Science.gov

Sample records for reputation social geographies

  1. The Inevitability of Infidelity: Sexual Reputation, Social Geographies, and Marital HIV Risk in Rural Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Meneses, Sergio; Thompson, Brenda; Negroni, Mirka; Pelcastre, Blanca; del Rio, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Marriage presents the single greatest risk for HIV infection among women in rural Mexico. We drew on 6 months of participant observation, 20 marital case studies, 37 key informant interviews, and archival research to explore the factors that shape HIV risk among married women in one of the country’s rural communities. We found that culturally constructed notions of reputation in this community lead to sexual behavior designed to minimize men’s social risk (threats to one’s social status or relationships), rather than viral risk and that men’s desire for companionate intimacy may actually increase women’s risk for HIV infection. We also describe the intertwining of reputation-based sexual identities with structurally patterned sexual geographies (i.e. the social spaces that shape sexual behavior). We propose that, because of the structural nature of men’s extramarital sexual behavior, intervention development should concentrate on sexual geographies and risky spaces rather than risky behaviors or identities. PMID:17463368

  2. Geography and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    This paper argues that geography teachers should commit themselves to social science programs. The paper concerns the role of geographers as social scientists through a consideration of the concepts classified by David Harvey (absolute, relative, relational). The argument concludes with a statement on the importance of the geographic approach for…

  3. Insensitivity to social reputation in autism.

    PubMed

    Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Kenji; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph

    2011-10-18

    People act more prosocially when they know they are watched by others, an everyday observation borne out by studies from behavioral economics, social psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. This effect is thought to be mediated by the incentive to improve one's social reputation, a specific and possibly uniquely human motivation that depends on our ability to represent what other people think of us. Here we tested the hypothesis that social reputation effects are selectively impaired in autism, a developmental disorder characterized in part by impairments in reciprocal social interactions but whose underlying cognitive causes remain elusive. When asked to make real charitable donations in the presence or absence of an observer, matched healthy controls donated significantly more in the observer's presence than absence, replicating prior work. By contrast, people with high-functioning autism were not influenced by the presence of an observer at all in this task. However, both groups performed significantly better on a continuous performance task in the presence of an observer, suggesting intact general social facilitation in autism. The results argue that people with autism lack the ability to take into consideration what others think of them and provide further support for specialized neural systems mediating the effects of social reputation. PMID:21987799

  4. Reputation, a universal currency for human social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Milinski, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Decision rules of reciprocity include ‘I help those who helped me’ (direct reciprocity) and ‘I help those who have helped others’ (indirect reciprocity), i.e. I help those who have a reputation to care for others. A person's reputation is a score that members of a social group update whenever they see the person interacting or hear at best multiple gossip about the person's social interactions. Reputation is the current standing the person has gained from previous investments or refusal of investments in helping others. Is he a good guy, can I trust him or should I better avoid him as a social partner? A good reputation pays off by attracting help from others, even from strangers or members from another group, if the recipient's reputation is known. Any costly investment in others, i.e. direct help, donations to charity, investment in averting climate change, etc. increases a person's reputation. I shall argue and illustrate with examples that a person's known reputation functions like money that can be used whenever the person needs help. Whenever possible I will present tests of predictions of evolutionary theory, i.e. fitness maximizing strategies, mostly by economic experiments with humans. PMID:26729939

  5. Information Geography: A Bridge between Engineering and the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the metaphor of engineering and the social sciences located on either side of a chasm and connected by the bridge of information geography. Information geography is not an integral part of engineering and is a new field within geography, a social science discipline. The specialty of information geography is one of the newest in…

  6. Reputation systems, aggression, and deterrence in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Benard, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Why do individuals sometimes pursue apparently senseless aggression, whether on the street, in court, at work, or in politics? Past work converges on the idea that individuals do so to establish social rank and deter prospective challengers. However, the fundamental claims of this argument - that concerns for one's reputation cause individuals to behave aggressively, and that a reputation for aggression deters threats from others - remain controversial. This paper offers a theoretical argument linking concern for reputation to aggressive behavior and deterrence. The theory argues that in competitive interactions, determining one's likelihood of prevailing in conflict ("competitive ability") is crucial for deciding whether to pursue conflict, but also rife with uncertainty. This motivates individuals to engage in aggressive behavior to signal to others (perhaps falsely) that they are strong competitors. Two behavioral experiments test this argument, and find that reputation systems motivate aggressive behavior, competitive ability moderates this effect, and reputations for aggressive behavior deter aggression from others. The results contribute to understanding the role reputation systems play in the social organization of aggressive behavior.

  7. The effects of reputational and social knowledge on cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Edoardo; Yan, Chang

    2015-03-24

    The emergence and sustenance of cooperative behavior is fundamental for a society to thrive. Recent experimental studies have shown that cooperation increases in dynamic networks in which subjects can choose their partners. However, these studies did not vary reputational knowledge, or what subjects know about other's past actions, which has long been recognized as an important factor in supporting cooperation. They also did not give subjects access to global social knowledge, or information on who is connected to whom in the group. As a result, it remained unknown how reputational and social knowledge foster cooperative behavior in dynamic networks both independently and by complementing each other. In an experimental setting, we show that global reputational knowledge is crucial to sustaining a high level of cooperation and welfare. Cooperation is associated with the emergence of dense and clustered networks with highly cooperative hubs. Global social knowledge has no effect on the aggregate level of cooperation. A community analysis shows that the addition of global social knowledge to global reputational knowledge affects the distribution of cooperative activity: cooperators form a separate community that achieves a higher cooperation level than the community of defectors. Members of the community of cooperators achieve a higher payoff from interactions within the community than members of the less cooperative community.

  8. Using Geography To Integrate Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dircks, Henry

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on geography in secondary education, offering reasons why geography is becoming more popular in schools. Provides four activities that integrate science and social studies through geography. Includes topics such as ecological disasters, monsoons, the ozone layer, and global warming. (CMK)

  9. Some Thoughts on Strengthening Geography in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Salvatore J.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the gradual transfer of geographic education from the science curriculum to social studies. Contends that basic concepts of geography are misunderstood and this is the primary area where geographic education needs strengthening. Suggests how geography can be integrated into the social studies curriculum. (GG)

  10. Differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between male and female givers of social reputation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Iori; Ito, Ayahito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown the profound influence of social reputation on human behavior and has implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in representing subjective values induced by social interaction. However, little is known regarding how the vmPFC encodes subjective pleasantness induced by social reputation received from others. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the vmPFC in males and females encodes the subjective pleasantness of social reputation received from the same gender and from the opposite gender. Behavioral data showed that positive reputation was perceived to be more pleasant than negative reputation. Intriguingly, both male and female subjects showed greater differences in the pleasantness scores between the positive reputation condition and the negative reputation condition from females than between positive and negative reputations from males. Imaging data revealed that the left vmPFC specifically contributed to the processing of positive reputation. The activity patterns of the vmPFC corresponded to the gender differences in behavior during the processing of social reputation. These results indicate that the vmPFC plays a role in representing the subjective value of positive social reputation and that this region might be a final computational site in a stream of value-based decision-making processes.

  11. Differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between male and female givers of social reputation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Iori; Ito, Ayahito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown the profound influence of social reputation on human behavior and has implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in representing subjective values induced by social interaction. However, little is known regarding how the vmPFC encodes subjective pleasantness induced by social reputation received from others. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the vmPFC in males and females encodes the subjective pleasantness of social reputation received from the same gender and from the opposite gender. Behavioral data showed that positive reputation was perceived to be more pleasant than negative reputation. Intriguingly, both male and female subjects showed greater differences in the pleasantness scores between the positive reputation condition and the negative reputation condition from females than between positive and negative reputations from males. Imaging data revealed that the left vmPFC specifically contributed to the processing of positive reputation. The activity patterns of the vmPFC corresponded to the gender differences in behavior during the processing of social reputation. These results indicate that the vmPFC plays a role in representing the subjective value of positive social reputation and that this region might be a final computational site in a stream of value-based decision-making processes. PMID:26235682

  12. Instructional Objectives Exchange. Social Studies (Geography). Grade K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Ninety-seven objectives reflecting major social science concepts in the discipline of geography at the kindergarten through ninth grade levels are included in this booklet, which is one of a series. Emphasis is upon requiring students to master behavioral aspects and concepts central to the field of geography. The material is organized into eleven…

  13. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  14. SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONSORTIUM. PUBLICATION 102, GEOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRECO, PETER

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES GEOGRAPHY AS A COMPLEMENT TO HISTORY AND VICE VERSA. TOGETHER THEY SERVE TO INTERRELATE ALL HUMAN KNOWLEDGE WHETHER PHYSICAL, BIOTIC, OR SOCIETAL. HISTORY ATTEMPTS TO ASSOCIATE DIVERSE PHENOMENA IN AND THROUGH TIME. GEOGRAPHY, AS A CHOROLOGICAL SCIENCE, ATTEMPTS TO ASSOCIATE DIVERSE SPATIAL AND AREAL PHENOMENA, AND STRIVES FOR…

  15. Aspects of Social Reputation and Peer Relationships in Italian Children: A Cross-Cultural Perspective."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casiglia, Amedeo C.; Lo Coco, Alida; Zappulla, Carla

    1998-01-01

    Administered Revised Class Play to Italian children to explore cross-cultural differences from North American studies on social reputation. Administered sociometric nominations to examine association between social reputation and peer acceptance-rejection. Found that original Leadership-Sociability factor was split into separate dimensions. Also…

  16. Diminished social motivation negatively impacts reputation management: autism spectrum disorders as a case in point.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Coralie; Molesworth, Catherine; Happé, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Human beings are endowed with a unique motivation to be included in social interactions. This natural social motivation, in turn, is thought to encourage behaviours such as flattery or self-deprecation aimed to ease interaction and to enhance the reputation of the individual who produces them. If this is the case, diminished social interest should affect reputation management. Here, we use Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)--primarily characterised by pervasive social disinterest--as a model to investigate the effect of social motivation on reputation management. Children first rated a set of pictures and were then given the opportunity to inflate their initial ratings in front of an experimenter who declared that she had drawn the picture. Contrary to the controls, children with ASD did not enhance their ratings in the drawer's presence. Moreover, participants' flattery behaviour correlated with self-reports of social enjoyment. Our findings point to a link between diminished social interest and reputation management. PMID:22303483

  17. Does the Perceived Neighborhood Reputation Contribute to Neighborhood Differences in Social Trust and Residential Wellbeing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kullberg, Agneta; Timpka, Toomas; Svensson, Tommy; Karlsson, Nadine; Lindqvist, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a mixed methods approach to examine if the reputation of a housing area has bearing on residential wellbeing and social trust in three pairs of socioeconomically contrasting neighborhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between area reputation and…

  18. SoRS: Social recommendation using global rating reputation and local rating similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Fulan; Zhao, Shu; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Yanping

    2016-11-01

    Recommendation is an important and also challenging problem in online social networks. It needs to consider not only users' personalized interests, but also social relations between users. Indeed, in practice, users are often inclined to accept recommendations from friends or opinion leaders (users with high reputations). In this paper, we present a novel recommendation framework, social recommendation using global rating reputation and local rating similarity, which combine user reputation and social similarity based on ratings. User reputation can be obtained by iteratively calculating the correlation of historical ratings of user and intrinsic qualities of items. We view the user reputation as the user's global influence and the similarity based on rating of social relation as the user's local influence, introduce it in the basic social recommender model. Thus users with high reputation have a strong influence on the others, and on the other hand, the effect of a user with low reputation has been weakened. The recommendation accuracy of proposed framework can be improved by effectively removing nature noise because of less rigorous user ratings and strengthening the effect of user influence with high reputation. We also improve the similarity based on ratings by avoiding the high similarity with the less common ratings between friends. We evaluate our approach on three datasets including Movielens, Epinions and Douban. Empirical results demonstrate that proposed framework achieves significant improvements on recommendation accuracy. User reputation and local similarity which are both based on ratings have a lot of helpful in improvement of prediction accuracy. The reputation also can help to improve the recommendation precision with the small training sets.

  19. Aberrant Reward Center Response to Partner Reputation During a Social Exchange Game in Generalized Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Chandra; Angstadt, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; McCabe, Kevin; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fear of public scrutiny and reticence in social engagement. Previous studies have probed the neural basis of GSAD often using static, non-interactive stimuli (e.g., face photographs) and have identified dysfunction in fear circuitry. We sought to investigate brain-based dysfunction in GSAD during more real-world, dynamic social interactions, focusing on the role of reward-related regions that are implicated in social decision-making. Methods Thirty-six healthy individuals (HC) and 36 individuals with GSAD underwent fMRI scanning while participating in a behavioral economic game (‘Trust Game’) involving iterative exchanges with fictive partners who acquire differential reputations for reciprocity. We investigated brain responses to reciprocation of trust in one’s social partner, and how these brain responses are modulated by partner reputation for repayment. Results In both HC and GSAD, receipt of reciprocity robustly engaged ventral striatum, a region implicated in reward. In HC, striatal responses to reciprocity were specific to partners who have consistently returned the investment (‘cooperative partners’), and were absent for partners who lack a cooperative reputation. In GSAD, modulation of striatal responses by partner reputation was absent. Social anxiety severity predicted diminished responses to cooperative partners. Conclusion These results suggest abnormalities in GSAD in reward-related striatal mechanisms that may be important for the initiation, valuation, and maintenance of cooperative social relationships. Moreover, this study demonstrates that dynamic, interactive task paradigms derived from economics can help illuminate novel mechanisms of pathology in psychiatric illnesses in which social dysfunction is a cardinal feature. PMID:23576237

  20. Geography as a Behavioral Study in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Randall C.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that geography can be made more relevant in today's social studies if it is presented as the study of the environmental impact of culture. This theme is illustrated by contrasting cultural influences which shaped the physically similar east and southeastern regions of China and the U.S. (JDH)

  1. South African Cities: A Social Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western, John

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the development of cities in South Africa, paying special attention to the development of urban social controls. Three eras are identified: (1) mercantilism, (2) imperialism, and (3) apartheid. Concludes that enormous human costs are entailed by these attempts at social engineering. (JDH)

  2. Geographies of an Online Social Network.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the "death of distance", physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  3. Geographies of an Online Social Network.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the "death of distance", physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected.

  4. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior. PMID:24009567

  5. Nucleus accumbens response to gains in reputation for the self relative to gains for others predicts social media use.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Morawetz, Carmen; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2013-01-01

    Our reputation is important to us; we've experienced natural selection to care about our reputation. Recently, the neural processing of gains in reputation (positive social feedback concerning one's character) has been shown to occur in the human ventral striatum. It is still unclear, however, how individual differences in the processing of gains in reputation may lead to individual differences in real-world behavior. For example, in the real-world, one way that people currently maintain their reputation is by using social media websites, like Facebook. Furthermore, Facebook use consists of a social comparison component, where users observe others' behavior and can compare it to their own. Therefore, we hypothesized a relationship between the way the brain processes specifically self-relevant gains in reputation and one's degree of Facebook use. We recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants received gains in reputation, observed the gains in reputation of another person, or received monetary reward. We demonstrate that across participants, when responding to gains in reputation for the self, relative to observing gains for others, reward-related activity in the left nucleus accumbens predicts Facebook use. However, nucleus accumbens activity in response to monetary reward did not predict Facebook use. Finally, a control step-wise regression analysis showed that Facebook use primarily explains our results in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results demonstrate how individual sensitivity of the nucleus accumbens to the receipt of self-relevant social information leads to differences in real-world behavior.

  6. Cultivating Reputations: The Social Goal of Western Australian Primary School Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Elijah; Houghton, Stephen; Tan, Carol; Carroll, Annemaree

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This research sought to determine the significance of reputation in the lives of bullies particularly in relation to the social purposes it serves and the goals that are met through its enhancement. Method: One hundred and thirty-two (62 males and 70 females) Western Australian Grades 5, 6 and 7 primary school children completed the…

  7. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social

  8. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social

  9. Reputation management.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a computer and access to social media can now easily and effortlessly comment on your practice and your services. Most comments about physicians are positive. However, a negative one may be posted by a disgruntled patient and can severely impact your practice with a mere mouse click. A physician's most valuable asset is his or her reputation. This article will discuss how to manage and protect your online reputation.

  10. Reputation management.

    PubMed

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a computer and access to social media can now easily and effortlessly comment on your practice and your services. Most comments about physicians are positive. However, a negative one may be posted by a disgruntled patient and can severely impact your practice with a mere mouse click. A physician's most valuable asset is his or her reputation. This article will discuss how to manage and protect your online reputation. PMID:25108985

  11. Improving social odometry robot networks with distributed reputation systems for collaborative purposes.

    PubMed

    Fraga, David; Gutiérrez, Alvaro; Vallejo, Juan Carlos; Campo, Alexandre; Bankovic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of odometry systems in collaborative robotics remains an important challenge for several applications. Social odometry is a social technique which confers the robots the possibility to learn from the others. This paper analyzes social odometry and proposes and follows a methodology to improve its behavior based on cooperative reputation systems. We also provide a reference implementation that allows us to compare the performance of the proposed solution in highly dynamic environments with the performance of standard social odometry techniques. Simulation results quantitatively show the benefits of this collaborative approach that allows us to achieve better performances than social odometry. PMID:22247671

  12. Improving social odometry robot networks with distributed reputation systems for collaborative purposes.

    PubMed

    Fraga, David; Gutiérrez, Alvaro; Vallejo, Juan Carlos; Campo, Alexandre; Bankovic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of odometry systems in collaborative robotics remains an important challenge for several applications. Social odometry is a social technique which confers the robots the possibility to learn from the others. This paper analyzes social odometry and proposes and follows a methodology to improve its behavior based on cooperative reputation systems. We also provide a reference implementation that allows us to compare the performance of the proposed solution in highly dynamic environments with the performance of standard social odometry techniques. Simulation results quantitatively show the benefits of this collaborative approach that allows us to achieve better performances than social odometry.

  13. A Resource File for Social Studies in Utah. Level 9: World Geography and General Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This resource file contains information for Utah secondary school teachers to help their level 9 students meet the state's instructional objectives in the social studies. This particular student level emphasizes world geography and general social studies. The following disciplines are covered in the resource file: psychology, anthropology,…

  14. Comparing writing style feature-based classification methods for estimating user reputations in social media.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the anonymous nature of the Internet has made it difficult to detect manipulated user reputations in social media, as well as to ensure the qualities of users and their posts. To deal with this, this study designs and examines an automatic approach that adopts writing style features to estimate user reputations in social media. Under varying ways of defining Good and Bad classes of user reputations based on the collected data, it evaluates the classification performance of the state-of-art methods: four writing style features, i.e. lexical, syntactic, structural, and content-specific, and eight classification techniques, i.e. four base learners-C4.5, Neural Network (NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Naïve Bayes (NB)-and four Random Subspace (RS) ensemble methods based on the four base learners. When South Korea's Web forum, Daum Agora, was selected as a test bed, the experimental results show that the configuration of the full feature set containing content-specific features and RS-SVM combining RS and SVM gives the best accuracy for classification if the test bed poster reputations are segmented strictly into Good and Bad classes by portfolio approach. Pairwise t tests on accuracy confirm two expectations coming from the literature reviews: first, the feature set adding content-specific features outperform the others; second, ensemble learning methods are more viable than base learners. Moreover, among the four ways on defining the classes of user reputations, i.e. like, dislike, sum, and portfolio, the results show that the portfolio approach gives the highest accuracy. PMID:27006870

  15. Home Geography and the Development of Elementary Social Education, 1890-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2009-01-01

    Home geography was the principal means by which primary students in the United States learned about the social world from the 1890s through the 1920s. This subject was rooted in the German subject of Heimatkunde, and it reflected the changing nature of the academic discipline of geography in the late nineteenth century. Its content focused on…

  16. Memory for reputational trait information: is social-emotional information processing less flexible in old age?

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Giang, Trang; Mund, Iris; Buchner, Axel

    2013-12-01

    How do younger and older adults remember reputational trait information about other people? In the present study, trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking faces were paired with cooperation or cheating in a cooperation game. In a surprise source-memory test, participants were asked to rate the likability of the faces, and were required to remember whether the faces were associated with negative or positive outcomes. The social expectations of younger and older adults were clearly affected by a priori facial trustworthiness. Facial trustworthiness was associated with high cooperation-game investments, high likability ratings, and a tendency toward guessing that a face belonged to a cooperator instead of a cheater in both age groups. Consistent with previous results showing that emotional memory is spared from age-related decline, memory for the association between faces and emotional reputational information was well preserved in older adults. However, younger adults used a flexible encoding strategy to remember the social interaction partners. Source-memory was best for information that violated their (positive) expectations. Older adults, in contrast, showed a uniform memory bias for negative social information; their memory performance was not modulated by their expectations. This finding suggests that older adults are less likely to adjust their encoding strategies to their social expectations than younger adults. This may be in line with older adults' motivational goals to avoid risks in social interactions. PMID:24364403

  17. IRLT: Integrating Reputation and Local Trust for Trustworthy Service Recommendation in Service-Oriented Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhongyuan; Miao, Yinbin; Gao, Cong

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs) and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR) in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs) have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT) scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT) model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI) module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE) module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE) module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE) module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG) metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks.

  18. IRLT: Integrating Reputation and Local Trust for Trustworthy Service Recommendation in Service-Oriented Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhongyuan; Miao, Yinbin; Gao, Cong

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs) and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR) in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs) have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT) scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT) model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI) module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE) module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE) module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE) module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG) metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks. PMID:26963089

  19. The reputational and social network benefits of prosociality in an Andean community.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Henry F; Smith, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    Several theories have emerged to explain how group cooperation (collective action) can arise and be maintained in the face of incentives to engage in free riding. Explanations focusing on reputational benefits and partner choice have particular promise for cases in which punishment is absent or insufficient to deter free riding. In indigenous communities of highland Peru, collective action is pervasive and provides critical benefits. Participation in collective action is unequal across households, but all households share its benefits. Importantly, investment in collective action involves considerable time, energy, and risk. Differential participation in collective action can convey information about qualities of fellow community members that are not easily observable otherwise, such as cooperative intent, knowledge, work ethic, skill, and/or physical vitality. Conveying such information may enhance access to adaptive support networks. Interview and observational data collected in a Peruvian highland community indicate that persons who contributed more to collective action had greater reputations as reliable, hard workers with regard to collective action and also were considered the most respected, influential, and generous people in the community. Additionally, household heads with greater reputations had more social support partners (measured as network indegree centrality), and households with larger support networks experienced fewer illness symptoms. PMID:24639494

  20. IRLT: Integrating Reputation and Local Trust for Trustworthy Service Recommendation in Service-Oriented Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhongyuan; Miao, Yinbin; Gao, Cong

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs) and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR) in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs) have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT) scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT) model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI) module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE) module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE) module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE) module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG) metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks. PMID:26963089

  1. The reputational and social network benefits of prosociality in an Andean community

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Henry F.; Smith, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Several theories have emerged to explain how group cooperation (collective action) can arise and be maintained in the face of incentives to engage in free riding. Explanations focusing on reputational benefits and partner choice have particular promise for cases in which punishment is absent or insufficient to deter free riding. In indigenous communities of highland Peru, collective action is pervasive and provides critical benefits. Participation in collective action is unequal across households, but all households share its benefits. Importantly, investment in collective action involves considerable time, energy, and risk. Differential participation in collective action can convey information about qualities of fellow community members that are not easily observable otherwise, such as cooperative intent, knowledge, work ethic, skill, and/or physical vitality. Conveying such information may enhance access to adaptive support networks. Interview and observational data collected in a Peruvian highland community indicate that persons who contributed more to collective action had greater reputations as reliable, hard workers with regard to collective action and also were considered the most respected, influential, and generous people in the community. Additionally, household heads with greater reputations had more social support partners (measured as network indegree centrality), and households with larger support networks experienced fewer illness symptoms. PMID:24639494

  2. The reputational and social network benefits of prosociality in an Andean community.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Henry F; Smith, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    Several theories have emerged to explain how group cooperation (collective action) can arise and be maintained in the face of incentives to engage in free riding. Explanations focusing on reputational benefits and partner choice have particular promise for cases in which punishment is absent or insufficient to deter free riding. In indigenous communities of highland Peru, collective action is pervasive and provides critical benefits. Participation in collective action is unequal across households, but all households share its benefits. Importantly, investment in collective action involves considerable time, energy, and risk. Differential participation in collective action can convey information about qualities of fellow community members that are not easily observable otherwise, such as cooperative intent, knowledge, work ethic, skill, and/or physical vitality. Conveying such information may enhance access to adaptive support networks. Interview and observational data collected in a Peruvian highland community indicate that persons who contributed more to collective action had greater reputations as reliable, hard workers with regard to collective action and also were considered the most respected, influential, and generous people in the community. Additionally, household heads with greater reputations had more social support partners (measured as network indegree centrality), and households with larger support networks experienced fewer illness symptoms.

  3. [Social reputation and relational violence in adolescents: the role of loneliness, self-esteem and life satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Moreno Ruiz, David; Estévez López, Estefanía; Murgui Pérez, Sergio; Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyse the relationship among adolescents' social reputation--perceived and ideal--, relational violence at the school context and their specific psychosocial adjustment variables such as loneliness, self-esteem and life satisfaction. The sample comprised 1319 adolescents aged 11 to 16 years old. Results suggested that adolescents who wish for and seek a non-conforming social reputation (ideal) report more loneliness, have lower self-esteem and feel more dissatisfied with their lives, factors all linked to higher participation in behaviours involving relational violence. Conversely, adolescents who already have a non-conforming social reputation (perceived) report less feelings of loneliness and higher levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction, thus having less involvement in acts of relational violence. Associations among the variables included in the structural model were also analysed as a function of sex.

  4. Multicultural Social Reconstructionist Education in Urban Geography: A Model Whose Time Has Come.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Joe T.

    1997-01-01

    Briefly describes several approaches to multicultural education including highlighting minority achievements and emphasizing human relations and social reconstruction. Argues that social reconstruction is the most productive approach for teaching urban geography. Social reconstruction examines the creation and perpetuation of inequality through…

  5. Disparities in the Geography of Mental Health: Implications for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that…

  6. Producing Parsons' reputation: early critiques of Talcott Parsons' social theory and the making of a caricature.

    PubMed

    Owens, B Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the critical responses to Talcott Parsons' first major work, The Structure of Social Action (1937), and his two subsequent books, Toward a General Theory of Action and The Social System (both 1951). Because Parsons' work was the subject of such virulent debate, we cannot fully understand Parsons' impact on the discipline of sociology without understanding the source and nature of those early criticisms. I trace the responses to Parsons, first through book reviews and private letters and then in the more substantial statements of C. Wright Mills, George Homans, and Alvin Gouldner, from the largely positive but superficial reception of Structure to the polemics that followed Parsons' 1951 works. In the late 1930s and 1940s, Parsons' reputation grew steadily but there remained no careful reception of Structure, fostering resentment toward Parsons in some quarters while precluding a sophisticated understanding of his work. After 1951, a few critics capitalized on that tension, writing sweeping rejections of Parsons' work that spoke to a much broader audience of sociologists. That dynamic, coupled with Parsons' own indifference toward his harshest critics, produced a situation in which many sociologists simply chose not to read Parsons in the 1950s and 1960s, reinforcing a caricature and distorting perceptions of Parsons' place in mid-twentieth-century American sociology. PMID:20419789

  7. Peer assessment of social reputation in community samples of disruptive and nondisruptive children: utility of the revised class play method.

    PubMed

    Realmuto, G M; August, G J; Sieler, J D; Pessoa-Brandao, L

    1997-03-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Class Play (RCP), a peer assessment measure of social reputation, in epidemiological samples of disruptive (n = 220) and nondisruptive (n = 104) children in Grades 2 through 5. Principal components analyses yielded a four-factor solution that was similar for disruptive and nondisruptive children and to previous research with this instrument. Discriminative function analyses demonstrated that the four RCP dimensions were each successful in predicting group membership, with the leadership and social etiquette dimensions best able to differentiate disruptive and nondisruptive groups. Regression modeling showed that the variance accounted for by the four RCP dimensions was large and varied for specific dimensions based on the criterion variable chosen. The advantages of the RCP as a devise for tracking social competence and peer reputation in high-risk disruptive children are discussed.

  8. Analysis of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers' Geography Perceptions through Metaphors: Case of Dumlupinar University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Süleyman Hilmi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to try to explain the perceptions of undergraduate students regarding geography concept using metaphors. A total of 192 students studying in the Department of Social Studies at Kütahya Dumlupinar University in the academic year 2014-2015 participated in this research. In the study following questions were searched to…

  9. The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behaviour in gains and losses contexts.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jim A C; Faber, Nadira S; Crockett, Molly J

    2015-12-01

    To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members' outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus outgroup members) and more prosocial when decisions are public (versus private) but find no interaction between group membership and either anonymity of the decision or expected economic value of helping. Therefore, consistent with a preference-based account of ingroup favouritism, people appear to prefer to help ingroup members more than outgroup members, regardless of whether helping can improve their reputation within their group. Moreover, this preference to help ingroup members appears to take the form of an intuitive social heuristic to help ingroup members, regardless of the economic incentives or possibility of reputation management. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intergroup prosocial behaviour are discussed.

  10. The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behaviour in gains and losses contexts.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jim A C; Faber, Nadira S; Crockett, Molly J

    2015-12-01

    To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members' outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus outgroup members) and more prosocial when decisions are public (versus private) but find no interaction between group membership and either anonymity of the decision or expected economic value of helping. Therefore, consistent with a preference-based account of ingroup favouritism, people appear to prefer to help ingroup members more than outgroup members, regardless of whether helping can improve their reputation within their group. Moreover, this preference to help ingroup members appears to take the form of an intuitive social heuristic to help ingroup members, regardless of the economic incentives or possibility of reputation management. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intergroup prosocial behaviour are discussed. PMID:27019739

  11. The influence of social preferences and reputational concerns on intergroup prosocial behaviour in gains and losses contexts

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Nadira S.

    2015-01-01

    To what extent do people help ingroup members based on a social preference to improve ingroup members’ outcomes, versus strategic concerns about preserving their reputation within their group? And do these motives manifest differently when a prosocial behaviour occurs in the context of helping another gain a positive outcome (study 1), versus helping another to avoid losing a positive outcome (study 2)? In both contexts, we find that participants are more prosocial towards ingroup (versus outgroup members) and more prosocial when decisions are public (versus private) but find no interaction between group membership and either anonymity of the decision or expected economic value of helping. Therefore, consistent with a preference-based account of ingroup favouritism, people appear to prefer to help ingroup members more than outgroup members, regardless of whether helping can improve their reputation within their group. Moreover, this preference to help ingroup members appears to take the form of an intuitive social heuristic to help ingroup members, regardless of the economic incentives or possibility of reputation management. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intergroup prosocial behaviour are discussed. PMID:27019739

  12. Fostering Academic and Social Growth in a Primary Literacy Workshop Classroom: "Restorying" Students with Negative Reputations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; Consalvo, Annamary L.; Bogard, Treavor; Russell, Katie W.

    2012-01-01

    In most classrooms, there are students who have academic, behavioral, and/or interpersonal challenges that can disrupt the classroom community. In some cases, these challenges can build momentum, leading to a negative reputation or "story" that can follow the student throughout school. This academic, yearlong case study focused on Mae Graham, an…

  13. Zero Feet Away: The Digital Geography of Gay Social Media.

    PubMed

    Roth, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    For this contribution to the "Cartographies" section of the special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," the author focuses on the terrains of digital media, geosocial networking, and sexually based social media in LGBT communities. Addressing the communal potentials and ethical complications of geosocial connections made possible by such sexually based social media, the author asks whether digital forms of cartography via applications such as Grindr and Scruff simplify, complicate, or merely expose historically longstanding notions of queer interconnectivity. PMID:26643774

  14. Reputation Effects in Social Networks Do Not Promote Cooperation: An Experimental Test of the Raub & Weesie Model

    PubMed Central

    Corten, Rense; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Buskens, Vincent; Cook, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the notion that social cohesion in the form of dense social networks promotes cooperation in Prisoner’s Dilemmas through reputation, very little experimental evidence for this claim exists. We address this issue by testing hypotheses from one of the few rigorous game-theoretic models on this topic, the Raub & Weesie model, in two incentivized lab experiments. In the experiments, 156 subjects played repeated two-person PDs in groups of six. In the “atomized interactions” condition, subjects were only informed about the outcomes of their own interactions, while in the “embedded” condition, subjects were informed about the outcomes of all interactions in their group, allowing for reputation effects. The design of the experiments followed the specification of the RW model as closely as possible. For those aspects of the model that had to be modified to allow practical implementation in an experiment, we present additional analyses that show that these modifications do not affect the predictions. Contrary to expectations, we do not find that cooperation is higher in the embedded condition than in the atomized interaction. Instead, our results are consistent with an interpretation of the RW model that includes random noise, or with learning models of cooperation in networks. PMID:27366907

  15. Reputation Effects in Social Networks Do Not Promote Cooperation: An Experimental Test of the Raub & Weesie Model.

    PubMed

    Corten, Rense; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Buskens, Vincent; Cook, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the notion that social cohesion in the form of dense social networks promotes cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemmas through reputation, very little experimental evidence for this claim exists. We address this issue by testing hypotheses from one of the few rigorous game-theoretic models on this topic, the Raub & Weesie model, in two incentivized lab experiments. In the experiments, 156 subjects played repeated two-person PDs in groups of six. In the "atomized interactions" condition, subjects were only informed about the outcomes of their own interactions, while in the "embedded" condition, subjects were informed about the outcomes of all interactions in their group, allowing for reputation effects. The design of the experiments followed the specification of the RW model as closely as possible. For those aspects of the model that had to be modified to allow practical implementation in an experiment, we present additional analyses that show that these modifications do not affect the predictions. Contrary to expectations, we do not find that cooperation is higher in the embedded condition than in the atomized interaction. Instead, our results are consistent with an interpretation of the RW model that includes random noise, or with learning models of cooperation in networks. PMID:27366907

  16. Tackling Social Media: Educating Student-Athletes about Using These Channels Responsibly Can Protect Reputations--Theirs and the Institution's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syme, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Broaching the subject of student-athletes on social media is liable to cause many institutional leaders, communications officers, and athletics directors to reach for the antacid. The speed and reach of social media, particularly Twitter, combined with the youth and bravado of student-athletes can damage reputations and tarnish university brands…

  17. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography. Social Studies, Grades 9-12. Update 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This instructional package, consisting of a text and 13 transparencies, is designed for high school classrooms. The five lessons in the instructional package relate to the "Five Themes of Geography" (Location, Place, Human-Environment Interaction, Movement, and Region) as promoted by the National Geographic Society. The lessons are designed to…

  18. The Geography of Germany, Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography. Social Studies Grades 9-12. Update 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    These lessons, designed for high school classrooms, focus on the country of Germany in teaching the five themes of geography (location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and region). The lessons can be used individually via integration into the curriculum or collectively used as a complete stand-alone unit. The lessons are desigend…

  19. The Role of Media in Geography Courses from the Perspectives of Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayas, Cemalettin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the social studies teacher candidates' understanding of the role of media in geography courses which they took. Qualitative research techniques were used in the study designed using phenomenological pattern. The study was conducted with 134 pre-service social studies teachers at a state university's Faculty of…

  20. Perceptions of Pre-Service Social Sciences Teachers Regarding the Concept of "Geography" by Mind Mapping Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk Demirbas, Cagri

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the perceptions of preservice social sciences teachers regarding the concept of geography. In the study, the study group consists of 46 preservice social sciences teachers, who receive education at Ahi Evran University. The data were collected in December, 2010. Mind maps were used as data collection tools…

  1. Remapping Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan M.; Norwine, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Little that occurs in contemporary academic geography will surprise members of the National Association of Scholars, for a large part of the field has joined the other humanities and social sciences in the bawdy saloon of progressive politics, cultural nihilism, and subjective epistemology. That geographers are in there roistering with the…

  2. Geography: Key to World Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Delineates the nature of applied geography, asserting that geography links the natural and social sciences. Underscores geography's role in data analysis and problem solving on a global scale. Traces the discipline's history. Maps geography's status in higher education institutions. Discusses new technologies used by geographers. Summarizes career…

  3. Social Representations of National Territory and Citizenship in Nineteenth-Century History and Geography Textbooks of the Colombian Caribbean Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Luis Alarcon; Calderon, Jorge Conde

    2007-01-01

    This article shows how the legitimization of the territory of a national community was going through a territorial and citizen-oriented pedagogy in which geography and history texts contributed to the elaboration of certain social representations that were part of the new Latin American nations' development process. Therefore, this paper reviews…

  4. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Social Science Libraries and Geography and Map Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers presented on social science and map and geography libraries at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Information for the Developing World: NTIS's (National Technical Information Service) Role in Information Transfer to Developing Countries" (Joseph F. Caponio, United States); (2)…

  5. "Don't Affect the Share Price": Social Media Policy in Higher Education as Reputation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including…

  6. Disparities in the geography of mental health: implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Christopher G

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that of greatest relevance are inequities, or disparities, that violate fundamental norms of fairness and social justice. Research is reviewed on geographic variations in subjective well-being and mental health, on personality (using the five-factor model), and on psychopathology as well as several studies on the disparate implementation of mental health policy and services. Critical is the need to simultaneously assess, on the one hand, differential patterns of mental health conditions and, on the other, the services and policies designed to address them--the fact that considering only one dimension often leads to unintended consequences. Many of the most outstanding disparities have been found to exist at the local level, between towns and neighborhoods, and are based on socioeconomic conditions. This review concludes by discussing the implications of geographic disparities in mental health for allocation decisions and for social work practice, including decisions about the most efficacious mix of services at both the community and clinical practice levels.

  7. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when—as is often the case in human societies—altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards (“distributional norms”); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise) with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin. PMID:27305045

  8. Socially Enforced Nepotism: How Norms and Reputation Can Amplify Kin Altruism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Kin selection, which can lead organisms to behave altruistically to their genetic relatives, works differently when-as is often the case in human societies-altruism can be boosted by social pressure. Here I present a model of social norms enforced by indirect reciprocity. In the model there are many alternative stable allocations of rewards ("distributional norms"); a stable norm is stable in the sense that each player is best off following the norm if other players do the same. Stable norms vary widely in how equally they reward players with unequal abilities. In a population of mixed groups (some group members follow one norm, some follow another, and some compromise) with modest within-group coefficients of relatedness, selection within groups favors those who compromise, and selection between groups favors generous generalized reciprocity rather than balanced reciprocity. Thus evolved social norms can amplify kin altruism, giving rise to a uniquely human mode of kin-based sociality distinct from spontaneous altruism among close kin, or cooperation among non-kin. PMID:27305045

  9. World Geography: A Human Perspective. Social Studies Senior 4 (Grade 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This document is a curriculum guide to a world geography course for grade 12 students in Manitoba, Canada. Following an overview of the course, the guide presents information about the six units that comprise the course. The units are: (1) World geography overview; (2) World population: characteristics, distribution, and growth; (3) World food…

  10. The Geography of the Beatles Approaching Concepts of Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Robert J., II

    2004-01-01

    Human geography can be taught by focusing on popular culture contexts with which undergraduate students may already be familiar such as rock music. The Geography of the Beatles introduced undergraduate students to concepts of "new" cultural geography such as space, place, representation, geopolitics, social space, and tourism-pilgrimage as well as…

  11. An Introduction to Marxist Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, J. Richard

    1985-01-01

    In Marxist geography the relations that geography has traditionally analyzed--natural environment and spatial relations--are reviewed as outcomes of the mode of material production. To understand geographical relations, the social structure must also be examined. Marxist geography attempts to change the basic structure of society. (RM)

  12. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography. Social Studies, Grades 9-12. Update 1997/1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This packet contains five lessons related to the five themes of geography: location; place; human-environment interaction; movement; and region. The lessons are designed to support the teaching of courses in world geography, U.S. government/civics, and economics from a comparative U.S./German perspective. Lessons include: (1) "Location of Germany…

  13. Reputation and impact in academic careers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander Michael; Fortunato, Santo; Pan, Raj K; Kaski, Kimmo; Penner, Orion; Rungi, Armando; Riccaboni, Massimo; Stanley, H Eugene; Pammolli, Fabio

    2014-10-28

    Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here, we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication's citation rate Δc depends on the reputation of its central author i, in addition to its net citation count c. To estimate the strength of the reputation effect, we perform a longitudinal analysis on the careers of 450 highly cited scientists, using the total citations Ci of each scientist as his/her reputation measure. We find a citation crossover c×, which distinguishes the strength of the reputation effect. For publications with c < c×, the author's reputation is found to dominate the annual citation rate. Hence, a new publication may gain a significant early advantage corresponding to roughly a 66% increase in the citation rate for each tenfold increase in Ci. However, the reputation effect becomes negligible for highly cited publications meaning that, for c ≥ c×, the citation rate measures scientific impact more transparently. In addition, we have developed a stochastic reputation model, which is found to reproduce numerous statistical observations for real careers, thus providing insight into the microscopic mechanisms underlying cumulative advantage in science.

  14. Reputation and impact in academic careers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander Michael; Fortunato, Santo; Pan, Raj K.; Kaski, Kimmo; Penner, Orion; Rungi, Armando; Riccaboni, Massimo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Pammolli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Reputation is an important social construct in science, which enables informed quality assessments of both publications and careers of scientists in the absence of complete systemic information. However, the relation between reputation and career growth of an individual remains poorly understood, despite recent proliferation of quantitative research evaluation methods. Here, we develop an original framework for measuring how a publication’s citation rate Δc depends on the reputation of its central author i, in addition to its net citation count c. To estimate the strength of the reputation effect, we perform a longitudinal analysis on the careers of 450 highly cited scientists, using the total citations Ci of each scientist as his/her reputation measure. We find a citation crossover c×, which distinguishes the strength of the reputation effect. For publications with c < c×, the author’s reputation is found to dominate the annual citation rate. Hence, a new publication may gain a significant early advantage corresponding to roughly a 66% increase in the citation rate for each tenfold increase in Ci. However, the reputation effect becomes negligible for highly cited publications meaning that, for c ≥ c×, the citation rate measures scientific impact more transparently. In addition, we have developed a stochastic reputation model, which is found to reproduce numerous statistical observations for real careers, thus providing insight into the microscopic mechanisms underlying cumulative advantage in science. PMID:25288774

  15. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  16. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  17. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions.

  18. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. PMID:23123557

  19. The Importance, Content and Teaching of the Political Geography Course in Social Studies Undergraduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocal, Tulay

    2016-01-01

    Today, big countries and other countries inside their axes have entered power wars in regions where underground and aboveground sources are important. One of the characteristics of countries where these power wars take place is them not being able to understand the current world politics and elements of political geography. These countries cannot…

  20. Signatures of Reputation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethencourt, John; Shi, Elaine; Song, Dawn

    Reputation systems have become an increasingly important tool for highlighting quality information and filtering spam within online forums. However, the dependence of a user's reputation on their history of activities seems to preclude any possibility of anonymity. We show that useful reputation information can, in fact, coexist with strong privacy guarantees. We introduce and formalize a novel cryptographic primitive we call signatures of reputation which supports monotonic measures of reputation in a completely anonymous setting. In our system, a user can express trust in others by voting for them, collect votes to build up her own reputation, and attach a proof of her reputation to any data she publishes, all while maintaining the unlinkability of her actions.

  1. Commentary: U.S. mortality, geography, and the anti-social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ryan D

    2016-08-01

    Drug-related overdoses appear to be a major factor behind an historic pause or even a reversal in the predominant downward trend over time in U.S. mortality rates, a departure that is especially evident among non-Hispanic white females of middle age. The new geography of accidental poisoning deaths and their covariates suggests that we should reassess traditional policies and perspectives in order to combat this threat to public health.

  2. The influence of corporate social responsibility, ability, reputation, and transparency on hotel customer loyalty in the U.S.: a gender-based approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bum; Kim, Dae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This research explored a conceptual framework incorporating interrelationships among corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate ability (CA), corporate reputation (CR), and CSR-related transparency on customer loyalty within the hotel context. In this study, we also analyzed consumers' propensity to support CSR initiatives through the socio-demographic indicator of gender. We used independent sample t test and multiple regression analysis to test hypotheses based on 487 responses from American participants. Four antecedents (i.e., CSR, CA, CR, and transparency) exhibited favorable effects on customer loyalty. Among these four factors, the positively perceived CSR initiatives had a greater impact on customer loyalty. In addition, according to our findings, female participants were more likely to have a positive perception of the four antecedents than males. PMID:27652110

  3. The influence of corporate social responsibility, ability, reputation, and transparency on hotel customer loyalty in the U.S.: a gender-based approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bum; Kim, Dae-Young

    2016-01-01

    This research explored a conceptual framework incorporating interrelationships among corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate ability (CA), corporate reputation (CR), and CSR-related transparency on customer loyalty within the hotel context. In this study, we also analyzed consumers' propensity to support CSR initiatives through the socio-demographic indicator of gender. We used independent sample t test and multiple regression analysis to test hypotheses based on 487 responses from American participants. Four antecedents (i.e., CSR, CA, CR, and transparency) exhibited favorable effects on customer loyalty. Among these four factors, the positively perceived CSR initiatives had a greater impact on customer loyalty. In addition, according to our findings, female participants were more likely to have a positive perception of the four antecedents than males.

  4. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles…

  5. The evolution of punishment through reputation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2011-02-01

    Punishment of non-cooperators has been observed to promote cooperation. Such punishment is an evolutionary puzzle because it is costly to the punisher while beneficial to others, for example, through increased social cohesion. Recent studies have concluded that punishing strategies usually pay less than some non-punishing strategies. These findings suggest that punishment could not have directly evolved to promote cooperation. However, while it is well established that reputation plays a key role in human cooperation, the simple threat from a reputation of being a punisher may not have been sufficiently explored yet in order to explain the evolution of costly punishment. Here, we first show analytically that punishment can lead to long-term benefits if it influences one's reputation and thereby makes the punisher more likely to receive help in future interactions. Then, in computer simulations, we incorporate up to 40 more complex strategies that use different kinds of reputations (e.g. from generous actions), or strategies that not only include punitive behaviours directed towards defectors but also towards cooperators for example. Our findings demonstrate that punishment can directly evolve through a simple reputation system. We conclude that reputation is crucial for the evolution of punishment by making a punisher more likely to receive help in future interactions, and that experiments investigating the beneficial effects of punishment in humans should include reputation as an explicit feature. PMID:20719773

  6. The evolution of punishment through reputation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2011-02-01

    Punishment of non-cooperators has been observed to promote cooperation. Such punishment is an evolutionary puzzle because it is costly to the punisher while beneficial to others, for example, through increased social cohesion. Recent studies have concluded that punishing strategies usually pay less than some non-punishing strategies. These findings suggest that punishment could not have directly evolved to promote cooperation. However, while it is well established that reputation plays a key role in human cooperation, the simple threat from a reputation of being a punisher may not have been sufficiently explored yet in order to explain the evolution of costly punishment. Here, we first show analytically that punishment can lead to long-term benefits if it influences one's reputation and thereby makes the punisher more likely to receive help in future interactions. Then, in computer simulations, we incorporate up to 40 more complex strategies that use different kinds of reputations (e.g. from generous actions), or strategies that not only include punitive behaviours directed towards defectors but also towards cooperators for example. Our findings demonstrate that punishment can directly evolve through a simple reputation system. We conclude that reputation is crucial for the evolution of punishment by making a punisher more likely to receive help in future interactions, and that experiments investigating the beneficial effects of punishment in humans should include reputation as an explicit feature.

  7. Geography In-Service Course. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    The teaching guide for an elementary geography in-service course provides a framework for broad geographic understandings. The emphasis is upon helping teachers better understand the structure of geography themselves so they may implement a social studies program in which students use the facts of geography to develop understandings of basic…

  8. Geography for the Advanced: John Fuller's Poem "Geography Lesson."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Moray

    1979-01-01

    Recommends, for use in teaching English as a foreign language, Fuller's poem "Geography Lesson," in which the geographical outlines of the British Isles, as well as British social and economic structure, are humanized in an ironic fashion. (IFS/WGA)

  9. Geography Standards for China: New Dimensions for Geography Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ya-nam, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Briefly explains the 10 standard objective statements that characterize geography curriculum reform in China. The standards reflect a rigorous and scientific orientation incorporating mathematics, physics, geology, and demographics. No social education component is present. (MJP)

  10. Reputation and its risks.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Robert G; Newquist, Scott C; Schatz, Roland

    2007-02-01

    Regulators, industry groups, consultants, and individual companies have developed elaborate guidelines over the years for assessing and managing risks in a wide range of areas, from commodity prices to natural disasters. Yet they have all but ignored reputational risk, mostly because they aren't sure how to define or measure it. That's a big problem, say the authors. Because so much market value comes from hard-to-assess intangible assets like brand equity and intellectual capital, organizations are especially vulnerable to anything that damages their reputations. Moreover, companies with strong positive reputations attract better talent and are perceived as providing more value in their products and services, which often allows them to charge a premium. Their customers are more loyal and buy broader ranges of products and services. Since the market believes that such companies will deliver sustained earnings and future growth, they have higher price-earnings multiples and market values and lower costs of capital. Most companies, however, do an inadequate job of managing their reputations in general and the risks to their reputations in particular. They tend to focus their energies on handling the threats to their reputations that have already surfaced. That is not risk management; it is crisis management--a reactive approach aimed at limiting the damage. The authors provide a framework for actively managing reputational risk. They introduce three factors (the reputation-reality gap, changing beliefs and expectations, and weak internal coordination) that affect the level of such risks and then explore several ways to sufficiently quantify and control those factors. The process outlined in this article will help managers do a better job of assessing existing and potential threats to their companies' reputations and deciding whether to accept a particular risk or take actions to avoid or mitigate it.

  11. The reputation of punishers.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-02-01

    Punishment is a potential mechanism to stabilise cooperation between self-regarding agents. Theoretical and empirical studies on the importance of a punitive reputation have yielded conflicting results. Here, we propose that a variety of factors interact to explain why a punitive reputation is sometimes beneficial and sometimes harmful. We predict that benefits are most likely to occur in forced play scenarios and in situations where punishment is the only means to convey an individual's cooperative intent and willingness to uphold fairness norms. By contrast, if partner choice is possible and an individual's cooperative intent can be inferred directly, then individuals with a nonpunishing cooperative reputation should typically be preferred over punishing cooperators.

  12. Mapping Students' Lives: Children's Geographies, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Anna Gahl

    2009-01-01

    The relatively new field of children's geographies builds on the theoretical foundations of human geography, critical geography, and spatial theories to examine the places and spaces children inhabit and create. This article reviews four major themes in children's geographies relevant to education: exclusion and agency, the social construction of…

  13. Opportunities within the National Council for the Social Studies Geography Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul

    2016-01-01

    While the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) celebrated its 100th anniversary in August 2014 in Washington, DC, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2020 in Washington, DC. The mission of NCSS is to provide leadership, service, and support for all social studies educators; NCSS is…

  14. The Social Geography of Childcare: Making up a Middle-Class Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.; Kemp, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Childcare is a condensate of disparate social forces and social processes. It is gendered and classed. It is subject to an excess of policy and political discourse. It is increasingly a focus for commercial exploitation. This is a paper reporting on work in progress in an ESRC funded research project (R000239232) on the choice and provision of…

  15. Priorities in Teaching Economic Geography: "Placing" the Economy, Sense of Geograph"ies", Intellectual Bridging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies some personal priorities in teaching economic geography. The author places the economy relationally regarding social, cultural and political dimensions of life; she clarifies different modes of geographic inquiry-geographies; and she taps the breadth of economic geography by including a wide range of substantive topics. She…

  16. Reputation Enhancement and Involvement in Delinquency among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Green, Shauna; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Australian high school students' (n=965) self-reported delinquency and the importance of their social reputations. Students with low delinquency involvement, females, and older students tended to desire a more conforming reputation than those with high delinquency involvement, males, or younger…

  17. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  18. Us and Them--Children's Identity Work and Social Geography in a Swedish School Yard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    The article focusses on constructions of social identities in school and how children in their identity work (re-)construct common and segregated places in the school yard. Data were drawn from an ethnographic research in the daily lives of children aged 11-13. The fieldwork consisted of traditional ethnographic field work as well as children's…

  19. Geography as destiny? Social and ecological resilience in rangelands of the American southwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods: Social-ecological systems perspectives focus on the reciprocal relationships between human and natural ecosystem elements and how these interactions determine human well-being, ecological state change, and land use change. In the arid southwestern US, which is dominated...

  20. Using Baseball in Social Studies Instruction: Addressing the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, William D.; Hyman, William

    2005-01-01

    Many children do not enjoy social studies because they see it as having little, if any, relevance to their lives. That response is attributable primarily to two factors: Dry content and even drier instructional strategies. Teachers know that if material presented to children is not meaningful and relevant to their lives, real learning does not…

  1. Fair Access, Achievement and Geography: Explaining the Association between Social Class and Students' Choice of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Davies, Peter; Slack, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study is concerned with what determines prospective university students' first choice between universities of different status. The results suggest that examination performance, going to an independent school and fear of debt independently affect students' decisions. Social factors and students' perceived level of information on…

  2. Visual geography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,

    1991-01-01

    Maps are, among other things, a way of making geography visual. They are world views, ways of thinking, and ways of communicating. They depict our world and guide us through it. Visual Geography probes the essence of maps and mapmaking. It follows the story of cartography through the millennia, across the globe, and beyond the solar system. It includes some of the world's most beautiful and enduring maps, some of its most historic - a map in Columbus' hand, the map that was carried to the Moon, the first map to show America - and it examines the urge to map, to measure our world, and to record it graphically.

  3. The reputation of punishers.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-02-01

    Punishment is a potential mechanism to stabilise cooperation between self-regarding agents. Theoretical and empirical studies on the importance of a punitive reputation have yielded conflicting results. Here, we propose that a variety of factors interact to explain why a punitive reputation is sometimes beneficial and sometimes harmful. We predict that benefits are most likely to occur in forced play scenarios and in situations where punishment is the only means to convey an individual's cooperative intent and willingness to uphold fairness norms. By contrast, if partner choice is possible and an individual's cooperative intent can be inferred directly, then individuals with a nonpunishing cooperative reputation should typically be preferred over punishing cooperators. PMID:25577128

  4. Diets and Health: How Food Decisions Are Shaped by Biology, Economics, Geography, and Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Health is shaped by both personal choices and features of the food environment. Food-choice decisions depend on complex interactions between biology and behavior, and are further modulated by the built environment and community structure. That lower-income families have lower-quality diets is well established. Yet, diet quality also varies across small geographic neighborhoods and can be influenced by transportation, retail, and ease of access to healthy foods, as well as by attitudes, beliefs, and social interactions. The learnings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) can be usefully applied to the much larger, more complex, and far more socially and ethnically diverse urban environment of New York City. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) is ideally positioned to advance the understanding of health disparities by exploring the multiple underpinnings of food decision making. By combining geo-localized food shopping and consumption data with health behaviors, diet quality measures, and biomarkers, also coded by geographic location, the KHP will create the first-of-its-kind bio-behavioral, economic, and cultural atlas of diet quality and health for New York City. PMID:26487989

  5. Your Reputation Precedes You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eich, Ritch K.

    2006-01-01

    A good reputation goes hand in hand with a university's "brand," which in essence is the promise the institution makes to all of its constituencies. A brand is appreciably more than an attractive logo, reinforcing colors, and compelling admission brochures (though all of these reflect it). If properly thought through and developed from the inside…

  6. Children's Understanding of Reputations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Valerie; Pillow, Bradford H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated age differences in children's understanding (a) that a person's behavior may contribute to the formation of a shared opinion within the peer group and (b) that origins of a reputation can be direct or indirect. The authors read stories in which a target character engaged in either prosocial or…

  7. Multiple reputation domains and cooperative behaviour in two Latin American communities.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Lyle, Henry F

    2015-12-01

    Reputations are a ubiquitous feature of human social life, and a large literature has been dedicated to explaining the relationship between prosocial reputations and cooperation in social dilemmas. However, humans form reputations in domains other than prosociality, such as economic competency that could affect cooperation. To date, no research has evaluated the relative effects of multiple reputation domains on cooperation. To bridge this gap, we analyse how prosocial and competency reputations affect cooperation in two Latin American communities (Bwa Mawego, Dominica, and Pucucanchita, Peru) across a number of social contexts (Dominica: labour contracting, labour exchange and conjugal partnership formation; Peru: agricultural and health advice network size). First, we examine the behavioural correlates of prosocial and competency reputations. Following, we analyse whether prosocial, competency, or both reputation domains explain the flow of cooperative benefits within the two communities. Our analyses suggest that (i) although some behaviours affect both reputation domains simultaneously, each reputation domain has a unique behavioural signature; and (ii) competency reputations affect cooperation across a greater number of social contexts compared to prosocial reputations. Results are contextualized with reference to the social markets in which behaviour is embedded and a call for greater theory development is stressed.

  8. Towards a Geography of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of the discipline of geography to the field of education is complex since they have both been dependent upon the contributions of other social science disciplines, particularly those in the mainstream of social sciences (economics, sociology and political science). Indeed, the number of researchers who would consider themselves as…

  9. Teaching the Social Construction of Regions in Regional Geography Courses; Or, Why Do Vampires Come from Eastern Europe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmer, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the difficulty of teaching about the construction of regions in regional geography courses, which are themselves built on a metageography that often goes unquestioned. The author advocates the use of popular culture to make this very complex issue palpable for undergraduates. Thus, the construction of Eastern Europe within a…

  10. Fractured History and Geography: An Examination of Why Students Choose "Wrong" Words To Write and Talk about Social Studies Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlbaw, Lynn M.; Price, Margaret A.

    This paper analyzes "confused history" on the part of students and where that confusion might originate. The study is based on a modified form of content analysis of articles by R. Lederer. The articles offer a compilation of student errors in history and geography. Two major categories of errors are recognized: (1) Type I, represented by errors…

  11. Geography and Interdisciplinary, Future Oriented Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, C. Murray

    This paper identifies issues which can best be understood within a geographic dimension and suggests how educators at all levels can help students understand the increasing interdependence in economic, political, social, and technological systems by emphasizing geography's integrative dimensions. Geography's potential as an integrating force in…

  12. A Geography Syllabus for the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Proposes content changes for a revised geography syllabus in New Zealand discussing each strand: (1) social organization; (2) culture and heritage; (3) place and environment; (4) time, continuity, and change; (5) resources and economic activities; and (6) making sense of planet earth and beyond. Addresses current trends in geography and syllabus…

  13. Reconceptualizing Geography as Democratic Global Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William; Heilman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Geography education typically appears in school curricula in a didactic or disciplinary manner. Yet, both the didactic and the disciplinary approach to geography education lack a serious engagement with society, politics, and power, or democratic theory. We suggest, from Dewey, that most students, the social studies, and indeed society…

  14. Urban Geography: Topics in Geography, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    The scope, objectives, and some of the findings of urban geography are discussed in this paper. Curriculum development in urban geography at the high-school level is also briefly described. The first of six articles, "Aspects and Trends of Urban Geography," explains the urban geographer's interest in internal city structure, interaction of static…

  15. Celebrating Geography: Geography in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    The paper suggests that the five fundamental themes of geography can serve as a good starting point for understanding how geography affects lives everyday in every way. Geography serves to remind people how interwoven geographic concepts are in individuals' lives. Ten activities are suggested to incorporate the five fundamental themes into a…

  16. The Problems of Geography Education and Some Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Nazli

    2009-01-01

    When teacher education programs in Turkey are scrutinized in detail, it can be seen that geography education is included in the teacher training programs of Geography, Primary School, and Social Studies. These programs aim to provide field knowledge, general culture, and field teaching skills. The success of geography teaching depends on defining…

  17. Putting Geography Education into Place: What Geography Educators Can Learn from Place-Based Education, and Vice Versa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Andrei L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, geography educators have sought to make their pedagogy relevant to pressing social and environmental issues, but these efforts have largely imported pedagogies from outside of geography. In place-based education, in contrast, place--one of geography's defining themes--serves as a central organizing principle for a socially…

  18. Beyond the Family Geography Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Christy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a school-community program based on and extending the efforts of the Michigan Model Family Geography Challenge. The program includes inviting community members to participate in hands-on activities, as well as, shared activities between parents and students followed by dinner and socializing. Discusses materials, assessment, and…

  19. What are punishment and reputation for?

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Max M; Cosmides, Leda; Pedersen, Eric J; Tooby, John

    2012-01-01

    Why did punishment and the use of reputation evolve in humans? According to one family of theories, they evolved to support the maintenance of cooperative group norms; according to another, they evolved to enhance personal gains from cooperation. Current behavioral data are consistent with both hypotheses (and both selection pressures could have shaped human cooperative psychology). However, these hypotheses lead to sharply divergent behavioral predictions in circumstances that have not yet been tested. Here we report results testing these rival predictions. In every test where social exchange theory and group norm maintenance theory made different predictions, subject behavior violated the predictions of group norm maintenance theory and matched those of social exchange theory. Subjects do not direct punishment toward those with reputations for norm violation per se; instead, they use reputation self-beneficially, as a cue to lower the risk that they personally will experience losses from defection. More tellingly, subjects direct their cooperative efforts preferentially towards defectors they have punished and away from those they haven't punished; they avoid expending punitive effort on reforming defectors who only pose a risk to others. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the psychology of punishment evolved to uphold group norms. The circumstances in which punishment is deployed and withheld-its circuit logic-support the hypothesis that it is generated by psychological mechanisms that evolved to benefit the punisher, by allowing him to bargain for better treatment.

  20. What are punishment and reputation for?

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Max M; Cosmides, Leda; Pedersen, Eric J; Tooby, John

    2012-01-01

    Why did punishment and the use of reputation evolve in humans? According to one family of theories, they evolved to support the maintenance of cooperative group norms; according to another, they evolved to enhance personal gains from cooperation. Current behavioral data are consistent with both hypotheses (and both selection pressures could have shaped human cooperative psychology). However, these hypotheses lead to sharply divergent behavioral predictions in circumstances that have not yet been tested. Here we report results testing these rival predictions. In every test where social exchange theory and group norm maintenance theory made different predictions, subject behavior violated the predictions of group norm maintenance theory and matched those of social exchange theory. Subjects do not direct punishment toward those with reputations for norm violation per se; instead, they use reputation self-beneficially, as a cue to lower the risk that they personally will experience losses from defection. More tellingly, subjects direct their cooperative efforts preferentially towards defectors they have punished and away from those they haven't punished; they avoid expending punitive effort on reforming defectors who only pose a risk to others. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the psychology of punishment evolved to uphold group norms. The circumstances in which punishment is deployed and withheld-its circuit logic-support the hypothesis that it is generated by psychological mechanisms that evolved to benefit the punisher, by allowing him to bargain for better treatment. PMID:23049833

  1. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  2. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-11-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between "honest" and "hypocritical" strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies.

  3. The Caudate Signals Bad Reputation during Trust Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Angstadt, Michael; Sripada, Chandra S.; McCabe, Kevin; Luan Phan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to initiate and sustain trust is critical to health and well-being. Willingness to trust is in part determined by the reputation of the putative trustee, gained via direct interactions or indirectly through word of mouth. Few studies have examined how the reputation of others is instantiated in the brain during trust decisions. Here we use an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) design to examine what neural signals correspond to experimentally manipulated reputations acquired in direct interactions during trust decisions. We hypothesized that the caudate (dorsal striatum) and putamen (ventral striatum) and amygdala would signal differential reputations during decision-making. Twenty-nine healthy adults underwent fMRI scanning while completing an iterated Trust Game as trusters with three fictive trustee partners who had different tendencies to reciprocate (i.e., likelihood of rewarding the truster), which were learned over multiple exchanges with real-time feedback. We show that the caudate (both left and right) signals reputation during trust decisions, such that caudate is more active to partners with two types of “bad” reputations, either indifferent partners (who reciprocate 50% of the time) or unfair partners (who reciprocate 25% of the time), than to those with “good” reputations (who reciprocate 75% of the time). Further, individual differences in caudate activity related to biases in trusting behavior in the most uncertain situation, i.e. when facing an indifferent partner. We also report on other areas that were activated by reputation at p < 0.05 whole brain corrected. Our findings suggest that the caudate is involved in signaling and integrating reputations gained through experience into trust decisions, demonstrating a neural basis for this key social process. PMID:23922638

  4. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  5. Geography and Teaching: National Geography Bee?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichen, Marc

    1988-01-01

    Questions value of the National Geography Bee proposed by the National Geographic Society because the public may see geography content as unrelated facts; students may not be motivated; and content can be trivialized. Encourages group competitions that focus on conceptual and regional themes combined with societal, environmental, and locational…

  6. ASN reputation system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Steve; Erbacher, Robert F.

    2015-05-01

    Network security monitoring is currently challenged by its reliance on human analysts and the inability for tools to generate indications and warnings for previously unknown attacks. We propose a reputation system based on IP address set membership within the Autonomous System Number (ASN) system. Essentially, a metric generated based on the historic behavior, or misbehavior, of nodes within a given ASN can be used to predict future behavior and provide a mechanism to locate network activity requiring inspection. This will provide reinforcement of notifications and warnings and lead to inspection for ASNs known to be problematic even if initial inspection leads to interpretation of the event as innocuous. We developed proof of concept capabilities to generate the IP address to ASN set membership and analyze the impact of the results. These results clearly show that while some ASNs are one-offs with individual or small numbers of misbehaving IP addresses, there are definitive ASNs with a history of long term and wide spread misbehaving IP addresses. These ASNs with long histories are what we are especially interested in and will provide an additional correlation metric for the human analyst and lead to new tools to aid remediation of these IP address blocks.

  7. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  8. The Geography of Crime and Violence: A Spatial and Ecological Perspective. Resource Papers for College Geography, No. 78-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georges, Daniel E.

    The paper examines crime from a spatial perspective and provides an introduction to social ecology theory. The document is part of 8 series of resource papers intended to supplement college level geography textbooks. The geography of crime is defined as the spatial manifestation of criminal acts. The social ecological approach interprets crime as…

  9. Collaboration and Human Factor as Drivers for Reputation System Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boella, Guido; Remondino, Marco

    Reputation management is about evaluating an agent's actions and other agents' opinions about those actions, reporting on those actions and opinions, and reacting to that report thus creating a feedback loop. This social mechanism has been successfully used, through Reputation Management Systems (RMSs) to classify agents within normative systems. Most RMSs rely on the feedbacks given by the member of the social network in which the RMS itself operates. In this way, the reputation index can be seen as an endogenous and self produced indicator, created by the users for the users' benefit. This implies that users' participation and collaboration is a key factor for the effectiveness a RMS. In this work the above factor is explored by means of an agent based simulation, and is tested on a P2P network for file sharing.

  10. Social Studies at the Beginning of the New Millennium: Teach Democratic Ideals, Geography, and History or Is that Objective Outdated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villier, Paul Wayne

    Although many pressures have been brought to bear in the social studies curriculum over the past 70 years, the leaders of the country's society have maintained the middle ground. They have ensured that educators remain somewhat conservative in their approach to the social sciences, ensuring that the history of the culture be continually passed on…

  11. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing California's history-social science framework. The document offers stimulating ideas to enrich the teaching of history and social science, enliven instruction for every student, focus on essential topics, and help make learning more memorable. Experiences…

  12. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activation Is Commonly Invoked by Reputation of Self and Romantic Partners

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Takahashi, Haruka K.; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    The reputation of others influences partner selection in human cooperative behaviors through verbal reputation representation. Although the way in which humans represent the verbal reputations of others is a pivotal issue for social neuroscience, the neural correlates underlying the representation of verbal reputations of others are unclear. Humans primarily depend on self-evaluation when assessing reputation of self. Likewise, humans might primarily depend on self-evaluation of others when representing their reputation. As interaction promotes the formation of more nuanced, individualized impressions of an interaction partner, humans tend to form self-evaluations of persons with whom they are intimate in their daily life. Thus, we hypothesized that the representation of reputation of others is modulated by intimacy due to one’s own evaluation formation of that person. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with 11 pairs of romantic partners while they viewed an evaluation of a target person (self, partner [intimate other], or stranger [non-intimate other]), made by other evaluators. When compared with strangers, viewing evaluations of self and partner activated overlapping regions in the medial prefrontal cortex. Verbal reputation of self-specific activation was found in the precuneus, which represents self-related processing. The data suggest that midline structures represent reputation of self. In addition, intimacy-modulated activation in the medial prefrontal cortex suggests that the verbal reputation of intimate others is represented similarly to reputation of self. These results suggest that the reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex is engaged by verbal reputation of self and intimate others stemming from both own and other evaluators’ judgments. PMID:24086409

  13. Disrupting the prefrontal cortex diminishes the human ability to build a good reputation

    PubMed Central

    Knoch, Daria; Schneider, Frédéric; Schunk, Daniel; Hohmann, Martin; Fehr, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Reputation formation pervades human social life. In fact, many people go to great lengths to acquire a good reputation, even though building a good reputation is costly in many cases. Little is known about the neural underpinnings of this important social mechanism, however. In the present study, we show that disruption of the right, but not the left, lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) with low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) diminishes subjects' ability to build a favorable reputation. This effect occurs even though subjects' ability to behave altruistically in the absence of reputation incentives remains intact, and even though they are still able to recognize both the fairness standards necessary for acquiring and the future benefits of a good reputation. Thus, subjects with a disrupted right lateral PFC no longer seem to be able to resist the temptation to defect, even though they know that this has detrimental effects on their future reputation. This suggests an important dissociation between the knowledge about one's own best interests and the ability to act accordingly in social contexts. These results link findings on the neural underpinnings of self-control and temptation with the study of human social behavior, and they may help explain why reputation formation remains less prominent in most other species with less developed prefrontal cortices. PMID:19948957

  14. Parental Preferences in School Choice: Comparing Reputational Hierarchies of Schools in Chile and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosunen, Sonja; Carrasco, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Parents evaluate the reputations of the schools when making judgements about their desirability. They try to approximate the quality of schools and the social environment and contrast those with their hopes and fears concerning their child's education. We aim to clarify how the reputations of schools are constructed in Finland and Chile and what…

  15. Reputation and the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Akiyama, Eizo

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas has been of considerable concern in various fields such as sociobiology, economics and sociology. It might be that, in the real world, reputation plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Recently, studies that have addressed indirect reciprocity have revealed that cooperation can evolve through reputation, even though pairs of individuals interact only a few times. To our knowledge, most indirect reciprocity models have presumed dyadic interaction; no studies have attempted analysis of the evolution of cooperation in large communities where the effect of reputation is included. We investigate the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups in which the reputation of individuals affects the decision-making process. This paper presents the following: (i) cooperation can evolve in a four-person case, (ii) the evolution of cooperation becomes difficult as group size increases, even if the effect of reputation is included, and (iii) three kinds of final social states exist. In medium-sized communities, cooperative species can coexist in a stable manner with betrayal species. PMID:16006331

  16. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  17. World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph, Ed.; Brooks, Diane

    This document outlines ancient civilization teaching models for California sixth graders. It is another response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework." Units include: (1) Early Humankind and the Development of Human Societies; (2) The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near East and…

  18. Transnational Geographies of Academic Distinction: The Role of Social Capital in the Recognition and Evaluation of "Overseas" Credentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Johanna L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of specific and place-based social capital in the recognition and evaluation of international credentials. Whilst research on labour market segmentation has contributed towards an understanding of the spatial variability of the value of human capital, very little attention has been paid to the ways in which the…

  19. Online reputation management: the first steps.

    PubMed

    Gay, Susan; Pho, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Can patients reliably choose a good doctor online? Inevitably, some will. Many doctors are not comfortable being visible online. So if you do not have a blog or a social media profile, what shows up when a patient Googles you most likely will be something from an online rating site. This trend can have a profound impact on a medical practice. As one of authors (KP) noticed, patients are now saying that they found his practice through the Internet, in stark contrast to 10 years ago, when their information sources were the Yellow Pages or a newspaper ad, or from calling the local hospital. Below are five key reasons why determining your online reputation today can pay off in the future. This article will guide you in establishing your social media footprint and includes a personal story of one physician's reaction to conducting a Google search on herself. PMID:24228366

  20. Online reputation management: the first steps.

    PubMed

    Gay, Susan; Pho, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Can patients reliably choose a good doctor online? Inevitably, some will. Many doctors are not comfortable being visible online. So if you do not have a blog or a social media profile, what shows up when a patient Googles you most likely will be something from an online rating site. This trend can have a profound impact on a medical practice. As one of authors (KP) noticed, patients are now saying that they found his practice through the Internet, in stark contrast to 10 years ago, when their information sources were the Yellow Pages or a newspaper ad, or from calling the local hospital. Below are five key reasons why determining your online reputation today can pay off in the future. This article will guide you in establishing your social media footprint and includes a personal story of one physician's reaction to conducting a Google search on herself.

  1. Geography Teachers and Curriculum Making in "Changing Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the controls and influences over geography teachers' curriculum making. A tension is identified between the teacher's agency to "make" a geography curriculum and a controlling social-economic climate of accountability, performance pressure and technological change which limits the teacher's agency. The paper argues…

  2. A Bibliography of Paperback Books Relating to Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstein, Hugh A.

    A total of 641 paperback books by commercial publishers and university presses, including a brief sampling by the United States Government, published between 1950 and 1970, with the majority appearing after 1965, are listed in this bibliography for geography and social studies teachers. Emphasis is on a broad coverage of geography including…

  3. Preservice Elementary Education Majors' Knowledge of World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, C. Warren; And Others

    This research study was designed to assess preservice elementary education teachers' knowledge of world geography. The "High School Subject Tests: World Geography," developed by Scott, Foresman and Company for use with high school students, was administered to 124 undergraduate elementary education majors enrolled in social studies methods courses…

  4. Geography and gender.

    PubMed

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs. PMID:12320248

  5. Geography Makes a Comeback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPike, Elizabeth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents two lesson plans exemplifying analytical geography. The first lesson shows how medical geography can be used to track the silent route of cholera. The second lesson about the Bermuda Triangle is an exercise in fundamental mapping skills and teaches children a valuable lesson in double-checking facts. (RLC)

  6. Lafayette Geography Institute, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    This document contains 7 geography lesson plans: (1) "Can You Give Me Directions to the Game?" by Tim Robison (uses Geographic Information Systems to establish directions to a place; grades 6-8); (2) "Crossing China by Sampan" by Marcie Ritchie (examines the role of geography in communication throughout China; grade 6); (3) "Indiana Tornado…

  7. My adventure with geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buraczyński, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the author's reminiscences concerning the student years at the Maria Curie-Skłodowska in Lublin University and career from assistant to professor of geography. The author also describes the history and development of the Department of Geography at UMCS.

  8. Finding a Way: Learning Activities in Geography for Grades 7-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This set of curriculum modules contains geography learning activities that emphasize strategies to encourage young women in geography and social studies classes. Compiled in an effort to improve the motivation and achievement levels of students in geography classrooms, grades 7-11, the modules aim to boost academic performance and overall interest…

  9. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kortepeter, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography.

  10. Ethnographic Description As a Tool in Humanistic Geography: A Native American Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick G.

    Humanistic geography is similar to ethnography in that both are concerned with describing actions and events in terms of their meaning to those experiencing them; humanistic geography is particularly concerned with understanding subjective social space: space as perceived by members of particular human groups. A humanistic geography case study,…

  11. Geography Ed for a Flat World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Geography is not what it used to be. Nowadays, that subject is often buried--and therefore inadequately covered--in a social studies curriculum itself under siege because of the extended commitment in schools to reading and math. But geographical knowledge also is not what it used to be. It has become essential to understanding a brave new world…

  12. Themes to Emphasize in the Geography Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2005-01-01

    There are major themes in geography, which all teachers should incorporate into the social studies. These themes assist students to organize information and relate relevant ideas. Teachers need to study and experiment with using a set of structural ideas to facilitate student learning. Otherwise, learning may comprise of isolated facts, concepts,…

  13. What Happens When America Flunks Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Gilbert M.

    Knowledge of geography is fundamental to understanding many other disciplines and many of the important issues which face the world, yet it has practically disappeared from our curricula, having been swallowed and dissolved by social studies. We know about malnutrition, but we know little about where millions are dying of famine. Ignorance of…

  14. Teaching about Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database concerning the teaching of human geography. Includes documents dealing with Africa, Asia, the United States, Canada, Antarctica, and geographic concepts. Explains how to obtain ERIC documents. (SG)

  15. Geography Undergraduate Program Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estaville, Lawrence E.; Brown, Brock J.; Caldwell, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of geography undergraduate programs, which incorporate external reviews and concomitant departmental self-studies, attempt to assure pedagogical excellence within uncompromising commitments to successful student learning outcomes, currency of the knowledge and skills imparted, and continuous programmatic improvement. Programmatic…

  16. The Use of Project Work in Undergraduate Geography Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silk, John; Bowlby, Sophia

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of optional group projects for third-year college-level geography students. The authors conclude that this format, besides being intellectually rewarding, teaches students valuable research, problem solving, and social skills. (AM)

  17. The Impact of the Micro on Social Studies Curricula or Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in Economics, History, and Geography Curricula in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ashley

    Government initiatives for incorporating microcomputers in the schools in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland as well as the availability of and attitudes toward computer assisted learning (CAL) in secondary school geography, economics, and history are discussed. In 1980, the government launched the Microelectronics Education Programme to support…

  18. Reputation helps solve the 'tragedy of the commons'.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred; Semmann, Dirk; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen

    2002-01-24

    The problem of sustaining a public resource that everybody is free to overuse-the 'tragedy of the commons'-emerges in many social dilemmas, such as our inability to sustain the global climate. Public goods experiments, which are used to study this type of problem, usually confirm that the collective benefit will not be produced. Because individuals and countries often participate in several social games simultaneously, the interaction of these games may provide a sophisticated way by which to maintain the public resource. Indirect reciprocity, 'give and you shall receive', is built on reputation and can sustain a high level of cooperation, as shown by game theorists. Here we show, through alternating rounds of public goods and indirect reciprocity games, that the need to maintain reputation for indirect reciprocity maintains contributions to the public good at an unexpectedly high level. But if rounds of indirect reciprocation are not expected, then contributions to the public good drop quickly to zero. Alternating the games leads to higher profits for all players. As reputation may be a currency that is valid in many social games, our approach could be used to test social dilemmas for their solubility.

  19. Improving Trust and Reputation Modeling in E-Commerce Using Agent Lifetime and Transaction Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Catherine; Tran, Thomas T.

    Effective and reliable trust and reputation modeling systems are central to the success of decentralized e-commerce systems where autonomous agents are relied upon to conduct commercial transactions. However, the subjective and social-based qualities that are inherent to trust and reputation introduce many complexities into the development of a reliable model. Existing research has successfully demonstrated how trust systems can be decentralized and has illustrated the importance of sharing trust information, or rather, modeling reputation. Still, few models have provided a solution for developing an initial set of advisors from whom to solicit reputation rankings, or have taken into account all of the social criteria used to determine trustworthiness. To meet these objectives, we propose the use of two new parameters in trust and reputation modeling: agent lifetime and total transaction count. We describe a model that employs these parameters to calculate an agent’s seniority, then apply this information when selecting agents for soliciting and ranking reputation information. Experiments using this model are described. The results are then presented and discussed to evaluate the effect of using these parameters in reputation modeling. We also discuss the value of our particular model in contrast with related work and conclude with directions for future research.

  20. Geography and health.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, O

    1981-01-01

    The most important factors affecting the social, economic, and cultural development are geography, climate, and social fertility. The interaction of these different influences are described, and their relationship with the world's health as shown. Of particular interest is how the introduction of modern techniques can counteract certain of the effects of climatic and geographical factors. Health in the various population groups of the world results from the successive interplay of a long series of factors. Generally, it is known that poverty and ignorance breed disease. Possibly the extent to which economic and educational development is dependent upon climatic and other geographical factors is not fully realized. The distribution of humans over the world's surface is governed by the availability of food and water. Agriculture alone allows the congregation of large populations and the establishment of settled communities, villages, and eventually towns. Social development ensues which may give rise to culture and science. This will allow the birth of industry and the improvement of agricultural techniques. Together they will permit economic development, capable in turn of supporting a competent administration, part of which will cater to the sanitary and medical needs of the community and contribute the health of the population. Apart from the general consequences of living in isolation, or in communities of humankind's social and cultural development, there is also an immediate and direct effect upon health. Complete isolation interferes with the transmission of cultural traditions and with the transmission of most infections. Community life creates chances of mutual infection with resulting immunity. Large cities present many opportunities for acquiring numerous infections and building up resistance to them at an early age. Their endemicity will replace epidemics. The extremely cold climate of the arctic and subarctic regions is usually well tolerated provided

  1. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts.

  2. Reputation and the evolution of conflict.

    PubMed

    McElreath, Richard

    2003-02-01

    The outcomes of conflicts in many human societies generate reputation effects that influence the nature of later conflicts. Those willing to escalate over even trivial offenses are considered honorable whereas those who do not are considered dishonorable (Nisbett & Cohen, 1996). Here I extend Maynard Smith's hawk-dove model of animal conflict to explore the logic of a strategy which uses reputation about its opponents to regulate its behavior. I show that a reputation-based strategy does well when (1) the value of the resource is large relative to the cost of losing a fight, (2) communities are stable, and (3) reputations are well known but subject to some amount of error. Reputation-based strategies may thus result in greater willingness to fight, but less fighting at equilibrium, depending upon the nature of the contests and the local socioecology. Additionally, this strategy is robust in the presence of poor knowledge about reputation.

  3. Examining corporate reputation judgments with generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Highhouse, Scott; Broadfoot, Alison; Yugo, Jennifer E; Devendorf, Shelba A

    2009-05-01

    The researchers used generalizability theory to examine whether reputation judgments about corporations function in a manner consistent with contemporary theory in the corporate-reputation literature. University professors (n = 86) of finance, marketing, and human resources management made repeated judgments about the general reputations of highly visible American companies. Minimal variability in the judgments is explained by items, time, persons, and field of specialization. Moreover, experts from the different specializations reveal considerable agreement in how they weigh different aspects of corporate performance in arriving at their global reputation judgments. The results generally support the theory of the reputation construct and suggest that stable estimates of global reputation can be achieved with a small number of items and experts. PMID:19450013

  4. The Geography Curriculum and Its Contents: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century in Argentina Geography Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Gloria Z. de

    1996-01-01

    Considers the various educational philosophies governing geography instruction in Argentina and places them in historical perspective. Contrasts the positivist and historicist approaches and discusses the current curriculum. Includes summaries of proposed changes in the curriculum emphasizing social education. (MJP)

  5. Exploring Reputation-Based Cooperation:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilone, Daniele; Giardini, Francesca; Paolucci, Mario

    In dyadic models of indirect reciprocity, the receivers' history of giving has a significant impact on the donor's decision. When the interaction involves more than two agents things become more complicated, and in large groups cooperation can hardly emerge. In this work we use a Public Goods Game to investigate whether publicly available reputation scores may support the evolution of cooperation and whether this is affected by the kind of network structure adopted. Moreover, if agents interact on a bipartite graph with partner selection, cooperation can quickly thrive in large groups.

  6. Reputation, Goodwill, and Loss: Entering the Employee Training Audit Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clardy, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Organizations, like individuals, have reputations that create consequences. Six features of organizational reputations are reviewed. A model for how organizational reputation is created is presented, with special attention to the role of employee training in reputation formation. The effects of organizational reputation on a firm's financial…

  7. Language Geography from Microblogging Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, Delia; Baronchelli, Andrea; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Microblogging platforms have now become major open source indicators for complex social interactions. With the advent of smartphones, the everincreasing mobile Internet traffic gives us the unprecedented opportunity to complement studies of complex social phenomena with real-time location information. In this work, we show that the data nowadays accessible allows for detailed studies at different scales, ranging from country-level aggregate analysis to the analysis of linguistic communities withing specific neighborhoods. The high resolution and coverage of this data permits us to investigate such issues as the linguistic homogeneity of different countries, touristic seasonal patterns within countries, and the geographical distribution of different languages in bilingual regions. This work highlights the potentialities of geolocalized studies of open data sources that can provide an extremely detailed picture of the language geography.

  8. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Anthony R.; Downs, Roger M.

    This booklet is both an executive summary of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994" and an introduction to geography as an essential part of every child's education, and as an integral part of the lives of all U.S. citizens. The publication is illustrated on every page with photographs, paintings, graphs, and maps. It defines the…

  9. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were…

  10. A Single Transferable Geography? Teaching Geography in a Contested Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of the political situation in Northern Ireland and geography teaching in schools. Student teachers on the PGCE (Postgraduate Certificate in Education) Geography Course at the University of Ulster (UU) conducted discussions within their geography departments whilst on teaching practice and reported the outcomes to…

  11. Imaginative geographies of Mars: The science and significance of the red planet, 1877--1910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Kristina Maria Doyle

    2006-12-01

    Over several decades spanning the turn of the twentieth century, Western astronomers' claims about the landscape and climate of Mars spurred widespread scientific and popular interest in the possibility that the red planet might be inhabited by intelligent beings far more advanced than humans. This dissertation challenges traditional interpretations of this episode---as an amusing example of science gone awry---with a critical re-investigation of the production of geographical knowledge about Mars in historical context. Based on extensive archival and documentary research, I offer a new explanation for the power with which the notion of an inhabited Mars gripped scholars and citizens alike, showing that turn-of the century scientific narratives about Mars derived much of their power and popularity from ties with the newly established discipline of geography. At the same time, the dissertation reveals the Mars mania to be integrally connected with the history of geography, suggesting that scientific and popular representations of Martian geography also helped circulate knowledge claims regarding the geography of Earth. Specifically, the dissertation examines astronomers' use of geographical rhetoric, imagery, method, and themes, analyzing the extent to which these elements contributed to their scientific credibility and popular reputations. I first focus on the development of Mars knowledge through cartography, examining the evolution of cartographic conventions and styles used to portray Mars and revealing how an early geometric map established the authority to influence the cartography of Mars over the next several decades. I show, furthermore, that much of the power and longevity of the inhabited-Mars hypothesis derived from this map's visual authority as a geographical representation, thus explaining why Mars maps were ubiquitous during the canal craze, with astronomers seemingly competing with one another to add cartographic detail. In addition to their deft

  12. Reputation in the Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strathdee, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The present paper raises questions about the use of the concept of reputation in sociological studies of the relationship between higher education and the labour market. Sociologists of education have yet to subject the concept of reputation to sustained critique and evaluation. This situation is unsatisfactory because a number of critical…

  13. E-Patient Reputation in Health Forums.

    PubMed

    Abdaoui, Amine; Azé, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Poncelet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Online health forums are increasingly used by patients to get information and help related to their health. However, information reliability in these forums is unfortunately not always guaranteed. Obviously, consequences of self-diagnosis may be severe on the patient's health if measures are taken without consulting a doctor. Many works on trust issues related to social media have been proposed, but most of them mainly focus only on the structure part of the social network (number of posts, number of likes, etc.). In the case of online health forums, a lot of trust and distrust is expressed inside the posted messages and cannot be inferred by only considering the structure. In this study, we rather suggest inferring the user's trustworthiness from the replies he receives in the forum. The proposed method is divided into three main steps: First, the recipient(s) of each post must be identified. Next, the trust or distrust expressed in these posts is evaluated. Finally, the user's reputation is computed by aggregating all the posts he received. Conducted experiments using a manually annotated corpus are encouraging. PMID:26262026

  14. Human cooperation based on punishment reputation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2013-08-01

    The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in nonhuman animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We show that punishers fully compensate their costs as they receive help more often. The more likely defection is punished within a group, the higher the level of within-group cooperation. These beneficial effects perish if the punishment reputation is removed. We conclude that reputation is key to the evolution of punishment.

  15. Human cooperation based on punishment reputation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2013-08-01

    The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in nonhuman animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We show that punishers fully compensate their costs as they receive help more often. The more likely defection is punished within a group, the higher the level of within-group cooperation. These beneficial effects perish if the punishment reputation is removed. We conclude that reputation is key to the evolution of punishment. PMID:23888865

  16. Protecting your reputation in a digital world.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Don A

    2011-01-01

    This article is not a substitute for professional services, nor is it meant to be a comprehensive list. It is intended to be a primer in helping you protect your greatest asset, your reputation. Be proactive in the way you treat your patients. Treat them with respect and courtesy and do your best to keep all your patients from becoming the disgruntled patient that attacks your reputation. Be vigilant in monitoring what people are saying about you on the Internet. If you are not aware of what they are saying, you can not defend your reputation. Be ready to act when you find unfair criticism of your reputation. Finally, be smart in how you present your online image. Don't post anything online unless you are comfortable with the entire world seeing it. Remember the old saying, "It takes a lifetime to build a reputation, but only a moment to undo it."

  17. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  18. Geography and Reading: An Integrated Approach to Teaching Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This document discusses the advantages of integrating social studies--geography in particular--and reading skills. Time is saved because literature based reading is a high interest means of introducing social studies concepts and vocabulary to children. Skills can be taught using the vocabulary from the social studies unit. This paper presents…

  19. School Choice in a Stratified Geography: Class, Geography, Otherness, and Moral Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabay-Egozi, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Using open-ended, semi-structured interviews, this study pulls together insights on social class and geography to explore how parents choose schools differently for their children in a unique Israeli setting. Querying parents' feelings and perceptions about themselves and others in their immediate and distant locality offers an opportunity to…

  20. Reputation of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in the UK: the patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Abu-Serriah, M; Dhariwal, D; Martin, G

    2015-04-01

    Our intention is to shed theoretical and practical light on the professional reputation of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) in the UK by drawing on theories from management literature, particularly concerning reputation. Since professional reputation is socially constructed by stakeholders, we used interpretivist methods to conduct a qualitative study of patients (stakeholders) to gain an insight into their view of the profession. Findings from our focus groups highlighted the importance of "soft-wired skills" and showed a perception - reality gap in the interaction between patients and doctors. They also highlighted the importance of consistency, relational coordination, mechanisms to enable transparent feedback, and professional processes of governance. To help understand how best to manage the reputation of the specialty, we also explored how this is affected by the media and the Internet. PMID:25631399

  1. Cooperation Survives and Cheating Pays in a Dynamic Network Structure with Unreliable Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Antonioni, Alberto; Sánchez, Angel; Tomassini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In a networked society like ours, reputation is an indispensable tool to guide decisions about social or economic interactions with individuals otherwise unknown. Usually, information about prospective counterparts is incomplete, often being limited to an average success rate. Uncertainty on reputation is further increased by fraud, which is increasingly becoming a cause of concern. To address these issues, we have designed an experiment based on the Prisoner’s Dilemma as a model for social interactions. Participants could spend money to have their observable cooperativeness increased. We find that the aggregate cooperation level is practically unchanged, i.e., global behavior does not seem to be affected by unreliable reputations. However, at the individual level we find two distinct types of behavior, one of reliable subjects and one of cheaters, where the latter artificially fake their reputation in almost every interaction. Cheaters end up being better off than honest individuals, who not only keep their true reputation but are also more cooperative. In practice, this results in honest subjects paying the costs of fraud as cheaters earn the same as in a truthful environment. These findings point to the importance of ensuring the truthfulness of reputation for a more equitable and fair society. PMID:27251114

  2. Cooperation Survives and Cheating Pays in a Dynamic Network Structure with Unreliable Reputation.

    PubMed

    Antonioni, Alberto; Sánchez, Angel; Tomassini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In a networked society like ours, reputation is an indispensable tool to guide decisions about social or economic interactions with individuals otherwise unknown. Usually, information about prospective counterparts is incomplete, often being limited to an average success rate. Uncertainty on reputation is further increased by fraud, which is increasingly becoming a cause of concern. To address these issues, we have designed an experiment based on the Prisoner's Dilemma as a model for social interactions. Participants could spend money to have their observable cooperativeness increased. We find that the aggregate cooperation level is practically unchanged, i.e., global behavior does not seem to be affected by unreliable reputations. However, at the individual level we find two distinct types of behavior, one of reliable subjects and one of cheaters, where the latter artificially fake their reputation in almost every interaction. Cheaters end up being better off than honest individuals, who not only keep their true reputation but are also more cooperative. In practice, this results in honest subjects paying the costs of fraud as cheaters earn the same as in a truthful environment. These findings point to the importance of ensuring the truthfulness of reputation for a more equitable and fair society. PMID:27251114

  3. Cooperation Survives and Cheating Pays in a Dynamic Network Structure with Unreliable Reputation.

    PubMed

    Antonioni, Alberto; Sánchez, Angel; Tomassini, Marco

    2016-06-02

    In a networked society like ours, reputation is an indispensable tool to guide decisions about social or economic interactions with individuals otherwise unknown. Usually, information about prospective counterparts is incomplete, often being limited to an average success rate. Uncertainty on reputation is further increased by fraud, which is increasingly becoming a cause of concern. To address these issues, we have designed an experiment based on the Prisoner's Dilemma as a model for social interactions. Participants could spend money to have their observable cooperativeness increased. We find that the aggregate cooperation level is practically unchanged, i.e., global behavior does not seem to be affected by unreliable reputations. However, at the individual level we find two distinct types of behavior, one of reliable subjects and one of cheaters, where the latter artificially fake their reputation in almost every interaction. Cheaters end up being better off than honest individuals, who not only keep their true reputation but are also more cooperative. In practice, this results in honest subjects paying the costs of fraud as cheaters earn the same as in a truthful environment. These findings point to the importance of ensuring the truthfulness of reputation for a more equitable and fair society.

  4. Newspapers, Football & Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas City Star/Times, MO. Educational Services Dept.

    This booklet focuses on the Kansas City (Missouri) Chiefs professional football team and is designed to teach geography through the use of newspapers. In Section 1, "The Local Scene," the instructional activities help students to learn about the Kansas City metropolitan area through collecting news stories and advertisements. Section 2, "The…

  5. Job Sharing in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  6. Teaching Georgia Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Offers strategies for teaching eighth grade Georgia geography in accordance with the Georgia Quality Core Curriculum mandate of 1988. Describes the value of combining teachers from the earth sciences, mathematics, and language arts. Gives an example of team teaching at work, including student activities and answer key. (RW)

  7. Geography from Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Suggests utilizing foreign coins and banknotes as teaching aids for geography. Discusses coins portrayal of such issues as societal goals, historical commemorations, or conservation of wildlife. Cites banknotes as a source of even more geographical information than coins. Suggests sources of information, coins, and banknotes. (DK)

  8. Geography. Senior Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    An integrated secondary curriculum is outlined in this particular guide for Canadian schools. The grade 11 World Geography course is intended to help students place geographic concepts developed in the first ten years of school into a systematic framework. Here conservation of all resources is an important topic: water resources and pollution,…

  9. Kentucky History and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckinridge County Board of Education, Hardinsburg, KY.

    Designed for use in grades 6, 7, and 8, this curriculum guide provides 11 individual units for teaching Kentucky history and geography with the recommended text "Kentucky Heritage" published by Steck-Vaughn. Unit titles are The Blue Grass State, Early Explorations of Kentucky, Development of the Government of Kentucky, The Constitution of…

  10. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  11. The reputation of Kenneth James William Craik.

    PubMed

    Collins, Alan F

    2013-05-01

    Reputation is a familiar concept in everyday life and in a range of academic disciplines. There have been studies of its formation, its content, its management, its diffusion, and much else besides. This article explores the reputation of the Cambridge psychologist Kenneth Craik (1914-1945). Having examined something of Craik's life and work and the content of his reputation, the article concentrates on the functions that Craik's reputation has served, particularly for psychology and related disciplines. The major functions of that reputation are identified as being a legitimation and confirmation of disciplinary boundaries and discontinuities in the period shortly after World War II, an exemplification of how to be a modern scientist and of the values to embrace, a reinforcement of science as having a national dimension, an affirmation of psychology as a science that can serve national needs, and a creation of shared identities through commemoration. The article concludes that studies of reputations can illuminate the contexts in which they emerge and the values they endorse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict. PMID:23253792

  13. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-12-20

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict.

  14. Influences of agents with a self-reputation awareness component in an evolutionary spatial IPD game.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Chun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) researchers have shown that strong positive reputations plus an efficient reputation evaluation system encourages both sides to pursue long-term collaboration and to avoid falling into mutual defection cycles. In agent-based environments with reliable reputation rating systems, agents interested in maximizing their private interests must show concern for other agents as well as their own self-reputations--an important capability that standard IPD game agents lack. Here we present a novel learning agent model possessing self-reputation awareness. Agents in our proposed model are capable of evaluating self-behaviors based on a mix of public and private interest considerations, and of testing various solutions aimed at meeting social standards. Simulation results indicate multiple outcomes from the addition of a small percentage of self-reputation awareness agents: faster cooperation, faster movement toward stability in an agent society, a higher level of public interest in the agent society, the resolution of common conflicts between public and private interests, and a lower potential for rational individual behavior to transform into irrational group behavior.

  15. GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT to study geography: the homepage and reflections from the users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT is to convey structured information to teachers and pupils, as well as, professors and students of geography. This learning aid is a homepage, first published in Hungarian still in 2006 (http://netszkozkeszlet.ektf.hu), to help in orientation among the rapidly growing information on the Internet, to provide extra digitalized professional materials that are not yet available digitally and to share experiences of the teachers and professors working in the same area of interest and language environment. At present, its English version is already prepared and partly available at the same address. The GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT can be used free after registration, at present the homepage counts 2807 registered users. The interested user first enters a virtual office where the entries of the Menu can be opened by clicking at the drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, TV-set, etc. These entries are professional lesson plans using digital technology, photos, video clips, animations on physical and social geography. The homepage also mirrors pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database links, diagrams, bibliography, lecture notes, dictionaries, scientific and popular journals, geography games, web pages, etc. The whole set of appliances is based on Dreamweaver MX program. During the past 2.5 years some experience has been gained about the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT in use, mainly from teachers of geography, who downloaded and responded to the questionnaire. Another source of information is the group of students in the College, where future teachers of geography are trained in a one-semester course on application of the Info-Communication Technology. From the first group, i.e. 59 active teachers of geography, 54 % use the Internet "always" or "frequently" in the classroom, whereas 75 % of them rely on it for preparation to the lessons. Before trying the homepage, these numbers were 25 % and 54 %, only. From among the listed

  16. Using Mnemonics to Learn Place Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah W.

    1995-01-01

    Learning place geography is an important part of school geography. Reports on research findings addressing effective ways to teach place geography. Finds that research indicates significant differences between mnemonic and non-mnemonic treatment groups. (CFR)

  17. Aesthetics in Geography: Ideas for Teaching Geography Using Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how poetry can be used for teaching geography. The rational for using and writing poetry, its relationship to the National Standards for Geography, grade levels, pedagogical concerns associated with poetry writing, and subject integration are discussed. There are also classroom activities, sample discussion questions, lesson…

  18. The Geography for Life Standards and American Political Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Douglas Deane

    1997-01-01

    Explores the intersection of geography and politics in U.S. public policy development and connects this to several of the National Geography Standards. Discusses contemporary issues including economic interdependence, the impact of migration, resource competition, cultural values, and environmental issues. Offers suggested student activities. (MJP)

  19. Female Representation in the Higher Education of Geography in Hungary. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Judit; Jelenszkyne, Ildiko Fabian

    2004-01-01

    This paper charts the changing female representation in the higher education of geography, connecting it with the faltering development of feminist geography in Hungary. The transition from socialism to capitalism has compounded gender inequalities while many of the relevant statistical data display gender blindness. Gender issues fail to form a…

  20. How Can Teaching Geography Contribute to the Understanding of the Common Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Mary E.

    This lesson plan for instruction in geography addresses three social studies standards (People, Places and Environments; Culture; Civic Ideals and Values) and seven geography standards (development of mental maps; physical and human characteristics of places; people create regions to interpret the earth's complexity; patterns and networks of…

  1. Finding Geography Using Found Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional literacy is important in both English/language arts and geography. Using the "found poetry" strategy, students will summarize a piece of text, identify main ideas and find geographic connections. While using young adult literature is a great way to incorporate geography into English/language arts classroom, understanding of geography…

  2. Seeing the Geography around Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Phillip

    1989-01-01

    Highlights ideas from urban geography that may be used to teach students about the interaction of people and space. Students will learn to better relate geography to their own lives if they understand how the concept of accessibility relates to competition for commercial land, and if they consider questions related to the use of urban space. (LS)

  3. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  4. Geography Resources for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights geography resources available from the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Provides a brief description of five resources. Articles deal with teaching geography through the use of unique images of China, the integration of tactile and visual learning, the Gall-Peters map projection, a map game, and geographic literacy. (KO)

  5. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  6. The Realm of Physical Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Patrick S.

    This secondary education student geography book contains chapters on climate, landforms, oceans, world vegetation, water resources, and population. Each chapter provides an introduction that describes the unit's topics, descriptive and instructional materials, learning activities, and questions. A glossary of geography-related terms and an…

  7. Replicator dynamics of reward & reputation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Hauert, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Public goods games have become the mathematical metaphor for game theoretical investigations of cooperative behavior in groups of interacting individuals. Cooperation is a conundrum because cooperators make a sacrifice to benefit others at some cost to themselves. Exploiters or defectors reap the benefits and forgo costs. Despite the fact that groups of cooperators outperform groups of defectors, Darwinian selection or utilitarian principles based on rational choice should favor defectors. In order to overcome this social dilemma, much effort has been expended for investigations pertaining to punishment and sanctioning measures against defectors. Interestingly, the complementary approach to create positive incentives and to reward cooperation has received considerably less attention-despite being heavily advocated in education and social sciences for increasing productivity or preventing conflicts. Here we show that rewards can indeed stimulate cooperation in interaction groups of arbitrary size but, in contrast to punishment, fail to stabilize it. In both cases, however, reputation is essential. The combination of reward and reputation result in complex dynamics dominated by unpredictable oscillations.

  8. Replicator dynamics of reward & reputation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Hauert, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Public goods games have become the mathematical metaphor for game theoretical investigations of cooperative behavior in groups of interacting individuals. Cooperation is a conundrum because cooperators make a sacrifice to benefit others at some cost to themselves. Exploiters or defectors reap the benefits and forgo costs. Despite the fact that groups of cooperators outperform groups of defectors, Darwinian selection or utilitarian principles based on rational choice should favor defectors. In order to overcome this social dilemma, much effort has been expended for investigations pertaining to punishment and sanctioning measures against defectors. Interestingly, the complementary approach to create positive incentives and to reward cooperation has received considerably less attention-despite being heavily advocated in education and social sciences for increasing productivity or preventing conflicts. Here we show that rewards can indeed stimulate cooperation in interaction groups of arbitrary size but, in contrast to punishment, fail to stabilize it. In both cases, however, reputation is essential. The combination of reward and reputation result in complex dynamics dominated by unpredictable oscillations. PMID:20708018

  9. Structural Location and Reputed Influence in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamara V.; Lewis, Wayne D.; Sanders, Marla S.

    2010-01-01

    Using data about collaborative relationships among 109 reading policy actors from four states, this study investigated the extent to which social capital, operationalized as spanning structural holes, predicted a policy actor's reputed influence. Regression analysis showed that after controlling for state, centrality, and government entity, having…

  10. Peer Academic Reputation in Elementary School: Associations with Changes in Self-Concept and Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2005-01-01

    The developmental significance of children's academic reputation among peers was examined in a longitudinal study of 400 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. In the fall of Year 1, teachers rated children's academic skills and behavior, and peers provided nominations describing classmates' academic skills, social acceptance versus rejection, and…

  11. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  12. The New School Geography: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Compares "old" geography curriculum with "new" geography curriculum proposed by National Geographic Society and based on five geographic themes. Examines new course as both geography course and as subject in the general education curriculum. Noting the marginal value and limitations of the new geography, recommends that the geographic educators'…

  13. Influences of Agents with a Self-Reputation Awareness Component in an Evolutionary Spatial IPD Game

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Chun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Iterated prisoner’s dilemma (IPD) researchers have shown that strong positive reputations plus an efficient reputation evaluation system encourages both sides to pursue long-term collaboration and to avoid falling into mutual defection cycles. In agent-based environments with reliable reputation rating systems, agents interested in maximizing their private interests must show concern for other agents as well as their own self-reputations–an important capability that standard IPD game agents lack. Here we present a novel learning agent model possessing self-reputation awareness. Agents in our proposed model are capable of evaluating self-behaviors based on a mix of public and private interest considerations, and of testing various solutions aimed at meeting social standards. Simulation results indicate multiple outcomes from the addition of a small percentage of self-reputation awareness agents: faster cooperation, faster movement toward stability in an agent society, a higher level of public interest in the agent society, the resolution of common conflicts between public and private interests, and a lower potential for rational individual behavior to transform into irrational group behavior. PMID:24945966

  14. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one’s reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one’s own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions. PMID:26650842

  15. The evolution of reputation-based partner-switching behaviors with a cost.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Humans constantly adjust their social relationships and choose new partners of good reputations, thereby promoting the evolution of cooperation. Individuals have to pay a cost to build a reputation, obtain others' information and then make partnership adjustments, yet the conditions under which such costly behaviors are able to evolve remain to be explored. In this model, I assume that individuals have to pay a cost to adjust their partnerships. Furthermore, whether an individual can adjust his partnership based on reputation is determined by his strategic preference, which is updated via coevolution. Using the metaphor of a public goods game where the collective benefit is shared among all members of a group, the coupling dynamics of cooperation and partnership adjustment were numerically simulated. Partner-switching behavior cannot evolve in a public goods game with a low amplification factor. However, such an effect can be exempted by raising the productivity of public goods or the frequency of partnership adjustment. Moreover, costly partner-switching behavior is remarkably promoted by the condition that the mechanism of reputation evaluation considers its prosociality. A mechanism of reputation evaluation that praises both cooperative and partner-switching behaviors allows them to coevolve. PMID:25091006

  16. The evolution of reputation-based partner-switching behaviors with a cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao

    2014-08-01

    Humans constantly adjust their social relationships and choose new partners of good reputations, thereby promoting the evolution of cooperation. Individuals have to pay a cost to build a reputation, obtain others' information and then make partnership adjustments, yet the conditions under which such costly behaviors are able to evolve remain to be explored. In this model, I assume that individuals have to pay a cost to adjust their partnerships. Furthermore, whether an individual can adjust his partnership based on reputation is determined by his strategic preference, which is updated via coevolution. Using the metaphor of a public goods game where the collective benefit is shared among all members of a group, the coupling dynamics of cooperation and partnership adjustment were numerically simulated. Partner-switching behavior cannot evolve in a public goods game with a low amplification factor. However, such an effect can be exempted by raising the productivity of public goods or the frequency of partnership adjustment. Moreover, costly partner-switching behavior is remarkably promoted by the condition that the mechanism of reputation evaluation considers its prosociality. A mechanism of reputation evaluation that praises both cooperative and partner-switching behaviors allows them to coevolve.

  17. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  18. Does a Professor's Reputation Affect Course Selection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoag, John H.; And Others

    To examine whether a professor's reputation affects course selection, a survey was conducted of about 280 students in a junior level marketing class required of all business students at Bowling Green State University (Ohio). The questionnaire listed 25 economics professors and asked what the students had heard about the professors in five…

  19. Network Reputational Risks of the Educational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekturganov, Zakir Z.

    2016-01-01

    Development of the global information space is the basis of change in the educational paradigm and the formation of the world market of educational services. Traditional educational institutions face new challenges and risks that undermine their competitiveness. This implies the emerging phenomenon of online reputation risks, with significant…

  20. Rankings and the Global Reputation Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This chapter delves into the growing influence and impact of rankings on higher education, as a lens through which to view how the race for reputation and status is changing the higher education landscape, both globally and nationally. The author considers the extent to which rankings are driving policy choices and institutional decisions and the…

  1. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation.

  2. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation. PMID:22796271

  3. Peer Effects in Unethical Behavior: Standing or Reputation?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence shows that working in an unsupervised, isolated situation under competition, can increase dishonest behavior to achieve prestige. However, could working in a common space, in the presence of colleagues affect cheating? Here, we examine how familiar-peer influence, supervision and social incentives affect worker performance and dishonest behavior. First, we show that working in the presence of peers is an effective mechanism to constrain honest/dishonest behavior compared to an isolated work situation (experiment 1). Second, we demonstrate that the mere suspicion of dishonesty from another peer is not enough to affect individual cheating behavior (experiment 2), suggesting that reputation holds great importance in a worker’s self-image acting as a strong social incentives. Third, we show that when the suspicion of dishonesty increases with multiple peers behaving dishonestly, the desire to increase standing is sufficient to nudge individuals’ behavior back to cheating at the same levels as isolated situations (experiment 3). PMID:25853716

  4. Geography From Another Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The GEODESY software program is intended to promote geographical awareness among students with its remote sensing capabilities to observe the Earth's surface from distant vantage points. Students and teachers using GEODESY learn to interpret and analyze geographical data pertaining to the physical attributes of their community. For example, the program provides a digital environment of physical features, such as mountains and bodies of water, as well as man-made features, such as roads and parks, using aerial photography, satellite imagery, and geographic information systems data in accordance with National Geography Standards. The main goal is to have the students and teachers gain a better understanding of the unique forces that drive their coexistence. GEODESY was developed with technical assistance and financial support from Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, now known as the Earth Science Applications Directorate.

  5. The Costs of Reneging: Reputation and Alliance Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibler, Douglas M.

    2008-01-01

    Reputations are supposed to matter. Decision makers consistently refer to reputations for resolve, and international relations theories confirm the value of being able to credibly signal intentions during times of crisis. However, empirical support for the effects of reputation has been lacking. Problems of strategic selection have hampered…

  6. Reputation Management: The New Face of Corporate Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, James G.; Goodman, Michael B.; Alexander, Jill B.; Genest, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an empirical study of the Fortune 500 companies suggesting that "reputation management" is gaining ground as a driving philosophy behind corporate public relations. Finds some interesting correlations between reputation and specific categories of spending. Concludes that if reputation management is the new face of corporate public…

  7. Hands-On Activities for Integrating Geography across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Leslie Mills, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Describes ways to integrate geography into the curriculum of primary and intermediate grades. Suggests hands-on activities for teaching abstract concepts through concrete experiences. Includes two units: creating a global map of the earth and incorporating social studies into language arts and mathematics by using magnet cars on maps. (NL)

  8. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  9. Advanced Research Training in Human Geography: The Scottish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwanzura-Ottemoeller, Fungisai; Hopkins, Peter; Lorimer, Hayden; Philip, Lorna J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal research training is integral to research degrees in human geography completed in UK higher education institutions today. The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) has been the driving force behind the formalization of research training. Arguably less well known among the ESRC research training recommendations is the stipulation that…

  10. A New Pathway: Video-Based Professional Development in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Richard G.; Brysch, Carmen P.; Mohan, Audrey; Backler, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Gilbert M. Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education, in partnership with the Agency for Instructional Technology, and the National Geographic Education Foundation have embarked on the production of a twenty-two-program, Web-based professional development series for teachers of geography, social studies, and environmental science, titled…

  11. Toward a Geography of Rural Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The field of rural education has not been significantly developed in Canada and the marginal status of the rural itself has contributed to this peripheral status. The emergence of geography and spatial thinking generally in social theory and in educational thought represents an opportunity to re-evaluate the importance of space and place in…

  12. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  13. Module Cluster: UG - 001.00 (GSC) Urban Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Wade R.

    This is one of several module clusters developed for the Camden Teacher Corps project. This module cluster is designed to introduce students to urban studies through the application of a geographic approach. Although geography shares with other social sciences many concepts and methods, it has contributed a distinctive set of viewpoints and a…

  14. Spaces and Places: A Geography Manual for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemball, Walter, Ed.

    This manual is designed as a resource guide for preservice and classroom teachers with an interest in geographic education. The chapters cover a variety of topics including the most recent developments in geographic education. Each chapter offers suggestions and ideas that can be included in general geography/social studies methods courses or…

  15. Choosing to Teach Relationships: Economic Geography and the Local Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    Both the teaching of the free enterprise system and the teaching of geography are an integral part of the guidelines for elementary school social studies in most states. The two have been combined into a resource unit for studying localities so that students may understand that U.S. citizens, the environment, and the economy are interdependent.…

  16. The Tales of the Dogs: Integrating Geography and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Francie Keller; Stearns, Louise; Kallo, Joe

    2006-01-01

    As elementary social science methods instructors, the authors observed a need in their student population for instructional methods that would engage students in the content, process, and values of geography instruction. Their initial purpose was to create an instructional model that pre-service teachers could adapt and use in their future…

  17. Geography Education in Asia: Samples from Different Countries and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incekara, Suleyman

    2010-01-01

    With the maximum use of the technology such as geographic information science (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and global positioning systems (GPSs) in geography courses, along with its integrative perspective on the social and life sciences and an emphasis on student-centered education, problem solving, and sustainable and environmental education,…

  18. Geography Resources for Middle School and High School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiddie, Laura

    1989-01-01

    Provides educational resources for teaching geography from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Includes units on the Model United Nations, China, Middle America, and the United States. Resources stress themes of economic, political, and social interactions and interdependence. Provides simulations, maps, sample tests, and lesson…

  19. How Is Your Moon Geography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlathery, Glenn

    1971-01-01

    Describes geography of the moon. A brief history of selenographic history is given and basic features including lunar seas, mountains, craters, rays, and faults are described. Lunar photographs are included. (JM)

  20. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of Japan's Prince…

  1. Exploring the Micro-Social Geography of Children's Interactions in Preschool: A Long-Term Observational Study and Analysis Using Geographic Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrens, Paul M.; Griffin, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe an observational and analytic methodology for recording and interpreting dynamic microprocesses that occur during social interaction, making use of space--time data collection techniques, spatial-statistical analysis, and visualization. The scheme has three investigative foci: Structure, Activity Composition, and Clustering.…

  2. Chinese Philosophy. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.3. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.3 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structure of the civilizations of China in the middle ages." Seventh-grade students focus on the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism; agricultural,…

  3. Teacher Use of Economics and Cultural Geography for a Middle School Social Studies Class: Planning a Trip to Kenya and Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This unit was designed by a certified Media and Social Studies teacher to help middle school students in Prince George's County, Maryland, plan a trip to East Africa and specifically to Kenya and Tanzania. Each school has a 90 percent African American student population in grades seven and eight, and both are magnet schools. The teacher has had a…

  4. Ghana and Mali. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.4. World History and Geography: Medieval Sub-Saharan Africa. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.4 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Seventh-grade students focus on the Niger River and the growth of the Mali and Ghana empires; analyze the importance of…

  5. Expanding Geographic Understanding in Grade 8 Social Studies Classes through Integration of Geography, Music, and History: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ronald Craig

    2009-01-01

    This study took place in a high-achieving, suburban middle school and compared learning as a result of nine Grade 8 social studies workshops. Three classes (N=84) were the control group and four classes (N=131) were the treatment. As much as possible, classes were balanced in terms of gender, ethnicity, and proficiency in English. The key question…

  6. Cooperative behaviour and prosocial reputation dynamics in a Dominican village.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Quinlan, Robert; Remiker, Mark

    2013-06-22

    Prosocial reputations play an important role, from the evolution of language to Internet transactions; however, questions remain about their behavioural correlates and dynamics. Formal models assume prosocial reputations correlate with the number of cooperative acts one performs; however, if reputations flow through information networks, then the number of individuals one assists may be a better proxy. Formal models demonstrate indirect experience must track behaviour with the same fidelity as direct experience for reputations to become viable; however, research on corporate reputations suggests performance change does not always affect reputation change. Debate exists over the cognitive mechanisms employed for assessing reputation dynamics. Image scoring suggests reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in need, while standing strategy claims reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in good standing. This study examines the behavioural correlates of prosocial reputations and their dynamics over a 20-month period in an Afro-Caribbean village. Analyses suggest prosocial reputations: (i) are correlated with the number of individuals one assists in economic production, not the number of cooperative acts; (ii) track cooperative behaviour, but are anchored across time; and (iii) are captured neither by image scoring nor standing strategy-type mechanisms.

  7. Cooperative behaviour and prosocial reputation dynamics in a Dominican village.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Quinlan, Robert; Remiker, Mark

    2013-06-22

    Prosocial reputations play an important role, from the evolution of language to Internet transactions; however, questions remain about their behavioural correlates and dynamics. Formal models assume prosocial reputations correlate with the number of cooperative acts one performs; however, if reputations flow through information networks, then the number of individuals one assists may be a better proxy. Formal models demonstrate indirect experience must track behaviour with the same fidelity as direct experience for reputations to become viable; however, research on corporate reputations suggests performance change does not always affect reputation change. Debate exists over the cognitive mechanisms employed for assessing reputation dynamics. Image scoring suggests reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in need, while standing strategy claims reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in good standing. This study examines the behavioural correlates of prosocial reputations and their dynamics over a 20-month period in an Afro-Caribbean village. Analyses suggest prosocial reputations: (i) are correlated with the number of individuals one assists in economic production, not the number of cooperative acts; (ii) track cooperative behaviour, but are anchored across time; and (iii) are captured neither by image scoring nor standing strategy-type mechanisms. PMID:23760642

  8. The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in reputation processing.

    PubMed

    Izuma, Keise; Saito, Daisuke N; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    How we are viewed by other individuals-our reputation-has a considerable influence on our everyday behaviors and is considered an important concept in explaining altruism, a uniquely human trait. Previously it has been proposed that processing one's own reputation requires a reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a value representation in the striatum. Here, we directly tested this idea using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects disclosed their behavioral tendencies with reference to social norms in the presence or absence of other people, a manipulation that is known to greatly affect an individual's concern for their reputation. The mPFC showed strong activation during self-referential processing, and this activity was enhanced by the mere presence of observers. Moreover, the striatum was also strongly activated when subjects responded in front of observers. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the mPFC and striatum were automatically recruited when the task placed a high demand on processing how one is viewed by others. Taken together, our findings suggest that the mPFC and the striatum play a key role in regulating human social behaviors, and these results provide valuable insight into the neural basis of human altruism.

  9. The geography of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Vivienne; Solomina, Olga

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the physical and human geography of the Kamchatka region and summarises previous research on Holocene climate dynamics. We provide context for the rest of the Special Issue of the Journal Global and Planetary Change entitled 'Holocene climate change in Kamchatka', the primary focus of which is the use of lake sediment records for palaeoclimatic inferences. In this paper an additional perspective from ongoing tree ring, ice core and borehole temperature reconstructions illustrates that the Kamchatka region is rich in paleoclimatic proxies. The period of the last 200 years is sufficiently covered by the proxy information, including reconstructions with annual resolution. In this period the tree-rings, ice cores, boreholes, and glacier fluctuations recorded a 1 °C warming and a general glacier retreat, i.e. the transition from the Little Ice Age climate to the modern one. Although the proxies have different resolution, accuracy and seasonality in general they demonstrate a coherent picture of environmental changes in the last two centuries. The tree ring and ice core records are up to four-six hundred years long and they provide information on annual to decadal variability of summer temperature, accumulation processes, volcanic eruptions and lahar activity.

  10. Application of the AHP method in modeling the trust and reputation of software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zytniewski, Mariusz; Klementa, Marek; Skorupka, Dariusz; Stanek, Stanislaw; Duchaczek, Artur

    2016-06-01

    Given the unique characteristics of cyberspace and, in particular, the number of inherent security threats, communication between software agents becomes a highly complex issue and a major challenge that, on the one hand, needs to be continuously monitored and, on the other, awaits new solutions addressing its vulnerabilities. An approach that has recently come into view mimics mechanisms typical of social systems and is based on trust and reputation that assist agents in deciding which other agents to interact with. The paper offers an enhancement to existing trust and reputation models, involving the application of the AHP method that is widely used for decision support in social systems, notably for risks analysis. To this end, it is proposed to expand the underlying conceptual basis by including such notions as self-trust and social trust, and to apply these to software agents. The discussion is concluded with an account of an experiment aimed at testing the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  11. Teaching Geography Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Jones, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    Twenty suggestions in five conceptual areas -- interdependence, population, pollution, resource utilization, land use -- are offered to teachers incorporating environmental studies into their social studies curricula. (JH)

  12. A neural network based reputation bootstrapping approach for service selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Quanwang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Li, Peng

    2015-10-01

    With the concept of service-oriented computing becoming widely accepted in enterprise application integration, more and more computing resources are encapsulated as services and published online. Reputation mechanism has been studied to establish trust on prior unknown services. One of the limitations of current reputation mechanisms is that they cannot assess the reputation of newly deployed services as no record of their previous behaviours exists. Most of the current bootstrapping approaches merely assign default reputation values to newcomers. However, by this kind of methods, either newcomers or existing services will be favoured. In this paper, we present a novel reputation bootstrapping approach, where correlations between features and performance of existing services are learned through an artificial neural network (ANN) and they are then generalised to establish a tentative reputation when evaluating new and unknown services. Reputations of services published previously by the same provider are also incorporated for reputation bootstrapping if available. The proposed reputation bootstrapping approach is seamlessly embedded into an existing reputation model and implemented in the extended service-oriented architecture. Empirical studies of the proposed approach are shown at last.

  13. Replacing positivism in medical geography.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David

    2005-06-01

    Revisiting debates about philosophical approaches in medical geography suggests that logical positivism may have been prematurely discarded. An analysis of authoritative texts in medical geography and their sources in human geography shows that logical positivism has been conflated with Comtean positivism, science, empiricism, quantification, science politics, scientism and so on, to produce the "standard version" of the all-purpose pejorative "positivism", which it is easy to dismiss as an evil. It is argued that the standard version fails to do justice to logical positivism, being constructed on sources which are at some distance from the logical positivist movement itself. An alternative approach is then developed, an historically and geographically situated interpretation of logical positivism as a deliberately and knowingly constructed oppositional epistemology within an oppressive and anti-scientific culture predicated on idealist intuitionism. Contrasting the standard version with this alternative reading of logical positivism suggests that much may have been lost in human, and thus, medical geography, by throwing out the logical positivist baby with the "positivism" bath water. It is concluded that continuing to unpack the standard version of logical positivism may identify benefits from a more nuanced appreciation of logical positivism, but it is premature to take these to the level of detailed impacts on the kinds of medical geographies that could be done or the ways of doing them. PMID:15820580

  14. Geography in High School in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhaohe; Bradbury, Ian K.

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that geography occupies a prominent position in the Chinese secondary curriculum. Describes the current course content, which includes both physical and human geography. Concludes by discussing barriers to further development, including lack of qualified staff and poor textbooks. (CFR)

  15. Teaching Geography's Four Traditions with Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    Uses four traditions of geography (spatial, area studies, human-environment interaction, and earth science) to show how poetry can be used to enhance the teaching of geography. Illustrates the explicitly spatial concepts present in selected poetry. (DAJ)

  16. The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

  17. An Experimental Testbed for Evaluation of Trust and Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Reid; Cohen, Robin

    To date, trust and reputation systems have often been evaluated using methods of their designers’ own devising. Recently, we demonstrated that a number of noteworthy trust and reputation systems could be readily defeated, revealing limitations in their original evaluations. Efforts in the trust and reputation community to develop a testbed have yielded a successful competition platform, ART. This testbed, however, is less suited to general experimentation and evaluation of individual trust and reputation technologies. In this paper, we propose an experimentation and evaluation testbed based directly on that used in our investigations into security vulnerabilities in trust and reputation systems for marketplaces. We demonstrate the advantages of this design, towards the development of more thorough, objective evaluations of trust and reputation systems.

  18. Geography in Higher Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Fen; Tang, Jianzhong

    1982-01-01

    Chinese geography expanded rapidly after liberation in 1949. Since 1976 there has been a vigorous effort to improve geographical teaching and research. The major problems being tackled include the separation of physical and human geography, the neglect of human geography, a lack of breadth in geographical training, and the low status of geography…

  19. Toward a Geography of the Negro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Fredric A.

    1971-01-01

    Within geography, Black America can best be studied in the geography of cities. Topics suggested include sources of data, urban sprawl, arrangement and support of cities, urban demography, urban land values, urban land uses, and especially the geography of the black community within the city. (NH)

  20. Core Concepts in Introductory Physical Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Robert S.; Green, Jerry E.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of 14 introductory physical geography textbooks yielded 121 core concepts (basic concepts appearing in 7-10 books). The authors suggest that the trend toward overspecialization in introductory geography classes can be reversed if teachers agree to stress core concepts and their relationships to geography as a whole. (AM)

  1. A Modern City--Its Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Harold M.; And Others

    This publication contains nine articles intended to enhance teachers' understanding of urban geography. The articles are reprinted from issues of the 1969 volume of the Journal of Geography. Urban studies has been one of the most rapidly developing fields of geography during the post World War II generation. There has been extensive research and…

  2. Preparing Geography Teachers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham; Stoltman, Joseph P.; Lee, Jongwon

    2004-01-01

    Teacher preparation has been called the "bete noire" of geography education in the United States (Boehm et al., 1994). Despite progress in other areas of geography, teacher education remains a significant issue affecting the quality of geography instruction nationwide. It is a multifaceted, multidimensional problem tied inextricably to national…

  3. The Study and Teaching of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broek, Jan O. M.; And Others

    The document discusses the discipline of geography in terms of its nature, development, research, and teaching methods. It is presented in six chapters. Chapter one briefly discusses the value of geography, its position among the sciences, and careers in geography. Chapter two traces the development of geographic thought from antiquity through the…

  4. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  5. Glamorizing Place Geography: The Sidney High School Place Geography Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Bill, III

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a high school designed a contest to reduce geographic illiteracy. A preliminary geographic location and map skill test was given schoolwide, with prizes for the top 10 scores. Concludes that the test results gave a picture of the geographically illiterate and that the test helped glamorize geography. (GG)

  6. Perspectives on Political Geography in AP® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leib, Jonathan; Smothers-Marcello, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Two trends have remade the field of political geography over the past quarter-century. First, a revision of taken-for-granted concepts that amounted to "spatial determinism." Second, pioneering many new and emerging concepts such as political ecology. Both trends are important contributions to the evolving section of the AP Human…

  7. Building Geography's New Frontier: Implementing the Australian Curriculum Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Geography as a compulsory learning area from Foundation year, such as Kindergarten, to Year 8 in Australia provides new opportunities for learning and teaching. Opportunities, in part, will be driven by challenges associated with the introduction of this learning area. Key challenges are about variability: in take-up of the…

  8. Everyday Geography: 365 Reflections on Why Geography Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Last year, beginning on New Year's Day, as president of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), the author wrote one tweet every day beginning with "What is Geography? 1 of 365" and posted them to his Twitter page. His goals in the series were several. He sought to point out as organization president how the NCGE serves the geography…

  9. Perspectives on Cultural Geography in AP® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christopher; Johnston-Anumonwo, Ibipo

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected current concerns in cultural geography and the way it is taught. It includes coverage of cultural convergence and divergence, race and gender as culturally defined topics, and best teaching practices, including those related to analyzing controversial issues. Two important geographical models are laid…

  10. Statistics for Geography Teachers: Topics in Geography, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This publication is designed to provide geography teachers with useful statistical information. It presents tables, maps, graphs, diagrams, and explanations of statistical data in 24 areas. The areas in which statistics are given are conversions, measurement, astronomy, time, daylight, twilight, latitude and longitude as distance, the relationship…

  11. Enhancing Multilateral Security in and by Reputation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecher, Sandra

    With the increasing possibilities for interaction between Internet users exceeding pure communication, in multilateral security the research question arises to rethink and extend classical security requirements. Reputation systems are a possible solution to assist new security requirements. But naturally also reputation systems have to be designed in a multilateral secure way. In this paper we discuss both multilateral security by and in reputation systems. An overview on the possibilities how such systems could be realised is given.

  12. Geography of the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  13. Geography for Our Youngest Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    In the earliest days of American education, leaders in educational theory and practice believed that the curriculum should revolve around the child's lived experiences. Geography, therefore, should hold a prominent place in the curriculum since it is through geographic concepts that children first experience the world around them. Reading and…

  14. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  15. Political Geography and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Phillip E.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent theoretical advances in political geography, particularly those that stress the political conflict behind the production of space. Discusses how this has impacted the study of environmental phenomena such as hazards, human-land relationships, development, and international environmental governance. Suggests ways that political…

  16. Teaching Energy Geography? It's Complicated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The premise of this essay is that energy geographies are complicated, and this in itself presents some pedagogical difficulties. As someone who wants students to critically examine and confront the complexity of energy systems, it can be frustrating when students react to demonstrate frustration, apathy, or even confusion. In what follows, I will…

  17. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  18. Microcomputer Modules for Undergraduate Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groop, Richard; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Described and evaluated are microcomputer units of instruction that were developed for use in undergraduate geography courses. Students responded favorably to the modules--"Socioeconomic Patterns,""Economic Rent,""Sampling Distribution of Sample Means,""Land Use Competition,""Data Classing,""Weather and Climate," and "Landforms." (RM)

  19. Teaching Energy Geographies via Videography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graybill, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    In our digital age of information acquisition, multimedia information streams are constant, constantly changing and often contain multiple messages about topics important to everyday life, such as energy geographies. Recognizing that college students are prime consumers of digital information, it seems that crafting of academic engagement for and…

  20. Japan: Geography, Cuisine, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Karen

    These materials are designed as four modules: geography, foods, the kitchen, and culture and are to be used singly or jointly as a unit on Japanese food and culture. Common ingredients of Japanese food, nutritional information, methods of preparation, and illustrations of utensils and eating implements are given in conjunction with cultural…

  1. Deconstruction Geography: A STEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlhar, Adam M.; Duffield, Stacy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article will define the engineering design process used to create an integrated curriculum at STEM Center Middle School, and it features the planning, implementation, and revision of the Deconstruction Geography unit. The Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Center opened in the fall of 2009 as a way to relieve overcrowding at the…

  2. Geography Controls GI Bill Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Stuart F.

    Analyzing FY 74 GI Bill data seems to confirm that a Vietman veteran's chances of using the GI Bill turn on what state he is from. Geography controls opportunities because the formula of today's GI Bill, unlike that of World War II's Bill, ignores state differences in educational costs. This legislative formula inadvertently minimizes veterans'…

  3. Writing place: a comparison of nursing research and health geography.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Mary; Andrews, Gavin J; Hodnett, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    The concept of 'place', and general references to 'geographies of ...' are making gradual incursions into nursing literature. Although the idea of place in nursing is not new, this recent spatial turn seems to be influenced by the increasing profile of the discipline of health geography, and the broadening of its scope to incorporate smaller and more intimate spatial scales. A wider emphasis within the social sciences on place from a social and cultural perspective, and a wider turn to 'place' across disciplines are probably equally important factors. This trend is raising some interesting questions for nurses, but at the same time contributes some confusion with regard to imputed meanings of 'place'. While it is clear that most nurse clinicians and researchers certainly understand that place of care matters to their practices and patients, many diverse uses of 'place' are found within nursing literature, and contemporary understandings of the term 'place' within nursing are not immediately clear. It is in this context that this article plans to advance the discussion of place. More specifically, the aims of this paper are threefold: to critique 'place' as it appears in nursing literature, to explore the use of 'place' within health geography, whence notions of place and 'geographies of' have originated and, finally, to compare and contrast the use of 'place' in both disciplines. This critique intends to address a deficit in the literature, in this era of growing spatialization in nursing research. The specific questions of interest here are: 'what is "place" in nursing?' and 'how do concepts of place in nursing compare to concepts of place in health geography?' PMID:16918788

  4. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health. PMID:22413171

  5. The Geography of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelade, Garry A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of national IQ in geographical space. When the heritability of IQ and its dependence on eco-social factors are considered from a global perspective, they suggest that the IQs of neighboring countries should be similar. Using previously published IQ data for 113 nations (Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and…

  6. Geography and global health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Moon, Graham

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of the report of the World Health Organisation's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, Closing the gap in a generation (Marmot 2008), this invited commentary considers the scope for geographical research on global health. We reflect on current work and note future possibilities, particularly those that take a critical perspective on the interplay of globalisation, security and health.

  7. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space.

  8. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost.

  9. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. PMID:26991737

  10. School Reputation and Its Relation to Parents' Satisfaction and Loyalty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skallerud, Kare

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the direction and strength of the relationships between school reputation, parent satisfaction and parent loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports the findings of a survey of 325 parents from three primary schools across Norway. Building on previous work examining corporate reputations, a new…

  11. An Analytical Model for University Identity and Reputation Strategy Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Lars; Sundstrom, Agneta C.; Sammalisto, Kaisu

    2013-01-01

    Universities face increasing global competition, pressuring them to restructure and find new identities. A multidimensional model: identity, image and reputation of strategic university identity and reputation work is developed. The model includes: organizational identity; employee and student attitudes; symbolic identity; influence from…

  12. Can the Reputation of an Established Business School Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safon, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. This paper examines the causes of business school reputation using two competing perspectives: the meritocratic and the institutional. The meritocratic perspective is based on the belief that reputation is an outcome of the business school's…

  13. Towards a geography of fitness: an ethnographic case study of the gym in British bodybuilding culture.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Sudwell, Mark I; Sparkes, Andrew C

    2005-02-01

    During recent years, research in health geography has engaged with peoples' health as well as diseases, an interest reflected by therapeutic geographies and geographies of public health. At the same time, studies have focused on micro-contexts such as the body, reflected in geographies of diseased and disadvantaged bodies. However, little research has combined elements of the two approaches and engaged in research on active healthy bodies and fitness. Equally the sub-discipline of sports geography provides little insight into fitness activities because this research has tended to focus on elite sports, their fans and facilities. Given these contexts, a detailed case study is presented to demonstrate the potential for geographical research on fitness. Through an observational study of a specialist gym facility, the study investigates how bodybuilding culture and place are co-produced. Indeed, the gym provides a narrative resource and a crucial setting for individual body projects and collective body culture which involve social conflicts, cohesions and hierarchies, illegal and potentially health harming activities, as well as personal comfort and therapeutic attachments. It is argued that beyond this case study, many activities crosscut health maintenance, or conversely risks to health, and the enjoyment of sports and fitness. A greater emphasis therefore at the sub-disciplinary interface of sports and health geography on hybrid 'fitness geographies' may help researchers towards a more comprehensive understanding, and coverage, of health issues in society.

  14. Reputation for reciprocity engages the brain reward center

    PubMed Central

    Phan, K. Luan; Sripada, Chandra Sekhar; Angstadt, Mike; McCabe, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Brain reward circuitry, including ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, has been independently implicated in preferences for fair and cooperative outcomes as well as learning of reputations. Using functional MRI (fMRI) and a “trust game” task involving iterative exchanges with fictive partners who acquire different reputations for reciprocity, we measured brain responses in 36 healthy adults when positive actions (entrust investment to partners) yield positive returns (reciprocity) and how these brain responses are modulated by partner reputation for repayment. Here we show that positive reciprocity robustly engages the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, this signal of reciprocity in the ventral striatum appears selectively in response to partners who have consistently returned the investment (e.g., a reputation for reciprocity) and is absent for partners who lack a reputation for reciprocity. These findings elucidate a fundamental brain mechanism, via reward-related neural substrates, by which human cooperative relationships are initiated and sustained. PMID:20615982

  15. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. PMID:21332721

  16. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided.

  17. Reputation-based collaborative network biology.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jean; Boue, Stephanie; Di Fabio, Anselmo; Fields, R Brett; Hayes, William; Hoeng, Julia; Park, Jennifer S; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-01-01

    A pilot reputation-based collaborative network biology platform, Bionet, was developed for use in the sbv IMPROVER Network Verification Challenge to verify and enhance previously developed networks describing key aspects of lung biology. Bionet was successful in capturing a more comprehensive view of the biology associated with each network using the collective intelligence and knowledge of the crowd. One key learning point from the pilot was that using a standardized biological knowledge representation language such as BEL is critical to the success of a collaborative network biology platform. Overall, Bionet demonstrated that this approach to collaborative network biology is highly viable. Improving this platform for de novo creation of biological networks and network curation with the suggested enhancements for scalability will serve both academic and industry systems biology communities. PMID:25592588

  18. Familiarity with interest breeds gossip: contributions of emotion, expectation, and reputation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

  19. Familiarity with Interest Breeds Gossip: Contributions of Emotion, Expectation, and Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo; Scott, Graham G.; McAleer, Phil; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2014-01-01

    Although gossip serves several important social functions, it has relatively infrequently been the topic of systematic investigation. In two experiments, we advance a cognitive-informational approach to gossip. Specifically, we sought to determine which informational components engender gossip. In Experiment 1, participants read brief passages about other people and indicated their likelihood to share this information. We manipulated target familiarity (celebrity, non-celebrity) and story interest (interesting, boring). While participants were more likely to gossip about celebrity than non-celebrity targets and interesting than boring stories, they were even more likely to gossip about celebrity targets embedded within interesting stories. In Experiment 2, we additionally probed participants' reactions to the stories concerning emotion, expectation, and reputation information conveyed. Analyses showed that while such information partially mediated target familiarity and story interest effects, only expectation and reputation accounted for the interactive pattern of gossip behavior. Our findings provide novel insights into the essential components and processing mechanisms of gossip. PMID:25119267

  20. Neighborhood Reputation and Resident Sentiment in the Wake of the Las Vegas Foreclosure Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Jeremy; Batson, Christie D.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how two major components of a neighborhood’s reputation—perceived disorder and collective efficacy—shape individuals’ sentiments toward their neighborhoods during the foreclosure crisis triggered by the Great Recession. Of central interest are whether neighborhood reputations are durable in the face of a crisis (neighborhood resiliency hypothesis) or whether neighborhood reputations wane during times of duress (foreclosure crisis hypothesis). Geo-coded individual-level data from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Area Social Survey merged with data on census tract foreclosure rates are used to address this question. The results provide qualified support for both perspectives. In support of the neighborhood resiliency hypothesis, collective efficacy is positively associated with how residents feel about the quality of their neighborhoods, and this relationship is unaltered by foreclosure rates. In support of the foreclosure crisis hypothesis, foreclosure rates mediate the effects of neighborhood disorder on resident sentiment. The implications of these findings for community resiliency are discussed. PMID:25678735

  1. Helping Your Child Learn Geography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    By the year 2000, all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our Nation's modern economy.

  2. The geography of thinking.

    PubMed

    Mole, John

    2002-01-01

    People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863

  3. Escape Geography--Developing Middle-School Students' Sense of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.; Molina, Laurie E. S.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a social studies unit on escaping geography. Examines escape from dangerous places including an airliner, hotel fire, or war zone or from a social situation such as a boring speech or party. Describes historic escapes such as the Underground Railroad and the Berlin Wall. Lists learning strategies such as awareness of space and cognitive…

  4. The Reform of National Geography Standards in South Korea--Trends, Challenges and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Butt, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine recent changes in the geography national curriculum in South Korea through the lenses of three curriculum components that often find themselves in competition--subject content, educational processes and national/social purposes. In recent years, the prevailing national and social aims outlined for the…

  5. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  6. "GFL2"! The Updated "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Susan Gallagher

    2012-01-01

    "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition" ("GFL2") is the recently released update of the original edition published in 1994. The original edition of "Geography for Life" provided excellent guidance on geographic content for teachers, curriculum designers, publishers, and pre-service teachers as well as many other…

  7. Geography 222 -- Issues in Economic Geography; Course Notes: Issues and Landscapes, [Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Eliot M. E.

    In his introduction to the course, Issues in Economic Geography, the author surveys the profession of geography, reviewing its history and its function in today's society and making recommendations for a "rethinking" of geography. He states that positivism, the search for emperically verifiable knowledge that makes an objective science of some…

  8. How Are Non-Geography Majors Motivated in a Large Introductory World Geography Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Seung Won; Huynh, Niem Tu

    2015-01-01

    University students who do not declare geography as their major are at risk of poor motivation to learn in an introductory geography class. However, research exploring the role of non-majors' motivation is lacking. This study examines motivational factors impacting non-geography students' engagement and performance. The findings suggest that…

  9. Geography Education: Applying Spatial Aspects to Everyday Life: American Association of Geographers Geography Education Specialty Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessell, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his career teaching geography, Johnathan Wessell has always stressed to his students that they already knew a lot about geography before they entered his classroom. He writes in this article that once he convinces his students of this, they begin to realize that geography is all around them, and that they, in turn, begin to shift their…

  10. Effects of an Introductory Geography Course on Student Perceptions of Geography at the University of Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlick, Forrest J.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study surveyed students in geography courses at the University of Idaho, investigating perceptions of geography's role in their daily lives, relevance to careers or academics, and parts of their geographic skill. Primarily, white, younger than 20, gender-balanced students in Introduction to Physical Geography and Human Geography…

  11. Reconciling Discourse about Geography and Teaching Geography: The Case of Singapore Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seow, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    This study draws upon a Foucauldian notion of discourse to explore how four pre-service geography teachers in Singapore made decisions about what geography is and how to enact their understandings of geography in their classrooms. This analysis of discursive power is particularly relevant to Singapore because of the high level of state control…

  12. Taking Stock in Geography Education around the World: An International Perspective on the Teaching of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2011-01-01

    The identity of geography as a discipline since the nineteenth-century naissance of contemporary academia, if not before, has been often disputed. In higher education, geography is often part of the geosciences, often located in a geography, geology, earth science, and environmental science department or departments. In the world of education…

  13. The Ideas of Geography Teachers about In-Service Geography Training Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the geography workshop (new approaches and new knowledge in geography), in view of the teachers, conducted within the in-service training activities for the geography teachers working in Sivas and Erzurum. The questionnaire, used as the data collection tool, was developed by the researcher. The questionnaire…

  14. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  15. Complexity theory and geographies of health: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Gatrell, Anthony C

    2005-06-01

    The interest of social scientists in complexity theory has developed rapidly in recent years. Here, I consider briefly the primary characteristics of complexity theory, with particular emphasis given to relations and networks, non-linearity, emergence, and hybrids. I assess the 'added value' compared with other, existing perspectives that emphasise relationality and connectedness. I also consider the philosophical underpinnings of complexity theory and its reliance on metaphor. As a vehicle for moving away from reductionist accounts, complexity theory potentially has much to say to those interested in research on health inequalities, spatial diffusion, emerging and resurgent infections, and risk. These and other applications in health geography that have invoked complexity theory are examined in the paper. Finally, I consider some of the missing elements in complexity theory and argue that while it is refreshing to see a fruitful line of theoretical debate in health geography, we need good empirical work to illuminate it.

  16. Ranking online quality and reputation via the user activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Lei; Cheng, Can; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    How to design an accurate algorithm for ranking the object quality and user reputation is of importance for online rating systems. In this paper we present an improved iterative algorithm for online ranking object quality and user reputation in terms of the user degree (IRUA), where the user's reputation is measured by his/her rating vector, the corresponding objects' quality vector and the user degree. The experimental results for the empirical networks show that the AUC values of the IRUA algorithm can reach 0.9065 and 0.8705 in Movielens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the traditional iterative ranking methods. Meanwhile, the results for the synthetic networks indicate that user degree should be considered in real rating systems due to users' rating behaviors. Moreover, we find that enhancing or reducing the influences of the large-degree users could produce more accurate reputation ranking lists.

  17. Geography Education Research and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a commentary on the "condition" of geography education research as a field of study. It does so partly through a comparative discussion with another subject field in education, mathematics. In the context of fragility and comparative weakness of research in geography education, the paper urges researchers to keep focused on…

  18. How to Write Geography Teaching Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hua; Li, Lu

    2011-01-01

    Geography teaching paper is the paper especially to describe geography teaching reform and research achievement, its main purpose is to find solution to handle questions encountered in teaching through personal teaching practice, constant trying and exploration, and to scientifically summarize the procedure and methods to deal with the problem,…

  19. GeoGebra in a Geography Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herceg, Ðorde; Herceg-Mandic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Certain secondary school subjects, such as geography, contain topics which are based on mathematical concepts. However, some geography teachers either fail to recognize this connection or choose to ignore it when they teach. Instead, they present the subject matter as a collection of facts, which need to be memorized and reproduced by the pupils.…

  20. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught…

  1. Environmental Research and Education in US Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates geography as an appropriate home for environmental education. First, it argues that many geographers have defined geography as a discipline with a major, if not primary, interest in human-environment interactions. Next, it reviews the recent statements by non-geographer, environmental scholars that, directly or indirectly,…

  2. Beyond Science and Math: Integrating Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubbs, Michael E.; Grubbs, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the status of World Geography Education and the importance of these concepts in developing 21st century students. Moreover, the authors also showcase how World Geography concepts can be intentionally taught through a technological/engineering, design-based learning challenge that requires students to solve a global housing…

  3. Hiring a Geography Teacher; What to Expect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spetz, Dennis L.

    1989-01-01

    Offers some recommendations for electing and training geography teachers. Teachers should be proficient in world geography, cartography, and computer use and possess field training that is easily replicated in school settings. A positive attitude and creative teaching methods are essential. Includes one reference. (MLH)

  4. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  5. Emphasis upon Anthropo-Geography in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Ellen Churchill

    1990-01-01

    Reprints a 1904 article from the "Journal of Geography" exploring geography's teaching focus. Argued for unchanged emphasis on the land and its people but advocated a deeper geographical interpretation of history. Contended that teaching should pay attention to scientific interpretation, and that children should discover a self-constructed…

  6. Applied Geography at a Small State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindell, Roger

    The geography department at Mansfield State College (Pennsylvania) has maintained and even increased enrollment by expanding into a Department of Geography and Regional Planning and by offering internship programs to its students. Goals of the department are to develop special emphases in environmental planning, resource management, recreational…

  7. Computer Network Resources for Physical Geography Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michael P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the use of computer networks provides an important and effective resource for geography instruction. Describes the use of the Internet network in physical geography instruction. Provides an example of the use of Internet resources in a climatology/meteorology course. (CFR)

  8. Compact Geography of the Netherlands. (Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    This document presents information on the physical and human geography of the Netherlands. In this third revised edition, the contents have been brought up-to-date and expanded. In addition, sections on physical planning and environmental problems have been added. The booklet is intended for use by geography classroom teachers and students at…

  9. A Compact Geography of the Netherlands. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information and Documentation Centre for the Geography of the Netherlands, Utrecht.

    This short booklet on the geography of the Netherlands, designed for use at the upper elementary and secondary levels, contains 17 short descriptive analyses of Dutch physical and human geography. Each section is well illustrated with diagrams and maps. Titles of the sections include (1) High Netherlands--Low Netherlands, (2) Land Reclamation, (3)…

  10. Population Geography: Problems, Concepts, and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Gary L.; Larkin, Robert P.

    This book introduces secondary students to population geography. Material from other disciplines is included because the study of population is multidisciplinary. It is presented in eleven chapters. The introduction considers definitions of concepts and aspects of population geography, explaining the emphasis on spatial patterns of population…

  11. Geography and Literature: Unity and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Don R.

    This paper discusses the role that geography plays in the enhanced comprehension of some literature. One way to demonstrate the value and utility of geography is to show how geographers can contribute to other fields and the interrelationships with other disciplines. Many novelists have used geographical concepts to good advantage. Examples…

  12. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn

    2014-01-01

    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  13. Using the Newspaper to Teach Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Carla

    1989-01-01

    Identifies teachers as primarily responsible for increasing geographic literacy, and suggests newspapers as a valuable source for geography lessons. Gives lesson plan ideas that include the use of the sports, news, travel, and weather sections of the paper. Lessons should enhance appreciation and knowledge of geography in everyday life. (RW)

  14. Geography at QUT: Evolution of a Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Iraphne R. W.; Hastings, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the constraints encountered in developing and introducing a geography discipline programme, with a distinctive regional focus, within a university of technology. Through a case study approach, the analysis relates the development of geography at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) to changes in geographical education in…

  15. Geography: A Guide to Reference Sources. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Carol

    This revised annotated bibliography about geography concentrates on reference materials located in the McLennan Library of McGill University (Montreal, Quebec), and it emphasizes human rather than physical geography. The resources are presented in nine areas: (1) guides to the literature; (2) dictionaries; (3) gazeteers and place names; (4)…

  16. Enframing Geography: Subject, Curriculum, Knowledge, Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The word "geo-graphy" means "writing the earth". The subject of geography bears responsibility for engaging, constituting and configuring world knowledge, in other words, what the world is. This paper describes an enquiry into the nature of school geographical knowledge at a time of curriculum policy reform. In 2010, the newly appointed Coalition…

  17. The Use of Novels in Geography Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, A. J., III

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of novels as effective learning tools in the geography classroom. James Michener's "Centennial" is suggested as a particularly appropriate novel in historical geography courses due to its vast scope, its relevance to geographic themes, and its palatable nature. (Author/DB)

  18. Teaching Gender Geography in Aotearoa New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In New Zealand universities, gender is still not a substantial part of the curriculum in most geography departments. Although at the University of Waikato, the situation is different. Its specific history of radical scholarship has enabled feminist academics in a variety of disciplines including geography to have had a stronger voice than in other…

  19. Geography in Teaching and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prow, J. Wolf

    Geography, the "Mother of Sciences," antedates other disciplines and has its origins in antiquity when Greek scholars compiled descriptions of the earth in so-called "topographias." Since then, other sciences have branched out and geography has become the subject of much controversy. Taught in the United States in conjunction with other…

  20. Race and reputation: perceived racial group trustworthiness influences the neural correlates of trust decisions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Damian A.; Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Fareri, Dominic S.; Perino, Michael T.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions to trust people with whom we have no personal history can be based on their social reputation—a product of what we can observe about them (their appearance, social group membership, etc.)—and our own beliefs. The striatum and amygdala have been identified as regions of the brain involved in trust decisions and trustworthiness estimation, respectively. However, it is unknown whether social reputation based on group membership modulates the involvement of these regions during trust decisions. To investigate this, we examined blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) activity while participants completed a series of single-shot trust game interactions with real partners of varying races. At the time of choice, baseline BOLD responses in the striatum correlated with individuals' trust bias—that is, the overall disparity in decisions to trust Black versus White partners. BOLD signal in the striatum was higher when deciding to trust partners from the race group that the individual participant considered less trustworthy overall. In contrast, activation of the amygdala showed greater BOLD responses to Black versus White partners that scaled with the amount invested. These results suggest that the amygdala may represent emotionally relevant social group information as a subset of the general detection function it serves, whereas the striatum is involved in representing race-based reputations that shape trust decisions. PMID:22271789

  1. Modeling of Task Planning for Multirobot System Using Reputation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhiguo; Tu, Jun; Li, Yuankai; Wei, Junming

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of task planning for multirobot system is developed from two parts: task decomposition and task allocation. In the part of task decomposition, the conditions and processes of decomposition are elaborated. In the part of task allocation, the collaboration strategy, the framework of reputation mechanism, and three types of reputations are defined in detail, which include robot individual reputation, robot group reputation, and robot direct reputation. A time calibration function and a group calibration function are designed to improve the effectiveness of the proposed method and proved that they have the characteristics of time attenuation, historical experience related, and newly joined robot reward. Tasks attempt to be assigned to the robot with higher overall reputation, which can help to increase the success rate of the mandate implementation, thereby reducing the time of task recovery and redistribution. Player/Stage is used as the simulation platform, and three biped-robots are established as the experimental apparatus. The experimental results of task planning are compared with the other allocation methods. Simulation and experiment results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for multi-robot collaboration system. PMID:24672379

  2. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  3. Beyond the male-migrant: South Africa's long history of health geography and the contemporary AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article begins by noting the contribution that past South African writings on health can make to the field of health geography-especially writings on male migration and syphilis from the 1940s that conceptualized space as relational. However, the second part of the article notes that the rapid rise of AIDS in the post-apartheid period influenced the problematic projecting forward of the male-migrancy model. Ethnographic and secondary data show how AIDS is embedded in under-researched social and spatial structures after apartheid. In tracing these processes the article combines anthropology, geography, and political economy to chart an interdisciplinary analysis of the uneven geographies of health.

  4. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  5. Master's Theses in Geography: American and Canadian Universities. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Merrill M.

    The bibliography cites over 5,000 master's theses completed in geography departments in the United States and Canada through 1972. The theses are arranged by author within one of the following categories: (1) agricultural geography; (2) association of man and environment; (3) climatology; (4) cultural geography; (5) educational geography; (6)…

  6. Geography Teachers' Stories of Sustainability: An Introduction to Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Geography teacher recruitment and retention is an important issue for the future of geography education. This Special Issue of "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" ("IRGEE") tackles this issue head on by focusing on geography teachers' narratives about their experiences of teaching geography, and…

  7. Didactics of Geography: Selected Bibliography for 1982. Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia).

    Over 460 resources published between 1981 and 1982 are listed in this selected bibliography on the didactics of geography. Entries are classified under the following headings: (1) the didactics of geography as a scientific discipline; (2) textbooks on geography instruction and the didactics of geography in Czechoslovakia; (3) contemporary…

  8. Using Literature To Teach Geography in High Schools. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Susan E.

    This digest discusses various ways in which literature can be incorporated with world geography to make better connections across the curriculum. Reasons to use a literature-based approach to teach geography include: (1) there is a natural link between geography and literature; (2) the study of literature improves comprehension of geography; and…

  9. Reputation-based secure sensor localization in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments.

  10. Reputation-Based Secure Sensor Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. PMID:24982940

  11. Donors to charity gain in both indirect reciprocity and political reputation.

    PubMed Central

    Milinski, Manfred; Semmann, Dirk; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Darwinian evolution can explain human cooperative behaviour among non-kin by either direct or indirect reciprocity. In the latter case one does not expect a return for an altruistic act from the recipient as with direct reciprocity, but from another member of the social group. However, the widespread human behaviour of donating to poor people outside the social group, for example, to charity organizations, that are unlikely to reciprocate indirectly and thus are equivalent to defectors in the game is still an evolutionary puzzle. Here we show experimentally that donations made in public to a well-known relief organization resulted both in increased income (that the donors received from the members of their group) and in enhanced political reputation (they were elected to represent the interests of their group). Donations may thus function as an honest signal for one's social reliability. PMID:12028769

  12. Discovering Morocco: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    2005-01-01

    This curriculum unit, intended to be used with elementary school students, provides information about a North African, Moslem, Arab, country: Morocco. The unit presents objectives, strategies, materials needed, background notes, evaluation methods, and assignments that fulfill National Social Studies Standards and National Geography standards. It…

  13. Teaching across the Divide: Physical and Human Geographies of Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iveson, Kurt; Neave, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This article critically reflects on our effort to "teach across the divide", by integrating physical and human geography in a new first-year course. We achieved this integration by structuring our course around a series of key events, in order to draw out the interaction of "natural" and "social" forces. After setting out the intellectual and…

  14. Topographies of Power: A Critical Historical Geography of Schooling in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2016-01-01

    This article builds a case for critical historical geography in comparative education to examine how, over time, the social production of space contributes to educational disparity. It draws on Gupta and Ferguson's contrasting concepts of the "power of topography" and the "topography of power" and Lefebvre's tripartite theory…

  15. I Am Nevada: A Basic Informational Guide in Nevada History and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Helen M.

    The booklet presents information on Nevada's history and geography which can be incorporated into social studies or history courses on the elementary or junior high level. There are eight chapters. Chapter I discusses symbolism in the state's emblems, (its seal, flag, flower, bird, and song). Maps and brief histories of each of the state's 17…

  16. The Uneven Geography of Global Civic Society: National and Global Influences on Transnational Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jackie; Wiest, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an explosion of transnational networking and activism, but participation varies widely around the globe. Using negative binomial regression, we explore how national and global political and economic factors shape this "uneven geography" of participation in transnational social movement organizations (TSMOs). Contrary to…

  17. Home and Away: Risk, Familiarity and the Multiple Geographies of the Higher Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John; Crozier, Gill; Reay, Diane

    2009-01-01

    With reference to an ESRC/TLRP project conducted across two academic years with working-class students in higher education (HE), this paper explores the relationship between geographies of home and those of university at two UK HE institutions. It addresses how social relations inflected by class influence the experience of students as they adapt…

  18. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  19. Teaching World Geography to Late-Arrival Immigrant Students: Highlighting Practice and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Cinthia; Franquiz, Maria E.; Reidel, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    In this case study, the work of an exemplary high school social studies teacher is highlighted. In her class, late-arrival immigrant students participated in oral, writing, and demonstration activities as they learned the physical, cultural, and historical traditions of geography education. As newcomers to the English language, the students'…

  20. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  1. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Jose A.; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce. PMID:25598347

  2. Maintaining defender's reputation in anomaly detection against insider attacks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Yu, Wei; Fu, Xinwen; Das, Sajal K

    2010-06-01

    We address issues related to establishing a defender's reputation in anomaly detection against two types of attackers: 1) smart insiders, who learn from historic attacks and adapt their strategies to avoid detection/punishment, and 2) naïve attackers, who blindly launch their attacks without knowledge of the history. In this paper, we propose two novel algorithms for reputation establishment--one for systems solely consisting of smart insiders and the other for systems in which both smart insiders and naïve attackers are present. The theoretical analysis and performance evaluation show that our reputation-establishment algorithms can significantly improve the performance of anomaly detection against insider attacks in terms of the tradeoff between detection and false positives.

  3. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce. PMID:25598347

  4. The Cosmos: A New Frontier for Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bruce E.

    1975-01-01

    Since man is no longer limited to the terrestrial sphere but reaching toward other worlds in exploration, geography as a science should no longer be restricted to its terrestrial limitations. (Author/ND)

  5. Geography's Role in Promoting Global Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Randall C.

    1983-01-01

    Modern geography instruction should contribute to multidisciplinary global studies by making students aware of human modification of the earth's environment and of the relationships between human behavior, culture, and the natural habitat. (MJL)

  6. Neural Correlates of Gender Differences in Reputation Building

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. PMID:25180581

  7. A multi-rater framework for studying personality: The trait-reputation-identity model.

    PubMed

    McAbee, Samuel T; Connelly, Brian S

    2016-10-01

    Personality and social psychology have historically been divided between personality researchers who study the impact of traits and social-cognitive researchers who study errors in trait judgments. However, a broader view of personality incorporates not only individual differences in underlying traits but also individual differences in the distinct ways a person's personality is construed by oneself and by others. Such unique insights are likely to appear in the idiosyncratic personality judgments that raters make and are likely to have etiologies and causal force independent of trait perceptions shared across raters. Drawing on the logic of the Johari window (Luft & Ingham, 1955), the Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry Model (Vazire, 2010), and Socioanalytic Theory (Hogan, 1996; Hogan & Blickle, 2013), we present a new model that separates personality variance into consensus about underlying traits (Trait), unique self-perceptions (Identity), and impressions conveyed to others that are distinct from self-perceptions (Reputation). We provide three demonstrations of how this Trait-Reputation-Identity (TRI) Model can be used to understand (a) consensus and discrepancies across rating sources, (b) personality's links with self-evaluation and self-presentation, and (c) gender differences in traits. We conclude by discussing how researchers can use the TRI Model to achieve a more sophisticated view of personality's impact on life outcomes, developmental trajectories, genetic origins, person-situation interactions, and stereotyped judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504526

  8. A multi-rater framework for studying personality: The trait-reputation-identity model.

    PubMed

    McAbee, Samuel T; Connelly, Brian S

    2016-10-01

    Personality and social psychology have historically been divided between personality researchers who study the impact of traits and social-cognitive researchers who study errors in trait judgments. However, a broader view of personality incorporates not only individual differences in underlying traits but also individual differences in the distinct ways a person's personality is construed by oneself and by others. Such unique insights are likely to appear in the idiosyncratic personality judgments that raters make and are likely to have etiologies and causal force independent of trait perceptions shared across raters. Drawing on the logic of the Johari window (Luft & Ingham, 1955), the Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry Model (Vazire, 2010), and Socioanalytic Theory (Hogan, 1996; Hogan & Blickle, 2013), we present a new model that separates personality variance into consensus about underlying traits (Trait), unique self-perceptions (Identity), and impressions conveyed to others that are distinct from self-perceptions (Reputation). We provide three demonstrations of how this Trait-Reputation-Identity (TRI) Model can be used to understand (a) consensus and discrepancies across rating sources, (b) personality's links with self-evaluation and self-presentation, and (c) gender differences in traits. We conclude by discussing how researchers can use the TRI Model to achieve a more sophisticated view of personality's impact on life outcomes, developmental trajectories, genetic origins, person-situation interactions, and stereotyped judgments. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Development of Virtual Geographic Environments and Geography Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fengru; Lin, Hui; Chen, Bin

    Geographic environment is a combination of natural and cultural environments under which humans survive. Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a new multi-disciplinary initiative that links geosciences, geographic information sciences and information technologies. A VGE is a virtual representation of the natural world that enables a person to explore and interact with vast amounts of natural and cultural information on the physical and cultural environment in cyberspace. Virtual Geography and Experimental Geography are the two closest fields that associate with the development of VGE from the perspective of geography. This paper discusses the background of VGE, introduces its research progress, and addresses key issues of VGE research and the significance for geography research from Experimental Geography and Virtual Geography. VGE can be an extended research object for the research of Virtual Geography and enrich the contents of future geography, while VGE can also be an extended research method for Experimental Geography that geographers can operate virtual geographic experiments based on VGE platforms.

  10. Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Advanced Placement Human Geography (AP HG) in the context of its place in efforts to reform geography education. It presents a critical analysis of the AP program and its curriculum, asserting that it represents "powerful knowledge" as conceptualized by Young. It concludes with a call for research in AP HG aligned…

  11. Teaching American Ethnic Geography. Pathways in Geography Series Title No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estaville, Lawrence E., Ed.; Rosen, Carol J., Ed.

    U.S. ethnic geography is an increasingly important focus of study due to cultural diversity and continued growth of the United States. Geographers are carefully studying the spatial aspects of present U.S. ethnic groups. This collection of essays addresses the important need for creating innovative approaches in teaching U.S. ethnic geography in…

  12. Perspectives on Urban Geography in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton-Short, Lisa; Monk, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    "Perspectives on Urban Geography" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. In this article, urban core revitalization and rising suburban poverty are considered as two challenges facing cities in developed countries; and industrialization and the growth of megacities as two challenges facing cities in developing…

  13. The Nature of Geography and Its Perspectives in AP® Human Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Alexander B.; Hare, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    AP Human Geography students need to develop an understanding of what it means to examine the world around them from a geographic perspective. Focusing attention on geography's concern with spatial relationships, place characteristics, and geographic context helps student appreciate the nature of the discipline and the insights it offers. These…

  14. Influence of energy alternatives and carbon emissions on an institution's green reputation.

    PubMed

    Komarek, Timothy M; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D; Thorp, Laurie

    2013-10-15

    Institutions' reputation for being environmentally friendly or 'green' can come from many sources. This paper examines how the attributes of alternative energy management plans impact an institutions' 'green' reputation by focusing on the interaction between 'external' and 'internal' influences. Some 'external' influences on environmental reputation we studied include the institution's mix of fuels, energy conservation effort, carbon emissions targets, investment time-frame, and program cost. The 'internal' influences on institutions' green reputation we examined include altruism (respondents' concern for the welfare of others) and environmentalism (respondents' concern for the environment). Using a stated-preference conjoint survey, we empirically examine how attributes of alternative energy management plans influence a large, research university's 'green' reputation. Our results show that constituents benefit from their institution's green reputation and that the energy management choices of the institution can significantly influence its perceived green reputation. Furthermore, integrating internal and external influences on reputation can create more informative models and better decision-making.

  15. Influence of energy alternatives and carbon emissions on an institution's green reputation.

    PubMed

    Komarek, Timothy M; Lupi, Frank; Kaplowitz, Michael D; Thorp, Laurie

    2013-10-15

    Institutions' reputation for being environmentally friendly or 'green' can come from many sources. This paper examines how the attributes of alternative energy management plans impact an institutions' 'green' reputation by focusing on the interaction between 'external' and 'internal' influences. Some 'external' influences on environmental reputation we studied include the institution's mix of fuels, energy conservation effort, carbon emissions targets, investment time-frame, and program cost. The 'internal' influences on institutions' green reputation we examined include altruism (respondents' concern for the welfare of others) and environmentalism (respondents' concern for the environment). Using a stated-preference conjoint survey, we empirically examine how attributes of alternative energy management plans influence a large, research university's 'green' reputation. Our results show that constituents benefit from their institution's green reputation and that the energy management choices of the institution can significantly influence its perceived green reputation. Furthermore, integrating internal and external influences on reputation can create more informative models and better decision-making. PMID:23774751

  16. Reputation management: evidence for ability but reduced propensity in autism.

    PubMed

    Cage, Eilidh; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has reported that autistic adults do not manage their reputation, purportedly due to problems with theory of mind [Izuma, Matsumoto, Camerer, & Adolphs]. The current study aimed to test alternative explanations for this apparent lack of reputation management. Twenty typical and 19 autistic adults donated to charity and to a person, both when alone and when observed. In an additional manipulation, for half of the participants, the observer was also the recipient of their donations, and participants were told that this observer would subsequently have the opportunity to donate to them (motivation condition). This manipulation was designed to encourage an expectation of a reciprocal "tit-for-tat" strategy in the participant, which may motivate participants to change their behavior to receive more donations. The remaining participants were told that the person watching was just observing the procedure (no motivation condition). Our results replicated Izuma et al.'s finding that autistic adults did not donate more to charity when observed. Yet, in the motivation condition, both typical and autistic adults donated significantly more to the observer when watched, although this effect was significantly attenuated in autistic individuals. Results indicate that, while individuals with autism may have the ability to think about reputation, a reduced expectation of reciprocal behavior from others may reduce the degree to which they engage in reputation management.

  17. Departmental Publication Productivity and Reputational Quality: Disciplinary Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Using US national data, this study examines the levels and interactions between reputational rankings, average publications, citations, and external research support across 30 disciplines. The analyses show great variation among the disciplines in average and range of publications, citations, and external research support. They also show that the…

  18. Combining Authentication, Reputation and Classification to Make Phishing Unprofitable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzberg, Amir

    We present and analyze a design of an filtering system to block email phishing messages, combining reputation, authentication and classification mechanisms. We present simple economical model and analysis, showing sufficient conditions on the precision of the content-classifier, to make phishing unprofitable.

  19. Reputational Challenges for Business Schools: A Contextual Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Sabina; Martin, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The dominant variance theory approaches to researching business school reputations are based on a positivistic hypothetico-deductive research methodology and do not adequately take into account either the different levels and types of contexts in which business schools operate or the diversity of stakeholder interests. The aim of this…

  20. To cooperate or to defect? Altruism and reputation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Gawroński, Przemysław

    2009-09-01

    The basic difficulty in cooperation theory is to justify the cooperation. Here we propose a new approach, where players are driven by their altruism to cooperate or not. The probability of cooperation depends also on the co-player’s reputation. We find that players with positive altruism cooperate and meet cooperation. In this approach, payoffs are not relevant.

  1. Manage your online reputation--or someone else will.

    PubMed

    Escoffery, Richard M; Bauer, Joseph G

    2012-07-01

    In the Internet age, managing one's online "reputation" is a challenging but important task for board-certified plastic surgeons. In this article, the authors discuss the options for ensuring that your Internet presence accurately reflects the quality of your practice. PMID:22628897

  2. The Opinions of High School Principals about Their Schools' Reputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksu, Ali; Orcan, Asli

    2015-01-01

    With a notice that was issued by the Ministry of National Education, all the public high schools were gradually converted into Anatolian High School as of 2010. The aim of this research is to determine the criteria of school reputation of Anatolian High schools and how and to what extent the criteria changed after the notice was issued.…

  3. Leadership in Two Secondary Schools with a Reputation for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Rosemary

    This paper reports on an investigation of how students, parents, and staff of 2 schools with reputations for success (they were among 21 schools in the Canadian Education Association's Exemplary School Project) experience and understand leadership. Specifically, the study, guided by a constructivist conception of leadership, sought to find out how…

  4. A Latent-Variable Causal Model of Faculty Reputational Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Suzanne; Wolfle, Lee M.

    A reanalysis was conducted of Saunier's research (1985) on sources of variation in the National Research Council (NRC) reputational ratings of university faculty. Saunier conducted a stepwise regression analysis using 12 predictor variables. Due to problems with multicollinearity and because of the atheoretical nature of stepwise regression,…

  5. Measuring the Reputation and Productivity of Communication Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in assessing the prestige and productivity of programs in communication. An NCA doctoral reputational study was published in 2004, and a new National Research Council assessment is underway that will for the first time include the communication field. Two systems relying on objective appraisal of faculty…

  6. Reputations in Markets with Asymmetric Information: A Classroom Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James R.; Myerscough, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a classroom game used to teach students about the impact of reputations in markets with asymmetric information. The game is an extension of Holt and Sherman's lemons market game and simulates a market under three information conditions. In the full information setting, all participants know both the quality and the price of…

  7. Learning to Be Unsung Heroes: Development of Reputation Management in Two Cultures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang

    2016-05-01

    The effective management of one's reputation is an important social skill, but little is known about how it develops. This study seeks to bridge the gap by examining how children communicate about their own good deeds, among 7- to 11-year-olds in both China and Canada (total N = 378). Participants cleaned a teacher's messy office in her absence, and their responses were observed when the teacher returned. Only the Chinese children showed an age-related increase in modesty by choosing to falsely deny their own good deeds. This modest behavior was uniquely predicted by Chinese children's evaluations of modesty-related lies. The results suggest that culture-specific socialization processes influence the way children communicate with authority figures about prosocial deeds. PMID:27189397

  8. True for Your School? How Changing Reputations Alter Demand for Selective U.S. Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Molly; Reback, Randall

    2014-01-01

    There is a comprehensive literature documenting how colleges' tuition, financial aid packages, and academic reputations influence students' application and enrollment decisions. Far less is known about how quality-of-life reputations and peer institutions' reputations affect these decisions. This article investigates these issues…

  9. An Examination of Belief and Attitude Based Reputation and Its Impact on Behavioral Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to ground the reputation construct in theory and to explore the formation of reputation through beliefs about the university and attitude toward the university. Additionally, it will allow for analysis of the consequences of reputation, specifically behavioral intentions, which has received limited attention in…

  10. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others’ Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation. PMID:26869908

  11. An Experimental Study of the Reputation Mechanism in a Business Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Marco; Branca, Antonio Maurizio; Morena, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Reputation enables different parties to establish a trusting and cooperative relationship, a key factor in integrative negotiations referred to as "win-win" negotiations. Thus, a good reputation mechanism can bring simulations closer to reality. In this study, the authors review the reputation mechanisms applied to the online business game WIN WIN…

  12. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others' Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation.

  13. Dividuality, masculine respectability and reputation: how masculinity affects men's uptake of HIV treatment in rural eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Siu, Godfrey E; Seeley, Janet; Wight, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence in SSA that once infected with HIV men are disadvantaged compared to women in terms of uptake of treatment. In Uganda fewer men are on treatment, they tend to initiate treatment later, are difficult to retain on treatment and have a higher mortality while on treatment. This article discusses how men's response to HIV infection relates to their masculinity. We conducted participant observation and in-depth interviews with 26 men from a rural setting in eastern Uganda, in 2009-2010. They comprised men receiving HIV treatment, who had dropped treatment or did not seek it despite testing HIV positive, who had not tested but suspected infection, and those with other symptoms unrelated to HIV. Thematic analysis identified recurrent themes and variations across the data. Men drew from a range of norms to fulfil the social and individual expectations of being sufficiently masculine. The study argues that there are essentially two forms of masculinity in Mam-Kiror, one based on reputation and the other on respectability, with some ideals shared by both. Respectability was endorsed by 'the wider society', while reputation was endorsed almost entirely by men. Men's treatment seeking behaviours corresponded with different masculine ideologies. Family and societal expectations to be a family provider and respectable role model encouraged treatment, to regain and maintain health. However, reputational concern with strength and the capacity for hard physical work, income generation and sexual achievement discouraged uptake of HIV testing and treatment since it meant acknowledging weakness and an 'HIV patient' identity. Men's 'dividuality' allowed them to express different masculinities in different social contexts. We conclude that characteristics associated with respectable masculinity tend to encourage men's uptake of HIV treatment while those associated with reputational masculinity tend to undermine it.

  14. Introductory Level College Geography Courses and the Learning Disabled Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, William

    1989-01-01

    Defines learning disabilities and delineates characteristics of learning disabled students. Outlines steps to be taken by college geography departments for students who enroll in introductory-level geography classes. (SLM)

  15. M-learning in a geography lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirski, Katri

    2014-05-01

    We live in rapidly advancing world. Our homes and offices are invaded by new technological achievements. School is a part of the society and many students nowadays use smartphones and table pc's daily. Therefore it's important that schoolteachers advise them on how to manage in such a complex world of engineering miracles and show how to use this kind of equipment in their studies and everyday life. Geography is a natural substance and the best way to study nature is to see, touch and feel it directly. It's important to link the theoretical knowledge that students acquire in a classroom with a practical work in the nature. M-learning gives a great opportunity for that. M-learning, shortened from mobile learning is defined as learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices. The main goal of M-learning is to bring new technological equipment to the studies for the purpose of diversifying the learning process. You can use M-learning whether students are doing individual or teamwork. By doing the practical work and thinking all the steps through the students are more actively involved in the learning process and can acquire and fix the knowledge more effectively. Personal electronic devices give the freedom to study anytime and anywhere. This means M-learning is really good for trails and other outdoor activities. In spring 2012 I did my Master's thesis about M-learning. For it I compiled a geographical trail in Tallinn city centre. There were many different geographical tasks that students had to solve. The trail included whether observation, practical work on a slope (measuring the height and the inclination of a slope), drawing a plan, questions about rocks, trees and many other tasks. The students had worksheets, where there were only geographical coordinates. They used GPS devices to get to the designated points. In every point they had a task to take a photo. After the exercises the students formed

  16. Pricing Strategy in Online Retailing Marketplaces of Homogeneous Goods: Should High Reputation Seller Charge More?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuewen; Wei, Kwok Kee; Chen, Huaping

    There are two conflicting streams of research findings on pricing strategy: one is high reputation sellers should charge price premium, while the other is high reputation sellers should charge relatively low price. Motivated by this confliction, this study examines pricing strategy in online retailing marketplace of homogeneous goods. We conduct an empirical study using data collected from a dominant online retailing marketplace in China. Our research results indicate that, in online retailing marketplace of homogeneous goods, high reputation sellers should charge relatively low price, because the consumers of high reputation sellers are more price sensitive than the consumers of low reputation sellers.

  17. Security clustering algorithm based on reputation in hierarchical peer-to-peer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei; Luo, Xin; Wu, Guowen; Tan, Yang; Kita, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    For the security problems of the hierarchical P2P network (HPN), the paper presents a security clustering algorithm based on reputation (CABR). In the algorithm, we take the reputation mechanism for ensuring the security of transaction and use cluster for managing the reputation mechanism. In order to improve security, reduce cost of network brought by management of reputation and enhance stability of cluster, we select reputation, the historical average online time, and the network bandwidth as the basic factors of the comprehensive performance of node. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm improved the security, reduced the network overhead, and enhanced stability of cluster.

  18. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    PubMed

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography.

  19. The Geography Learning Strategies of the Education Faculty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahtiyar Karadeniz, Cemile

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to search the learning strategies of the Education faculty students, who will teach geography, according to different varieties. First of all, the measure of geography learning strategy was developed. It was found that the students with high academic success for geography lesson. Other data of this survey is that the…

  20. Teaching, Learning and Research in Geography at Liverpool Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speake, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on the geography program at Liverpool Hope University College (England). Discusses geography research at Liverpool Hope and outlines the Geography for the New Undergraduate program, considering its impact on teaching and learning. Addresses the evolving research agenda for teaching and learning. (CMK)

  1. Development of Geography in Higher Education in China since 1980

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaojian; Kong, Yunfeng; Peng, Baoyu

    2007-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in terms of geography student enrolment in higher education. This study draws on an extensive collection of data as well as the authors' own surveys of 20 geography schools/departments, to elaborate on the development features of China's geography in higher education (GHE) against its unique background since…

  2. The China National Geography Competition for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Wang; Dongying, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Four Chinese middle school students represented China during the third International Geography Olympiad (IGEO) held in 2000 in Korea and that was the first time for China to participate in the IGEO. In 2005 the China Society of Geography and the Beijing Normal University decided to co-organise the China National Geography Competition (CNGC) for…

  3. Teachers Envisioning Future Geography Education at Their Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Béneker, Tine; Palings, Hans; Krause, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges of a geography teacher education program is preparing teachers for their leading roles in keeping geography education relevant for the young people of today. It is important to allow teachers to think about geography education and the future and to foster their curriculum-making competences. In a master course at Fontys…

  4. Teaching Geography in the Disciplines. Fastback No. 400.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binko, James B.; Neubert, Gloria A.

    This booklet provides an overview of interdisciplinary geography and supplies practical examples of how geography can be linked to other subjects. Because geography is included in new state high school graduation requirements, the subject is making a renaissance in the classroom. Teachers are finding new and exciting ways to integrate geography…

  5. Geography of Religion at Slippery Rock State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Thomas J., Jr.

    The paper presents a course outline intended for use in a one semester geography of religion course on the college level. Geography of religion is interpreted to include all aspects of the impact of religion on cultural, political, and economic geography. Objectives are to emphasize distributional aspects of religion and religious phenomena,…

  6. Revitalizing Economic Geography through Teaching Excellence: Some Pedagogic Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Neil M.; Yeung, Henry Wai-Chung

    2006-01-01

    In this position paper, the authors outline some of the pressing trends in the recent development of economic geography as a sub-discipline in human geography. In particular, they note the lack of critical discussion of important pedagogical issues in teaching what might be termed "new economic geographies", and particularly those associated with…

  7. Rethinking Postgraduate Geography Education in the USA: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Kenneth; Bednarz, Sarah; Monk, Janice; Solem, Michael; Stoltman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate geography education in the USA is growing and changing. In recent years, the number of postgraduate programs has increased at both the doctoral and master's levels. Interest in improving and reforming doctoral education has increased dramatically both inside and outside geography, and geography has been involved in these reforms.…

  8. How Geography Teachers Deal with the Curriculum Changes in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The changes in Turkish geography curriculum in 2005 have placed geography teachers to adopt completely different approaches from what they were used to throughout their careers. This study attempts to explore to what extent teachers of geography have adopted the new curriculum and how they are dealing with the recent curricular changes in Turkey.…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Geography Education: International Samples and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incekara, Suleyman

    2010-01-01

    In today's world, the developments being experienced in geography education are focusing on issues like the following: integrating technology into geography courses, placing a comprehensive and integrative perspective regarding geography into the curriculum, stressing independent learning and team-learning simultaneously, educating students to…

  10. The Geography Teacher. Volume 5, Number 2, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geography Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "The Geography Teacher" provides hands-on reference and educative material for K-12 Geography teachers. The journal also pioneers innovative ideas for contemporary teaching methods, including lesson plans. This issue contains the following: (1) Ask Dr. de Blij (Harm de Blij); (2) Geography: Is it a Boy's Subject? (Lisa Smitreski); (3) A to Z:…

  11. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senyurt, Secil

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of Turkish primary school students' perceptions of geography. Gender differences in students' perceptions of geography were investigated, including definitions of geography and its field of study. The findings showed that "landforms," "our geographical regions/Turkey,"…

  12. Reputation in an economic game modulates premotor cortex activity during action observation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Harry; Apps, Matthew; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-09-01

    Our interactions with other people - and our processing of their actions - are shaped by their reputation. Research has identified an Action Observation Network (AON) which is engaged when observing other people's actions. Yet, little is known about how the processing of others' actions is influenced by another's reputation. Is the response of the AON modulated by the reputation of the actor? We developed a variant of the ultimatum game in which participants watched either the visible or occluded actions of two 'proposers'. These actions were tied to decisions of how to split a pot of money although the proposers' decisions on each trial were not known to participants when observing the actions. One proposer made fair offers on the majority of trials, establishing a positive reputation, whereas the other made predominantly, unfair offers resulting in a negative reputation. We found significant activations in two regions of the left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). The first of these showed a main effect of reputation with greater activation for the negative reputation proposer than the positive reputation proposer. Furthermore individual differences in trust ratings of the two proposers covaried with activation in the right primary motor cortex (M1). The second showed an interaction between visibility and reputation driven by a greater effect of reputation when participants were observing an occluded action. Our findings show that the processing of others' actions in the AON is modulated by an actor's reputation, and suggest a predictive role for the PMC during action observation. PMID:27364606

  13. Consequence of reputation in the Sznajd consensus model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crokidakis, Nuno; Forgerini, Fabricio L.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we study a modified version of the Sznajd sociophysics model. In particular we introduce reputation, a mechanism that limits the capacity of persuasion of the agents. The reputation is introduced as a score which is time-dependent, and its introduction avoid dictatorship (all spins parallel) for a wide range of parameters. The relaxation time follows a log-normal-like distribution. In addition, we show that the usual phase transition also occurs, as in the standard model, and it depends on the initial concentration of individuals following an opinion, occurring at a initial density of up spins greater than 1/2. The transition point is determined by means of a finite-size scaling analysis.

  14. Web Service Reputation Evaluation Based on QoS Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiteng; Shao, Zhiqing; Zheng, Hong; Zhai, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In the early service transactions, quality of service (QoS) information was published by service provider which was not always true and credible. For better verification the trust of the QoS information was provided by the Web service. In this paper, the factual QoS running data are collected by our WS-QoS measurement tool; based on these objectivity data, an algorithm compares the difference of the offered and measured quality data of the service and gives the similarity, and then a reputation evaluation method computes the reputation level of the Web service based on the similarity. The initial implementation and experiment with three Web services' example show that this approach is feasible and these values can act as the references for subsequent consumers to select the service. PMID:24977194

  15. Ranking Reputation and Quality in Online Rating Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Xiao, Rui; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Chen, Duan-Bing; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    How to design an accurate and robust ranking algorithm is a fundamental problem with wide applications in many real systems. It is especially significant in online rating systems due to the existence of some spammers. In the literature, many well-performed iterative ranking methods have been proposed. These methods can effectively recognize the unreliable users and reduce their weight in judging the quality of objects, and finally lead to a more accurate evaluation of the online products. In this paper, we design an iterative ranking method with high performance in both accuracy and robustness. More specifically, a reputation redistribution process is introduced to enhance the influence of highly reputed users and two penalty factors enable the algorithm resistance to malicious behaviors. Validation of our method is performed in both artificial and real user-object bipartite networks. PMID:24819119

  16. Ranking reputation and quality in online rating systems.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Xiao, Rui; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Chen, Duan-Bing; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    How to design an accurate and robust ranking algorithm is a fundamental problem with wide applications in many real systems. It is especially significant in online rating systems due to the existence of some spammers. In the literature, many well-performed iterative ranking methods have been proposed. These methods can effectively recognize the unreliable users and reduce their weight in judging the quality of objects, and finally lead to a more accurate evaluation of the online products. In this paper, we design an iterative ranking method with high performance in both accuracy and robustness. More specifically, a reputation redistribution process is introduced to enhance the influence of highly reputed users and two penalty factors enable the algorithm resistance to malicious behaviors. Validation of our method is performed in both artificial and real user-object bipartite networks. PMID:24819119

  17. EVIDENCE CONCERNING THE REPUTED HEALTH VALUE OF FATS

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, John W. M.

    1927-01-01

    THE truth seems to be that the common edible fats, whether of animal or vegetable origin, have no constant vitamin value. Some are usually low or lacking in vitaminic activity, and the best are variable in this respect. Until some criterion other than taste, appearance, or reputation can be devised for judging the nutritional value of fats as purchased, we must assume them to be unreliable sources of vitamins and dependable only for their universally high calorific value. PMID:18012317

  18. Geography Teachers' Concepts of Working with Thinking through Geography Strategies--Results of an Empirical Reconstructive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applis, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The educational standards in geography in the German-speaking world separately refer to the areas of competence of judgment and evaluation and thus attach outstanding importance to reflective value orientation in geography classes. The tasks and challenges that arise from that for geography teachers will be investigated in a…

  19. Reputation and Competition in a Hidden Action Model

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The economics models of reputation and quality in markets can be classified in three categories. (i) Pure hidden action, where only one type of seller is present who can provide goods of different quality. (ii) Pure hidden information, where sellers of different types have no control over product quality. (iii) Mixed frameworks, which include both hidden action and hidden information. In this paper we develop a pure hidden action model of reputation and Bertrand competition, where consumers and firms interact repeatedly in a market with free entry. The price of the good produced by the firms is contractible, whilst the quality is noncontractible, hence it is promised by the firms when a contract is signed. Consumers infer future quality from all available information, i.e., both from what they know about past quality and from current prices. According to early contributions, competition should make reputation unable to induce the production of high-quality goods. We provide a simple solution to this problem by showing that high quality levels are sustained as an outcome of a stationary symmetric equilibrium. PMID:25329387

  20. Compact Geography of the Netherlands. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, H.

    A short, concise summary of the geography of the Netherlands is presented in this document. The introduction describes the country's governmental forms, physical location, provinces, population, and history. Geographic coverage includes: (1) the high and low Netherlands; (2) the struggle against flooding and land reclamation; (3) the polders, or…

  1. A Curriculum Guide for Population Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Gary, Ed.

    Geographers from Asian nations, the United Kingdom, and the United States wrote this population geography curriculum guide to help universities in developing nations of Asia increase the amount of population-oriented materials in their undergraduate curricula. The developers do not advise that the guide be used in its entirety for a single course.…

  2. The Stealth Approach: Geography and Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Diane Carver; Gregg, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the poetry strand of literacy instruction can help teachers infuse geography into the elementary classroom. Teachers can use poems to target important aspects of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. When the poems contain substantive geography…

  3. Teaching Historical Geographies of American Film Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The geographies of Hollywood are multiple, contradictory, ephemeral and tangible. Our preconceived conceptions of space and place play a dynamic role in what elements we tend to focus on when discussing the cultural industry of American cinema. This essay uses Hollywood as a metaphor for the American film production industry and a historical…

  4. Geography and Geographical Education in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriewaldt, Jeana

    2006-01-01

    Victoria has just emerged from 10 years where Geography has been one of three strands in the key learning area of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE). The overarching framework emerged from an attempt to develop a national curriculum. Whilst the national curriculum was rejected by Australian state and territories who each hold legislative…

  5. Prospective Teachers' View on Geography Fieldworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Cevdet; Bilgi, Merve Gorkem

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to examine thoroughly the components to constitute individual perceptions of prospective teachers concerning important acquisitions of geography fieldworks and to facilitate its applicability as a teaching method through their own observations and suggestions, and in this context to obtain information about the nature…

  6. Teaching Geography Using Films: A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Palma, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Films are often used in schools to illustrate geography, but doing so may favor mainly passive learning. An experiment with twenty-eight pupils aged thirteen years (a whole class) had the aim of using cinema to promote active geographical learning. First, it was ascertained what the dominant geographical stereotypes were among the pupils and the…

  7. Formative Experiences of Primary Geography Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catling, Simon; Greenwood, Richard; Martin, Fran; Owens, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the initial findings of a study in the UK and the Republic of Ireland of teacher educators and teachers who are involved in promoting geography education in primary schooling. Following research by Buttimer, Chawla, McPartland, Palmer and others, it sought to investigate the connections between early formative life experiences…

  8. Capstone Portfolios and Geography Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossa, Joann

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing demands regarding student learning outcomes and accreditation, a capstone portfolio was added to assess critical thinking and communication skills of geography majors at a large public university in the USA. The portfolio guidelines were designed to be adaptable to a flexible curriculum where about half of the requirements within…

  9. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  10. Teacher's Guide to Modern Geography Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Association of American Geographers is currently developing a Teacher's Guide to Modern Geography (TGMG), funded by FIPSE in the US Department of Education. The primary aim of the teacher's guide is to improve the preparation of teachers in the pre-service state of the teacher professional continuum (including student teaching), when very few teachers actually major in geography. TGMG uses real-world issues to integrate content and skills in geography, math, science, and other subjects, with explicit connections to state standards across the curriculum. The TGMG project is producing a variety of print and digital materials for pre-service and in-service teacher preparation programs. For example, a multimedia CD with animated instructional units that deal with the analytical skills in the National Geography Standards, such as measuring direction, distance, slope, and density; analyzing map patterns and making rigorous map comparisons; formulating and testing hypotheses; identifying exceptions to patterns predicted by hypotheses; and buffering, overlaying, windowing, and other methods of spatial analysis. To evaluate the effectiveness of the materials, a spatial skills test has been developed and tested.

  11. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  12. A Geography of Uruguay for Elementary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper is part of a larger study, conducted as part of a Christa McAuliffe Fellowship research project, "A Comparative Geography of Three Ecologically Similar Regions." The study compared the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland with the Murray River region of South Australia and the Rio de la Plata region of Uruguay. The project was designed to…

  13. Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Martha B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the population section of the Advanced Placement course outline for human geography, focusing on four themes: (1) geographical analysis of population; (2) population distribution and composition; (3) population growth and decline over time and space; and (4) population movement. Identifies strategies for instructional activities.…

  14. Recovering the Street: Relocalising Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Angharad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how audio walks can help learners re-experience and rethink the nature of urban geography. Urban thinking has increasingly begun to explore the city not from above, but from below; from the street rather than from the elite and in everyday rather than extraordinary ways. The intention has been to reveal the many stories,…

  15. Women and Geography, 1993: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David

    This bibliography is an update of "Women and Geography: A Comprehensive Bibliography" which is published under the auspices of the Specialty Group on Geographic Perspectives on Women of the Association of American Geographers. Updates of the bibliography are issued annually. This bibliography project culminates more than a decade of research on…

  16. Geography and Viticulture: Rationale and Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blij, Harm Jan de

    1983-01-01

    The study of viticulture (the growing of grapes) can illustrate the practical applications of geography: spatial orientation, focus on natural environment, human-land interaction, and concern with the properties and characteristics of regions. A suggested course outline is given, as well as a listing of resources about viticulture. (IS)

  17. Framing Learning Conditions in Geography Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonasson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and frame some learning conditions involved in the practice of geographical excursions. The empirical material from this study comes from several excursions made by students in human geography and an ethnomethodological approach through participant observation is used. The study is informed by theories from…

  18. Internationalizing Geography Education: A Focus on India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Michael; Balachandran, Chandra Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Geographers (AAG), through its Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) project, recently published a collection of online educational resources examining important geographic issues affecting people, places, and environments in India. The resources were created by a delegation of high school teachers and academic…

  19. Design for the Teaching of Landform Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawling, John W.

    1973-01-01

    A sequence of organizational problems is examined and suggestions made from a previous study of the southern peninsula of Michigan. Suggested for all age levels above the elementary school, this project is a feasible design for an oft-neglected aspect of physical geography. (Author)

  20. Population Education in Geography: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in geography courses. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  1. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline.

  2. Geography Internships: First, the Good News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublett, Michael D.

    Four-hour internships have been a requirement for nonteaching geography majors at Illinois State University (Normal) since 1987. A 2-hour pre-internship seminar, taught every spring, is also required. In this course, students learn of internship possibilities; develop resumes and cover letters; participate in a video-taped mock interview; receive…

  3. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  4. Family Oriented Field Experience in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen A.

    A family-oriented geography field course about the southwestern United States was conducted in 1978 by a community college in Michigan (Delta College). Course activities took place in Colorado. The major purpose of the field experience was to offer learning experiences to family groups rather than to individual students. For purposes of the field…

  5. Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

  6. Early Women Geography Educators, 1783-1932.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittser, Sharan E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of women educators to the development of geography as a discipline, focusing on seven women: (1) Susanna Rowson; (2) Emma Hart Willard; (3) Sarah Sophia Cornell; (4) Ellen Churchill Semple; (5) Zonia Baber; (6) Erna Grassmuck Gilland; and (7) Esther Sanfrieda Anderson. (CMK)

  7. Nationalism in Geography Classrooms: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Kolson; White, George; Leib, Jonathan; Dalby, Simon; Algeo, Katie; Jansson, David; Zimmerman, Jackson

    2011-01-01

    This set of essays is based on a panel session convened at the 2009 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, which sought to explore the many challenges and pitfalls involved with teaching nationalism as a topic in geography classrooms. The authors offer different but complementary insights into the practical difficulties and potential…

  8. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  9. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  10. Teaching Historical Geography in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keighren, Innes M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and practical challenges associated with teaching historical geography, and archival research specifically, in the context of the undergraduate field trip. In so doing, it draws upon students' own reflections on the experience of conducting archival research during a field trip to New York City and presents…

  11. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  12. The Teaching of Supranational Concepts in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John M.

    A primary goal of a teacher of regional geography should be to present the course as a study of the changing functions of world regions because the events of each day cause regions, whether political, economic, cultural, or physical, to be in constant flux. The nation-state has become in many ways out-moded as a source of analyzing the events of…

  13. My Word! Vocabulary and Geography Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Madeleine; Sekers, Diane Carver

    2006-01-01

    Geography learning places a high demand on children's vocabulary development because they know so few words useful for analyzing geographic phenomena and processes. Research shows that multiple experiences with new words are needed if children are to use them fluently in conversation, reading, and writing. This paper describes a variety of …

  14. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  15. WORLD GEOGRAPHY COURSE OF STUDY, GRADE 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Board of Public Education, PA.

    A SEVENTH-GRADE WORLD GEOGRAPHY COURSE FOR MIDDLE TRACK STUDENTS IS PRESENTED. GENERALIZATIONS FOR EACH UNIT, ALONG WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING AND LISTS OF AUDIOVISUAL AIDS, ARE INCLUDED. STUDENTS ARE ENCOURAGED TO DERIVE GENERAL GEOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES FROM THEIR STUDY OF THE SPECIFIC. TEN UNITS FOR STUDY ENCOMPASS THE CONTINENTS.

  16. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  17. The geography teacher's set of appliances - `GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' - Self improved school equipment used in teaching geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The multimedia application and the use of Internet are becoming more and more common at schools and at homes due to the widespread of computers. The multimedia programs offer a great help for geography teachers because with their use all the visual aids are not needed in the classroom. They mix the advantages of blacboards, slides, displays, overhead projectors and VCR-s. At the same time offering other opportunities which could not be provided by the aids mentioned above because of their limits. Using a projector connected to a computer students can see the visual aids prepared by the teacher projected. Their use is justified because student's books cannot contain all the increasing amount of knowledge. Success is guaranteed because students are sensitive to new approaches. Digitalizing the material and finding it on the internet that way preparing a colourful, varied geography lesson is a time-consuming process. Being the methodologist and didactic information technologist at the Geography Department of Eszterházy Károly College I have been working for years on facilitating the work of my students, colleagues and my own activity using varied visual aids and types of equipment as preparation for the geography lesson. I have created an electronic set of appliances using the Dreamweaver MX program (‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT', from the 1st September 2006 on the Internet), it can be a real help for the teacher in each teaching situation. The ‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' is a multimedia, Internet service which can be loaded free, the teacher gets into a virtual office clicking to the different pieces (drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, Tv set etc.) the teacher can continue with the necessary school equipment. Such equipment like: lesson plans for the lessons using digital technology, photos, video clips, animation, illustrations, pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database, diagrams, charts, bibliography, student's books, geography lexicons, magazines

  18. Social Interactions between Children with Cancer or Sickle Cell Disease and Their Peers: Teacher Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Robert B.; And Others

    This study compared the social reputation of: (1) children with a cancer which did not involve the central nervous system (N=26); (2) children with a primary malignancy involving the central nervous system (N=15); and (3) children with sickle cell disease (N=33) to matched, same classroom peers using a measure of social reputation, the Revised…

  19. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jensen, John R.; Morain, Stanley A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote sensing science contributes greatly to our understanding of the Earth's ecosystems and cultural landscapes. Almost all the natural and social sciences, including geography, rely heavily on remote sensing to provide quantitative, and indispensable spatial information. Many geographers have made significant contributions to remote sensing science since the 1970s, including the specification of advanced remote sensing systems, improvements in analog and digital image analysis, biophysical modeling, and terrain analysis. In fact, the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) is one of the largest specialty groups within the AAG with over 500 members. Remote sensing in concert with a geographic information systems, offers much value to geography as both an incisive spatial-analytical tool and as a scholarly pursuit that adds to the body of geographic knowledge on the whole. The "power" of remote sensing as a research endeavor in geography lies in its capabilities for obtaining synoptic, near-real time data at many spatial and temporal scales, and in many regions of the electromagnetic spectrum - from microwave, to RADAR, to visible, and reflective and thermal infrared. In turn, these data present a vast compendium of information for assessing Earth attributes and characte6stics that are at the very core of geography. Here we revisit how remote sensing has become a fundamental and important tool for geographical research, and how with the advent of new and improved sensing systems to be launched in the near future, remote sensing will further advance geographical analysis in the approaching New Millennium.

  20. GIS Adoption and Diffusion among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, J. G.; Chen, Y. W.

    2011-09-01

    The crux of this paper lies in exploring geographic information system (GIS) adoption and diffusion among high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Because the integration of GIS in the high school curriculum is relatively new, we assume that high school geography teachers require resources, training, and assistance in learning GIS and in developing modules that can be incorporated into their teaching. A number of in-service training programs have been created to this end. We aim to study what motivates geography teachers to learn GIS during in-service training. The adoption of GIS has been studied in countries such as the U.S. and Singapore; however, as there is presently no literature on Taiwan's experience, we intend to fill this gap. This is achieved through statistical analysis of primary data gleaned from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers. The design of the questionnaire is largely inspired by an existing measurement of two commonly cited theoretical models. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and its various modifications focus on teachers' perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU). The social influence model (SIM), differently, postulates that teachers' usage of GIS is affected by peers and their schools. Using the census data, we provide a preliminary analysis of these two models in this paper.

  1. Meso-America and the Andes. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.7. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.7 is delineated in the following manner: "Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations." Seventh-grade students study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico and Central and South America and their effects on…

  2. Vision for the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Inquiry in Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for States to Use in Enhancing Their Standards for Rigor in Civics, Economics, Geography, and History in K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In the advent of the development and mass adoption of the common core state standards for English language arts and mathematics, state and local agencies have now expressed a need to the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO or the Council) for assistance as they upgrade existing social studies standards to meet the practical goal of…

  3. Medical geography in Charaka Samhita

    PubMed Central

    Bhavana, K.R.; Shreevathsa

    2014-01-01

    Charaka Samhita is the oldest and the most authentic treatise on Ayurveda and is the ancient medical science of India. Apart from giving information on medical conditions and their treatment; it also gives valuable information on geographical, social, and economic conditions of India. This article is an attempt to explore geographical conditions of the ancient India, its geographical position in present India and its medical significance. PMID:26195898

  4. Influences on Future UK Higher Education Students' Perceptions and Educational Choices across Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Literature on student perception is evaluated in relation to the evolution of perception of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) through the school years. Four pervasive themes are identified. An "expectation framework" generated by family and social class exerts a dominant influence on student choice, yet rarely is it addressed in…

  5. Teaching about National Security: Instructional Strategies and Lessons for High School Courses in History, Government, Geography, Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C.; And Others

    The instructional techniques illustrated in this book present a method of infusing national security issues into the five principal social studies courses of U.S. history, world history, U.S. government, economics, and geography. Chapter 1 discusses the meaning and evolution of the term national security in its general and educational contexts.…

  6. Evaluating the STORE Reputation System in Multi-Agent Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrulis, Jonas; Haller, Jochen; Weinhardt, Christof; Karabulut, Yuecel

    In recent global business environments, collaborations among organisations raise an increased demand for swift establishment. Such collaborations are formed between organisations entering Virtual Organizations (VOs), crossing geographic borders and frequently without prior experience of the other partner’s previous performance. In VOs, every participant risks engaging with partners who may exhibit unexpected fraudulent or otherwise untrusted behaviour. In order to cope with this risk, the STochastic REputation system (STORE) was designed to provide swift, automated decision support for selecting partner organisations in the early stages of the VO’s formation. The contribution of this paper first consists of a multi-agent simulation framework design and implementation to evaluate the STORE reputation system. This framework is able to simulate dynamic agent behaviour, agents hereby representing organisations, and to capture the business context of different VO application scenarios. A configuration of agent classes is a powerful tool to obtain not only well or badly performing agents for simulation scenarios, but also agents which are specialized in particular VO application domains or even malicious agents, attacking the VO community. The second contribution comprises of STORE’s evaluation in two simulation scenarios, set in the VO application domains of Collaborative Engineering and Ad-hoc Service provisioning. Besides the ability to clearly distinguish between agents of different classes according to their reputation, the results prove STORE’s ability to take an agent’s dynamic behaviour into account. The simulation results show, that STORE solves the difficult task of selecting the most trustworthy partner for a particular VO application domain from a set of honest agents that are specialized in a wide spread of VO application domains.

  7. Reputational Risk, Academic Freedom and Research Ethics Review

    PubMed Central

    Hedgecoe, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on scholarship around academic freedom and new public management, this article explores the way in which research ethics committees in UK universities (URECs) can come to exhibit behaviour – common in their US equivalents – that prioritises the reputational protection of their host institution over and above academic freedom and the protection of research subjects. Drawing on two case studies the article shows both how URECs can serve to restrict research that may be ‘embarrassing’ for a university and how, in high profile cases, university management come to use such committees as mechanisms for internal discipline. PMID:27330226

  8. How Feedback Biases Give Ineffective Medical Treatments a Good Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical treatments with no direct effect (like homeopathy) or that cause harm (like bloodletting) are common across cultures and throughout history. How do such treatments spread and persist? Most medical treatments result in a range of outcomes: some people improve while others deteriorate. If the people who improve are more inclined to tell others about their experiences than the people who deteriorate, ineffective or even harmful treatments can maintain a good reputation. Objective The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that positive outcomes are overrepresented in online medical product reviews, to examine if this reputational distortion is large enough to bias people’s decisions, and to explore the implications of this bias for the cultural evolution of medical treatments. Methods We compared outcomes of weight loss treatments and fertility treatments in clinical trials to outcomes reported in 1901 reviews on Amazon. Then, in a series of experiments, we evaluated people’s choice of weight loss diet after reading different reviews. Finally, a mathematical model was used to examine if this bias could result in less effective treatments having a better reputation than more effective treatments. Results Data are consistent with the hypothesis that people with better outcomes are more inclined to write reviews. After 6 months on the diet, 93% (64/69) of online reviewers reported a weight loss of 10 kg or more while just 27% (19/71) of clinical trial participants experienced this level of weight change. A similar positive distortion was found in fertility treatment reviews. In a series of experiments, we show that people are more inclined to begin a diet with many positive reviews, than a diet with reviews that are representative of the diet’s true effect. A mathematical model of medical cultural evolution shows that the size of the positive distortion critically depends on the shape of the outcome distribution. Conclusions Online

  9. Security in MANETs using reputation-adjusted routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondi, Attila; Hoffman, Katherine; Perez, Carlos; Ford, Richard; Carvalho, Marco; Allen, William

    2009-04-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks enable communication in various dynamic environments, including military combat operations. Their open and shared communication medium enables new forms of attack that are not applicable for traditional wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms and defense techniques are not prepared to cope with the new attacks and the lack of central authorities make identity verifications difficult. This work extends our previous work in the Biologically Inspired Tactical Security Infrastructure to provide a reputation-based weighing mechanism for linkstate routing protocols to protect the network from attackers that are corrupting legitimate network traffic. Our results indicate that the approach is successful in routing network traffic around compromised computers.

  10. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  11. Geography and nursing: convergence in cyberspace?

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Kitchin, Rob

    2005-12-01

    During the last 3 years the interface between geography and nursing has provided fertile ground for research. Not only has a conceptual emphasis on space and place provided nurse researchers with a robust and subtly different way to deconstruct and articulate nursing environments, but also their studies have provided a much needed focus on certain areas of health-care, and in particular clinical practice, not currently prioritized by health geographers. We argue that, as something that is forcing fundamental re-considerations of the nature of both nursing and geography, cyberspace is a particularly important phenomenon that lies comparatively under-researched at this interface. To encourage some interest in researching nursing and cyberspace through a geographical lens, and at least to showcase a range of potentially useful and transportable concepts, we provide an overview of some of the key debates pertaining to cyberspace developed by human geographers, and make some initial and tentative connections to nursing. PMID:16359458

  12. Sources of Information on Medical Geography

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Lynn S.

    1966-01-01

    Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint. PMID:5329543

  13. Participation Willingness in Web Surveys: Exploring Effect of Sponsoring Corporation's and Survey Provider's Reputation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chao; Pavur, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Prior research involving response rates in Web-based surveys has not adequately addressed the effect of the reputation of a sponsoring corporation that contracts with a survey provider. This study investigates the effect of two factors, namely, the reputation of a survey's provider and the reputation of a survey's sponsoring corporation, on the willingness of potential respondents to participate in a Web survey. Results of an experimental design with these two factors reveal that the sponsoring corporation's and the survey provider's strong reputations can induce potential respondents to participate in a Web survey. A sponsoring corporation's reputation has a greater effect on the participation willingness of potential respondents of a Web survey than the reputation of the survey provider. A sponsoring corporation with a weak reputation who contracts with a survey provider having a strong reputation results in increased participation willingness from potential respondents if the identity of the sponsoring corporation is disguised in a survey. This study identifies the most effective strategy to increase participation willingness for a Web-based survey by considering both the reputations of the sponsoring corporation and survey provider and whether to reveal their identities. PMID:22304457

  14. Algorithms for reengineering 1991 census geography.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, S; Rao, L

    1995-03-01

    "The availability of GIS [geographic information systems] technology and digital boundaries of census output areas now makes it possible for users to design their own census geography. Three algorithms are described that can be used for this purpose. An Arc/Info implementation is briefly outlined and case studies presented to demonstrate some of the results of explicitly designing zoning systems for use with 1991 [U.K.] census data." PMID:12346252

  15. Hidden geographies: the changing lifeworlds of women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dyck, I

    1995-02-01

    This paper discusses the microgeographies of unemployed women with multiple sclerosis, as they manage the physical, social and economic consequences of their illness. Recent directions in the geography of health and health care draw attention to the relationships between space, place and health experience, and in this paper a focus on the everyday lives of women with Multiple Sclerosis reveals the complex interweaving of space, physical impairment and gender in how they experience place. In-depth interviews were used in the study to investigate how women occupied and used home and neighbourhood space after leaving the paid labour force. The majority of women were found to experience shrinking social and geographical worlds which rendered their lives increasingly hidden from view as patterns of social interaction changed and use of public space diminished. The paper discusses the women's residential and household changes, mediated by marital and socio-economic status, and presents two brief case studies to illustrate the remapping of the meanings of work and place as women renegotiate their lifeworlds. The focus of the study on the spatio-temporal settings of the women's everyday lives revealed an interplay of biomedical discourse, policy structures, sociocultural norms and local sets of social relations that shaped the strategies the women used in reconstructing their lives. The women showed a diversity of responses, but these were all characterized by a restructuring of home and neighbourhood space, a reordering of personal relationships and increasing interpenetration of the public sphere in their private lives. The findings suggest that attention to the body in its geographical as well as social context provides an avenue for investigating the links between subjective experience and the broader social relations and processes which shape the illness experience. PMID:7899943

  16. The academic success of GIS in geography: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Paul A.

    The success of GIS has in some ways proved to be a mixed blessing to academic geography. While quantitative geography has developed as a disciplinary specialism over a long period of time, the infusion of GIS has been more rapid and applications-led. Geography has been a consumer, not producer, of mainstream GIS software, and as such GIS may even contribute towards accelerated de-skilling of the discipline. The technology nevertheless provides a crucial means of dealing with the current proliferation of digital data, and has important implications for the future development of geography.

  17. Flaccid theory and the geographies of sexual health in the age of Viagra.

    PubMed

    Del Casino, Vincent J

    2007-12-01

    The discipline of geography is largely absent in discussions and debates about drug use practices and their relationships to sexual health. Given the important relationships among the use of drugs, performances of sexualized identities, and the practices of sex, it behooves medical and health geographers particularly, and social and cultural geographers more generally, to engage in the wider interdisciplinary debates about these relationships. Through a discussion of one drug, Viagra, this brief intervention offers an agenda for studying the geographies of sex, sexuality, and drug use. It is argued that drug use is an inherently geographic practice that reshapes how places are resituated in relation to the fluid and dynamic meanings of sex, sexuality, and sexual health, areas of research and practice that medical and health geographers ought to consider more seriously.

  18. The Effects of Counselor Disability Status and Reputation on Perceptions of Counselor Expertness, Attractiveness, and Trustworthiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leierer, Stephen J.; Strohmer, Douglas C.; Kern, Adrienne M.; Clemons-Guidry, Denise B.; Roberts, Kelly J.; Curry, Karen E.

    1998-01-01

    Adults with disabilities (N=60) viewed videotapes portraying client-counselor reactions to examine the influence of counselor disability status and counselor reputation. A significant effect was found for counselor disability status. Counselors without a disability received higher ratings. There was no effect for reputation, and no interaction was…

  19. Beyond Academic Reputation: Factors that Influence the College of First Choice for High Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Holly J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have investigated college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly cite academic reputation as one of the top indicators of choice but have not indicated why some high-achieving students choose to attend universities with a less prestigious reputation than the more highly prestigious options available to them. The purpose…

  20. Scientific Reputation and "The Golden Standards": Quality Management System Impact and the Teaching-Research Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraru, Luminita

    2012-01-01

    In the academic environment the reputation is linked to research performance. However, the questions "what reputation actually is, how it is formed and which are the best ways to measure it?" still remain and they raise tension and confusion between academics. The evaluation methods tend to over emphasise research and fail to address the…

  1. Monetizing College Reputation: The Case of Taiwan's Engineering and Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Hung-Lin

    2007-01-01

    This study uses the admission scores of Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Examination (JCEE) and occupational wage data to estimate the reputation values of engineering and medical schools in Taiwan. It is found that the reputation values of medical schools are more than twice those of engineering schools. It takes about 7 and 19 years of work for…

  2. Reputation-Based Investment Helps to Optimize Group Behaviors in Spatial Lattice Networks.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Cao, Lin; Ren, Yizhi; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Shi, Benyun

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging cooperation among selfish individuals is crucial in many real-world systems, where individuals' collective behaviors can be analyzed using evolutionary public goods game. Along this line, extensive studies have shown that reputation is an effective mechanism to investigate the evolution of cooperation. In most existing studies, participating individuals in a public goods game are assumed to contribute unconditionally into the public pool, or they can choose partners based on a common reputation standard (e.g., preferences or characters). However, to assign one reputation standard for all individuals is impractical in many real-world deployment. In this paper, we introduce a reputation tolerance mechanism that allows an individual to select its potential partners and decide whether or not to contribute an investment to the public pool based on its tolerance to other individuals' reputation. Specifically, an individual takes part in a public goods game only if the number of participants with higher reputation exceeds the value of its tolerance. Moreover, in this paper, an individual's reputation can increase or decrease in a bounded interval based on its historical behaviors. We explore the principle that how the reputation tolerance and conditional investment mechanisms can affect the evolution of cooperation in spatial lattice networks. Our simulation results demonstrate that a larger tolerance value can achieve an environment that promote the cooperation of participants.

  3. An Analysis of Academic Reputation as Perceived by Consumers of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, Michael J.; Conard, Maureen A.

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses of college-bound high school seniors (n=198) found most respondents viewed successful postgraduate careers as very important to the perception of an institution's academic reputation. Three factors described student perception of academic reputation: academic concerns, campus ethos, and practical value. Also, three factors were…

  4. Image and Reputation of Higher Education Institutions in Students' Retention Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Nha; LeBlanc, Gaston

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed business students about the role of institutional image and reputation in the formation of customer loyalty. Found that the degree of loyalty tends to be higher when perceptions of both institutional reputation and image are favorable, and that interaction between the two also influences loyalty. (EV)

  5. Reputation-Based Investment Helps to Optimize Group Behaviors in Spatial Lattice Networks.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Cao, Lin; Ren, Yizhi; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Shi, Benyun

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging cooperation among selfish individuals is crucial in many real-world systems, where individuals' collective behaviors can be analyzed using evolutionary public goods game. Along this line, extensive studies have shown that reputation is an effective mechanism to investigate the evolution of cooperation. In most existing studies, participating individuals in a public goods game are assumed to contribute unconditionally into the public pool, or they can choose partners based on a common reputation standard (e.g., preferences or characters). However, to assign one reputation standard for all individuals is impractical in many real-world deployment. In this paper, we introduce a reputation tolerance mechanism that allows an individual to select its potential partners and decide whether or not to contribute an investment to the public pool based on its tolerance to other individuals' reputation. Specifically, an individual takes part in a public goods game only if the number of participants with higher reputation exceeds the value of its tolerance. Moreover, in this paper, an individual's reputation can increase or decrease in a bounded interval based on its historical behaviors. We explore the principle that how the reputation tolerance and conditional investment mechanisms can affect the evolution of cooperation in spatial lattice networks. Our simulation results demonstrate that a larger tolerance value can achieve an environment that promote the cooperation of participants. PMID:27611686

  6. Reputation-Based Investment Helps to Optimize Group Behaviors in Spatial Lattice Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hong; Cao, Lin; Ren, Yizhi; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Shi, Benyun

    2016-01-01

    Encouraging cooperation among selfish individuals is crucial in many real-world systems, where individuals’ collective behaviors can be analyzed using evolutionary public goods game. Along this line, extensive studies have shown that reputation is an effective mechanism to investigate the evolution of cooperation. In most existing studies, participating individuals in a public goods game are assumed to contribute unconditionally into the public pool, or they can choose partners based on a common reputation standard (e.g., preferences or characters). However, to assign one reputation standard for all individuals is impractical in many real-world deployment. In this paper, we introduce a reputation tolerance mechanism that allows an individual to select its potential partners and decide whether or not to contribute an investment to the public pool based on its tolerance to other individuals’ reputation. Specifically, an individual takes part in a public goods game only if the number of participants with higher reputation exceeds the value of its tolerance. Moreover, in this paper, an individual’s reputation can increase or decrease in a bounded interval based on its historical behaviors. We explore the principle that how the reputation tolerance and conditional investment mechanisms can affect the evolution of cooperation in spatial lattice networks. Our simulation results demonstrate that a larger tolerance value can achieve an environment that promote the cooperation of participants. PMID:27611686

  7. Lab support for strong reciprocity is weak: punishing for reputation rather than cooperation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alex; Santos, Laurie

    2012-02-01

    Strong reciprocity is not the only account that can explain costly punishment in the lab; it can also be explained by reputation-based accounts. We discuss these two accounts and suggest what kinds of evidence would support the two different alternatives. We conclude that the current evidence favors a reputation-based account of costly punishment.

  8. Interpretation and Implementation of Reputation/Brand Management by UK University Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Reputation and brand management are topical issues in UK higher education but previous research has often focused on marketing practitioners within higher education (HE) institutions rather than the senior strategic leaders. This paper, however, examines university chief executives' understanding, attitudes, and interpretation of reputation and…

  9. Determining the College Destination of African American High School Seniors: Does College Athletic Reputation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Hua, Lv

    2006-01-01

    A study prolongs research on college choice by analyzing what African American students state about the importance of the college's athletic reputation when choosing which school to attend. Descriptive results indicate that roughly one out of every three African American respondents believe that a school's athletic reputation is at least a…

  10. Perceptions of Managerial Power as a Consequence of Managerial Behavior and Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Dennis A.; Sims, Henry P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the impact of managerial behavior and manager reputation on perceptions of power in two studies. Behavior significantly influenced perceptions of reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, and referent power; reputation significantly influenced perceptions of legitimate, referent, and especially expert power. Suggested the existence of an…

  11. The Rhetoric and Reality of Research Reputation: "Fur Coat and No Knickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Deirdre; MacPhail, Ann; Msetfi, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation systems including global university rankings have been recently introduced as mechanisms for assessing overall academic quality, appraising research reputation and as a basis for funding and policy decisions. This study explores the concept of research reputation in terms of how it is defined, constituted and assessed. Eight…

  12. Young Children Care More about Their Reputation with Ingroup Members and Potential Reciprocators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Jan M.; Over, Harriet; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human cooperation depends on individuals caring about their reputation, and so they sometimes attempt to manage them strategically. Here we show that even 5-year-old children strategically manage their reputation. In an experimental setting, children shared significantly more resources with an anonymous recipient when (1) the child watching them…

  13. Young children with a positive reputation to maintain are less likely to cheat.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Qian, Miao; Guo, Tengfei; Lee, Kang

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined whether having a positive reputation to maintain makes young children less likely to cheat. Cheating was assessed through a temptation resistance paradigm in which participants were instructed not to cheat in a guessing game. Across three studies (total N = 361), preschool-aged participants were randomly assigned to either a reputation condition, in which an experimenter told them that she had learned of their positive reputation from classmates, or to a control condition in which they received no such information. By age 5, children in the reputation condition cheated less often than those in the control condition even though nobody was watching and choosing not to cheat conflicted with their personal interest. These findings are the first to show that informing children that they have a positive reputation to maintain can influence their moral behavior.

  14. The Sznajd model with limited persuasion: competition between high-reputation and hesitant agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crokidakis, Nuno; Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2011-11-01

    In this work we study a modified version of the two-dimensional Sznajd sociophysics model. In particular, we consider the effects of agents' reputations in the persuasion rules. In other words, a high-reputation group with a common opinion may convince its neighbors with probability p, which induces an increase of the group's reputation. On the other hand, there is always a probability q = 1 - p of the neighbors keeping their opinions, which induces a decrease of the group's reputation. These rules describe a competition between groups with high-reputation and hesitant agents, which makes the full-consensus states (with all spins pointing in one direction) more difficult to reach. As consequences, the usual phase transition does not occur for p < pc ~ 0.69 and the system presents realistic democracy-like situations, where the majority of spins are aligned in a certain direction, for a wide range of parameters.

  15. Reputation management in the age of the world-wide web.

    PubMed

    Tennie, Claudio; Frith, Uta; Frith, Chris D

    2010-11-01

    The reciprocal interactions with others that play such a significant part in our lives depend upon trust; individuals need to be confident that their partners are cooperative, and that they will return favours. Reputation permits the choice of better partners and provides incentives to be more cooperative. These uses of reputation are not unique to humans. However, in complex human societies, with large numbers of potential partners, keeping track of each other's reputation is a vital part of everyday life, and, in an inevitable arms race, ever more powerful strategies of reputation management are being developed. In this article, we bring together insights from different disciplines to throw new light onto the importance and scope of reputation management.

  16. Her Space, Her Place: A Geography of Women. Resource Publications in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazey, Mary Ellen; Lee, David R.

    Presented from a geographical perspective, this book examines major themes of human geography by drawing from the literature on feminism. The book is arranged into four parts. Part 1 examines sex ratios throughout the world, geographical distribution of female rights and status, spatial patterns of the Equal Rights Amendment ratification, the…

  17. Transformative Geography: Ethics and Action in Elementary and Secondary Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Geographic ethics are profoundly important if students are expected to be stewards of the earth and responsible citizens whose decisions about the environment will affect our planet's future. The proposed framework, founded in geography but applicable to other subject areas, guides students to moral decisions for the well-being of the planet and…

  18. Geo-Bibliometric Mapping of French Geography: An Examination of Geography Dissertations Produced in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    2005-01-01

    French geography dissertations for the years 1985-2002 were examined for their salient characteristics in terms of degree production, dissertation type, institutional affiliation, and geographical reach. These dissertations offer a rich base of research conducted in a country known for its innovative geographical research and tradition. Particular…

  19. Trust and Reputation Management for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Filipe; Monteiro, Edmundo; Simões, Paulo

    Today's Critical Infrastructures (CI) depend of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to deliver their services with the required level of quality and availability. ICT security plays a major role in CI protection and risk prevention for single and also for interconnected CIs were cascading effects might occur because of the interdependencies that exist among different CIs. This paper addresses the problem of ICT security in interconnected CIs. Trust and reputation management using the Policy Based Management paradigm is the proposed solution to be applied at the CI interconnection points for information exchange. The proposed solution is being applied to the Security Mediation Gateway being developed in the European FP7 MICIE project, to allow for information exchange among interconnected CIs.

  20. Punishment and reputation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Hannelore; Hauert, Christoph; Sigmund, Karl

    2003-05-22

    The puzzle of the emergence of cooperation between unrelated individuals is shared across diverse fields of behavioural sciences and economics. In this article we combine the public goods game originating in economics with evolutionary approaches traditionally used in biology. Instead of pairwise encounters, we consider the more complex case of groups of three interacting individuals. We show that territoriality is capable of promoting cooperative behaviour, as in the case of the Prisoner's Dilemma. Moreover, by adding punishment opportunities, the readiness to cooperate is greatly enhanced and asocial strategies can be largely suppressed. Finally, as soon as players carry a reputation for being willing or unwilling to punish, highly cooperative and fair outcomes are achieved. This group-beneficial result is obtained, intriguingly, by making individuals more likely to exploit their co-players if they can get away with it. Thus, less-cooperative individuals make more-cooperative societies.