqona camptlcnata L. cost ata L

  16. Time Variable Associated Absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F. W.; Barlow, T. A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    We discuss dramatic changes in the z_a ~ z_e absorption system of the z_e = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (Q0150-203). The C IV lambda 1550 and N V lambda 1240 doublets at z_a = 2.1344 strengthened by a factor of ~ 3 between the observations of Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1988, ApJS, 68, 539; measured November 1981) and our earliest measurements (November and December 1990). During this time, C IV in the z_a = 2.0083 system may also have strengthened. The variability of other lines in these systems is unknown. Continued monitoring is in progress. We consider several models of the z_a ~ z_e absorption environment, and conclude that the absorbing clouds are close to the QSO and photoionized by the QSO continuum. The variability timescale (<~2.9 yrs rest) requires gas densities gap 4000 cm(-3) to allow changes in the ionization balance. This minimum density, and the high ionization needed to produce the Ne VIII lambda 774 and O VI lambda 1035 absorptions reported previously (E. M. Burbidge et al., 1993, BAAS, 24, 1135), requires clouds <~200 pc from the QSO. The full range of absorption line ionizations (including C III lambda 977 and N III lambda 989) implies that the clouds are segregated, spanning a factor of gap 10 in distance or gap 100 in density. Across these regions the H I fraction varies from ~ 10(-3) to ~ 10(-6) . The total hydrogen column ranges from a few times 10(18) cm(-2) in the low ionization gas to ~ 10(20) cm(-2) where the Ne VIII lines form. The Lyman continuum is expected to be optically thin throughout, consistent with the measured absence of a Lyman edge. The metal abundances are roughly solar or above. Implications of these results are discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG 5-1630.

  17. Enhancement of Plant Establishment on Dredged Material Sites with Mycorrhizal Fungi and Clay Amendments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    montmorillonite enhanced the growth of smooth brome grass. Topsoil, the clays attapulgite and kaolinite , and the commercial products Agrosoke anj Stawetwere...clays bentonite, attapulgite, kaolinite , and montmorillonite . Trade name and company addresses for the clays are listed in Table 1. Agrosoke and Stawet...desertcoZa, G. etunicatwn, and G. intraradice8. The clays attapulgite, ben- tonite, kaclinite,/and montmorillonite from various commercial sources were

  18. Implementation of Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) at US Army Depots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Chemical Conversion Materials for Coating Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys MIL-C-83286 Coating, Urethane, Aliphatic Isocyanate . For Aerospace Application...TRANSPORTATION DOT ZZA Wooden Drums. Glued Plywood DOT 228 Wooden Drums. Glued Plywood (Copies of specifications, standards, handbooks, drawings, and...accordance with DOT 2ZA or DOT 228. C-13 0 NIL-A-XXXXX(AS) 5.1.2 Commercial. Commercial preservation shall be In accordance with ASTh D 395). 5.2 Packing

  19. The effect of zoledronic acid on growth plates and high turnover bones.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, M; Bereket, C; Ozkan, N; Alici, O; Sener, I; Desteli, E E; Ilkaya, F

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have preventive effect on bone resorption caused by osteoclasts.We aimed to investigate the histopathological effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the jaw and long bones and growth plates of rats. Thirty-six 12 week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the control (C, n=18) and ZA groups (Z, n=18). Z group animals were administered 0.1 mg/kg saline-diluted ZA intraperitoneally three times per week for 8 weeks. C group animals were administered the same amount of saline simultaneously. At the end of 11th week, half the subjects from either the control group (C1) and ZA group (Z1) were sacrificed. At the end of 14th week, the remaining half from both groups were also sacrificed (C2 and Z2). In all animals, no dental procedures were performed; the posterior and anterior mandible and the knee joint including distal femur and proximal tibia were histopathologically investigated. Histological examination revealed that inflammation and necrosis were limited to the posterior mandible of the Z1 and Z2 groups, while the anterior mandible and knee joint including distal femur and proximal tibia remained unaffected however the development of the growth plate of the proximal tibia was found to be arrested in animals of the Z1 and Z2groups. Due to it is inhibitory effect over growth plate and inflammatory and necrotic effect over high turnover bones, zoledronic acid should be administered cautiously, especially in pediatric patients who are still in their growth and development stages (Fig. 6, Ref. 34).

  20. Growth and Metabolism of Three Introduced Summersed Plant Species in Relation to the Influences of Temperature and Light.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    roughly parallel one another (Dale and Gillespie 1977; Bowes, Holaday, and Haller 1979). Moreover, seasonal changes in photoperiod and incident solar...Veinsteins -2 -1 •m *sec in the greenhouse during an approximate 14-hr photoperiod . 24 Bowes et al. (197Th) reported dry weight increases in HydrilZa at 10 to...2 -l 12 peinsteins*m -*sec during a 16-hr photoperiod . Our data suggest that Egeria may also be capable of growth under similar conditions. 35. Dark

  1. Non-Airborne Conflicts: The Causes and Effects of Runway Transgressions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    and O’Hara, Dolores B., "Human Factors Associated with Runway Incursions", NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System: Eighth Quarterly Report, NASA...ararararocearx OUUU13UUK O_<X<X<XCJ<X<X<X 3uaa« a zaacjzcicjzzi zu uzu D <I <I D <I U d <c za <r a. ZUOU.ZUUUIUUUUO t

  2. Cultural Resource Survey, Government Townsites Study, Fort Peck, Montana, Pickstown, South Dakota, Riverdale, North Dakota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Fort Peck, Montana ZA ’ . Plate 6: Recreation Building Fort Peck, Montana 20 Plate 7: Lutheran Church Fort Peck, Montana Poo Plate 8: Lutheran Church...Joel Barker, Chief of Archives, Federal Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado. July 27, August 13, 1979. _ Interview with Dolores Barnard...Records Center, Denver, Colorado Dolores Barnard, Librarian, State Historical Society of North Dakota Library, Bismarck, North Dakota Leonard Bingham

  3. SIAM Conference on Applied Geometry Held in Albany, New York on 20-24 July 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    MARKINGS Za . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF REPORT 2b. DECLASSIFICATION IDOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for public...Mrnse Undes. d-Neighbourhoods of Simple Externally 1 /ASyracus iv r ity VsbePl n Syracuse. NY Visible Polygon* 11:00132/A34 Dolores Lodares and...these problems are presented. For the Dolores Lodares n pattern case enumerative procedures are derived. Manuel Abellanas Peter J. Brucker V F’~.!t ,1

  4. Legislation Relating to the AAF Personnel Program, 1939 to May 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-08-01

    backgroun ~d of the ý?viation St~dent I-ot, see 4Lbove, hp.* 38 2jj, ’e. 77 Cong., 1. cess., 32Z.a (21 April 19 U,3:35, (22 Apri s19a). 3..g Heao~ rings on,2...Oppezomtely eqml Zm Increments, in aecord- anc * with the provilons or,, and from the groups •oecribed in, #ectio 24e of the Watien•l Defense Act, at

  5. Properties of Polyurethane Anionomers: Ionization via Bimolecular Nucleophilic Displacement of the Urethane Hydrogen.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE (cont.) S N 0102. LF- 01. 6601 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P04GE ("OIn Do#a Entered) .. 20. Abstract (cont.) 4iechanical...properties of other polyurethane ionomers reported in the literature. ZA 2A .4- -4.# ’ 3° ...,....-." :’ 2 , . 󈧚? .". , ’. .’,.2. .:.2 *OFFICE OFNAVAL...incorporation of-ionic functionality into the hard sgement units of polyurethane block copolymers produces materials known as polyurethane ionomers

  6. The Effect of Hypotensive Resuscitation and Fluid Type on Mortality, Bleeding, Coagulation and Dysfunctional Inflammation in a Swine Grade V Liver Injury Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    prior to surgery , except for water ad libitum. We pre- anesthetized the swine with an intramuscular injection of 8mg/kg Telazol® (Fort Dodge Animal...fluxuations, and response to painful stimuli at the nasal septum and forefoot . All efforts were made to ensure the study team remained blinded to the...Injured Patient. World Journal of Surgery . 2007;31:1055-1065. 9. Cho SD, Holcomb JB, Tieu BH, Englhart MS, Morris MS, Karahan ZA, Underwood SA, Muller

  7. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Supplemental Limnological Studies at Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill Lakes, 1983-1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Gomphonema. The nannandrous Oedogonium braunii was com- monly observed with sexual reproductive structures while Mougeotia was never observed in...sexual reproduction . In addition, Gomphonema was com- monly observed forming gelatinous envelopes containing two to four cells lying side by side. Despite... Ceriodaphnia reticulata 7. Copepod naupli.A Large Particle Feeders (LPF) 1. Dazphnia parvuZa Fordyce 2. Diaphanasoma brachyurwn 3. Ifolopedium cv’azonicun

  8. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    Drama Theater; the Russian Drama Theater; the Youth Theater; and the Komsomol Theater. The Riga Cinema Studio produces films in both Latvian and...Party and its apparat was criticized as a distortion of the Leninist nationalities policy. The " thaw " lasted only a short time, however (it apparently...playing in the cinemas of Vilnius and Kaunas were iLitva za polveka, 1967: 401-402. 2 Among them, 182 Doctors of Science and 2,710 Candidates of

  9. Magnetic Resonance Angiography of Nonferromagnetic Iliac Artery Stents and Stent-Grafts: A Comparative Study in Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Schuermann, Karl; Vorwerk, Dierk; Buecker, Arno; Neuerburg, Joerg; Grosskortenhaus, Stefanie; Haage, Patrick; Piroth, Werner; Hunter, David W.; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To compare nonferromagnetic iliac artery prostheses in their suitability for patency monitoring with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using conventional angiography as a reference. Methods: In experiment 1, three Memotherm stents were inserted into the iliac arteries of each of six sheep: two 'tandem' stents on one side and a single stent on the other side. In experiment 2, four prostheses (normal and low-porosity Corvita stent-grafts, Memotherm, ZA-stent) were inserted in each of 11 sheep. Patency was monitored before and 1, 3, and 6 months after insertion with 3D phase-contrast and two 2D time-of-flight sequences (TOF-1: TR/TE = 18/6.9, TOF-2: 13/2.5) with and without contrast at 1.5 T. On 206 coronal MIP images (72 pre-, 134 post-stenting), three readers analyzed 824 iliac segments (206 x 4) for patency and artifacts. Results: There was no difference in the number of artifacts between tandem and single iliac Memotherm stents. The ZA-stent induced significantly fewer artifacts than the other prostheses (p < 0.00001). With MRA, patency of the ZA-stent was correctly diagnosed in 88% of cases, which was almost comparable to nonstented iliac segments (95%), patency of the Memotherm stent in 59%, and of the Corvita stent-grafts in 57% and 55%. The TOF-2 sequence with contrast yielded the best images. Conclusion: MRA compatibility of nonferromagnetic prostheses depends strongly on the design of the device. MRA may be used to monitor the patency of iliac ZA-stents, whereas iliac Memotherm stents and Corvita stent-grafts appear to be less suited for follow-up with MRA.

  10. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  11. The Lease of R/V (Research Vessel) CONRAD for Geophysical and Geological Research in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Ai4 168 THE LEASE OF /V (RESEARCH VESSEL) CONRAD FOR / GEOPHYSICAL AND GEOLOGICAL (U) LAMONT-DOHERTY B " HGEOLOGICAL OBSERVATORY PALISADES NV AUG...Research in __ the South Atlantic Ocean 12 PSO’NAL ALUTHOR(S) [Za 0.Or RiPCRT i~ TIMjCQRED 4 DATE OF REPQ.R7 c’ar, Month. Day) 5 PAGE COUNT Final FIRO

  12. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas.

    PubMed

    Ross, M P; Shumlak, U

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 10(20) m(-2) with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  13. PLEKHA7 modulates epithelial tight junction barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Paschoud, Serge; Jond, Lionel; Guerrera, Diego; Citi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    PLEKHA7 is a recently identified protein of the epithelial zonula adhaerens (ZA), and is part of a protein complex that stabilizes the ZA, by linking it to microtubules. Since the ZA is important in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJ), we asked whether PLEKHA7 is involved in modulating epithelial TJ barrier function. We generated clonal MDCK cell lines in which one of four different constructs of PLEKHA7 was inducibly expressed. All constructs were localized at junctions, but constructs lacking the C-terminal region were also distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Inducible expression of PLEKHA7 constructs did not affect the expression and localization of TJ proteins, the steady-state value of transepithelial resistance (TER), the development of TER during the calcium switch, and the flux of large molecules across confluent monolayers. In contrast, expression of three out of four constructs resulted both in enhanced recruitment of E-cadherin and associated proteins at the apical ZA and at lateral puncta adherentia (PA), a decreased TER at 18 h after assembly at normal calcium, and an attenuation in the fall in TER after extracellular calcium removal. This latter effect was inhibited when cells were treated with nocodazole. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PLEKHA7 forms a complex with the cytoplasmic TJ proteins ZO-1 and cingulin, and this association does not depend on the integrity of microtubules. These results suggest that PLEKHA7 modulates the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of the TJ barrier, through E-cadherin protein complex- and microtubule-dependent mechanisms. PMID:24843844

  14. Particle Beam Alignment System for Single Event Upset - Van de Graaff Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    must be computed to apply Equation 5 cor- reetly. The far-field condition Is ap- proached as z becomes much larger than za. For a small helium- neon Figw...and tetra -lateral type. uniform, the photocurrent collected by an electrode is inversely proportional to the distance between the incident position...Lateral Type) ( Tetra -Lateral Type) SPin-Cushion Type (improved Tetro-Laterel Type) This is the improved tetra -lateral type, with the improved sensi

  15. Leading logarithmic corrections to the muonium hyperfine splitting and to the hydrogen Lamb shift

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    1994-12-31

    Main leading corrections with recoil logarithm log(M/m) and low-energy logarithm log(Za) to the Muonium hyperfine splitting axe discussed. Logarithmic corrections have magnitudes of 0.1 {divided_by} 0.3 kHz. Non-leading higher order corrections axe expected to be not larger than 0.1 kHz. Leading logarithmic correction to the Hydrogen Lamb shift is also obtained.

  16. Quasi quantum group covariant q-oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomerus, Volker

    1993-07-01

    If q is a pth rooty of unit there exists a quasi-co-associative truncated quantum group algebra U qT(sl 2) whose indecomposable representations ar the physical representations of U q(sl 2), whose co-product yields the truncated tensor product of physical representations of U q(sl 2), and whose R-matrix satisfies quasi Yang-Baxter equations. These truncated quantum group algebras are examples of weak quasi quantum group algebras [2]. For primitive pth roots q, q = e 2 πi/ p, we consider a two-dimensional q-oscillator which admits U qT(sl 2) as a symmetry algebra. Its wave function lie in a space FqT of "functions on the truncated quantum plane", i.e. of polynomials in noncommuting complex coordinate functions za, on which multiplication operators Za and the elements of U qT(sl 2) can act. This illustrates the concept of quasi quantum planes [1]. Due to the truncation, the Hilbert space of states is finite dimensional. The subspaces FR(n) of monomials in za of nth degree vanish for n⩾ p - 1, and FT(n) carries the (2 J+1)-dimensional irreducible representation of UqT( sl2) if n = 2J, J = 0, {1}/{2},…, {1}/{2}(p-2) . Partial derivatives ∂a are introduced. We find a ∗-operation on the algebra of multiplication operators, Zi and derivatives ∂b such that the adjoints Z a∗ act as differentiation on the truncated quantum plane. Multiplication operators Za ("creation operators") and their adjoints ("annihilation operators") obey q {-1}/{2}- commutation relations. The ∗-operation is used to determine a positive definite scalar product on the truncated quantum plane FqT. Some natural candidates of hamiltonians for the q-oscillators are determined.

  17. Mechanisms By Which Humidity Alters Ductility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    ductility$ of thesurfa ?Za’dlouvalt1 -rates of crack initiation, early growth and the relaxation op residual surface stresses dur~fati gue are all sensitive...15 Fig. 4 Ratio of closure stress to maximum tensile stress increases with increased distance (L) of crack tip to the next grain boundary. Here...orientations. Tmax is the maximum applied surface shear stress ........................ 23 Fiq. 8 Duration of incubation AN = N - N increases for cracks

  18. Computer-Aided Mission Planning System (CAMPS) Test 1-82.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-23

    biective6 To assess the marginal value off addin4-g Eb-erimenta. ?enetration and Analysis Support Sys-tem SPASS) tyrpe canabi !lities to the :A,,!S. .3.7...Objective To assess t-he user’s overall omnion off the .ZA.’S/:?PASS system as a mission planning tool. 1 .3.8 Objecti-,e 3 To com- oile a list off

  19. Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 Validation Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-04

    Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-5004 NRL/MR/7320--17-9722 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Global...Solutions, Inc. Stennis Space Center, Mississippi luis zaMudio-lopEz Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida MichaEl W. phElps Jacobs...Laboratory Oceanography Division Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-5004 NRL/MR/7320--17-9722 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  20. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid effectively targets lung cancer cells by inhibition of protein prenylation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fan; Li, Pengcheng; Gong, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiahong; Ma, Jingping

    2015-11-27

    Aberrant activation of oncoproteins such as members of the Ras family is common in human lung cancers. The proper function of Ras largely depends on a post-translational modification termed prenylation. Bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit prenylation in cancer cells. In this study, we show that zoledronic acid, a third generation bisphosphonate, is effective in targeting lung cancer cells. This is achieved by the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, through suppressing the activation of downstream Ras and EGFR signalling by zoledronic acid. The combination of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel or cisplatin (commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for lung cancer) augmented the activity of either drug alone in in vitro lung cancer cellular system and in vivo lung xenograft mouse model. Importantly, zoledronic acid inhibits protein prenylation as shown by the increased levels of unprenylated Ras and Rap1A. In addition, the effects of zoledronic acid were reversed in the presence of geranylgeraniol and farnesol, further confirming that mechanism of zoledroinc acid's action in lung cancer cells is through prenylation inhibition. Since zoledronic acid is already available for clinic use, these results suggest that it may be an effective addition to the armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Zoledronic acid (ZA) is effectively against lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • ZA acts on lung cancer cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. • ZA suppresses global downstream phosphorylation of Ras signalling. • ZA enhances the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs in lung cancer cells.

  1. Muscle Dysfunction in Androgen Deprivation: Role of Ryanodine Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    will be used for RyR1/Calstabin1 biochemistry . If Experiment 1 demonstrates reduction in muscle specific force in mice undergoing ORX and/or ORX...used for RyR1/Calstabin1 biochemistry . Experiment 3 To test the effect of S107 and Zoledronic Acid (ZA), alone or in combination, on muscle...be used for RyR1/Calstabin1 biochemistry . Animal protocol approved by IACUC on November 9, 2015. Statement of Work (September 2015-August

  2. Effects of thickness & shape on localized surface plasmon resonance of sexfoil nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xianchao; Chen, Weidong; Xie, Zhengwei; Huang, Yuerong; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Not Available Project supported by the Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 16ZA0047), the State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, China (Grant No. 201509), the Large Precision Instruments Open Project Foundation of Sichuan Normal University, China (Grant Nos. DJ201557, DJ201558 and DJ201560), and the State Key Laboratory of Optical Technologies on Nano Fabrication and Micro Engineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Anomalous Transport Coefficients Due to the Ion-Ion Two-Stream Plasma Microinstability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-25

    MaxwelHan Distribution on the Computer Kesh . p-*£) \\ j. T^jh^fO ££(£*) (F.5) &* tfLr gfZA^c ou-rZ/b fr*». «?,*) -" -"*&;))) *1[ fx^l- > w^W^tf- (F...NINE POINTS ARE USED IN THE FINITE DIFFERENCE EQUATION FOR THE i"> POINT) Flg. F-2. Kesh Point Numbering Scheme in the Method of Lines. 125

  4. Expert System for Minefield Site Prediction. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    2.2111- .25 Jlill 1 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TLST CHART % %R( % % % % % ko , %% % - Af-A -:A.ZA .A r. ETL-0492 Expert system for minefield site...1. TITLE (Include Security Gassfication) EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MINEFIELD SITE PREDICTION FIRST YEAR REPORT r.. Z. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dillencourt, Michael...identify by block number)FIELD GROUP L SUB-GROUP I Expert System ’ LMinefield,8ite ,rediction - * Quadtree,CTeraiin--nalysis,.t 19, ABSTRACT (Continue on

  5. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. P.; Shumlak, U.

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 1020 m-2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  6. A new sesquiterpene lactone glucoside with inhibitory effect on K562 cells from Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge) Hance.

    PubMed

    He, W-F; Xu, B-B; Pan, J-C; Lu, J-C; Song, S-J; Xu, S-X

    2006-09-01

    A new minor sesquiterpene lactone glucoside, ixerin ZA (1), together with 16 known compounds, were isolated from the whole plants of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge) Hance. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 1(10),3,11(13)-guaiatriene-12,6-olide-2-one-3-O-[6'-(p-metheoxyphenylacetyl)]-beta-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on K562 cells.

  7. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    the erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum. Scannning electron microscopy demonstrated numerous cone-shaped knobs evenly distributed over the entire...Mystromys albicaudatus and are being used as an excellent model of American cutaneous leishmaniasis In anti-leishmanial drug screen tests at WRAIR1 s...available liquid media for rapid cultivation. J Parasitol 1978, 76:309- .316. - 16 - I- ~. . . ... .. . . " " :" "". . REFERENCES (cont’d) 17. Cohn ZA

  8. Combining the Finite Element Method with Structural Connectome-based Analysis for Modeling Neurotrauma:Connectome Neurotrauma Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-16

    emerge as a useful tool in the field of neuroscience [10–13]. Models continue to advance in biofidelity by incorporating an increased level of anatomic...can be compared. Perhaps this may be accomplished using sports-related impact injury, such as American football , where many helmets have sensors built...mesh generation. Med Eng Phys 34: 85–98. 14. Acar ZA, Makeig S (2010) Neuroelectromagnetic forward head modeling toolbox. J Neurosci Methods 190: 258

  9. Combining the Finite Element Method with Structural Connectome-based Analysis for Modeling Neurotrauma: Connectome Neurotrauma Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-16

    neuroscience [10–13]. Models continue to advance in biofidelity by incorporating an increased level of anatomic detail [4,13,14], improved representation...Perhaps this may be accomplished using sports-related impact injury, such as American football , where many helmets have sensors built-in to record...generation. Med Eng Phys 34: 85–98. 14. Acar ZA, Makeig S (2010) Neuroelectromagnetic forward head modeling toolbox. J Neurosci Methods 190: 258–270. 15

  10. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  11. Binding Kinetics versus Affinities in BRD4 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming; Zhou, Jingwei; Wang, Laiyou; Liu, Zhihong; Guo, Jiao; Wu, Ruibo

    2015-09-28

    Bromodomains (BRDs) are protein modules that selectively recognize histones as a "reader" by binding to an acetylated lysine substrate. The human BRD4 has emerged as a promising drug target for a number of disease pathways, and several potent BRD inhibitors have been discovered experimentally recently. However, the detailed inhibition mechanism especially for the inhibitor binding kinetics is not clear. Herein, by employing classical molecular dynamics (MD) and state-of-the-art density functional QM/MM MD simulations, the dynamic characteristics of ZA-loop in BRD4 are revealed. And then the correlation between binding pocket size and ZA-loop motion is elucidated. Moreover, our simulations found that the compound (-)-JQ1 could be accommodated reasonably in thermodynamics whereas it is infeasible in binding kinetics against BRD4. Its racemate (+)-JQ1 proved to be both thermodynamically reasonable and kinetically achievable against BRD4, which could explain the previous experimental results that (+)-JQ1 shows a high inhibitory effect toward BRD4 (IC50 is 77 nM) while (-)-JQ1 is inactive (>10 μM). Furthermore, the L92/L94/Y97 in the ZA-loop and Asn140 in the BC-loop are identified to be critical residues in (+)-JQ1 binding/releasing kinetics. All these findings shed light on further selective inhibitor design toward BRD family, by exploiting the non-negligible ligand binding kinetics features and flexible ZA-loop motions of BRD, instead of only the static ligand-protein binding affinity.

  12. Sentinels Rising. Commercial High-Resolution Satellite Imagery and Its Implications for US National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    tempta tion to be too gener ous with gov­ ern men tal con tracts for remote- sensing prod­ ucts and services. With its enormous buying power and influ...the com mer ciali za tion of space. To main tain a com peti tive and po­ ten tially dominant market posi tion, US firms must not be im­ peded by

  13. Minutes of the Explosives Safety Seminar (20th) Held at OMNI international Hotel, Norfolk, Virginia on 24-26 August 1982. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    is shown in Figure 5. 1. Pressure Transducers. Pismo-electric pressure transducers were used for this series of tests. The PCA Electronics Inc., models...LI.. 0 ~ fl 0 L.. ..731 * ~ C/~ 0i *..* 1 * a * a1 0a r2a Za a Cm a I~I esII a ____ ______ ____ * I~I a 4aa A 41. -73 a 41"a " ai 4 * a * a a a

  14. Determining the Most Appropriate Organizational Structure and Alignment for a Managed Care Office at Keller Army Community Hospital, West Point, NY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-15

    Hospital. This reference provided me with an excellent knowledge base in organization design that greatly facilitated my conduct of this management...Department Technologies.. 66 0 MAPPENDIX m -- zA. DEFINITIONS M B. ACRONYMS Z C. SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL m COMPLEXITY AND CHANGE M D...Daft, 1989; Duncan, 1979). Technology. Technology is the transformation process in which the knowledge , tools, techniques, and actions are used to

  15. Changes in cortical bone channels network and osteocyte organization after the use of zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Gustavo Davi; Travençolo, Bruno Augusto Nassif; Oliveira, Marcio Augusto; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Gallottini, Marina; Silveira, Fernando Ricardo Xavier da

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the cortical bone channels network (CBCN) and osteocyte organization in relation to the bone channels. Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and test groups (TG). Twelve animals from TG received 3 ZA doses (7.5 µg/kg), and 6 animals from CG did not receive any medication. TG animals were euthanized at 14 (n = 6) and 75 (n = 6) dadys after drug injection. CBCN was analyzed in mandibles and tibias using computational routines. The osteocyte organization was qualitatively evaluated in tibias using a three-dimensional reconstruction of images from serial histological sections. Significant differences in CBCN of tibia were found between the treated and untreated rats, with a wider range of sizes and shapes of the channels after the use of ZA (channels area p = 0.0063, channels area SD p = 0.0276) and less bone matrix (bone volume p = 0.0388). The alterations in the channels' morphology were more evident at 75 days after the drug injection (channels perimeter p = 0.0286). No differences were found in mandibles CBCN. The osteocyte distribution revealed more variable patterns of cell distribution in ZA groups, with non-homogeneous distribution of cells in relation to the bone channels. Zoledronic acid induces structural changes in CBCN and modifies the osteocyte arrangement in cortical bone in the tibia; also, the variability in the morphology of bone channels became more evident after a certain time of the use of the drug.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Local and Systemic Zoledronic Acid Application on Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Serkan; Artas, Gokhan; Acikan, Izzet; Yaman, Ferhan; Kirtay, Mustafa; Ozupek, Muhammed Fatih; Asutay, Fatih; Kom, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are antibone resorptive drugs that are used to prevent bone tissue resorption in several skeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of systemic and local applications of zoledronic acid (ZA) on newly regenerated bone in a model of experimental distraction osteogenesis (DO). To do this mandibular DO was applied to 30 adult female Sprague Dawley rats, which were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, DO only, systemic zoledronic acid (SZA), and local zoledronic acid (LZA). In the LZA group, the gap between the bone fragments was filled with a gelatin sponge soaked in 2 mg of ZA and 0.1 mL of sterile saline. In the SZA group, a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg ZA was administered systemically. After the surgery, there was a 5-day latent waiting period and 10-day distraction phase. Following a 28-day consolidation period, the rats were euthanized and their mandibles were collected. The distracted bone area was seen to be filled with newly regenerated bone tissue in all 3 groups, both histologically and histomorphometrically. In addition, amounts of new bone formation, osteoblast cella, osteoclast (OC) cells, osteopontin, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the SZA and LZA groups were found to be higher when compared with the controls. Furthermore, in the SZA group, new bone formation, osteoblast, OC, osteopontin, and vascular endothelial growth factor were detected in significant amounts compared with the LZA group. Osteoclast numbers did not differ in a statistically significant manner in the SZA group with respect to the LZA group. Based on the results of this study, systemic and local applications of ZA could increase the formation of new bone in patients of DO, and systemic application is a more effective method compared with local application.

  17. Essentiality Weighting Models for Wholesale Level Inventory Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    SO " XT 8D O:: CE SYMBOL 9 PROCJREMENT NSTRUMENT ’DENTIr-CATON NUMBER O0CA " X Za-C -. (if applicable) Bc ADDRESS(City State antd ZIP Code) Ŕ SC CE...MISSION CRITICALITY CODE MATRIX FILE (MCCMF) z::rnieof how the Mission Criticality Code Matriz File (MCCMF) is organized. 88 z C Cal 0 N 4 q > C) u m) C

  18. Computational Predictions of Rear Surface Velocities for Metal Plates under Ballistic Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    homogeneous armor between ALEGRA and ALE3D for d/t = 0.5 ........................................................ 18 Fig. B-1 SESAME and MG EOS models for Al...6061 ............................. 21 Fig. B-2 SESAME and MG EOS models for Ti64 ................................. 22 Fig. B-3 SESAME and MG EOS ...models for Cu ................................... 23 Fig. B-4 Two sets of SESAME EOS parameters for RHA ........................ 24 Fig. C-1 JC and ZA

  19. Onchocerciasis: invasion of deep organs by Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed

    Meyers, W M; Neafie, R C; Connor, D H

    1977-07-01

    Autopsies of two patients with onchocerciasis in the Republic of Zaïre are reported. In one patient elephantiasis who died following diethylcarbamazine therapy there were large numbers of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in the kidney, liver, pancreas, and lung. In the second patient, who also had leprosy and hyperinfection strongyloidiasis, we found an encapsulated adult O. volvulus in the wall of the thoracic aorta.

  20. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-08

    finished also for building a Bulgarian-Soviet association for producing flowers and decorative plants as well as a joint Soviet- Bulgarian scientific...modernization in order to improve their operational reliability, finished textile goods and the output by fully atuomated operation, particularly by...to 12 am. What kind of nonsense is this? They should have been finished with their inventory in 20 minutes. Petr Jufena „Co je to za volovinu