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Sample records for republiky za rok

  1. Characterization of DNA Binding Sites of RokB, a ROK-Family Regulator from Streptomyces coelicolor Reveals the RokB Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Bekiesch, Paulina; Forchhammer, Karl; Apel, Alexander Kristian

    2016-01-01

    ROK-family proteins have been described to act either as sugar kinases or as transcriptional regulators. Few ROK-family regulators have been characterized so far and most of them are involved in carbon catabolite repression. RokB (Sco6115) has originally been identified in a DNA-affinity capturing approach as a possible regulator of the heterologously expressed novobiocin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor M512. Interestingly, both, the rokB deletion mutants as well as its overexpressing mutants showed significantly reduced novobiocin production in the host strain S.coelicolor M512. We identified the DNA-binding site for RokB in the promoter region of the novobiocin biosynthetic genes novH-novW. It overlaps with the novH start codon which may explain the reduction of novobiocin production caused by overexpression of rokB. Bioinformatic screening coupled with surface plasmon resonance based interaction studies resulted in the discovery of five RokB binding sites within the genome of S. coelicolor. Using the genomic binding sites, a consensus motif for RokB was calculated, which differs slightly from previously determined binding motifs for ROK-family regulators. The annotations of the possible members of the so defined RokB regulon gave hints that RokB might be involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. This hypothesis was supported by feeding experiments with casamino acids and L-tyrosine, which could also explain the reduced novobiocin production in the deletion mutants. PMID:27145180

  2. The Balance of the ROK and North Korean Ground Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    the ROK can not deploy troops rear away from front because of North Korean surprise attack. For this situation, what is best for the ROK? The ROK...F-16 fighter’ground attack aircraft. The F-16 is widely regarded as the best airplane of its type in the world. Currently, the F-5 aircraft is the...considered one of the world’s best ground attack aircraft, better than the F-5s. It is fast, powerful, and versa- tile. The ROK is phasing out its F-86F

  3. Description of Axial Detail for ROK Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Trellue, Holly R; Galloway, Jack D

    2012-04-20

    For the purpose of NDA simulations of the ROK fuel assemblies, we have developed an axial burnup distribution to represent the pins themselves based on gamma scans of rods in the G23 assembly. For the purpose of modeling the G23 assembly (both at ORNL and LANL), the pin-by-pin burnup map as simulated by ROK is being assumed to represent the radial burnup distribution. However, both DA and NDA results indicate that this simulated estimate is not 100% correct. In particular, the burnup obtained from the axial gamma scan of 7 pins does not represent exactly the same 'average' pin burnup as the ROK simulation. Correction for this discrepancy is a goal of the well-characterized assembly task but will take time. For now, I have come up with a correlation for 26 axial points of the burnup as obtained by gamma scans of 7 different rods (C13, G01, G02, J11, K10, L02, and M04, neglecting K02 at this time) to the average burnup given by the simulation for each of the rods individually. The resulting fraction in each axial zone is then averaged for the 7 different rods so that it can represent every fuel pin in the assembly. The burnup in each of the 26 axial zones of rods in all ROK assemblies will then be directly adjusted using this fraction, which is given in Table 1. Note that the gamma scan data given by ROK for assembly G23 included a length of {approx}3686 mm, so the first 12 mm and the last 14 mm were ignored to give an actual rod length of {approx}366 cm. To represent assembly F02 in which no pin-by-pin burnup distribution is given by ROK, we must model it using infinitely-reflected geometry but can look at the effects of measuring in different axial zones by using intermediate burnup files (i.e. smaller burnups than 28 GWd/MTU) and determining which axial zone(s) each burnup represents. Details for assembly F02 are then given in Tables 2 and 3, which is given in Table 1 and has 44 total axial zones to represent the top meter in explicit detail in addition to the

  4. U.S.-ROK Frictions: Causes for Anti-Americanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-02

    CUSAWC MILITARY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPER U.S.-ROK FRICTIONS: CAUSES FOR ANTI-AMERICANISM An Individual Study Project Intended for Publication by...Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED U.S.-ROK Frictions: Causes for Anti-Americanism 1Individual Study Project 6 PERFORMING ORG, REPORT NL.IBER 7...and Identify by block number) 20. ASTRACT Cof- fm e m revere., stit Ff nacoeary m a denittr by block number) This study focuses on frictions between

  5. Transfer of Authority: The US-ROK Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-09

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t TRANSFER OF AUTHORITY: THE US-ROK ALLIANCE BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL TERRY A. IVESTER United States...Myong Chol , “Kim Jong-il’s Military-First Policy a Silver Bullet,” Asia Times Online, available at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Korea/IA04Dg02.html

  6. Underwater Explosion (UWE) Analysis of the ROKS Cheonan Incident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Gu; Gitterman, Yefim

    2013-04-01

    The underwater explosion (UWE) resulting in the sinking of the South Korean warship, ROKS Cheonan occurred on March 26 2010. Raw data was analyzed from several 3-component stations—Baengyeong-do Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) station (BAR), Ganghwa KMA station (GAHB), Incheon Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) station (INCN), the short-period station—Deokjeok-do KMA station (DEI), as well as from the seismo-acoustic array Baengyeong-do Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) station (BRDAR). The ROKS Cheonan incident has been investigated by both the Multinational Civilian-Military Joint Investigation Group (Ministry of National Defense, 2010) and Hong (Bull Seism Soc Am 101:1554-1562, 2011). Their respective methods and conclusions are also presented in this study. One of the main differences between their findings and ours is that we deducted that the fundamental bubble frequency was 1.01 Hz with a subsequent oscillation of 1.72 Hz. Also, in contrast to findings by the MCMJIG and Hong, our analysis shows the first reverberation frequency to be 8.5 Hz and the subsequent one to be ≈25 Hz. The TNT-equivalent charge weight (seismic yield) and seismic magnitude were estimated from an observed bubble frequency of 1.01 Hz and the analytical model of a bubble pulse. From the data analyzed, we deducted that the seismic yield would be about 136 kg of TNT, which is equivalent to the individual yield of a large number of land control mines (LCM) which were abandoned in the vicinity of the ROKS Cheonan incident by the Republic of Korea (ROK) Navy in the 1970s (Ministry of National Defense 2010). Also, whereas both the MCMJIG and HONG estimated the local magnitude at 1.5, our findings came to the conclusion of a local magnitude of approximately 2.04 based on the bubble frequency of 1.01 Hz measured on the vertical component of BAR station data considering the empirical relationship between charge weight (TNT yield) and

  7. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc

    PubMed Central

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  8. ROK and Arteriolar Myogenic Tone Generation: Molecular Evidence in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F.; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S.

    2017-01-01

    The myogenic response is an inherent property of resistance arteries that warrants a relatively constant blood flow in response to changes in perfusion pressure and protect delicate organs from vascular insufficiencies and excessive blood flow. This fundamental phenomenon has been extensively studied aiming to elucidate the underlying mechanisms triggering smooth muscle contraction in response to intraluminal pressure elevation, particularly, Rho-associated kinase (ROK)-mediated Ca2+-independent mechanisms. The size of the resistance arteries limits the capacity to examine changes in protein phosphorylation/expression levels associated with ROK signaling. A highly sensitive biochemical detection approach was beneficial in examining the role of ROK in different force generation mechanisms along the course of myogenic constriction. In this mini review, we summarize recent results showing direct evidence for the contribution of ROK in development of myogenic response at the level of mechanotransduction, myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition and dynamic actin cytoskeleton reorganization. We will also present evidence that alterations in ROK signaling could underlie the progressive loss in myogenic response in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28280468

  9. Functional diversification of ROK-family transcriptional regulators of sugar catabolism in the Thermotogae phylum

    PubMed Central

    Kazanov, Marat D.; Li, Xiaoqing; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    Large and functionally heterogeneous families of transcription factors have complex evolutionary histories. What shapes specificities toward effectors and DNA sites in paralogous regulators is a fundamental question in biology. Bacteria from the deep-branching lineage Thermotogae possess multiple paralogs of the repressor, open reading frame, kinase (ROK) family regulators that are characterized by carbohydrate-sensing domains shared with sugar kinases. We applied an integrated genomic approach to study functions and specificities of regulators from this family. A comparative analysis of 11 Thermotogae genomes revealed novel mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the sugar utilization networks, DNA-binding motifs and specific functions. Reconstructed regulons for seven groups of ROK regulators were validated by DNA-binding assays using purified recombinant proteins from the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. All tested regulators demonstrated specific binding to their predicted cognate DNA sites, and this binding was inhibited by specific effectors, mono- or disaccharides from their respective sugar catabolic pathways. By comparing ligand-binding domains of regulators with structurally characterized kinases from the ROK family, we elucidated signature amino acid residues determining sugar-ligand regulator specificity. Observed correlations between signature residues and the sugar-ligand specificities provide the framework for structure functional classification of the entire ROK family. PMID:23209028

  10. A Case Analysis Explaining the Main Factors that Contribute to ROK’s Decision Making in Procurement of Defense Articles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    offset valuation in monetary value early in a program because the ROK does not have an appropriate measurement tool and there is no common model that...value. From the buyer’s point of view, the value is greater because the offset program gives the ROK a chance to acquire intangible assets including...thirteen specific factors were evaluated including Interoperability, Offset valuation , Mission performance capability, Integrated Logistics Support (ILS

  11. Korean Unification and the Future of the U.S.-ROK Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    from December 2012 to April 2015. Key Points ◆◆ Unification of the Korean Peninsula would remove the primary threat that has animated the U.S.–Repub...development.4 By eliminating the central threat that has animated the U.S.-ROK alliance, unification would also give rise to questions about the future...offensive, render a North Korean aggression scenario, while dangerous , relatively remote. Although peaceful unification would be preferred and

  12. The Future of the U.S.-ROK Alliance and the Rise of China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Koreans have forgotten the PRC’s military intervention in the Korean War.17 Sinocentric studies describe the Qing-Chosun tributary system as...philosophy. Will the Chinese and Koreans find commonality from the Chinese classics and relate better with each other? The Sinocentric culture...Philippines. The PRC remains atheistic. The Cold War structure gave a chance for the ROK to remain at a distance from the Sinocentric world while

  13. Conversational Russian in Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Thomas W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews materials relating to Russian speech which have appeared in the journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" since its first issue in 1967. The articles reviewed are divided into three categories: the stylistics of Russian speech, specific conversation expressions, and methodology. (CLK)

  14. Spontaneously tonic smooth muscle has characteristically higher levels of RhoA/ROK compared with the phasic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag A; Rattan, Satish

    2006-11-01

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) tone is important for the rectoanal continence. The RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway has been associated with the agonist-induced sustained contraction of the smooth muscle, but its role in the spontaneously tonic smooth muscle is not known. Present studies compared expression of different components of the RhoA/ROK pathway between the IAS (a truly tonic SM), the rectal smooth muscle (RSM) (a mixture of phasic and tonic), and anococcygeus smooth muscle (ASM) (a purely phasic SM) of rat. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine RhoA, ROCK-II, CPI-17, MYPT1, and myosin light-chain 20 (MLC20). Phosphorylated CPI-17 at threonine-38 residue (p(Thr38)-CPI-17), MYPT1 at threonine-696 residue (p(Thr696)-MYPT1), and MLC20 at threonine-18/serine-19 residues (p(Thr18/Ser19)-MLC20) were also determined in the basal state and after pretreatment with the ROK inhibitor Y 27632. In addition, we compared the effect of Y 27632 on the basal isometric tension and ROK activity in the IAS vs. the RSM. Our data show the highest levels of RhoA, ROCK-II, CPI-17, MLC20, and of phospho-MYPT1, -CPI-17, and -MLC20 in the IAS followed by in the RSM and ASM. Conversely, MYPT1 levels were lowest in the IAS and highest in the ASM. In the IAS, Y 27632 caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tone, levels of phospho-MYPT1, -CPI-17, and -MLC20, and ROK activity. We conclude that RhoA/ROK plays a critical role in the basal tone in the IAS by the inhibition of MLC phosphatase via the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and CPI-17.

  15. A Study of the Tolerance of ROK Air Force Personnel to Gz Centrifugation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-09

    TO +Gz CENTRIFUGATION AaJ. Byung Kook Lee, M.D., Capt. Jung Min Hwang, M.D., Capt. Jong Sang Chois, M.D.7-C-pt. Sang Goo Shin , M.D., Joung K. Park...Centrifugation Aeromedical Research Center Maj., Byung Kook Lee, M.D. Capt., Jung Min Hwang, M.D. Capt., Jong Sang Chois, M.D. Capt., Sang Goo Shin , M.D...DIVISION A STUDY OF THE TOLERANCE OF ROK AIR FORCE PERSONNEL TO+Gz CENTRIFUGATION by Byung Kook Lee, Jung Min Hwang, et al. 0 L..I IA -J Approved for public

  16. Do the Ties Still Bind? The U.S.-ROK Security Relationship After 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    significantly strengthened the analysis. General Kim Dong- Shin (ret.), former ROK Minister of National Defense, also read the draft report and graciously shared...represented an attempt by then–Defense Minister Kim Dong- Shin and Deputy Minister Cha Yong-Koo to explain the history of the alliance to a Korean...Jilted Envoy Back from North,” JoongAng Daily, January 29, 2003 (online edition). 37 Byung -joon Ahn, “South Korea’s Dangerous New Dawn,” The Korea

  17. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za) of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Patrut, Adrian; Patrut, Roxana T.; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A.; von Reden, Karl F.

    2016-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old. PMID:26760300

  18. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za) of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Patrut, Adrian; Patrut, Roxana T; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A; von Reden, Karl F

    2016-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old.

  19. Genetic and biochemical interactions between the bacterial replication initiator DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Seid, Charlotte A; Smith, Janet L; Grossman, Alan D

    2017-03-01

    We identified interactions between the conserved bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok of Bacillus subtilis. DnaA binds directly to clusters of DnaA boxes at the origin of replication and elsewhere, including the promoters of several DnaA-regulated genes. Rok, an analog of H-NS from gamma-proteobacteria that affects chromosome architecture and of Lsr2 from Mycobacteria, binds A+T-rich sequences throughout the genome and represses expression of many genes. Using crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that DnaA was associated with eight previously identified regions containing clusters of DnaA boxes, plus 36 additional regions that were also bound by Rok. Association of DnaA with these additional regions appeared to be indirect as it was dependent on Rok and independent of the DNA-binding domain of DnaA. Gene expression and mutant analyses support a model in which DnaA and Rok cooperate to repress transcription of yxaJ, the yybNM operon and the sunA-bdbB operon. Our results indicate that DnaA modulates the activity of Rok. We postulate that this interaction might affect nucleoid architecture. Furthermore, DnaA might interact similarly with Rok analogues in other organisms.

  20. A Metafunctional Analysis of the News "ROK, DPRK Agree to Defuse Tension after Talks" on China Daily

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the three metafunctions in Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL): experiential, interpersonal and textual, the paper makes an analysis of the current news "ROK, DPRK Agree to Defuse Tension after Talks" on China Daily. The paper finds out that the political news has unique features in terms of experiential, interpersonal…

  1. Characterization of the RokA and HexA broad-substrate-specificity hexokinases from Bacteroides fragilis and their role in hexose and N-acetylglucosamine utilization.

    PubMed

    Brigham, Christopher J; Malamy, Michael H

    2005-02-01

    Bacteroides fragilis, a human gastrointestinal commensal and an opportunistic pathogen, utilizes simple and complex sugars and polysaccharides for growth in the large intestine and at sites of infection. Because B. fragilis lacks transport-linked sugar phosphorylation systems, cytoplasmic kinase(s) was expected to be required for the phosphorylation of hexoses and hexosamines. We have now identified two hexose kinases that are important for growth of B. fragilis on glucose, mannose, and other sugars. One kinase (RokA), a member of the ROK family of proteins, was found to be the sole kinase for activation of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG). The other kinase (HexA) is responsible for the majority of the glucose kinase activity in the cell, although a hexA deletion mutant strain was not defective for growth on any substrate tested. Deletion of both the rokA and hexA kinase genes resulted in inability of the cell to use glucose, mannose, NAG, and many other sugars. We purified RokA and determined its approximate molecular mass to be 36.5 kDa. The purified RokA protein was shown to phosphorylate several substrates, including glucose, NAG, and mannose, but not N-acetylmannosamine or N-acetylneuraminic acid. Phylogenetic analysis of RokA showed that it is most similar to kinases from the Cytophaga-Flavibacterium-Bacteroides group, while HexA was most similar to other bacterial hexokinases and eukaryotic hexokinases.

  2. Report on the Second KIMS-CNA Conference: The PLA Navys Build-Up and ROK-USN Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    0900-0920 Welcome and Opening Remarks by Co-Host: ADM(ret) Byoung-Tae An, President, KIMS, Dr. Thomas A. Bowditch ...Moderator: Dr. Thomas A. Bowditch , Manager and Research Team Leader, CNA Paper1: China’s Maritime Strategy & Development Prospects - Mr...Seoul Paper3: Dr. Thomas A. Bowditch , Manager and Research Team Leader, CNA 1200-1320 Luncheon 1325-1450 Panel Two: PLA Navy and ROK

  3. Roles and Missions for ROK and U.S. Combined Marine Corps Forces in a New Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    time that Korea could do everything without any cooperation, even in defense and security requirements. hl the military aspect, the ROK and U.S. had...an effect on the security situation on the Korean Peninsula. The policy of reconciliation, coordinated by South Korea , and the open/reform policy by...NOlih Korea will be seen on the Korean Peninsula. The unexpected situation would be predicted on the relationship between the 3

  4. A Review of the R.O.K. Decision to Coassemble F-5E/F Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    DECISION TO COASSEM3LE F-5E/F AIRCRAFT.. ’( A\\~ THESIS ’ ./AFIT/GSfl/SM/80M-j/ou, Kun Woo -.- trc ROKAF IJ 3 1930) 80 5 066 ~. AFIT/GSM/SM/80M-16 A...REVIEW OF THE R.O.K. DECISION TO COASSEMBLE r-5E/F AIRCRAFT THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of...potential problem areas and makes recommendations for solutions. CHAVIFP I I NIROUtICT I ON Background Security assistance (S.A.) has been a major

  5. Structural studies of ROK fructokinase YdhR from Bacillus subtilis : insights into substrate binding and fructose specificity.

    SciTech Connect

    Nocek, B.; Stein, A.; Jedrzejczak, R.; Cuff, M.; Li, H.; Volkart, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division

    2011-02-18

    The main pathway of bacterial sugar phosphorylation utilizes specific phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) enzymes. In addition to the classic PTS system, a PTS-independent secondary system has been described in which nucleotide-dependent sugar kinases are used for monosaccharide phosphorylation. Fructokinase (FK), which phosphorylates d-fructose with ATP as a cofactor, has been shown to be a member of this secondary system. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that FK is a member of the 'ROK' (bacterial Repressors, uncharacterized Open reading frames, and sugar Kinases) sequence family. In this study, we report the crystal structures of ROK FK from Bacillus subtilis (YdhR) (a) apo and in the presence of (b) ADP and (c) ADP/d-fructose. All structures show that YdhR is a homodimer with a monomer composed of two similar {alpha}/{beta} domains forming a large cleft between domains that bind ADP and d-fructose. Enzymatic activity assays support YdhR function as an ATP-dependent fructose kinase.

  6. The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Nelson, B. A.; Crawford, E. A.; Forbes, E. T.; den Hartog, D. J.; Holly, D. J.; Nagata, M.

    2000-10-01

    Linear analysis shows that a sheared axial plasma flow can stabilize the m=1 kink instability in Z-pinches. This threshold value of flow shear can be satisfied with a peak flow velocity which is less than the Alfven speed for wavelengths typically seen in Z-pinch plasmas. Nonlinear simulations support the stabilizing effect. The ZaP>ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project seeks to experimentally verify this theory by generating Z-pinch plasmas with an inherent axial flow. The experiment produces Z-pinch plasmas which are 50 cm in length by initiating the plasma with a one meter coaxial gun. The coaxial gun generates the axial plasma flows. After leaving the coaxial gun the plasma assembles along the axis to form a flow Z-pinch. Magnetic probes measure the acceleration and assembly process, as well as, the evolution of the azimuthal mode fluctuation level. Axial flow profiles are determined by measurements of the Doppler shifts of impurity lines. Time-dependent density measurements are made using a laser interferometer. Gross plasma motion is determined by using a fast framing camera to detect visible emission. Recent results show a period of diminished fluctuation level when the plasma flow velocity is large. An overview of the experimental program and results will be presented.

  7. The RhoA-Rok-Myosin II Pathway is Involved in Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Regulation of Prolactin Signaling in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jyun-Yi; Chen, Meng-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Wang, Jen-Hsing; Brackenbury, Lisa; Lin, Ting-Hui; Wu, Yi-Ying; Yang, Zhihong; Streuli, Charles H; Lee, Yi-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In mammary epithelial cells (MECs), prolactin-induced signaling and gene expression requires integrin-mediated cell adhesion to basement membrane (BM). In the absence of proper cell–BM interactions, for example, culturing cells on collagen-coated plastic dishes, signal propagation is substantially impaired. Here we demonstrate that the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway accounts for the ineffectiveness of prolactin signaling in MECs cultured on collagen I. Under these culture conditions, the RhoA pathway is activated, leading to downregulation of prolactin receptor expression and reduced prolactin signaling. Enforced activation of RhoA in MECs cultured on BM suppresses prolactin receptor levels, and prevents prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and β-casein expression. Overexpression of dominant negative RhoA in MECs cultured on collagen I, or inhibiting Rok activity, increases prolactin receptor expression, and enhances prolactin signaling. In addition, inhibition of myosin II ATPase activity by blebbistatin also exerts a beneficial effect on prolactin receptor expression and prolactin signaling, suggesting that tension exerted by the collagen substratum, in collaboration with the RhoA-Rok-myosin II pathway, contributes to the failure of prolactin signaling. Furthermore, MECs cultured on laminin-coated plastic have similar morphology and response to prolactin as those cultured on collagen I. They display high levels of RhoA activity and are inefficient in prolactin signaling, stressing the importance of matrix stiffness in signal transduction. Our results reveal that RhoA has a central role in determining the fate decisions of MECs in response to cell–matrix interactions. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 1553–1560, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21678418

  8. Probing the infiltrating character of brain tumors: inhibition of RhoA/ROK-mediated CD44 cell surface shedding from glioma cells by the green tea catechin EGCg.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Borhane; Bouzeghrane, Mounia; Moumdjian, Robert; Moghrabi, Albert; Béliveau, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Glioma cell-surface binding to hyaluronan (HA), a major constituent of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, is regulated through a complex membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)/CD44/caveolin interaction that takes place at the leading edges of invading cells. In the present study, intracellular transduction pathways required for the HA-mediated recognition by infiltrating glioma cells in brain was investigated. We show that the overexpression of the GTPase RhoA up-regulated MT1-MMP expression and triggered CD44 shedding from the U-87 glioma cell surface. This potential implication in cerebral metastatic processes was also observed in cells overexpressing the full-length recombinant MT1-MMP, while the overexpression of a cytoplasmic domain truncated from of MT1-MMP failed to do so. This suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP transduces intracellular signaling leading to RhoA-mediated CD44 shedding. Treatment of glioma cells with the Rho-kinase (ROK) inhibitor Y27632, or with EGCg, a green tea catechin with anti-MMP and anti-angiogenesis activities, antagonized both RhoA- and MT1-MMP-induced CD44 shedding. Conversely, overexpression of recombinant ROK stimulated CD44 release. Taken together, our results suggest that RhoA/ROK intracellular signaling regulates MT1-MMP-mediated CD44 recognition of HA. These molecular processes may partly explain the diffuse brain-infiltrating character of glioma cells within the surrounding parenchyma and thus be a target for new approaches to anti-tumor therapy.

  9. [Collation between Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang and Xin Xiu Ben Cao].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Jiang, Li-Sheng; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-10-01

    To analyze specific content of Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang, this essay compares its content with related content of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, finding that Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang is derived from the part of Jin An of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, which complements with herbal chapters from volume II to IV of Qian Jin Yi Fang. The texts in Za Liao can verify and collate part of Jin An, and thereby showing important literature value and great help for further studies on traditional Chinese medicines of Tang dynasty.

  10. Microstructure and Tensile Behaviour of B4C Reinforced ZA43 Alloy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaveesh, B.; Halesh, G. M.; Nagaral, Madeva; Mohan Kumar, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    The work is carried out to investigate and study the mechanical properties of B4C reinforced ZA43 alloy metal matrix composites. In the present work ZA43 alloy is taken as the base matrix and B4C particulates as reinforcement material to prepare metal matrix composites by stir casting method. For metal matrix composites the reinforcement material was varied from 0 to 6 wt.% in steps of 3 wt.%. For each composite, the reinforcement particulates were preheated to a temperature of 300°C and dispersed into a vortex of molten ZA43 alloy. The microstructural characterization was done using scanning electron microscope. Mechanical properties like hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength were evaluated as per ASTM standards. Further, scanning electron microphotographs revealed that there was uniform distribution of B4C particulates in ZA43 alloy matrix. Hardness, ultimate tensile strength and yield strength increased as wt.% of B4C increased in the base matrix.

  11. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Johnson, Matthew C; Dattolo, Maria D; Young-Erdos, Crystal L; Stroupe, M Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed "helicases," their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked.

  12. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Dattolo, Maria D.; Young-Erdos, Crystal L.; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed “helicases,” their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked. PMID:27280440

  13. Why Baby Why: Howard Broomfield's Documentation of the Dunne-za Soundscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridington, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Examines the acoustic environment and aural culture of the Dunne-za of northeastern British Columbia. Discusses the changing soundscape of a northern hunting people, techniques for recording and cataloging an ethnographic soundscape archive, and the use of audio actualities in producing ethnographic audio documentaries. (Author/SV)

  14. Sedimentation survey of Lago Loíza, Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, July 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Licha-Soler, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Loíza is a reservoir formed at the confluence of Río Gurabo and Río Grande de Loíza in the municipality of Trujillo Alto in central Puerto Rico, about 10 kilometers (km) north of the town of Caguas, about 9 km northwest of Gurabo, and about 3 km south of Trujillo Alto (fig. 1). The Carraizo Dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1953 as a water-supply reservoir for the San Juan Metropolitan area. The dam is a concrete gravity structure that is located in a shallow valley and has a gently sloping left abutment and steep right abutment. Non-overflow sections flank the spillway section. Waterways include an intake structure for the pumping station and power plant, sluiceways, a trash sluice, and a spillway. The reservoir was built to provide a storage capacity of 26.8 million cubic meters (Mm3) of water at the maximum pool elevation of 41.14 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl) for the Sergio Cuevas Filtration Plant that serves the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir has a drainage area of 538 square kilometers (km2) and receives an annual mean rainfall that ranges from 1,600 to 5,000 millimeters per year (mm/yr). The principal streams that drain into Lago Loíza are the Río Grande de Loíza, Río Gurabo, and Río Cañas. Two other rivers, the Río Bairoa and Río Cagüitas, discharge into the Río Grande de Loíza just before it enters the reservoir. The combined mean annual runoff of the Río Grande de Loíza and the Río Gurabo for the 1960–2009 period of record is 323 Mm3. Flow from these streams constitutes about 89 percent of the total mean annual inflow of 364 Mm3 to the reservoir (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009). Detailed information about Lago Loíza reservoir structures, historical sediment accumulation, and a dredge conducted in 1999 are available in Soler-López and Gómez-Gómez (2005). During July 8–15, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science

  15. The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, Uri; Nelson, Brian A.

    2013-12-31

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Project is a project to extend the performance of the flow Z-pinch experiment at the University of Washington to investigate and isolate the relevant physics of the stabilizing effect of plasma flow. Experimental plasmas have exhibited an enhanced stability under certain operating parameters which generate a flow state (axial flows in Z-pinches and VH mode in tokamaks). Flow has also been suggested as the stabilizing mechanism in astrophysical jets.

  16. Effects on asylum seekers of ill treatment in Zaïre.

    PubMed Central

    Peel, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    To describe the health effects of the political system in Zaïre on asylum seekers seen at the Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture a retrospective study was performed of the records of 92 asylum seekers from Zaïre who were seen for medical reports at the medical foundation in 1993 and 1994. Eighty one had been imprisoned; the others had been severely treated at home by the security services. Sixty six had been detained for up to one year. Prison conditions were invariably unsanitary, and food of poor quality when provided. All had been beaten on arrest, and all but two had been beaten repeatedly in prison. Nearly all the women and some of the men described sexual abuse. Almost all left prison through bribery or because a guard had a similar background. Seventy two asylum seekers had scarring, consider to be consistent with the history, and 70 were considered to have suffered persistent psychological damage. Asylum seekers from Zaïre will have health effects from experiences unimaginable to the ordinary Briton. An understanding of the background will help clinicians manage them. PMID:8611788

  17. [The life and work of Zaíra Cintra Vidal].

    PubMed

    Lopes, G T; Caldas, N P; Lima, T C; Martingil, I C

    2001-01-01

    This is a social-historical study that aims at describing the trajectory of Zaíra Cintra Vidal, her participation in the Nursing School Rachel Haddock Lobo and in the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). The study is based on the concepts of symbolic power, habitus and symbolic struggle of Pierre Bourdieu. The primary sources are documents which were collected in the Documentation Center of Escola de Enfermagem Ana Neri (EEAN--Ana Neri School of Nursing) in the Federeal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and at the Memory Center of the Faculty of Nursing (FENF) in the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). The data was collected between August 2000 and April 2001 by means of document analysis script. The outcomes showed that Zaíra Cintra Vidal was born on 5 May 1903; graduated from the Nursing School of the National Public Health Department in 1926; studied and post-graduated in the United States from 1927 until 1929 and returned to Brazil in 1943. Zaíra Cintra Vidal was the founder of the Nursing School Rachel Haddock Lobo and was its first director for nine years. She also and took part in ABEn's Direction Board and in the Revista Anais de Enfermagem (Nursing Magazine).

  18. Pak4 Is Required during Epithelial Polarity Remodeling through Regulating AJ Stability and Bazooka Retention at the ZA

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Rhian F.; Nunes de Almeida, Francisca; Vlassaks, Evi; Burden, Jemima J.; Pichaud, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of epithelial cells to assemble into sheets relies on their zonula adherens (ZA), a circumferential belt of adherens junction (AJ) material, which can be remodeled during development to shape organs. Here, we show that during ZA remodeling in a model neuroepithelial cell, the Cdc42 effector P21-activated kinase 4 (Pak4/Mbt) regulates AJ morphogenesis and stability through β-catenin (β-cat/Arm) phosphorylation. We find that β-catenin phosphorylation by Mbt, and associated AJ morphogenesis, is needed for the retention of the apical determinant Par3/Bazooka at the remodeling ZA. Importantly, this retention mechanism functions together with Par1-dependent lateral exclusion of Par3/Bazooka to regulate apical membrane differentiation. Our results reveal an important functional link between Pak4, AJ material morphogenesis, and polarity remodeling during organogenesis downstream of Par3. PMID:27052178

  19. Effect of molybdenum addition to ZA22 grain refined by titanium in the cast and after pressing by ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Adnan I. O.; Al-Hunetti, N. S.; Eyal-Awwad, K. Y. S.

    2016-08-01

    Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing many industrial and engineering parts due to their attractive properties. The ZA22 has the extra advantage of possessing super plastic behavior within the temperature range from 350 to 375°C. The equal channel angular pressing, ECAP is a relatively recent manufacturing process by which heavy plastic deformation can be produced in materials resulting in grain refinement of its microstructure. It is, therefore, anticipated that if the ECAP process is applied to the ZA22 alloy after being grain refined by certain grain refiners may produce super plastic behavior in this alloy at room temperature, by this eliminating the heating process and its costs, hence widening its applications rendering it to be cost effective. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition at a rate of 0.1 % wt. to ZA22 grain refined by Ti on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after applying the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of Mo to ZA22 either in the nonrefined or the refined by Ti resulted in refining its structure being more refined in the latter. The ECAP process resulted in further refinement of its structure of the ZA22-Ti, ZA22-Mo and the ZA22-Ti-Mo alloys. Regarding the mechanical behavior, it was found that addition of Mo to ZA22 resulted in pronounced reduction of its mechanical strength presented by the following values of the flow stress at 20% strain: from 451 MPa to 346 MPa, whereas pronounced increase in case of Ti addition i.e. by 22.22% and only increase of 1.1% when Mo is added in the presence of Ti. However the Vickers hardness HV was increased by 5% in case of Ti addition and 2.5% increase in case of Mo addition. Finally it was concluded that super plastic behavior was obtained at room temperature by the addition of Mo and the ECAP process.

  20. The generalized Uhlenbeck-Goudsmit hypothesis: 'magnetic' Sa and 'electric' Za spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezić, Tomislav

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, the connection between the dipole moment tensor Dab and the spin four-tensor Sab is formulated in the form of the generalized Uhlenbeck-Goudsmit hypothesis, Dab=gSSab. It is also found that the spin four-tensor Sab can be decomposed into two 4-vectors, the usual 'space-space' intrinsic angular momentum Sa, which will be called 'magnetic' spin (mspin), and a new one, the 'time-space' intrinsic angular momentum Za, which will be called 'electric' spin (espin). Both spins are equally good physical quantities. Taking into account the generalized Uhlenbeck-Goudsmit hypothesis, the decomposition of Sab and the decomposition of Dab into the dipole moments ma and da, we find that an electric dipole moment (EDM) of a fundamental particle, as a four-dimensional (4D) geometric quantity, is determined by Za and not, as generally accepted, by the spin S as a 3-vector. Also it is shown that neither the T inversion nor the P inversion are good symmetries in the 4D spacetime. In this geometric approach, only the world parity W, Wxa=- xa, is well defined in the 4D spacetime. Some consequences for elementary particle theories and experiments that search for EDM are briefly discussed. Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality. H Minkowski

  1. Influence of Refiner in ZA-12 Alloys During Centrifugal Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Shailesh, Rao A.; Jagath, M. C.; Channakeshavalu, K.

    2014-05-01

    The behavior of the molten melt plays a predominant role in determining the quality cast product. In continuous casting, addition of refiner 1% (Al+Ti+B2) onto the molten metal increases its mechanical properties as a result of the nucleation within the process. In this article, the effect of refiners in the centrifugal casting process was studied. Eutectic ZA-12 alloys were taken for our experiment and cast at various rotational speeds (400 rpm, 600 rpm, and 800 rpm) with and without the addition of refiners. Rather than increase in the solidification rate as in continuous casting, these refiners diminish the solidification rate, which in turn forms an irregular-shaped cast tube. The microstructure and hardness for the entire cast specimen were discussed finally.

  2. Effect of Ce melt treatment on solidification path of ZA8 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, R.; Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    The solidification path of ZA8 alloy with Ce addition was characterized using Newtonian technique of thermal analysis. The solidification events were determined using cooling curve and its first derivative curve. The microstructure and chemical composition of various phases in the alloy were studied using EDS, SEM and XRD techniques. It was found that the addition of Ce did not cause formation of new phases. However, it hinders the nucleation of stable β dendrites in the alloy. The presence of Ce promotes the eutectoid phase transformation and increases the hardness of the alloy. Latent heat of solidification and heat of eutectoid transformation were found to increase on Ce addition. The upward solidification of the alloy against Cu chill was analysed. Chilling had significant influence on solidification parameters, and caused refinement of the microstructure. The addition of Ce to the melt had no effect during chill casting of the alloy.

  3. Investigating plasma viscosity with fast framing photography in the ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weed, Jonathan Robert

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch experiment investigates the stabilizing effect of sheared axial flows while scaling toward a high-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP > 100 GPa). Stabilizing flows may persist until viscous forces dissipate a sheared flow profile. Plasma viscosity is investigated by measuring scale lengths in turbulence intentionally introduced in the plasma flow. A boron nitride turbulence-tripping probe excites small scale length turbulence in the plasma, and fast framing optical cameras are used to study time-evolved turbulent structures and viscous dissipation. A Hadland Imacon 790 fast framing camera is modified for digital image capture, but features insufficient resolution to study turbulent structures. A Shimadzu HPV-X camera captures the evolution of turbulent structures with great spatial and temporal resolution, but is unable to resolve the anticipated Kolmogorov scale in ZaP-HD as predicted by a simplified pinch model.

  4. Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Flyash Reinforced ZA-27 Alloy Based Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Krishna, M.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the wear rate of ZA-27 alloy composites reinforced with fly ash particles from 1 to 3 wt% in steps of 1 wt%. The compo-casting method has been used to fabricate the composites using Raichur fly ash of average size 3-5 microns. The wear specimens are tested under dry conditions using a pin-on-disc sliding wear testing machine with wear loads of 20-120 N in steps of 20 N, and the sliding distances in the range of 0.5 km to 2.5 km. The results indicate that the wear rate of the composites is less than that of the matrix alloy and it further decreases with the increase in fly ash content. However, the material loss in terms of wear rate and wear volume increases with the increase in load and sliding distance, both in the cases of composites and the matrix alloy. An increase in the applied load increases the wear severity by changing the wear mechanism from abrasion to particle-cracking induced delamination wear. It is found that with the increase in fly ash content, the wear resistance increases monotonically. The observations have been explained using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surfaces of the composites.

  5. Hot Deformation Behavior and Intrinsic Workability of Carbon Nanotube-Aluminum Reinforced ZA27 Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Geng, Cong; Zhu, Yunke; Peng, Jinfeng; Xu, Junrui

    2017-03-01

    Using a controlled thermal simulator system, hybrid carbon nanotube-aluminum reinforced ZA27 composites were subjected to hot compression testing in the temperature range of 473-523 K with strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. Based on experimental results, a developed-flow stress model was established using a constitutive equation coupled with strain to describe strain softening arising from dynamic recrystallization. The intrinsic workability was further investigated by constructing three-dimensional (3D) processing maps aided by optical observations of microstructures. The 3D processing maps were constructed based on a dynamic model of materials to delineate variations in the efficiency of power dissipation and flow instability domains. The instability domains exhibited adiabatic shear band and flow localization, which need to be prevented during hot processing. The recommended domain is predicated to be within the temperature range 550-590 K and strain rate range 0.01-0.35 s-1. In this state, the main softening mechanism is dynamic recrystallization. The results from processing maps agree well with the microstructure observations.

  6. ROK Military Policy Recommendations Toward North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    though the South Korean Navy won the battle in the Yellow Sea, Kim Dae-Jung fired the fleet commander, Admiral Park Jung- seung , because North Korea...during the administration of President Kim Dae-jung and continued for 10 years through the Roh Moo-hyun Administration. This unilateral policy was based...changed during the administration of President Kim Dae-jung and continued for 10 years through the Roh Moo-hyun Administration. This unilateral policy

  7. Assessing Global Transcriptome Changes in Response to South African Cassava Mosaic Virus [ZA-99] Infection in Susceptible Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Erica J.; Rey, M. E. Chrissie

    2013-01-01

    In susceptible plant hosts, co-evolution has favoured viral strategies to evade host defenses and utilize resources to their own benefit. The degree of manipulation of host gene expression is dependent on host-virus specificity and certain abiotic factors. In order to gain insight into global transcriptome changes for a geminivirus pathosystem, South African cassava mosaic virus [ZA:99] and Arabidopsis thaliana, 4×44K Agilent microarrays were adopted. After normalization, a log2 fold change filtering of data (p<0.05) identified 1,743 differentially expressed genes in apical leaf tissue. A significant increase in differential gene expression over time correlated with an increase in SACMV accumulation, as virus copies were 5-fold higher at 24 dpi and 6-fold higher at 36 dpi than at 14 dpi. Many altered transcripts were primarily involved in stress and defense responses, phytohormone signalling pathways, cellular transport, cell-cycle regulation, transcription, oxidation-reduction, and other metabolic processes. Only forty-one genes (2.3%) were shown to be continuously expressed across the infection period, indicating that the majority of genes were transient and unique to a particular time point during infection. A significant number of pathogen-responsive genes were suppressed during the late stages of pathogenesis, while during active systemic infection (14 to 24 dpi), there was an increase in up-regulated genes in several GO functional categories. An adaptive response was initiated to divert energy from growth-related processes to defense, leading to disruption of normal biological host processes. Similarities in cell-cycle regulation correlated between SACMV and Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV), but differences were also evident. Differences in gene expression between the two geminiviruses clearly demonstrated that, while some global transcriptome responses are generally common in plant virus infections, temporal host-specific interactions are required for

  8. Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi Region (République du Zaïre).

    PubMed

    Casimir, M J

    1975-01-01

    An eastern gorilla group of the Mt. Kahuzi region (République du Zaïre) was studied over 15 months. Its migration route was determined, and the various biotopes it visited are described. A record was made of its main food plants, and of the plant parts eaten. For nine important food plants the protein content, the concentration of the individual amino acids and the water content were measured for the plant parts eaten and for those not eaten. For some of these plant parts the Na, K, Ca and Mg content were also determined. No general correlation between food selection and one or several of these factors could be found. The development and value of a traditionally determined mixed diet is discussed.

  9. Characterization of a Novel Fibrinolytic Enzyme, BsfA, from Bacillus subtilis ZA400 in Kimchi Reveals Its Pertinence to Thrombosis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Min-Ju; Ku, Hye-Jin; Lee, Se-Hui; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2015-12-28

    Recently, the cardiovascular disease has been widely problematic in humans probably due to fibrin formation via the unbalanced Western style diet. Although direct (human plasmin) and indirect methods (plasminogen activators) have been available, bacterial enzyme methods have been studied because of their cheap and mass production. To detect a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme, 111 bacterial strains with fibrinolytic activity were selected from kimchi. Among them, 14 strains were selected because of their stronger activity than 0.02 U of plasmin. Their 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Bacillus, Leuconostoc, Propionibacterium, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Bifidobacterium. The strain B. subtilis ZA400, with the highest fibrinolytic activity, was selected and the gene encoding fibrinolytic enzyme (bsfA) was cloned and expressed in the E. coli overexpression system. The purified enzyme was analyzed with SDS-PAGE, western blot, and MALDI-TOF analyses, showing to be 28.4 kDa. Subsequently, the BsfA was characterized to be stable under various stress conditions such as temperature (4-40°C), metal ions (Mn(2+), Ca(2+), K(2+), and Mg(2+)), and inhibitors (EDTA and SDS), suggesting that BsfA could be a good candidate for development of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme for thrombosis treatment and may even be useful as a new bacterial starter for manufacturing functional fermented foods.

  10. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials.

  11. Centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc alloy and composite A356/silicon carbide: Study and modeling of phases' and particles' segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balout, Bahaa

    Centrifugation is a casting technology that allows the production of cylindrical and graduated parts with different mechanical properties through the section. The need for materials with good quality and specific mechanical properties has been driven this technology in order to produce different types of materials such as zinc alloys and graduated metal matrix composites reinforced by hard and wear resistant particles. The goal of this research project is to study and model the eutectic macrosegregation, the solidification speed, and the speeds of solidification fronts during centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc-aluminum alloy in order to improve the part quality and increase its strength and field reliability. Moreover, the segregation of the particles during centrifugal casting of an aluminum matrix composite reinforced by silicon carbide particles (A356/SiC) is also studied to improve and control the graduation of the parts. The cooling rate, the speed, acceleration/deceleration, displacement, and segregation of the particles across the section will be modeled by discretization of Stokes' law in time in order to take into consideration the change in the centrifugal radius and melt viscosity during cooling process. This study will allow the control of the graduation degree of particles across the section in order to improve the properties and wear resistance of the composite. This composite can be used in systems where friction is critical and load is high (reinforcements of parts for the cylinders of pneumatic systems). The results show that the maximum macrosegregation zone of the eutectic across the casting section corresponds to the last point of solidification. The eutectic macrosegregation produced during centrifugal casting of thin walled part is a normal segregation which varies depending on the solidification speed and the ratio between the speeds of solidification fronts. On the other hand, it was found that the position and volume fraction of the particles

  12. The Balancer Policy Reviewed from the Perspective of the ROK-U.S. Alliance: Toward a Mature ROK-U.S. Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    constituencies. See Dr. William Perry, “Comprehensive Commenting Remarks,” Alliance Tomorrow Workshop Proceedings, GFRS, December 6, 1998. 83 Kim Dong- shin ...arisen since the end of the Cold War if it is to become more than the simple 86 Kim Byung -kook, “The U.S...wung, “Recent Anti- Americanism in South Korea,” Asian Survey 29, no. 3 (1989): 749–63; Shin Gi-wook, “South Korean Anti-Americanism: A Comparative

  13. Zakon za srednoto obrazovanie (Secondary Education Act).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the Macedonian Secondary Education Act of 1970. Secondary Education is an integral part of the consolidated system of education and training. All citizens have an equal right to acquire the knowledge and skills they need in any type of secondary level institution.…

  14. Oo-Za-We-Kwun Centre Incorporated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, P. R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Centre is described as being designed to help native people participate more effectively in a modern Canadian environment. The residential family program includes a five-week Life Skills course followed by a two-year transfer of learning period during which counseling, paid employment, and community activities are available. (Author/MS)

  15. Workshop Report: The Future of ROK Navy-US Navy Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0605154N 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER R0148 McDevitt, Michael 50. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) S . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Center for Naval Analyses REPORT NUMBER 4825 Mark Center Drive DOO16788.A l Alexandria, VA...22311 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESSES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) US Fleet Forces Command 1562 Mitscher Ave Norfolk VA 23551

  16. ROK-U.S. Security Relations: The China Factor and a Turning Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    the unified Silla kingdom, China established the traditional priorities of its Korea policy based on sinocentrism . First, China wanted to maintain...the status quo in the Korean peninsula under the sinocentric tributary system. In other words, China wanted a stable Korean regime that was...friendly but not strong enough to challenge the sinocentric order. Second, China tried to sustain its dominance on the Korean peninsula. While China

  17. The 2015 Transition of Wartime Operational Control: A Threat or Opportunity for the ROK /US Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    effects in regional stability. In other words, as Matthew J. Jordan pointed out, multilateral efforts will complement and not supplant established...operations. 46Matthew J. Jordan , “Multilateralism in North East Asia” (Master’s Naval War College...dismantling DPRK’s nuclear program. The impetus for these talks emerged in 2003 when the DPRK revealed its uranium enrichment program. This enrichment

  18. ROK (Republic of Korea)-US (United States) Military Relations: Transition of Defense Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-23

    Korea," The Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 41, No. 1, Summer/Fall 1987, p. 82. 22. Kwang Soo Choi , "The Situation on the Korean Peninsula and in...Daily Report, East Asia, (herein refered to as FBIS-EAS), 3 January 1989, p. 31. Original source KYONGHYANG SINMUN, 1 January 1989, p. 10. 39. Suk Bok Lee

  19. Application of Multidimensional Data Visualization by Means of Self-Organizing Kohonen Maps to Evaluate Classification Possibilities of Various Coal Types / Zastosowanie Wizualizacji Wielowymiarowych Danych Za Pomocą Sieci Kohonena Do Oceny Możliwości Klasyfikacji Różnych Typów Węgla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Dariusz; Niedoba, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Multidimensional data visualization methods are a modern tool allowing to classify some analysed objects. In the case of grained materials e.g. coal, many characteristics have an influence on the material quality. The paper presents the possibility of applying visualization techniques for coal type identification and determination of significant differences between various types of coal. To achieve this purpose, the method of Kohonen maps was applied by means of which three types of coal - 31, 34.2 and 35 (according to Polish classification of coal types) were investigated. It was stated that the applied methodology allows to identify certain coal types efficiently and can be used as a qualitative criterion for grained materials. Metody wizualizacji wielowymiarowych danych są nowoczesnym narzędziem umożliwającym klasyfikację analizowanych obiektów, którymi mogą być różnego typu dane opisujące wybrane zjawisko lub materiał. W przypadku materiałów uziarnionych, jakim jest np. węgiel, wiele cech ma wpływ na jakość materiału, tj. np. gęstość, wielkość ziaren, ciepło spalania, zawartość popiołu, zawartość siarki itp. Na potrzeby artykułu przeprowadzono rozdział węgli z trzech wybranych kopalni węgla kamiennego, zlokalizowanych w Górnośląskim Okręgu Przemysłowym. Każda z tych kopalni pracuje na innego typu węglu. W tym przypadku były to węgle o typach 31, 34.2 oraz 35 (według polskiej klasyfikacji typów węgla). Najpierw, materiał został podzielony na klasy ziarnowe a następnie za pomocą rozdziale w cieczy ciężkiej (roztwór chlorku cynku) na frakcje gęstościowe. Dla tak przygotowanego materiału przeprowadzono następnie analizy chemiczne mające na celu określenie takich parametrów, jak zawartość siarki, zawartość popiołu, zawartość części lotnych, ciepło spalania oraz wilgotność analityczną. W ten sposób, dla każdej klaso-frakcji uzyskano bogate charakterystyki badanego

  20. US-ROK Action Sheet 34: Safeguards Application of a Hand-held Mechanically Cooled Germanium Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, J.; Burks, M.; Ham, Y.; Kwak, S.

    2015-10-20

    This report summarizes results of Action Sheet 34 - for the cooperative efforts on the field testing and evaluation of a high-resolution, hand-held, gamma-ray spectrometer, known as SPG (Spectroscopic Planar Germanium), for safeguards application such as short notice inspections, UF6 analysis, enrichment determination, and other potential applications. The Spectroscopic Planar Germanium (SPG) has been demonstrated IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) in South Korea. This field test was a success and the feedback provided by KINAC, IAEA, and national laboratory staff was used to direct efforts to improve the instrument this year. Key points in this report include measurement results from PIV, analysis of spectra with commercially available Ortec U235 and PC-FRAM, and completion of tripod and tungsten collimator and integration of user feedback.

  1. 77 FR 36031 - ROK Entertainment Group, Inc., RussOil Corp., Tricell, Inc., Tunex International, Inc. (n/k/a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Dental International Group, Inc.), and Wireless Age Communications, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... securities of Wireless Age Communications, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  2. Chinae, ROK AFS K-10, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-10

    98.5 99.3 99.5 99.: 99. 99. 99. ICO.0100.൒C. 100." TOTAL NUMNI Of O8SUEVATIONS 1 3 C 2 USAF ETAC ULM4 0 14 5 (OL I) PREVIOUS EOTIONS OF THIS OFORM...99.9 00.100.0100.0100.0100.0100. TOTAL NUMBIR OF OBSERVATIONS 990 USAF ETAC jUL 0-14- 5 (OL I) PEVOUS EoTIONS Of TIS FORoM ARE OBSOLETE ,+ERAA CATA

  3. Hoengsong, ROK AFS K46, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-10

    PREvIous EOTIONS 0F T.,S FOrAM ARE O0S0LETE I USA ITA j’ot+ ,,45O )PEIUSEIIN fT4S OMAE01O EATA PRCCESSING CIVISICN 2 tAC, USAF CEILING VERSUS...USAF ETAC ULU 0-14-5 (OL I) PREVIOUS EOTION $OFTHSFORM AREOBSOLETE CATA PRUCESSI.G CIVISICN ETAC, USAF AS ’LVILLE* N. C. ?5C1 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY...NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 12ŝ USAF ETAC ,U.Lu" 0-1-S (OL I) PRVIOUS EOtIONS OF THIS FoR AR E OBSOLETE I CATA PRCCESSI\\G CIVISICK E:h USAF CEILING VERSUS

  4. Changgai Gap, ROK AFB K-3, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-02-23

    99.5 99.5 99.6 99.6 S- 1200 172 WD19 9900 9972 9973 9973 99.5 9 197 1975 9. r 975 99f 5 99.5 99.6 99.6 1 000 1.2 98.9 99.2 99.2 99.3 99.3 99.5 99.5 99.5...98.2 98.7 98.7 98.7 99.0 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.2 . 700 Y ° -37 .V 771 17 9a.6 9a.6 99.1 997l 991 9973 99.6 9 97.6’ 1997 .96 99.6 96 > 600 35.2...99.3 99.8 99.8 99.8 00.0 00.I0 00.0100.0 4 00 24 90) 992 0 5 4 9 . 9973 911 9 99.8 I9. 99o8 U87O7iO .GICO,7 * 2oo 2.4 90.8 94.2 95.9 9804 90.4 99.3

  5. U.S. FMS (Foreign Military Sales) and ROK (Republic of Korea) Economic Acquisition of Weapon Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    insuring such programs are effectively integrated both at home and abroad, and that the foreign policy of the U.S. is best served thereby (see Figure 2.3...evaluation, assuring the best utilization of U.S government backing to credit institutions. [Ref. 23: 19761 [!bid., p. 5.6. 24 &S e. Department of...that year. Evaluating the exact amount of North Korean military spending is difficult at best , in part because there is little consensus on suitable

  6. ROK AFS, Kwandae-ri, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-15

    KlmANCAF RI KCREA/kC, AFS K-6 1-54 AL L STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PERCEfNT G ’F C., YS , 1Th VPR IC Lc AT CSP-F PIC P H-C F FRCf. CAILY C4SV...DS 301 iq WTIONS Op THIS pOrn AM OIomr ATA PRrCESSIN;G C[ S!CN ETAC, LSAF SURFACE WINDS AS#-EVILLE9 N. C. 28E01 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...NNW VAREIL F -3.4 7.4 5.4 .7 _ 1.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OISERVATIONS 146 1210 WS j 0--S (0. SO) SSIeo.. KDSTIO,. oP TIN PORN AN O.S.OC. I [~. [ATA

  7. Military Authoritarian Regimes and Economic Development: The ROK’s Economic Take-Off Under Park Chung Hee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    compensation. This compensation was used as important funding for South Korea’s economic 69 Byung Chul ...the Korean Peninsula. New York: Praeger, 1977. Koh, Byung Chul . The Foreign Policy Systems of North and South Korea. Berkeley: University of...important role in the process of modernization through manpower 13 Stephan Haggard, Byung -kook Kim

  8. A Study on the Decision Factors in the Delay of the ROK-U.S. Wartime OPCON Transfer: Focusing on the Domestic Determinants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    minimizing threats of the DPRK (Kim Hong- rae and Han Ki-hong in 201435) is similar to the proponents’ position on the delay of the wartime OPCON...http://dl.nanet.go.kr/SearchDetailList.do. 35 Hong- rae Kim and Ki-hong Han, “Issue Interview with the New Leader of The Korea Retired Generals and...Asia Pacific issues no. 67 (2003): 1–8. http://hdl.handle.net/10125/3774. Kim, Hong- rae , and Ki-hong Han. “Issue Interview with the New Leader of

  9. The Impact of Changes in Dominant U.S. Threat Perception on the Cohesion of the U.S.-ROK Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    MIT Press, 2000), 1. 211 Office of Secretary of Defense, Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic...superiority. The Annual Report to Congress in 2014 argues, “With China emerging as the third space power after the United States and Russia, competition...214 Office of Secretary of Defense, Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2012

  10. Russkij jazyk za rubezom. Jahrgang 1974 ("The Russian Language Abroad." Volume 1974)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Wolfgang

    1975-01-01

    Articles in the 1974 volume of this periodical are briefly reviewed, preponderantly under the headings of teaching materials, methodology, linguistics, scientific reports, and chronicle. Reviews and supplements, tapes and other materials are also included. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  11. Bulgarski ezik za dobrovoltsi ot Korpusa na mira (Bulgarian Language for Peace Corps Volunteers. Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Aneta; Tomova, Christina; Tasseva, Mila

    This workbook and class guide for basic-to-intermediate Bulgarian provides a communicative orientation to the language. With its emphasis on social situations and everyday language, the book includes vocabulary, dialogs, discussion topics, and cultural-historical background information about Bulgaria. (CNP)

  12. Habari Za Kiswahili: The History of Swahili Instruction at the K-12 Level in Madison, Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    Since the enactment of the 1958 National Defense Education Act, funded universities have provided African language instruction at the postsecondary level. With an increased interest in the less commonly taught languages (LCT) demonstrated by the 1988 Foreign Language Assistance Act, several African Studies Center universities provide instruction…

  13. Life Skills Manual = Les Practiques d'une Vie Saine = Mwongozo wa Stadi za Maisha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Kathleen

    The Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange makes available its information resources to other organizations. This document, made available in English, French, and Swahili, is one such resource. The focus of this document is a comprehensive behavior change approach that concentrates on the development of skills needed for life, such as…

  14. Bulgarski ezik za dobrovoltsi ot Korpusa na mira (Bulgarian Language for Peace Corps Volunteers. Bulgaria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Aneta; Tomova, Christina; Tasseva, Mila

    Designed for continued language learning beyond the intermediate level, this workbook provides practice and sets of exercises for improving speaking and listening skills in Bulgarian through class participation and discussion, and reading and writing. The book includes grammar explanations, news reports, brief biographies of prominent Bulgarians,…

  15. Everyday Physical Activity of Students in Nyíregyháza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fintor, János Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of physical education lessons has already been demonstrated by a lot of essays, however, it has also been revealed that this popularity, as well as the frequency of doing sports, tends to decrease at later ages of life. Pursuing sports has a positive effect on academic performance. Introducing PE as an everyday lesson at schools was…

  16. Optical Tomography of the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the Abel inversion through the use of linear algebra and a numerical methods program such as MATLAB. The Abel inversion follows the general equation Le...θ, where e0 (r) = { r3 for 0 < r ≤ 0.5 (1− r)3 for 0.5 < r ≤ 1.0 . 29 linear algebra routine as the one-dimensional case allows for the generation of...algorithm, the two-dimensional profile lends itself to matrix computation and linear algebra . Rewriting equation 3.15 so that each shell 30 profile e (r) = e0

  17. Press Freedom in the Republic of Korea: Coping with the Authoritarian Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salwen, Michael B.

    To examine press freedom in the Republic of Korea (ROK, South Korea) and the role the ROK's press plays as the advantages of democracy and authoritarianism are being publicly debated, this paper looks back at where the ROK has been in terms of its social and political freedoms and where it is going in its attempts to break from its authoritarian…

  18. Primary School Teacher's Need for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajncic, Antonija Milivojevic

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and social changes in Slovenia, especially the formation of an independent country, adoption of the new constitution and implementation of a multi-party political system have caused changes in the education system as well ("Bela knjiga o vzgoji in izobrazevanju v Republiki Sloveniji," 1996, p. 5). Razdevsek Pucek (1997)…

  19. Report on the KIMS-CNA Conference (2nd): The PLA Navy’s Build-Up and ROK-USN Cooperation, Held in Seoul, Korea on 20 November 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Bowditch , Manager and Research Team Leader, CNA 0920-1045 Panel One: China’s Maritime Strategy and Territorial Sovereign Disputes Moderator: Dr...Thomas A. Bowditch , Manager and Research Team Leader, CNA Paperl: China’s Maritime Strategy & Development Prospects - Mr. Fred Vellucci, China Analyst...Foreign Affairs and National Security Paper2: Professor Chang-Wee Lee, University of Seoul Paper3: Dr. Thomas A. Bowditch , Manager and Research

  20. Transcription of Two Adjacent Carbohydrate Utilization Gene Clusters in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 Is Controlled by LacI- and Repressor Open Reading Frame Kinase (ROK)-Type Regulators

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Kerry Joan; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Liedtke, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Zomer, Aldert

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of mammals, including humans, where their growth is presumed to be dependent on various diet- and/or host-derived carbohydrates. To understand transcriptional control of bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism, we investigated two genetic carbohydrate utilization clusters dedicated to the metabolism of raffinose-type sugars and melezitose. Transcriptomic and gene inactivation approaches revealed that the raffinose utilization system is positively regulated by an activator protein, designated RafR. The gene cluster associated with melezitose metabolism was shown to be subject to direct negative control by a LacI-type transcriptional regulator, designated MelR1, in addition to apparent indirect negative control by means of a second LacI-type regulator, MelR2. In silico analysis, DNA-protein interaction, and primer extension studies revealed the MelR1 and MelR2 operator sequences, each of which is positioned just upstream of or overlapping the correspondingly regulated promoter sequences. Similar analyses identified the RafR binding operator sequence located upstream of the rafB promoter. This study indicates that transcriptional control of gene clusters involved in carbohydrate metabolism in bifidobacteria is subject to conserved regulatory systems, representing either positive or negative control. PMID:24705323

  1. Mathematics Curriculum Guide for Serbocroatian-Speaking Students, Levels A, B, C, Field Test. Working Draft = Uputstvo Za Planiranje Nastave Matematike Za Ucenike koji Govore Srpskohrvatski Jezik, Stepeni A, B, C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The introductory level curriculum guide for bilingual education for Serbocroatian-speaking children in the Chicago public schools is divided into three difficulty levels and is designed to facilitate acquisition of mathematical concepts by presenting them in the children's native language. At each level, the concepts covered include the meaning of…

  2. Dobro Dosli U Sjedinjene Drzave. Prirucnik za Izbjeglice. (Welcome to the United States. A Guidebook for Refugees).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This guidebook provides Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies, refugees overseas who have been approved for U.S. admission,…

  3. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  4. [Transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus from a pediatric to adult diabetes clinic - problems, challenges and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Modrzyńska, Katarzyna; Szadkowska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Cukrzyca typu 1 jest chorobą przewlekłą, związaną z ryzykiem wystąpienia ostrych i przewlekłych powikłań. Pacjenci wymagają zatem stałej kontroli w poradni specjalistycznej niezależnie od swojego wieku, a zaprzestanie opieki diabetologicznej skutkuje pogorszeniem wyrównania metabolicznego cukrzycy i wcześniejszym rozwojem jej przewlekłych powikłań. Kiedy dziecko dorasta i osiąga 18 rok życia, musi przejść spod opieki poradni pediatrycznej pod opiekę poradni internistycznej. Jest to bardzo ważny moment w życiu młodego pacjenta. Jeśli proces przejścia zostanie dobrze zaplanowany, może pomóc młodym dorosłym w samodzielnym życiu z cukrzycą. W pracy przedstawiono różnice między opieką pediatryczną i internistyczną oraz czynniki wpływające na wyrównanie cukrzycy w okresie zmiany poradni. Ponadto opisano wdrażane w innych krajach programy ułatwiające młodym osobom z cukrzycą proces transmisji. Zaprezentowano również zalecenia różnych towarzystw naukowych dotyczące przygotowania i organizacji procesu przejścia, aby mógł on przebiegać w sposób optymalny i nie wiązał się z pogorszeniem kontroli metabolicznej cukrzycy.Skróty: DMT1 – cukrzyca typu 1, HbA1c – hemoglobina glikowana, PTD – Polskie Towarzystwo Diabetologiczne, ADA – Amerykańskie Towarzystwo Diabetologiczne, SEARCH – SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, NICE – National Institute for Excellence.

  5. Climate Change Education and Education for Sustainable Development in the Republic of Korea: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has officially declared its national vision of green growth, and actively develops and implements policies related to education for sustainable development (ESD), green growth education (GGE) and climate change education (CCE). Over the Decade of ESD, the ROK experienced three administrations which have taken different…

  6. Evaluation of infectivity, virulence and transmission of FDMV field strains of serotypes O and A isolated in 2010 from outbreaks in the Republic of Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been described in several previously FMD-free Asian nations, including the Republic of Korea (ROK). One outbreak with FMD virus (FDMV) serotype A and two with serotype O occurred in ROK in 2010/2011. The causative viruses belong t...

  7. Introduction of the Republic of Korea–the United States of America's Joint Exercise Against Biothreats in 2013: Able Response 13

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Sun; Oh, Dong Whan; Jo, Hyun Jung; Chu, Chaeshin

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) and the the United States of America (USA) has held joint exercises to respond to biothreats in the Korean Peninsula since 2011. The exercise was called Able Response (AR) and it aims to coordinate interministerial procedures inside Korea and international procedures in requesting the medical resources urgently between ROK and USA, and among ROK and the United Nations, and nongovernmental organizations. AR13 was a functional exercise with a scenario that presumed a series of attack by terrorists, dispersing Bacillus anthracis in Seoul. The participants conducted exercises with action cells and using point-to-point communication system. It was followed by Senior Leadership Seminar participated by high-ranking officials in ROK and USA to discuss possible collaboration in advance. AR and its following actions will fortify collaboration between ROK and USA and enhance the capability of countermeasures against biothreats in Korea. PMID:24298445

  8. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    PubMed

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  9. Wind Measuring and Indication System Maintenance Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Speed 2R 6660 00-556-1895 ID 586 Indicator, Direction 2R 6660 00-527-9496 and Speed RD 108B Recorder 2R 6660 00-552-0095 "MT 535 Mount 2R 6660 00-223...TOLOVANA TO 00002 LCC 7 USS MOUNT MCKINLEY ZC 00001 AGDS 2 USS POINT LOMA ZA 00002 AF, I USS MARS ZA 00002 AOE I USS SACRAMENTG ZA 00002 AOE 2 USS CAMDEN...USS SANTA BARBARA ZA 00002 AE 29 USS MOUNT HOOD ZA 00002 AE 32 USS FLINT T A 00002 AE 33 USS SHASTA ZA 00002 AE 34 USS MOUNT BAKER ZA 00002 AFS 6 USS

  10. Intercultural Education: Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Conference=Obrazovanje za interkulturalizam: Zbornik radova S.2 Medunarodne znanstvene konferencije

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peko, Andelka, Ed.; Sablic, Marija, Ed.; Jindra, Ranka, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The democratic changes that occurred in Croatia within last two decades are oriented towards European values and multi-intercultural perspectives. Let us remember that, according to the census from 1991, Croatia was inhabited with people from 27 nations, with Croats being a majority. During the Homeland war, basically a defensive war against the…

  11. Intercultural Education: The Position of Roma in Education=Obrazovanje za interkulturalizam: Položaj Roma u odgoju i obrazovanju

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlinarevic, Vesnica, Ed.; Brust Nemet, Maja, Ed.; Bushati, Jozef, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Faculty of Educational Sciences has recognized the importance of education for interculturalism, and it organizes the conference entitled "Education for interculturalism" every five years, so that all participants could gain new insights about interculturalism and strengthen their intercultural competencies. Modern interculturalism, as a…

  12. SPEED AND VOLTAGE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES WITH THE AID OF THYRYSTORS (TRANSISTORS) (REGULACJA PREDKOSCI I NAPIECIA W MASZYNACH ELECTROYCZNYCH ZA POMOCQ TYRYSTOROW),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of a system for automatic control of voltage and current of a three-phase rectifier using SCRs and its application to the control of speed of a DC ... motor with external excitation are considered. The relative advantages of using either semiconductor devices or magnetic devices in rectifier control

  13. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... peroxide (say: BEN-zoil peh - ROK - side) or salicylic (say: sal-uh-SIL - ick) acid in them ... it also can reduce swelling (puffiness) of pimples. Salicylic acid is another acne-fighting ingredient. It causes ...

  14. The Origin of the United States Security Commitment to the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    to end or even significantly change them. In much the same manner as the administration, the bureaucracy can acquire a stake in the commitment as a...of the struggle between the US and the USSR and between democracy and Cornunism. As this view has changed over the years, as the Cold War has ebbed and...flowed, the perceived utility of the security commitment to the ROK has changed also. By contrast, the ROK has been constantly confronted with a

  15. A Cost Analysis for Deciding Service Levels in Korean Army with a Constraint for Single Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    LEVELS IN KOREAN ARMY WITH A CONSTRAINT FOR SINGLE PERIOD by Yoo, Choong Keun Major, Republic of Korea Army B.S., Korea Military Academy, 1981...Sciences ABSTRACT Since the Korean War there has been a fierce military competition between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s...Republic of Korea (DPRK). The DPRK has committed over 10 percent of its GNP since 1963 to defense expenditures, whereas, the ROK has spent a relatively

  16. Korean War Logistics, The First One Hundred Days, 25 June 1950 to 2 October 1950

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-16

    delay along the 38th Parallel with subsequent defensive lines along the Ban, Taejon and Andong Rivers. Once the North Koreans attacked, ROK Army...officers soon realized that they had insufficient time to implement their defensive plan due to the swift, tank led, North Korean thrust. The ROK Army was...North Korean attack and asked the United States to appoint the commander for United Nations forces and form a unified command to repel aggression in Korea

  17. The Key to Stability on the Korean Peninsula - United States, Japan and China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    US diplomatic, defense , and economic efforts on the Korean 7 Peninsula rest. Our treaty commitment and the presence of US troops in South Korea help...the Korean people and ROK service members. —Kim Dae-jung President, Republic of Korea , 1998-2003 Mutual Defense Treaty To deter the North... Korean threat of attack, the Republic of Korea entered into a defense alliance with the United States. This was formalized when the “ROK-US Mutual

  18. U.S. Army’s Role in the Asia-Pacific: Rebalancing Across the Pacific Rim

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    recriminations among the South Korean public. 24 Geert Hofstede’s 5 Cultural Dimensions provides a means for highlighting the cultural changes in the ROK that...make transforming the role for EUSA more agreeable and in the best interests of both the ROK and US. Hofstede defines culture as the “the collective...programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group of people from those of another.”25 Hofstede’s 5 cultural dimensions are

  19. The Lynchpin Grapples with Frustration and Distrust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Gromoll ROK speaker: Byung -Se Yun 12:30 Lunch 13:45 Session 3: Domestic politics: transition and the deterrent Here we explore the impact of...contingency? What are its implications for the extended deterrent and the alliance? US speaker: Van Jackson ROK speaker: Shin Beomchul 12:30 Lunch...Studies Yonsei University Mr. Rhee Sang Woo President New Asia Research Institute Dr. Shin Beomchul Director, North Korea Studies

  20. [The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.

  1. Republic of Korea's Health Aid Governance: Perspectives from Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Alley, Allison Baer; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Minah; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has a remarkable development history, including its status as the first country to transition from aid recipient to member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Development Assistance Committee (DAC). However, since becoming a donor country, the ROK has struggled to achieve internationally accepted agreements related to aid effectiveness and several evaluations have identified the ROK as being one of the weakest DAC member countries at providing good aid. A survey was conducted to assess partner countries' perceptions of the ROK's governance of health official development assistance (ODA). The survey was administered to government officials based in partner countries' Ministries of Health and therefore presents the unique perspective of ODA recipients. The survey questions focused on governance principles established in the internationally-accepted Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The total response rate was 13 responses out of 26 individuals who received the email request (50%). The survey results indicate that progress has been made since earlier international evaluations but the ROK has not overcome all areas of concern. This confirms that the ROK is continuing to develop its capacity as a good donor but has yet to achieve all governance-related targets. The results of this survey can be used to inform a future aid strategy.

  2. Zoledronic acid therapy impacts risk and frequency of skeletal complications and follow-up duration in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hatoum, Hind T.; Lin, Swu-Jane; Guo, Amy; Lipton, Allan; Smith, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of timing and length of zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment on outcomes for patients with prostate cancer in clinical practice. Materials and methods Patients with prostate cancer and first bone metastasis diagnosed from January 2003 to October 2006 were included. Patients were considered ‘untreated’ if no ZA was given, ‘early ZA-treated’ if ZA was initiated before skeletal complication (SC) occurrence or ‘late ZA-treated’ if one or more SC was documented before or at ZA initiation. Patients were classified with short (≤90 days), medium (91–180 days) or long (>180 days) treatment persistence. Assessments included follow-up duration (FUP) and risk of developing one or more SC. Results Among eligible patients, 847 were untreated, 243 were early ZA-treated and 218 were late ZA-treated. For untreated versus early ZA-treated groups, median FUP was 263 versus 357 days (p<0.0001), respectively, and time to first SC was 199 versus 273 days (p<0.0001), respectively. ZA treatment was associated with significantly longer FUP and lower SC risk. The early ZA-treated group had significantly longer FUP versus the late ZA-treated group (median days, 357 vs. 299.5); the late ZA-treated group experienced significantly higher SC risk vs. the early ZA-treated group (odds ratio, 1.51). Compared with the long-persistence group, FUP was 56% and 40% shorter in the short and medium groups, respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusion Treatment with and early initiation of ZA for patients with prostate cancer and bone metastasis significantly prolonged time to and reduced risk of developing SC, while extending FUP. PMID:21083514

  3. Seroconversion to Japanese Encephalitis Virus Among U.S. Infantry Forces in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eick-Cost, Angelia A; Hu, Zheng; Klein, Terry A; Putnak, Robert J; Jarman, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is endemic in the Republic of Korea (ROK), posing a medical threat to more than 29,000 U.S. Forces military personnel currently deployed in the ROK. The objective of this study was to provide data on the risk of JEV exposure among U.S. Forces in the ROK. One thousand U.S. Army Soldiers were randomly selected for the study from the cohort of infantry Soldiers deployed in the ROK for a period of at least 330 days from 2008 to 2011. Pre- and post-deployment serum specimens were tested for the presence of JEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test. A total of 2/1,000 (0.2%) U.S. Army Soldiers post-deployment specimens tested positive for JEV antibody. Results from the pre-deployment specimens indicated one true seroconversion and one with titers suggestive of a JEV infection. These results indicate a low, but nonzero risk of JEV exposure among U.S. Army Soldiers in the ROK.

  4. Key role of the RhoA/Rho kinase system in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michelle J; Aaronson, Philip I

    2011-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a general term comprising a spectrum of pulmonary hypertensive disorders which have in common an elevation of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). The prototypical form of the disease, termed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a rare but lethal syndrome with a complex aetiology characterised by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and progressive elevation of mPAP; patients generally die from heart failure. Current therapies are inadequate and median survival is less than three years. PH due to chronic hypoxia (CH) is a condition separate from PAH and is strongly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). An early event in the pathogenesis of this form of PH is hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), an acute homeostatic process that maintains the ventilation-perfusion ratio during alveolar hypoxia. The mechanisms underlying HPV remain controversial, but RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK)-mediated Ca²+-sensitisation is considered important. Increasing evidence also implicates RhoA/ROK in PASMC proliferation, inflammatory cell recruitment and the regulation of cell motility, all of which are involved in the pulmonary vascular remodelling occurring in all forms of PH. ROK is therefore a potential therapeutic target in treating PH of various aetiologies. Here, we examine current concepts regarding the aetiology of PAH and also PH due to CH, focusing on the contribution that RhoA/ROK-mediated processes may make to their development and on ROK inhibitors as potential therapies.

  5. Complete genome sequence of a novel zantedeschia mild mosaic virus isolate: the first report from Australia and from Alocasia sp.

    PubMed

    Kidanemariam, Dawit B; Abraham, Adane D; Sukal, Amit C; Holton, Timothy A; Dale, James L; James, Anthony P; Harding, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    The complete genome of an Australian isolate of zantedeschia mild mosaic virus (ZaMMV) causing mosaic symptoms on Alocasia sp. (designated ZaMMV-AU) was cloned and sequenced. The genome comprises 9942 nucleotides (excluding the poly-A tail) and encodes a polyprotein of 3167 amino acids. The sequence is most closely related to a previously reported ZaMMV isolate from Taiwan (ZaMMV-TW), with 82 and 86 % identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Unlike the amino acid sequence of ZaMMV-TW, however, ZaMMV-AU does not contain a polyglutamine stretch at the N-terminus of the coat-protein-coding region upstream of the DAG motif. This is the first report of ZaMMV from Australia and from Alocasia sp.

  6. Relation of Health Condition and Quality of Life: Examination of the Quality of Life of the Disadvantaged Population in Nyíregyháza by the FT Quality of Life Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jávorné-Erdei, Renáta; Takács, Péter; Fábián, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Improving the health of the population, stopping and changing the disadvantage trends have long been one of the health policy objectives in the regions. Unfortunately, in spite of the declared goals Hungary is far away from giving priority to health issues as they are not given proper attention either on individual or societal level. In modern…

  7. Reinforcement of Existing Cast-Iron Structural Elements by Means of Fiber Reinforced Composites / Wzmacnianie Istniejących, Żeliwnych Elementów Konstrukcyjnych za Pomocą Włóknokompozytów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinowski, Jakub; Różycki, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The paperdeals with tubular, cast-iron columns which should be reinforced due to the planned new structural function of these elements. According to the requirements of the monument conservator the general appearance of columns should not be altered significantly. Reinforcement with an external, thin coating (sleeve or jacket) made of composite (carbon fibre reinforced polymer - CFRP) was proposed. Details of the proposedtechniquewerepresented. The reinforcementeffect was verifiedin destructivetestsperformed on two columns without reinforcement and the two other columns reinforced with the chosentechnique. Due to the expected very high load capacity of the axially loaded column, the test rig was designed in such a manner that the force could be applied on big eccentricity. For this purpose a specialbase was prepared(comp. Fig. 1). Destructivetests have confirmed the high effectiveness of the adopted strengthening technique.

  8. Transient states of air parameters after a stoppage and re-start of the main fan / Stany przejściowe parametrów powietrza po postoju i załączeniu wentylatora głównego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, Stanisław

    2012-12-01

    A stoppage of the main ventilation fan constitutes a disturbance of ventilation conditions of a deepmine and its effects can cause serious hazards by generating transient states of air and gas flow. Main ventilation fans are the basic deep-mine facilities; therefore, under mining regulations it is only allowed to stop them with the consent and under the conditions specified by the mine maintenance manager. The stoppage of the main ventilation fan may be accompanied by transient air parameters, including the air pressure and flow patterns. There is even the likelihood of reversing the direction of air flow, which, in case of methane mines, can pose a major hazard, particularly in sections of the mine with fire fields or large goaf areas. At the same time, stoppages of deep-mine main ventilation fans create interesting research conditions, which if conducted under the supervision of the monitoring systems, can provide much information about the transient processes of pressure, air and gas flow in underground workings. This article is a discussion of air parameter observations in mine workings made as part of such experiments. It also presents the procedure of the experiments, conducted in three mines. They involved the observation of transient processes of mine air parameters, and most interestingly, the recording of pressure and air and gas flow in the workings of the mine ventilation networks by mine monitoring systems and using specialist recording instruments. In mining practice, both in Poland and elsewhere, software tools and computer modelling methods are used to try and reproduce the conditions prior to and during disasters based on the existing network model and monitoring system data. The use of these tools to simulate the alternatives of combating and liquidation of the gas-fire hazard after its occurrence is an important issue. Measurement data collected during the experiments provides interesting research material for the verification and validation of the software tools used for the simulation of processes occurring in deep-mine ventilation systems.

  9. Further Evidence of Increasing Diversity of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Zo, Young-Gun; Ji, So-Young; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; To, Sheren; Clark, Taane G.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated from the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the late 1970s but re-emerged in 1993. Two decades later as the ROK enters the final stages of malaria elimination, dedicated surveillance of the local P. vivax population is critical. We apply a population genetic approach to gauge P. vivax transmission dynamics in the ROK between 2010 and 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax positive blood samples from 98 autochthonous cases were collected from patients attending health centers in the ROK in 2010 (n = 27), 2011 (n = 48) and 2012 (n = 23). Parasite genotyping was undertaken at 9 tandem repeat markers. Although not reaching significance, a trend of increasing population diversity was observed from 2010 (HE = 0.50 ± 0.11) to 2011 (HE = 0.56 ± 0.08) and 2012 (HE = 0.60 ± 0.06). Conversely, linkage disequilibrium declined during the same period: IAS = 0.15 in 2010 (P = 0.010), 0.09 in 2011 (P = 0.010) and 0.05 in 2012 (P = 0.010). In combination with data from other ROK studies undertaken between 1994 and 2007, our results are consistent with increasing parasite divergence since re-emergence. Polyclonal infections were rare (3% infections) suggesting that local out-crossing alone was unlikely to explain the increased divergence. Cases introduced from an external reservoir may therefore have contributed to the increased diversity. Aside from one isolate, all infections carried a short MS20 allele (142 or 149 bp), not observed in other studies in tropical endemic countries despite high diversity, inferring that these regions are unlikely reservoirs. Conclusions Whilst a number of factors may explain the observed population genetic trends, the available evidence suggests that an external geographic reservoir with moderate diversity sustains the majority of P. vivax infection in the ROK, with important implications for malaria elimination. PMID:26990869

  10. The role of major donors in health aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

  11. Military Exercises in Korea: A Provocation or a Deterrent to War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-13

    Review 30, No. 4 (Winter 2004): 280-282. 7 General Ri Chan Bok , a DPRK military leader, said during an interview with 60 Minutes correspondent Dan...infantry brigade. 66 James J. Przystup and Kang Choi , “The U.S.-ROK Alliance: Building a Mature Partnership,” INSS Special Report, (Washington, DC...Alliance. Cambridge, MA: The Institute of Foreign Policy Analysis, Aug 2003. Przystup, James J. and Kang Choi . “The U.S.-ROK Alliance: Building a

  12. Influence of sodium aluminosilicate, hydroxy-sodalite, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate on performance of commercial Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Roland, D A; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M

    1991-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if the high ion-exchange capacity of sodium aluminosilicate (ZA) marketed as ETHACAL Feed Component or its aluminum content or both are related to the beneficial effect of ZA on egg specific gravity (ESG). In Experiments 1 and 2, ZA was compared with hydroxy-sodalite (HS) and carnegieite, which have the same chemical formula as ZA but little or no ion-exchange capacity. Two levels of ZA (0 and 1.5% of the diet) and three levels of HS (0, .75, and 1.5%) were fed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, 0, .75, and 1.5% of ZA and carnegieite were fed. In Experiment 3, ZA, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate were fed at levels calculated to contain .148 and .101% aluminum. Criteria evaluated were ESG, egg production, feed consumption, and egg weight. Egg specific gravity was significantly improved by ZA in all experiments and was not affected by HS, carnegieite (Experiments 1 and 2), aluminum sulfate (.148% Al), or aluminum phosphate (Experiment 3). Carnegieite and aluminum (.101%) from aluminum sulfate increased ESG in Experiment 3. In Experiments 1 and 3, egg production and feed consumption were not influenced by various treatments. Carnegieite and ZA reduced egg production and feed consumption in Experiment 2. It was concluded that the ion-exchange capacity and aluminum content of ZA may contribute to its beneficial effect on ESG.

  13. Assessing Command and Control System Vulnerabilities in Underdeveloped, Degraded and Denied Operational Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Pretoria, CSIR , South Africa; roosthuizen@csir.co.za) Leon Pretorius (Professor, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Leon.Pretorius@up.ac.za...Point of Contact Rudolph Oosthuizen ( CSIR , South Africa; roosthuizen@csir.co.za) Name of Organization: Council for...499 Master’s • 300 PhDs © CSIR 2013 2 CSIR : A synopsis • Introduction • Command and Control • Degraded and Denied Operational Environments

  14. Effect of intravenous zoledronic acid infusion on electrocardiographic parameters in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Aktas, I; Nazikoglu, C; Kepez, A; Ozkan, F U; Kaysin, M Y; Akpinar, P; Dogan, Z; Ileri, C; Saymaz, S; Erdogan, O

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) therapy on electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters for the first time in the literature. Measurements were performed on ECGs obtained before and after ZA infusion on the same day as well as 1 month after the infusion. ZA infusion did not have any short- or long-term effect on any parameter that might be associated with the tendency for atrial fibrillation or ventricular arrhythmias.

  15. Dose-dependent inhibitory effects of zoledronic acid on osteoblast viability and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, XIN; HUANG, SHILONG; GUO, FENGJIN; XU, FEI; CHENG, PENG; YE, YAPING; DONG, YONGHUI; XIANG, WEI; CHEN, ANMIN

    2016-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), which is one of the most potent and efficacious bisphosphonates, has been commonly used in clinical practice for the treatment of various bone disorders. The extensive use of ZA has been associated with increasing occurrence of jaw complications, now known as bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). However, the mechanism underlying BRONJ remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of ZA on the MC3T3-E1 murine preosteoblast cell line cells and examine the possible pathogenesis of BRONJ. In the present study, the effect of ZA on the viability, apoptosis, differentiation and maturation of MC3T3-E1 cells, as well as its relevant molecular mechanism, were examined The results of a Cell Counting Kit 8 assay, a flow cytometric Annexin-V/propidium iodide assay and western blot analysis demonstrated that ZA exhibited a significant inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis at concentrations >10 µM. Subsequently, the effect of ZA on cell differentiation at concentrations <1 µM were investigated. In this condition, ZA inhibited bone nodule formation and decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses indicated that ZA downregulated the expression levels of the marker genes and proteins associated with osteogenic differentiation. Further investigation revealed that the suppression of differentiation by ZA was associated with decreased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and downregulation of the phosphorylation levels in the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 pathways. These adverse effects of ZA were observed to be concentration-dependent. The results from the present study suggested that ZA at higher concentrations induces cytotoxicity towards osteoblasts, and ZA at lower concentrations suppresses

  16. Rheumatoid Arthritis Exacerbates the Severity of Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice. A Randomized, Prospective, Controlled Animal Study.

    PubMed

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Hsu, Chingyun; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M; Pirih, Flavia Q; Soundia, Akrivoula; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, results in persistent synovitis with severe bone and cartilage destruction. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are often utilized in RA patients to reduce bone destruction and manage osteoporosis. However, BPs, especially at high doses, are associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Here, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models, we are exploring interactions between RA and ONJ incidence and severity. DBA1/J mice were divided into four groups: control, zoledronic acid (ZA), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and CIA-ZA. Animals were pretreated with vehicle or ZA. Bovine collagen II emulsified in Freund's adjuvant was injected to induce arthritis (CIA) and the mandibular molar crowns were drilled to induce periapical disease. Vehicle or ZA treatment continued for 8 weeks. ONJ indices were measured by micro-CT (µCT) and histological examination of maxillae and mandibles. Arthritis development was assessed by visual scoring of paw swelling, and by µCT and histology of interphalangeal and knee joints. Maxillae and mandibles of control and CIA mice showed bone loss, periodontal ligament (PDL) space widening, lamina dura loss, and cortex thinning. ZA prevented these changes in both ZA and CIA-ZA groups. Epithelial to alveolar crest distance was increased in the control and CIA mice. This distance was preserved in ZA and CIA-ZA animals. Empty osteocytic lacunae and areas of osteonecrosis were present in ZA and CIA-ZA but more extensively in CIA-ZA animals, indicating more severe ONJ. CIA and CIA-ZA groups developed severe arthritis in the paws and knees. Interphalangeal and knee joints of CIA mice showed advanced bone destruction with cortical erosions and trabecular bone loss, and ZA treatment reduced these effects. Importantly, no osteonecrosis was noted adjacent to areas of articular inflammation in CIA-ZA mice. Our data suggest that ONJ burden was more pronounced in ZA treated CIA mice and that RA could

  17. Influence of titanium diboride reinforcements on the microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture behavior of cast zinc-aluminum composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, Sylvie

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between the microstructure, mechanical properties and failure mechanisms which control the performance of TiB2 particle reinforced Zn-8 wt.% Al (ZA-8) composites. Unreinforced ZA-8 and four composite heats with nominal particle contents of 5, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% were prepared using stir casting and permanent mold casting techniques. Tensile, compression, Charpy impact and short bar chevron-notch fracture toughness tests were conducted at room temperature. The microstructure and fracture surfaces of the specimens were characterized using optical, scanning electron, transmission electron and focused ion beam microscopy. These experimental results were compared with relevant MMC models and with published data on Zn-based composites. The TiB2/ZA-8 composites had a homogeneous distribution of particles in a matrix similar to unreinforced ZA-8. The matrix grain size decreased as the TiB2 content increased. No interfacial reaction products were detected. A good correlation was obtained between the measured composite stiffness and the values predicted using an Eshelby model. The yield strength and work hardening rate of TiB2/ZA-8 were only marginally higher than those of unreinforced ZA-8. The strength properties did not increase with the particle content as predicted by the Eshelby model. The premature activation of relaxation processes limited the extent to which particle reinforcement improved the strength of the ZA-8 matrix. Temperature-activated relaxation processes such as diffusion and dislocation motion can occur readily in ZA-8 at room temperature, which corresponds to 0.44 TM. Particle reinforcement of the ZA-8 alloy produced a degradation of the toughness which was sensitive to the loading rate. The Charpy energy of TiB 2/ZA-8 was up to 85% smaller than that of ZA-8, while the corresponding loss in fracture toughness was only 15%. The moderate fracture toughness decrease was explained by the

  18. Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry for rapid environmental trace analysis of highly polar hydrophilic compounds - Application for the antiviral drug Zanamivir.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Richard H; Fedorova, Ganna; Blum, Kristin M; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta; Gillman, Anna; Järhult, Josef; Appelblad, Patrik; Söderström, Hanna

    2015-08-15

    Zanamivir (Za) is a highly polar and hydrophilic antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza A viruses. Za has been detected in rivers of Japan and it's environmental occurrence has the risk of inducing antiviral resistant avian influenza viruses. In this study, a rapid automated online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography method using bonded zwitterionic stationary phases and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS) for trace analysis of Za was developed. Furthermore, an internal standard (IS) calibration method capable of quantifying Za in Milli-Q, surface water, sewage effluent and sewage influent was evaluated. Optimum pre-extraction sample composition was found to be 95/5 v/v acetonitrile/water sample and 1% formic acid. The developed method showed acceptable linearities (r(2)≥0.994), filtration recovery (≥91%), and intra-day precisions (RSD≤16%), and acceptable and environmentally relevant LOQs (≤20ngL(-1)). Storage tests showed no significant losses of Za during 20 days and +4/-20°C (≤12%) with the exception of influent samples, which should be kept at -20°C to avoid significant Za losses. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on phototransformation of Za in unfiltered and filtered surface water during 28 days of artificial UV irradiation exposure. No significant (≤12%) phototransformation was found in surface water after 28 days suggesting a relatively high photostability of Za and that Za should be of environmental concern.

  19. Military Housing Inspections - Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    paint, and asbestos . We inspected approximately 12 percent of occupied housing buildings at 13 military installations in the ROK and identified 646...The environmental inspections focused on radon, mold, water quality, pest infestation, lead-based paint, asbestos , and radiation standards. We...abatement. For asbestos , we evaluated the asbestos management programs to determine whether each installation managed friable and non-friable Asbestos

  20. Agreed Framework and KEDO: The role of the United States in Korean security

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, A.J.

    1999-06-01

    The US is moving from a leading security guarantor of the ROK to a mediator of the Korean dispute. The US should understand this fundamental change and adjust its relationship with the ROK and the DPRK to maintain the possibility of Korean reunification. The Agreed Framework is a deal between the US and the DPRK to stop the DPRK`s nuclear program in exchange for energy resources. The Agreed Framework forces the US to go beyond its traditional ROK supportive policy to deal with the DPRK`s nuclear ambition. The US should assess the goals of the PRC, ROK, DPRK, and Japan on the Korean peninsula to determine if a change in policy will enhance the probability of a soft landing by the DPRK. To conduct this assessment, the goals of all nations and the DPRK`s nuclear ambition have been developed. A graphical summary of the subjective analysis was used to pick the US policy option that shows the best credible and clear logic, and mitigates most effectively any international criticism that may dilute the sound reasoning of future policy. The US should change its current policy to mediate the Korean dispute and increase the probability that all concerned actors meet their goals on the Korean peninsula.

  1. Association of temperature and historical dynamics of malaria in the Republic of Korea, including reemergence in 1993

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993 after it had been declared malaria free in 1979. Malaria rapidly increased and peaked in 2000 with 4,142 cases. Lower but variable numbers of cases were reported through 2011. We examined the association of regional climate tr...

  2. Understanding Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-21

    pincers .’ The problem was when the 24th Divi- sion landed, the enemy drove them back along with the remnant of the ROK Army. MacArthur had to send in both...life on the battlefield.. .a condition of war. Leaders must come to grips with risk and use it to their advantage or the enemy will. Commanders must take

  3. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological weapons, including...I East Asia South Korea Scientist Urges ROK To Aid DPRK With Reactors ...14 Construction of Water-Type Nuclear Reactor To Begin 31 Jul [THENEWS, 30Jul 93] ............... 15 JPRS-TND-93-026 10 August 1993 2 Central

  4. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical , and biological weapons, including delivery systems and...I CHINA Russian Scientists To Cooperate in Nuclear Reactor Research [XINHUA] .............................................. 2 Beijing...Moscow To Cooperate on Hybrid Reactor [XINHUA] ................................................................ 2 Qian Qichen, ROK Foreign Minister

  5. The Use of a Collaborative Common Parts Catalog to Achieve Increased Efficiency and Cost Savings in the Fleet Modernization Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Modernization, Return on Investment, ROI, Return on Knowledge, ROK, Information Technology, Collaboration, Navy Shipyards, PLM , Product Life cycle...18  3.  Lean Six Sigma and PLM ..................................................................18  4.  Lean Six Sigma and KVA...Cost of PLM Technology ...................................................................43  3.  Reengineered Process

  6. Dynamic Circulation and Genetic Exchange of a Shrew-borne Hantavirus, Imjin virus, in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jin Il; Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011–2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses. PMID:28295052

  7. North Korea’s Military Threat: Pyongyang’s Conventional Forces, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Ballistic Missiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    eternalize their rule. They have a large stockpile and we are to be forbidden even to think about the manufacture of nuclear weapons.321 Any modest...Chinhae.” Additionally, in light with South Korea’s Sunshine Policy (overtures that past ROK President Kim Dae Jung made to North Korea), officially

  8. Realignment of the Army Government Purchase Card Program in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    17  c.  Data Mining ............................................................................17  d.  Risk Assessment ...Purchase Card On-line System PCPMO Purchase Card Program Management Office RA Risk Assessment RM resource manager ROK Republic of Korea SCCS...coding process that identifies the type of business a merchant provides. A few examples of blocked merchants are antique shops, casinos , escort services

  9. Nuclear's role in 21. century Pacific rim energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Clifford; Taylor, J'Tia

    2007-07-01

    Extrapolations contrast the future of nuclear energy use in Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) to that of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Japan can expect a gradual rise in the nuclear fraction of a nearly constant total energy use rate as the use of fossil fuels declines. ROK nuclear energy rises gradually with total energy use. ASEAN's total nuclear energy use rate can rapidly approach that of the ROK if Indonesia and Vietnam make their current nuclear energy targets by 2020, but experience elsewhere suggests that nuclear energy growth may be slower than planned. Extrapolations are based on econometric calibration to a utility optimization model of the impact of growth of population, gross domestic product, total energy use, and cumulative fossil carbon use. Fractions of total energy use from fluid fossil fuels, coal, water-driven electrical power production, nuclear energy, and wind and solar electric energy sources are fit to market fractions data. Where historical data is insufficient for extrapolation, plans for non-fossil energy are used as a guide. Extrapolations suggest much more U.S. nuclear energy and spent nuclear fuel generation than for the ROK and ASEAN until beyond the first half of the twenty-first century. (authors)

  10. Molecular detection and genotyping of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seo, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Lee, Ji-Hyee; Kyung, Soon-Goo; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, In-Soo; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis. To reduce the impact of Japanese encephalitis among children in the Republic of Korea (ROK), the government established a mandatory vaccination program in 1967. Through the efforts of this program only 0-7 (mean 2.1) cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported annually in the ROK during the period of 1984-2009. However, in 2010 there was an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis, including 7 deaths. This represented a >12-fold increase in the number of confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK as compared to the mean number reported over the last 26 years and a 3.7-fold increase over the highest annual number of cases during this same period (7 cases). Surveillance of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the 2010 outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK. A total of 6,328 culicine mosquitoes belonging to 12 species from 5 genera were collected at 6 survey sites from June through October 2010 and assayed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of JEV. A total of 34/371 pooled samples tested positive for JEV (29/121 Culex tritaeniorhynchus, 4/64 Cx. pipiens, and 1/26 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) as confirmed by sequencing of the pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes. The maximum likelihood estimates of JEV positive individuals per 1,000 culicine vectors for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 11.8, 5.6, and 2.8, respectively. Sequences of the JEV pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes amplified from the culicine mosquitoes by RT-PCR were compared with those of JEV genotypes I-V. Phylogenetic analyses support the detection of a single genotype (I) among samples collected from the ROK in 2010.

  11. Short-Term Safety of Zoledronic Acid in Young Patients With Bone Disorders: An Extensive Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    George, Sobenna; Weber, David R.; Kaplan, Paige; Hummel, Kelly; Monk, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Zoledronic acid (ZA) is increasingly used in young patients with bone disorders. However, data related to the safety of ZA administration in this population are limited. Objective: The study aimed to characterize the short-term safety profile of ZA and identify risk factors for ZA-related adverse events (AEs) in young patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective chart review of inpatients and outpatients less than 21 years old who received at least one ZA infusion between July 2010 and January 2014 at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Results: Eighty-one patients (56% male; median age, 12 y; age at first infusion, 0.5 to 20 y) with diverse skeletal disorders received a total of 204 infusions. The most common indications were osteoporosis (33% of cohort) and osteogenesis imperfecta (27.2%). The median ZA dose was 0.025 mg/kg (interquartile range, 0.025–0.05); the median dosing interval was 6 months (range, 1 to 25.6 mo). AEs were mild and more common after the first ZA infusion in patients with no previous bisphosphonate exposure: hypophosphatemia (25.2% of infusions), acute phase reactions (19.1%), and hypocalcemia (16.4%). Symptomatic hypocalcemia requiring iv calcium occurred after two infusions. ZA dose was significantly associated with hypophosphatemia, but not other AEs. Hypocalcemia was more common in patients with high bone turnover as assessed by preinfusion alkaline phosphatase levels. AEs were not associated with diagnosis, baseline serum calcium, or calcium/calcitriol supplementation. Conclusion: Acute AEs related to ZA infusion in youths are common, occur principally after the first ZA infusion in bisphosphonate-naive patients, and are typically mild and easily managed. Future prospective studies are needed to determine the potential long-term risks, as well as benefits, of ZA therapy in the pediatric population. PMID:26308295

  12. Zoledronic acid induces dose-dependent increase of antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses in combination with peptide/poly-IC vaccine.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Mi; Cho, Hyun-Il; Shin, Chang-Ae; Shon, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2016-03-04

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is used for treating osteoporosis and for preventing skeletal fractures in cancer patients suffering from myeloma and prostate cancer. It is also reported to directly induce cancer cell apoptosis and indirectly modulate T-cell immune response as an antitumor agent. In this study, the effect of ZA following peptide/polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) vaccination was investigated in a murine tumor model. The combination of ZA with peptide/poly-IC vaccine showed a synergistic effect on the induction of antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response. Three consecutive intravenous administrations of ZA was defined to induce the highest CD8 T-cell response. Further, total splenocyte counts and antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response gradually increased depending on the dose of ZA. In tumor-bearing mice, ZA showed a dose-dependent decrease of growth and prolonged survival. Treatment with ZA only decreased the number of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells in blood. Our results demonstrate that the use of ZA could improve antitumor immune responses induced by the peptide/poly-IC vaccine.

  13. Archaeological Investigations in Upper McNary Reservoir: 1981-1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    to produce the final product. Kathy Cox, Sheri Emery, Lorna Elliott, Cathy Eshleman, Dolores Lehn, and Janet Olmstead have produced the final and...0oOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO-OOOOOOOOOO QZO-- a OOOO0oOOOOO0oOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO0OOOOOO 0 - a OOOOOOOOOOO0oOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Za - a...00000000000000000000000000000 000000000000 0000 0.Q 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Za -.O 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

  14. Molecular identification and functional characterisation of uncoupling protein 4 in larva and pupa fat body mitochondria from the beetle Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2012-08-01

    Uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) is a member of the UCP subfamily that mediates mitochondrial uncoupling, and sequence alignment predicts the existence of UCP4 in several insects. The present study demonstrates the first molecular identification of a partial Zophobas atratus UCP4-coding sequence and the functional characterisation of ZaUCP4 in the mitochondria of larval and pupal fat bodies of the beetle. ZaUCP4 shows a high similarity to predicted insect UCP4 isoforms and known mammalian UCP4s, both at the nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels. Bioenergetic studies clearly demonstrate UCP function in mitochondria from larval and pupal fat bodies. In non-phosphorylating mitochondria, ZaUCP activity was stimulated by palmitic acid and inhibited by the purine nucleotide GTP. In phosphorylating mitochondria, ZaUCP4 activity decreased the yield of oxidative phosphorylation. ZaUCP4 was immunodetected with antibodies raised against human UCP4 as a single 36-kDa band. A lower expression of ZaUCP4 at the level of mRNA and protein and a decreased ZaUCP4 activity were observed in the Z. atratus pupal fat body compared with the larval fat body. The different expression patterns and activity of ZaUCP4 during the larval-pupal transformation indicates an important physiological role for UCP4 in insect fat body development and function during insect metamorphosis.

  15. Official Guard and Reserve Manpower Strengths and Statistics. FY 2002 Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    ARPERSCOM. ARPC PPO ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZA ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZPP ARPERSCOM. ARPC ALP-T ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZAP T ARPERSCOM. ARPC ZAP TS ARMY RESERVE...TAACM 1 ARMY AUDIT AGENCY. SAAG AFF 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC-PPO 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC-ZA 1 ARPERSCOM. ARPC- ZPP 2 ARPERSCOM. ARPC ALP-T 9 ARPERSCOM. ARPC

  16. Multicomponent Analysis of Junctional Movements Regulated by Myosin II Isoforms at the Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Smutny, Michael; Wu, Selwin K.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Mangold, Sabine; Yap, Alpha S.; Hamilton, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    The zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelial cells is a site of cell-cell adhesion where cellular forces are exerted and resisted. Increasing evidence indicates that E-cadherin adhesion molecules at the ZA serve to sense force applied on the junctions and coordinate cytoskeletal responses to those forces. Efforts to understand the role that cadherins play in mechanotransduction have been limited by the lack of assays to measure the impact of forces on the ZA. In this study we used 4D imaging of GFP-tagged E-cadherin to analyse the movement of the ZA. Junctions in confluent epithelial monolayers displayed prominent movements oriented orthogonal (perpendicular) to the ZA itself. Two components were identified in these movements: a relatively slow unidirectional (translational) component that could be readily fitted by least-squares regression analysis, upon which were superimposed more rapid oscillatory movements. Myosin IIB was a dominant factor responsible for driving the unilateral translational movements. In contrast, frequency spectrum analysis revealed that depletion of Myosin IIA increased the power of the oscillatory movements. This implies that Myosin IIA may serve to dampen oscillatory movements of the ZA. This extends our recent analysis of Myosin II at the ZA to demonstrate that Myosin IIA and Myosin IIB make distinct contributions to junctional movement at the ZA. PMID:21799860

  17. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  18. Sulfation mediates activity of zosteric acid against biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Cavas, Levent; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Zosteric acid (ZA), a metabolite from the marine sea grass Zostera marina, has attracted much attention due to its attributed antifouling (AF) activity. However, recent results on dynamic transformations of aromatic sulfates in marine phototrophic organisms suggest potential enzymatic desulfation of metabolites like ZA. The activity of ZA was thus re-investigated using biofilm assays and simultaneous analytical monitoring by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Comparison of ZA and its non-sulfated form para-coumaric acid (CA) revealed that the active substance was in all cases the non-sulfated CA while ZA was virtually inactive. CA exhibited a strong biofilm inhibiting activity against Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens. The LC/MS data revealed that the apparent biofilm inhibiting effects of ZA on V. natriegens can be entirely attributed to CA released from ZA by sulfatase activity. In the light of various potential applications, the (a)biotic transformation of ZA to CA has thus to be considered in future AF formulations.

  19. Zoledronic acid impairs stromal reactivity by inhibiting M2-macrophages polarization and prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Comito, Giuseppina; Segura, Coral Pons; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Lanciotti, Michele; Serni, Sergio; Morandi, Andrea; Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a biphosphonate used for osteoporosis treatment and also proved to be effective to reduce the pain induced by bone metastases when used as adjuvant therapy in solid cancers. However, it has been recently proposed that ZA could have direct anti-tumour effects, although the molecular mechanism is unknown. We herein unravel a novel anti-tumour activity of ZA in prostate cancer (PCa), by targeting the pro-tumorigenic properties of both stromal and immune cells. Particularly, we demonstrate that ZA impairs PCa-induced M2-macrophages polarization, reducing their pro-invasive effect on tumour cells and their pro-angiogenic features. Crucially, ZA administration reverts cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) activation by targeting the mevalonate pathway and RhoA geranyl-geranylation, thereby impairing smooth muscle actin-α fibers organization, a prerequisite of fibroblast activation. Moreover, ZA prevents the M2 macrophages-mediated activation of normal fibroblast, highlighting the broad efficacy of this drug on tumour microenvironment. These results are confirmed in a metastatic xenograft PCa mouse model in which ZA-induced stromal normalization impairs cancer-stromal cells crosstalk, resulting in a significant reduction of primary tumour growth and metastases. Overall these findings reinforce the efficacy of ZA as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce cancer aggressiveness, by abrogating the supportive role of tumour microenvironment. PMID:27223431

  20. Guided bone regeneration with local zoledronic acid and titanium barrier: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Dundar, Serkan; Ozgur, Cem; Yaman, Ferhan; Cakmak, Omer; Saybak, Arif; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Alan, Hilal; Artas, Gokhan; Nacakgedigi, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on new bone formation of autogenous blood alone or in combination with zoledronic acid (ZA), a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) graft or ZA plus a β-TCP graft placed under titanium barriers. For this purpose, eight adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used in the study, each with four titanium barriers fixed around four sets of nine holes drilled in the calvarial bones. The study included four groups, each containing 2 rabbits. In the autogenous blood (AB group), only autogeneous blood was placed under the titanium barriers. The three experimental groups were the AB+ZA group, with autogenous blood plus ZA, the AB+β-TCP group, with autogeneous blood plus a β-TCP graft, and the AB+β-TCP+ZA group, with autogeneous blood plus a β-TCP graft and ZA mixture under the titanium barriers. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months. The amounts of new bone formation identified histomorphometrically were found to be higher after 3 months than at the time of surgery in all groups. The differences between the groups were examined with histomorphometric analysis, and statistically significant differences were identified at the end of the 3 months. The bone formation rate in the AB+β-TCP+ZA group was determined to be significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.05). In the AB+ZA and AB+β-TCP groups, the bone formation rate was determined to be significantly higher than that in the AB group (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference in bone formation rate was observed between the AB+β-TCP and AB+ZA groups. Local ZA used with autogeneous blood and/or graft material appears to be a more effective method than the use of autogeneous blood or graft alone in bone augmentation executed with a titanium barrier. PMID:27698687

  1. The Effects of Zoledronic Acid in the Bone and Vasculature Support of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Soki, Fabiana N.; Li, Xin; Berry, Janice; Koh, Amy; Sinder, Benjamin P.; Qian, Xu; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Taichman, Russell S.; McCauley, Laurie K.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are maintained in a tightly regulated bone microenvironment constituted by a rich milieu of cells. Bone cells such as osteoblasts are associated with niche maintenance as regulators of the endosteal microenvironment. Bone remodeling also plays a role in HSC mobilization although it is poorly defined. The effects of zoledronic acid (ZA), a potent bisphosphonate that inhibits bone resorption, were investigated on bone marrow cell populations focusing on HSCs, and the endosteal and vascular niches in bone. ZA treatment significantly increased bone volume and HSCs in both young and adult mice (4 week and 4 month old, respectively). ZA increased vessel numbers with no overall change in vascular volume in bones of young and had no effect on vasculature in adult mice. Since both young and adult mice had increased HSCs and bone mass with differing vasculature responses, this suggests that ZA indirectly supports HSCs via the osteoblastic niche and not the vascular niche. Additionally, gene expression in Lin- cells demonstrated increased expression of self-renewal-related genes Bmi1 and Ink4a suggesting a role of ZA in the modulation of cell commitment and differentiation toward a long-term self-renewing cell. Genes that support the osteoblastic niche, BMP2 and BMP6 were also augmented in ZA treated mice. In conclusion, ZA-induced HSC expansion occurs independent of the vascular niche via indirect modulation of the osteoblastic niche. PMID:22833499

  2. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Ryan C.; Custis, James T.; Ehrhart, Nicole P.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Condon, Keith W.; Gookin, Sara E.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA) have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy). Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total). Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis) 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH) treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma. PMID:27332712

  3. Markers of bone metabolism in multiple myeloma patients switched from zoledronic acid to denosumab.

    PubMed

    Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Sato, Tsutomu; Ibata, Soushi; Hashimoto, Akari; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Ono, Kaoru; Takada, Kohichi; Iyama, Satoshi; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

    2014-11-01

    To date, intravenous drip infusion of zoledronic acid (ZA) has mainly been used for the treatment and prevention of skeletal-related events (SRE) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, denosumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), has also become available for the same purpose, but little is known about the impact of switching from ZA to denosumab. Herein, we present a retrospective study on bone metabolic markers in 10 MM patients initially treated with ZA and then switched to denosumab. Consequently, the levels of bone resorption markers, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) and serum type-I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide (sNTX), significantly decreased after denosumab treatment, while the levels of bone formation markers, osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), showed no apparent changes. No patient developed severe hypocalcemia with denosumab treatment. In one patient not given chemotherapy, the M-protein level increased after switching from ZA to denosumab and plateaued when ZA was restarted. Based on this finding, we anticipate that switching from ZA to denosumab would exert a stronger suppressive effect on osteoclasts, but the anti-myeloma activity of ZA must be taken into consideration.

  4. The miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the anti-tumoral effects of zoledronic acid in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fragni, M; Bonini, S A; Bettinsoli, P; Bodei, S; Generali, D; Bottini, A; Spano, P F; Memo, M; Sigala, S

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical data indicate a direct anti-tumor effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) outside the skeleton, but its molecular mechanism is still not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ZA in human breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that they may in part be mediated via the miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. The effect of ZA on cell viability was measured by MTT assay, and cell death induction was analyzed using either a double AO/EtBr staining and M30 ELISA assay. A Proteome Profiler Human Apoptosis Array was executed to evaluate the molecular basis of ZA-induced apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis was executed by flow cytometry. The effect of ZA on miR-21 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and the amount of PTEN protein and its targets were analyzed by Western blot. ZA inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, through the activation of cell death pathways and arrest of cell cycle progression. ZA downregulated the expression of miR-21, resulting in dephosphorilation of Akt and Bad and in a significant increase of p21 and p27 proteins expression. These results were observed also in MDA-MB-231 cells, commonly used as an experimental model of bone metastasis of breast cancer. This study revealed, for the first time, an involvement of the miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway in the mechanism of ZA anti-cancer actions in breast cancer cells. We would like to underline that this pathway is present both in the hormone responsive BC cell line (MCF-7) as well as in a triple negative cell line (MDA-MB-231). Taken together these results reinforce the use of ZA in clinical practice, suggesting the role of miR-21 as a possible mediator of its therapeutic efficacy.

  5. The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the Δ(3)Δ (2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Justus, Jennifer; Weigand, Edgar

    2014-06-01

    Auxiliary enzymes participate in β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of a moderate zinc deficiency and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat on Δ(3)Δ(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase (ECI) in the liver and other tissues. Five groups of eight weanling rats each were fed moderately zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-adequate (ZA) semisynthetic diets (7 or 50 mg Zn/kg) enriched with 22 % cocoa butter (CB) or 22 % safflower oil (SO) for 4 weeks: (1) ZD-CB, fed free choice; (2) ZA-CBR, ZA-CB diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-CB group; (3) ZD-SO, fed free choice; (4) ZA-SOR, ZA-SO diet fed in equivalent amounts consumed by the ZD-SO group; and (5) ZA-SO, fed free choice. Growth and Zn status markers were markedly reduced in the ZD groups. ECI activity in the liver of the animals fed the ZD- and ZA-SO diets were significantly higher (approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively) as compared with the CB-fed animals, whereas activities in extrahepatic tissues (kidneys, heart, skeletal muscle, testes, adipose tissue) were not altered by dietary treatments. Transcript levels of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver did not significantly differ between ZD and ZA rats, but were 1.6-fold higher in the ZA-SO- than in the ZD-CB-fed animals (P < 0.05). It is concluded that diets enriched with safflower oil as a source high in linoleic acid induce markedly increased hepatic ECI activities and that a moderate Zn deficiency does not affect transcription of the mitochondrial Eci gene in the liver.

  6. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    led Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement negotiations. Strategic Cooperation and the U.S.-ROK Alliance Dealing with North Korea...78.49 yrs.; North Korea = 69.2 yrs.) Infant Mortality: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births (U.S. = 6.00) Fertility Rate: 1.24 children born/woman...its “interest” in joining the twelve-nation Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement 3

  7. Lessons from the Past: Vital Factors Influencing Military Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Military Advisory Group ROK Republic of Korea RVNAF Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces SAO Security Assistance Operations SCO Security Cooperation...Reconstruction. 2010. Quarterly report to the United States Congress. Third Quarter. 14 3 Rod Norland. “Showcase Afghan Army Mission Turns Into Debacle...Assistance Operations ( SAO ), such as those conducted by the United States and NTM-A in Afghanistan, military advisors play a key role. In order to assess

  8. A Study of Lightning Protection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    ri in e pro t al ics y be the c lou h ri m p 1 i 0 to t rok s bu se o t al gram ., 1 of t en e wa v d-t o ses tude 90 e fi...ield. the same ller et al. verall 978, 1980) microsecond ial return ic field half of the it ion to c. similar to croseconds To measure

  9. Toward a Regional Triad -- The Nature of Future US Strategic Engagement in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    generally focused on Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) in the north . The East Sea Fleet, focused upon Taiwan in the center, is homeported at...Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Burma ( Myanmar ), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. 30Colloquially, “the ASEAN Way”--their charter stresses the non...United States Department of Defense Foreign Military Sales Program INF Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty MEU U.S. Marine Expeditionary Unit

  10. Naval War College Review. Volume 63, Number 2, Spring 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    dynamics of sea -ice cover, circulation patterns in the water, and the structure of the Arctic Ocean’s bathymetry .32 Navy surface, aviation, and special...piracy off the coast of Somalia lies in linking current sea -based counterpiracy methods with approaches designed to remedy the underlying instability...ROK interaction at sea provides valuable insights into what might be called “third party” maritime security cooperation—something the United States

  11. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    of efforts to improve the safety of nuclear reactors that were started together with the USSR. These efforts are focused in particular on...characteristics of these reactors are quite encouraging. With their improved safety and low radiation effect on environment they ensure the possi...Nuclear Power [KYODO] 3 Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Reports Leak [KYODO] 3 NORTH KOREA Nuclear Weapons Capability Discussed by ROK Paper

  12. Avoiding Downward Security Spirals in Northeast Asia: The Gradual Transition to a Militarily "Normalized" Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    116 Chung-in Moon and Seung -won Suh, “Security, Economy, and Identity Politics: Japan-South Korean Relations under the Kim Dae-jung...relationship. It is not a coincidence that this dramatic thawing of South Korean-Japanese relations took place during the administration of Kim ... hee . The extent of his ties to Tokyo became more evident in the aftermath of his abduction from the safety of Japan by ROK special agents on 8

  13. The United States-Republic of Korea Alliance: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Korea in order to deter an attack by the Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea. This paper examines the security alliance that exists between the...region: The Republic of Korea, the Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea, the Peoples ’ Republic of China, Japan and the Russian Federation. This paper...of Korea (ROK), Alliance, South Korea, North Korea, Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea (DPRK), United States Forces Korea (USFK), Korea Command

  14. The Development of a Standard Database System for Republic of Korea Army’s Personnel Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    for ROK Army personnel management ? Which data items should be incorporated in a database? Which tecnique should be applied to design data- bases using a...iD-Ri33 499 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD DATABASE SYSTEM FOR i/i REPUBLIC OF KOREA ARMY’S PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California . THESIS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD DATABASE SYSTEM FOR REPUBLIC OF KOREA ARMY’S PERSONNEL MANAGE

  15. North Korean Foreign Relations in the Post-Cold War World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    alienation, and the death of its founder, the “ eternal president” Kim Il Sung. But with its nuclear and missile brinkmanship diplomacy, it has become a...death of its founder, the “ eternal president” Kim Il Sung, a downward spiral of industrial output, food/energy/ hard currency shortages, shrinking...Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.” With Kim Dae Jung’s inauguration as ROK president in February 1998, South Korea initiated the Sunshine

  16. The Potential of the Republic of Korea Navy for Cooperation with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force in the Security of Greater East Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    DPRK’s fishing vessels, he said: The ROK naval officer, Ensign Un Soo Koo, was a bright, extrovert type. On many occasions he managed to get information...U.S. perspective, the entry into the Pacific war States was concerned that the final war for control of Japan sense , therefore, to invite the Soviets...rearmament could bring with it the chance for a recurrence of the events that brought atomic destruction to the homeland. Nothing, they feel , is worth

  17. Identification of Novel Candidate Tumor Suppressor Genes Using C. elegans as a Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Breast Cancer, Tumor Suppressors, Growth Factor Receptors, Model System, Molecular Cloning , Proto-Oncogenes, Genetic Analysis 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 26...its molecular cloning in any case since it represents a new locus. sy542 is being analyzed now to determine if it is worthy of pursuit. rok-2(sy317...allow its molecular cloning this year, rot-1 appears to act downstream oflin-25 as indicated by its suppression oflin-25 null mutation (Table 6

  18. Korea: Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-03-01

    03-1959 1 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Korea : Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Force 5b. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Support and Korean officers and officials concerned with nutrition and feeding, Mr. Kim Chung Yul, Minister for National Defense , made a formal...2. Annex 1, prepared by the Acting UNC Economic Coordinator, sets forth the effect of the above shift on Korean Economy and the ROK defense effort

  19. Community Response to Terrorism: The South Korean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    KOREA Ever since the division of the Korean peninsula at the conclusion of the Second World War, South Koreans have lived with real and imagined...threats from communist North Korea (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , or DPRK). The authorities have been unable to prevent all North Korean ...on three lines of defense . First, an authoritarian government kept firm control over Korean society. Second, the police and the ROK army were visibly

  20. The Economic Implications of Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The eventual reunification of the Korean peninsula will offer many challenges for...in the development of two very different governments and economies. The two Koreas are technically still at war; the Korean War ended with the signing...96 Korea actually began to become industrialized during the last fifteen years of Japanese occupation. The number of Koreans employed in heavy

  1. Air Power in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    was simply to expel the North Korean communists from the free country in the south called the Republic of Korea . The U.S. national objective was to... Korea reasoning that the forces could best be used elsewhere. During the three years prior to the Korean War, Truman’s policy toward the ROK was...increasing Chinese Communist interests in North Korea .4 On 10 March 1950, Truman was further warned that the North Koreans would “invade sometime in

  2. Log-centric Airbase-opening Strategies in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    is becoming politically less viable.”4 In the Korean theater of operations (KTO), Republic of Korea (ROK) and U.S. plan- ners, from Combined Forces...in the Korean War. —Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker, Commander, 8th U.S. Army, Korea , 19501 South Korean military members participate with U.S...pallet buildup and cargo loading Supplies are loaded onto Korean C–130 at Hickam Air Base, Hawaii Republic of Korea air force security advisor speaks

  3. The relationship between mosquito abundance and rice field density in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis (JE), is endemic to the Republic of Korea (ROK) where unvaccinated United States (U.S.) military Service members, civilians and family members are stationed. The primary vector of the JEV in the ROK is Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The ecological relationship between Culex spp. and rice fields has been studied extensively; rice fields have been shown to increase the prevalence of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. This research was conducted to determine if the quantification of rice field land cover surrounding U.S. military installations in the ROK should be used as a parameter in a larger risk model that predicts the abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus populations. Mosquito data from the U.S. Forces Korea (USFK) mosquito surveillance program were used in this project. The average number of female Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected per trap night for the months of August and September, 2002-2008, was calculated. Rice fields were manually digitized inside 1.5 km buffer zones surrounding U.S. military installations on high-resolution satellite images, and the proportion of rice fields was calculated for each buffer zone. Results Mosquito data collected from seventeen sample sites were analyzed for an association with the proportion of rice field land cover. Results demonstrated that the linear relationship between the proportion of rice fields and mosquito abundance was statistically significant (R2 = 0.62, r = .79, F = 22.72, p < 0.001). Conclusions The analysis presented shows a statistically significant linear relationship between the two parameters, proportion of rice field land cover and log10 of the average number of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected per trap night. The findings confirm that agricultural land cover should be included in future studies to develop JE risk prediction models for non-indigenous personnel living at military installations in the ROK. PMID:20573242

  4. Ssang Yong 2014 Remote Sensing Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    by the spectral sensors. Since radiative transfer across wind-blown water surfaces is more complex and difficult to describe quantitatively than...Corps with the ROK. This report describes key instrumentation and ensuing collected data used in the construction of libraries and models required to...rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/subsets/?subset=FAS_Korea.2010003.terra.1km). Geophysical parameters describing the Earth’s surface (land and ocean) and atmosphere

  5. Molecular detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and tick-borne encephalitis viruses in ixodid ticks collected from vegetation, Republic of Korea, 2014.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, WooYoung; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Coburn, Jordan M; Klein, Terry A; Lee, Won-Ja

    2016-07-01

    Ticks play an important role in transmission of arboviruses responsible for emerging infectious diseases, and have a significant impact on human, veterinary, and wildlife health. In the Republic of Korea (ROK), little is known about information regarding the presence of tick-borne viruses and their vectors. A total of 21,158 ticks belonging to 3 genera and 6 species collected at 6 provinces and 4 metropolitan areas in the ROK from March to October 2014 were assayed for selected tick-borne pathogens. Haemaphysalis longicornis (n=17,570) was the most numerously collected, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (n=3317), Ixodes nipponensis (n=249), Amblyomma testudinarium (n=11), Haemaphysalis phasiana (n=8), and Ixodes turdus (n=3). Ticks were pooled (adults 1-5, nymphs 1-30, and larvae 1-50) and tested by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or nested RT-PCR for the detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia virus (SFTSV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Powassan virus (POWV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), and Langat virus (LGTV). The overall maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) [estimated numbers of viral RNA positive ticks/1000 ticks] for SFTSV and TBEV was 0.95 and 0.43, respectively, while, all pools were negative for POWV, OHFV, and LGTV. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of SFTSV, TBEV, POWV, OHFV, and LGTV in ixodid ticks collected from vegetation in the ROK to aid our understanding of the epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases. Results from this study emphasize the need for continuous tick-based arbovirus surveillance to monitor the emergence of tick-borne diseases in the ROK.

  6. Méthode quantitative d'étude des formations détritiques azoïques: grès anté-panafricains du Centrafrique et du Nord de la République Démocratique du Congo (ex-Zaïre)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, P.

    2000-08-01

    The stratigraphical correlation of discontinuous outcrops without biostratigraphical markers requires specific methods: a statistical distribution analysis of noteworthy components that allows characterisation of sediment source areas and reconstitution of particle supply variations; and a frequency histogram study that allows comparison and grouping, and subsequent correlation. These methods, applied to Pal˦oproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sandstone formations of the Central African Republic, suggest a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian fluvio-deltaic system with a paludal-lacustrine outlet. The sediment source area corresponded to a weathered and laterised grano-gneissic basement associated with a quartzite cover with acid volcanism. The fluvio-deltaic system settled during an interglacial period between a lower fluvio-giacial episode and an upper glacial episode of global character. It was marked by a substantial detntal flow, contemporaneous with basic volcanism, which filled up extensional basins. The sedimentary dynamics of this detrital system has been determined in the Central African Republic. It forms an integral part of a global model not only peculiar to the northern periphery of the Central African Craton (Congo, Cameroon, the northern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo), but also to its southeastern (Congo, Lower-Zaire, Angola) and southwestern (Democratic Republic of Congo) borders. In the Central African Republic and Congo, the channalised and conglomeratic base of this fluvio-deltaic system are favoured for diamond prospecting.

  7. Determination of Two-Liquid Mixture Composition by Assessing Dielectric Parameters 1. Precise Measuring System / Divu Šķidrumu Maisījuma Sastāva Noteikšana, Izvērtējot to Dielektriskos Parametrus 1. Precīza Mērīšanas Sistēma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilitis, O.; Shipkovs, P.; Merkulovs, D.

    2013-08-01

    Concentration measurements are important in bioethanol industries, in the R&D areas, for chemical, medical and microbiological analyses and processing as well as for diagnostics, manufacturing, etc. The overview shows development of the structural design of a system for measuring the concentration of solutions and mixtures consisting of two dielectric liquids. The basic principles of the system's design are given along with relevant equations. The concentration of dielectric liquids is measured using devices with capacitive sensors (1-300 pF). The operational frequency of the developed measuring system is 100.000 kHz. Configuration of the system excludes some errors usually arising at measurements, and broadens its applicability. For testing, the system was calibrated for measuring the concentration of anhydrous ethanol + de-ionized water mixture. Experimental results have shown a stable resolution of ±0.005 pF at measuring the sensor capacitance and a reproducible resolution better than ±0.01% at measuring the ethanol volume concentration Rakstā esam parādījuši iespējas izveidot augstas precizitātes, kompaktu, lētu un ērtu lietošanai dielektrisku šķidrumu mērīšanas sistēmu koncentrācijas noteikšanai. Šī sistēma ir piemērojama kapacitīviem sensoriem, kuru kapacitāte ir atkarīga no sensora izveidojuma kā arī mērāmā šķidruma dielektriskās konstantes vērtības, un kapacitāte var tikt noteikta pie frekvences 100,000 kHz robežās no 1 F līdz 300 pF. Mērīšanas sistēmas pārbaudei, sistēma tika kalibrēta etanola koncentrācijas mērīšanai tilpuma procentos sertificēta bezūdens etanola un dejonizēta ūdens maisījumiem. Pārbaužu rezultāti pierādīja, ka sensora kapacitātes vērtības ir stabili nosakāmas ar izšķirtspēju ne mazāku par ±0,005 pF. Sensora kapacitāšu vērtībām atbilstošā etanola tilpuma koncentrācijas atkārtojamu mērījumu izšķirtspēja visā mērīšanas diapazonā nebija mazāka par ±0,01%. Šajā darbā piedāvātajā jaunajā mērīšanas sistēmas struktūras risinājumā iekļautas divas tiešas signālu digitālās sintēzes mikrosistēmas, kas ar augstu precizitāti ģenerē mērīšanai nepieciešamās formas, fāzes un amplitūdas signālus ar 100,000 kHz frekvenci un tiek vadītas no mikrokontrolera. Mērīšanas sistēmā izmantota mērsignālu sinhronizētās detektēšanas tehnika. Izstrādātās sistēmas konigurācija, mērīšanas režīma uzstādījums un vadība automātiski praktiski izslēdz virkni mērīšanas signālu parazītisko fāzes nobīžu un fāzes uzstādījumu kļūdas. Izstrādātā mērīšanas sistēma ērti piemērojama vispārējai izmantošanai kapacitātes vai impedances mērierīcēs. Samērā nelielā prognozējamā mērīšanas sistēmas pašizmaksa un kompaktā, portatīvā konstrukcija, kā arī iepriekš minētās priekšrocības paplašina sistēmas lietojumu ne tikai etanola koncentrācijas mērīanai bioetanola ražošanas procesā, bet šī sistēma var tikt izmantota arī eļļas, benzīna un citu degvielu testēšanai, ķīmiskajā, farmācijas un pārtikas industrijā, mikrobioloģijā un medicīnā, lai noteiktu glikozes, antigēnu, antivielu, proteīna, DNS fragmentu un citu vielu saturu šķīdumos u.c.

  8. Modeling of Accurate Variable Slope Angles in Open-Pit Mine Design Using Spline Interpolation / Modelowanie Zmiennego Kąta Nachylenia Stoku W Projektowaniu Kopalni Odkrywkowych Za Pomocą Interpolacji Funkcjami Sklejającymi (Metodą Spline'Ów)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishvan, Masoud Soleymani; Sattarvand, Javad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper a new method of modeling variable slope angles has been presented based on the spline interpolation method. Slope angle modeling and defining precedency of the blocks are the vital parts of almost any open pit optimization algorithm. Traditionally heuristic patterns such as 1:5 or 1:9 have been used to generate slope angles. Cone template based models were later employed in developing variable slope angles. They normally use a linear interpolation process for determination of slope angles between the given directions which leads to sharp and non-realistic pits. The other elliptical alternatives suffer from having limitations in defining slope angles in non-geographical directions. The method is capable to consider any number of slope angles in any desired direction as well as creating quite accurate and realistic pit shapes. Three major types of the spline interpolation including cubic, quadratic and cardinal are tested, however, the cubic form is preferred due to more realistic outcomes. Main steps of the method are described through a numerical case study.

  9. Capillary liquid chromatographic fingerprint used for discrimination of Zingiber montanum from related species.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamad; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Darusman, Latifah Kosim

    2013-08-01

    Fingerprint analysis using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) has been developed for discrimination of Zingiber montanum (ZM) from related species, for example Z. americans (ZA) and Z. zerumbet (ZZ). By comparing the fingerprint chromatograms of ZM, ZA, and ZZ we could identify ZM samples and discriminate them from ZA and ZZ by using their marker peaks. We also combined CLC fingerprint with multivariate analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA); all three species were discriminated successfully. This result indicates that CLC fingerprint analysis in combination with PCA and CVA can be used for discrimination of ZM samples from samples of related species.

  10. Pelvic organ prolapse is associated with alteration of sphingosine-1-phosphate/Rho-kinase signalling pathway in human vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Rhee, S H; Zhang, P; Hunter, K; Mama, S T; Caraballo, R; Holzberg, A S; Seftel, R H; Seftel, A D; Echols, K T; DiSanto, M E

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a debilitating condition of unknown aetiology affecting > 50% of women over 40 years of age. In POP patients, the vaginal walls are weakened allowing descent of pelvic organs through the vagina. We sought to determine if sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling, which regulates smooth muscle contractility and apoptosis via the RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROK) pathway, is altered in the vagina of women with POP. Utilising anterior vaginal wall specimens, we provide novel demonstration of the S1P pathway in this organ. Additionally, comparing specimens from women having pelvic reconstructive surgery for POP and control subjects, we reveal increases in mRNA expression of the three major mammalian S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P3), and RhoA and the ROK isoforms: ROKα and ROKβ in POP patients, which correlates with a decrease in elastic fibre assembly pathway constituents. Taken together, our data suggest the S1P/ROK pathway as a novel area for future POP research and potential therapeutic development.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Sapovirus Detected in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Lim; Suh, Chang-Il; Park, Seung-Won; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Sapovirus (SaV), a virus residing in the intestines, is one of the important causes of gastroenteritis in human beings. Human SaV genomes are classified into various genogroups and genotypes. Whole-genome analysis and phylogenetic analysis of ROK62, the SaV isolated in South Korea, were carried out. The ROK62 genome of 7429 nucleotides contains 3 open-reading frames (ORF). The genotype of ROK62 is SaV GI-1, and 94% of its nucleotide sequence is identical with other SaVs, namely Manchester and Mc114. Recently, SaV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighboring South Korea; however, very few academic studies have been done nationally. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of SaV in South Korea, this research will help provide reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemic spread, and development of diagnosis methods for SaV.

  12. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  13. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  14. 40 CFR 430.00 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Fa) B Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Market pulp at bleached kraft mills (Ga); paperboard, coarse... nonintegrated mills (Za). a This subpart is contained in the 40 CFR parts 425 through 699, edition revised as...

  15. Survey of Ergonomics Databases in Member Countries of the International Ergonomics Association.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Sociale Engineering Materials and Design. Archiv Za Higijenu Rada I Toksikologiju Environmental Health Artificial Intelligence Ergonomia (Hungary) At the...Centre (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health Ergonomia (Poland) and Safety) Ergonomiatiedote Australian Department of Transport. Road Safety In

  16. 75 FR 14131 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-ZA28 Broadband Technology Opportunities... for the electronic submission of CCI projects under the Broadband Technology Opportunities...

  17. 75 FR 6627 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-ZA28 Broadband Technology Opportunities...) announcing general policy and application procedures for the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program...

  18. Supersaturation of zafirlukast in fasted and fed state intestinal media with and without precipitation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Boyd, Ben; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-08-25

    Poor water solubility is a bottle neck in the development of many new drug candidates, and understanding and circumventing this is essential for a more effective drug development. Zafirlukast (ZA) is a leukotriene antagonist marketed for the treatment of asthma (Accolate®). ZA is poorly water soluble, and is formulated in an amorphous form (aZA) to improve its solubility and oral bioavailability. It has been shown that upon dissolution of aZa, the concentration of ZA in solution is supersaturated with respect to its stable crystalline form (ZA monohydrate), and thus, in theory, the bioavailability increases upon amorphization of ZA. The polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), often used as stabilizers of the supersaturated state, are in the excipient list of Accolate®. It is not recommended to take Accolate® with food, as this reduces the bioavailability by 40%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of simulated fasted and fed state intestinal media as well as the effect of HPMC and PVP on the supersaturation and precipitation of ZA in vitro. Supersaturation of aZA was studied in vitro in a small scale setup using the μDiss Profiler™. Several media were used for this study: One medium simulating the fasted state intestinal fluids and three media simulating different fed state intestinal fluids. Solid state changes of the drug were investigated by small angle x-ray scattering. The duration wherein aZA was maintained at a supersaturated state was prolonged in the presence of HPMC and lasted more than 20h in the presence of PVP in a fasted state intestinal medium. The presence of PVP increased the concentration of drug dissolved in the supersaturated state. The duration of supersaturation was shorter in fed than in a fasted state simulated intestinal media, but the concentration during supersaturation was higher. It was thus not possible to predict any positive or negative food effects from the dissolution

  19. Extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of cytocidal potency of zoledronic acid in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sayaka; Arai, Naoya; Tomihara, Kei; Takashina, Michinori; Hattori, Yuichi; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-08-15

    Direct antitumor effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) have been demonstrated in various cancer cells in vitro. However, the effective concentrations of BPs are typically much higher than their clinically relevant concentrations. Oral cancers frequently invade jawbone and may lead to the release of Ca(2+) in primary lesions. We investigated the effects of the combined application of zoledronic acid (ZA) and Ca(2+) on proliferation and apoptosis of oral cancer cells. Human oral cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells were treated with ZA at a wide range of concentrations in different Ca(2+) concentration environments. Under a standard Ca(2+) concentration (0.6mM), micromolar concentrations of ZA were required to inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations greatly enhanced the potency of the ZA cytocidal effect. The ability of Ca(2+) to enhance the cytocidal effects of ZA was negated by the Ca(2+)-selective chelator EGTA. In contrast, the cytocidal effect of ZA was less pronounced in breast and colon cancer cells regardless of whether extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated. In oral cancer cells incubated with 1.6mM Ca(2+), ZA up-regulated mitochondrial Bax expression and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c. We suggest that ZA can specifically produce potent cytocidal activity in oral cancer cells in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner, implying that BPs may be useful for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with jawbone invasion leading to the hypercalcemic state.

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with the Combination of Zeolite and Attapulgite on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Secretion of Digestive Enzymes and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, P.; Tan, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y. M.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of basal diets supplemented with a clay product consisting of zeolite and attapulgite (ZA) at 1:1 ratio on growth performance, digestibility of feed nutrients, activities of digestive enzymes in small intestine and intestinal health in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 112 one-day-old male chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates of 7 chickens each. In experiment 2, 84 one-day-old male chickens were randomly allocated into 2 groups consisting 6 replicates of 7 chickens each. The experimental diets both consisted of a maize-soybean basal control diet supplemented with 0% or 2% ZA. The diets were fed from 1 to 42 days of age. The results showed that ZA supplementation could increase body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI), but had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. The apparent digestibility values of crude protein and gross energy were significantly increased (p<0.05) by ZA from 14 to 16 d and 35 to 37 d. Dietary ZA treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in jejunal digesta and the activities of maltase and sucrase in jejunal mucosa on days 21 and 42. The ZA supplementation also significantly increased (p<0.05) the catalase activity, reduced (p<0.05) the malondialdehyde concentration in the jejunal mucosa. In addition, a decrease of serum diamine oxidase activity and an increase (p<0.05) in concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A in jejunal mucosa were observed in birds treated with ZA on 21 and 42 days. It is concluded that ZA supplementation (2%) could partially improve the growth performance by increasing BWG and FI. This improvement was achieved through increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes, enhancing the digestibilites of nutrients, promoting intestinal health of broiler chickens. PMID:25178375

  1. FES-Rowing versus Zoledronic Acid to Improve Bone Health in SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    extremities caused by spinal cord injuries can be slowed or reversed with a combination of an exercise that simulates weight- bearing and a bisphosphonate...12 months (n = 29) of exercise (n=17 at all three time points). Axial stiffness of the proximal fibula (non- weight- bearing bone, reflecting the...effect of ZA treatment alone), and proximal tibia and distal femur (reflective of weight- bearing and ZA treatment) were quantified via finite element

  2. Why the Greenwich Meridian Moved

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., Springfield, VA 22150, USA 2 Analytical Graphics, Inc., 220 Valley Creek Blvd, Exton, PA 19341-2380, USA 3 Astronomy ...the astronomi - cal zenith, Za, is north of the geodetic zenith, Zg; and η is positive when Za is east of Zg (Torge 2001, p. 219). These slopes can be...frame and in astronomical computations for positional astronomy were introduced in 1984 after 10years of plan- ning (Kaplan 1981 and references

  3. Zoledronic acid inhibits aromatase activity and phosphorylation: potential mechanism for additive zoledronic acid and letrozole drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Schech, Amanda J; Nemieboka, Brandon E; Brodie, Angela H

    2012-11-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate originally indicated for use in osteoporosis, has been reported to exert a direct effect on breast cancer cells, although the mechanism of this effect is currently unknown. Data from the ABCSG-12 and ZO-FAST clinical trials suggest that treatment with the combination of ZA and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in increased disease free survival in breast cancer patients over AI alone. To determine whether the mechanism of this combination involved inhibition of aromatase, AC-1 cells (MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with an aromatase construct) were treated simultaneously with combinations of ZA and AI letrozole. This combination significantly increased inhibition of aromatase activity of AC-1 cells when compared to letrozole alone. Treatment of 1 nM letrozole in combination with 1 μM or 10 μM ZA resulted in an additive drug interaction on inhibition of cell viability, as measured by MTT assay. Treatment with ZA was found to inhibit phosphorylation of aromatase on serine residues. Zoledronic acid was also shown to be more effective in inhibiting cell viability in aromatase transfected AC-1 cells when compared to inhibition of cell viability observed in non-transfected MCF-7. Estradiol was able to partially rescue the effect of 1 μM and 10 μM ZA on cell viability following treatment for 72 h, as shown by a shift to the right in the estradiol dose-response curve. In conclusion, these results indicate that the combination of ZA and letrozole results in an additive inhibition of cell viability. Furthermore, ZA alone can inhibit aromatase activity through inhibition of serine phosphorylation events important for aromatase enzymatic activity and contributes to inhibition of cell viability.

  4. Determining the extragalactic extinction law with SALT - II. Additional sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelman, Ido; Brosch, Noah; Kniazev, Alexei Y.; Väisänen, Petri; Buckley, David A. H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Gulbis, Amanda; Hashimoto, Yas; Loaring, Nicola; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Sefako, Ramotholo

    2010-12-01

    We present new results from an ongoing programme to study the dust extragalactic extinction law in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance verification phase. The wavelength dependence of the dust extinction for seven galaxies is derived in six spectral bands ranging from the near-ultraviolet atmospheric cut-off to the near-infrared. The derivation of an extinction law is performed by fitting model galaxies to the unextinguished parts of the image in each spectral band, and subtracting from these the actual images. We compare our results with the derived extinction law in the Galaxy and find them to run parallel to the Galactic extinction curve with a mean total-to-selective extinction value of RV = 2.71 +/- 0.43. We use total optical extinction values to estimate the dust mass for each galaxy, compare these with dust masses derived from IRAS measurements, and find them to range from 104 to 107 Msolar. We study the case of the well-known dust-lane galaxy NGC2685 for which Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (HST/WFPC2) data are available to test the dust distribution on different scales. Our results imply a scale-free dust distribution across the dust lanes, at least within ~1arcsec (~60 pc) regions. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). E-mail: ido@wise.tau.ac.il (IF); noah@wise.tau.ac.il (NB); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); petri@saao.ac.za (PV); dibnob@saao.ac.za (DAHB); dod@saao.ac.za (DO); amanda@saao.ac.za (AG); hashimot@ntnu.edu.tw (YH); nsl@saao.ac.za (NL); erc@saao.ac.za (ER-C); rrs@saao.ac.za (RS)

  5. Analysis of a Stochastic Model to Determine Failure Rates for Communication-Electronic Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    and Uses. Report Number R-2886-AF. The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica CA, July 1984. 13. Swokowski , Earl W. Calculus with Analytical Geometry. Boston... Swokowski (13:539): Given: i j k A Xa 0 Za B 0 Y b Z b Then: -- i - j + jXa 0jk Yb z b 0 Z b 0 YbI - YbZa(i) - XaZb(j) + XaYb(k) 26 And: IPA X PBI * (PA

  6. Main internal dose forming factors for inhabitants of contaminated regions at current phase of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident (Kyiv region as an example).

    PubMed

    Vasylenko, V V; Nechaev, S Yu; Tsigankov, M Ya; Ratia, G G; Berkovskyy, V B; Pikta, V O; Shpachenko, D I; Zadorozhna, G M; Mishhenko, L P

    2015-12-01

    Metoiu doslidzhennia ie vyznachennia osnovnykh chynnykiv formuvannia dozy vnutrishn'ogo oprominennia u meshkantsiv radioaktyvno zabrudnenykh terytoriy KyIvs'koI oblasti za rezul'tatamy provedennia kompleksnogo dozymetrych nogo monitoryngu.Materialy i metody. Dlia doslidzhen' bulo obrano 3 naselenykh punkty (NP) – s. Ragivka, s. Zelena Poliana Polis'kogo rayonu ta s. Karpylivka Ivankivs'kogo rayonu. Dvichi na rik, u travni ta zhovtni, u meshkantsiv tsykh NP bulo provedeno vyznachennia vmistu inkorporovanogo 137Cs shliakhom priamogo vymiriuvannia na lichyl'nykakh vyp rominiuvannia liudyny (LVL) bezposeredn'o za mistsem prozhyvannia, zibrano osnovni produkty kharchuvannia dlia vyznachennia vmistu v nykh radionuklidiv 90Sr ta 137Ss, i provedeno opytuvannia meshkantsiv tsykh sil shchodo rivniv spo zhyvannia tsykh produktiv. V roboti vykorystano matematychni, dozymetrychni, radiokhimichni metody.Rezul'taty ta vysnovky. Otsinky dozy vnutrishn'ogo oprominennia vid nadkhodzhennia 137Cs z molokom ta kartopleiu skladaiut' vid 0,3 do 34 % vid dozy za danymy LVL. Vnesok u dozu vnutrishn'ogo oprominennia vid 137Cs za rakhunok spozhyvannia moloka ne bil'sh, nizh v 2 razy, perevyshchuie vnesok za rakhunok spozhyvannia kartopli pry odnakovykh rivniakh spozhyvannia tsykh produktiv. Vnesok u dozu vnutrishn'ogo oprominennia vid 90Sr za rakhunok spozhyvannia mo loka ta kartopli pryblyzno odnakovyy. Spozhyvannia grybiv ta inshykh mistsevykh produktiv dykoI pryrody meshkan tsiamy obstezhuvanykh naselenykh punktiv ie odnym z osnovnykh chynnykiv formuvannia dozy vnutrishn'ogo oprominen nia, obumovlenoI nadkhodzhenniam 137Cs.

  7. Scaling of the Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-Pinch: The Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment ``FuZE''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Shumlak, U.; Claveau, E. L.; Golingo, R. P.; Weber, T. R.; McLean, H. S.; Tummel, K. K.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A. E.; UW/LLNL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch ZaP experiment was constructed based on calculations [1] showing stabilization of kink and sausage instabilities. ZaP experimentally demonstrated production and sustainment of an SFS Z-pinch for a wide range of plasma parameters, with densities up to n =1023 m-3 and a pinch radius of a = 1 cm. [2-4] The SFS Z-pinch is resistant to the instabilities of conventional Z-pinches, yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling, making it an energy-efficient way to achieve fusion-relevant conditions. The ZaP-HD (high density) experiment has demonstrated scaling of the SFS Z-pinch to 2-3 × smaller a and 10 × higher n. [5] Supported by ZaP and ZaP-HD, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment (FuZE) project investigates scaling plasma parameters toward fusion conditions by decreasing a 2-3 × to 1 mm, and increasing n 10 × to 1025 m-3. The approach combines improved gas injection and flexible power supplies with the successful ZaP SFS Z-pinch formation. Detailed fluid and kinetic simulations complement the experimental studies to gain scientific insight into the plasma behavior and predict scaling to higher performance. Supported by DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  8. Characterization of a siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gritsun, T S; Frolova, T V; Zhankov, A I; Armesto, M; Turner, S L; Frolova, M P; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A

    2003-01-01

    A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus belongs to the Siberian subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison of Za virus with two related viruses, a Far Eastern isolate, Sofjin, and a Siberian isolate, Vasilchenko, revealed differences among the three viruses in pathogenicity for Syrian hamsters, cytopathogenicity for PS cells, plaque morphology, and the electrophoretic profiles of virus-specific nonstructural proteins. Comparative amino acid alignments revealed 10 individual amino acid substitutions in the Za virus polyprotein sequence that were different from those of other tick-borne flaviviruses. Notably, the dimeric form of the Za virus NS1 protein migrated in polyacrylamide gels as a heterogeneous group of molecules with a significantly higher electrophoretic mobility than those of the Sofjin and Vasilchenko viruses. Two amino acid substitutions, T(277)-->V and E(279)-->G, within the NS1 dimerization domain are probably responsible for the altered oligomerization of Za virus NS1. These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis.

  9. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Zanthoxylum armatum in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Syed Naeemuddin; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the gut, airways and cardiovascular modulatory activities of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) to rationalize some of its medicinal uses. The crude extract of Zanthoxylum armatum (Za.Cr) caused concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, being more effective against K(+) and suggestive of Ca(++) antagonist effect, which was confirmed when pretreatment of the tissues with Za.Cr shifted Ca(++) concentration-response curves to the right, like that caused by verapamil. Za.Cr inhibited the castor-oil-induced diarrhea in mice at 300-1000 mg/kg. In rabbit tracheal preparations, Za.Cr relaxed the carbachol (1 microM) and high K(+)-induced contractions, in a pattern similar to that of verapamil. In isolated rabbit aortic rings, Za.Cr exhibited vasodilator effect against phenylephrine (1 microM) and K(+)-induced contractions. When tested in guinea pig atria, Za.Cr caused inhibition of both atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions, like that caused by verapamil. These results indicate that Zanthoxylum armatum exhibits spasmolytic effects, mediated possibly through Ca(++) antagonist mechanism, which provides pharmacological base for its medicinal use in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

  10. The effects of zoledronic acid treatment on depression and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: A clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Gokosmanoglu, Feyzi; Varim, Ceyhun; Atmaca, Aysegul; Atmaca, Mehmet Hulusi; Colak, Ramis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis affects quality of life (QoL) and may lead to depression in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment on depression and QoL in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO). Materials and Methods: A total of 88 newly diagnosed women with PO were included in this study. All patients were treated with once-yearly ZA (5 mg). A QoL questionnaire from the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and Beck Depression Inventory were given to patients at baseline and at 12 months. The results for baseline and post - 12th month were compared, and bone mineral density (BMD) levels were compared. Results: The consumption of once-yearly ZA (5 mg) treatment increases BMD at levels of lumbers 1–4 (P = 0.026), total Hip T score's P value is same as femoral neck (P: 0,033). ZA 5 mg treatment also improved QoL (P = 0.001) and reduced depression (P = 0.001). Conclusion: ZA treatment increases BMD levels and QoL while reducing depression. Once-yearly ZA (5 mg) may be considered for postmenopausal women as a first-line treatment. PMID:28255320

  11. A combination of methotrexate and zoledronic acid prevents bone erosions and systemic bone mass loss in collagen induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Osteoclasts play a key role in the pathogenesis of bone erosion and systemic bone mass loss during rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of methotrexate (MTX) and zoledronic acid (ZA), used alone or in combination, on osteoclast-mediated bone erosions and systemic bone mass loss in a rat model of collagen induced arthritis (CIA). We hypothesized that MTX and ZA could have an additive effect to prevent both bone erosion and systemic bone loss. Methods Arthritis was induced in 64 female Sprague-Dawley rats. After the clinical onset of CIA, rats were assigned to treatment with MTX (1 mg/kg/week), ZA (100 μg/kg twice weekly), both treatments at the same regimens, or vehicle. Arthritis score and paw thickness were recorded twice weekly. The rats were sacrificed on D28 and hind paws were removed for radiographic, histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The effects of treatments on osteoclastogenesis were determined by Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Micro-CT of the tibia was carried out for histomorphometric analysis. Bone mass density was evaluated by densitometry. Results MTX significantly decreased the severity of CIA, whereas ZA slightly exacerbated it. When these two drugs were used in combination, MTX prevented the pro-inflammatory effect of ZA. The combination of ZA with MTX was more effective than MTX alone for reducing structural joint damage with a dramatic decrease of osteoclasts' number in the eroded joints. However, MTX alone also significantly reduced the number of osteoclasts and the number of CD68+ mononuclear cells. ZA alone, or ZA with MTX, significantly increased the systemic bone mass density measured by densitometry and bone volume on histomorphometric analysis. Conclusions A combination of MTX and ZA prevented both bone erosion and systemic bone loss in a rat model of arthritis. Both treatments independently decreased the number of osteoclasts in the eroded joint. However

  12. Meta-analysis comparing denosumab and zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Chang, B; Lin, F X; Xie, D; Hu, Q X; Yu, G Y; Du, S X; Li, X D

    2016-07-19

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of denosumab, compared with zoledronic acid (ZA), in delaying skeletal-related events (SREs) and enhancing overall survival in patients with advanced solid tumours and bone metastases. A systematic literature search of several electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CKNI and Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, was performed. Only randomised controlled trials assessing denosumab in comparison with ZA, in patients with advanced solid tumours and metastatic-stage disease, were included. The primary outcome was the time to first SRE. The risk of developing subsequent on-study SREs and overall survival were also evaluated. Three randomised controlled trials with a total of 5,544 patients with advanced solid tumours and bone metastases were included in the meta-analysis. There were 2,776 patients treated with denosumab and 2,768 treated with ZA. The pooled analysis showed that denosumab was superior to ZA in delaying time to first on-study SRE (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75-0.89, p < 0.0001) and multiple SREs (risk ratio: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74-0.88, p < 0.0001). However, no significant difference was found in overall survival improvement between denosumab and ZA (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91-1.15, p = 0.71). This meta-analysis indicates that denosumab is superior to ZA in delaying SREs for patients with bone metastases. No significant difference was observed between denosumab and ZA, regarding overall survival. We support denosumab as a potential novel treatment option for the management of bone metastases in advanced solid tumours.

  13. Commentary on "the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity." Qi J, Tripathi M, Mishra R, Sahgal N, Fazli L, Ettinger S, Placzek WJ, Claps G, Chung LW, Bowtell D, Gleave M, Bhowmick N, Ronai ZA, Signal Transduction Program, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(6):332-46.

    PubMed

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.

  14. Effect of a Home Bleaching Agent on the Fracture Toughness of Resin Composites, Using Short Rod Design

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, R.; Fani, M.; Barfi Ghasrodashti, AR.; Nouri Yadkouri, N.; Mousavi, SM.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Resin composites are brittle materials and their major shortcomings are manifested in their sensitivity to flaws and defects. Although various mechanical properties of resin composites have been described, few studies are available on assessing the effect of bleaching agents on resin composites using the short rod design. Purpose: To place various resin composites into distilled water at 37°C for 21 days and determine the effect of immersion time in distilled water, with and without exposure to 10% carbamide peroxide by employing short rod design fracture toughness test. Materials and Method: Specimens were prepared from three resin composites; Rok (SDI), Esthet (Dentsply), and Estelite (Tokuyama). For each material, a total of 24 disc-shaped specimens were prepared using a custom-made mould. Specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 8 and conditioned in 37°C distilled water for either 24 hours, or 21 days. 21 day specimens were tested both with and without applying bleaching agent; Polanight (SDI). Study group specimens were bleached for 21 days, 2 hours a day. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm per minute. The maximum load at specimen failure was recorded and the KIc (MPa. M 0.5) was calculated. Results: Statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA showed a significant relationship between material and time (p< 0.05).Tukey’s test showed that after 24 h of immersion in distilled water, Rok revealed the highest KIc followed by Esthet and Estelite. The bleaching agent significantly improved the fracture toughness values of Esthet while it decreased that of Estelite. Conclusion: The fracture toughness of the resin composites was affected by the bleaching agent and distilled water. In comparison with Rok and Estelite, fracture toughness of Esthet was increased due to aging and application of bleaching agent. PMID:24883344

  15. Trends of Antibiotic Consumption in Korea According to National Reimbursement Data (2008-2012): A Population-Based Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Park, Gi Chan; An, Hyonggin; Chun, Byung Chul; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2015-11-01

    This study determined the trends in the quantities and patterns of nationwide antibiotic consumption in the Republic of Korea (ROK).This nationwide descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in the ROK between 2008 and 2012. The quantities and patterns of total systemic antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed using National Health Insurance claims data collected through the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. Data concerning systemic antibiotics were collected using measurement units of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 people per day according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification.Over the 5-year study period, the annual consumption of systemic antibiotics ranged from 21.68 to 23.12 DDD per 1000 people per day. Outpatient antibiotic use accounted for 80.9% of total consumption. A regression model with autoregressive errors showed significant increased consumption of major antibiotic subgroups, including 3rd-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and glycopeptides (P < 0.001). However, the antibiotic use of 1st- (P = 0.003), 2nd- (P = 0.004), and 3rd-generation (P = 0.018) cephalosporins among patients who underwent surgery under monitoring by the antimicrobial stewardship programs for perioperative prescription was significantly lower than in those who underwent surgery without monitoring programs. In time-series analysis, total antibiotic consumption demonstrated significant seasonality (P < 0.001).The consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics was noted to have increased in the ROK from 2008 to 2012, providing a possible explanation for the changing epidemiology of multidrug resistance. Larger prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact on public health of monitoring programs of perioperative antibiotic usage.

  16. Smart sensors wireless measurement network based on Bluetooth standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jablonski, Michal

    2003-09-01

    The paper briefly describes Bluetooth standard and authors" Bluetoth sensors modules construction. At the beginning the short comparison of existing on the market standards of wireless data transmission (IEEE802.11, IEEE802.11b/g, IEEE802.11a, HomeRF, Bluetooth, Radiometrix, Motorola, IrDA) brought out by main firms is presented. Next selected Bluetooth features and functions useful to sensors wireless network creations are discussed. At the end our own Bluetooth sensor based on the newest Ericsson ROK 101 007 module is specified.

  17. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-07

    Figure 18 , Surface Map 1230Z, October 24, 1948). 4I 7Cm 19 (2) During late spring, suuer or early autumn high oells some- times move southward into the...TFRF, is an excellent reference for this subject. 0 06 0070 I.N ATC 1. A- 2 AREAI p/ A-2 AREA I 1. General: Most flights briefed by Det 18 are within or...in close proxi- mity to Area I. For this reason, Det 18 personnel must become extremely knowledgeable of Area I. 2. Location and Background: The ROK

  18. Mosquito Species Composition and Plasmodium vivax Infection Rates on Baengnyeong-do (Island), Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    mosquitoes of Japan (including the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Ogasawara Islands ) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Con­ trib Am Entomol Inst 1979; 16: 1­987...north, other species are frequently more common [4,12] and may play a greater role in malaria transmission. Baengnyeong­do is a 45.8 km2 island ...located near the North­ ern Limit Line (Fig. 1). This island is the westernmost point of the ROK, and is 16 km from the DPRK coast. As such, ento­

  19. Isolation of Genes Involved in Rac Induced Invasion and Metastasis of Breast Carcinoma Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    IQGAP Par-6 Dia - tLC LIM-I M- MLC- a-catenin kinase #phosphAr2/ z-catenin Par- Arp2/3 P-catenin aPKCs MLC-P cofilin adducin ERM NHE1 profilin E...a include MLC, the myosin-binding subunit of MLC sixth ROK substrate, namely NHE1 , is a ubiquitous phosphatase, LIM-kinase, adducin, the ERM (ezrin...Na÷/H’ exchange protein which potentiates stress fi- radixin/moesin) family of proteins, and a Na÷/IHI ex- ber formation [103]. change protein ( NHE1

  20. The United States Air Force in Korea: A Chronology, 1950-1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    used the Pusan Air- field . Fifth Air Force reserved a fourth South Korean airfield, Shachon, for emergency landings. B-26s of the 3d BG, based in...raid enemy lines of communication, air- fields , and close air support targets in South Korea. Fifth Air Force B-26s and F-82s conducted night raids...with fighter cover rescued eleven U.S. and twenty-four ROK soldiers from a field eight miles behind en- emy lines. General Walker, Commander, U.S

  1. The Costs of Conflict: The Impact on China of a Future War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    polls over the 36 previous 3 months of the 2000 campaign, even this late in the game there were still lingering anxieties about his commitment to the...be increased by 400 tons per week, with 200 tons going to Air Macau , and 100 tons each to EVA Airways and TransAsia Airways. While the Chinese...scheduled ODA and China’s nuclear test in 1995 amply illustrates. The economic cost to Sino-ROK relations would be very high as well, as South Korea is now

  2. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  3. The Effects of Korean Unification on the US Military Presence in Northeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    Journal of Defense Analysis, 10 (Summer 1998); William O. Odom, “The US Military in Unified Korea ,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, 12 (Summer...Michael O’Hanlon, “Keep US Forces in Korea after Reunification,” Korean Journal of Defense Anal- ysis, 10 (Summer 1998), internet, http://www.kida.re.kr...War. The United States has forward deployed approximately 91,500 personnel to the Republic of Korea (ROK) and Japan, in part to deter North Korean

  4. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny

    2016-08-01

    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  5. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone.

    PubMed

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-05-18

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm(3)) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm(3)) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone.

  6. OPG-Fc but Not Zoledronic Acid Discontinuation Reverses Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Bezouglaia, Olga; Pirih, Flavia Q; Dry, Sarah M; Kostenuik, Paul; Boyce, Rogely W; Dwyer, Denise; Aghaloo, Tara L; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a significant complication of antiresorptive medications, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab. Antiresorptive discontinuation to promote healing of ONJ lesions remains highly controversial and understudied. Here, we investigated whether antiresorptive discontinuation alters ONJ features in mice, employing the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) or the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) inhibitor OPG-Fc, utilizing previously published ONJ animal models. Mice were treated with vehicle (veh), ZA, or OPG-Fc for 11 weeks to induce ONJ, and antiresorptives were discontinued for 6 or 10 weeks. Maxillae and mandibles were examined by µCT imaging and histologically. ONJ features in ZA and OPG-Fc groups included periosteal bone deposition, empty osteocyte lacunae, osteonecrotic areas, and bone exposure, each of which substantially resolved 10 weeks after discontinuing OPG-Fc but not ZA. Full recovery of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) osteoclast numbers occurred after discontinuing OPG-Fc but not ZA. Our data provide the first experimental evidence demonstrating that discontinuation of a RANKL inhibitor, but not a bisphosphonate, reverses features of osteonecrosis in mice. It remains unclear whether antiresorptive discontinuation increases the risk of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases or fracture risk in osteoporosis patients, but these preclinical data may nonetheless help to inform discussions on the rationale for a “drug holiday” in managing the ONJ patient. PMID:25727550

  7. Binding modes of zaragozic acid A to human squalene synthase and staphylococcal dehydrosqualene synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-I; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Chang, Wei-Jung; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2012-05-25

    Zaragozic acids (ZAs) belong to a family of fungal metabolites with nanomolar inhibitory activity toward squalene synthase (SQS). The enzyme catalyzes the committed step of sterol synthesis and has attracted attention as a potential target for antilipogenic and antiinfective therapies. Here, we have determined the structure of ZA-A complexed with human SQS. ZA-A binding induces a local conformational change in the substrate binding site, and its C-6 acyl group also extends over to the cofactor binding cavity. In addition, ZA-A effectively inhibits a homologous bacterial enzyme, dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM), which synthesizes the precursor of staphyloxanthin in Staphylococcus aureus to cope with oxidative stress. Size reduction at Tyr(248) in CrtM further increases the ZA-A binding affinity, and it reveals a similar overall inhibitor binding mode to that of human SQS/ZA-A except for the C-6 acyl group. These structures pave the way for further improving selectivity and development of a new generation of anticholesterolemic and antimicrobial inhibitors.

  8. Zoledronic acid in vivo increases in vitro proliferation of rat mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Terhi J; Alm, Jessica J; Halkosaari, Heikki J; Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of bone loss, but they might also have positive effects on osteoblastic cells and bone formation. We evaluated the effect of in vivo zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment and possible concomitant effects of ZA and fracture on the ex vivo osteogenic capacity of rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Methods A closed femoral fracture model was used in adult female rats and ZA was administered as a single bolus or as weekly doses up to 8 weeks. Bone marrow MSCs were isolated and cultured for in vitro analyses. Fracture healing was evaluated by radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology. Results Both bolus and weekly ZA increased fracture-site bone mineral content and volume. MSCs from weekly ZA-treated animals showed increased ex vivo proliferative capacity, while no substantial effect on osteoblastic differentiation was observed. Fracture itself did not have any substantial effect on cell proliferation or differentiation at 8 weeks. Serum biochemical markers showed higher levels of bone formation in animals with fracture than in intact animals, while no difference in bone resorption was observed. Interestingly, ex vivo osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was found to correlate with in vivo serum bone markers. Interpretation Our data show that in vivo zoledronic acid treatment can influence ex vivo proliferation of MSCs, indicating that bisphosphonates can have sustainable effects on cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms. PMID:27196705

  9. Unravelling the Structural and Molecular Basis Responsible for the Anti-Biofilm Activity of Zosteric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cattò, Cristina; Dell’Orto, Silvia; Villa, Federica; Villa, Stefania; Gelain, Arianna; Vitali, Alberto; Marzano, Valeria; Baroni, Sara; Forlani, Fabio; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The natural compound zosteric acid, or p-(sulfoxy)cinnamic acid (ZA), is proposed as an alternative biocide-free agent suitable for preventive or integrative anti-biofilm approaches. Despite its potential, the lack of information concerning the structural and molecular mechanism of action involved in its anti-biofilm activity has limited efforts to generate more potent anti-biofilm strategies. In this study a 43-member library of small molecules based on ZA scaffold diversity was designed and screened against Escherichia coli to understand the structural requirements necessary for biofilm inhibition at sub-lethal concentrations. Considerations concerning the relationship between structure and anti-biofilm activity revealed that i) the para-sulfoxy ester group is not needed to exploit the anti-biofilm activity of the molecule, it is the cinnamic acid scaffold that is responsible for anti-biofilm performance; ii) the anti-biofilm activity of ZA derivatives depends on the presence of a carboxylate anion and, consequently, on its hydrogen-donating ability; iii) the conjugated aromatic system is instrumental to the anti-biofilm activities of ZA and its analogues. Using a protein pull-down approach, combined with mass spectrometry, the herein-defined active structure of ZA was matrix-immobilized, and was proved to interact with the E. coli NADH:quinone reductase, WrbA, suggesting a possible role of this protein in the biofilm formation process. PMID:26132116

  10. TRAPEZE: a randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy with zoledronic acid, strontium-89, or both, in men with bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas; Pirrie, Sarah; Pope, Ann; Barton, Darren; Andronis, Lazaros; Goranitis, Ilias; Collins, Stuart; McLaren, Duncan; O'Sullivan, Joe; Parker, Chris; Porfiri, Emilio; Staffurth, John; Stanley, Andrew; Wylie, James; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison; Brown, Janet; Chakraborti, Prabir; Russell, Martin; Billingham, Lucinda

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bony metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer is associated with a poor prognosis and high morbidity. TRAPEZE was a two-by-two factorial randomised controlled trial of zoledronic acid (ZA) and strontium-89 (Sr-89), each combined with docetaxel. All have palliative benefits, are used to control bone symptoms and are used with docetaxel to prolong survival. ZA, approved on the basis of reducing skeletal-related events (SREs), is commonly combined with docetaxel in practice, although evidence of efficacy and cost-effectiveness is lacking. Sr-89, approved for controlling metastatic pain and reducing need for subsequent bone treatments, is generally palliatively used in patients unfit for chemotherapy. Phase II analysis confirmed the safety and feasibility of combining these agents. TRAPEZE aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of each agent. METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive six cycles of docetaxel plus prednisolone: alone, with ZA, with a single Sr-89 dose after cycle 6, or with both. Primary outcomes were clinical progression-free survival (CPFS: time to pain progression, SRE or death) and cost-effectiveness. Secondary outcomes were SRE-free interval (SREFI), total SREs, overall survival (OS) and quality of life (QoL). Log-rank test and Cox regression modelling were used to determine clinical effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from the NHS perspective and expressed as cost per additional quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). An additional analysis was carried out for ZA to reflect the availability of generic ZA. RESULTS: PATIENTS: 757 randomised (median age 68.7 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale score 0, 40%; 1, 52%; 2, 8%; prior radiotherapy, 45%); median prostate-specific antigen 143.78 ng/ml (interquartile range 50.8-353.9 ng/ml). Stratified log-rank analysis of CPFS was statistically non-significant for either agent (Sr-89, p = 0.11; ZA, p = 0.45). Cox regression

  11. Measuring rare and exclusive Higgs boson decays into light resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Andrew S.; Kuttimalai, Silvan; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We evaluate the LHC's potential of observing Higgs boson decays into light elementary or composite resonances through their hadronic decay channels. We focus on the Higgs boson production processes with the largest cross sections, pp → h and pp → h+{jet}, with subsequent decays h → ZA or h → Z η _c, and comment on the production process pp → hZ. By exploiting track-based jet substructure observables and extrapolating to 3000 {fb}^{-1} we find {BR}(h → ZA) ≃ {BR}(h → Z η _c) ≲ 0.02 at 95 % CL. We interpret this limit in terms of the 2HDM Type 1. We find that searches for h→ ZA are complementary to existing measurements and can constrain large parts of the currently allowed parameter space.

  12. Seismic analyses of equipment in 2736-Z complex. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ocoma, E.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the structural qualification for the existing equipment when subjected to seismic loading in the Plutonium Storage Complex. It replaces in entirety Revision 0 and reconciles the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) comments on Revision 0. The Complex consists of 2736-Z Building (plutonium storage vault), 2736-ZA Building (vault ventilation equipment building), and 2736-ZB Building (shipping/receiving, repackaging activities). The existing equipment structurally qualified in this report are the metal storage racks for 7 inch and lard cans in room 2 of Building 2736-Z; the cubicles, can holders and pedestals in rooms 1, 3, and 4 of Building 2736-Z; the ventilation duct including exhaust fans/motors, emergency diesel generator, and HEPA filter housing in Building 2736-ZA; the repackaging glovebox in Building 2736-ZB; and the interface duct between Buildings 2736-Z and 2736-ZA.

  13. Zhibitai and low-dose atorvastatin reduce blood lipids and inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuhong; Peng, Ran; Zhao, Wang; Liu, Qiong; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Atorvastatin decreases blood lipids but is associated with side effects. Zhibitai is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat blood lipid disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect, antiinflammatory effect, and adverse events of zhibitai combined to atorvastatin in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). Methods: Patients with CHD (n = 150) were randomized to: zhibitai 480 mg + atorvastatin 10 mg (ZA10 group), atorvastatin 20 mg (A20 group), and atorvastatin 40 mg (A40 group). Lipid profile, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Self-reported side effects, liver function, kidney function, and creatine kinase levels were monitored. Results: After 8 weeks, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) levels were decreased in the ZA10 group (−64%, −37%, −46%, and −54%, respectively, compared with baseline), and these changes were similar to those of the A40 group (P > 0.05). CT-1 and high sensitivity-C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were significantly decreased in the ZA10 group after 4 and 8 weeks (4 weeks: −73% and 96%; 8 weeks: −89% and −98%; all P < 0.01), without differences among the 3 groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks of treatment, adverse events (abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, and hunger) were found in 4, 5, and 7 patients in the ZA10, A20, and A40 groups, respectively. Conclusion: ZA10 significantly reduced triglycerides, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, CT-1, and hs-CRP levels in patients with CHD, similar to the effects of A40 and A20, but ZA10 lead to fewer adverse events. PMID:28207527

  14. Zoledronic Acid for Prevention of Bone Loss in Patients Receiving Primary Therapy for Lymphomas: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Westin, Jason R.; Thompson, Michael A.; Cataldo, Vince D.; Fayad, Luis E.; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A.; Neelapu, Saatva; Samaniego, Felipe; Romaguera, Jorge; Shah, Jatin; McLaughlin, Peter; Pro, Barbara; Kwak, Larry W.; Sanjorjo, Perpetua; Murphy, William A.; Jimenez, Camillo; Toth, Bela; Dong, Wenli; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma, low bone mineral density (BMD) is common at diagnosis and worsens with therapy. Our randomized phase III trial demonstrates that 2 doses of zoledronic acid (ZA) and supplementation with calcium and vitamin D effectively prevent further bone loss. Background Patients with lymphoma are at risk of development of bone mineral density (BMD) loss from therapy with high-dose corticosteroids and alkylating agents. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate, may prevent this complication of therapy. We evaluated the effect of ZA on the change in BMD and surrogate biomarkers in patients with lymphoma receiving initial chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Our phase III trial randomized 74 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma and a baseline BMD of ≥ −2.0 to receive oral calcium and vitamin D daily with or without ZA at enrollment and at 6 months after enrollment. BMD was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after enrollment. Secondary biomarker endpoints were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after enrollment. Results Forty-three percent of patients had baseline osteopenia. Fifty-three patients were evaluable for response: 24 received ZA and had stable BMD during the observation period, whereas 29 patients in the control group had decreased BMD (P < .05 at lumbar spine and bilateral femoral neck). Twenty-one randomized patients were not evaluable for response because of lymphoma progression or death, withdrawn consent/incomplete testing, or ineligibility. Bone biomarkers were higher in the control group at all intervals after treatment (P < .001). No fractures or intervention-related toxicities were observed during this trial. Conclusions Newly diagnosed patients with lymphoma are at risk of low BMD, which may worsen with therapy. Treatment with ZA effectively stabilizes BMD and prevents bone loss. Our data suggest that BMD testing and prophylaxis should be considered as an early intervention for a preventable problem

  15. Response of a co-culture model of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts to zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Pansani, Taisa Nogueira; Turrioni, Ana Paula Silveira; Scheffel, Débora Lopes; Hebling, Josimeri; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2016-11-28

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an adverse effect of bisphosphonates. While the etiopathogenesis of this condition has been investigated, the interactions and effects of bisphosphonates on oral mucosa cells remain unclear. It is hypothesized that cell culture models, such as co-culture or three-dimensional cell culture models, can provide valuable insight. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts in a co-culture model. Briefly, epithelial cells were seeded on transwell inserts and gingival fibroblasts were seeded in the lower well of 24-well plates. The latter were treated with ZA (5 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability and synthesis of the inflammatory chemokine, CCL2, were subsequently assessed. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. In the presence of ZA, the epithelial cells exhibited significant toxicity in both cell culture models and at both time points. However, greater cytotoxicity was observed in the co-culture model. Greater viability for the gingival fibroblasts was also associated with the co-culture model, and ZA-mediated toxicity was observed for the 48 h time point. ZA promoted a significant increase in CCL2 synthesis in both sets of cells, with greater CCL2 synthesis detected in the gingival fibroblasts. However, this effect was diminished in the co-culture model. Taken together, these results confirm the specific response patterns of the cells seeded in the co-culture model and also demonstrate the protective mechanism that is mediated by epithelial/mesenchymal cell interactions upon exposure to ZA.

  16. PTH(1-34) and zoledronic acid have differing longitudinal effects on juvenile mouse femur strength and morphology.

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Christopher M; Oest, Megan E; Mann, Kenneth A; Zimmerman, Nicholas D; Butt, Bilal B; Damron, Timothy A

    2016-09-21

    Treatment of secondary pediatric osteoporosis-particularly that due to chronic diseases, immobilization, and necessary medical treatments-is currently limited by a poor understanding of the long-term efficacy and safety of skeletal metabolism modifying drugs. This study aimed to characterize longitudinal effects of representative anabolic (parathyroid hormone, PTH) and anti-catabolic (zoledronic acid, ZA) drugs on skeletal morphology, mechanical strength, and growth in juvenile mice. BALB/cJ mice aged 4 weeks were given PTH(1-34) or vehicle (control) daily for 8 weeks, or 4 weekly doses of ZA, and evaluated at time points 0-26 weeks after treatment initiation. There were no enduring differences in body length or mass between treatment groups. ZA increased femur size as early as week 0, including increased distal femur bone volume and diaphyseal cross-sectional area, persisting through week 26. PTH treatment only transiently increased bone size, including distal femur volume at weeks 4-12. ZA decreased diaphyseal cortical tissue mineral density (TMD) at 12-26 weeks versus controls; PTH decreased TMD only at 2 weeks (vs. controls). ZA increased bending strength at 0-12 weeks and flexural strength at week 4 (vs. controls), but decreased flexural strength and modulus at week 26. PTH treatment increased bending strength only at 4 weeks, and did not affect flexural strength. Overall, ZA rapidly and persistently increased femur strength and size, but compromised bone material quality long-term. In healthy juvenile mice, limited-duration PTH treatment did not exert a strong anabolic effect, and had no adverse effects on femur strength, morphology, or growth. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  17. Reconstructing Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-02

    N ah r al Kh ab u r - - G re at Za b Li ttl e Za b Nahr al ’U zaym Daryacheh-ye Orumiyeh ( Lake Urmia ) - - Tigris Na hr D iy al á- Habbaniyah Lake ...Centre for Research and Strategic Studies , "The results of the 7th public opinion poll in Iraq, Field Research: January 2004". See also the poll...International Studies , Washington D.C., 6 December 2003, at http://www.csis.org/features/031204_ assymetric.pdf. 177 Office of Management and Budget

  18. The Zeldovich & Adhesion approximations and applications to the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidding, Johan; van de Weygaert, Rien; Shandarin, Sergei

    2016-10-01

    The Zeldovich approximation (ZA) predicts the formation of a web of singularities. While these singularities may only exist in the most formal interpretation of the ZA, they provide a powerful tool for the analysis of initial conditions. We present a novel method to find the skeleton of the resulting cosmic web based on singularities in the primordial deformation tensor and its higher order derivatives. We show that the A 3 lines predict the formation of filaments in a two-dimensional model. We continue with applications of the adhesion model to visualise structures in the local (z < 0.03) universe.

  19. The Design of a Navigator for a Testbed Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    discussion of the AUV sonar simulation which will be used to evaluate the proposed navigator. B. OVERVIEW OF NAVIGATOR OPERATION This section provides...a Ya (3.10) -SOa cOaca cO aCO zaI 00 0 1_ The elements xa, Ya and za in this matrix refer to the location of the center of the AUV sonar scan...filtering used by the AUV navigator. The next chapter will present a description of the AUV sonar and navigation simulation, an operating manual for the

  20. Theory Support of Pulsed Power Experiments. Volume 3. E-Beam Chamber Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    unlimited. 4 -ERFOCR1 NG DRGANiZA ON REPORT 𔃾LMBER(S) S MONITOPING DRGAN’ZA"ON REPGR’ . V8E:S) SSS -R-84-6709-III DNA-TR-84-288-V3 -a ’ 3C’?E P ERFORMi.G...34Multigun Test Tank Simulation With Magnetic Field," SSS -R-81-5028, June 1981 - 5 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page A-I Geometry of a one meter electrically...special ir)t C ED. APPENDIX MULTIGUN TEST TANK SIMULATION WITH MAGNETIC FIELD (TOPICAL REPORT SSS -R-81-5028, JUNE 1981) A-1 INTRODUCTION The simulation of

  1. Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys Under Spectrum Loading. Volume 2. Aluminum Lithium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    to these), and Rioja and Ludwiczak ( 4 3 ) (a very thorough discussion of the Al-Cu-Li system). Figure 12a shows a (100) zone axis (ZA) electron...a [1001 habit plane. Rioja and Ludwiczak ( 4 3 ) believed that this is the "T 2’-T 21 phase identified by Guinier analysis in Table 4. Because these...can be seen from the [112] ZA EDP’s in Figure 17. These [112] patterns are especially relevant, since Rioja and Ludwiczak ( 4 3 ) have shown that this

  2. Selection of the Methods of Soil Analysis for Phyto-available Arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Junghwan; Lee, Dan-Bi; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Won-Il; Kim, Kye-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a trace element of major public health concern. Many of As contaminated agricultural lands in the Republic of Korea (ROK) are located at the areas nearby abandoned mines. Therefore, management of contaminated agricultural lands is important for safe crop cultivation. In ROK, soils contaminated with As have managed according to the As concentration determined after aqua regia digestion (total As). Many soil scientists reported that management of As in soils by phyto-available As is more effective than that by total As for safety of the crop cultivation point-of-view since As concentration in crops has a significant correlation with phyto-available As. Therefore, this study was carried out to select method of soil analysis for phyto-available As. For that purpose, five extracting solutions (0.1M Ca(NO?), 0.1M (NH?)?HPO?), 0.5M EDTA, Mehlich 3, 0.5M NaHCO?) were examined with 35 soil samples used for cultivation of three crops (bean, red pepper, rice). Correlation analysis was conducted between phyto-available As concentrations in soils and As concentration in edible part of the crops. Results of the correlation analysis showed that phyto-available As concentrations in soils using Mehlich 3 solution and As concentrations in edible part of red pepper and rice were significantly correlated. For soils used for bean cultivation, Mehlich 3 (R

  3. Seasonal Distribution of Ticks in Four Habitats near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M.; Sancho, Alfredo R.; Sames, William J.; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests. PMID:23864743

  4. Disruption of the Cdc42/Par6/aPKC or Dlg/Scrib/Lgl Polarity Complex Promotes Epithelial Proliferation via Overlapping Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schimizzi, Gregory V.; Maher, Meghan T.; Loza, Andrew J.; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity is a defining characteristic and essential feature of functioning epithelia. Apical-basal polarity (ABP) proteins are also tumor suppressors that are targeted for disruption by oncogenic viruses and are commonly mutated in human carcinomas. Disruption of these ABP proteins is an early event in cancer development that results in increased proliferation and epithelial disorganization through means not fully characterized. Using the proliferating Drosophila melanogaster wing disc epithelium, we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional vs. basal polarity complexes results in increased epithelial proliferation via distinct downstream signaling pathways. Disruption of the basal polarity complex results in JNK-dependent proliferation, while disruption of the junctional complex primarily results in p38-dependent proliferation. Surprisingly, the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus appears to play opposite roles in the regulation of the proliferative phenotype based on which polarity complex is disrupted. In contrast, non-autonomous Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) signaling appears to suppress the proliferation that results from apical-basal polarity disruption, regardless of which complex is disrupted. Finally we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional polarity complex activates JNK via the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus independent of the cortical actin regulator, Moesin. PMID:27454609

  5. Leptospirosis in the republic of Korea: historical perspectives, current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ja

    2013-06-01

    Leptospirosis is an important public health problem in the Republic of Korea (ROK), occurring sporadically or in outbreaks during the autumn season. Wild rodents, Apodemus agrarius, have been mainly involved in human leptospirosis. The majority of carrier animals are infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar lai. The characteristic pulmonary involvement or hemorrhage may increase the clinical severity or result in fatal outcomes, and these aspects continue to be a threat to people in endemic areas. While the disease incidence has been relatively low in recent years, there have been newer findings of livestock (zoo animals and racing horses) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) captured in urban environments as potential animal carriers. Many avenues of research are still open to define current changes in ecology, epidemiology, and the disease burden in both humans and animals in the ROK, together with global warming and climate change issues. In addition, national policy regarding the weighted wildlife monitoring system and the enhanced disease surveillance program is required to facilitate better monitoring and understanding of this disease.

  6. Efficient partially implicit integration method for stiff chemistry in high-fidelity simulations of turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    High-fidelity turbulent reactive flow simulations are typically associated with small time step sizes (h <=10-8 sec) due to the CFL condition imposed by the fine gird. Although the step size is not sufficiently small to allow fully explicit time integration in the presence of stiff chemistry, it makes the use of classical implicit multi-step ODE solvers (e.g. VODE) an inefficient approach in combustion simulations due to the reduced number of internal iterations and excessive implicitness. In this study, an improved 4th-order Rosenbrock-Krylov (ROK4L) scheme is developed for the system of chemical reactions. This class of schemes replaces the Jacobian matrix by its low-rank Krylov approximation, thus introducing partial implicitness. The scheme is improved in both accuracy and efficiency by fulfilling additional order conditions and reducing the number of function evaluations. The ROK4L scheme is demonstrated to possess superior efficiency in comparison to CVODE due to the minimal degree of implicitness for small time-step sizes and the avoidance of other overhead associated with the start-up process of multi-step methods. Financial support from NASA Transformational Tools and Technologies Project with Award No. NNX15AV04A.

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Kim, M J; Tark, D S; Sohn, H J; Yun, E I; Cho, I S; Choi, Y P; Kim, C L; Lee, J H; Kweon, C H; Joo, Y S; Chung, G S; Lee, J H

    2012-12-01

    National surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) began in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1996. Surveillance programmes changed overtime to comply with the guidelines of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy was designated as a notifiable disease in 1997. From July 2008, the BSE surveillance programme was intensified to test cattle in designated high-risk populations more effectively. New measures included the compulsory testing of all non-ambulatory cattle at abattoirs, and encouraging the testing of all dead cattle examined and recorded under the Mutual Aid Insurance Scheme (fallen stock). In addition, there was a vigorous search for animals suspected of being clinically infected. As a result, a total of 426,919 OIE points were achieved over a period of seven consecutive years to the end of October 2009. This enabled the submission of a successful application to the OIE in 2010 for recognition of the ROK's BSE disease status as being one of controlled risk, in accordance with Chapter 11.5. of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

  8. Disruption of the Cdc42/Par6/aPKC or Dlg/Scrib/Lgl Polarity Complex Promotes Epithelial Proliferation via Overlapping Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schimizzi, Gregory V; Maher, Meghan T; Loza, Andrew J; Longmore, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity is a defining characteristic and essential feature of functioning epithelia. Apical-basal polarity (ABP) proteins are also tumor suppressors that are targeted for disruption by oncogenic viruses and are commonly mutated in human carcinomas. Disruption of these ABP proteins is an early event in cancer development that results in increased proliferation and epithelial disorganization through means not fully characterized. Using the proliferating Drosophila melanogaster wing disc epithelium, we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional vs. basal polarity complexes results in increased epithelial proliferation via distinct downstream signaling pathways. Disruption of the basal polarity complex results in JNK-dependent proliferation, while disruption of the junctional complex primarily results in p38-dependent proliferation. Surprisingly, the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus appears to play opposite roles in the regulation of the proliferative phenotype based on which polarity complex is disrupted. In contrast, non-autonomous Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) signaling appears to suppress the proliferation that results from apical-basal polarity disruption, regardless of which complex is disrupted. Finally we demonstrate that disruption of the junctional polarity complex activates JNK via the Rho-Rok-Myosin contractility apparatus independent of the cortical actin regulator, Moesin.

  9. Measles Elimination Activities in the Western Pacific Region: Experience from the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Jee, Youngmee; Oh, Myoung-don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2015-11-01

    We describe the global status of measles control and elimination, including surveillance and vaccination coverage data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since 2000, two doses of measles vaccine (MCV2) became recommended globally and the achievement of high vaccination coverage has led to dramatic decrease in the measles incidence. Our finding indicates that, in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), substantial progress has been made to control measles transmission in some countries; however, the measles virus continues to circulate, causing outbreaks. The Republic of Korea (ROK) experienced a series of resurgence of measles due to the importation and healthcare-associated transmission in infants, however overall incidence and surveillance indicators met the WHO criteria for measles elimination. The ROK was verified to be measles-free along with Australia, Mongolia, and Macau, China in 2014. One of the effective elimination activities was the establishment of solid keep-up vaccination system in school settings. The lessons learnt from the measles elimination activities in Korea may contribute to enhancing the surveillance schemes and strengthening of vaccination programs in member countries and areas of WPR.

  10. In-situ Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation on the Aircraft Altitude over Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Kim, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the comparison between the measured and modeled cosmic radiation on aircraft altitude over Korean peninsula. We performed the measurement with a radiation spectrometer, Liulin-6K on board a Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force aircraft accomplishing the high-altitude (above 9 km) flight over Korea, and the modeled data was obtained from the operational modeling program, CARI-6M developed by FAA. A number of measurements for the flight mission at high-altitude have been executed to evaluate the exposed dose of cosmic radiation. Both the measured and the calculated data show that the exposed radiation dose enhances dramatically as the altitude increases. The results reveal that the exposed dose rate of aircrews at high-altitude flight is 2-3 orders of magnitude (1-2 mSv/hour) higher than the exposure rate at sea level. It is inferred that the annual total dose of radiation for the aircrews at high-altitude could be higher than the annually public limit (1 mSv) recommended by ICRP. Finally, since neutrons are the dominant components reflecting among total cosmic radiation above 9 km, we try to analyze the relationship between the neutron count from the neutron monitor on the ground and the effective dose from the on board spectrometer. Based on these results, it is suggested that the annual criterion and the proper managing procedure of exposed dose for the flight aircrews of ROK Air Force should be regulated.

  11. Maltose-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of the mal Regulon by MalR in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman; Manzoor, Irfan; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    The maltose regulon (mal regulon) has previously been shown to consist of the mal gene cluster (malMP, malXCD and malAR operons) in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we have further elucidated the complete mal regulon in S. pneumoniae D39 using microarray analyses and β-galactosidase assays. In addition to the mal gene cluster, the complete mal regulon of S. pneumoniae D39 consists of a pullulanase (PulA), a glucosidase (DexB), a glucokinase (RokB), a PTS component (PtsG) and an amylase (AmyA2). Our microarray studies and β-galactosidase assays further showed that the LacI-family transcriptional regulator MalR represses the expression of the mal regulon in the absence of maltose. Furthermore, the role of the pleiotropic transcriptional regulator CcpA in the regulation of the mal regulon in the presence of maltose was explored. Our microarray analysis with a ΔccpA strain showed that CcpA only represses the expression of the malXCD operon and the pulA gene in the presence of maltose. Hence, we extend the mal regulon now consisting of pulA, dexB, rokB, ptsG and amyA2 in addition to malMP, malXCD and malAR operons.

  12. Report on Project Action Sheet PP05 task 3 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Republic of Korea Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST).

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 3 of Project Action Sheet PP05 between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Republic of Korea (ROK) Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST) for Support with Review of an ROK Risk Evaluation Process. This task was to have Sandia National Laboratories collaborate with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) on several activities concerning how to determine the Probability of Neutralization, PN, and the Probability of System Effectiveness, PE, to include: providing descriptions on how combat simulations are used to determine PN and PE; comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of two neutralization models (the Neutralization.xls spreadsheet model versus the Brief Adversary Threat-Loss Estimator (BATLE) software); and demonstrating how computer simulations can be used to determine PN. Note that the computer simulation used for the demonstration was the Scenario Toolkit And Generation Environment (STAGE) simulation, which is a stand-alone synthetic tactical simulation sold by Presagis Canada Incorporated. The demonstration is provided in a separate Audio Video Interleave (.AVI) file.

  13. 76 FR 56682 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information Regarding... on certain dosage forms of over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products marketed without approved..., 2011, ANPRM), FDA published an ANPRM that requested data and information on OTC sunscreen...

  14. Infra Red Dye and Endostar Loaded Poly Lactic Acid Nano Particles as a Novel Theranostic Nanomedicine for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Du, Yang; Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Li, Yaqian; Li, Xiaofeng; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been proven to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and is utilized as an anticancer drug. While free drugs can display limited efficacy, nanoscaled anticancer drugs have been fabricated and proven to possess superior therapeutic effects. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a FDA-approved biomaterial displaying excellent biocompatibility and low toxicity. In this study, Endostar-loaded PLA nanoparticles (EPNPs) were first prepared, and a near-infrared (NIR) dye, IRDye 800CW, was conjugated to the surface for detecting nanoparticle biodistribution through fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) using an orthotopic breast tumor mouse model. The antitumor efficacy of EPNPs was examined using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and immunohistology. To further improve the antitumor effects, we combined EPNPs with zoledronic acid monohydrate (ZA), which is known to decrease the tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and inhibit tumor progression. We found that EPNPs decreased human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) viability by inhibiting tumor growth gene expression more significantly than free Endostar in vitro. In vivo, EPNPs displayed better tumor growth inhibitory effects compared with free Endostar, and the combination of EPNPs with ZA exhibited more significant antitumor effects. As confirmed by CD31 and CD11b immunohistochemistry, the combination of EPNPs and ZA showed synergistic effects in reducing tumor angiogenesis and TAM accumulation in tumor regions. Taken together, this study presents a novel and effective form of nanoscaled Endostar for the treatment of breast cancer that displays synergistic antitumor effects in combination with ZA.

  15. Biostimulatory effects of low-level laser therapy on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, F. G.; Pansani, T. N.; Turrioni, A. P. S.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hebling, J.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been considered as an adjuvant treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, presenting positive clinical outcomes. However, there are no data regarding the effect of LLLT on oral tissue cells exposed to bisphosphonates. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts exposed to a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate—zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were seeded in wells of 24-well plates, incubated for 48 h and then exposed to ZA at 5 μM for an additional 48 h. LLLT was performed with a diode laser prototype—LaserTABLE (InGaAsP—780 nm ± 3 nm, 25 mW), at selected energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J cm-2 in three irradiation sessions, every 24 h. Cell metabolism, total protein production, gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen type I (Col-I), and cell morphology were evaluated 24 h after the last irradiation. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance. Selected LLLT parameters increased the functions of epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts treated with ZA. Gene expression of VEGF and Col-I was also increased. Specific parameters of LLLT biostimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells treated with ZA. Analysis of these in vitro data may explain the positive in vivo effects of LLLT applied to osteonecrosis lesions.

  16. ROCK1 but not ROCK2 contributes to RhoA signaling and NMIIA-mediated contractility at the epithelial zonula adherens

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Rashmi; Liang, Xuan; Teo, Jessica L.; Duszyc, Kinga; Yap, Alpha S.; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    Rho kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) function downstream of the small GTPase RhoA to drive actomyosin cytoskeletal remodeling. It has often been believed that ROCK1 and ROCK2 may be functionally redundant, as they share a highly conserved kinase domain. However, in this study, we report differential functional effects for these ROCKs at the epithelial zonula adherens (ZA). Using specific siRNA, we found that ROCK1 depletion disrupted cadherin organization at the ZA, accompanied by loss of F-actin and NMIIA, whereas ROCK2 knockdown had no significant effect. Further, ROCK1, but not ROCK2, was necessary to stabilize GTP-RhoA at the ZA, thereby sustaining junctional tension and inhibiting intraepithelial cell movement. We also found that nonmuscle myosin IIA is a major determinant of ROCK1 cortical stability. Thus, despite sharing the catalytic domain with ROCK2, ROCK1 appears to be the dominant kinase essential for junctional integrity and contractile tension at epithelial ZA. PMID:28035042

  17. Victory is Not Possible; Defeat is Not an Option: The US, Iraq and the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Mirian Amie, “US Sees Iraq’s Oil Production Chocked for Years”, Mail & Guardian Online, 10 January 2006: http://www.mg.co.za/articlepage.aspx?area...and geopolitical games aimed at splintering the Shia Crescent will continue. 2006 has illustrated that addressing only symptoms – the presence of

  18. Novel high-K with low specific on-resistance high voltage lateral double-diffused MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Zhong-Jie; Song, Yue; Yang, Hang; Hu, Li-Min; Yuan, Na

    2017-02-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306094), the Project of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No.13ZA0089), the Introduction of Talents Project of Changsha University of Science & Technology, China (Grant No. 1198023), and the Construct Program of the Key Discipline in Hunan Province, China.

  19. Corrections to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift induced by diagrams with second order radiative insertions in the electron line

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1994-12-31

    Contributions to HFS and to the Lamb shift intervals of order a{sup 2}(Za){sup 5} induced by gauge invariant set of nineteen topologically different graphs with two radiative photons inserted in the electron line are considered. Corrections both to HFS and Lamb shift induced by nine diagrams are calculated in the Fried-Yennie gauge.

  20. 76 FR 72850 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 225 RIN 2130-ZA05 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for... threshold of $9,500. Notice and Comment Procedures In this rule, FRA has recalculated the monetary reporting... DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures This rule has been evaluated in accordance with...

  1. 77 FR 71354 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 225 RIN 2130-ZA10 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for... threshold of $9,900. ] Notice and Comment Procedures In this rule, FRA has recalculated the monetary... 12866 and 13563 and DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures This rule has been evaluated in...

  2. 75 FR 44172 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 882 and 890 RIN 0910-ZA37 Neurological and... Register of April 5, 2010 (75 FR 17093). The document proposed to amend certain neurological and physical...: 301-827-6870. Mail/Hand delivery/Courier (for paper, disk, or CD--ROM submissions): Division...

  3. 78 FR 6135 - Delinquent Filer Voluntary Compliance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Benefits Security Administration RIN 1210-ZA15 Delinquent Filer Voluntary Compliance Program AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice, Changes to the Delinquent Filer Voluntary... plans subject to Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) who fail to...

  4. 40 CFR 81.355 - Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Municipio Lares Municipio Las Marias Municipio Las Piedras Municipio Loiza Municipio Luquillo Municipio... Municipio Las Marias Municipio Las Piedras Municipio Loiza Municipio Luquillo Municipio Manati Municipio... Municipio Las Piedras Municipio Loíza Municipio Luquillo Municipio Manatí Municipio Maricao...

  5. Integrating Language Lab Materials into Advanced Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allar, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of language lab materials supplied by the pedagogical journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" in an advanced Russian-language class. Each week students were given a relevant picture and vocabulary list prior to listening to a taped story. The story was used as the basis for conversation. (LMO)

  6. The LAOM Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Measuring Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Addressing the Psychometric Properties of the Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces a new anxiety scale, called the LAOM (Lestvica anksioznosti za otroke in mladostnike [The anxiety scale for children and adolescents]) for measuring self-reported multidimensional anxiety. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using one sample from an elementary school which is…

  7. Family Strengths and Adaptation to Army Life: A Focus of Variations in Family Values and Expectations Across Racial/Ethnic Groups and Rank.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-22

    ApprovedIOM8 No. 0704-0188 Ia. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified Za . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3...community practice is consistent with the challenge by Dolores Curran for institutions to work in concert with families to better realize their values

  8. 75 FR 32273 - Representation Election Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... 29 CFR Parts 1202 and 1206 RIN 3140-ZA00 Representation Election Procedure AGENCY: National Mediation... delaying the effective date of its rule regarding representation election procedures from June 10, 2010 to... Representation Election Procedure Rule have been made. The NMB will notify participants if there are any...

  9. 75 FR 74674 - Updates to Vessel Inspection Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 2 RIN 1625-ZA28 Updates to Vessel Inspection Fees AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... updating vessel inspection fees. The Coast Guard, by regulation, establishes inspection fees for U.S... examination fees. The Coast Guard is considering options for updating and/or restructuring these...

  10. 75 FR 58329 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Expenses Test Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... 3090-ZA01 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Expenses Test Programs AGENCY: Office of... relocation expenses test programs for Federal employees, made by the passage of Public Law 111-112 on... General Services to authorize Federal agencies to test new and innovative methods of...

  11. Design Considerations for a UCAV Wing for Subsonic and Transonic Aeroelastic and Flight Mechanic Wind Tunnel Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    actuation device in the wing will increase the model complexity considerably and very probably stiffen the wing considerably. Figure 6: Desing ...7] http://www.denel.co.za/Aerospace/UAV.asp [8] http://www.aoe.vt.edu/ research /groups/ucav/ [9] Kudva, J.N.: Overview of the DARPA Smart Wing

  12. Z-pinch equilibrium and instability analysis with digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. P.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Hughes, M. C.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Doty, S.; Kim, B.

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD Flow Z-Pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma and fusion reactor conditions. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii ( 1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structures are measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 ×1020 m-2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This work is supported by Grants from the US DoE and NNSA.

  13. 75 FR 10464 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-ZA28 Broadband Technology Opportunities... Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is extended until 5:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on March...

  14. Overlay improvement by zone alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ai-Yi; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Yang, Richer; Yuan, Michael; Chen, Henry; Chang, Ray

    2008-03-01

    It is evident that DRAM ground rule continues to shrink down to 90nm and beyond, overlay performance has become more and more critical and important. Wafer edge shows different behavior from center by processes, e.g. a tremendous misalignment at wafer edge makes yield loss . When a conventional linear model is used for alignment correction, higher uncorrectable overlay residuals mostly happen at wafer edge. Therefore, it's obviously necessary to introduce an innovational alignment correction methdology to reduce unwanted wafer edge effect. In this study, we demonstrate the achievement of moderating poor overlay in wafer edge area by a novel zone-dependent alignment strategy, the so-called "Zone Alignment (ZA)". The main difference between the conventional linear model and zone alignment strategy is that the latter compensates an improper averaging effect from first modeling through weighting all surrounding marks with a nonlinear model. In addition, the effects of mark quantity and sampling distribution from "Zone Alignment" are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that ZA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual and improve wafer-to-wafer variation significantly. Furthermore, obvious yield improvement is verified by ZA strategy. In conclusion, Zone alignment is the noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, suitable alignment map and mark numbers should be taken into consideration carefully when ZA is applied for further technology node.

  15. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 RIN 0910-ZA26 Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Food Surveys Research Group (Beltsville, MD), ``Continuing...

  16. 75 FR 7591 - Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RIN 2050-ZA05 Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at... draft Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at...

  17. 76 FR 13508 - Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA29 Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes..., call or e-mail Mr. Doug McCann, Ninth District Resources Planning Branch, U.S. Coast Guard,...

  18. 75 FR 4006 - Emergency Restoration Plan (ERP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1730 RIN 0572-ZA00 Emergency Restoration Plan... Utilities Service (RUS) is proposing to amend the requirements established for Emergency Restoration Plans... all borrowers to maintain an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that details how the borrower will...

  19. Reactive oxygen species are required for zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yu; Su, Fong-Chin; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Jou, I.-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Inhibiting osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors to reduce bone resorption is an important strategy to treat osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory bone loss, and malignant bone metastasis. However, the mechanism by which apoptosis is induced in the osteoclasts and their precursors are not completely understood. Here, we used nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) to induce cell apoptosis in human and murine osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells. Caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis occurred following the ZA (100 μM) treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also generated in a time-dependent manner. Following knock-down of the p47phox expression, which is required for ROS activation, or co-treatment with the ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ZA-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed in both osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells. The ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways did not trigger cell apoptosis. However, a ROS-regulated Mcl-1 decrease simultaneously with glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β promoted cell apoptosis. These findings show that ZA induces apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells by triggering ROS- and GSK-3β-mediated Mcl-1 down-regulation. PMID:28281643

  20. Aerodynamic Noise and Suppressors,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-29

    not only disturbs people, it also excites the chickens and dogs, causes milk cows to stop producing milk , and pigs, horses, and cows to be affected...Figure 3.34, when the distance between holes is greater than the diameter of the holes, the acoustic impedance per area a is ZA - r, + llaMA , (3. 1)9

  1. Multiple myeloma among Chornobyl accident clean-up workers - state and perspectives of analytical study.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D A; Gudzenko, N A; Dyagil, I S; Babkina, N G; Chumak, V V; Bakhanova, E V; Paramonov, V V; Romanenko, A Y

    2013-01-01

    Meta: proanalizuvaty zahvorjuvanist' na mnozhynnu mijelomu (MM) sered uchasnykiv likvidacii' naslidkiv Chornobyl's'koi' katastrofy (ULNA) ta pidgotuvaty informacijnu osnovu dlja podal'shogo analitychnogo doslidzhennja dozozalezhnyh ryzykiv cijei' patologii', vrahovujuchy i'i' potencijnu radiacijnu zumovlenist'. Materialy i metody. Dlja identyfikacii' vypadkiv MM u doslidzhuvanij kogorti ULNA chysel'nistju 152 520 osib cholovichoi' stati buv provedenyj linkidzh bazy danyh kogorty z informacijnym masyvom Nacional'nogo kancerrejestru Ukrai'ny. Rezul'taty. Za doslidzhuvanyj period (1987–2012 rr.) bulo identyfikovano 64 vypadky, 58 z jakyh buly vkljucheni do poperedn'ogo analizu zahvorjuvanosti, vrahovujuchy 10-richnyj lag-period. Za rezul'tatamy poperedn'ogo analizu zahvorjuvanist' na MM u doslidzhuvanij kogorti ULNA ne perevyshhuvala harakternyj dlja zagal'nogo naselennja riven' protjagom pershyh 21 rokiv pislja avarii'. Vysnovok. Rozrahunok standartyzovanogo spivvidnoshennja zahvorjuvanosti (SIR) za period 2008–2012 rr., tobto cherez 22–26 rokiv pislja avarii', prodemonstruvav dostovirne perevyshhennja rivnja sered ULNA porivnjano zi spontannym populjacijnym rivnem dlja naselennja Ukrai'ny cholovichoi' stati (SIR 1.61, 95% CI 1.01;2.21). Pislja provedennja nezalezhnoi' diagnostychnoi' ekspertyzy vsih identyfikovanyh vypadkiv, rekonstrukcii' otrymanoi' dozy zovnishn'ogo oprominennja na chervonyj kistkovyj mozok za metodom RADRUE budut' proanalizovani dozozalezhni ryzyky vynyknennja MM z urahuvannjam mozhlyvogo modyfikujuchogo vplyvu inshyh faktoriv.

  2. Soviet Nationalities in German Wartime Strategy, 1941-1945.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    at War, 1 939-1945, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1966. Steiner , Felix, Die Armee der Geachteten, Plesse Verlag, Gettingen, 1963. -,Die...Baumeister, Rudolf , "Erfahrungen mit Ostfreiwilligen," Wehrkunde, April 1955. Davydov, I. V., "Propaganda idei druzby narodov v period bitvy za Kavkaz

  3. Maize pathogens suppress inducible phytoalexin production to thwart innate plant immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kauralexins (KA) and zealexins (ZA) are newly described secondary metabolites in maize that serve as inducible chemical defenses against insects and pathogens. In contrast to the abundance of terpene volatiles in leaves, these non-volatile terpenoid phytoalexins are only mildly produced in response ...

  4. The Burgundy-blood phenomenon: a model of buoyancy change explains autumnal waterblooms by Planktothrix rubescens in Lake Zürich.

    PubMed

    Walsby, Anthony E; Schanz, Ferdinand; Schmid, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Buoyancy changes of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens- the Burgundy-blood alga - were modelled from its buoyancy response to light and irradiance changes in Lake Zürich during autumnal mixing. The daily insolation received by filaments at fixed depths and circulating to different depths was calculated from the measured light attenuation and surface irradiance. The active mixing depth, za5, was determined from the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient, Kz, calculated from the wind speed, heat flux and temperature gradients. The fixed depth resulting in filament buoyancy, zn, decreased from 13 to 2 m between August and December 1998; the critical depth for buoyancy, zq, to which filaments must be circulated to become buoyant, decreased from >60 m in the summer to <10 m in winter. When za5 first exceeded zn, in September, P. rubescens was mixed into the epilimnion. In October, zq > za5: circulating filaments would have lost buoyancy in the high insolation. Often in November and December, after deeper mixing and lower insolation, za5 > zq: filaments would have become buoyant but would have floated to the lake surface (the Burgundy-blood phenomenon) only under subsequent calm conditions, when Kz was low. The model explains the Burgundy-blood phenomenon in deeper lakes; waterblooms near shallow leeward shores arise from populations floating up in deeper regions of the lake.

  5. The influence of type and token frequency on the acquisition of affixation patterns: implications for language processing.

    PubMed

    Endress, Ansgar D; Hauser, Marc D

    2011-01-01

    Rules, and exceptions to such rules, are ubiquitous in many domains, including language. Here we used simple artificial grammars to investigate the influence of 2 factors on the acquisition of rules and their exceptions, namely type frequency (the relative numbers of different exceptions to different regular items) and token frequency (the number of exception tokens relative to the number of regular tokens). We familiarized participants to either a prefixation pattern (where regulars started with /ZaI/ and exceptions ended with /ZaI/) or a suffixation pattern (where regulars ended with /ZaI/ and exceptions started with /ZaI/). We show that the type and the token frequency of regular items and exceptions influence in different ways what participants can learn. For the exceptions to be learned, they have to occur sufficiently often so that participants can memorize them; this can be achieved by a high token frequency. However, a high token frequency of the exceptions also impaired the acquisition of the regular pattern. In contrast, the type frequency of the patterns seemed to determine whether the regular pattern could be learned: When the type frequency of the regular items was sufficiently high, participants successfully learned the regular pattern even when the exceptions were played so often that 66% of the familiarization items were exceptions. We discuss these findings in the context of general learning mechanisms and the role they may play in language acquisition.

  6. Steady-state gating of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels. Variability and electrolyte-dependent modulation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The steady-state gating of individual batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neutral phospholipid bilayers exhibits spontaneous, reversible changes in channel activation, such that the midpoint potential (Va) for the gating curves may change, by 30 mV or more, with or without a change in the apparent gating valence (za). Consequently, estimates for Va and, in particular, za from ensemble-averaged gating curves differ from the average values for Va and za from single-channel gating curves. In addition to these spontaneous variations, the average Va shifts systematically as a function of [NaCl] (being -109, -88, and - 75 mV at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 M NaCl), with no systematic variation in the average za (approximately 3.7). The [NaCl]-dependent shifts in Va were interpreted in terms of screening of fixed charges near the channels' gating machinery. Estimates for the extracellular and intracellular apparent charge densities (sigma e = -0.7 and sigma i = -0.08 e/nm2) were obtained from experiments in symmetrical and asymmetrical NaCl solutions using the Gouy-Chapman theory. In 0.1 M NaCl the extracellular and intracellular surface potentials are estimated to be - 94 and -17 mV, respectively. The intrinsic midpoint potential, corrected for the surface potentials, is thus about -30 mV, and the standard free energy of activation is approximately -12 kJ/mol. In symmetrical 0.1 M NaCl, addition of 0.005 M Ba2+ to the extracellular solution produced a 17-mV depolarizing shift in Va and a slight reduction in za. The shift is consistent with predictions using the Gouy-Chapman theory and the above estimate for sigma e. Subsequent addition of 0.005 M Ba2+ to the intracellular solution produced a approximately 5-mV hyperpolarizing shift in the ensemble-averaged gating curve and reduced za by approximately 1. This Ba(2+)-induced shift is threefold larger than predicted, which together with the reduction in za implies that Ba2+ may bind at the intracellular channel surface. PMID

  7. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron . E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G.

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  8. 5-year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Immediate versus Delayed Zoledronic Acid for Prevention of Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Starting Letrozole after Tamoxifen: N03CC (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan; Kearns, Ann E.; Hines, Stephanie L.; Puttabasavaiah, Suneetha; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Lafky, Jacqueline M.; Perez, Edith A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal women with breast cancer (BC) receiving aromatase inhibitors are at increased risk for bone loss. The current study was undertaken to determine whether upfront versus delayed treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) impacted bone loss. This report describes the 5-year follow-up results. Methods 551 postmenopausal women with BC completing tamoxifen and undergoing daily letrozole treatment were randomized to upfront (274) or delayed (277) ZA 4 mg IV every 6 months. In the delayed arm, ZA was initiated for post-baseline bone mineral density (BMD) T-score < -2.0 or fracture. Results The incidence of a 5% decrease in total lumbar spine BMD at 5 years was 10.2% in the upfront arm versus 41.2% in the delayed arm, p < 0.0001. 41 patients in the delayed arm were eventually started on ZA. With the exception of increased grade 1/2 elevated creatinine and fever in the upfront arm and cerebrovascular ischemia in the delayed arm, there were no significant differences between arms with respect to the most common adverse events of arthralgia and back pain. Osteoporosis occurred less frequently in the upfront arm (2 versus 8 cumulative cases) though this difference was not statistically significant. Bone fractures occurred in 24 patients in the upfront arm versus 25 patients in the delayed arm. Conclusions Immediate treatment with ZA prevented bone loss compared with delayed treatment in postmenopausal women on letrozole and these differences were maintained at 5 years. The incidence of osteoporosis or fractures was not different between arms. PMID:25930719

  9. A Biphasic Calcium Sulphate/Hydroxyapatite Carrier Containing Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Zoledronic Acid Generates Bone

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna; Hettwer, Werner; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars; Tägil, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In orthopedic surgery, large amount of diseased or injured bone routinely needs to be replaced. Autografts are mainly used but their availability is limited. Commercially available bone substitutes allow bone ingrowth but lack the capacity to induce bone formation. Thus, off-the-shelf osteoinductive bone substitutes that can replace bone grafts are required. We tested the carrier properties of a biphasic, calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite ceramic material, containing a combination of recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to induce bone, and zoledronic acid (ZA) to delay early resorption. In-vitro, the biphasic material released 90% of rhBMP-2 and 10% of ZA in the first week. No major changes were found in the surface structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or in the mechanical properties after adding rhBMP-2 or ZA. In-vivo bone formation was studied in an abdominal muscle pouch model in rats (n = 6/group). The mineralized volume was significantly higher when the biphasic material was combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA (21.4 ± 5.5 mm3) as compared to rhBMP-2 alone (10.9 ± 2.1 mm3) when analyzed using micro computed tomography (μ-CT) (p < 0.01). In the clinical setting, the biphasic material combined with both rhBMP-2 and ZA can potentially regenerate large volumes of bone. PMID:27189411

  10. L-MTP-PE and zoledronic acid combination in osteosarcoma: preclinical evidence of positive therapeutic combination for clinical transfer.

    PubMed

    Biteau, Kevin; Guiho, Romain; Chatelais, Mathias; Taurelle, Julien; Chesneau, Julie; Corradini, Nadège; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor in pediatric patients is characterized by osteolysis promoting tumor growth. Lung metastasis is the major bad prognosis factor of this disease. Zoledronic Acid (ZA), a potent inhibitor of bone resorption is currently evaluated in phase III randomized studies in Europe for the treatment of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The beneficial effect of the liposomal form of Muramyl-TriPeptide-Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (L-mifamurtide, MEPACT®), an activator of macrophage populations has been demonstrated to eradicate lung metastatic foci in osteosarcoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefit and the safety of the ZA and L-mifamurtide combination in preclinical models of osteosarcoma, as a prerequisite before translation to patients. The effects of ZA (100 μg/kg) and L-mifamurtide (1 mg/kg) were investigated in vivo in xenogeneic and syngeneic mice models of osteosarcoma, at clinical (tumor proliferation, spontaneous lung metastases development), radiological (bone microarchitecture by microCT analysis), biological and histological levels. No interference between the two drugs could be observed on ZA-induced bone protection and on L-mifamurtide-induced inhibition of lung metastasis development. Unexpectedly, ZA and L-mifamurtide association induced an additional and in some cases synergistic inhibition of primary tumor progression. L-mifamurtide has no effect on tumor proliferation in vitro or in vivo, and macrophage population was not affected at the tumor site whatever the treatment. This study evidenced for the first time a significant inhibition of primary osteosarcoma progression when both drugs are combined. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle for clinical application in osteosarcoma patients.

  11. L-MTP-PE and zoledronic acid combination in osteosarcoma: preclinical evidence of positive therapeutic combination for clinical transfer

    PubMed Central

    Biteau, Kevin; Guiho, Romain; Chatelais, Mathias; Taurelle, Julien; Chesneau, Julie; Corradini, Nadège; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor in pediatric patients is characterized by osteolysis promoting tumor growth. Lung metastasis is the major bad prognosis factor of this disease. Zoledronic Acid (ZA), a potent inhibitor of bone resorption is currently evaluated in phase III randomized studies in Europe for the treatment of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. The beneficial effect of the liposomal form of Muramyl-TriPeptide-Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (L-mifamurtide, MEPACT®), an activator of macrophage populations has been demonstrated to eradicate lung metastatic foci in osteosarcoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefit and the safety of the ZA and L-mifamurtide combination in preclinical models of osteosarcoma, as a prerequisite before translation to patients. The effects of ZA (100 μg/kg) and L-mifamurtide (1 mg/kg) were investigated in vivo in xenogeneic and syngeneic mice models of osteosarcoma, at clinical (tumor proliferation, spontaneous lung metastases development), radiological (bone microarchitecture by microCT analysis), biological and histological levels. No interference between the two drugs could be observed on ZA-induced bone protection and on L-mifamurtide-induced inhibition of lung metastasis development. Unexpectedly, ZA and L-mifamurtide association induced an additional and in some cases synergistic inhibition of primary tumor progression. L-mifamurtide has no effect on tumor proliferation in vitro or in vivo, and macrophage population was not affected at the tumor site whatever the treatment. This study evidenced for the first time a significant inhibition of primary osteosarcoma progression when both drugs are combined. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle for clinical application in osteosarcoma patients. PMID:27152244

  12. Relationship between zinc malnutrition and alterations in murine peripheral blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.E.; Morford, L.A.; Fraker, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Studies using a murine model have shown that the immune system responds rapidly and adversely to zinc deficiency. The extent of alteration of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and immunoglobulin levels were investigated in four zinc dietary groups: zinc adequate (ZA); restricted fed zinc adequate (RZA); marginal zinc deficient (MZD, 72-76% of ZA mouse weight); and severely zinc deficient. The peripheral white blood cell count was 3.66 {plus minus} 1.08 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/ml for ZA mice decreasing by 21%, 28% and 54% for RZA, MZD and SZD mice respectively. An equally dramatic change in the flow cytometric light scatter profile was found. ZA mice had 66% lymphocytes and 21% polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in their peripheral blood while MZD and SZD mice contained 43% and 30% lymphocytes and 40% and 60% PMNs respectively. Analysis of the phenotypic distribution of specific classes of lymphocytes revealed ZA blood contained 25% B-cells and 40% T-cells (CD5{sup +}). B-cells decreased 40-50% for RZA and MZD mice and 60-70% for SZD mice. The decline in CD5{sup +} T-cells was more modest at 30% and 45% for MZD and SZD mice. A nearly 40% decline in both T{sub h} and T{sub c/s} cells was noted for both MZD and SZD mice. Radioimmunoassay of serum for changes in IgM and IgG content revealed no change among dietary groups while serum zinc decreased 10% for RZA mice and 50% for both MZD and SZD mice. The authors conclude that peripheral blood differential counts in concert with total B and T-cell phenotype may serve as indicators of zinc status while serum zinc and Ig will not.

  13. Osteoclast activity modulates B-cell development in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anna; Anginot, Adrienne; Mancini, Stéphane J C; Schiff, Claudine; Carle, Georges F; Wakkach, Abdelilah; Blin-Wakkach, Claudine

    2011-07-01

    B-cell development is dependent on the interactions between B-cell precursors and bone marrow stromal cells, but the role of osteoclasts (OCLs) in this process remains unknown. B lymphocytopenia is a characteristic of osteopetrosis, suggesting a modulation of B lymphopoiesis by OCL activity. To address this question, we first rescued OCL function in osteopetrotic oc/oc mice by dendritic cell transfer, leading to a restoration of both bone phenotype and B-cell development. To further explore the link between OCL activity and B lymphopoiesis, we induced osteopetrosis in normal mice by injections of zoledronic acid (ZA), an inhibitor of bone resorption. B-cell number decreased specifically in the bone marrow of ZA-treated mice. ZA did not directly affect B-cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, but induced a decrease in the expression of CXCL12 and IL-7 by stromal cells, associated with reduced osteoblastic engagement. Equivalent low osteoblastic engagement in oc/oc mice confirmed that it resulted from the reduced OCL activity rather than from a direct effect of ZA on osteoblasts. These dramatic alterations of the bone microenvironment were disadvantageous for B lymphopoiesis, leading to retention of B-cell progenitors outside of their bone marrow niches in the ZA-induced osteopetrotic model. Altogether, our data revealed that OCLs modulate B-cell development in the bone marrow by controlling the bone microenvironment and the fate of osteoblasts. They provide novel basis for the regulation of the retention of B cells in their niche by OCL activity.

  14. AB302. SPR-29 Sphingosine-1-phosphate in vitro and in vivo modulates corpus cavernosum smooth muscle tone

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Yin, Jing; Kanika, Nirmala D.; Tong, Yuehong; Villegas, Guillermo; Melman, Arnold; DiSanto, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates smooth muscle (SM) contractility predominantly via three G protein-coupled receptors. The S1P1 receptor is associated with nitric oxide-mediated SM relaxation while S1P2 & S1P3 receptors are linked to SM contraction via activation of the Rho-kinase (ROK) pathway. The objective of this study was to determine the role of S1P in the modulation of corpus cavernosum (CC) SM (CCSM) tone. Methods Human and rat samples were used. Plasma S1P levels were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of S1P1-3 receptors and sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) was determined by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. In vitro organ bath contractility and in vivo intracavernous pressure (ICP) measurements were performed. Results were expressed as mean ± SEM for n experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using either the Student’s t-test (when two sample treatments were being compared) or using ANOVA when multiple means were compared. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Plasma S1P levels were determined to be ~200 nanomolar. Human and rat CC both express SphK1 and all S1P1-3 receptors. Exogenous S1P and the S1P receptor agonist FTY720-P contracted while antagonist JTE-013 relaxed CCSM in vitro. Meanwhile, force produced by S1P and agonists could be totally reversed by ROK inhibitor. Also, intracavernous injection of FTY720-P inhibited ICP rise induced by submaximal electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve, while JTE-013 alone induced ICP increase in vivo. Finally, SphK1 siRNA knocked down rat CC SphK1 by 80% and ICP were significantly potentiated. Conclusions In conclusion, we provide novel data that S1P, possibly coupling S1P2 and S1P3 receptors via RhoA/ROK pathway, mediates CCSM in vitro and in vivo. Antagonizing S1P or its receptors induces CCSM relaxation and proerectile effects. Thus, we provide the first clear evidences that the S1P system is another key contractile regulatory

  15. National Dam Safety Program. Nanticoke Creek Watershed Project Site 10 Dam (Inventory I.D. Number NY 713, DEC 85D-3946, Susquehanna River Basin, Broome County, New York, Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    ai * C r I f ’ ’ NI . 0r ’C I i *I l r iJlC’- I ’j f...34 ]. _’_ .- . --," II*.. D :MI 4~I I.TVMEfl of’ AI P TA"L ST "I" TEST S )i :ONSzIEVA’IIN S, CE i. I ",*; F,[ko ’. ikt NO Otol " i. GLOLOGIC ORIIN / TYPE OF 5AMPE...82170,, 4PPRO1. LC i ~ iGe,3 ept"APPOLAOE XD ROKS _B NN FOUNDATO EXCAVATON 25~ - (A c R EPRSETE Br 19~ 50 c l ’ TH O Bc p[ ITH O Dw 1 DH42 51 / L5

  16. Structure to function of an α-glucan metabolic pathway that promotes Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Light, Samuel H; Cahoon, Laty A; Halavaty, Andrei S; Freitag, Nancy E; Anderson, Wayne F

    2016-11-07

    Here we employ a 'systems structural biology' approach to functionally characterize an unconventional α-glucan metabolic pathway from the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Crystal structure determination coupled with basic biochemical and biophysical assays allowed for the identification of anabolic, transport, catabolic and regulatory portions of the cycloalternan pathway. These findings provide numerous insights into cycloalternan pathway function and reveal the mechanism of repressor, open reading frame, kinase (ROK) transcription regulators. Moreover, by developing a structural overview we were able to anticipate the cycloalternan pathway's role in the metabolism of partially hydrolysed starch derivatives and demonstrate its involvement in Lm pathogenesis. These findings suggest that the cycloalternan pathway plays a role in interspecies resource competition-potentially within the host gastrointestinal tract-and establish the methodological framework for characterizing bacterial systems of unknown function.

  17. [Clinical burden of multi-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia in Hungary. Results of a retrospective study (2006-2011)].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Endre; Jorgensen, Lindsay; Gray, Sharon; Munson, Samantha; Chou, Kathy; Gutterman, Elane M

    2014-09-07

    Bevezetés: Kevés adat áll rendelkezésre a konjugált pneumococcusvakcináknak a pneumonia, meningitis és septikaemia előfordulására gyakorolt hatásáról Magyarországon. Célkitűzés: A szerzők retrospektív vizsgálattal kívánták felmérni a 2006–2011 között Magyarországon minden korosztályban előforduló, kórházi kezelést igénylő, bármely kórokú és pneumococcus okozta pneumonia-, meningitis- és septikaemiaeseteket. Módszer: Összesített adatokat gyűjtöttek az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár adatbázisából előre meghatározott BNO-10-kódok segítségével. Az összehasonlítás χ2-próba segítségével készült a következők alapján: átlagos arány a védőoltás bevezetését megelőzően (2006–2007) versus átlagos arány a védőoltás bevezetését követően (2010–2011). Eredmények: A 0–4 éves korú gyermekeknél a kórházi kezelést igénylő esetek aránya jelentősen csökkent a bármely kórokú tüdőgyulladás és agyhártyagyulladás esetében, de nőtt a septikaemia esetében. A többi korcsoportnál jelentősen növekedett a bármely kórokú pneumonia- és septikaemiaesetek száma. A kórházi halálozás aránya az életkorral emelkedett. A pneumococcusspecifikus kódok korlátozott alkalmazása miatt nem állapítottak meg egyértelmű eredményeket a pneumococcus okozta betegségeket illetően. Következtetések: A bármely kórokú tüdőgyulladás és agyhártyagyulladás csökkenése a 0–4 éves korosztálynál a konjugált pneumococcusvakcinációnak a kórházi kezelés arányára gyakorolt közvetlen hatására utal. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(36), 1426–1436.

  18. Ornithodoros sawaii (Ixodida: Argasidae) Larvae Collected from Hydrobates monorhis on Sogugul and Gaerin Islands, Jeollanam-do (Province), Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung-Chul; Choi, Chang-Yong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Won-Ja; Chong, Sung-Tae; Robbins, Richard G.; Klein, Terry A.

    2016-01-01

    The 65th Medical Brigade and Public Health Command District-Korea, in collaboration with the Migratory Bird Research Center, National Park Research Institute, conducted migratory bird tick surveillance at Sogugul and Gaerin Islands (small rocky bird nesting sites), Jeollanam-do (Province), Republic of Korea (ROK), on 30 July and 1 August 2009. Breeding seabirds captured by hands in their nesting burrows were banded, identified to species, and carefully examined for ticks during the nesting season. A total of 9 Ornithodoros sawaii larvae were removed from 4 adult Hydrobates monorhis (Swinhoe’s storm petrel). The identification of the larvae of O. sawaii collected from migratory seabirds were molecularly confirmed using mitochondrial 16S rDNA primer sets. PMID:27180585

  19. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts.

  20. Retrospective analysis of the epidemiologic literature, 1990–2015, on wildlife-associated diseases from the Republic of Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwang, Jusun; Lee, Kyunglee; Kim, Young-Jun; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Lee, Hang

    2017-01-01

    To assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the ROK. We identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. The majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. Most studies that focused on human and livestock health were cross-sectional whereas wildlife health studies were mostly case reports. Fifteen diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health were identified and 21 diseases were identified as notifiable to either the Korean Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs or the Korean Ministry of Agriculture. Two diseases were reported as occurring as epidemics; highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and virulent Newcastle disease. Six diseases or disease agents were described in the literature as emerging including HPAI, rabies, Babesia microti, avian coronaviruses, scrub typhus, and severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. The diseases for which there were the largest number of publications were HPAI and rabies. The majority of wildlife-associated zoonotic disease publications focused on food-borne parasitic infections or rodent-associated diseases. Several publications focused on the potential of wildlife as reservoirs of livestock diseases; in particular, water deer (Hydropotes inermis) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). In contrast, there were few publications on diseases of concern for wildlife populations or research to understand the impacts of these diseases for wildlife management. Increased focus on prospective studies would enhance understanding of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. For the high-consequence diseases that impact multiple sectors, a One Health approach, with coordination among the public health, agricultural, and environmental sectors

  1. Ligands of Thermophilic ABC Transporters Encoded in a Newly Sequenced Genomic Region of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 Screened by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    The chromosome of Thermotoga maritima strain MSB8 was found to have an 8,870-bp region that is not present in its published sequence. The isolate that was sequenced by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in 1999 is apparently a laboratory variant of the isolate deposited at the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSM 3109) in 1986. This newly sequenced region from the DSMZ culture was located between TM1848 (cbp, cellobiose phosphorylase) and TM1847 (the 3′ end of a truncated ROK regulator). The new region contained seven genes: a beta glucosidase gene (bglA), three trehalose ABC transporter genes (treEFG), three xylose ABC transporter genes (xylE2F2K2), and the 5′ end of a gene encoding the ROK regulator TM1847. We present a new differential scanning fluorimetry method using a low pH that was necessary to screen potential ligands of these exceptionally thermostable periplasmic substrate-binding proteins. This method showed that trehalose, sucrose, and glucose stabilized TreE, and their binding was confirmed by measuring changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon ligand binding. Binding constants of 0.024 μM, 0.300 μM, and 56.78 μM at 60°C, respectively, were measured. XylE2 ligands were similarly determined and xylose, glucose, and fucose bound with Kd (dissociation constant) values of 0.042 μM, 0.059 μM, and 1.436 μM, respectively. Since there is no discernible phenotypic difference between the TIGR isolate and the DSMZ isolate despite the variance in their genomes, we propose that they be called genomovars: T. maritima MSB8 genomovar TIGR and T. maritima MSB8 genomovar DSM 3109, respectively. PMID:21764944

  2. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC LITERATURE, 1990-2015, ON WILDLIFE-ASSOCIATED DISEASES FROM THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jusun; Lee, Kyunglee; Kim, Young-Jun; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Lee, Hang

    2017-01-01

    To assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the ROK. We identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. The majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. Most studies that focused on human and livestock health were cross-sectional whereas wildlife health studies were mostly case reports. Fifteen diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health were identified and 21 diseases were identified as notifiable to either the Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare or the Korea Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Two diseases were reported as occurring as epidemics; highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and virulent Newcastle disease. Six diseases or disease agents were described in the literature as emerging including HPAI, rabies, Babesia microti , avian coronaviruses, scrub typhus, and severe fever thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. The diseases for which there were the largest number of publications were HPAI and rabies. The majority of wildlife-associated zoonotic disease publications focused on food-borne parasitic infections or rodent-associated diseases. Several publications focused on the potential of wildlife as reservoirs of livestock diseases; in particular, Korean water deer ( Hydropotes inermis argyropus ) and wild boar ( Sus scrofa ). In contrast, there were few publications on diseases of concern for wildlife populations or research to understand the impacts of these diseases for wildlife management. Increased focus on prospective studies would enhance understanding of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. For the high-consequence diseases that impact multiple sectors, a One Health approach, with coordination among the public health, agricultural

  3. Epidemiologic Aspects of Medical Retirement from the Republic of Korea Army due to Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to report the epidemiologic characteristics of medical retirement from the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army due to visual impairment and to suggest a practical screening system for the draft. The medical records of 423 eyes of 301 patients who retired from the ROK Army due to visual impairment were reviewed retrospectively between January 2010 and December 2014. The patients were grouped by the presence of trauma, and each group was subdivided by military rank. We analyzed demographic and ophthalmic data, including the etiology of ophthalmologic disease. The etiology was classified into 5 anatomical categories (ocular surface, lens, retina, optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway, and extraocular muscle and orbit), which were then subdivided into the type of disease. The mean age was 24.5 years, and non-traumatic mechanisms accounted for 81.1% (343/423 eyes) of medical retirements. Visual acuity was better in patients without trauma. In enlisted soldiers, disease in the optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway was the most common anatomical category (40.5%), and primary open angle glaucoma (30.8%), retinal dystrophy (18.3%), congenital cataract (14.5%), and retinal detachment (9.7%) were the four most common diseases. Most medical retirements due to visual impairment resulted from non-traumatic mechanisms, even though patients were young. The fundus examination and visual field test would be more useful tools than a conventional vision test for large-scale draft screening for the most common two disease types: primary open angle glaucoma and retinal dystrophy.

  4. Structure-function studies of the staphylococcal methicillin resistance antirepressor MecR2.

    PubMed

    Arêde, Pedro; Botelho, Tiago; Guevara, Tibisay; Usón, Isabel; Oliveira, Duarte C; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2013-07-19

    Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is elicited by the MecI-MecR1-MecA axis encoded by the mec locus. Recently, MecR2 was also identified as a regulator of mec through binding of the methicillin repressor, MecI. Here we show that plasmid-encoded full-length MecR2 restores resistance in a sensitive S. aureus mecR2 deletion mutant of the resistant strain N315. The crystal structure of MecR2 reveals an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, an intermediate scaffold domain, and a C-terminal dimerization domain that contributes to oligomerization. The protein shows structural similarity to ROK (repressors, open reading frames, and kinases) family proteins, which bind DNA and/or sugar molecules. We found that functional cell-based assays of three point mutants affecting residues participating in sugar binding in ROK proteins had no effect on the resistance phenotype. By contrast, MecR2 bound short double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides nonspecifically, and a deletion mutant affecting the N-terminal DNA-binding domain showed a certain effect on activity, thus contributing to resistance less than the wild-type protein. Similarly, a deletion mutant, in which a flexible segment of intermediate scaffold domain had been replaced by four glycines, significantly reduced MecR2 function, thus indicating that this domain may likewise be required for activity. Taken together, these results provide the structural basis for the activity of a methicillin antirepressor, MecR2, which would sequester MecI away from its cognate promoter region and facilitate its degradation.

  5. Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Wild Animals and Ixodidae Ticks in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Hur, Moon-Suk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Jeong, Soo-Myoung; Shin, Nam-Shik; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern China, southern Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). To investigate SFTSV infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. Using serum samples and ticks, SFTSV-specific genes were amplified by one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR and sequenced. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody levels in wild animals. Serum samples were collected from a total of 91 animals: 21 Korean water deer (KWD), 3 Siberian roe deer, 5 gorals, 7 raccoon dogs, 54 wild boars (WBs), and 1 carrion crow. The SFTSV infection rate in wild animals was 3.30% (3 of 91 animals: 1 KWD and 2 WBs). The seropositive rate was 6.59% (6 of 91 animals: 5 KWD and 1 WB). A total of 891 ticks (3 species) were collected from 65 wild animals (9 species). Of the attached tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis (74.86%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (20.20%) and Ixodes nipponensis (4.94%). The average minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in ticks was 4.98%. The MIRs of H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. nipponensis were 4.51%, 2.22%, and 22.73%, respectively. The MIRs of larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks were 0.68%, 6.88%, and 5.53%, respectively. In addition, the MIRs of fed and unfed ticks were 4.67% and 4.96%, respectively. We detected a low SFTSV infection rate in wild animals, no differences in SFTSV infection rate with respect to bloodsucking in ticks, and SFTSV infection for all developmental stages of ticks. This is the first report describing the detection of SFTSV in wild animals in the ROK.

  6. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  7. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  8. Prevalence, Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Bartonella Species in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, S; Kang, J-G; Kim, H-C; Klein, T A; Choi, K-S; Song, J-W; Youn, H-Y; Chae, J-S

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and identify which species of Bartonella naturally infects the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in the Republic of Korea (ROK), spleens from 200 mice were assayed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for members of the genus Bartonella. Utilizing PCR techniques, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. ranged from 31.5% (63/200) to 62.0% (124/200) for the rpoB and ITS gene fragments, respectively. The most prevalent species, Bartonella grahamii, was assigned to 17 genotypes and closely related to the zoonotic pathogens, B. taylorii, B. tribocorum, B. phoceensis and B. henselae, which also were detected. Two Bartonella isolates (KRBG28 and KRBG32) were recovered from blood of A. agrarius captured in Gyeonggi Province, ROK. Comparison of the 16S rRNA, hemin-binding protein E (hbpE), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (gdh1), invasion-associated protein B (ialB), cell division protein (ftsZ), citrate synthase (gltA), 60 kDa heat shock protein (groEL), rpoB gene fragments and the ITS region sequences from the isolates with GenBank was confirmed as B. grahamii. Phylogenetic analysis based on the alignment of concatenated sequences (4933 bp) of KRBG28 and KRBG32 clustered with B. grahamii, forming an independent clade between Asian and American/European B. grahamii genogroups.

  9. A self-organized biomechanical network drives shape changes during tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Akankshi; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Munro, Edwin; Lecuit, Thomas

    2015-08-20

    Tissue morphogenesis is orchestrated by cell shape changes. Forces required to power these changes are generated by non-muscle myosin II (MyoII) motor proteins pulling filamentous actin (F-actin). Actomyosin networks undergo cycles of assembly and disassembly (pulses) to cause cell deformations alternating with steps of stabilization to result in irreversible shape changes. Although this ratchet-like behaviour operates in a variety of contexts, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigate the role of MyoII regulation through the conserved Rho1-Rok pathway during Drosophila melanogaster germband extension. This morphogenetic process is powered by cell intercalation, which involves the shrinkage of junctions in the dorsal-ventral axis (vertical junctions) followed by junction extension in the anterior-posterior axis. While polarized flows of medial-apical MyoII pulses deform vertical junctions, MyoII enrichment on these junctions (planar polarity) stabilizes them. We identify two critical properties of MyoII dynamics that underlie stability and pulsatility: exchange kinetics governed by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles of the MyoII regulatory light chain; and advection due to contraction of the motors on F-actin networks. Spatial control over MyoII exchange kinetics establishes two stable regimes of high and low dissociation rates, resulting in MyoII planar polarity. Pulsatility emerges at intermediate dissociation rates, enabling convergent advection of MyoII and its upstream regulators Rho1 GTP, Rok and MyoII phosphatase. Notably, pulsatility is not an outcome of an upstream Rho1 pacemaker. Rather, it is a self-organized system that involves positive and negative biomechanical feedback between MyoII advection and dissociation rates.

  10. Sequence polymorphisms in Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 gametocyte and gamete surface proteins in Plasmodium vivax isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Mi Kyung; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, JuYeon; Oh, Jun Seo; Han, Eun Taek; An, Seong Soo A; Lim, Chae Seung

    2013-05-01

    Nucleotide sequence analyses of the Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 genes were conducted in 46 malaria patients from the Republic of Korea (ROK) (n = 40) and returning travellers from India (n = 3) and Indonesia (n = 3). The domain structures, which were based on cysteine residue position and secondary protein structure, were similar between Plasmodium vivax (Pvs48/45 and Pvs47) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs48/45 and Pfs47). In comparison to the Sal-1 reference strain (Pvs48/45, PVX_083235 and Pvs47, PVX_083240), Korean isolates revealed seven polymorphisms (E35K, H211N, K250N, D335Y, A376T, I380T and K418R) in Pvs48/45. These isolates could be divided into five haplotypes with the two major types having frequencies of 47.5% and 20%, respectivelfy. In Pvs47, 10 polymorphisms (F22L, F24L, K27E, D31N, V230I, M233I, E240D, I262T, I273M and A373V) were found and they could be divided into four haplotypes with one major type having a frequency of 75%. The Pvs48/45 isolates from India showed a unique amino acid substitution site (K26R). Compared to the Sal-1 and ROK isolates, the Pvs47 isolates from travellers returning from India and Indonesia had amino acid substitutions (S57T and I262K). The current data may contribute to the development of the malaria transmission-blocking vaccine in future clinical trials.

  11. Chemoprophylaxis and the epidemiological characteristics of re-emergent P. vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun; Yong, Tai Soon; Oh, Dae Kyu; Kim, Rock Kwon; Park, Keeho; Suh, I. L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Republic of Korea (ROK), soldiers stationed where there is a risk of contracting malaria have received antimalarial chemoprophylaxis since 1997. However, chemoprophylaxis may facilitate the development of drug resistance, and late primary attacks in individuals who have received chemoprophylaxis are becoming more frequent. We investigated the association between chemoprophylaxis and the epidemiological characteristics and effectiveness of treatment for re-emergent Plasmodium vivax malaria, using a nationwide malaria database. METHODS: Among soldiers at risk of malaria between 1999 and 2001, we reviewed all P. vivax malaria cases (1158) that occurred before 31 December 2003. Early and late primary attacks were defined as cases occurring 2 months after the last day of exposure to risk of malaria, respectively. FINDINGS: Of these cases, 634 (72.0%) had received chemoprophylaxis, and 324 (28.0%) had not. Cases occurred mostly in summer, with a peak in July-August. Stratification by chemoprophylaxis history revealed different times to onset. Early primary attacks were more prevalent in the group not receiving chemoprophylaxis, while in the group receiving chemoprophylaxis most cases were late primary attacks. Of the latter, 312 out of 461 (67.7%) did not take primaquine regularly. After treatment of the first attack, 14 (1.2%) of 1158 were re-treated; all re-treated cases were cured using the same doses and regimen used for the first treatment. CONCLUSION: In ROK, the increase in late primary episodes of re-emergent P. vivax malaria is associated with the use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. PMID:17128363

  12. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  13. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling. PMID:28262786

  14. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-03-06

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.

  15. Structural Technology Evaluation Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0025: Laser Peening for Reliable Fatigue Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    6 ]. Shot peening is a cold working process in which the surface of the 4 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...for the ZA Model Parameter Value σa 945.1961MPa B 246.6467MPa β0 1.1636×10− 6 β1 0.1065 B0 1481.249 MPa εr 0.0538 α0 10− 6 α1 3.1564×10− 4 Figures 15 and...16 show the strain rate dependence curves at different strains for the JC and ZA models. 10 − 6 10 − 4 10 −2 10 0 10 2 10 4 10 6 1000 1100 1200

  16. [Detection of HIV antibodies in a rural region of a developing country].

    PubMed

    Courtois, X; Baccard-Longere, M; Dibi, K

    1991-01-01

    A HIV seroprevalence among 312 antenatal mothers at their first visit to the Idjwi isle's hospital, in Zaïre, near Rwanda, and among 61 other patients, was made with the HIV1 Immunocomb of PBS Orgenics during one year: 1989. The seroprevalence is 0.32%, in this rural area, as was confirmed by Western-Blot. A panel of this 51 "false and true positive" and 13 negative african sera was tested with one other ELISA and two new rapid tests used in France, HIV CHEK 1 + 2 and TEST PACK HIV1/HIV2 to evaluate efficacy under conditions in which transfusions are normally given. These were performed within 15 mn of receipt of blood from a donor in Zaïre.

  17. Thermal transport and anharmonic phonons in strained monolayer hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shasha; Chen, Yue

    2017-03-01

    Thermal transport and phonon-phonon coupling in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under equibiaxial strains are investigated from first principles. Phonon spectra at elevated temperatures have been calculated from perturbation theory using the third-order anharmonic force constants. The stiffening of the out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode (ZA) near the Brillouin zone center and the increase of acoustic phonon lifetimes are found to contribute to the dramatic increase of thermal transport in strained h-BN. The transverse optical mode (TO) at the K point, which was predicted to lead to mechanical failure of h-BN, is found to shift to lower frequencies at elevated temperatures under equibiaxial strains. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes exhibit broad phonon spectra under large strains in sharp contrast to the ZA mode, indicating strong in-plane phonon-phonon coupling.

  18. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 5 (Columbia Asphalt & Gravel Inc - Dela Tek Inc).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    FOR INF.. 1965 UNCLASSIFIED DIOR/STT-85-PT- 5 F/ IS/ 5 NL’ EIIIIIIIEEEEEE EIIIIIEIIIIIIE IIIIEIIIIIEEIIE IIIIIIIIIIEEEE IIIIIIIEIIEEEE IIIIIIIIEIIEEE 1...MARKINGS a ),C -4 .~~ 3 LUiSTk1BUT!3N;AvA1LAB!L1TY Or REPORT Approved for public release, * . A~K) ~ Di’tribu’ticn -’s unlimited . i,\\ A) L N~rJPASEA(S) 5 ...NOIOI;G HAN,ZATICN REPORTNUERS - 5 0i _9KA4.zA7ICN 6o OHrCE S9MBOL a. AME O MON.TORNG ORGANiZA7ION ~ i~rr. (If applicable) 1_ * C:yS~dfe aid ZlPccie

  20. Visual Analysis of Social Networks in a Counter-Insurgency Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    12 developed methods to overcome such an issue and encompass communities’ overlaps in the real world. Figure 6 is a screenshot of Meerkat , a...2008]. Figure 6. MeerKat – Screenshot with the community overlap option enabled [Chen J. et al 2010] 13 Krempel [2009] also summarizes...Erlbaum Assoc Inc. Chen, J., Fagnan, J., Goebel, R., Rabbany, R., Sangi, F., Takaffoli, M., Verbeek, E., & Zaïane, O., (2010), Meerkat : Community

  1. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study (P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  2. Computer Aided Process Planning of Machined Metal Parts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    the manufac- turer to accentuate the positive to assist marketing . Machine usage costs and facility loadings are frequently critical. For example...Variant systems currently on the market include Multiplan (TM of OIR, Inc.), CY-Miplan (TM of Computervision), PICAPP (TM of PICAPP, Inc.) and CSD...120 x2 + y2 = 49 M = 4340 A suitable function f might be f (Z]) = 2! f (za) = Z2 - n, n < z f irj) = r - p f (m) = M This function can be

  3. 78 FR 37664 - Identification of Entities Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    .... CYLINDER SYSTEM L.T.D. (a.k.a. CILINDER SISTEM D.O.O.; a.k.a. CILINDER SISTEM D.O.O. ZA PROIZVODNJU I..., Germany . 14. MCS INTERNATIONAL GMBH (a.k.a. MANNESMAN CYLINDER SYSTEMS; a.k.a. MCS TECHNOLOGIES GMBH.... TADBIRGARANE FARDA MERCANTILE EXCHANGE CO.), Unit C2, 2nd Floor, Building No. ] 29, Corner of 25th...

  4. Corruption/Anti-Corruption in Afghanistan: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    resources/download/3180.pdf Smith , John T. Corruption in Afghanistan: Somebody Else’s Problem? Strategy Research Project. Carlisle Barracks: U.S...Mark Sedra . "Bribes or Bargains? Peace Conditionalities and ’Post- Conflict’ Reconstruction in Afghanistan." International Peacekeeping 14, no.1...Pretoria), South Africa: Institute for Security Studies, 2008. 94pp. (JZ4835 .I76 no.154) http://www.iss.co.za/uploads/MONO154FULL.PDF Smith , Daniel J. A

  5. Quasi quantum group covariant q-oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomerus, Volker

    1993-07-01

    If q is a pth rooty of unit there exists a quasi-co-associative truncated quantum group algebra U qT(sl 2) whose indecomposable representations ar the physical representations of U q(sl 2), whose co-product yields the truncated tensor product of physical representations of U q(sl 2), and whose R-matrix satisfies quasi Yang-Baxter equations. These truncated quantum group algebras are examples of weak quasi quantum group algebras [2]. For primitive pth roots q, q = e 2 πi/ p, we consider a two-dimensional q-oscillator which admits U qT(sl 2) as a symmetry algebra. Its wave function lie in a space FqT of "functions on the truncated quantum plane", i.e. of polynomials in noncommuting complex coordinate functions za, on which multiplication operators Za and the elements of U qT(sl 2) can act. This illustrates the concept of quasi quantum planes [1]. Due to the truncation, the Hilbert space of states is finite dimensional. The subspaces FR(n) of monomials in za of nth degree vanish for n⩾ p - 1, and FT(n) carries the (2 J+1)-dimensional irreducible representation of UqT( sl2) if n = 2J, J = 0, {1}/{2},…, {1}/{2}(p-2) . Partial derivatives ∂a are introduced. We find a ∗-operation on the algebra of multiplication operators, Zi and derivatives ∂b such that the adjoints Z a∗ act as differentiation on the truncated quantum plane. Multiplication operators Za ("creation operators") and their adjoints ("annihilation operators") obey q {-1}/{2}- commutation relations. The ∗-operation is used to determine a positive definite scalar product on the truncated quantum plane FqT. Some natural candidates of hamiltonians for the q-oscillators are determined.

  6. National Dam Inspection Program. Fishpond Dam (NDS ID Number PA-899, DER ID Number 19-81), Susquehanna River Basin, Unnamed Tributary to Roaring Creek, Columbia County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    do not appear to be susceptible to massive landslides which would affect the storage volume of the reservoir or cause overtopping of the dam by...XC 4- .. .. ~ i OSO - 9L4 4 0A000000 - II 4 ~go 7. 0j 0F 0 03 cc 0 -r 0,0, 0 I I - .g j. N I; . CL 0j% - i of - In M,.. K 4 1~ -zA 4&~~ON _-X . .- ’-1

  7. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  8. Anomalous Transport Coefficients Due to the Ion-Ion Two-Stream Plasma Microinstability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-25

    MaxwelHan Distribution on the Computer Kesh . p-*£) \\ j. T^jh^fO ££(£*) (F.5) &* tfLr gfZA^c ou-rZ/b fr*». «?,*) -" -"*&;))) *1[ fx^l- > w^W^tf- (F...NINE POINTS ARE USED IN THE FINITE DIFFERENCE EQUATION FOR THE i"> POINT) Flg. F-2. Kesh Point Numbering Scheme in the Method of Lines. 125

  9. Leading logarithmic corrections to the muonium hyperfine splitting and to the hydrogen Lamb shift

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    1994-12-31

    Main leading corrections with recoil logarithm log(M/m) and low-energy logarithm log(Za) to the Muonium hyperfine splitting axe discussed. Logarithmic corrections have magnitudes of 0.1 {divided_by} 0.3 kHz. Non-leading higher order corrections axe expected to be not larger than 0.1 kHz. Leading logarithmic correction to the Hydrogen Lamb shift is also obtained.

  10. Computer-Aided Mission Planning System (CAMPS) Test 1-82.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-23

    biective6 To assess the marginal value off addin4-g Eb-erimenta. ?enetration and Analysis Support Sys-tem SPASS) tyrpe canabi !lities to the :A,,!S. .3.7...Objective To assess t-he user’s overall omnion off the .ZA.’S/:?PASS system as a mission planning tool. 1 .3.8 Objecti-,e 3 To com- oile a list off

  11. Binding Kinetics versus Affinities in BRD4 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming; Zhou, Jingwei; Wang, Laiyou; Liu, Zhihong; Guo, Jiao; Wu, Ruibo

    2015-09-28

    Bromodomains (BRDs) are protein modules that selectively recognize histones as a "reader" by binding to an acetylated lysine substrate. The human BRD4 has emerged as a promising drug target for a number of disease pathways, and several potent BRD inhibitors have been discovered experimentally recently. However, the detailed inhibition mechanism especially for the inhibitor binding kinetics is not clear. Herein, by employing classical molecular dynamics (MD) and state-of-the-art density functional QM/MM MD simulations, the dynamic characteristics of ZA-loop in BRD4 are revealed. And then the correlation between binding pocket size and ZA-loop motion is elucidated. Moreover, our simulations found that the compound (-)-JQ1 could be accommodated reasonably in thermodynamics whereas it is infeasible in binding kinetics against BRD4. Its racemate (+)-JQ1 proved to be both thermodynamically reasonable and kinetically achievable against BRD4, which could explain the previous experimental results that (+)-JQ1 shows a high inhibitory effect toward BRD4 (IC50 is 77 nM) while (-)-JQ1 is inactive (>10 μM). Furthermore, the L92/L94/Y97 in the ZA-loop and Asn140 in the BC-loop are identified to be critical residues in (+)-JQ1 binding/releasing kinetics. All these findings shed light on further selective inhibitor design toward BRD family, by exploiting the non-negligible ligand binding kinetics features and flexible ZA-loop motions of BRD, instead of only the static ligand-protein binding affinity.

  12. Properties of Polyurethane Anionomers: Ionization via Bimolecular Nucleophilic Displacement of the Urethane Hydrogen.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE (cont.) S N 0102. LF- 01. 6601 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS P04GE ("OIn Do#a Entered) .. 20. Abstract (cont.) 4iechanical...properties of other polyurethane ionomers reported in the literature. ZA 2A .4- -4.# ’ 3° ...,....-." :’ 2 , . 󈧚? .". , ’. .’,.2. .:.2 *OFFICE OFNAVAL...incorporation of-ionic functionality into the hard sgement units of polyurethane block copolymers produces materials known as polyurethane ionomers

  13. Growth and Metabolism of Three Introduced Summersed Plant Species in Relation to the Influences of Temperature and Light.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    roughly parallel one another (Dale and Gillespie 1977; Bowes, Holaday, and Haller 1979). Moreover, seasonal changes in photoperiod and incident solar...Veinsteins -2 -1 •m *sec in the greenhouse during an approximate 14-hr photoperiod . 24 Bowes et al. (197Th) reported dry weight increases in HydrilZa at 10 to...2 -l 12 peinsteins*m -*sec during a 16-hr photoperiod . Our data suggest that Egeria may also be capable of growth under similar conditions. 35. Dark

  14. Determining the Most Appropriate Organizational Structure and Alignment for a Managed Care Office at Keller Army Community Hospital, West Point, NY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-15

    Hospital. This reference provided me with an excellent knowledge base in organization design that greatly facilitated my conduct of this management...Department Technologies.. 66 0 MAPPENDIX m -- zA. DEFINITIONS M B. ACRONYMS Z C. SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL m COMPLEXITY AND CHANGE M D...Daft, 1989; Duncan, 1979). Technology. Technology is the transformation process in which the knowledge , tools, techniques, and actions are used to

  15. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  16. Non-Airborne Conflicts: The Causes and Effects of Runway Transgressions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    and O’Hara, Dolores B., "Human Factors Associated with Runway Incursions", NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System: Eighth Quarterly Report, NASA...ararararocearx OUUU13UUK O_<X<X<XCJ<X<X<X 3uaa« a zaacjzcicjzzi zu uzu D <I <I D <I U d <c za <r a. ZUOU.ZUUUIUUUUO t

  17. Cultural Resource Survey, Government Townsites Study, Fort Peck, Montana, Pickstown, South Dakota, Riverdale, North Dakota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Fort Peck, Montana ZA ’ . Plate 6: Recreation Building Fort Peck, Montana 20 Plate 7: Lutheran Church Fort Peck, Montana Poo Plate 8: Lutheran Church...Joel Barker, Chief of Archives, Federal Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado. July 27, August 13, 1979. _ Interview with Dolores Barnard...Records Center, Denver, Colorado Dolores Barnard, Librarian, State Historical Society of North Dakota Library, Bismarck, North Dakota Leonard Bingham

  18. SIAM Conference on Applied Geometry Held in Albany, New York on 20-24 July 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    MARKINGS Za . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF REPORT 2b. DECLASSIFICATION IDOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for public...Mrnse Undes. d-Neighbourhoods of Simple Externally 1 /ASyracus iv r ity VsbePl n Syracuse. NY Visible Polygon* 11:00132/A34 Dolores Lodares and...these problems are presented. For the Dolores Lodares n pattern case enumerative procedures are derived. Manuel Abellanas Peter J. Brucker V F’~.!t ,1

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of GaAs/AlGaAs Superlattices under Hydrostatic and Uniaxial Pressures at 8 to 300K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Za__tCRT LcASSIF A D - A225 925 ,DISTRIBUTION iAVAILABILITY OF REPORT 2b 0ECLASSIFICATION 6.,VVNuiAiNU L1*L)ULL Approved for public release...and four DA transitions are ob- The open -solid) symbiols are 5- 151-K data. The fits are f’or the - cr % cd. I nset is a1 I-bar spectrum at 5 K. where

  20. The tumor-educated-macrophage increase of malignancy of human pancreatic cancer is prevented by zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Hassanein, Mohamed K; Menen, Rhiana; Momiyama, Masashi; Murakami, Takashi; Miwa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Mako; Uehara, Fuminari; Yano, Shuya; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    We previously defined macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic tumors as "tumor-educated-macrophages" (Edu) and macrophages harvested from mice without tumors as "naïve-macrophages" (Naïve), and demonstrated that Edu-macrophages promoted tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, Edu- and Naïve-macrophages were compared for their ability to enhance pancreatic cancer malignancy at the cellular level in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory efficacy of Zoledronic acid (ZA) on Edu-macrophage-enhanced metastasis was also determined. XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cells in Gelfoam co-cultured with Edu-macrophages proliferated to a greater extent compared to XPA1 cells cultured with Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.014). XPA1 cells exposed to conditioned medium harvested from Edu culture significantly increased proliferation (P = 0.016) and had more migration stimulation capability (P<0.001) compared to cultured cancer cells treated with the conditioned medium from Naïve. The mitotic index of the XPA1 cells, expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, significantly increased in vivo in the presence of Edu- compared to Naïve-macrophages (P = 0.001). Zoledronic acid (ZA) killed both Edu and Naïve in vitro. Edu promoted tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of the XPA1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. ZA reduced primary tumor growth (P = 0.006) and prevented metastasis (P = 0.025) promoted by Edu-macrophages. These results indicate that ZA inhibits enhanced primary tumor growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer induced by Edu-macrophages.

  1. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Supplemental Limnological Studies at Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill Lakes, 1983-1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Gomphonema. The nannandrous Oedogonium braunii was com- monly observed with sexual reproductive structures while Mougeotia was never observed in...sexual reproduction . In addition, Gomphonema was com- monly observed forming gelatinous envelopes containing two to four cells lying side by side. Despite... Ceriodaphnia reticulata 7. Copepod naupli.A Large Particle Feeders (LPF) 1. Dazphnia parvuZa Fordyce 2. Diaphanasoma brachyurwn 3. Ifolopedium cv’azonicun

  2. Trim Effects on Motion Stability of Submersible Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-07

    the nominal depth ZGB Vehicle metacentric height Z Heave force Za Partial derivative of Z w.r.t. a I. INTRODUCTION The fundamental goal of submarine...control is to reach and maintain ordered depth. Experimental designs involve expensive model testing such as Darpa Suboff Model (DTRC Model 5470) [Ref...Appendix. II. EQUATIONS OF NOTION The motion of the submersible in the vertical plane can be modeled by four coupled nonlinear differential equations

  3. Hopf Bifurcation Analysis for Depth Control of Submersible Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-30

    form z deviation off the nominal depth ZGB vehicle metacentric height Z heave force Za derivative of Z with respect to a WO frequency at the...as a practical vessel. Current evaluation schemes involve extensive model testing such as those done on the DARPA SUBOFF Model (DTRC Model 5470) [ref...design. Much work has been done on depth control and modelling of submarines in the vertical plane [ref’s. 1, 2, & 3] but this work has assumed the

  4. Effects of thickness & shape on localized surface plasmon resonance of sexfoil nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xianchao; Chen, Weidong; Xie, Zhengwei; Huang, Yuerong; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Not Available Project supported by the Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 16ZA0047), the State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, China (Grant No. 201509), the Large Precision Instruments Open Project Foundation of Sichuan Normal University, China (Grant Nos. DJ201557, DJ201558 and DJ201560), and the State Key Laboratory of Optical Technologies on Nano Fabrication and Micro Engineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Digital holographic interferometry employing Fresnel transform reconstruction for the study of flow shear stabilized Z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M. P.; Shumlak, U.

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP-HD flow Z-pinch project provides a platform to explore how shear flow stabilized Z-pinches could scale to high-energy-density plasma (plasma with pressures exceeding 1 Mbar) and fusion reactor conditions. The Z-pinch is a linear plasma confinement geometry in which the plasma carries axial electric current and is confined by its self-induced magnetic field. ZaP-HD generates shear stabilized, axisymmetric Z-pinches with stable lifetimes approaching 60 μs. The goal of the project is to increase the plasma density and temperature compared to the previous ZaP project by compressing the plasma to smaller radii (≈1 mm). Radial and axial plasma electron density structure is measured using digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which provides the necessary fine spatial resolution. ZaP-HD's DHI system uses a 2 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse with a second harmonic generator (λ = 532 nm) to produce holograms recorded by a Nikon D3200 digital camera. The holograms are numerically reconstructed with the Fresnel transform reconstruction method to obtain the phase shift caused by the interaction of the laser beam with the plasma. This provides a two-dimensional map of line-integrated electron density, which can be Abel inverted to determine the local number density. The DHI resolves line-integrated densities down to 3 × 1020 m-2 with spatial resolution near 10 μm. This paper presents the first application of Fresnel transform reconstruction as an analysis technique for a plasma diagnostic, and it analyzes the method's accuracy through study of synthetic data. It then presents an Abel inversion procedure that utilizes data on both sides of a Z-pinch local number density profile to maximize profile symmetry. Error estimation and Abel inversion are applied to the measured data.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Angiography of Nonferromagnetic Iliac Artery Stents and Stent-Grafts: A Comparative Study in Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Schuermann, Karl; Vorwerk, Dierk; Buecker, Arno; Neuerburg, Joerg; Grosskortenhaus, Stefanie; Haage, Patrick; Piroth, Werner; Hunter, David W.; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1999-09-15

    Purpose: To compare nonferromagnetic iliac artery prostheses in their suitability for patency monitoring with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using conventional angiography as a reference. Methods: In experiment 1, three Memotherm stents were inserted into the iliac arteries of each of six sheep: two 'tandem' stents on one side and a single stent on the other side. In experiment 2, four prostheses (normal and low-porosity Corvita stent-grafts, Memotherm, ZA-stent) were inserted in each of 11 sheep. Patency was monitored before and 1, 3, and 6 months after insertion with 3D phase-contrast and two 2D time-of-flight sequences (TOF-1: TR/TE = 18/6.9, TOF-2: 13/2.5) with and without contrast at 1.5 T. On 206 coronal MIP images (72 pre-, 134 post-stenting), three readers analyzed 824 iliac segments (206 x 4) for patency and artifacts. Results: There was no difference in the number of artifacts between tandem and single iliac Memotherm stents. The ZA-stent induced significantly fewer artifacts than the other prostheses (p < 0.00001). With MRA, patency of the ZA-stent was correctly diagnosed in 88% of cases, which was almost comparable to nonstented iliac segments (95%), patency of the Memotherm stent in 59%, and of the Corvita stent-grafts in 57% and 55%. The TOF-2 sequence with contrast yielded the best images. Conclusion: MRA compatibility of nonferromagnetic prostheses depends strongly on the design of the device. MRA may be used to monitor the patency of iliac ZA-stents, whereas iliac Memotherm stents and Corvita stent-grafts appear to be less suited for follow-up with MRA.

  7. U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-Europe, Research Reports (1989-1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-21

    3dichen Trainingsunflillen zeigen, daB nach soich eine’m traumnatischen Erlebnis sowohi pers6nlicher als auch beruflicher Deistand ffir die Gesundheit ... Gesundheit und sein Wohibefinden nicht zerstreuen. Unsicherheit. Ohne Ehemann zu Hause hat die Soldatenfrau Angst, allein zu sein; sie hat auch Angst...Ibre emotionale Gesundheit 49% 3. Mit dem Soldaten-Ehepartner sprechen za k6nnen 47% 4. Die emotionale Gesundheit der Kinder 45% 5. Die Sicherheit der

  8. Mechanisms By Which Humidity Alters Ductility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    ductility$ of thesurfa ?Za’dlouvalt1 -rates of crack initiation, early growth and the relaxation op residual surface stresses dur~fati gue are all sensitive...15 Fig. 4 Ratio of closure stress to maximum tensile stress increases with increased distance (L) of crack tip to the next grain boundary. Here...orientations. Tmax is the maximum applied surface shear stress ........................ 23 Fiq. 8 Duration of incubation AN = N - N increases for cracks

  9. PLEKHA7 modulates epithelial tight junction barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Paschoud, Serge; Jond, Lionel; Guerrera, Diego; Citi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    PLEKHA7 is a recently identified protein of the epithelial zonula adhaerens (ZA), and is part of a protein complex that stabilizes the ZA, by linking it to microtubules. Since the ZA is important in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJ), we asked whether PLEKHA7 is involved in modulating epithelial TJ barrier function. We generated clonal MDCK cell lines in which one of four different constructs of PLEKHA7 was inducibly expressed. All constructs were localized at junctions, but constructs lacking the C-terminal region were also distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Inducible expression of PLEKHA7 constructs did not affect the expression and localization of TJ proteins, the steady-state value of transepithelial resistance (TER), the development of TER during the calcium switch, and the flux of large molecules across confluent monolayers. In contrast, expression of three out of four constructs resulted both in enhanced recruitment of E-cadherin and associated proteins at the apical ZA and at lateral puncta adherentia (PA), a decreased TER at 18 h after assembly at normal calcium, and an attenuation in the fall in TER after extracellular calcium removal. This latter effect was inhibited when cells were treated with nocodazole. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PLEKHA7 forms a complex with the cytoplasmic TJ proteins ZO-1 and cingulin, and this association does not depend on the integrity of microtubules. These results suggest that PLEKHA7 modulates the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of the TJ barrier, through E-cadherin protein complex- and microtubule-dependent mechanisms. PMID:24843844

  10. Safety Testing of Seed and Vaccines for Dengue Viruses in Mice, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Bacterial and Mycoplasma Culture Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-20

    MICROBIOLOGICAL5?ASSOCIATES INC. CORPORATE OFFICES BETHESDA LABORATCRIES UWe Sciences Center 5221 River Road - Bethesda - MaryLand 20816 9900 Blackwell Road s...MICROBIOLOGICAL 5? ASSOCIATES, INC. ZA356.005102 VIII. APPENDIX -105 - MICROBIOLOGICAL 𔃿 ASSOCIATES, INC. 2 MICROBIOLOGICAL 𔃿 ASSOCIATES INC. CORPORATE ...ASSOCIATES INC. CORPORATE OFFICES O-ETHESDA LABORATORIES Life Sciences Center 5221 River Road • Bethesda. Maryland 20816 9900 Blackwell Road - Rockville

  11. Freeze-dried Plasma at the Point of Injury: from Concept to Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2008. 12. Matijevic N, Wang YW, Cotton BA, Hartwell E, Barbeau JM, Wade CE, Holcomb JB: Better hemostatic profiles of never-frozen liquid plasma com...cell products transfused improves mortality in trauma patients. Transfusion 50(2):493Y500, 2010. 28. Radwan ZA, Bai Y, Matijevic N, del Junco DJ...table of contents. 31. Pati S, Matijevic N, Doursout MF, Ko T, Cao Y, Deng X, Kozar RA, Hartwell E, Conyers J, Holcomb JB: Protective effects of fresh

  12. Enhancement of Plant Establishment on Dredged Material Sites with Mycorrhizal Fungi and Clay Amendments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    montmorillonite enhanced the growth of smooth brome grass. Topsoil, the clays attapulgite and kaolinite , and the commercial products Agrosoke anj Stawetwere...clays bentonite, attapulgite, kaolinite , and montmorillonite . Trade name and company addresses for the clays are listed in Table 1. Agrosoke and Stawet...desertcoZa, G. etunicatwn, and G. intraradice8. The clays attapulgite, ben- tonite, kaclinite,/and montmorillonite from various commercial sources were

  13. The Effect of Hypotensive Resuscitation and Fluid Type on Mortality, Bleeding, Coagulation and Dysfunctional Inflammation in a Swine Grade V Liver Injury Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    prior to surgery , except for water ad libitum. We pre- anesthetized the swine with an intramuscular injection of 8mg/kg Telazol® (Fort Dodge Animal...fluxuations, and response to painful stimuli at the nasal septum and forefoot . All efforts were made to ensure the study team remained blinded to the...Injured Patient. World Journal of Surgery . 2007;31:1055-1065. 9. Cho SD, Holcomb JB, Tieu BH, Englhart MS, Morris MS, Karahan ZA, Underwood SA, Muller

  14. Legislation Relating to the AAF Personnel Program, 1939 to May 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-08-01

    backgroun ~d of the ý?viation St~dent I-ot, see 4Lbove, hp.* 38 2jj, ’e. 77 Cong., 1. cess., 32Z.a (21 April 19 U,3:35, (22 Apri s19a). 3..g Heao~ rings on,2...Oppezomtely eqml Zm Increments, in aecord- anc * with the provilons or,, and from the groups •oecribed in, #ectio 24e of the Watien•l Defense Act, at

  15. Visual outcome and optical quality after bilateral implantation of aspheric diffractive multifocal, aspheric monofocal and spherical monofocal intraocular lenses: a prospective comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Pan-Pan; Li, Xia; Yao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the visual function after bilateral implantation of aspheric diffractive multifocal Tecnis ZMA00, aspheric monofocal ZA9003 versus spherical monofocal Akreos Adapt intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS Tecnis ZMA00, Tecnis ZA9003 or Akreos Adapt IOLs were bilaterally implanted in 180 eyes from 90 patients. The following parameters were assessed 3 months postoperatively: monocular and binocular uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and distance-corrected visual acuity (DCVA) for distance, intermediate and near, spherical aberration (SA), contrast and glare sensitivity, near point refractive power, uncorrected and best-corrected near stereoscopic acuity (NSA). Patient satisfaction was assessed by a questionnaire. RESULTS Three months postoperatively, the monocular and binocular UCVA and DCVA at near of Tecnis ZMA00 were significantly better than other two groups. The mean SA for 5.0mm optical zone in Tecnis ZMA00 and Tecnis ZA9003 was significantly lower than that in Akreos Adapt. Mean contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were better for Tecnis ZA9003 group than for other two groups. Patients with Tecnis ZMA00 had higher monocular and binocular near point refractive power and uncorrected NSA than monofocal groups. The patients in Tecnis ZMA00 had higher mean values for halo compared with other two groups. CONCLUSION Tecnis ZMA00 provided better near VA and uncorrected NSA and higher near point refractive power than monofocal IOLs and patients were spectacle independent. The IOLs with Tecnis aspheric design improved contrast and glare sensitivity. Patients with Tecnis ZMA00 reported more disturbances on visual phenomena of halo. PMID:23826522

  16. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    UNORMAL STREAM N. J. FLOODWAY DESIGN FLOOD (NJFDF) I PROFILES in the Flod Pain /nformation Report~shw elevoti-~o A c W0 0 forthe entire study area TO...INFORMATION TOMS RIVER OCEAN COUNTY, N.J. FLOODED AREAS JUNE 1972 L E j ",’.PLATE6 ui DOVEI zA XC RV! crCN.J. FL 0ESIG M+II MILI ZE CRC GROI G.S. TOW 1

  17. The Small Alternatively Spliced Amelogenin LRAP Modulates Early Stage Ameloblast Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-30

    matrix (Gibson et al., 2001). This phenotype is similar to some tooth phenotypes found in humans from families with X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta ...deficient mice display an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype. J Biol Chem 276, 31871-31875. Gibson, C.W., Yuan, Z.A., Li, Y., Daly, B., Suggs, C., Aragon...Y.H., Al Hazzazzi, T., and Simmer, J.P. (2007). Enamel formation and amelogenesis imperfecta . Cells Tissues Organs 186, 78-85. 42 Huang, Y

  18. International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions (14th) Held in Palo Alto, California on 24-30 July 1985 (Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Invited Papers)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    either by classical mechanics or in the Porn approximation are valid at very high energies (E za l.5keV for H-). More recently Vu Ngoc Tuan et al(42)and...703: J. Phys. Chem. 86 (1982) 2182. 19)C.E. Caplan and M.S, Child , Mol. Phys. 23 (1972) 249. 20)A.J. Lorquet, J.C. Lorquet and W. Forst, Chem. Phys. 51

  19. Moody AFB, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-21

    158 898. 8;8,඘{ 9080 9 80380 93 9]80 El L J AL CLIMATOLOGY ? ANCH SEF ICT A C CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITYt , EATH 9 SERVICE/MAC In7- P13? 0DY AFZ GA...L71 _ _ _ _ ? | II I Elt -tn (X) ZA, It w , No., Obl* Moon MRe. of Nemrsl ilbl Tolm tom 1 80b 2831497 41114 67 . 608I 416*5 226o 7?i W, ,b

  20. Time Variable Associated Absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F. W.; Barlow, T. A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    We discuss dramatic changes in the z_a ~ z_e absorption system of the z_e = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (Q0150-203). The C IV lambda 1550 and N V lambda 1240 doublets at z_a = 2.1344 strengthened by a factor of ~ 3 between the observations of Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1988, ApJS, 68, 539; measured November 1981) and our earliest measurements (November and December 1990). During this time, C IV in the z_a = 2.0083 system may also have strengthened. The variability of other lines in these systems is unknown. Continued monitoring is in progress. We consider several models of the z_a ~ z_e absorption environment, and conclude that the absorbing clouds are close to the QSO and photoionized by the QSO continuum. The variability timescale (<~2.9 yrs rest) requires gas densities gap 4000 cm(-3) to allow changes in the ionization balance. This minimum density, and the high ionization needed to produce the Ne VIII lambda 774 and O VI lambda 1035 absorptions reported previously (E. M. Burbidge et al., 1993, BAAS, 24, 1135), requires clouds <~200 pc from the QSO. The full range of absorption line ionizations (including C III lambda 977 and N III lambda 989) implies that the clouds are segregated, spanning a factor of gap 10 in distance or gap 100 in density. Across these regions the H I fraction varies from ~ 10(-3) to ~ 10(-6) . The total hydrogen column ranges from a few times 10(18) cm(-2) in the low ionization gas to ~ 10(20) cm(-2) where the Ne VIII lines form. The Lyman continuum is expected to be optically thin throughout, consistent with the measured absence of a Lyman edge. The metal abundances are roughly solar or above. Implications of these results are discussed. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG 5-1630.

  1. Modeling of Hot Fragment Conductive Ignition of Solid Propellants with Application to Melting and Evaporation of Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    ARMY LABORATORY COMMAND BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABORATORY ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND 03 UNCLASSIFIED SECURIY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE ZA. -7 7...Acknowledgment This work was performed under Contract DAAKll-83-C-0015 sponsored by the Applied Ballistics Branch of the Ballistics Research Laboratories , under...DAAKll-83-C-0015 K. K. Kuo, W. H. Hsieh and K. C. Hsieh Submitted to Ballistic Research Laboratories Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland During this

  2. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-08

    finished also for building a Bulgarian-Soviet association for producing flowers and decorative plants as well as a joint Soviet- Bulgarian scientific...modernization in order to improve their operational reliability, finished textile goods and the output by fully atuomated operation, particularly by...to 12 am. What kind of nonsense is this? They should have been finished with their inventory in 20 minutes. Petr Jufena „Co je to za volovinu

  3. Effect of cytokinins and auxins on the growth of free-living conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de-Lin, Duan; Xiu-Geng, Fei; Hong-Xu, Ren; Xiong, Chen; Ying, Zhu

    1995-09-01

    IAA 3-Indolylacetic acid, NAA a-Naphthylacetic acid and cytokinins in PESI culture medium were used in a study on the effects of plant hormones on the growth of free-living conchocelis of Porphyra yezoensis which showed that its growth in medium with cytokinins, IAA and NAA was more rapid than that in medium with non—phytohormones; that the optimal concentrations for promoting growth were 10 μg/L for IAA and ZA (Zeatin), and 0.1 μg/L for BA 6-Benzyl amino purine and KIN 6-Furfurylamino- purine. Mix use of NAA, IAA and cytokinins, NAA/ZA 1-1000/1 μg/L, NAA/BA 10/1-1000 μg/L, NAA/KIN 1/1-1000 μg/L promoted growth. IAA/ZA 0.1-1/0.1-1 μg/L; IAA/BA 0.1-1/0.1-10 μg/L IAA/KIN 1/0.1-1000 μg/L also promoted growth.

  4. Parathyroid hormone mediates bone growth through the regulation of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pettway, Glenda J; Meganck, Jeffrey A; Koh, Amy J; Keller, Evan T; Goldstein, Steven A; McCauley, Laurie K

    2008-04-01

    PTH (1-34) is the only FDA-approved anabolic agent for osteoporosis treatment in the U.S., but its mechanisms are not completely understood. This study investigated PTH effects on osteogenic cells at various stages of differentiation and proliferation using an engineered bone growth model in vivo. Ossicles were generated from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) implanted in immunocompromised mice. Three weeks of PTH (40 microg/kg/day) or vehicle treatment initiated 1 day, 1, 2, or 3 weeks after BMSC implantation resulted in an anabolic response in PTH-treated implants (via histomorphometry and muCT) in all treatment groups. A novel in vivo tracking strategy with luciferase tagged BMSCs and weekly bioluminescent imaging of ossicles revealed increased donor cell proliferation in PTH-treated ossicles. The greatest increase occurred during the first week, and the activity remained elevated in PTH-treated implants over time. Zoledronic acid (ZA) was combined with PTH to delineate interactive mechanisms of these bone active agents. Combining ZA with PTH treatment reduced the PTH-mediated increase in luciferase BMSC activity, serum osteocalcin, and serum tartrate resistant acid phosphotase-5b (TRAP-5b) but ZA did not reduce the PTH-induced increase in total bone. Since zoledronic acid reduced PTH-induced proliferation without reducing bone volume, these data suggest that combining PTH and bisphosphonate therapy warrants further investigation in the treatment of bone disorders.

  5. Detecting Early Biomechanical Effects of Zoledronic Acid on Femurs of Osteoporotic Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Evandro Pereira; Müller, Sérgio Swain; Sardenberg, Trajano; Mizobuchi, Roberto Ryuiti; Galbiatti, José Antônio; Durigan, Alcides; Savarese, Aniello; Ortolan, Érika Veruska Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the biomechanical effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on femurs of female osteoporotic rats after follow-up periods of 9 and 12 months. Methods. Eighty female Wistar rats were prospectively assessed. At 60 days of age, the animals were randomly divided into two groups: bilateral oophorectomy (O) (n = 40) and sham surgery (S) (n = 40). At 90 days of age, groups O and S were randomly subdivided into four groups, according to whether 0.1 mg/kg of ZA or distilled water (DW) was intraperitoneally administered: OZA (n = 20), ODW (n = 20), SZA (n = 20), and SDW (n = 20). The animals were sacrificed at 9 and 12 months after the administration of the substances, and then their right femurs were removed and analyzed biomechanically. Axial compression tests that focused on determining the maximum load (N), yield point (N), and stiffness coefficient (N/mm) of the proximal femur were performed in the biomechanical study. Results. ZA significantly increased the maximum load and yield point, reducing the stiffness coefficient concerning the oophorectomy status and follow-up period. Conclusion. Zoledronic acid, at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, significantly increased the maximum loads and yield points and reduced the stiffness coefficients in the femurs of female rats with osteoporosis caused by bilateral oophorectomy. PMID:23304634

  6. A-DaGO-Fun: an adaptable Gene Ontology semantic similarity-based functional analysis tool

    PubMed Central

    Mazandu, Gaston K.; Chimusa, Emile R.; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Mulder, Nicola J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Gene Ontology (GO) semantic similarity measures are being used for biological knowledge discovery based on GO annotations by integrating biological information contained in the GO structure into data analyses. To empower users to quickly compute, manipulate and explore these measures, we introduce A-DaGO-Fun (ADaptable Gene Ontology semantic similarity-based Functional analysis). It is a portable software package integrating all known GO information content-based semantic similarity measures and relevant biological applications associated with these measures. A-DaGO-Fun has the advantage not only of handling datasets from the current high-throughput genome-wide applications, but also allowing users to choose the most relevant semantic similarity approach for their biological applications and to adapt a given module to their needs. Availability and implementation: A-DaGO-Fun is freely available to the research community at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/ITGOM/adagofun. It is implemented in Linux using Python under free software (GNU General Public Licence). Contact: gmazandu@cbio.uct.ac.za or Nicola.Mulder@uct.ac.za Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26476781

  7. Constitutive modelling of a tungsten heavy metal alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoglund, P.

    2003-09-01

    The dynamic mechanical behaviour of a tungsten heavy metal alloy (WHA) with potential use as a kinetic energy penetrator is investigated. Mechanical properties related to tensile loading are measured at strain rates up to 400 s^{-1} and at temperatures from 20 ^{circ}C to about 500 ^{circ}C. From the experimental data parameters for the constitutive equations developed by Johnson and Cook (J&C) as well as Zerilli and Armstrong (Z&A) are determined. From the extracted models isothermal and adiabatic flow stress curves are calculated and compared to experiments. At high strain rates or high temperatures the J&C model deviates about 5-10% from experimental results, while the Z&A model shows a better agreement with the collected data. It should be emphasised that the Z&A model used in this work is developed for materials with body centred crystals whereas the WHA is a composite with both face centredand body centred crystals.

  8. Land-use effects on erosion, sediment yields, and reservoir sedimentation: a case study in the Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, A.C.; Webb, R.M.T.; McIntyre, S.C.; Wolfe, W.J.

    2006-01-01

     Lago Loíza impounded in 1953 to supply San Juan, Puerto Rico, with drinking water; by 1994, it had lost 47% of its capacity. To characterize sedimentation in Lago Loíza, a study combining land-use history, hillslope erosion rates, and subbasin sediment yields was conducted. Sedimentation rates during the early part of the reservoir’s operation (1953– 1963) were slightly higher than the rates during 1964–1990. In the early history of the reservoir, cropland comprised 48% of the basin and erosion rates were high. Following economic shifts during the 1960s, cropland was abandoned and replaced by forest, which increased from 7.6% in 1950 to 20.6% in 1987. These land-use changes follow a pattern similar to the northeastern United States. Population in the Lago Loíza Basin increased 77% from 1950 to 1990, and housing units increased 194%. Sheetwash erosion measured from 1991 to 1993 showed construction sites had the highest sediment concentration (61,400 ppm), followed by cropland (47,400 ppm), pasture (3510 ppm), and forest (2050 ppm). This study illustrates how a variety of tools and approaches can be used to understand the complex interaction between land use, upland erosion, fluvial sediment transport and storage, and reservoir sedimentation. 

  9. Combination of the c-Met Inhibitor Tivantinib and Zoledronic Acid Prevents Tumor Bone Engraftment and Inhibits Progression of Established Bone Metastases in a Breast Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Previdi, Sara; Scolari, Federica; Chilà, Rosaria; Ricci, Francesca; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Broggini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Bone is the most common metastatic site for breast cancer. There is a significant need to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the engraftment and growth of tumor cells in bone and to discover novel effective therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tivantinib and Zoledronic Acid (ZA) in combination in a breast xenograft model of bone metastases. Cancer cells were intracardially implanted into immunodeficient mice and the effects of drugs alone or in combination on bone metastasis were evaluated by in vivo non-invasive optical and micro-CT imaging technologies. Drugs were administered either before (preventive regimen) or after (therapeutic regimen) bone metastases were detectable. In the preventive regimen, the combination of tivantinib plus ZA was much more effective than single agents in delaying bone metastatic tumor growth. When administered in the therapeutic schedule, the combination delayed metastatic progression and was effective in improving survival. These effects were not ascribed to a direct cytotoxic effect of the combined therapy on breast cancer cells in vitro. The results of this study provide the rationale for the design of new combinatorial strategies with tivantinib and ZA for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases. PMID:24260160

  10. Bone densitometric assessment and management of fracture risk in Indian men of prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy: Does practice pattern match the guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Manas R.; Mandhani, Anil; Chipde, Saurabh S.; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, Manmeet; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Estimation of baseline bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of instituting androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic prostate cancer is recommended by several specialty groups and expert panels. The present study was carried out to analyze the practice pattern of Indian urologists with regard to bone densitometric assessment and management of fracture risk in men of prostate cancer on ADT, and their degree of adherence to currently available guidelines Materials and Methods: Telephonic interviews of 108 qualified urologists, randomly selected from the member database of Urological Society of India was carried out with a predefined questionnaire. The responses were analyzed and compared with the available evidences and recommendations. Results: Only 19.4% urologists routinely perform a baseline BMD before starting ADT. Although majority of them prescribe calcium and vitamin D supplementation, only few tell regarding fracture risk and life-style modification to their patients. While 59.6% of the respondents use Zoledronic acid (ZA) in their patients on ADT, half of them prescribe it without knowing the BMD status, which may lead to overuse of ZA. Conclusion: Majority of the urologists in India do not follow the guidelines for BMD measurement in prostate cancer. A baseline BMD may help in reducing the unnecessary use of ZA. PMID:23450674

  11. Cloud Geometry Analysis of the Smoke Week III Obscuration Trials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    n A I -r CDM I 0NCr 0’ V- ) ’ 0 CO 0 O N M N 0 -0 - - M T m ’: (r, EJ) ’ I A 0- AN IN 0M M M ~ ZA ’DW IAN M 0 0M M (r 0- cl 01 0 0 - C 0- IA 0 0- 0C...I 0 I.- za m CL Z ozw U) 0Z ( 1 1 | 1 1 1 I I I I I I ! II In 10 ow 0M*1 0o zO r Oi N x~0wtI-MnWrN4OV 3nd 01wcNiw1Ior- MW0 U) L z I- CL J wo I m l...Z4 C O ~ oCCoQ c za En m Ct 0 D 1f ~ N 0 () m 0 Or - 0 0 tW-4. t 0 U 0. w 0 10 C~W 0 C’l nt w 0 N U 0 rjU N 0 z 00 L f3 2w ct

  12. A test of the adhesion approximation for gravitational clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.; Weinberg, David H.

    1994-01-01

    We quantitatively compare a particle implementation of the adhesion approximation to fully nonlinear, numerical 'N-body' simulations. Our primary tool, cross-correlation of N-body simulations with the adhesion approximation, indicates good agreement, better than that found by the same test performed with the Zel'dovich approximation (hereafter ZA). However, the cross-correlation is not as good as that of the truncated Zel'dovich approximation (TZA), obtained by applying the Zel'dovich approximation after smoothing the initial density field with a Gaussian filter. We confirm that the adhesion approximation produces an excessively filamentary distribution. Relative to the N-body results, we also find that: (a) the power spectrum obtained from the adhesion approximation is more accurate that that from ZA to TZA, (b) the error in the phase angle of Fourier components is worse that that from TZA, and (c) the mass distribution function is more accurate than that from ZA or TZA. It appears that adhesion performs well statistically, but that TZA is more accurate dynamically, in the sense of moving mass to the right place.

  13. A test of the adhesion approximation for gravitational clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei; Weinberg, David H.

    1993-01-01

    We quantitatively compare a particle implementation of the adhesion approximation to fully non-linear, numerical 'N-body' simulations. Our primary tool, cross-correlation of N-body simulations with the adhesion approximation, indicates good agreement, better than that found by the same test performed with the Zel-dovich approximation (hereafter ZA). However, the cross-correlation is not as good as that of the truncated Zel-dovich approximation (TZA), obtained by applying the Zel'dovich approximation after smoothing the initial density field with a Gaussian filter. We confirm that the adhesion approximation produces an excessively filamentary distribution. Relative to the N-body results, we also find that: (a) the power spectrum obtained from the adhesion approximation is more accurate than that from ZA or TZA, (b) the error in the phase angle of Fourier components is worse than that from TZA, and (c) the mass distribution function is more accurate than that from ZA or TZA. It appears that adhesion performs well statistically, but that TZA is more accurate dynamically, in the sense of moving mass to the right place.

  14. Tankyrase-binding protein TNKS1BP1 regulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tomokazu; Yoshida, Haruka; Katori, Masamichi; Migita, Toshiro; Muramatsu, Yukiko; Miyake, Mao; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Saiura, Akio; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-15

    Tankyrase, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) that promotes telomere elongation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, has various binding partners, suggesting that it has as-yet unidentified functions. Here we report that the tankyrase-binding protein TNKS1BP1 regulates actin cytoskeleton and cancer cell invasion, which is closely associated with cancer progression. TNKS1BP1 colocalized with actin filaments and negatively regulated cell invasion. In TNKS1BP1-depleted cells, actin filament dynamics, focal adhesion, and lamellipodia ruffling were increased with activation of the ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway. TNKS1BP1 bound the actin capping protein CapZA2. TNKS1BP1 depletion dissociated CapZA2 from the cytoskeleton, leading to cofilin phosphorylation and enhanced cell invasion. Tankyrase overexpression increased cofilin phosphorylation, dissociated CapZA2 from cytoskeleton, and enhanced cell invasion in a PARP activity-dependent manner. In clinical samples of pancreatic cancer, TNKS1BP1 expression was reduced in invasive regions. We propose that the tankyrase-TNKS1BP1 axis constitutes a post-translational modulator of cell invasion whose aberration promotes cancer malignancy.

  15. Problems following hippocampal irradiation in interventional radiologists - doses and potential effects: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Morgun, A; Bakhanova, E; Loganovsky, K; Loganovska, T; Marazziti, D

    2015-12-01

    Metoiu doslidzhennia bulo vyvchyty zakonomirnosti formuvannia doz na gipokamp v umovakh roboty likaria inter ventsiynogo kardiologa u rentgen operatsiyniy metodom Monte Karlo, a takozh vstanovyty Ikhniy zv’iazok z efek tyvnoiu dozoiu (shcho vykorystovuiet'sia u radiatsiynomu zakhysti) ta pokazanniamy indyvidual'nykh dozymetriv, shchob otsinyty ymovirnist' dosiagnennia protiagom kar’iery rivnia dozy, pry iakomu mozhut' sposterigatysia taki radiatsiyni efekty, iak kognityvni porushennia ta inshi nervovo psykhichni rozlady.Materialy i metody: modeliuvannia metodom Monte Karlo doz oprominennia gipokampiv likaria za dopomogoiu gibrydnogo voksel'no matematychnogo fantoma dlia typovykh angiografichnykh proektsiy ta energetychnykh spektriv, vlastyvykh dlia protsedur interventsiynoI kardiologiI.Rezul'taty: pokazano, shcho oprominennia golovy ie syl'no neodnoridnym i zalezhyt' vid rentgenografichnoI pro ektsiI: vidminnist' doz oprominennia livogo ta pravogo gipokampa mozhe stanovyty do dvokh z polovynoiu raziv, za pevnykh umov doza u livomu gipokampi mozhe vdvichi perevyshchuvaty efektyvnu dozu, iaku otsiniuvaly za poshyrenym algorytmom podviynoI dozymetriI.Vysnovky: dozy na gipokamp protiagom stazhu profesiynogo oprominennia mozhut' siagaty velychyn, pry iakykh mo zhut' z’iavytysia kognityvni ta emotsiyno povedinkovi porushennia, tomu glyboke vyvchennia efektiv oprominennia mozku pratsivnykiv interventsiynoI radiologiI ie vkray neobkhidnym.

  16. A Comparative Study on Johnson Cook, Modified Zerilli-Armstrong and Arrhenius-Type Constitutive Models to Predict High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy in α + β Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Kuaishe; Han, Yingying

    2016-03-01

    True stress and true strain values obtained from isothermal compression tests over a wide temperature range from 1,073 to 1,323 K and a strain rate range from 0.001 to 1 s-1 were employed to establish the constitutive equations based on Johnson Cook, modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) and strain-compensated Arrhenius-type models, respectively, to predict the high-temperature flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in α + β phase. Furthermore, a comparative study has been made on the capability of the three models to represent the elevated temperature flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Suitability of the three models was evaluated by comparing both the correlation coefficient R and the average absolute relative error (AARE). The results showed that the Johnson Cook model is inadequate to provide good description of flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in α + β phase domain, while the predicted values of modified ZA model and the strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model could agree well with the experimental values except under some deformation conditions. Meanwhile, the modified ZA model could track the deformation behavior more accurately than other model throughout the entire temperature and strain rate range.

  17. Maximizing bone formation in posterior spine fusion using rhBMP-2 and zoledronic acid in wild type and NF1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin; Rasch, Anton; Kathy, Mikulec; Little, David G; Schindeler, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    Spinal pseudarthrosis is a well described complication of spine fusion surgery in NF1 patients. Reduced bone formation and excessive resorption have been described in NF1 and anti-resorptive agents may be advantageous in these individuals. In this study, 16 wild type and 16 Nf1(+/-) mice were subjected to posterolateral fusion using collagen sponges containing 5 µg rhBMP-2 introduced bilaterally. Mice were dosed twice weekly with 0.02 mg/kg zoledronic acid (ZA) or sterile saline. The fusion mass was assessed for bone volume (BV) and bone mineral density (BMD) by microCT. Co-treatment using rhBMP-2 and ZA produced a significant increase (p < 0.01) in BV of the fusion mass compared to rhBMP-2 alone in both wild type mice (+229%) and Nf1(+/-) mice (+174%). Co-treatment also produced a significantly higher total BMD of the fusion mass compared to rhBMP-2 alone in both groups (p < 0.01). Despite these gains with anti-resorptive treatment, Nf1(+/-) deficient mice still generated less bone than wild type controls. TRAP staining on histological sections indicated an increased osteoclast surface/bone surface (Oc.S/BS) in Nf1(+/-) mice relative to wild type mice, and this was reduced with ZA treatment.

  18. The ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor zaragozic acid promotes vacuolar degradation of the tryptophan permease Tat2p in yeast.

    PubMed

    Daicho, Katsue; Maruyama, Hironori; Suzuki, Asuka; Ueno, Masaru; Uritani, Masahiro; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    Ergosterol is the yeast functional equivalent of cholesterol in mammalian cells. Deletion of the ERG6 gene, which encodes an enzyme catalyzing a late step of ergosterol biosynthesis, impedes targeting of the tryptophan permease Tat2p to the plasma membrane, but does not promote vacuolar degradation. It is unknown whether similar features appear when other steps of ergosterol biogenesis are inhibited. We show herein that the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor zaragozic acid (ZA) evoked massive vacuolar degradation of Tat2p, accompanied by a decrease in tryptophan uptake. ZA inhibits squalene synthetase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21), which catalyzes the first committed step in the formation of cholesterol/ergosterol. The degradation of Tat2p was dependent on the Rsp5p-mediated ubiquitination of Tat2p and was not suppressed by deletions of VPS1, VPS27, VPS45 or PEP12. We will discuss ZA-mediated Tat2p degradation in the context of lipid rafts.

  19. Periodontal Disease and Bisphosphonates Induce Osteonecrosis of the Jaws in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Aghaloo, Tara L; Kang, Ben; Sung, Eric C; Shoff, Michael; Ronconi, Matthew; Gotcher, Jack E; Bezouglaia, Olga; Dry, Sarah M; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are medications used commonly to treat primary and metastatic bone cancer, as well as osteoporosis. Although BPs improve bone mineral density, reduce fracture risk, and reduce hypercalcemia of malignancy, some patients develop BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). This devastating complication is defined as clinically exposed bone in the maxillofacial region for more than 8 weeks. Despite an increasing number of BRONJ cases since first reported, the disease pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Since published studies suggest a significant role for dental disease in the pathophysiology of BRONJ, we developed a BRONJ animal model where aggressive periodontal disease is induced by ligature placement around the crown of the right maxillary first molar in the presence of vehicle (veh) or zoledronic acid (ZA), a potent BP. Ligature placement induced significant alveolar bone loss, which was attenuated by ZA treatment. Osteonecrosis was observed associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in the ZA-treated group. This was seen as sequestration and extensive periosteal alveolar bone formation on micro–computed tomography (μCT) in the ligated site of BP-treated animals. Histologic examination confirmed these findings, seen as necrotic bone with diffuse loss of osteocytes and empty lacunae, rimming of the necrotic bone by squamous epithelium and inflammation, and exposure to the oral cavity. Importantly, the rat lesions were strikingly similar to those of BRONJ patients. Our data suggest that dental disease and potent BP therapy are sufficient for BRONJ development in the rat. PMID:21351151

  20. Long-length, long-lived flow-shear stabilized Z-pinches: Background and Experimental plans for scaling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Shumlak, U.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The ZaP experiment produces long-lived sheared-flow-stabilized Z-pinch plasmas up to 126 cm in length for several flow-through times, and up to thousands of Alfvén times. Experimental measurements of the magnetic structure along the full length of the plasma column show an axially uniform Z-pinch plasma during the observed quiescent period. Interferometry, fast-framing images, and Rogowskii coils corroborate the existence of a pinched plasma during this quiescent period of time. Detailed two-dimensional non-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations have been performed showing the formation and assembly of long-length, long-lived Z-pinches. Experimentally-observed plasma lifetimes and velocity-shear profiles are shown to be consistent with calculations of viscous-damping timescales based on the measured plasma parameters. A newly-funded ARPA-E ALPHA project, the Fusion Z-pinch Experiment ``FuZE'' is being constructed at the University of Washington, in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. FuZE will study scaling and stability of the successful ZaP experiment to higher pinch currents. The FuZE experimental design, goals, and plans, based on ZaP experimental results, will be presented.

  1. Bisphosphonate-adsorbed ceramic nanoparticles increase bone formation in an injectable carrier for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tegan L; Murphy, Ciara M; Ravarian, Roya; Dehghani, Fariba; Little, David G; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) is a sugar-based carrier. We have previously applied SAIB as a minimally invasive system for the co-delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and found synergy when co-delivering zoledronic acid (ZA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Alternative bioceramics were investigated in a murine SAIB/rhBMP-2 injection model. Neither beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) nor Bioglass (BG) 45S5 had a significant effect on bone volume (BV) alone or in combination with the ZA. 14C-labelled ZA binding assays showed particle size and ceramic composition affected binding with nano-HA > micro-HA > TCP > BG. Micro-HA and nano-HA increased BV in a rat model of rhBMP-2/SAIB injection (+278% and +337%), and BV was further increased with ZA–adsorbed micro-HA and nano-HA (+530% and +889%). These data support the use of ZA–adsorbed nanoparticle-sized HA as an optimal additive for the SAIB/rhBMP-2 injectable system for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26668709

  2. Remodeling the zonula adherens in response to tension and the role of afadin in this response

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Bipul R.; Peyret, Grégoire; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Mège, René-Marc; Ladoux, Benoit; Yap, Alpha S.; Fanning, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Morphogenesis requires dynamic coordination between cell–cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton to allow cells to change shape and move without losing tissue integrity. We used genetic tools and superresolution microscopy in a simple model epithelial cell line to define how the molecular architecture of cell–cell zonula adherens (ZA) is modified in response to elevated contractility, and how these cells maintain tissue integrity. We previously found that depleting zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) family proteins in MDCK cells induces a highly organized contractile actomyosin array at the ZA. We find that ZO knockdown elevates contractility via a Shroom3/Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) pathway. Our data suggest that each bicellular border is an independent contractile unit, with actin cables anchored end-on to cadherin complexes at tricellular junctions. Cells respond to elevated contractility by increasing junctional afadin. Although ZO/afadin knockdown did not prevent contractile array assembly, it dramatically altered cell shape and barrier function in response to elevated contractility. We propose that afadin acts as a robust protein scaffold that maintains ZA architecture at tricellular junctions. PMID:27114502

  3. A Twilight and Moonlight Model for Polar Stratospheric Telescope (POST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, L.; Bely, P.; White, R.

    1994-05-01

    We have modeled the run of brightness of the sky during twilight in order to estimate the yearly amount of nightime available for visual and infrared observations (0.55 - 8.0 microns ) with the Polar Stratospheric Telescope (POST). We have also applied the model to the estimation of the brightness of scattered moonlight. Our calculations were motivated by the sensitive dependence on solar depression angle of the duration of twilight for ground-based observers in the polar regions. The twilight model represents singly and doubly Rayleigh scattered sunlight and the full three-dimensional geometry of the earth's atmosphere and shadow. The onset of nightime was determined using an additional model of the brightness of the night sky which incorporates the thermal emission of the atmosphere, scattered and thermal emissivity of the zodiacal light, and the thermal emission of POST. We find at 0.55 microns for an observer at an altitude of 13 km that ZA_⊙ is 0.7 deg less than for a sea-level observer to attain the same twilight sky brightness. The difference decreases to zero at 6 - 8 microns . In itself this will have little effect on the available nightime for POST. However, the predicted brightness of the 2.5 microns sky as observed with POST is three orders of magnitude fainter than for a ground-based observer, and as a consequence the sensible twilight is prolonged to ZA_⊙=110 deg . In contrast, the great brightness of the sky (although less than for a ground-based observer) in the range 3.5 - 8.0 microns reduces the sensible duration of twilight. At the end of twilight ZA_⊙=101 deg at 3.5 microns , ZA_⊙=97 deg at 6.0 microns , and ZA_⊙=95 deg at 8.0 microns . The number of hours of darkness per year for an arctic site (latitude = 65 deg ) is 2000 at 0.55 microns , 1850 at 2.5 microns , 2700 at 3.5 microns , 3300 at 6.0 microns , and 3600 at 8.0 microns . Finally, we find the brightness of atmospherically scattered moonlight is six times less for a POST

  4. Adding Celecoxib With or Without Zoledronic Acid for Hormone-Naïve Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Survival Results From an Adaptive, Multiarm, Multistage, Platform, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Malcolm D; Clarke, Noel W; James, Nicholas D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Attard, Gerhardt; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Thalmann, George N; Schiavone, Francesca; Cassoly, Estelle; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Rentsch, Cyrill A; Barber, Jim; Gilson, Clare; Ibrahim, Azman; Logue, John; Lydon, Anna; Nikapota, Ashok D; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Porfiri, Emilio; Protheroe, Andrew; Srihari, Narayanan Nair; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Wallace, Jan; Walmsley, Catherine; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Sydes, Matthew R

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy is a randomized controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage, platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who were initiating long-term hormone therapy. We report survival data for two celecoxib (Cel)-containing comparisons, which stopped accrual early at interim analysis on the basis of failure-free survival. Patients and Methods Standard of care (SOC) was hormone therapy continuously (metastatic) or for ≥ 2 years (nonmetastatic); prostate (± pelvic node) radiotherapy was encouraged for men without metastases. Cel 400 mg was administered twice a day for 1 year. Zoledronic acid (ZA) 4 mg was administered for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly for 2 years. Stratified random assignment allocated patients 2:1:1 to SOC (control), SOC + Cel, or SOC + ZA + Cel. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Results were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric models adjusted for stratification factors. Results A total of 1,245 men were randomly assigned (Oct 2005 to April 2011). Groups were balanced: median age, 65 years; 61% metastatic, 14% N+/X M0, 25% N0M0; 94% newly diagnosed; median prostate-specific antigen, 66 ng/mL. Median follow-up was 69 months. Grade 3 to 5 adverse events were seen in 36% SOC-only, 33% SOC + Cel, and 32% SOC + ZA + Cel patients. There were 303 control arm deaths (83% prostate cancer), and median survival was 66 months. Compared with SOC, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.20; P = .847; median survival, 70 months) for SOC + Cel and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.05; P =.130; median survival, 76 months) for SOC + ZA + Cel. Preplanned subgroup analyses in men with metastatic disease showed a hazard ratio of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98; P = .033) for SOC + ZA + Cel. Conclusion These data show no overall evidence of improved survival with Cel. Preplanned

  5. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shumlak, U. Golingo, R. P. Nelson, B. A. Bowers, C. A. Doty, S. A. Forbes, E. G. Hughes, M. C. Kim, B. Knecht, S. D. Lambert, K. K. Lowrie, W. Ross, M. P. Weed, J. R.

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  6. [Trocar site herniation (TSH) following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: incidence, pathogenesis, and prevention -- animal study].

    PubMed

    Gamal, Eldin Mohamed; Szabó, Györgyi; Metzger, Péter; Furka, István; Mikó, Irén; Pető, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Sándor, József; Szentkereszty, Zsolt; Sápi, Péter; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Bevezetés/célkitűzés: 1968-ban R. E. Fear először közölt tanulmányt a laparoscopos „Port site” herniáról (Trocar site hernia, TSH), jelenlegi előfordulási gyakorisága eléri a 0,65–2,80%-ot. A sebészi laparoscopia elterjedésével a beavatkozások során szokássá vált, hogy a 10 mm-nél kisebb trokársebeket nem zárják be. Ugyanakkor egyre több közlemény foglalkozik az 5-6 mm-es trokár (továbbiakban: KT) helyén keletkező sérvek elzáródásával. Anyag és módszer: A szerzők oktatási célból 60 kutyán végzett laparoscopos cholecystectomia műtét után 2 és 4 héttel relaparoscopiát végeztek, és posztoperatív adhaesiók után kutatva azt is figyelték, hogy a laparoscopos trokárok intraabdominalis behatolási helyein vannak-e sérvek, különös tekintettel a KT-ra. Eredmények: A 60 kísérleti állat 20%-ában volt látható intraabdominalis sérv, és a sérvek 70%-a a KT helyein helyezkedett el. Következtetések: A megszokott gyakorlattal ellentétben az irodalomban egyre többen hangoztatják a nagy trokárok és a KT ejtette teljes vastagságú hasfali sebek zárásának szükségességét, megelőzendő a sérvek kialakulását és kizáródásuk lehetőségét. Tanulmányunkban a technikai és klinikai lehetőségeket mutatjuk be.

  7. Spatial interpolation of precipitation indexes in Sierra Nevada (Spain): comparing the performance of some interpolation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the spatial distribution of several precipitation indexes in Sierra Nevada, Spain: mean annual number of wet days ( R ≥ 1 mm), mean annual number of heavy rainy days ( R ≥ 10 mm) and mean annual number of very heavy precipitation days ( R ≥ 20 mm) and test the performance of several interpolation methods using these variables. In total, 17 univariate and multivariate methods were tested. A set of 36 metereological stations distributed in Sierra Nevada and neighbouring areas was analysed in this study. The original data did not followed the normal distribution; thus, a logarithm was applied to data meet normality purposes. Interpolator's performance was assessed using the root mean square error generated from cross-validation. The results showed that the mean annual R ≥ 10 mm and R ≥ 20 mm have a higher variability than R ≥ 1 mm. While the elevation and longitude did not show a significant correlation with the studied indexes, the latitude (i.e. distance to the sea) showed a significant negative correlation. The regressions carried out confirmed that elevation was the covariate with higher capacity to explain the variability of the indexes. The incorporation of elevation and longitude slightly increased the explanation capacity of the models. The data of LogR ≥ 1 mm, LogR ≥ 10 mm and LogR ≥ 20 mm displayed a clustered pattern, especially the last two indexes that also showed a strong spatial dependency attributed to the effects of local topography, slope, aspect and valley orientation. The best fitted variogram model to LogR ≥ 1 mm was the linear one while for the LogR ≥ 10 mm and LogR ≥ 20 mm, the Gaussian was the most appropriate. The best interpolator for LogR ≥ 1 mm was the local polinomyal with the power of 1, whereas for LogR ≥ 10 mm and LogR ≥ 20 mm, regression kriging (ROK) using as auxiliary variables the elevation, latitude and longitude was the most accurate. ROK methods significantly

  8. Expression of Cyclin d1 protein and CCND1 та PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean up worker of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D A; Kubashko, A V; Ilyenko, I M; Belyaev, O A; Pleskach, O J

    2015-12-01

    Meta. Doslidyty zminy rivniv Cyclin D1+ klityn ta asotsiyovanykh geniv CCND1 ta PNKP u mononuklearakh peryfe rychnoI krovi v uchasnykiv likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI (ULNA) na ChAES z riznym imunnym statusom v zalezhnosti vid dozy oprominennia.Materialy i metody. Proanalizovano vidnosnyy riven' Cyclin D1+ klityn u mononuklearakh peryferychnoI krovi 39 ULNA na ChAES, cholovikiv, oprominenykh u dozi u diapazoni (0,01–2,00) Gr. Imunologichnyy status obstezhenykh vyz nachavsia za rivnem CD3/19, CD4/8, CD3/HLA DR, SD3/16/56 metodom protochnoI tsytofluorymetriI ta za vmistom Ig klasiv A,M,G metodom imunofermentnogo analizu u krovi. Ekspresiia geniv CCND1 ta PNKP, iaki pov’iazani z Syclin D1, provodylos' za metodom polimeraznoI lantsiugovoI reaktsiI u real'nomu chasi. Porivniannia rezul'tativ zdiysniuva los' iz vidpovidnymy danymy, otrymanymy vid 18 zdorovykh cholovikiv, iaki ne maly kontaktu z ionizuiuchym vyp rominiuvanniam vyshche pryrodn'ogo fonu.Rezul'taty. Pokazano, shcho vidsotok Suclin D1+ klityn zbil'shuiet'sia za normu v osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,1 Gr, ta koreliuie z dozoiu oprominennia (rs = 0,417, p = 0,048). Vidkhylennia rivnia Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh zna chen' pov’iazuiet'sia zi zminamy v klitynniy ta gumoral'niy lankakh imunitetu. Zmenshennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh znachen' v ULNA na ChAES iz dozoiu < 0,35 Gr suprovodzhuiet'sia znyzhenniam rivniv CD3+ ta pidvy shchenniam CD3 16+56+ limfotsytiv; u osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,35 Gr, zbil'shennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn asotsiiuiet'sia zi znyzhenniam CD3+ ta tendentsiieiu shchodo znyzhennia CD3+16+56+ limfotsytiv u poiednanni zi zbil'shen niam rivnia IgG. Zbil'shennia rivniv CD4+, CD19+, Ireg. ta IgG suprovodzhuiet'sia poiavoiu koreliatsiynykh zv’iazkiv mizh Cyclin D1+ ta CD3 16+56+ klitynamy (rs = 0,872, p = 0,049), Cyclin D1+ ta CD8+ i IgG (rs = 0,683, p = 0,042; rs = 0,809, p = 0,014), Cyclin D1+ ta CD4+ (rs = 0,602, p = 0,029), Cyclin D1+ ta CD19+ i

  9. Radiation protection monitoring zone population NPP according to experts in case of emergency.

    PubMed

    Prilipko, V A; Shevchenko, K K

    2015-12-01

    Metoiu danogo doslidzhennia stala ekspertna otsinka realizatsiI zakhysnykh zakhodiv, spriamovanykh na obmezhennia op rominennia naselennia zony sposterezhennia atomnoI elektrostantsiI, na vypadok nadzvychaynoI sytuatsiI, z urakhu vanniam zakonodavchykh ta normatyvnykh dokumentiv.Metody. V protsesi doslidzhennia bulo zastosovano opytuvannia z vykorystanniam metodu ekspertnykh otsinok. Sformovano chotyry grupy fakhivtsiv, iaki nesut' vidpovidal'nist' za stan radiatsiynogo zakhystu riznykh grup nase lennia zony sposterezhennia Rivnens'koI atomnoI elektrostantsiI. Vymogamy vidboru buly: dosvid roboty za fa khom ne mensh nizh 10 rokiv, vidpovidnyy profil' ta posada. Dlia otrymannia pervynnykh empirychnykh danykh bulo zastosovano proste uporiadkuvannia znachen', Ikh parne chy poslidovne porivniannia.Rezul'taty. Za otsinkamy ekspertiv, zakhody opovishchennia, zabezpechenist' preparatamy stabil'nogo yodu, zabezpe chennia zasobiv kolektyvnogo (zakhysni sporudy, ukryttia) i indyvidual'nogo zakhystu (odiag, marlevi pov’iazky, respiratory, protyvogazy), material'no tekhnichnogo osnashchennia na vypadok nadzvychaynoI sytuatsiI na Rivnens'kiy atomniy elektrostantsiI suttievo vidrizniaiut'sia u sil's'kogo ta mis'kogo naselennia zony spostere zhennia. Grupoiu ryzyku, na vypadok nadzvychaynoI sytuatsiI, mozhut' staty uchni zagal'noosvitnikh shkil sil's'kykh te rytoriy zony sposterezhennia cherez nedoskonalist' systemy opovishchennia i vidsutnist' neobkhidnykh ob’iektiv ukryt tia. Ne isnuie odnostaynosti sered ekspertiv shchodo otsinok radiatsiynogo zakhystu riznykh grup naselennia zony spos terezhennia, zokrema zabezpechenosti zasobamy indyvidual'nogo i kolektyvnogo zakhystu, gotovnosti do zakhysnykh diy na vypadok nadzvychaynoI sytuatsiI.Vysnovky. Stan radiatsiynogo zakhystu naselennia zony sposterezhennia RAES, zokrema systema organizatsiynykh, tekhnichnykh, medyko biologichnykh, finansovo ekonomichnykh zakhodiv, shchodo zapobigannia ta reaguvannia na nadzvy chayni sytuatsi

  10. Three deaf mice: mouse models for TECTA-based human hereditary deafness reveal domain-specific structural phenotypes in the tectorial membrane.

    PubMed

    Legan, P Kevin; Goodyear, Richard J; Morín, Matías; Mencia, Angeles; Pollard, Hilary; Olavarrieta, Leticia; Korchagina, Julia; Modamio-Hoybjor, Silvia; Mayo, Fernando; Moreno, Felipe; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel-Angel; Richardson, Guy P

    2014-05-15

    Tecta is a modular, non-collagenous protein of the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular matrix of the cochlea essential for normal hearing. Missense mutations in Tecta cause dominant forms of non-syndromic deafness and a genotype-phenotype correlation has been reported in humans, with mutations in different Tecta domains causing mid- or high-frequency hearing impairments that are either stable or progressive. Three mutant mice were created as models for human Tecta mutations; the Tecta(L1820F,G1824D/+) mouse for zona pellucida (ZP) domain mutations causing stable mid-frequency hearing loss in a Belgian family, the Tecta(C1837G/+) mouse for a ZP-domain mutation underlying progressive mid-frequency hearing loss in a Spanish family and the Tecta(C1619S/+) mouse for a zonadhesin-like (ZA) domain mutation responsible for progressive, high-frequency hearing loss in a French family. Mutations in the ZP and ZA domains generate distinctly different changes in the structure of the TM. Auditory brainstem response thresholds in the 8-40 kHz range are elevated by 30-40 dB in the ZP-domain mutants, whilst those in the ZA-domain mutant are elevated by 20-30 dB. The phenotypes are stable and no evidence has been found for a progressive deterioration in TM structure or auditory function. Despite elevated auditory thresholds, the Tecta mutant mice all exhibit an enhanced tendency to have audiogenic seizures in response to white noise stimuli at low sound pressure levels (≤84 dB SPL), revealing a previously unrecognised consequence of Tecta mutations. These results, together with those from previous studies, establish an allelic series for Tecta unequivocally demonstrating an association between genotype and phenotype.

  11. Contribution of Moxifloxacin or Levofloxacin in Second-Line Regimens with or without Continuation of Pyrazinamide in Murine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Tyagi, Sandeep; Minkowski, Austin; Peloquin, Charles A.; Grosset, Jacques H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: High-dose levofloxacin (L) (1,000 mg) was as active as moxifloxacin (M) (400 mg) in an early bactericidal activity trial, suggesting these fluoroquinolones could be used interchangeably. Whether pyrazinamide (Z) contributes sterilizing activity beyond the first 2 months in fluoroquinolone-containing second-line regimens remains unknown. Objectives: We compared the efficacy of M and high-dose L alone or in combination with ethionamide (Et), amikacin (A), and Z given for 2 or 7 months. Methods: A pharmacokinetic study was performed to determine the L dose equivalent to 1,000 mg in humans. Treatment started 2 weeks after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Mice received M or L alone or in combination with 2 months of EtZA followed by 5 months of Et or EtZ. Measurements and Main Results: After 2 months of treatment, lung colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were similar in mice receiving either fluoroquinolone alone, but, after 4 and 5 months, CFU counts were 2 log10 lower in mice receiving M. Mice receiving 2MEtZA/3MEt and 2LEtZA/3LEt had 1.0 and 2.7 log10 lung CFUs, respectively. When Z was given throughout, both regimens rendered mice culture negative by 5 months, and most mice did not relapse after 7 months of treatment, with fewer relapses observed in the M group after 6 and 7 months of treatment. Conclusions: In murine tuberculosis, M had superior efficacy compared with L despite lower serum drug exposures and may remain the fluoroquinolone of choice for second-line regimens. Z contributed substantial sterilizing activity beyond 2 months in fluoroquinolone-containing second-line regimens, largely compensating for L’s weaker activity. PMID:23593945

  12. Genetic Variability of Myxoma Virus Genomes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christoph; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Schultz, Anne-Kathrin; Bulla, Ingo; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mayer, Dietmar; Neubert, Andreas; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2017-02-15

    Myxomatosis is a recurrent problem on rabbit farms throughout Europe despite the success of vaccines. To identify gene variations of field and vaccine strains that may be responsible for changes in virulence, immunomodulation, and immunoprotection, the genomes of 6 myxoma virus (MYXV) strains were sequenced: German field isolates Munich-1, FLI-H, 2604, and 3207; vaccine strain MAV; and challenge strain ZA. The analyzed genomes ranged from 147.6 kb (strain MAV) to 161.8 kb (strain 3207). All sequences were affected by several mutations, covering 24 to 93 open reading frames (ORFs) and resulted in amino acid substitutions, insertions, or deletions. Only strains Munich-1 and MAV revealed the deletion of 10 ORFs (M007L to M015L) and 11 ORFs (M007L to M008.1L and M149R to M008.1R), respectively. Major differences were observed in the 27 immunomodulatory proteins encoded by MYXV. Compared to the reference strain Lausanne, strains FLI-H, 2604, 3207, and ZA showed the highest amino acid identity (>98.4%). In strains Munich-1 and MAV, deletion of 5 and 10 ORFs, respectively, was observed, encoding immunomodulatory proteins with ankyrin repeats or members of the family of serine protease inhibitors. Furthermore, putative immunodominant surface proteins with homology to vaccinia virus (VACV) were investigated in the sequenced strains. Only strain MAV revealed above-average frequencies of amino acid substitutions and frameshift mutations. Finally, we performed recombination analysis and found signs of recombination in vaccine strain MAV. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship of strain MAV and the MSW strain of Californian MYXV. However, in a challenge model, strain MAV provided full protection against lethal challenges with strain ZA.

  13. MGMRES: A generalization of GMRES for solving large sparse nonsymmetric linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.M.; Chen, J.Y.

    1994-12-31

    The authors are concerned with the solution of the linear system (1): Au = b, where A is a real square nonsingular matrix which is large, sparse and non-symmetric. They consider the use of Krylov subspace methods. They first choose an initial approximation u{sup (0)} to the solution {bar u} = A{sup {minus}1}B of (1). They also choose an auxiliary matrix Z which is nonsingular. For n = 1,2,{hor_ellipsis} they determine u{sup (n)} such that u{sup (n)} {minus} u{sup (0)}{epsilon}K{sub n}(r{sup (0)},A) where K{sub n}(r{sup (0)},A) is the (Krylov) subspace spanned by the Krylov vectors r{sup (0)}, Ar{sup (0)}, {hor_ellipsis}, A{sup n{minus}1}r{sup 0} and where r{sup (0)} = b{minus}Au{sup (0)}. If ZA is SPD they also require that (u{sup (n)}{minus}{bar u}, ZA(u{sup (n)}{minus}{bar u})) be minimized. If, on the other hand, ZA is not SPD, then they require that the Galerkin condition, (Zr{sup n}, v) = 0, be satisfied for all v{epsilon}K{sub n}(r{sup (0)}, A) where r{sup n} = b{minus}Au{sup (n)}. In this paper the authors consider a generalization of GMRES. This generalized method, which they refer to as `MGMRES`, is very similar to GMRES except that they let Z = A{sup T}Y where Y is a nonsingular matrix which is symmetric by not necessarily SPD.

  14. An experimental and theoretical investigation on the optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Porta, F. A.; Nogueira, A. E.; Gracia, Lourdes; Pereira, W. S.; Botelho, G.; Mulinari, T. A.; Andrés, Juan; Longo, E.

    2017-04-01

    From the viewpoints of materials chemistry and physical chemistry, crystal structure directly determines the electronic structure and furthermore their optical and photocatalytic properties. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission and high photocatalytic activity have been obtained by means of a microwave-assisted solvothermal (MAS) method using different precursors (i.e., zinc nitrate (ZN), zinc chloride (ZC), or zinc acetate (ZA)). The morphologies, optical properties, and electronic structures of the as-synthesized ZnS NPs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherms for N2 adsorption/desorption processes, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), PL measurements and theoretical calculations. Density functional theory calculations were used to determine the geometries and electronic properties of bulk wurtzite (WZ) ZnS NPs and their (0001), (101 ̅0), (112 ̅0), (101 ̅1), and (101 ̅2) surfaces. The dependence of the PL emission behavior of ZnS NPs on the precursor was elucidated by examining the energy band structure and density of states. The method for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was used as a probe reaction to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the as-Synthesised ZnS NPs under UV light irradiation. The PL behavior as well as photocatalytic activities of ZnS NPs were attributed to specific features of the structural and electronic structures. Increased photocatalytic degradation was observed for samples synthesized using different precursors in the following order: ZAZA. Furthermore, the possible photodegradation mechanism of the as-prepared ZnS NPs were also briefly discussed.

  15. First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui

    2015-01-14

    There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ∼10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

  16. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  17. Optimizing rainwater partitioning and millet production on degraded land in Niger using Water and Soil Conservation practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien C. J.; Garba, Maman; Al-Barri, Bashar; Sabiou, Mahamane; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2015-04-01

    As a result of growing population pressure and severe soil erosion, farmers in the Sahel increasingly rely on degraded lands for millet production. The adverse Sahelian rainfall distribution and imbalanced rainfall partitioning over the rootzone of these degraded lands therefore calls for sustainable land management strategies that are water resource efficient. This study evaluates the soil-water balance of promising Nigerien Water and Soil Conservation (WSC) techniques (i.e., zaï pits, demi-lune microcatchments and scarification with standing crop residue) and their impact on millet yield by means of an in-situ field experiment (2011-2013) on degraded laterite soil classified as Plinthosol with a 1% slope. All WSC practices received the same amount of fertilizer and were compared to two control practices, one with and one without fertilizer. Soil-water content was recorded with a neutron probe till 105 cm depth and runoff by means of a cemented gutter directing runoff water with a multi-pipe divisor into a collector drum. WSC techniques proved to significantly reduce runoff (blue water) with overall runoff coefficients beings reduced from 25% (control practice) to 5-10%. Consequently, significantly more water was stored inside the catchments of the zaï pits and demi-lunes (green water). With the scarification treatment, no considerable differences in soil-water storage were found with the control. On the other hand, WSC practices had little impact on soil evaporation, which was only 12% of rainfall by the self-mulching soil. Crop transpiration increased with WSC and highest millet yields were found with zaï pits (4 to 5 times higher than under the fertilized control). Although rainwater was better partitioned in case of demi-lune microcatchments resulting in highest amounts of water stored in the soil, yield was only 40-60% of that with zaï pits. This was due to a higher plant density within each demi-lune microcatchment in an attempt to attain similar plant

  18. Variability of Solar Mesogranulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    the method of local correlation tracking /2,3/.. These data show that solar granules mov~e like test particles ("corks") on top of larger-scale lne...distribution unlimited D T I C S ELECTEJUN& ZA 994 U 4 U From white--light photographs of solar granulation obtained with the SOUP instrument on Space...Shuttle Flioht STS-19 we have measured the motions of granules using local correlation tracking techniques. The cranules are or.anized into lar-er-gcale

  19. Lesbian classics in Germany? A film historical analysis of Mädchen in Uniform (1931 and 1958).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    The films Mädchen in Uniform (Leontine Sagan, 1931, Germany; Géza von Radványi, 1958, Germany) both tell the story of a schoolgirl falling in love with her teacher at a Prussian boarding school. Whereas the 1931 version is regarded as a lesbian classic in queer (German) cinema, the 1958 remake, however, is not even considered part of the lesbian genre. The following analysis examines both films within their historical context to answer the question what makes Mädchen in Uniform (1931) a lesbian film and why the remake did not measure up to its original's significance.

  20. Molybdenum disilicide composites

    DOEpatents

    Rodriguez, Robert P.; Petrovic, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Molybdenum disilicide/.beta.'-Si.sub.6-z Al.sub.z O.sub.z N.sub.8-z, wherein z=a number from greater than 0 to about 5, composites are made by use of in situ reactions among .alpha.-silicon nitride, molybdenum disilicide, and aluminum. Molybdenum disilicide within a molybdenum disilicide/.beta.'-Si.sub.6-z Al.sub.z O.sub.z N.sub.8-z eutectoid matrix is the resulting microstructure when the invention method is employed.

  1. Oncogenicity and Selective Inhibition of ERG Splicing Variants in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Genet 41: 619-624. 9. Demichelis F, Fall K, Perner S, Andren O, Schmidt F, et al. (2007) TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion associated with lethal prostate...cancer in a watchful waiting cohort. Oncogene 26: 4596-4599. 10. Nam RK, Sugar L, Wang Z, Yang W, Kitching R, et al. (2007) Expression of TMPRSS2:ERG...Dotan ZA, Koutcher JA, Di Cristofano A, et al. (2003) Pten dose dictates cancer progression in the prostate. PLoS Biol 1: E59. 15. Squire JA (2009

  2. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 940325S1. 11341 DDC-I, DACS Sun SPARC/SunOS to 80186 Bare Ada Cross Compiler System, Version 4.6.4 Sun SPARCstation IPX => Intel iSBC 186/100 (Bare Machine)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-25

    renaimes 1 Z0XCZFZOKSI.ZUIZRROR; oAZ& zaa e"ception renames za0zcz1?Z0s6. DAii EP*R; ZAY ROR:M exception renaMes IOE1fVITS09. L& YOUT -EAOR; and BUASC 10...R-OLD, £315._OW m3ODW, aWOSS. aWORII, aWORMD. maRLS, MLSALS, oSALD, u-SAW5 ajSAR, uýSAR.m 35 a - SKIN . a _SKIDm N, 383. IlkSamN, sk3330!, uD sk3511

  3. Two types of FtsZ proteins in mitochondria and red-lineage chloroplasts: the duplication of FtsZ is implicated in endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Nishida, Keishin; Nishida, Keiji; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2004-03-01

    The ancestors of plastids and mitochondria were once free-living bacteria that became organelles as a result of endosymbiosis. According to this theory, a key bacterial division protein, FtsZ, plays a role in plastid division in algae and plants as well as in mitochondrial division in lower eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that organelle division is a process that combines features derived from the bacterial division system with features contributed by host eukaryotic cells. Two nonredundant versions of FtsZ, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, have been identified in green-lineage plastids, whereas most bacteria have a single ftsZ gene. To examine whether there is also more than one type of FtsZ in red-lineage chloroplasts (red algal chloroplasts and chloroplasts that originated from the secondary endosymbiosis of red algae) and in mitochondria, we obtained FtsZ sequences from the complete sequence of the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and the draft sequence of the stramenopile (heterokont) Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phylogenetic analyses that included known FtsZ proteins identified two types of chloroplast FtsZ in red algae (FtsZA and FtsZB) and stramenopiles (FtsZA and FtsZC). These analyses also showed that FtsZB emerged after the red and green lineages diverged, while FtsZC arose by the duplication of an ftsZA gene that in turn descended from a red alga engulfed by the ancestor of stramenopiles. A comparison of the predicted proteins showed that like bacterial FtsZ and green-lineage FtsZ2, FtsZA has a short conserved C-termmal sequence (the C-terminal core domain), whereas FtsZB and FtsZC, like the green-lineage FtsZ1, lack this sequence. In addition, the Cyanidioschyzon and Dictyostelium genomes encode two types of mitochondrial FtsZ proteins, one of which lacks the C-terminal variable domain. These results suggest that the acquisition of an additional FtsZ protein with a modified C terminus was common to the primary and secondary endosymbioses that produced

  4. Microfabrication Technology for Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 925 (1983). (17) S. Ovadia, H.M. Gibbs, J.L. Jewell, D . Sarid , N. Perghambarian, Optical Eng’g. 24, 565 (1985...DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES C3VERED June 1990 Final Jun 88 - Jun 89 4. lYRE AND SUSTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F306O2-88- D -0027 MICROFABRICATION...Rd, Syracuse NY 13244-5300. 12Za. D ISUTIONIAVAILAIITfY STATEME NT 12b. DISTRIBIJTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 7

  5. A Comparison of the Ship System Acquisition Process of the Greek Navy and US Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    wishes to express his gratitude as well as his personal - - sincere appreciation to LCDR Jeffrey E. Ferris SC USN and to Professor Dan C. Boger ...STAFF OF NATION~AL ~ Dl .SrG1T1 -O STAFF OF AJ~Y o ~vy OF AIR FORCE VICE =413TIE ZA Lp SCOM VICE: G=EAL RPJT-A, t7 or I" IATO, OFOImH /a-~tI h A...Financial Invasion of the U.S.A., New York, Fuller, Dl ., Ianaqe 21 Be NanaAed? Boston Mass, 1973. Harris, L C, §overnment Spnig and Land Values

  6. Hispanics in Army ROTC: Problems with Recruiting and Commissioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    female ROTC enrollment climbed to 14,296 (23,9% of the POTO total) at the beginning of the present aoademio year, 3 RM has become so popular among...for the dismissal of Chanoellor Dfas, As the pro-commonwealth administration of the Popular Dezjoratio Party (ZaAt4ae hyd ,~ ~~~ 41 I I I 50 Democr...Andres. El Dilema Puertorriquefos Lenguaje do Libertad o LengaJe de Dominacion. San Juan, Ediciones Bayoan, 1973. . Nuevo Enfoaue Sobre el Desarrollo

  7. [The classification method of syndromes in the Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold)].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaowei; Zheng, Wenjie; Ma, Mingyue; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-03-01

    Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold) epitomizes the medical achievements of the Tang Dynasty with an extensive coverage. The classification method of syndromes in this book is derived from Nei jing (Inner Canon), Nan jing (Classic of Questioning), Shang han za bing lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases), Zhu bing yuan hou lun (General Treatise on Causes and Manifestations of All Diseases), and enlightens the later generation with many unique characteristics, reflecting the mature recognition of the diseases in the contemporary clinical medicine from one side. It is still of great significance for understanding the diseases and exploring its pathogenesis even today.

  8. Basic Principles and Practices of Integrated Dosimetric Passportization of the Settlements in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Likhtarov, I A; Kovgan, L M; Masiuk, S V; Ivanova, O M; Chepurny, M I; Boyko, Z N; Gerasymenko, V B

    2015-12-01

    Meta ogliadu – uzagal'nennia rezul'tativ Kompleksnoi dozymetrychnoi pasportyzatsii (shcho provodylas' u 1991–2014 rr.) naselenykh punktiv (NP) Ukrainy, iaki zaznaly radioaktyvnogo zabrudnennia pislia Chornobyl's'koi avarii. Dozymetrychna pasportyzatsiia vidigrala kliuchovu rol' u Zagal'noderzhavnii programi likvidatsii naslidkiv Chornobyl's'koi katastrofy na vsikh etapakh kontroliu potochnogo radiatsiinogo stanu ta pidtrymky pryiniattia rishen' shchodo riznykh vydiv vtruchan' i sotsial'nykh pil'g naselennia radioaktyvno zabrudnenykh terytorii. Roboty, vykonani v ramkakh dozymetrychnoi pasportyzatsii, ne maly analogiv sered doslidzhen', iaki maly mistse pislia inshykh shyrokomasshtabnykh promyslovykh ta komunal'nykh avarii iak za masshtabamy, tak i za tryvalistiu radioekologichnogo ta dozymetrychnogo monitoryngiv. Novators'kymy staly metodologichni pidkhody do otsinky pasportnoi dozy NP, a takozh do vyznachennia kontseptsii richnoi dozy, iak dozy dlia pryiniattia rishen' dlia vvedennia priamykh ta nepriamykh kontrzakhodiv dlia NP Ukrainy. Vprodovzh us'ogo postavariinogo periodu bulo vydano shistnadtsiat' Zbirok zagal'nodozymetrychnoi pasportyzatsii, iaki akumuliuiut' rezul'taty soten' tysiach spektrometrychnykh, radiokhimichnykh ta LVL-vymiriuvan', shcho buly provedeni u 1991–2014 rr. na radioaktyvno zabrudnenykh vnaslidok Chornobyl's'koi avarii terytoriiakh. Rozrakhovani na osnovi tsykh vymiriuvan' richni pasportni dozy (ta ikh komponenty) ie unikal'noiu informatsiieiu, shcho kil'kisno kharakteryzuie riven' ta chasovu dynamiku radiatsiinogo stanu dlia kozhnogo z 2162 NP 74 raioniv 12 oblastei vprodovzh us'ogo pisliaavariinogo periodu. Zavdiaky robotam z dozymetrychnoi pasportyzatsii buly stvoreni unikal'ni za svoieiu strukturoiu i zmistom bazy danykh, iaki mistiat' kil'kisni kharakterystyky terytorial'no-chasovogo rozpodilu i dynamiky zmin nyzky vazhlyvykh radiologichnykh pokaznykiv, a same: vmist 137Cs ta 90Sr u produktakh kharchuvannia (moloka ta kartopli

  9. [Štampar's contemporary Josip Šilović: the founder of the Colonization fund for orphans from hunger-stricken Croatian areas and the Fund for orphans of Croatian emigrants during World War I].

    PubMed

    Szabo, Agneza

    2015-11-01

    This article gives a brief review of the scientific, academic, and political activity of Josip Šilović, and most importantly of his humanitarian work. He will be remembered for saving thousands of children who lost their fathers or brothers to World War I and who were left to starve to death. To this end Šilović and his associates established several funds and organisations, most notably Narodna zaštita. He continued with his humanitarian activities until he died in Zagreb in 1939.

  10. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-07

    a . REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...conference [http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/mbeki/2002/tm1216.html]. AT L A N T I C O C E A N I N D I A N O C E A N NORTHERN CAPE WESTERN CAPE...law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB

  11. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    NJ: Princeton University Pi-ess, 1985. (on order) Golovin , Nikolai N. The Russian army in the World War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931...S45 1973) Shaskol’skii, Igor P. Bor’ba russkogo naroda za nevskie berega. Moskva: Gos. voen. izd-vo, 1940 . (DK 51.7 S53) Smith, Clarence J. The...perspective. Newport, bI: Naval War 2ol~e re, 1973. (AD-A044 938/9) 9 II. The Development of Soviet Military Doctrine (1918- 1940 ) Based upon her rich

  12. Computer Systems Acquisition Metrics Handbook. Volume II. Quality Factor Modules.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    AD- A120 376 SYSTEMS ARCH4ITECTS INC RtANDOLPH MASS F/ O 9/2CCOM4PUTER SYSTEMS ACQUISITION METRICS MAN09M@. VOLUME It. QUALI -ETC iuMAT 82 FIft2 8-C...components of the "COMPUTER SYSTEMS ACQUISITION METRICS HANDBOOK". le Cj co-i " z/%a 4 • \\ // INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR CORRECTNESS MODULE...rr LE ~M M 1inT DRS4I- UALTG i MSIGNUT M0 JI PJM.DGIWn MaN TU IE ESD PIRMJCrS, FOR TEST AND INTEGRATION PHASE Apply the Preliminary Design Worksheets

  13. Research Training Program in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-30

    AD GRANT NO: DAMD17-94-J-4204 TITLE: Research Training Program in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Daniel Medina CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Program in Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J-4204 Dr. Daniel Medina S-:* , LiNG ORGANI-ZA FiON ;8A•E(Sj -’ r.,DE53(25) . :ERFOGMJNG ORGANIZATION Baylor: College...program is to produce highly qualified scientists for careers as independent investigators in the field of breast cancer . In the last 20 years, there has

  14. Army Drug Development Program. Phase I. Clinical Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    34 " Donald Giancoli 457 Physical 7 Interview -:1 ’p Vital signs 100 Lab tests < Dose 750mg -3- ZA9-2~ ~ j~I l ~~I~Ii Assay ,-9 .- 2 ’ii Stuart Varner 458...3 9 2 -2J 2 ~ J~~~ Donald Giancoli 7 Physical // Interview___j/ <- Vital signs__- /7 Lab tests ZEN-/ f Dose 1500mng ~4,~747~/ Assay 91 _-L’ 2 A_ XJ I_...12.5 mg/kg) developed nausea and/or vomiting. Although these subjects developed no abnormal physical findings or laboratory val- ues, it was

  15. Influence of eNOS gene 4a/b VNTR polymorphism on development of endothelial dysfunction and respiratory system disorders in children - residents of radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Ye I; Kolpakov, Ye; Zyhalo, V M; Lytvynets, O M; Kondrashova, V H; Vdovenko, V Yu; Skvarska, O O; Leonovych, O S

    2015-12-01

    Meta roboty – doslidyty rol' polimorfizmu geniv eNOS u rozvytku endotelial'noI dysfunktsiI ta funktsional' nykh rozladiv systemy dykhannia u ditey – meshkantsiv radioaktyvno zabrudnenykh terytoriy.Materialy i metody doslidzhennia. Dlia vyznachennia mozhlyvykh asotsiatyvnykh zv’iazkiv polimorfizmu u 4 mu introni gena eNOS z pokaznykamy, shcho kharakteryzuiut' funktsional'nyy stan endoteliiu ta bronkholegenevoI sys temy, provedeno obstezhennia 184 ditey. Z nykh osnovnu grupu sklaly 135 ditey – meshkantsiv radioaktyvno zabrud nenykh terytoriy, kontrol'nu – 49 ditey, iaki prozhyvaly v „chystykh ” shchodo radioaktyvnogo zabrudnennia regionakh i ne nalezhaly do postrazhdalykh vnaslidok Chornobyl's'koI avariI kontyngentiv. Provodyly molekuliarno gene tychne doslidzhennia z vyznachenniam polimorfizmu v 4 mu introni gena eNOS. Doslidzhennia ventyliatsiynoI spro mozhnosti legeniv otsiniuvaly za dopomogoiu metodu pnevmotakhografiI. Dlia reiestratsiI endoteliyzalezhnoI reaktsiI sudynnogo rusla na zminy umov krovopostachannia vykorystovuvaly termografichnyy sposib. Vyznachennia rivniv azotystykh spoluk NO2 ta NO3 provodyly za standartnoiu metodykoiu z vykorystanniam reaktyvu Grissa. Riven' inkorporovanogo 137Cs v organizmi vyznachaly za dopomogoiu lichyl'nyka vyprominiuvannia liudyny Skrynner 3M vyrobnytstva Instytutu ekologiI liudyny.Rezul'taty. Dity osnovnoI grupy za chastotoiu polimorfnykh 4a/b genotypiv ta aleliv 4a i 4b gena eNOS ne vidriznia lysia vid kontroliu ta danykh literatury. U ditey osnovnoI grupy z genotypom 4a/4b u porivnianni z dit'my, iaki ma ly genotyp 4b/4b, vidmichalosia zbil'shennia tryvalosti vidnovlennia krovoobigu do vykhidnogo rivnia pislia ok liuziynoI proby; sposterigalosia znyzhennia vmistu nitrytu v syrovattsi krovi; zmenshennia integral'nykh pokaznykiv elastychnosti i roztiazhnosti legenevoI tkanyny, prokhidnosti dykhal'nykh shliakhiv; u 1,5 raza chastishe reiestruvalysia oznaky bronkhospazmu. Tsi nespryiatlyvi efekty buly

  16. Machinery and Ship Tracking Data for Ice-Breaking Trials Conducted on U.S. Coast Guard Cutter KATMAI BAY (WTGB-101).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    34- u ++ :++ + TIME + + ++ + ++t + ++ +++ +++ TMPRAT RE ++4+++*+ ’Is)++ Figure 19. ........+ - plinMtrDtaAeae vrFv -cn Perods .,.+++f ~ Ru 1120...8217....................... - . ( l Cc rU 0 iSar - £ 0) 0 .. .. .... .~. H - za& ’W CO? a 29 0 - .1K 6 4.- [tA .. 4.: .. ... .. . 44 4...60-Gnrtr1Dt vrge vrFv-eodPro Ru 2210 71 t. .. . .. . V. . . . TRIAL CONDITIONS: 1. LEVEL ICE BREAKING WITH ALL BUBBLERS 2. 13 in. (33.0 cm) OF ICE

  17. Dust Induced Electro-Magnetic Noise (DIEMN).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-05

    NAME 01 ;-NDNG SPONSORNG 8b OFFICF SYMBOL 9 PROC-REMENV NSTRUMEN" DEN F’CA- O* NL\\’ BEP DRGAN’ZA’ION (If appicable) DNA 001-83-C-0117 Bc ADDPESS(C,ty...electrostatic measurements were made by two groups (Naval Research Laboratory and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) and electromagnetic...electrostatic field measurements taken at DIRECT COURSE by both the Naval Research Laboratory 4 and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

  18. Electromagnetic Remote Sensing. Low Frequency Electromagnetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Feltds ase mweasured foe other rtaeoaa t4o. Fot extampe out Cox Study the add i•self as In Interplanetazy 6Wd meausmeats or detexralie azwrtZa dsitn...etc. We first study the position and value of the extrema. Extyema of Q in the measurement plane occur for 8-Q = 0 for j = 1, 2 simultaneously (42) In...external field. Before we study a specific boundary value problem, a few words should be said about demagnetization, a phenomenon which is commmon to

  19. IFV/CFV Personnel Selection Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Figures Test (155 Males, Eastern Liberal Arts College) S -- - rO 1 Z 34 5 6 78 9 1011 12 13 1i1 16 1 (Poorer) SCORE (Better) C-11 Attribute No. 35 -Closure...o,.4 ~ C W. L * - M 40 -9 cc -n -c a wa ,.U M~ 4CC - c in .a aa * ja CD Z~ Za a J 7; 7 Las LL ab = LU m w- wN- 9 .t c, .s , cC 0 do W mUIca c" cm~ i

  20. Statistical Characteristics of Bistatic Surface Scatter and Mean Bistatic Surface Scattering Strengths.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Z., is determined in the same way as for the K-S two-sample test. If Zaamge(t) > Za, the ensemble fails the test and is determined to be non - - 𔃿...FLoating Instrument Platform, freely floating about 400 nmi off the coast of California. The experiment was planned and con - ducted by Peter Dahl and Andrew...Summing the returns from the four vertical staves and multiplying by the sum of the four hc-Zizontal staves outputs produces a Mills Cross array [17]. Pro

  1. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Lyman Mill Pond (MA 00500), Connecticut River Basin, Southampton, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    top ______ " _ _ _ _ .... .. ... .... S Dam No. 2-8-276-2 8. Classification of Darn by IMaterial: Earth Cone. Mlasonry X Stone Hiasonry -"_•_. Timber... Rockfill Other -_. 8zA. Dar. Type: Gravity X Straight _ Curved, Arched Other Overflow Non-overflow Hollow gravity - slab and buttress dam . 9- _ A...117 AD-Ri54 955 NATIONAL PRbGRAM FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAMS in. LYMAN HILL POND (MA B..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHRM MR NEW ENGLAND DIV MAR

  2. An Expanded VARICOMP Method for Determining Detonation Transfer Probabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Calculation of Reliability Estimates To Lonvert from RDBg to PAIDBg or PStDBg. proceed as follows. For 100-mil-cdarneter dolors . DBg or RDBg is equal...oo 00 coo - c oeo oe -00e za -- - - - - - T 0 00.88 38 $ 8 ~~ .5 300 NWC TP 578 2!2: 2 aI- s4~ lW q*~ N303 3 !0 𔃺 CL 0 sl ig 01 0 OR.. o4 - E~t 31 NWC

  3. DUAL-TEX: Evaluation of Dual-Texture Gradient Pattern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    the use of several series of 35MM dolor transparencies taken at various ranges from most distant to least dis- tant from target panels painted with the... za z 0 tc rc4 <- C4- 2 ~~~ ~ ~ ~ 4 4j2~ 2 ~ 2~ Co 00 00 c Lf% LL Cc r cc C3 ac CC n C0 0 0 v ’n c -c 44 44 -C 44444 0 C 0 0 0 00 C0 COO.p% O - CC.4 u’A

  4. Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS) Basic Rifle Marksmanship (BRM) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    AAWM0~ CLC ETA DOLOR IUD DISTANCE IFOKB ETOP 111TH ?aW SAATIKEO 000 jilt CIESPCL LOA also I IN IFtACK 4N-STA*T-103231 asE CTA460 ETA COO&I a 95011 COD...14277 51.140 315 4153).? 311. 51/5030 IDA 830 DINC *5.3 ZA Its1 $?A 1437) LOX 550 XVS030 iTA WNS LOA5 8216 erg 441612 LOA5 1401.02 STA 14276 $CC

  5. Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Environment Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    unc lass if ied la SU- R TY CASSCiCATION AuVIHORTv I O’ST IUTION’AVAiLAI~iTY OF REPORT D(I.-%S)J CAfOPY DO*NILRAONG SCMIDULE Approved for public release...distribution is unl imited. 4 :1 QF0RVCN6 ORGAN ZA~iON REPORr N’MIRS) S MONITOING ORGANZATON R (PQ.Rt NUVOER(Sg 6a %AVE :5 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6o...E~rern F) environments are one solution being pursued. This thesisz attempts t,)calse from various efforts to date, some general princ:iples : r s7uch

  6. Avian Territory Mapping. Section 6.3.4, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    tivelv e;sv to detect. Site visits should be made on calm days with no rain to maximize the opportunity to hear bird songs and calls. 6 The route of...or review the songs and call notes of local species before starting a mapping study. A small hand-held tape recorder is useful to record questionable...black-billed cuckoo (Cocc’u.p aturu za) DW, downy woodpecker (Picoideo pube:,,,!nr1); RT, rufous-sided towhee (Pipilo erythrophthanna); C, northern

  7. Reliability Studies of Ceramic Capacitors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    for Al Doped TiO 2 Single Crystal for Polarization Fields of 200 kV/m and Heating Rate of 0.13 *K/s. -57- Nb - DOPED TiO2 -PQ1 AhNlZA’I Iu)N -RU AHAT...Figure 51. Polarization and Depolarization Currents as Function of Temperature for Nb - Doped TiO2 Single Crystal at Fields of 100 kV/m and Heating Rate of...raw materials themselves. In addition, when doping is desired, the liquid mix process randomly distributes the dopant cations and produces a

  8. Nonmechanical Multizoom Telescope Design Using A Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator and Focus-Correction Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-27

    Captain, USAF AFIT/GEO/ENP/08-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio...automatically for solar tele- scopes. [7] Guidelines for the algorithm have been clearly defined for over a decade. [20] The process is based on the idea...6m, and 10m. If this were setup on a real bench, then a camera would record a blurry bar patters that changed based on za. Simulating this requires

  9. Grissom AFB, Indiana. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    A80 9 F-. / 4 ,- 6 7671 O0 . . .. . .......... . . Elee X t Z I ] X * , No. Ok... M.on N.. o1 N.,.. ..119 T...p....,,. 9,, H., .’ 4.o51 :< *. *i , 3J1...34 "’ ’ 80 " 9,*, , _ , , , , - _ - .. !.- D, .. . , ..- ; ., . ’ 4 - .4 - I ’, - , • • - . -. . . L 1.! 7. . 2 o ,’ I . * £ . . .. - 1 .’ 2 . _ Elee ’ 9. Z Z...A... 7 1 1 .. ... . . . . 7&. A I 1 1 r A A2 .. * :7 A. / .4 1. - : I ’ 3. . 1 * L 7. A AL 1. A ~ Elee . . * X . 1.4 1

  10. National Counterterrorism Center: 2007 Report on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    shooting (for instance, improvised explosive...16,000 Ira q Afg ha nis tan Pa kis tan Ind ia Th ail an d So ma lia Su da n Ch ad Co lom bia Sr i L an ka Ph ilip pin es Alg eri a De mo cra tic R ep...ilip pin es Ga za St rip Afg ha nis tan Co ng o, De mo cra tic R ep ub lic Pa kis tan Ind ia Ch ad Nig eri a Co lom bia Nig er Su da n Ne the

  11. Emissions Scavenging by Fog, Dew, and Foliage: Foliage Uptake and Consequences for Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    AUTHORITY 3- DISTRIBUTION /IAVAILABILITY OF REPORT 2b. DECLASSIFICATON /DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE d t~~ . .n.i~td 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATiON REPORT NUMBER(S) S...ions into whole-plant leachates was observed E3UICLASIFEDAJLIMTEO0SAM ASRPT 3DIC SE- F20. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURI...CLASSIFICATION Za. NAMEOF RESPOffSBlu INDI IDUAL. 22b. TELEPHONE (Incude Area Code) I22c. OFFICE SYMBOL 0O FORW 473. 84 MAR 5 OR edition may be used

  12. Unconventional Visual Displays for Flight Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    AI-ll 3" CANYON REISARCH ROUP INC WESTILAKE VILLAGE CA F/ S 5/9 UNCONVENTIONAL VISUAL DISPLAYS FOR FLINT TRAININS.(U) NOV S1 R T HENNESSY, S LINTRN, S ...NSTRUCTIO. S REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM REPORT NUMBER :I GOVT ACCESSION. NO. 3 RECIPIENT-L Z-A’A O:, NwBL NAVTRAEQUIPCEN 78-C...30Noveiber 1981 Flight Training 6 PERFORMINGO; REPORTNMSER TR-81-014 7 AU.TNOR( s ) B CONTRACr OR GRANT NUMBER’’ ) R.T. Hennessy; G. Lintern; S.C. Collyer

  13. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 2 - Southeast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    cycZophylZa’Fernald Bacopa B 3. innominata (Gomez Maza) Alain Bacopa OBL B. monnieri (L.) Wettst. Coast bacopa OBL 3. repens (Swartz) Wettgt. Creeping bacopa ...OBL B. rctundifoiia (Michx.) Wettst. Roundleaf bacopa OBL Baiduina atropur’purea Harper Balduina FACW B. uniflora Nutt. One-flowered balduina FACW... Bacopa OBL Batis maritima Saltwort OBL .B.’., 5erchemia scanden8 Rattan vine FACW " " Fetula nigra River birch OBL -.. ¢2 ". FAC FA 3.eThre3er4Ztu

  14. Biological and Physical Conditions at a Newly Placed Gravel Bar Habitat in the Tombigbee River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    R., Bruke, T. A., and Keenan, C. 1981. " Bryozoa from Lake Mead and Lake Mohave, Nevada-Arizona," The Southwestern Naturalist, Vol 26, No. 2, p 201...C A L~ugessa sp. S 1’ C 1’ A Nematode worms - U U A Bryozoa Plumatellidae CFF - U. C C FottsielZa erecta CFF - - C C Entoprocta L’rnate’,a gracilz...Oct Coelenterata Rydra sp. P - C U C , ordyZophra Lacustris - - U c Platyhelminthes Duqesta tiorina S - U - C Nematode worms - U U A Bryozoa

  15. N2O and N2 emissions from contrasting soil environments - interactive effects of soil nitrogen, hydrology and microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper; Elberling, Bo; Ribbons, Relena; Hedo, Javier; José Fernández Alonso, Maria; Krych, Lukasz; Sandris Nielsen, Dennis; Kitzler, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) in the environment has doubled relative to the natural global N cycle with consequences for biogeochemical cycling of soil N. Also, climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns and increase soil temperatures which in Arctic environments may accelerate permafrost thawing. The combination of changes in the soil N cycle and hydrological regimes may alter microbial transformations of soil N with unknown impacts on N2O and N2 emissions from temperate and Arctic soils. We present the first results of soil N2O and N2 emissions, chemistry and microbial communities over soil hydrological gradients (upslope, intermediate and wet) across a global N deposition gradient. The global gradient covered an N-limited high Arctic tundra (Zackenberg-ZA), a pacific temperate rain forest (Vancouver Island-VI) and an N saturated forest in Austria (Klausenleopoldsdorf-KL). The N2O and N2 emissions were measured from intact cores at field moisture in a He-atmosphere system. Extractable NH4+ and NO3-, organic and microbial C and N and potential enzyme-activities were determined on soil samples. Soil genomic DNA was subjected to MiSeq-based tag-encoded 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicon sequencing for the bacterial and fungal community structure. Similar soil moisture levels were observed for the upslope, intermediate and wet locations at ZA, VI and KL, respectively. Extractable NO3- was highest at the N rich KL and lowest at ZA and showed no trend with soil moisture similar to NH4+. At ZA and VI soil NH4+ was higher than NO3- indicating a tighter N cycling. N2O emissions increased with soil moisture at all sites. The N2O emissions for the wet locations ranked similarly to NO3- with the largest response to soil moisture at KL. N2 emissions were remarkably similar across the sites and increased with soil wetness. Microbial C and N also increased with soil moisture and were overall lowest at the N rich KL site. The potential activity of protease enzyme was site

  16. Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Brain-Mapping Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-24

    x-Dat Jun310. 1986 7 Pa. EORT SFCURrY CL SSI iCAl-ON lb. RESTRICTivE MARKI..NG Unclassified I Za. SEC’JRIrY CLASSIFiCA-iONy...60 4.1.2 Alternate Celloidin Sections Stained for Myelin and Nissl ................................. 60 4.1.3...Preparation of Nissl Images of Nuclei at 40x, 100x and 200x, Using 35mm Photomicrographs at 2mm Intervals ................................. 61 4.1.4 Store on

  17. The Convergence of CASSCF-CISD Energies to the Complete Basis Set Limit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-16

    with the value obtained from pair natural orbital ( PNO ) extrapolations11 from the 6ZaP calculations with Nmin=25.46 The rms deviation between the... PNO extrapolations and the values for E(2) from Eq.(7) and Eq.(9) is 140 μEh for the eight low-lying states of N2 (Table V). If we adopt this figure...16) which will always be positive (Table VII). The CCSD increment given by Eq.(16) is available (as: “CBS-int”) from the CBS PNO extrapolation

  18. Mobilization Responses to Warning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    reluctance by those leaders to authorized some form of response (political, economic or military) to counter early warning indicators. Strategic...MOBILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING Jil This document has been aIpproved L.A INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE OF THE ARMED FORCES 83 12 29 034 4 N;. -nou-n_. -Aa- f",1...48 BILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING MSP #46 AY 82/83 A ERFORMING :)S REPR’~ ’.,MSEP - 8.ZNRZ ~R~AN% MBEQ,’ GREGORY W. MASON, LTC, USA S ~ SI% R NAN1ZA

  19. [Investigation on species composition of cockroaches and bacteria-carrying on their bodies in five cities of Hainan].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Zi; Cui, Yu-Bao; Yang, Wen; Rao, Lang-Yu; Pan, Wan; Chen, Jin-Long

    2008-02-28

    "ZA-type" cages were used to capture cockroaches in 267 sites of 5 cities in Hainan. Species were identified and bacteria were isolated by routine method. 441 cockroaches were collected and identified as five species belonging to two genera, 75.3% being Periplaneta americana. More cockroaches were found in sewerage. Bacteria were detected from 82.4% of cockroaches, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sp, Bacillus proteus and sort of mycetes. Therefore, the dominant species is Periplaneta americana in Hainan, and the high bacteria-carrying behavior of cockroaches indicates its importance in disease transmission.

  20. Impact of Cooperative-Team Learning on Performance and Retention of Navy Air-Traffic Controller Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-20

    data will be presented at a similar conference in December, 1989 (San Antonio ). b. Part of a presentation to business trainers of major US companies...Form ApDroved OCUMENTATION PAGE 0MB No 0704-0188AD-A213 435 o RES’iC-vE VARK NGS N. A . 3 DSTR!BUT ON, AVALABIL TY OF REPORT N.A- Approved for public...release; 2D ECLASS, CA O G\\ GRAD G SC-ED E distribution unlimited.N . A . " "" 4 ŕER;ORM1 %G ORCA% ZA- 0 R PORT NUMBERISI S MONITORING ORGANIZAT.ON

  1. Effect of Steel Metallurgy on Its Magneto-Mechanical Behaviour in Weak Magnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    MAuIETiU EC ANCA BEHAVIOUR OF FIVE 1STELS MILD STEEL HSLA 80, HY 100 AND A QUENCHED ALO ST1EE. HAS BEN INVESTIGAT. MAGNETlC FIELDS OF THE ORDER OF THE EARTIS...FIELD AND COMPRES8NE SInUSN ULP TO 200 MPA WEE AFPLE TO THE STEELS . THE INCREASE IN MAGNEnZA7ION OUE to STRESS CYLCUNG IN A CONSTANT APPLE FIELD AND...THAT STEELS AND SIMILAR McS HAVE SIMILAR MANTO-MECHANICAL RESPONSE. THE TiRENGTH OR HARMNESS OF THE STE. IS A LESS .M3LEWICAOR OF~U MALNT0l015CHN104

  2. High-Temperature Ceramic Superconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-15

    1400 WILSON BOULEVARD ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 22217-5000 DARPAIONR CONTRACT N00014-88-C-0714 D T IC APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASEDTI r" . -rCTE Prepared by...OMB No. 07044 188 .-a. RE7ORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Ib. .RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS3 1]nrn acifi~ d I ___________________________ Za. SECURITY CLASSiFICATION...10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS 1400 ’,iilson Blvd. ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. jACCESSiON NO. Arlington, VA 22209 OGM POJcTSKWOKNT 1. TITLF (Incduce Security

  3. Physics and Chemistry of Small Scale Structures for Modern Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    that in AIGaAs. In the InAs- ZnTe system, the increase in speed is due to the small dielectric constant in ZaTe and the high mobility in InAs, and the...temperature. In addition, 1 _____0__ ._._... ... the small dielectric constant in ZnTe and the high mobility ---- : T = 3OCK GoAs-ZnSe in InAs should...semiconductors were explored. While the materials to date have not been single crystal but have consisted of relatively small grain polycrystal in vandium

  4. Hormonal and Hemodynamic Effects of Heat and Cold Tolerance Tests Before and After Multiple Cold Air Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-23

    REPORT NUMBER(S) NMRI 89 - 13 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANiZA;ION Naval Medical Research (if...of the Iavy Bethesda, MD 20814-5055 Washington, DC 20372-512J 8a. NAME OF rUNOINGSPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT iNSTRUMENT...7iELEPHONE (Inciude Area Code) 22c. OFFCE e iBO. Regina E. Hunt, Command Editor (202) 295-0198 c SD/RSD/Nt.k, , 00 FORM 1473,84 MAR 83 APR edition may oe

  5. Propagation of RF Signals through Structured Ionization. Theory and Antenna Aperture Effect Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-15

    GOVERNMENT SPONSOR (if other than DNA): SPONSORING ORGANIZATION: CONTRACTING OFFICER OR REPRESENTATIVE: _ SIGNATURE. -_ *1 4 C ( - .- ~ t ., - V. - 4...8217** ~ t ./ C d d" UNCLASS I FIED REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE N1) !a. ;EPOR’! SiC..PiT’. C.ASS.F1CAT’C.N 1b ;ESTRICTOVE MARK;NGS UNCLASSIFIED...72193IBUTION/IAAI¶.ASILITy 0; A$ ACý 221 A8STRACT S-C-RI’"’ Cý.ASSiFiCATION CUNCLISSIF’ED/UNLIMTEo: )Cj]SAMIE AS qP T :). VCjSERS UrNC LAý 1 Z~a. NAME OF

  6. National Solar-Terrestrial Research Program. Part 1. Solar-Terrestrial Research for the 1980’s. Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    ea4 4’ P’ 14 4i PA t’-- ~’ VIt 1 4 𔃻 ~1~ r * . ~ c~𔃼+’ijIT REPRontICffr AT rOVERNMFNT FXPENSE t -AT, )N OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE pA Sfc...4AT CLASSIFCAIION lb RIESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 2. A. TN CLASSIPCATION AUTHORITY 3 DIST RIBUT ION/AVAILABILITY OF REPORT Approved for public release; _ 5...AS.FCATON COWNGRAOINGSC-EOULE Distribution unlimited 4 .4C5I4%N,, 0)RAN-ZA’,ON REPORT NUMBE RISI 5 MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NLJMBERIS) AFOSR

  7. NE VIII lambda 774 and time variable associated absorption in the QSO UM 675

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa; Lyons, R.

    1995-04-01

    We discuss measurements of Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption and the time variability of other lines in the za approximately equal ze absorption system of the ze = 2.15 QSO UM 675 (0150-203). The C IV lambda 1549 and N V 1240 doublets at za = 2.1340 (shifted approximately 1500 km/s from ze strengthened by a factor of approximately 3 between observations by Sargent, Boksenberg and Steidel (1981 November) and our earliest measurements (1990 November and December). We have no information on changes in other za approximately equal ze absorption lines. Continued monitoring since 1990 November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately 1100 and 1640 A rest. The short timescale of the variability (less than or approximately equal to 2.9 yr rest) strongly suggests that the clouds are dense, compact, close to the QSO, and photoionized by the QSO continuum. If the line variability is caused by changes in the ionization, the timescale requires densities greater than approximately 4000/cu cm. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately 200 pc of the continuum source. The full range of line ionizations (from Ne VIII lambda 774 to C III lambda 977) in optically thin gas (no Lyman limit) implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately 100 in density. Across these regions, the total hydrogen (H I + H II) column ranges from a few times 1018/sq cm in the low-ionization gas to approximately 1020/sq cm where the Ne VIII doublet forms. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few. The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda 774 absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link za approximately equal to ze systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. We show that the Ne VIII absorbing gas would itself produce measurable warm

  8. Identification of two genes, sll0804 and slr1306, as putative components of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shulu; Spann, Kevin W; Frankel, Laurie K; Moroney, James V; Bricker, Terry M

    2008-12-01

    Insertional transposon mutations in the sll0804 and slr1306 genes were found to lead to a loss of optimal photoautotrophy in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 grown under ambient CO(2) concentrations (350 ppm). Mutants containing these insertions (4BA2 and 3ZA12, respectively) could grow photoheterotrophically on glucose or photoautotrophically at elevated CO(2) concentrations (50,000 ppm). Both of these mutants exhibited an impaired affinity for inorganic carbon. Consequently, the Sll0804 and Slr1306 proteins appear to be putative components of the carbon-concentrating mechanism in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

  9. The Coastal Dynamics of Heterogeneous Sedimentary Environments: Numerical Modeling of Nearshore Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-10

    currents are present, the same volume of sediment is redeposited repeatedly ( reworked ) with no net erosion or deposition. When a mean flow exists...response to erosion and deposition, wave reworking extends below the bed to a depth which is HE HD HR HD HR HR HE HR HD HRHE HR HE HR HD HR HR HD 8 in...also defined in Figure 5. The apparent erosion depth ZA is the maximum reworking depth during a time interval. The reference elevation ZR is the

  10. Properties of Some Bayesian Scoring Procedures for Computerized Adaptive Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    444))1 irdj 4 m -I Io, t ) ht7 , e R i 10208 -1cu* ~ I ia t ’inir 22 302-)28 o , S..:€ . -. S 5 ** -. 5l . . . . . ., "- " 0 , ABSTRACT The computerized...unlimited. 4 PERFORFsNG ORGA%, " ’ON REPORT \\%IMBER(SI 5 MAONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) , - ’. x-. CRM 87-161 6j NAMEOFPEFORMIGORGANiZA’ON bo...Month, Day) 5 PAGE COUNT Final FROM TO August 1987 24 T6 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17 COSATI CODES T8 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and

  11. PEBL: A Code for Penetrating and Blunt Trauma, Based on the H-ICDA index

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    an acute right subdural hematoma . This type of injury is encoded as follows: The depressed skull fracture has the format 800.Za and is encoded 800.02...dimension 3 worst lesion has deficit of > 1.5 cm 852.Z Subdural or epidural Z = 0 closed (cannot be open) hematoma a = I right 852.Zab 2 left 3 side...not specified b = I epidural hematoma 2 acute subdural with cerebral injury (contusion) in same site 3 acute subdural without cerebral injury 4 acute

  12. Army Communications Interoperability with NATO Nations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    F- 4- 4 u) (31 4o U * .-4.0 44 ’.4 0 )0- 1 9: :1 .04. ru (0) 01 01 ) CO 4) $A ’ CL W 0 to c H * 0o to >~0 0 d)- u 0 0 0 4.’ ’. 0 AJ 4- 4 Irt &04 U W...4J0) 0e p) -Ha a 0H 0 CL k -A.- - - C.,j z &- z cc >% c = 4m 0 00 Q 00 (I) U) CJ - 4) - o wo .0 c ~ o- - 0 LL I- 0 -0 CoZ 00 0 0 0 -’f C. a za z Olgaz

  13. Mechanotransductive cascade of Myo-II-dependent mesoderm and endoderm invaginations in embryo gastrulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrossilis, Démosthène; Röper, Jens-Christian; Le Roy, Damien; Driquez, Benjamin; Michel, Aude; Ménager, Christine; Shaw, Gorky; Le Denmat, Simon; Ranno, Laurent; Dumas-Bouchiat, Frédéric; Dempsey, Nora M.; Farge, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Animal development consists of a cascade of tissue differentiation and shape change. Associated mechanical signals regulate tissue differentiation. Here we demonstrate that endogenous mechanical cues also trigger biochemical pathways, generating the active morphogenetic movements shaping animal development through a mechanotransductive cascade of Myo-II medio-apical stabilization. To mimic physiological tissue deformation with a cell scale resolution, liposomes containing magnetic nanoparticles are injected into embryonic epithelia and submitted to time-variable forces generated by a linear array of micrometric soft magnets. Periodic magnetically induced deformations quantitatively phenocopy the soft mechanical endogenous snail-dependent apex pulsations, rescue the medio-apical accumulation of Rok, Myo-II and subsequent mesoderm invagination lacking in sna mutants, in a Fog-dependent mechanotransductive process. Mesoderm invagination then activates Myo-II apical accumulation, in a similar Fog-dependent mechanotransductive process, which in turn initiates endoderm invagination. This reveals the existence of a highly dynamic self-inductive cascade of mesoderm and endoderm invaginations, regulated by mechano-induced medio-apical stabilization of Myo-II.

  14. Resonance Region Nuclear Data Analysis to Support Advanced Fuel Cycle Development

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Michael E; Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Gil, Choong-Sup; Kim, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are performing collaborative research as part of a three-year United States (U.S.) / Republic of Korea (ROK) International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project to provide improved neutron cross-section data with uncertainty or covariance data important for advanced fuel cycle and nuclear safeguards applications. ORNL and KAERI have initiated efforts to prepare new cross-section evaluations for 240Pu, 237Np, and the stable Cm isotopes. At the current stage of the I-NERI project, ORNL has recently completed a preliminary resonance-region cross-section evaluation with covariance data for 240Pu and initiated resonance evaluation efforts for 237Np and 244Cm. Likewise, KAERI is performing corresponding high-energy cross-section analyses (i.e., above the resonance region) for the noted isotopes. The paper provides results pertaining to the new resonance region evaluation efforts with emphasis on the new 240Pu evaluation.

  15. Computational Assessment of the GT-MHR Graphite Core Support Structural Integrity in Air-Ingress Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Jong B. Lim; Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Richard R. Schultz; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to perform stress analysis for graphite support structures of the General Atomics’ 600 MWth GT-MHR prismatic core design using ABAQUS ® (ver. 6.75) to assess their structural integrity in air-ingress accident conditions where the structure weakens over time due to oxidation damages. The graphite support structures of prismatic type GT-MHR was analyzed based on the change of temperature, burn-off and corrosion depth during the accident period predicted by GAMMA, a multi-dimensional gas multi-component mixture analysis code developed in the Republic of Korea (ROK)/United States (US) International –Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (I-NERI) project. Both the loading and thermal stresses were analyzed, but the thermal stress was not significant, leaving the loading stress to be the major factor. The mechanical strengths are exceeded between 11 to 11.5 days after loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), corresponding to 5.5 to 6 days after the start of natural convection.

  16. Seasonal abundance of biting midges, Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), collected at cowsheds in the southern part of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Park, Jee-Yong; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Klein, Terry A

    2012-06-01

    Black light traps were used to measure the seasonal and geographical distribution of Culicoides spp. (biting midges or no-see-ums) at 9 cowsheds in the southern half of the Republic of Korea (ROK) from June through October 2010. A total of 25,242 Culicoides females (24,852; 98.5%) and males (390; 1.5%) comprising of 9 species were collected. The most commonly collected species was Culicoides punctatus (73.0%) followed by C. arakawae (25.7%), while the remaining 7 species accounted for <1.0% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The mean number of Culicoides spp. collected per trap night (Trap Index [TI]) was highest for C. punctatus (409.3), followed by C. arakawae (144.2), C. tainanus (4.1), C. oxystoma (1.2), C. circumscriptus (0.7), C. homotomus (0.6), C. erairai (0.4), C. kibunensis (0.3), and C. nipponensis (0.04). Peak TIs were observed for C. punctatus (1,188.7) and C. arakawae (539.0) during July and August, respectively. C. punctatus and C. arakawae have been implicated in the transmission of arboviruses and other pathogens of veterinary importance that adversely impact on animal and bird husbandry.

  17. Seasonal abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected by mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A; Chong, Sung-Tae; Park, Jee-Yong

    2014-02-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens.

  18. Effect of Different Polymerization Methods on the Cytotoxicity of Dental Composites

    PubMed Central

    Beriat, Nilufer Celebi; Ertan, Ahmet Atila; Canay, Senay; Gurpinar, Aylin; Onur, Mehmet Ali

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of various dental composites polymerized with two different curing units. Methods: Disc-shaped test samples of composites Filtek Z250, Filtek A110, Filtek P60, Filtek Supreme, and SDI Rok were polymerized using one quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) and one light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit (LCU), namely Optilux 501 (QTH) and Elipar Freelight 2 (LED). L-929 mouse fibroblast cultures (3x104 cells/ml) were incubated with the samples in 96 well culture plates for evaluation after 8, 24, 48, 72 h. At the end of each period, the cells were counted and examined under a light microscope, and a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed. The degree of cytotoxicity for each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells in a control group (a culture without sample). Results: A significant 3 factor interaction occurred among LCUs, composites, and time factors (P<.005). In general, the test materials cured with the LED LCU demonstrated higher cell survival rates when compared with those cured with halogen LCUs. Conclusions: This study shows that polymerization of dental composites with a light emitting diode LCU positively influences the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell viability. PMID:20613917

  19. Mechanotransductive cascade of Myo-II-dependent mesoderm and endoderm invaginations in embryo gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Mitrossilis, Démosthène; Röper, Jens-Christian; Le Roy, Damien; Driquez, Benjamin; Michel, Aude; Ménager, Christine; Shaw, Gorky; Le Denmat, Simon; Ranno, Laurent; Dumas-Bouchiat, Frédéric; Dempsey, Nora M.; Farge, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Animal development consists of a cascade of tissue differentiation and shape change. Associated mechanical signals regulate tissue differentiation. Here we demonstrate that endogenous mechanical cues also trigger biochemical pathways, generating the active morphogenetic movements shaping animal development through a mechanotransductive cascade of Myo-II medio-apical stabilization. To mimic physiological tissue deformation with a cell scale resolution, liposomes containing magnetic nanoparticles are injected into embryonic epithelia and submitted to time-variable forces generated by a linear array of micrometric soft magnets. Periodic magnetically induced deformations quantitatively phenocopy the soft mechanical endogenous snail-dependent apex pulsations, rescue the medio-apical accumulation of Rok, Myo-II and subsequent mesoderm invagination lacking in sna mutants, in a Fog-dependent mechanotransductive process. Mesoderm invagination then activates Myo-II apical accumulation, in a similar Fog-dependent mechanotransductive process, which in turn initiates endoderm invagination. This reveals the existence of a highly dynamic self-inductive cascade of mesoderm and endoderm invaginations, regulated by mechano-induced medio-apical stabilization of Myo-II. PMID:28112149

  20. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Tae Seung

    2006-10-11

    Using Korean waste official method, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed from 33 transformer oils collected under National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in Republic of Korea (ROK) and their emission rate in Korea was estimated. Practical quantification limits analyzed by this method were in the ranges of 0.02 and 0.05 mg L(-1), and recovery of samples was in the ranges of 77-97%. The analytical results showed that PCBs in the transformer oils were identified as Aroclor 1242, 1254 or 1260. Twenty-nine samples were determined to contain PCBs of >0.05 mg L(-1) and among these samples, nine samples contained to have >2 mg kg(-1) which is limit of Waste Control Act (WCA) with regard to PCBs in transformer oil from Korea. The concentrations of PCBs in transformer oils were between N.D. (not detected) and 48.33 mg kg(-1). PCBs concentrations did not exceed 50 mg kg(-1) which is generally accepted limit for the definition of waste in POPs Guideline of Basel Convention.

  1. Comparative study on the thermal degradation of rice husks in various atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaly, A.E.; Mansaray, K.G.

    1999-12-01

    Evaluation is presented of the thermogravimetric behavior of four types of rice husk (Lemont, ROK 14, CP 4, and Pa Potho) at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50 C/min) in air, oxygen, and nitrogen atmospheres. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 700 C were determined. These thermal degradation indices are dependent on the heating rate, atmosphere employed, inorganic substances in rice husk, and chemical composition of rice husk. The initial degradation temperature decreased, while both the thermal degradation rate and the residual weight at 700 C increased when the heating rate was increased. The higher the cellulosic content of the rice husk, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the rice husk resulted in a higher residual weight at 700 C. The thermal degradation rate in the active zone was higher in the presence of oxygen than in the presence of air and nitrogen. More residual weight was recorded in the nitrogen atmosphere compared to the oxidative atmospheres of the air and oxygen atmospheres. The residual weights of the rice husk samples at 700 C in air and oxygen atmospheres were lower than their initial ash contents, with percentages of ash lost ranging from about 2.95 to 13.10% in the case of air and 4.20 to 17.05% in the case of oxygen.

  2. Thermogravimetric analysis of rice husks in an air atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mansaray, K.G.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1998-08-01

    In rice-producing countries, large amounts of rice husks are generated as waste material for which there is no ready use and in some cases may have a negative value because of the cost of disposal. Most of these countries depend on fossil fuels for their energy uses, and rice husk can be used to supplement such energy sources using thermochemical conversion processes. However, efficient operation of thermochemical conversion systems requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the influence of the composition and thermal properties of rice husks on their behavior during the conversion process. In this study, the thermal behavior of four rice husk varieties (Lemont, ROK 14, CP 4, and Pa Potho) was examined at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50 C/min) in stationary air atmosphere. The thermal degradation rate in active and passive pyrolysis zones, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 600 C were determined. Increasing the heating rate increased both the thermal degradation rate and the residual weight and decreased the initial degradation temperature. The higher the cellulosic content of the rice husk, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the rice husk resulted in higher residual weight at 600 C.

  3. Thermal degradation of rice husks in an oxygen atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mansaray, K.G.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-06-01

    Of the various energy conversion options of rice husk, thermochemical conversion processes such as pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification offer the most efficient way to use rice husk. However, a knowledge of the thermal characteristics of rice husks is essential for the optimal design of these systems and for ensuring stringent emissions as well as high conversion efficiency. Thermogravimetric analysis is used to profile weight loss due to physical and chemical phenomena taking place in the sample while being subjected to high temperatures. This technique presents an ideal system to study thermal properties of carbonaceous materials. Evaluation of the thermogravimetric behavior of four rice husk varieties (Lemont, ROK 14, CP 4, and Pa Potho) at three heating rates (10, 20, and 50 C/min) in an oxygen atmosphere is described. The thermal degradation rates, the initial degradation temperature, and the residual weight at 700 C were determined. These thermal degradation indices of rice husks are a function of temperature, heating rate, and the composition of the rice husks. The initial degradation temperature decreased while both the thermal degradation rate and the residual weight at 700 C increased when the heating rate was increased. The higher the cellulosic content of the rice husk, the higher the thermal degradation rate and the initial degradation temperature. Also, higher ash content in the rice husk resulted in higher residual weight at 700 C. Rice husk could be degraded to the extent of 73--80%.

  4. Role of citron kinase as a target of the small GTPase Rho in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Madaule, P; Eda, M; Watanabe, N; Fujisawa, K; Matsuoka, T; Bito, H; Ishizaki, T; Narumiya, S

    1998-07-30

    During mitosis, a ring containing actin and myosin appears beneath the equatorial surface of animal cells. This ring then contracts, forms a cleavage furrow and divides the cell, a step known as cytokinesis. The two daughter cells often remain connected by an intercellular bridge which contains a refringent structure known as the midbody. How the appearance of this ring is regulated is unclear, although the small GTPase Rho, which controls the formation of actin structures, is known to be essential. Protein kinases are also thought to participate in cytokinesis. We now show that a splice variant of a Rho target protein, named citron, contains a protein kinase domain that is related to the Rho-associated kinases ROCK14 and ROK, which regulate myosin-based contractility. Citron kinase localizes to the cleavage furrow and midbody of HeLa cells; Rho is also localized in the midbody. We find that overexpression of citron mutants results in the production of multinucleate cells and that a kinase-active mutant causes abnormal contraction during cytokinesis. We propose that citron kinase regulates cytokinesis at a step after Rho in the contractile process.

  5. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage.

  6. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Development of Computational Models for Pyrochemical Electrorefiners of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    M.F. Simpson; K.-R. Kim

    2010-12-01

    In support of closing the nuclear fuel cycle using non-aqueous separations technology, this project aims to develop computational models of electrorefiners based on fundamental chemical and physical processes. Spent driver fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being electrorefined in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). And Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing electrorefining technology for future application to spent fuel treatment and management in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Electrorefining is a critical component of pyroprocessing, a non-aqueous chemical process which separates spent fuel into four streams: (1) uranium metal, (2) U/TRU metal, (3) metallic high-level waste containing cladding hulls and noble metal fission products, and (4) ceramic high-level waste containing sodium and active metal fission products. Having rigorous yet flexible electrorefiner models will facilitate process optimization and assist in trouble-shooting as necessary. To attain such models, INL/UI has focused on approaches to develop a computationally-light and portable two-dimensional (2D) model, while KAERI/SNU has investigated approaches to develop a computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) model for detailed and fine-tuned simulation.

  7. Clinical Features of Influenza and Acute Respiratory Illness in Older Adults at Least 50 Years of Age in an Outpatient Setting in the Republic of Korea: a Prospective, Observational, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Joo; Lee, Jin Soo; Lee, Chang Kyu; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Mijeong; Monegal, Javier Sawchik; Carneiro, Rute; Kyaw, Moe H; Haguinet, François; Ray, Riju; Matias, Gonçalo

    2017-03-01

    Two prospective, multi-centre, observational studies (GlaxoSmithKline [GSK] identifier No. 110938 and 112519) were performed over 2 influenza seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) with the aim to evaluate the burden of laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI) in patients ≥ 50 years of age seeking medical attention for acute respiratory illness (ARI). The median participant age was 58 years in the 2007-2008 season and 60 years in the 2008-2009 season. LCI was observed in 101/346 (29.2%) of ARI patients in the 2007-2008 season and in 166/443 (37.5%) of ARI patients in the 2008-2009 season. Compared to patients with non-influenza ARI, those with LCI had higher rates of decreased daily activities (60.4% vs. 32.9% in 2007-2008 and 46.4% vs. 25.8% in 2008-2009), work absenteeism (51.1% vs. 25.6% and 14.4% vs. 7.7%), and longer duration of illness. These results indicated that influenza is an important cause of ARI in adults aged 50 and older causing more severe illness than non-influenza related ARI.

  8. Arduous campaign for Ryan White CARE Act.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The House version of the Ryan White CARE Act reauthorization passed the Health and Environment Subcommittee of the House Commerce Committee on June 14, 1995. The legislation now moves to the full Commerce Committee for consideration. However, a review of the measure was postponed indefinitely, some feel as a result of discussion about an expected amendment to the legislation offered by Rep. Tom Coburn (R-OK). Coburn is a major proponent for mandatory AIDS testing of newborns and wishes to amend the reauthorization to include legislation of that nature. AIDS Action has communicated concerns about the legislation to key committee members and is preparing for the possibility that restrictive amendments, infused with homophobia and with prejudice against people with HIV/AIDS, may be attached to the legislation. In the Senate, efforts continue to overcome tactics by Sen. Jesse Helms (R-NC) to hold up or block legislation S.641. Sixty-one legislators have cosponsored the bill. AIDS Action continues to mount a national campaign for letters to Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole (R-KA) to ask him to expedite the legislation.

  9. Cranes in East Asia; Proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, Rey C.

    2001-01-01

    Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell): I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the International Scientific Workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Survey’s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Richard Johnson, an economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meeting.

  10. Clinical Features of Influenza and Acute Respiratory Illness in Older Adults at Least 50 Years of Age in an Outpatient Setting in the Republic of Korea: a Prospective, Observational, Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Two prospective, multi-centre, observational studies (GlaxoSmithKline [GSK] identifier No. 110938 and 112519) were performed over 2 influenza seasons (2007–2008 and 2008–2009) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) with the aim to evaluate the burden of laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI) in patients ≥ 50 years of age seeking medical attention for acute respiratory illness (ARI). The median participant age was 58 years in the 2007–2008 season and 60 years in the 2008–2009 season. LCI was observed in 101/346 (29.2%) of ARI patients in the 2007–2008 season and in 166/443 (37.5%) of ARI patients in the 2008–2009 season. Compared to patients with non-influenza ARI, those with LCI had higher rates of decreased daily activities (60.4% vs. 32.9% in 2007–2008 and 46.4% vs. 25.8% in 2008–2009), work absenteeism (51.1% vs. 25.6% and 14.4% vs. 7.7%), and longer duration of illness. These results indicated that influenza is an important cause of ARI in adults aged 50 and older causing more severe illness than non-influenza related ARI. PMID:28145642

  11. Acoustic phonon lifetimes and thermal transport in free-standing and strained graphene.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Nicola; Garg, Jivtesh; Marzari, Nicola

    2012-06-13

    We use first-principles methods based on density functional perturbation theory to characterize the lifetimes of the acoustic phonon modes and their consequences on the thermal transport properties of graphene. We show that using a standard perturbative approach, the transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons in free-standing graphene display finite lifetimes in the long-wavelength limit, making them ill-defined as elementary excitations in samples of dimensions larger than ∼1 μm. This behavior is entirely due to the presence of the quadratic dispersions for the out-of-plane phonon (ZA) flexural modes that appear in free-standing low-dimensional systems. Mechanical strain lifts this anomaly, and all phonons remain well-defined at any wavelength. Thermal transport is dominated by ZA modes, and the thermal conductivity is predicted to diverge with system size for any amount of strain. These findings highlight strain and sample size as key parameters in characterizing or engineering heat transport in graphene.

  12. Analysis of Myosin II Minifilament Orientation at Epithelial Zonula Adherens

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Magdalene; Liang, Xuan; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) form bipolar filaments, which bind F-actin to exert cellular contractility during physiological processes (Vicente-Manzanares et al., 2009). Using a combinatorial approach to fluorescently label both N- and C-termini of the NMII heavy chain, recent works have demonstrated the ability to visualize NMII bipolar filaments at various subcellular localizations (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). At the zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelia, NMII minifilaments bind the circumferential actin bundles in a pseudo-sarcomeric manner (Ebrahim et al., 2013), a conformation required to maintain junctional tension and tissue integrity (Ratheesh et al., 2012). By expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NMIIA heavy chain and immunolabel it using a NMIIA C-terminus specific antibody, we were able to visualize the NMII minifilaments bound to F-actin bundles in Caco-2 cells (Michael et al., 2016), as previously reported (Ebrahim et al., 2013; Beach et al., 2014). In addition, we designed an FIJI/MATLAB analysis module to quantify the size, distance and alignment of these minifilaments with respect to junctional F-actin at the ZA. Measurements of the dispersion of minifilaments angles were proven to be a useful parameter that closely correlated to the extent of contractility at junctions (Michael et al., 2016). PMID:28251171

  13. Mermin-Wagner theorem, flexural modes, and degraded carrier mobility in two-dimensional crystals with broken horizontal mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Massimo V.; Vandenberghe, William G.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the electron mobility in ideal, free-standing two-dimensional "buckled" crystals with broken horizontal mirror (σh) symmetry and Dirac-like dispersion (such as silicene and germanene) is dramatically affected by scattering with the acoustic flexural modes (ZA phonons). This is caused both by the broken σh symmetry and by the diverging number of long-wavelength ZA phonons, consistent with the Mermin-Wagner theorem. Non-σh-symmetric, "gapped" 2D crystals (such as semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides with a tetragonal crystal structure) are affected less severely by the broken σh symmetry, but equally seriously by the large population of the acoustic flexural modes. We speculate that reasonable long-wavelength cutoffs needed to stabilize the structure (finite sample size, grain size, wrinkles, defects) or the anharmonic coupling between flexural and in-plane acoustic modes (shown to be effective in mirror-symmetric crystals, like free-standing graphene) may not be sufficient to raise the electron mobility to satisfactory values. Additional effects (such as clamping and phonon stiffening by the substrate and/or gate insulator) may be required.

  14. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    DOE PAGES

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-13

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian functionmore » associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.« less

  15. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-15

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian function associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. These measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.

  16. A Modified Mechanical Threshold Stress Constitutive Model for Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K. Sajun; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Singh, Yashjeet; Singh, Swadesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a modified mechanical threshold stress (m-MTS) constitutive model. The m-MTS model incorporates variable athermal and dynamic strain aging (DSA) Components to accurately predict the flow stress behavior of austenitic stainless steels (ASS)-316 and 304. Under strain rate variations between 0.01-0.0001 s-1, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 50-650 °C to evaluate the material constants of constitutive models. The test results revealed the high dependence of flow stress on strain, strain rate and temperature. In addition, it was observed that DSA occurred at elevated temperatures and very low strain rates, causing an increase in flow stress. While the original MTS model is capable of predicting the flow stress behavior for ASS, statistical parameters point out the inefficiency of the model when compared to other models such as Johnson Cook model, modified Zerilli-Armstrong (m-ZA) model, and modified Arrhenius-type equations (m-Arr). Therefore, in order to accurately model both the DSA and non-DSA regimes, the original MTS model was modified by incorporating variable athermal and DSA components. The suitability of the m-MTS model was assessed by comparing the statistical parameters. It was observed that the m-MTS model was highly accurate for the DSA regime when compared to the existing models. However, models like m-ZA and m-Arr showed better results for the non-DSA regime.

  17. Dependence of precursor composition on patterning and morphology of sol-gel soft lithography based zinc zirconium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Susanta; Pal, Moumita; Sarkar, Saswati; Jana, Sunirmal

    2013-05-01

    Array-like surface patterned zinc zirconium oxide thin films (135-163 nm thickness) on soda lime silica glass substrate were prepared by sol-gel soft lithography from the precursor solutions (8 wt% equivalent metal oxides) having zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate (ZOO = 0-100 mol% w.r.t. ZA) in ethanol-2-butanol medium with acetylacetone. The ZOO concentration in solutions strongly influenced the pattern formation, crystallinity, morphology and optical property of the films. The films were crystalline in nature and enriched with only h-ZnO or a mixture of h-ZnO and c-ZrO2 below 55 mol% of ZOO content. On increasing ZOO concentration, a systematic change in morphology of h-ZnO nano/micro crystals from spherical to rod-shaped to sunflower-like particles was evident from electron microscopes (FESEM and TEM). Below 30 and above 65 mol% of ZOO, light surface patterns formed. However, the films from 30 to 65 mol% ZOO containing solutions evident distinct surface patterns with average periodicity, 1.5 μm and peak height, 20-70 nm by AFM measurements. The films were also characterized by UV-vis and FTIR spectral studies. Water and chloride contents from ZOO in the precursor solutions found to play a key role for generation of the film characteristics.

  18. Distinct E-cadherin-based complexes regulate cell behaviour through miRNA processing or Src and p120 catenin activity

    PubMed Central

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Ngok, Siu P.; Pulimeno, Pamela; Feathers, Ryan W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; Baker, Tiffany R.; Carr, Jennifer M.; Yan, Irene K.; Borges, Sahra; Perez, Edith A.; Storz, Peter; Copland, John A.; Patel, Tushar; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Citi, Sandra; Anastasiadis, Panos Z.

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin and p120 catenin (p120) are essential for epithelial homeostasis, but can also exert pro-tumorigenic activities. Here, we resolve this apparent paradox by identifying two spatially and functionally distinct junctional complexes in non-transformed polarized epithelial cells: one growth suppressing at the apical zonula adherens (ZA), defined by the p120 partner PLEKHA7 and a non-nuclear subset of the core microprocessor components DROSHA and DGCR8, and one growth promoting at basolateral areas of cell–cell contact containing tyrosine-phosphorylated p120 and active Src. Recruitment of DROSHA and DGCR8 to the ZA is PLEKHA7 dependent. The PLEKHA7–microprocessor complex co-precipitates with primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) and possesses pri-miRNA processing activity. PLEKHA7 regulates the levels of select miRNAs, in particular processing of miR-30b, to suppress expression of cell transforming markers promoted by the basolateral complex, including SNAI1, MYC and CCND1. Our work identifies a mechanism through which adhesion complexes regulate cellular behaviour and reveals their surprising association with the microprocessor. PMID:26302406

  19. Catadioptric lenses in Visible Light Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Marquez, J.; Valencia, J. C.; Perez, H.; Topsu, S.

    2015-04-01

    Since few years ago, visible light communications (VLC) have experience an accelerated interest from a research point of view. The beginning of this decade has seen many improvements in VLC at an electronic level. High rates of transmission at low bit error ratios (BER) have been reported. A few numbers of start-ups have initiated activities to offer a variety of applications ranging from indoor geo-localization to internet, but in spite of these advancements, some other problems arise. Long-range transmissions mean a high BER which reduce the number of applications. In this sense, new redesigned optical collectors or in some cases, optical reflectors must be considered to ensure a low BER at higher distance transmissions. Here we also expose a preliminary design of a catadioptric and monolithical lens for a LI-FI receiver with two rotationally symmetrical main piecewise surfaces za and zb. These surfaces are represented in a system of cylindrical coordinates with an anterior surface za with a central and refractive sector surrounded by a peripheral reflective sector and a back piecewise surface zb with a central refractive sector and a reflective sector, both characterized as ideal for capturing light within large acceptance angles.

  20. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-11-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient ( R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  1. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Marlene M.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A.; Hasken, Julie M.; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Snell, Cudore L.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D. H.; May, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  2. First-Principles Determination of Ultralow Thermal Conductivity of monolayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    By using first-principles calculations combined with the phonon Boltzmann transport equation, we systematically investigate the phonon transport of monolayer WSe2. Compared with other 2D materials, the monolayer WSe2 is found to have an ultralow thermal conductivity due to the ultralow Debye frequency and heavy atom mass. The room temperature thermal conductivity for a typical sample size of 1 μm is 3.935  W/m K, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of MoS2. And the room temperature thermal conductivity can be further decreased by about 95% in 10 nm sized samples. Moreover, we also find the ZA phonons have the dominant contribution to the thermal conductivity, and the relative contribution is almost 80% at room temperature, which is remarkably higher than that for monolayer MoS2. This is because the ZA phonons have longer lifetime than that of LA and TA phonons in monolayer WSe2. PMID:26464052

  3. First-principles study of thermal transport in nitrogenated holey graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Tao; Xiao, Huaping; Tang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming; Zhong, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogenated holey graphene (NHG), a new two-dimensional graphene variant with a large fundamental direct band gap, has recently been successfully synthesized via a simple wet-chemical reaction. Motivated by its unique geometry and novel properties, we investigated the phonon transport properties of the material by combining first-principle calculations and the phonon Boltzmann transport equation. The lattice thermal conductivity of NHG at room temperature is predicted to be about 82.22 W mK-1, which is almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of graphene (about 3500 W mK-1). Deviating from the traditional understanding that thermal transport is usually largely contributed by the acoustic phonon modes for most suspended 2D materials, both out-of-plane flexural acoustic (ZA) and optical phonon modes make a more or less equal contribution, and their combination abnormally dominates the overall thermal transport in NHG. The major three-phonon process in NHG is further analyzed and the scattering between the acoustic and optical phonon modes like {{ZA}}/{{TA}}/{{LA}}+{{O}}≤ftrightarrow {{O}} is the main phonon process channel. Meanwhile, the mean free path distribution of different phonon modes is calculated for the purpose of the thermal management of NHG-based devices. Our results elucidate the unusual thermal transport properties of NHG as compared with the representative case of graphene, and underpin its potential application for use by the thermal management community.

  4. Oceanic time variability near a large scale topographic circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigorre, Sebastien; Dewar, William K.

    The oceanic circulation around a large scale topographic anomaly is studied using a numerical quasigeostrophic (QG) model. This simulation bears important similarities to a real ocean case, the Zapiola Anticyclone (ZA). The simple physics of the model allow the identification of two controlling parameters of the topographic circulation: bottom friction and eddy diffusivity. The role of these parameters was predicted in the theory proposed by Dewar [Dewar, W.K., 1998. Topography and barotropic transport control by bottom friction. J. Mar. Res. 56, 295-328] for the mean flow. This paper focuses on the time variability of the simulated circulation. The topography energizes the low frequency band, due to variations of the topographic circulation and its collapses. A local mode varies the amplitude of the topographic circulation and is related to the eddy field activity. The model shows that the trapped circulation can be shed away from the topography due to an increased sensitivity to the background flow perturbations. In the mesoscale band, a mode one anticyclonic wave also appears. We compare these features with similar observations in the Zapiola region. The location and strength of the ZA raise the question of its role in the mean regional oceanic circulation. This work suggests that its variability on a variety of temporal scales may also be of importance.

  5. Constitutive behavior of tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuh Rong; Gray, George T.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of strain rate, temperature, and tungsten alloying on the yield stress and the strainhardening behavior of tantalum were investigated. The yield and flow stresses of unalloyed Ta and tantalum-tungsten alloys were found to exhibit very high rate sensitivities, while the hardening rates in Ta and Ta-W alloys were found to be insensitive to strain rate and temperature at lower temperatures or at higher strain rates. This behavior is consistent with the observation that overcoming the intrinsic Peierls stress is shown to be the rate-controlling mechanism in these materials at low temperatures. The dependence of yield stress on temperature and strain rate was found to decrease, while the strain-hardening rate increased with tungsten alloying content. The mechanical threshold stress (MTS) model was adopted to model the stress-strain behavior of unalloyed Ta and the Ta-W alloys. Parameters for the constitutive relations for Ta and the Ta-W alloys were derived for the MTS model, the Johnson—Cook (JC), and the Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) models. The results of this study substantiate the applicability of these models for describing the high strain-rate deformation of Ta and Ta-W alloys. The JC and ZA models, however, due to their use of a power strain-hardening law, were found to yield constitutive relations for Ta and Ta-W alloys that are strongly dependent on the range of strains for which the models were optimized.

  6. Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship, Molecular Modeling, and NMR Studies of a Series of a Phenyl Alkyl Ketones as Highly Potent and Selective Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, S.; Kaur, G; Wang, H; Li, M; MacNaughtan, M; Yang, X; Reid, S; Prestegard, J; Wang, B; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and is a target for the development of anti-inflammatory agents. We have designed and synthesized a series of phenyl alkyl ketones as PDE4 inhibitors. Among them, 13 compounds were identified as having submicromolar IC{sub 50} values. The most potent compounds have IC50 values of in the mid- to low-nanomolar range. Compound 5v also showed preference for PDE4 with selectivity of >2000-fold over PDE7, PDE9, PDE2, and PDE5. Docking of 5v, 5zf, and 5za into the binding pocket of the PDE4 catalytic domain revealed a similar binding profile to PDE4 with rolipram except that the fluorine atoms of the difluoromethyl groups of 5v, 5za, and 5zf are within a reasonable range for hydrogen bond formation with the amide hydrogen of Thr 333 and the long alkyl chain bears additional van der Waals interactions with His 160, Asp 318, and Tyr 159.

  7. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of a Sheared Flow Stabilized Z-pinch Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Eleanor

    2016-10-01

    The ZaP Flow Z-pinch Project investigates the use of sheared-axial flows to stabilize an otherwise unstable plasma configuration. Diagnostics with sub-microsecond resolution are required to obtain accurate time-resolved data since the plasma pulse is approximately 100 μs. Analyzing the Doppler shift of impurity line radiation from the pinch provides a measure of the velocity profile and is a reliable method of determining the plasma sheared flow. The velocity profile is spatially resolved through the use of a 20-chord fiber bundle. The ZaP-HD experiment has used a PI-MAX intensified CCD array to record a single time-resolved spectrum per plasma pulse. Obtaining the evolution of the velocity profile using this method required spectra acquired over hundreds of pulses with identical initial parameters and varying acquisition times. The use of a Kirana 05M ultra-fast framing camera is investigated for recording time-resolved velocity profiles during a single pulse. The Kirana utilizes an ultraviolet intensifier to record 180 frames of UV light at up to 2 million frames per second. An ultraviolet optics system is designed to couple the exit port of an Acton SP-500i spectrometer to the Kirana UV intensifier and focus spectra at the camera detector plane. This work is supported by US DoE FES, NNSA, and ARPA-E ALPHA.

  8. Study of the maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the presence of the Gribov horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capri, M. A. L.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Thibes, R.

    2006-11-01

    We pursue the study of SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge by taking into account the effects of the Gribov horizon. The Gribov approximation, previously introduced in [M. A. L. Capri, V. E. R. Lemes, R. F. Sobreiro, S. P. Sorella, and R. Thibes, Phys. Rev. D 72, 085021 (2005).], is improved through the introduction of the horizon function, which is constructed under the requirements of localizability and renormalizability. By following Zwanziger’s treatment of the horizon function in the Landau gauge, we prove that, when cast in local form, the horizon term of the maximal Abelian gauge leads to a quantized theory which enjoys multiplicative renormalizability, a feature which is established to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization. Furthermore, it turns out that the horizon term is compatible with the local residual U(1) Ward identity, typical of the maximal Abelian gauge, which is easily derived. As a consequence, the nonrenormalization theorem, ZgZA1/2=1, relating the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant Zg and of the diagonal gluon field ZA, still holds in the presence of the Gribov horizon. Finally, we notice that a generalized dimension two gluon operator can be also introduced. It is BRST invariant on-shell, a property which ensures its multiplicative renormalizability. Its anomalous dimension is not an independent parameter of the theory, being obtained from the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant and of the diagonal antighost field.

  9. The Semi-implicit Time-stepping Algorithm in MH4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Srinath; Shumlak, Uri; Marklin, George; Meier, Eric; Lionello, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI Center) at the University of Washington is developing MHD codes to accurately model Emerging Concept (EC) devices. Examination of the semi-implicit time stepping algorithm implemented in the tetrahedral mesh MHD simulation code, MH4D, is presented. The time steps for standard explicit methods, which are constrained by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, are typically small for simulations of EC experiments due to the large Alfven speed. The CFL constraint is more severe with a tetrahedral mesh because of the irregular cell geometry. The semi-implicit algorithm [1] removes the fast waves constraint, thus allowing for larger time steps. We will present the implementation method of this algorithm, and numerical results for test problems in simple geometry. Also, we will present the effectiveness in simulations of complex geometry, similar to the ZaP [2] experiment at the University of Washington. References: [1]Douglas S. Harned and D. D. Schnack, Semi-implicit method for long time scale magnetohy drodynamic computations in three dimensions, JCP, Volume 65, Issue 1, July 1986, Pages 57-70. [2]U. Shumlak, B. A. Nelson, R. P. Golingo, S. L. Jackson, E. A. Crawford, and D. J. Den Hartog, Sheared flow stabilization experiments in the ZaP flow Zpinch, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1683 (2003).

  10. Denosumab treatment in the management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: clinical evidence and experience

    PubMed Central

    Hegemann, Miriam; Bedke, Jens; Stenzl, Arnulf; Todenhöfer, Tilman

    2017-01-01

    Osteoprotective therapies have become an essential component in the management of advanced prostate cancer (PC) patients as bone metastases (BMs) have a major impact on morbidity and mortality. Denosumab is a fully humanized antibody targeting the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), which has been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in Europe and the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US for prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with solid tumors and BMs, including PC. The clinical settings in which PC patients should be treated with denosumab are still discussed controversially. In a phase III study, denosumab significantly delayed SREs compared with zoledronic acid (ZA) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant PC (CRPC). In addition, denosumab showed superior effects on pain and health-related quality of life (QoL) in these patients. In patients with nonmetastatic CRPC, denosumab has been proven to significantly increase bone metastases-free survival. However, no significant benefits on cancer-specific and overall survival were observed and denosumab was not approved by the US FDA and EMA in this context. The effectiveness of denosumab in patients with castration-sensitive PC (CSPC) and BMs is also under discussion, as clinical trials with ZA in these patients have not shown significant benefits. Clinical data on the use of denosumab in CSPC are urgently needed. PMID:28392837

  11. Can we consider zoledronic acid a new antitumor agent? Recent evidence in clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Santini, Daniele; Virzi, Vladimir; Fratto, Maria Elisabetta; Bertoldo, Francesco; Sabbatini, Roberto; Berardi, Rossana; Calipari, Nicola; Ottaviani, Davide; Ibrahim, Toni

    2010-02-01

    New emerging data suggest that bisphosphonates may exert antitumor properties. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that zoledronic acid (ZA) can induce direct and indirect antitumor activities such as inhibition of angiogenesis, invasion and adhesion of tumor cells, and overall tumor progression, stimulation of adoptive and innate immunity and emerging evidence suggests that the use of these agents may prevent the development of skeletal and extra skeletal metastases. This review will critically describe the new growing evidence of antitumor activity exerted by bisphosphonates in cancer patients, both in metastatic disease and in the adjuvant setting. The effects of bisphosphonates on survival in metastatic cancer patients will be described and evidence from retrospective analyses and prospective studies will be critically reported. The early evidence from prospective analyses of survival impact by ZA in the adjuvant setting in breast cancer will be discussed together with the recently published results of the ABCSG-12 study. A new "era" for bisphosphonates in the oncological setting is opening. The clinical data that will be reported in this review represent the first step in a path that will conduct us to explore new horizons in the field of adjuvant and metastatic cancer therapies.

  12. Status of Major Acquisitions as of September 30, 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-07

    I 6 . I 1 Za 6 C. so I I l 0 6 0o6o c I Ii w LI U. Z 0 ZO ci cc * ) LI: 04* - I -j I ( I I𔄀 d 1o I- CI.) Ii I z 0 0 II. I (r J, .1 . of. 1-lO I o...OROVILLE-TONASKET UNIT 4/85 4/87 2.0 557 THIRD POWER PLANT 9/82 9/85 3.0 560 MCGEE CREEK PROJECT, OK 7/85 7/85 0.0 561 DOLORES PARTICIP PROJ,CO 9/86 9/90...0 0 (00)0 za 103 O a m N I 0 I 0ON .I is.03 103 1. IIOI I * I .j. ILH 8 NN -4 9M 0 00OO *1 N V 1V 1ra N0 . 10 0-ONOM, - 41ll 41 W4 S -00 NmCl -(0 0

  13. Quasi-steady accelerator operation on the ZAP flow Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M. C. Shumlak, U. Golingo, R. P. Nelson, B. A. Ross, M. P.

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment utilizes sheared flows to stabilize an otherwise unstable equilibrium. The sheared flows are maintained by streaming high velocity plasma parallel to the pinch. Previous operations of the machine show depletion of the accelerator’s neutral gas supply late in the pulse leading to pinch instability. The current distribution in the accelerator exhibits characteristic modes during this operation, which is corroborated by interferometric signals. The decrease in density precipitates a loss of plasma quiescence in the pinch, which occurs on a timescale related to the flow velocity from the plasma source. To abate the depletion, the geometry of the accelerator is altered to increase the neutral gas supply. The design creates a standing deflagration front in the accelerator that persists for the pulse duration. The new operating mode is characterized by the same diagnostics as the previous mode. The lessons learned in the accelerator operations have been applied to the design of a new experiment, ZaP-HD. This work was supported by grants from the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  14. Synchronous neural interactions assessed by magnetoencephalography: a functional biomarker for brain disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Leuthold, Arthur C.; Lewis, Scott M.; Lynch, Joshua K.; Alonso, Aurelio A.; Aslam, Zaheer; Carpenter, Adam F.; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Hemmy, Laura S.; Koutlas, Ioannis G.; Langheim, Frederick J. P.; Riley McCarten, J.; McPherson, Susan E.; Pardo, José V.; Pardo, Patricia J.; Parry, Gareth J.; Rottunda, Susan J.; Segal, Barbara M.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Stanwyck, John J.; Stephane, Massoud; Westermeyer, Joseph J.

    2007-12-01

    We report on a test to assess the dynamic brain function at high temporal resolution using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The essence of the test is the measurement of the dynamic synchronous neural interactions, an essential aspect of the brain function. MEG signals were recorded from 248 axial gradiometers while 142 human subjects fixated a spot of light for 45-60 s. After fitting an autoregressive integrative moving average (ARIMA) model and taking the stationary residuals, all pairwise, zero-lag, partial cross-correlations (PCCij0) and their z-transforms (zij0) between i and j sensors were calculated, providing estimates of the strength and sign (positive, negative) of direct synchronous coupling at 1 ms temporal resolution. We found that subsets of zij0 successfully classified individual subjects to their respective groups (multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Sjögren's syndrome, chronic alcoholism, facial pain, healthy controls) and gave excellent external cross-validation results. Contribution by the authors: Designed research (APG); acquired data (AAA, IGK, FJPL, ACL, SML, JJS); analyzed data (APG, EK, ACL, JKL); wrote the paper (APG, EK, ACL, SML); contributed subjects (AAA, ZA, AFC, AG, LSH, IGK, FJPL, SML, JRM, SEM, JVP, PJP, GJP, SJR, BMS, SRS, MS, JJS, JJW); discussed results (All); contributed equally (ZA, AFC, AG, LSH, FJPL, JRM, SEM, JVP, PJP, GJP, SJR, BMS, SRS, MS, JJS, JJW).

  15. A CT-scan database for the facial soft tissue thickness of Taiwan adults.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Hsu, Wan-Yi; Huang, Guo-Shu; Shaw, Kai-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Facial reconstruction is a branch of forensic anthropology used to assist in the identification of skeletal remains. The majority of facial reconstruction techniques use facial soft tissue depth chart data to recreate facial tissue on a skull or a model of a skull through the use of modeling clay. This study relied on 193 subjects selected from the Taiwanese population on the basis of age and gender to determine the average values of 32 landmarks, include midline and bilateral measures, by means of CT scans. The mean age of the subjects was 46.9±16.4 years, with a mean age of 43.8±16.6 for males and 49.9±15.8 for females respectively. There were 16 landmarks with statistically significant differences between male and female subjects, namely S, G, N, Na, Ph, Sd and Id in the midline portion, FE, LO, ZA and Sub M2 in the bilateral-right and left portion, and IM point in the bilateral-left portion (abbreviations adapted from Karen T. Taylor's work). The mean soft tissue depth was greater in males than in females, and there was significant difference between the right and left sides of the face in Za point. This study's findings were compared with those of Bulut et al.

  16. Interface thermal conductance of van der Waals monolayers on amorphous substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Gabriela C.; Foss, Cameron J.; Aksamija, Zlatan

    2017-03-01

    Heterostructures based on atomic monolayers are emerging as leading materials for future energy efficient and multifunctional electronics. Due to the single atom thickness of monolayers, their properties are strongly affected by interactions with the external environment. We develop a model for interface thermal conductance (ITC) in an atomic monolayer van der Waals bonded to a disordered substrate. Graphene on SiO2 is initially used in our model and contrasted against available experimental data; the model is then applied to monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) on SiO2 substrate. Our findings show the dominant carrier of heat in both graphene and MoS2 in the cross-plane direction is the flexural (ZA) phonon mode, owing to the large overlap between graphene ZA and substrate vibrational density of states. The rate of phonon transfer across the interface depends quadratically on the substrate coupling constant K a , but this interaction also causes a lifting of the lowest flexural phonon modes. As a result, ITC depends roughly linearly on the strength of the coupling between a monolayer and its substrate. We conclude that, in both graphene and MoS2 on SiO2, substrate adhesion plays a strong role in determining ITC, requiring further study of substrate coupling in TMDCs.

  17. Enhanced ultraviolet photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by modified polymer-network gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. H.; Xu, M.; Xu, L. X.; Zhang, C. L.; Zhang, Q. P.; Xu, X. N.; Xu, S.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-09-01

    Ag/ZnO nanoparticle (NP) heterostructures are synthesized through a modified polymer-network gel method in which glucose is added to the precursor solution to prevent the gel from drastically shrinking during drying of the aqueous solution. Structural and optical properties of the samples are characterized by a range of techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, UV-Vis, and PL. The high-quality Ag-ZnO heterostructure is evidenced clearly by high-resolution TEM. The Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocomposites exhibit a higher photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange than pure ZnO. Especially, Ag/ZnO NP heterostructures with the Ag/Zn molar ratio of 5:95 (sample ZA-5) show the highest degradation efficiency, which is 11 times higher compared with pure ZnO. The photoluminescence properties of the heterostructures and O defect states are studied to well explain the observed photocatalytic effects. ZA-5 also exhibits competitive photocatalytic activity for the degradation of other pollutant dyes such as Methylene blue and Rhodamine B compared with the recently reported techniques, while showing excellent catalyst photostability as well as offering simplicity and reliability.

  18. Final Report Auto/Steel Partnership Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, C.M.; Chen, S.R.; Gray, G.T. III

    1999-06-09

    This is the final report in which effects of strain-rate, temperature, and stress-state on the yield stress and the strain hardening behavior of many common steels used in automobile construction were investigated. The yield and flow stresses were found to exhibit very high rate sensitivities for most of the steels while the hardening rates were found to be insensitive to strain rate and temperature at lower temperatures or at higher strain rates. This behavior is consistent with the observation that overcoming the intrinsic Peierls stress is shown to be the rate-controlling mechanism in these materials at low temperatures. The dependence of the yield stress on temperature and strain rate was found to decrease while the strain hardening rate increased. The Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model was adopted to model the stress-strain behavior of the steels. Parameters for the constitutive relations were derived for the MTS model and also for the Johnson-Cook (JC) and the Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) models. The results of this study substantiate the applicability of these models for describing the high strain-rate deformation of these materials. The JC and ZA models, however, due to their use of a power strain hardening law were found to yield constitutive relations for the materials which are strongly dependent on the range of strains for which the models were optimized.

  19. Reflectance-Based Sensor Validation Over Ice Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaross, Glen; Dodge, James C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    During this period work was performed in the following areas. These areas are defined in the Work Schedule presented in the original proposal: BRDF development, Data acquisition and processing, THR Table generation and Presentations and Publications. BRDF development involves creating and/or modifying a reflectance model of the Antarctic surface. This model must, for a temporal and spatial average, be representative of the East Antarctic plateau and be expressed in terms of the three standard surface angles: solar zenith angle (SolZA), view zenith angle (SatZA), and relative azimuth angle (RelAZ). We successfully acquired a limited amount of NOAA-9 AVHRR data for radiance validation. The data were obtained from the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics at Goddard Space Flight Center. We developed our own reading and unpacking software, which we used to select Channel 1 data (visible). We then applied geographic subsetting criteria (same as used for TOMS), and wrote only the relevant data to packed binary files. We proceeded with analysis of these data, which is not yet complete.

  20. Deconvolution of Stark broadened spectra for multi-point density measurements in a flow Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Vogman, G. V.; Shumlak, U.

    2011-10-13

    Stark broadened emission spectra, once separated from other broadening effects, provide a convenient non-perturbing means of making plasma density measurements. A deconvolution technique has been developed to measure plasma densities in the ZaP flow Z-pinch experiment. The ZaP experiment uses sheared flow to mitigate MHD instabilities. The pinches exhibit Stark broadened emission spectra, which are captured at 20 locations using a multi-chord spectroscopic system. Spectra that are time- and chord-integrated are well approximated by a Voigt function. The proposed method simultaneously resolves plasma electron density and ion temperature by deconvolving the spectral Voigt profile into constituent functions: a Gaussian function associated with instrument effects and Doppler broadening by temperature; and a Lorentzian function associated with Stark broadening by electron density. The method uses analytic Fourier transforms of the constituent functions to fit the Voigt profile in the Fourier domain. The method is discussed and compared to a basic least-squares fit. The Fourier transform fitting routine requires fewer fitting parameters and shows promise in being less susceptible to instrumental noise and to contamination from neighboring spectral lines. The method is evaluated and tested using simulated lines and is applied to experimental data for the 229.69 nm C III line from multiple chords to determine plasma density and temperature across the diameter of the pinch. As a result, these measurements are used to gain a better understanding of Z-pinch equilibria.

  1. Jaw osteonecrosis management around a dental implant inserted 2 years before starting treatment with zoledronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Fernández, Ana-Belén; García Medina, Blas; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Jiménez-Burkhardt, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP) are a type of drug known to inhibit bone resorption through complex interventions. Their primary mechanism of action is aimed at the cellular level, inhibiting osteoclast activity and so bone resorption. BPs are widely used, with many patients receiving continuous treatment for years. But it is well known that these drugs can produce osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). Zoledronic acid (ZA) is an intravenous BP used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bone disease in patients with malignant tumors with bone implication. ZA is the most potent BP in clinical development. This report describes the case of a 62-year-old woman with breast cancer antecedents which relapsed, who had received a maxillary dental implant two years before the start of therapy with zoledronic acid. She later developed osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), which began in the peri-implant area, and was treated for stage 3 ONJ by sub-total maxillectomy. Key words:Bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid, osteonecrosis of the jaw, peri-implantitis, maxillectomy. PMID:26330946

  2. On the Characteristic Polynomial of a Random Unitary Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, C. P.; Keating, J. P.; O'Connell, Neil

    We present a range of fluctuation and large deviations results for the logarithm of the characteristic polynomial Z of a random N×N unitary matrix, as N-->∞. First we show that , evaluated at a finite set of distinct points, is asymptotically a collection of i.i.d. complex normal random variables. This leads to a refinement of a recent central limit theorem due to Keating and Snaith, and also explains the covariance structure of the eigenvalue counting function. Next we obtain a central limit theorem for ln Z in a Sobolev space of generalised functions on the unit circle. In this limiting regime, lower-order terms which reflect the global covariance structure are no longer negligible and feature in the covariance structure of the limiting Gaussian measure. Large deviations results for ln Z/A, evaluated at a finite set of distinct points, can be obtained for . For higher-order scalings we obtain large deviations results for ln Z/A evaluated at a single point. There is a phase transition at A= ln N (which only applies to negative deviations of the real part) reflecting a switch from global to local conspiracy.

  3. Susceptibility of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Vip3A insecticidal protein expressed in VipCot™ cotton.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G

    2011-10-01

    Susceptibility of laboratory and field colonies of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens F. to Vip3A insecticidal protein was studied in diet incorporation and diet overlay assays from 2004 to 2008. Responses of field populations were compared to paired responses of University of Arkansas laboratory susceptible H. zea (LabZA) and H. virescens (LabVR) colonies. After 7d of exposure, observations were made on number of dead larvae (M) and the number of larvae alive but remaining as first instars (L1). Regression estimates using M (LC(50)) and M plus L1 (MIC(50)) data were developed for laboratory and field populations. Susceptibility of laboratory and field populations exposed to Vip3A varied among different batches of protein used over the study period. Within the same batch of Vip3A protein, susceptibilities of laboratory colonies of both species (LabZA and LabVR) were similar. Field colonies were significantly more susceptible to Vip3A than the respective reference colonies of both species. Within field populations, susceptibility to Vip3A varied up to 75-fold in H. zea and 132-fold in H. virescens in LC(50) estimates. Variabilities in MIC(50)s were up to 59- and 11-fold for H. zea and H. virescens, respectively.

  4. Expanding universe: thermodynamical aspects from different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sridip; Biswas, Ritabrata

    2012-11-01

    The pivotal point of the paper is to discuss the behavior of temperature, pressure, energy density as a function of volume along with determination of caloric EoS from following two model: w( z)= w 0+ w 1ln(1+ z) & w(z)=-1+(1+z)/3A1+2A2(1+z)/A_{0+2A1(1+z)+A2(1+z)2 }. The time scale of instability for this two models is discussed. In the paper we then generalize our result and arrive at general expression for energy density irrespective of the model. The thermodynamical stability for both of the model and the general case is discussed from this viewpoint. We also arrive at a condition on the limiting behavior of thermodynamic parameter to validate the third law of thermodynamics and interpret the general mathematical expression of integration constant U 0 (what we get while integrating energy conservation equation) physically relating it to number of micro states. The constraint on the allowed values of the parameters of the models is discussed which ascertains stability of universe. The validity of thermodynamical laws within apparent and event horizon is discussed.

  5. Isolated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are complex bacterial organelles catalyzing formation of PHB from acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) and degradation of PHB to acetyl-CoA.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Keiichi; Saito, Terumi; Gebauer, Birgit; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2007-11-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules isolated in native form (nPHB granules) from Ralstonia eutropha catalyzed formation of PHB from (14)C-labeled acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) in the presence of NADPH and concomitantly released CoA, revealing that PHB biosynthetic proteins (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, and PHB synthase) are present and active in isolated nPHB granules in vitro. nPHB granules also catalyzed thiolytic cleavage of PHB in the presence of added CoA, resulting in synthesis of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HB-CoA) from PHB. Synthesis of 3HB-CoA was also shown by incubation of artificial (protein-free) PHB with CoA and PhaZa1, confirming that PhaZa1 is a PHB depolymerase catalyzing the thiolysis reaction. Acetyl-CoA was the major product detectable after incubation of nPHB granules in the presence of NAD(+), indicating that downstream mobilizing enzyme activities were also present and active in isolated nPHB granules. We propose that intracellular concentrations of key metabolites (CoA, acetyl-CoA, 3HB-CoA, NAD(+)/NADH) determine whether a cell accumulates or degrades PHB. Since the degradation product of PHB is 3HB-CoA, the cells do not waste energy by synthesis and degradation of PHB. Thus, our results explain the frequent finding of simultaneous synthesis and breakdown of PHB.

  6. Interface thermal conductance of van der Waals monolayers on amorphous substrates.

    PubMed

    Correa, Gabriela C; Foss, Cameron J; Aksamija, Zlatan

    2017-03-01

    Heterostructures based on atomic monolayers are emerging as leading materials for future energy efficient and multifunctional electronics. Due to the single atom thickness of monolayers, their properties are strongly affected by interactions with the external environment. We develop a model for interface thermal conductance (ITC) in an atomic monolayer van der Waals bonded to a disordered substrate. Graphene on SiO2 is initially used in our model and contrasted against available experimental data; the model is then applied to monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) on SiO2 substrate. Our findings show the dominant carrier of heat in both graphene and MoS2 in the cross-plane direction is the flexural (ZA) phonon mode, owing to the large overlap between graphene ZA and substrate vibrational density of states. The rate of phonon transfer across the interface depends quadratically on the substrate coupling constant K a , but this interaction also causes a lifting of the lowest flexural phonon modes. As a result, ITC depends roughly linearly on the strength of the coupling between a monolayer and its substrate. We conclude that, in both graphene and MoS2 on SiO2, substrate adhesion plays a strong role in determining ITC, requiring further study of substrate coupling in TMDCs.

  7. Design of the Fusion Z-Pinch Experiment - FuZE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlak, U.; McLean, H. S.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Schmidt, A.; Claveau, E. L.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the successful results of the sheared flow stabilized (SFS) Z-pinch from ZaP and ZaP-HD, a new experiment FuZE is designed to scale the plasma performance to fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is immune to the instabilities that plague the conventional Z-pinch yet maintains the same favorable radial scaling. The plasma density and temperature increase rapidly with decreasing plasma radius, which naturally leads to a compact configuration at fusion conditions. The SFS Z-pinch is being investigated as a novel approach to a compact fusion device in a new collaborative ARPA-E ALPHA project with the University of Washington and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The project includes an experimental effort coupled with high-fidelity physics modeling using kinetic and fluid simulations. Along with scaling law analysis, computational and experimental results that have informed the design and development of the FuZE apparatus are presented. This work is supported by an award from US ARPA-E.

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Structure–Activity Relationship, Molecular Modeling, and NMR Studies of a Series of Phenyl Alkyl Ketones as Highly Potent and Selective Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shilong; Kaur, Gurpreet; Wang, Huanchen; Li, Minyong; Macnaughtan, Megan; Yang, Xiaochuan; Reid, Suazette; Prestegard, James; Wang, Binghe; Ke, Hengming

    2010-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and is a target for the development of anti-inflammatory agents. We have designed and synthesized a series of phenyl alkyl ketones as PDE4 inhibitors. Among them, 13 compounds were identified as having submicromolar IC50 values. The most potent compounds have IC50 values of in the mid- to low-nanomolar range. Compound 5v also showed preference for PDE4 with selectivity of >2000-fold over PDE7, PDE9, PDE2, and PDE5. Docking of 5v, 5zf, and 5za into the binding pocket of the PDE4 catalytic domain revealed a similar binding profile to PDE4 with rolipram except that the fluorine atoms of the difluoromethyl groups of 5v, 5za, and 5zf are within a reasonable range for hydrogen bond formation with the amide hydrogen of Thr 333 and the long alkyl chain bears additional van der Waals interactions with His 160, Asp 318, and Tyr 159. PMID:19049349

  9. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  10. Karst and Caves in Post orogenetic carbonate breccias in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.

    2009-04-01

    čke caves (more than 4,5 km length 2779 + 1295+445m), Kita Gacesina (length 10603 m, depth -465 m), Munizaba (length 5993 m, depth -437 m). In this area many big underground chambers were found (in Sveti Rok tunnel Cavern 168 x 60 x 50 m, in Burinka 160 x 90m, in Velebit tunnel 150 x 120 x 100 m, Veliko grotlo 100x 100 m, Munižaba 160 x 55m, etc) The development of large caves was analysed in respect to the geology, hydrogeological relations, karstification processes and paleoclimatic conditions. Neotectonic movements with summary amplitudes of about 1600 m, the Bakovac fault and its interruption of the Velebit complex barrier extension, as well as the concentrated recharge during interglacial stages of Pleistocene are recognised as the main factors contributing the speleogenesis. The largest underground chambers in Croatian karst are situated precisely in Jelar beds in Southern Velebit region. These are chambers larger than 100 meters in diameter. Even deepest speleological features of this area partly or entirely break through Jelar beds, which indicates later intensive karstification (depths more than 450 meters). Karst in Jelar and Promina beds is very developed. Better meltability of breccias have enabled genesis of many karst phenomena. More recent speleological and hydrogeological research carried out as part of building the highway Zagreb-Split have shown great karstification intensity and large number of speleological phenomena (caves and pits), which were not known during research on the surface, but were discovered for example by breaking a tunnels (Grič, Plasina, Sveti Rok, etc.) or building a bridge across Gacka, etc. Number of speleological features per km2 in Jelar beds comes right after areas with Liassic Jurassic limestones, and in some places Senonian Cretaceous limestones.

  11. Sequence-Independent, Single-Primer Amplification Next-Generation Sequencing of Hantaan Virus Cell Culture-Based Isolates.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong Hyun; Kim, Won-Keun; Gu, Se Hun; Lee, Daesang; Kim, Jeong-Ah; No, Jin Sun; Lee, Seung-Ho; Wiley, Michael R; Palacios, Gustavo; Song, Jin-Won; Jeong, Seong Tae

    2017-02-08

    Hantaan virus (HTNV), identified in the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), belongs to the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae and contains tripartite RNA genomes, small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments. HTNV is a major causative for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with fatality rates ranging from 1% to 15% in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. Defining of HTNV whole-genome sequences and isolation of the infectious particle play a critical role in the characterization and preventive and therapeutic strategies of hantavirus outbreaks. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an advanced tool for massive genomic sequencing of viruses. However, the isolation of viral infectious particles is a huge obstacle to investigate and develop anti-virals for hantaviruses. Here, we report 12 HTNV isolates from lung tissues of the striped field mouse in the highly HFRS-endemic areas. Sequence-independent, single-primer amplification (SISPA) NGS was attempted to recover the genomic sequences of HTNV isolates. The nucleotide sequence of HTNV S, M, and L segments were covered up to 99.4-100%, 97.5-100%, and 95.6-99.8%, respectively, based on the full length of the prototype HTNV 76-118. The whole-genome sequencing of HTNV isolates was accomplished by additional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. In conclusion, this study will lead to the attempt and usage of SISPA NGS technologies to delineate the whole-genome sequence of hantaviruses, providing a new era of viral genomics for the surveillance, trace, and disease risk management of HFRS incidents.

  12. Molecular detection of Anaplasma, Bartonella, and Borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds from Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Choi, Chang-Yong; Nam, Hyun-Young; Chae, Hee-Young; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-04-01

    Bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast Asian and northeast Palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from April to May and September to November at Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 212 ticks (40 Haemaphysalis flava, 12 H. longicornis, 146 Ixodes turdus, 13 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that were captured from January, 2008, through December, 2009, as part of the Migratory Birds Center, Hong-do bird banding program for studying bird migration patterns. Adult ticks were assayed individually while larvae and nymphs were pooled (1-22 and 1-6 ticks per pool, respectively) into 31 and 65 pools, respectively. Ticks were assayed for zoonotic pathogens by PCR using 16S rRNA, heat shock protein (groEL), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers to amplify genera specific for Anapalsma, Bartonella, and Borrelia PCR amplicons. Using the 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum (n=1) was detected in I. nipponensis collected from Zoothera sibirica and A. bovis (n=1) was detected in I. turdus collected from Emberiza chrysophrys. Borrelia turdi 16S rRNA genes (n=3) were detected in I. turdus and I. nipponensis collected from Turdus pallidus and Zoothera aurea. Borrelia spp. 16S rRNA genes (n=4) were detected in Ixodes ticks collected from Emberiza tristrami, T. pallidus, and Z. aurea. The Bartonella grahamii ITS gene (n=1) was detected by nested PCR assay in I. turdus collected from Z. aurea. These results provide insight into the potential role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens throughout their ranges in Asia.

  13. Kinetics of the thermal degradation of rice husks in nitrogen atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Mansaray, K.G.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of agricultural residues for power production has generated increasing interest in the conversion of rice husks to higher quality fuels by thermochemical conversion processes such as pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. However, the reliable design and operation of thermochemical conversion systems requires considerable knowledge of rice husk thermal degradation characteristics of kinetics. The thrust of this paper therefore was to study the reaction kinetics of four varieties of rice husk at a heating rate of 20 C min{sup {minus}1} in an inert atmosphere of pure nitrogen (99.5% nitrogen, 0.5% oxygen) using thermogravimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric techniques. The thermal degradation characteristics and the kinetic parameters (activation energy, preexponential factor, and order of reaction) were determined for the two prominent reaction zones from the thermogravimetric curves. Thermal degradation rates in the first reaction zone were relatively higher than those in the second reaction zone. The initial degradation temperatures were 220, 232, 223, and 240 C for the rice husk varieties Lemont LG, ROK 14, CP 4, and Pa Potho, respectively. Residual weights recorded at 700 C were in the range of 33.9--38.7%. Higher activation energies (29.0--35.4 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors (4.7 {times} 10{sup 3} to 6.4 {times} 10{sup 4} min{sup {minus}1}) were obtained for all rice husk varieties in the first reaction zone as compared to those of the second reaction zone (15.1---17.7 kJ/mol and 1.0 {times} 10{sup 2} to 5.1 {times} 10{sup 2} min{sup {minus}1} for the activation energy and preexponential factor, respectively). The order of reactions was in the range of 0.90--1.08 for the first reaction zone and 0.30--0.36 for the second reaction zone.

  14. Phosphorylation of Staphylococcus aureus Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Affects the Function of Glucokinase and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Dudipeta; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Swarupa, Vimjam; Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Srikanth, Lokanathan; Sunitha, Manne Mudhu; Choudhary, Abhijith; Krishna Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha

    2017-01-01

    Background: When Staphylococcus aureus is grown in the presence of high concentration of external glucose, this sugar is phosphorylated by glucokinase (glkA) to form glucose-6-phosphate. This product subsequently enters into anabolic phase, which favors biofilm formation. The presence of ROK (repressor protein, open reading frame, sugar kinase) motif, phosphate-1 and -2 sites, and tyrosine kinase sites in glkA of S. aureus indicates that phosphorylation must regulate the glkA activity. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of phosphorylation on the function of S. aureus glkA and biofilm formation. Methods: Pure glkA and protein-tyrosine kinase (BYK) of S. aureus ATCC 12600 were obtained by fractionating the cytosolic fractions of glkA1 and BYK-1 expressing recombinant clones through nickel metal chelate column. The pure glkA was used as a substrate for BYK, and the phosphorylation of glkA was confirmed by treating with reagent A and resolving in SDS-PAGE, as well as staining with reagent A. The kinetic parameters of glkA and phosphorylated glkA were determined spectrophotometrically, and in silico tools were used for validation. S. aureus was grown in brain heart infusion broth, which was supplemented with glucose, and then biofilm units were calculated. Results: Fourfold elevated glkA activity was observed upon the phosphorylation by BYK. Protein-protein docking analysis revealed that glkA structure docked close to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of BYK structure corroborating the kinetic results. Further, S. aureus grown in the presence of elevated glucose concentration exhibited an increase in the rate of biofilm formation. Conclusion: The elevated function of glkA is an essential requirement for increased biofilm units in S. aureus, a key pathogenic factor that helps its survival and the progress of infection. PMID:27695030

  15. Transcriptional Regulation of Carbohydrate Utilization Pathways in the Bifidobacterium Genus.

    PubMed

    Khoroshkin, Matvei S; Leyn, Semen A; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Rodionov, Dmitry A

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria, which represent common commensals of mammalian gut, are believed to have positive effects on human health. The influence of certain non-digestible carbohydrates (and their use as so-called prebiotics) on growth and metabolic activity of bifidobacteria is of increasing interest; however, mechanisms of transcriptional control of carbohydrate metabolism are poorly understood in these species. We used a comparative genomics approach to reconstruct carbohydrate utilization pathways and transcriptional regulons in 10 Bifidobacterium genomes. Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from the LacI, ROK, DeoR, AraC, GntR, and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and control specific catabolic pathways for host- and diet-derived glycans and monosaccharides. Mosaic distributions of many of these local regulators across Bifidobacterium species correlate with distribution of corresponding catabolic pathways. In contrast, the maltose, galactose, sucrose, and fructose regulons, as well as a novel global LacI-family regulator that is predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism and arabinose catabolism genes, are universally present in all 10 studied bifidobacteria. A novel group of TetR-family regulators presumably controls the glucoside and galactoside utilization pathways. Paralogs of the ribose repressor RbsR control the pyrimidine nucleoside utilization genes. Multiple paralogs of the maltose regulator MalR co-regulate large sets of genes involved in maltodextrin utilization. The inferred metabolic regulons provide new insights on diverse carbohydrate utilization networks in bifidobacteria that can be employed in metabolic modeling, phenotype prediction and the rational development of novel prebiotics.

  16. Cold plasma treatment in wound care: efficacy and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, Eva

    2007-10-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma is an ideal medium for non-destructive modification of vulnerable surfaces. One of the most promising medical applications of cold plasma treatment is wound healing. Potential advantages in wound healing have been demonstrated in vitro: the plasma does not necrotize the cells and does not affect the extracellular matrix [1], has clear bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects [2], and stimulates fibroblast cells towards faster attachment and proliferation [3]. However, safety issues, such as the potential cytotoxicity of the plasma must be clarified prior to clinical implementation. This work comprises the recent facts on sub-lethal plasma effects on mammalian cells, as well as studies on apoptosis induction and quantitative assessment of DNA damage. Fibroblast, smooth muscle and endothelial cells were treated using the standard cold plasma needle [1,2]; intra- and extracellular oxidant levels as well as the influence of the plasma on intracellular antioxidant balance were monitored using appropriate fluorescent markers [1]. We have studied long-term cellular damage was monitored using flow cytometry to determine the DNA profiles in treated cells. Dose-response curves were obtained: increased proliferation as well as apoptosis were visualized under different treatment conditions. The results from the in vitro studies are satisfying. [1] I.E. Kieft, ``Plasma needle: exploring biomedical applications of non-thermal plasmas'', PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology (2005). [2] R.E.J. Sladek, ``Plasma needle: non-thermal atmospheric plasmas in dentistry'' PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology (2006). [3] I.E. Kieft, D. Darios, A.J.M. Roks, E. Stoffels, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34(4), 2006, pp. 1331-1336.

  17. Transcriptional Regulation of Carbohydrate Utilization Pathways in the Bifidobacterium Genus

    PubMed Central

    Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Leyn, Semen A.; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria, which represent common commensals of mammalian gut, are believed to have positive effects on human health. The influence of certain non-digestible carbohydrates (and their use as so-called prebiotics) on growth and metabolic activity of bifidobacteria is of increasing interest; however, mechanisms of transcriptional control of carbohydrate metabolism are poorly understood in these species. We used a comparative genomics approach to reconstruct carbohydrate utilization pathways and transcriptional regulons in 10 Bifidobacterium genomes. Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from the LacI, ROK, DeoR, AraC, GntR, and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and control specific catabolic pathways for host- and diet-derived glycans and monosaccharides. Mosaic distributions of many of these local regulators across Bifidobacterium species correlate with distribution of corresponding catabolic pathways. In contrast, the maltose, galactose, sucrose, and fructose regulons, as well as a novel global LacI-family regulator that is predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism and arabinose catabolism genes, are universally present in all 10 studied bifidobacteria. A novel group of TetR-family regulators presumably controls the glucoside and galactoside utilization pathways. Paralogs of the ribose repressor RbsR control the pyrimidine nucleoside utilization genes. Multiple paralogs of the maltose regulator MalR co-regulate large sets of genes involved in maltodextrin utilization. The inferred metabolic regulons provide new insights on diverse carbohydrate utilization networks in bifidobacteria that can be employed in metabolic modeling, phenotype prediction and the rational development of novel prebiotics. PMID:26903998

  18. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  19. Serosurveillance of scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and analysis of the relative abundance of chiggers from mammals examined.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In Yong; Chong, Sung Tae; Richards, Allen L; Gu, Se Hun; Song, Jin-Won; Lee, John S; Klein, Terry A

    2010-09-01

    Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites located near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), ROK was conducted to determine the potential rodent-borne and associated ectoparasite disease risks to military personnel. A total of 1,196 rodents and insectivores representing 8 species, Apodemus agrarius (87.3%, n = 1,044), Mus musculus (5.4%, n = 65), Crocidura lasiura (3.3%, n = 40), Microtus fortis (2.6%, n = 31), Micromys minutus (0.3%, n = 4), Tscherskia triton (0.3%, n = 4), Rattus norvegicus (0.3%, n = 4), and Myodes regulus (0.3%, n = 4) were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi. O. tsutsugamushi antibodies were detected in 6 of 8 species and seroprevalence determined; A. agrarius (45.6%), M. musculus (23.1%), M. fortis (48.4%), M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (50.0%), and R. norvegicus (25.0%). A total of 31,184 chigger mites collected from 508 rodents and insectivores were slide-mounted and 10 species belonging to 4 genera were identified. Leptotrombidium pallidum (53.4%) was the most frequently collected, followed by L. palpale (15.7%), Neotrombicula tamiyai (14.3%), L. orientale (10.7%), L. zetum (3.1%), Walchia fragilis (2.1%), and L. gemiticulum (0.8%), while the remaining 3 species, L. subintermedium, N. gardellai, and Euschoengastia koreaensis were rarely observed (prevalence < 10%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4), L. orientale (45.0), and L. palpale (21.4), were observed during the spring season.

  20. Damage of chromosoms under irradiation of human blood lymphocytes and development of bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Shemetun, O V

    2016-12-01

    Meta: doslidzhennia rozpodilu radiatsiy̆no indukovanykh poshkodzhen' sered khromosom i ïkh bendiv v oprominenykh in vitro limfotsytakh krovi liudyny ta v neoprominenykh klitynakh svidkakh.Material i metody doslidzhennia: kul'tyvuvannia limfotsytiv peryferychnoï krovi liudyny za napivmikrometodom D. A. Hungerford, modeliuvannia radiatsiy̆no indukovanogo efektu svidka v zmishanykh kul'turakh z oprominenykh in vitro ta neoprominenykh limfotsytiv krovi osib riznoï stati, GTG zabarvlennia metafaznykh khromosom ta ïkh tsytoge netychnyy̆ analiz.Rezul'taty. Identyfikovano tochky rozryviv khromosom pry formuvanni aberatsiy̆ v oprominenykh in vitro v dozakh 0,25 Gr (95 rozryviv v 1248 klitynakh) i 1,0 Gr (227 rozryviv v 726 klitynakh) limfotsytakh peryferychnoï krovi liu dyny ta v neoprominenykh klitynakh svidkakh pry ïkh sumisnomu kul'tyvuvanni z oprominenymy in vitro limfotsyta my liudyny (51 rozryv v 1137 klitynakh pry oprominenni sumizhnoï populiatsiï limfotsytiv v dozi 0,25 Gr ta 75 roz ryviv v 1321 klityni pry oprominenni sumizhnoï populiatsiï limfotsytiv v dozi 1 Gr). Doslidzheno rozpodil za reiestrovanykh poshkodzhen' sered khromosom ta ïkh bendiv.Vysnovky. V oprominenykh in vitro limfotsytakh peryferychnoï krovi liudyny ta klitynakh svidkakh chastota poshkod zhenykh bendiv ta kil'kist' rozryviv, iaki lokalizuvalys' v nykh, perevyshchuvala kontrol'nu (r < 0,01). Iak pry bez poseredn'omu poshkodzhenni ionizuiuchoiu radiatsiieiu, tak i pry formuvanni rozryviv vnaslidok induktsiï efektu svidka, khromosomy poshkodzhuvalys' vidpovidno do ïkh vidnosnoï dovzhyny. Roztashuvannia bendiv, v iakykh za reiestrovano bil'shu kil'kist' rozryviv, spivpadalo z «gariachymy tochkamy» poshkodzhuvanosti khromosom pry op rominenni ta fragil'nymy say̆tamy. Chutlyvishymy do poshkodzhennia buly G negatyvni eukhromatynovi smugy khro mosom, v iakykh lokalizuvalys' 82 88 % rozryviv. Poshkodzhuvanist' telomernykh ray̆oniv v oprominenykh klitynakh ne mala