Science.gov

Sample records for required log reduction

  1. Review of the logging residue problem and its reduction through marketing practices.

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Adams; Richard C. Smith

    1976-01-01

    This study notes the increasing concern over logging residue in forest land management and describes the various administrative and technological means for accomplishing reductions of logging residue. Alternative sales arrangements can include such things as reduction of stumpage charges for low quality logs or required yarding of unutilized material to the landing or...

  2. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  3. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  4. Reduction of lithologic-log data to numbers for use in the digital computer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, C.O.; McNellis, J.M.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a standardized system for conveniently coding lithologic-log data for use in the digital computer has long been needed. The technique suggested involves a reduction of the original written alphanumeric log to a numeric log by use of computer programs. This numeric log can then be retrieved as a written log, interrogated for pertinent information, or analyzed statistically. ?? 1971 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  5. 47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements related to the station log... requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each station must maintain a station log as required by § 73.1820. This log shall be kept by station employees competent to do so, having...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements related to the station log... requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each station must maintain a station log as required by § 73.1820. This log shall be kept by station employees competent to do so, having...

  7. 47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements related to the station log... requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each station must maintain a station log as required by § 73.1820. This log shall be kept by station employees competent to do so, having...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements related to the station log... requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each station must maintain a station log as required by § 73.1820. This log shall be kept by station employees competent to do so, having...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements related to the station log... requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each station must maintain a station log as required by § 73.1820. This log shall be kept by station employees competent to do so, having...

  10. Procedures for Geometric Data Reduction in Solid Log Modelling

    Treesearch

    Luis G. Occeña; Wenzhen Chen; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    One of the difficulties in solid log modelling is working with huge data sets, such as those that come from computed axial tomographic imaging. Algorithmic procedures are described in this paper that have successfully reduced data without sacrificing modelling integrity.

  11. CT Imaging, Data Reduction, and Visualization of Hardwood Logs

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) is a mathematical technique that, combined with noninvasive scanning such as x-ray imaging, has become a powerful tool to nondestructively test materials prior to use or to evaluate materials prior to processing. In the current context, hardwood lumber processing can benefit greatly by knowing what a log looks like prior to initial breakdown....

  12. 46 CFR 78.37-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 78.37-5 Section 78.37-5... Entries § 78.37-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which are not made...

  13. 46 CFR 78.37-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 78.37-5 Section 78.37-5... Entries § 78.37-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which are not made...

  14. 46 CFR 97.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 97.35-5 Section 97.35-5... OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which...

  15. 46 CFR 97.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 97.35-5 Section 97.35-5... OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which...

  16. 46 CFR 78.37-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 78.37-5 Section 78.37-5... Entries § 78.37-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which are not made...

  17. 46 CFR 97.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 97.35-5 Section 97.35-5... OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which...

  18. 46 CFR 78.37-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 78.37-5 Section 78.37-5... Entries § 78.37-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which are not made...

  19. 46 CFR 97.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 97.35-5 Section 97.35-5... OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which...

  20. 46 CFR 97.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 97.35-5 Section 97.35-5... OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which...

  1. 46 CFR 78.37-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 78.37-5 Section 78.37-5... Entries § 78.37-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which are not made...

  2. In-Home Demonstration of the Reduction of Woodstove Emissions from the Use of Densified Logs.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stockton G.; Bidhouse, Roger D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  3. In-home demonstration of the reduction of woodstove emissions from the use of densified logs

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.G.; Bighouse, R.D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  4. 46 CFR 196.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 196.35-5 Section 196.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 196.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in...

  5. 46 CFR 196.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 196.35-5 Section 196.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 196.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in...

  6. 46 CFR 196.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 196.35-5 Section 196.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 196.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in...

  7. 46 CFR 196.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 196.35-5 Section 196.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 196.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in...

  8. 46 CFR 196.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 196.35-5 Section 196.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 196.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in...

  9. 26 CFR 41.4483-6 - Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging. 41.4483-6 Section 41.4483-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles §...

  10. The dynamic forces and moments required in handling tree-length logs.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1971-01-01

    Realistic dynamic loading requirements for tree- or log-harvesting machines were determined. The study showed that dynamic forces and moments four times as great as those required statically can occur in the field.

  11. 46 CFR 35.07-10 - Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL. 35.07-10 Section... Entries § 35.07-10 Actions required to be logged—TB/ALL. (a) General—TB/ALL. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the Official Logbook or in logs or records considered to...

  12. 46 CFR 35.07-10 - Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL. 35.07-10 Section... Entries § 35.07-10 Actions required to be logged—TB/ALL. (a) General—TB/ALL. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the Official Logbook or in logs or records considered to...

  13. 46 CFR 35.07-10 - Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL. 35.07-10 Section... Entries § 35.07-10 Actions required to be logged—TB/ALL. (a) General—TB/ALL. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the Official Logbook or in logs or records considered to...

  14. 46 CFR 35.07-10 - Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL. 35.07-10 Section... Entries § 35.07-10 Actions required to be logged—TB/ALL. (a) General—TB/ALL. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the Official Logbook or in logs or records considered to...

  15. 46 CFR 35.07-10 - Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL. 35.07-10 Section... Entries § 35.07-10 Actions required to be logged—TB/ALL. (a) General—TB/ALL. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the Official Logbook or in logs or records considered to...

  16. Determination of 5-log pathogen reduction times for heat-processed, acidified vegetable brines.

    PubMed

    Breidt, F; Hayes, J S; Osborne, J A; McFeeters, R F

    2005-02-01

    Recent outbreaks of acid-resistant food pathogens in acid foods, including apple cider and orange juice, have raised concerns about the safety of acidified vegetable products. We determined pasteurization times and temperatures needed to assure a 5-log reduction in the numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella strains in acidified cucumber pickle brines. Cocktails of five strains of each pathogen were (separately) used for heat-inactivation studies between 50 and 60 degrees C in brines that had an equilibrated pH value of 4.1. Salmonella strains were found to be less heat resistant than E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes strains. The nonlinear killing curves generated during these studies were modeled using a Weibull function. We found no significant difference in the heat-killing data for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes (P = 0.9709). The predicted 5-log reduction times for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were found to fit an exponential decay function. These data were used to estimate minimum pasteurization times and temperatures needed to ensure safe processing of acidified pickle products and show that current industry pasteurization practices offer a significant margin of safety.

  17. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-02-03

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas ("concessions") for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17-127%, 44-129%, or 3.1-11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia's moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241-615 MtCO2e (2.8-7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213-545 MtCO2e (2.5-6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30-7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95-19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed.

  18. Determination of 5-log reduction times for food pathogens in acidified cucumbers during storage at 10 and 25 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Breidt, Fred; Hayes, Janet; McFeeters, Roger F

    2007-11-01

    Outbreaks of acid-resistant foodborne pathogens in acid foods with pH values below 4.0, including apple cider and orange juice, have raised concerns about the safety of acidified vegetable products. For acidified vegetable products with pH values between 3.3 and 4.6, previous research has demonstrated that thermal treatments are needed to achieve a 5-log reduction in the numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, or Salmonella enterica. For some acidified vegetable products with a pH of 3.3 or below, heat processing can result in unacceptable product quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the holding times needed to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. enterica strains in acidified vegetable products with acetic acid as the primary acidulant, a pH of 3.3 or below, and a minimum equilibrated temperature of 10 degrees C. We found E. coli O157:H7 to be the most acid-resistant microorganism for the conditions tested, with a predicted time to achieve a 5-log reduction in cell numbers at 10 degrees C of 5.7 days, compared with 2.1 days (51 h) for Salmonella or 0.5 days (11.2 h) for Listeria. At 25 degrees C, the E. coli O157:H7 population achieved a 5-log reduction in 1.4 days (34.3 h).

  19. Duff reduction caused by prescribed fire on areas logged to different management intensities.

    Treesearch

    Susan N. Little; Franklin R. Ward; D.V. Sandberg

    1982-01-01

    A pilot study investigated the impact of two harvesting intensities on duff consumption from prescribed fire. Two units of old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock served as the sample. The units, located in the Willamette National Forest, were harvested in 1980 and burned in 1981. Duff consumption was 36 percent less on the unit logged to the closer specification of...

  20. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Verschoof, Ruben A; van der Veen, Roeland C A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-02

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  1. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  2. Potential biomass and logs from fire-hazard-reduction treatments in Southwest Oregon and Northern California

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Jeremy Fried; Peter J. Daugherty; Glenn Christensen; Roger. Fight

    2008-01-01

    The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area comprising northern California, southwestern Oregon, and the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. The policy scenarios, all subject to a stand-scale fire-hazard-reduction effectiveness constraint, included maximize torching index improvement (Max TI), maximize net...

  3. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoof, Ruben; van der Veen, Roeland; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-11-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. A few volume percent (<= 4 %) of bubbles can reduce the overall drag up to 40% and beyond. However, the exact mechanism is unknown, thus hindering further progress and optimization. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid . The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow. We acknowledge support from STW and FOM.

  4. 7 CFR 1485.25 - Paperwork reduction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paperwork reduction requirements. 1485.25 Section 1485.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980...

  5. 7 CFR 1485.25 - Paperwork reduction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Paperwork reduction requirements. 1485.25 Section 1485.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980...

  6. 7 CFR 1485.36 - Paperwork reduction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Paperwork reduction requirements. 1485.36 Section 1485.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980. OMB has assigned control number 0551-0026 for this information...

  7. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia’s moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G.; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V.; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C.; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas (“concessions”) for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17–127%, 44–129%, or 3.1–11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia’s moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241–615 MtCO2e (2.8–7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213–545 MtCO2e (2.5–6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30–7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95–19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed. PMID:25605880

  8. 24 CFR 92.222 - Reduction of matching contribution requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of matching contribution requirement. 92.222 Section 92.222 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements...

  9. Can reductions in logging damage increase carbon storage over time? Evaluation of a simulation model for a pilot carbon offset project in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Pinard, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Selective timber harvesting operations, if uncontrolled, can severely degrade a forest. Although techniques for reducing logging damage are well-known and inexpensive to apply, incentives to adopt these techniques are generally lacking. Power companies and other emitters of {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases soon may be forced to reduce or otherwise offset their net emissions; one offset option is to fund programs aimed at reducing logging damage. To investigate the consequences of reductions in logging damage for ecosystem carbon storage, I constructed a model to simulate changes in biomass and carbon pools following logging of primary dipterocarp forests in southeast Asia. I adapted a physiologically-driven, tree-based model of natural forest gap dynamics (FORMIX) to simulate forest recovery following logging. Input variables included stand structure, volume extracted, stand damage (% stems), and soil disturbance (% area compacted). Output variables included total biomass, tree density, and total carbon storage over time. Assumptions of the model included the following: (1) areas with soil disturbances have elevated probabilities of vine colonization and reduced rates of tree establishment, (2) areas with broken canopy but no soil disturbance are colonized initially by pioneer tree species and 20 yr later by persistent forest species, (3) damaged trees have reduced growth and increased mortality rates. Simulation results for two logging techniques, conventional and reduced-impact logging, are compared with data from field studies conducted within a pilot carbon offset project in Sabah, Malaysia.

  10. HSI top-down requirements analysis for ship manpower reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Thomas B.; Bost, J. R.

    2000-11-01

    U.S. Navy ship acquisition programs such as DD 21 and CVNX are increasingly relying on top down requirements analysis (TDRA) to define and assess design approaches for workload and manpower reduction, and for ensuring required levels of human performance, reliability, safety, and quality of life at sea. The human systems integration (HSI) approach to TDRA begins with a function analysis which identifies the functions derived from the requirements in the Operational Requirements Document (ORD). The function analysis serves as the function baseline for the ship, and also supports the definition of RDT&E and Total Ownership Cost requirements. A mission analysis is then conducted to identify mission scenarios, again based on requirements in the ORD, and the Design Reference Mission (DRM). This is followed by a mission/function analysis which establishes the function requirements to successfully perform the ship's missions. Function requirements of major importance for HSI are information, performance, decision, and support requirements associated with each function. An allocation of functions defines the roles of humans and automation in performing the functions associated with a mission. Alternate design concepts, based on function allocation strategies, are then described, and task networks associated with the concepts are developed. Task network simulations are conducted to assess workloads and human performance capabilities associated with alternate concepts. An assessment of the affordability and risk associated with alternate concepts is performed, and manning estimates are developed for feasible design concepts.

  11. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable.

  12. Reductions in primate abundance and diversity in a multiuse protected area: synergistic impacts of hunting and logging in a congo basin forest.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2012-07-01

    This article explores spatial and temporal changes in diurnal primate abundance and behavior in response to hunting, logging, and conservation at the Dzanga Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic over time. We use a combination of line-transect surveys in 2002 and 2009 (N = 540 km) and ethnographic interviews (N = 210) to investigate changes in the status of cercopithecines and colobines at RDS, with additional comparisons to earlier work. This protected area was lightly logged in the 1970s and the park was gazetted in 1990, with multiple-use reserve sectors allocated. Since the park's inception, hunting and the trade of primates have increased, along with human migration, greater accessibility of arms, and reduction of preferred ungulate prey. Primates have declined in both the park and reserve sectors. Our data further suggest that at RDS hunting has had a greater impact on primate diversity and abundance than logging. We have identified changes in species-specific vulnerability to hunting over time, with Cercopithecus nictitans and Lophocebus albigena initially having appeared to be relatively resistant to hunting pressure in 2002. However, subsequently as gun hunting has increased at RDS, these species have become vulnerable. Although monkeys at RDS have been responding behaviorally to increased gun hunting, they are not able to keep pace with changing hunting practices. This study allows us to begin to understand synergistic impacts of hunting and logging, necessary if we are to recommend strategies to better secure the future of primates in multiuse protected areas.

  13. Research requirements for the reduction of helicopter vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doman, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    All prospective approaches to the reduction of helicopter vibrations were searched to establish insight for the planning of a corrective research program. The state of the art as revealed in the literature is summed up and followed by a discussion of state-of-the-art solutions and of identified technological gaps. It is applicable to all helicopters without regard to size. Extending the historic trend toward lower vibration levels will require the successful application of principles which isolate the fuselage from the rotor systems. Simplicity of the necessary isolation systems should be facilitated by providing other refinements of the dynamic design of the system.

  14. Combinations of Intervention Treatments Resulting in 5-Log10-Unit Reductions in Numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 Organisms in Apple Cider

    PubMed Central

    Uljas, Heidi E.; Ingham, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently mandated a warning statement on packaged fruit juices not treated to reduce target pathogen populations by 5 log10 units. This study describes combinations of intervention treatments that reduced concentrations of mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strains ATCC 43895, C7927, and USDA-FSIS-380-94) or Salmonella typhimurium DT104 (DT104b, U302, and DT104) by 5 log10 units in apple cider with a pH of 3.3, 3.7, and 4.1. Treatments used were short-term storage at 4, 25, or 35°C and/or freeze-thawing (48 h at −20°C; 4 h at 4°C) of cider with or without added organic acids (0.1% lactic acid, sorbic acid [SA], or propionic acid). Treatments more severe than those for S. typhimurium DT104 were always required to destroy E. coli O157:H7. In pH 3.3 apple cider, a 5-log10-unit reduction in E. coli O157:H7 cell numbers was achieved by freeze-thawing or 6-h 35°C treatments. In pH 3.7 cider the 5-log10-unit reduction followed freeze-thawing combined with either 6 h at 4°C, 2 h at 25°C, or 1 h at 35°C or 6 h at 35°C alone. A 5-log10-unit reduction occurred in pH 4.1 cider after the following treatments: 6 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 12 h at 25°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 6 h at 35°C, and SA plus 4 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing. Yeast and mold counts did not increase significantly (P < 0.05) during the 6-h storage at 35°C. Cider with no added organic acids treated with either 6 h at 35°C, freeze-thawing or their combination was always preferred by consumers over pasteurized cider (P < 0.05). The simple, inexpensive intervention treatments described in the present work could produce safe apple cider without pasteurization and would not require the FDA-mandated warning statement. PMID:10223981

  15. Combinations of intervention treatments resulting in 5-log10-unit reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 organisms in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1999-05-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently mandated a warning statement on packaged fruit juices not treated to reduce target pathogen populations by 5 log10 units. This study describes combinations of intervention treatments that reduced concentrations of mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strains ATCC 43895, C7927, and USDA-FSIS-380-94) or Salmonella typhimurium DT104 (DT104b, U302, and DT104) by 5 log10 units in apple cider with a pH of 3.3, 3.7, and 4.1. Treatments used were short-term storage at 4, 25, or 35 degrees C and/or freeze-thawing (48 h at -20 degrees C; 4 h at 4 degrees C) of cider with or without added organic acids (0.1% lactic acid, sorbic acid [SA], or propionic acid). Treatments more severe than those for S. typhimurium DT104 were always required to destroy E. coli O157:H7. In pH 3.3 apple cider, a 5-log10-unit reduction in E. coli O157:H7 cell numbers was achieved by freeze-thawing or 6-h 35 degrees C treatments. In pH 3.7 cider the 5-log10-unit reduction followed freeze-thawing combined with either 6 h at 4 degrees C, 2 h at 25 degrees C, or 1 h at 35 degrees C or 6 h at 35 degrees C alone. A 5-log10-unit reduction occurred in pH 4.1 cider after the following treatments: 6 h at 35 degrees C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 12 h at 25 degrees C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 6 h at 35 degrees C, and SA plus 4 h at 35 degrees C plus freeze-thawing. Yeast and mold counts did not increase significantly (P < 0.05) during the 6-h storage at 35 degrees C. Cider with no added organic acids treated with either 6 h at 35 degrees C, freeze-thawing or their combination was always preferred by consumers over pasteurized cider (P < 0.05). The simple, inexpensive intervention treatments described in the present work could produce safe apple cider without pasteurization and would not require the FDA-mandated warning statement.

  16. Pathogen reduction requirements for direct potable reuse in Antarctica: evaluating human health risks in small communities.

    PubMed

    Barker, S Fiona; Packer, Michael; Scales, Peter J; Gray, Stephen; Snape, Ian; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    Small, remote communities often have limited access to energy and water. Direct potable reuse of treated wastewater has recently gained attention as a potential solution for water-stressed regions, but requires further evaluation specific to small communities. The required pathogen reduction needed for safe implementation of direct potable reuse of treated sewage is an important consideration but these are typically quantified for larger communities and cities. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted, using norovirus, giardia and Campylobacter as reference pathogens, to determine the level of treatment required to meet the tolerable annual disease burden of 10(-6) DALYs per person per year, using Davis Station in Antarctica as an example of a small remote community. Two scenarios were compared: published municipal sewage pathogen loads and estimated pathogen loads during a gastroenteritis outbreak. For the municipal sewage scenario, estimated required log10 reductions were 6.9, 8.0 and 7.4 for norovirus, giardia and Campylobacter respectively, while for the outbreak scenario the values were 12.1, 10.4 and 12.3 (95th percentiles). Pathogen concentrations are higher under outbreak conditions as a function of the relatively greater degree of contact between community members in a small population, compared with interactions in a large city, resulting in a higher proportion of the population being at risk of infection and illness. While the estimates of outbreak conditions may overestimate sewage concentration to some degree, the results suggest that additional treatment barriers would be required to achieve regulatory compliance for safe drinking water in small communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  18. Niche logging

    Treesearch

    Robert B. Rummer

    1997-01-01

    Logging is facing a world of change. A logger?s niche can be defined by terrain, climate, location, timber and product, local government, Federal government, landowners, and mills. The author offers strategies for survival and successful competition.

  19. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm.

  20. Modelling pathogen log10 reduction values achieved by activated sludge treatment using naïve and semi naïve Bayes network models.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Roser, David J; Sisson, Scott A; Keegan, Alexandra; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-11-15

    Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Naïve Bayes and semi-naïve Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efficiencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and five native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we defined the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and ≥ 1 LRV) using two different learning algorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of fit. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented naïve models predicted removal efficiency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efficiency in water treatment

  1. 50 CFR 622.53 - Bycatch reduction device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.53 Bycatch reduction device (BRD... RA will notify the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council in writing, and the public will be...

  2. 50 CFR 622.53 - Bycatch reduction device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in the water, or if it is shackled, tied, or otherwise connected to a sled, door, or other device... shrimp trawler. (1) Exemptions from BRD requirement—(i) Royal red shrimp exemption. A shrimp trawler is... royal red shrimp. (ii) Try net exemption. A shrimp trawler is exempt from the requirement to have...

  3. 50 CFR 622.207 - Bycatch Reduction Device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trawler that is authorized by the RA to participate in the pre-certification testing phase or to test a... optional pre-certification phase and a required certification phase. The RA may also provisionally certify... who wants to conduct pre-certification phase testing must submit an application to the RA, as...

  4. 50 CFR 622.207 - Bycatch Reduction Device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... trawler that is authorized by the RA to participate in the pre-certification testing phase or to test a... optional pre-certification phase and a required certification phase. The RA may also provisionally certify... who wants to conduct pre-certification phase testing must submit an application to the RA, as...

  5. Logging damage

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1989-01-01

    The best commercial logging will damage at least some residual trees during all forms of partial cutting, no matter how carefully done. Yet recommendations at the end of this Note show there is much that you can do to limit damage by proper road and trail layout, proper training and supervision of crews, appropriate equipment, and diligence.

  6. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  7. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  8. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  9. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  10. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  11. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration of...

  17. 34 CFR 5.33 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 5.33 Section 5.33 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Fees § 5.33 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) The Department processes a...

  18. 4 CFR 201.11 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 201.11 Section 201.11 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.11 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Fees for processing your request may be...

  19. Target virus log10 reduction values determined for two reclaimed wastewater irrigation scenarios in Japan based on tolerable annual disease burden.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiro; Kitajima, Masaaki; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2017-08-26

    Multiple-barriers are widely employed for managing microbial risks in water reuse, in which different types of wastewater treatment units (biological treatment, disinfection, etc.) and health protection measures (use of personal protective gear, vegetable washing, etc.) are combined to achieve a performance target value of log10 reduction (LR) of viruses. The LR virus target value needs to be calculated based on the data obtained from monitoring the viruses of concern and the water reuse scheme in the context of the countries/regions where water reuse is implemented. In this study, we calculated the virus LR target values under two exposure scenarios for reclaimed wastewater irrigation in Japan, using the concentrations of indigenous viruses in untreated wastewater and a defined tolerable annual disease burden (10(-4) or 10(-6) disability-adjusted life years per person per year (DALYpppy)). Three genogroups of norovirus (norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), geogroup II (NoV GII), and genogroup IV (NoV GIV)) in untreated wastewater were quantified as model viruses using reverse transcription-microfluidic quantitative PCR, and only NoV GII was present in quantifiable concentration. The probabilistic distribution of NoV GII concentration in untreated wastewater was then estimated from its concentration dataset, and used to calculate the LR target values of NoV GII for wastewater treatment. When an accidental ingestion of reclaimed wastewater by Japanese farmers was assumed, the NoV GII LR target values corresponding to the tolerable annual disease burden of 10(-6) DALYpppy were 3.2, 4.4, and 5.7 at 95, 99, and 99.9%tile, respectively. These percentile values, defined as "reliability," represent the cumulative probability of NoV GII concentration distribution in untreated wastewater below the corresponding tolerable annual disease burden after wastewater reclamation. An approximate 1-log10 difference of LR target values was observed between 10(-4) and 10(-6) DALYpppy. The

  20. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  1. Reduction of pH buffer requirement in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-11-01

    Low pH buffer capacity of waste streams limits further development of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) because accumulation of protons potentially leads to acidification of the anodic biofilm. Here we introduce a system that makes it possible to recover alkalinity in an extra recovery compartment. The system consisted of this extra compartment which was located between anode and cathode compartment. The compartment was separated from the anode by a cation exchange membrane and from the cathode by an anion exchange membrane, which made clean hydrogen production possible. To compensate for the charge movement as a result of the flow of electrons, both cations and hydroxyl ions moved into the new recovery compartment. When a synthetic waste stream was fed through this recovery compartment, both pH and conductivity increased. When this stream is then fed to the anode of the BES, no additional buffer was required to produce the same current (3.5 A/m(2)) at an applied voltage of 1 V.

  2. Which method better evaluates the molecular response in newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with imatinib treatment, BCR-ABL(IS) or log reduction from the baseline level?

    PubMed

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jin-Lan; Li, Ling-Di; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Lai, Yue-Yun; Lu, Xi-Jing; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-09-01

    The molecular response of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment can be evaluated either by BCR-ABL mRNA levels on international scale (IS) or by log reduction from the baseline level of the laboratory. Both methods were compared in 248 newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib. The major molecular responses (MMR) obtained by both methods predict progression-free survival (PFS, all P<0.0001). Thirty-six patients, who were identified as MMR patients by the IS method but as non-MMR patients by the log reduction method, had the same PFS as MMR patients identified by both methods. The molecular responses of patients at 3 and 6 months, as evaluated by the two methods, have similar predictive values on their cytogenetic responses at 12 months and on their molecular responses at 18 months. Both ≤ 10%(IS) and ≥ 1 log reduction at 3 months and ≤ 1%(IS) at 6 months were significantly associated with PFS (P=0.0011, 0.0090, and 0.0064). The percentages of patients with BCR-ABL(IS) of ≤ 1%, >1-10%, and of >10% at 3 months and 6 months in the German CML Study IV were similar with those with corresponding BCR-ABL(IS) in our center, but was significantly different with those evaluated by the log reduction method. Therefore, the molecular response evaluated by BCR-ABL(IS) has similar trends in PFS and in response prediction, but can better differentiate patients than that by the log reduction method. Furthermore, the IS method allows comparison among molecular response results from different laboratories.

  3. Oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate is required for reductive carboxylation in cancer cells with mitochondrial defects

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Andrew R.; Hu, Zeping; Shi, Xiaolei; Jiang, Lei; Boroughs, Lindsey K.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Boriack, Richard; Rakheja, Dinesh; Sullivan, Lucas B.; Linehan, W. Marston; Chandel, Navdeep S.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian cells generate citrate by decarboxylating pyruvate in the mitochondria to supply the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In contrast, hypoxia and other impairments of mitochondrial function induce an alternative pathway that produces citrate by reductively carboxylating α-ketoglutarate (AKG) via NADPH-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). It is unknown how cells generate reducing equivalents necessary to supply reductive carboxylation in the setting of mitochondrial impairment. Here we identified shared metabolic features in cells using reductive carboxylation. Paradoxically, reductive carboxylation was accompanied by concomitant AKG oxidation in the TCA cycle. Inhibiting AKG oxidation decreased reducing equivalent availability and suppressed reductive carboxylation. Interrupting transfer of reducing equivalents from NADH to NADPH by nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase increased NADH abundance and decreased NADPH abundance while suppressing reductive carboxylation. The data demonstrate that reductive carboxylation requires bidirectional AKG metabolism along oxidative and reductive pathways, with the oxidative pathway producing reducing equivalents used to operate IDH in reverse. PMID:24857658

  4. A method of estimating log weights.

    Treesearch

    Charles N. Mann; Hilton H. Lysons

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a practical method of estimating the weights of logs before they are yarded. Knowledge of log weights is required to achieve optimum loading of modern yarding equipment. Truckloads of logs are weighed and measured to obtain a local density index (pounds per cubic foot) for a species of logs. The density index is then used to estimate the weights of...

  5. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8 3.

    PubMed

    Breidt, F; Kay, K; Cook, J; Osborne, J; Ingham, B; Arritt, F

    2013-07-01

    A critical factor in ensuring the safety of acidified foods is the establishment of a thermal process that assures the destruction of acid-resistant vegetative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. For acidified foods such as dressings and mayonnaises with pH values of 3.5 or higher, the high water phase acidity (acetic acid of 1.5 to 2.5% or higher) can contribute to lethality, but there is a lack of data showing how the use of common ingredients such as acetic acid and preservatives, alone or in combination, can result in a 5-log reduction for strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in the absence of a postpackaging pasteurization step. In this study, we determined the times needed at 10° C to achieve a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7, S. enterica, and L. monocytogenes in pickling brines with a variety of acetic and benzoic acid combinations at pH 3.5 and 3.8. Evaluation of 15 different acid-pH combinations confirmed that strains of E. coli O157:H7 were significantly more acid resistant than strains of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Among the acid conditions tested, holding times of 4 days or less could achieve a 5-log reduction for vegetative pathogens at pH 3.5 with 2.5% acetic acid or at pH 3.8 with 2.5% acetic acid containing 0.1% benzoic acid. These data indicate the efficacy of benzoic acid for reducing the time necessary to achieve a 5-log reduction in target pathogens and may be useful for supporting process filings and the determination of critical controls for the manufacture of acidified foods.

  6. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  7. Reduction of lunar landing fuel requirements by utilizing lunar ballistic capture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael D; Belbruno, Edward A

    2005-12-01

    Ballistic lunar capture trajectories have been successfully utilized for lunar orbital missions since 1991. Recent interest in lunar landing trajectories has occurred due to a directive from President Bush to return humans to the Moon by 2015. NASA requirements for humans to return to the lunar surface include separation of crew and cargo missions, all lunar surface access, and anytime-abort to return to Earth. Such requirements are very demanding from a propellant standpoint. The subject of this paper is the application of lunar ballistic capture for the reduction of lunar landing propellant requirements. Preliminary studies of the application of weak stability boundary (WSB) trajectories and ballistic capture have shown that considerable savings in low Earth orbit (LEO) mission mass may be realized, on the order of 36% less than conventional Hohmann transfer orbit missions. Other advantages, such as reduction in launch window constraints and reduction of lunar orbit maintenance propellant requirements, have also surfaced from this study.

  8. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris ATCC 49025 spores in apple juice by pulsed light. Influence of initial contamination and required reduction levels.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Mariana I; Guerrero, Sandra N

    2017-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the response of different initial contamination levels of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris ATCC 49025 spores in apple juice as affected by pulsed light treatment (PL, batch mode, xenon lamp, 3pulses/s, 0-71.6J/cm(2)). Biphasic and Weibull frequency distribution models were used to characterize the relationship between inoculum size and treatment time with the reductions achieved after PL exposure. Additionally, a second order polynomial model was computed to relate required PL processing time to inoculum size and requested log reductions. PL treatment caused up to 3.0-3.5 log reductions, depending on the initial inoculum size. Inactivation curves corresponding to PL-treated samples were adequately characterized by both Weibull and biphasic models (Radj(2) 94-96%), and revealed that lower initial inoculum sizes were associated with higher inactivation rates. According to the polynomial model, the predicted time for PL treatment increased exponentially with inoculum size. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a proposed rule to implement section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which amended the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and directed the Secretary of Energy to issue implementing regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets.

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution Pt. 60, Subpt. OOOO, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60—Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc... Efficiency (Zc) 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution Pt. 60, Subpt. OOOO, Table 1 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60—Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc... Efficiency (Zc) 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. Data reduction complex analog-to-digital data processing requirements for onsite test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debbrecht, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The analog to digital processing requirements of onsite test facilities are described. The source and medium of all input data to the Data Reduction Complex (DRC) and the destination and medium of all output products of the analog-to-digital processing are identified. Additionally, preliminary input and output data formats are presented along with the planned use of the output products.

  13. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  14. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  15. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  16. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  17. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  18. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  19. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  20. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  1. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  2. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  3. Microwave Ablation of Symptomatic Benign Thyroid Nodules: Energy Requirement per ml Volume Reduction.

    PubMed

    Korkusuz, Y; Kohlhase, K; Gröner, D; Erbelding, C; Luboldt, W; Happel, C; Ahmad, S; Vogl, T J; Gruenwald, F

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Microwave ablation (MWA) represents a novel thermal ablative treatment of benign thyroid nodules. The aim was to determine the energy required per ml volume reduction in order to match the required energy to the volume-of-interest (VOI). Materials and Methods: 25 patients with 25 nodules (6 solid, 13 complex and 6 cystic) were treated by microwave ablation (MWA). The transmitted energy (E) was correlated with the volume change (∆ V) after 3 months. The energy required per ml volume reduction after 3 months was calculated by E/∆ V. Results: MWA resulted in a significant (p < 0.0001) volume reduction (∆ V) with a mean of 12.4 ± 13.0 ml (range: 1.5 - 63.2 ml) and relative reduction of 52 ± 16 % (range: 22 - 77 %). There was a positive correlation between E and ∆ V (r = 0.82; p < 0.05). The mean E/∆ V was 1.52 ± 1.08 (range: 0.4 - 4.6) kJ/ml for all nodules and 2.30 ± 1.5 (0.9 - 4.6), 1.5 ± 0.9 (0.4 - 3.6), 0.75 ± 0.25 (0.4 - 1.2) kJ/ml, respectively, for solid, complex and cystic nodules with a significant difference in E/∆ V for solid and cystic (p < 0.03). Conclusion: The energy required per volume depends on the nodule consistency. Solid nodules require more energy than cystic ones. The estimation of the energy needed per volume-of-interest as an additional parameter should help to avoid under- or overtreatment. Key Points: • The estimated required energy for a volume-of-interest depends on the nodule consistency• In solid nodules a higher energy transmission than in cystic nodules is recommended• The energy transmission as an additional marker to ultrasound is helpful for improving periprocedural monitoring Citation Format: • Korkusuz Y, Kohlhase K, Gröner D et al. Microwave Ablation of Symptomatic Benign Thyroid Nodules: Energy Requirement per ml Volume Reduction. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 1054 - 1060.

  4. Tracking algorithms using log-polar mapped image coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The use of log-polar image sampling coordinates rather than conventional Cartesian coordinates offers a number of advantages for visual tracking and docking of space vehicles. Pixel count is reduced without decreasing the field of view, with commensurate reduction in peripheral resolution. Smaller memory requirements and reduced processing loads are the benefits in working environments where bulk and energy are at a premium. Rotational and zoom symmetries of log-polar coordinates accommodate range and orientation extremes without computational penalties. Separation of radial and rotational coordinates reduces the complexity of several target centering algorithms, described below.

  5. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2008-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular space suit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a slightly different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view is required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited FOV, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was able to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables without sacrificing fidelity. The specific field of view angles were defined by considering mission segment activities, historical performance of other suits, comparison between similar requirements (pressure visor up versus down, etc.), estimated requirements from other teams for field of view (Orion, Altair, EVA), previous field of view tests, medical data for shirtsleeve field of view performance, and mapping of visual field data to generate 45degree off-axis field of view requirements. Full resolution of several specific field of view angle requirements warranted further work, which consisted of low and medium fidelity field of view testing in the rear entry ISuit and DO27 helmet prototype. This paper serves to document this reduction progress and followup testing employed to write the Constellation requirements for helmet field of view.

  6. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2008-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmet design, and in particular space suit design, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a slightly different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view is required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited FOV, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was able to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables without sacrificing fidelity. The specific field of view angles were defined by considering mission segment activities, historical performance of other suits, comparison between similar requirements (pressure visor up versus down, etc.), estimated requirements from other teams for field of view (Orion, Altair, EVA), previous field of view tests, medical data for shirtsleeve field of view performance, and mapping of visual field data to generate 45degree off-axis field of view requirements. Full resolution of several specific field of view angle requirements warranted further work, which consisted of low and medium fidelity field of view testing in the rear entry ISuit and DO27 helmet prototype. This paper serves to document this reduction progress and followup testing employed to write the Constellation requirements for helmet field of view.

  7. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern.

  8. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  9. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  10. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.

  11. 45 CFR 261.44 - When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit for Minimum Participation Rates? § 261.44 When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit? A State must report the necessary documentation on caseload reductions for the... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When must a State report the required data on the...

  12. 45 CFR 261.44 - When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Credit for Minimum Participation Rates? § 261.44 When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit? A State must report the necessary documentation on caseload reductions for the... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When must a State report the required data on the...

  13. 45 CFR 261.44 - When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Credit for Minimum Participation Rates? § 261.44 When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit? A State must report the necessary documentation on caseload reductions for the... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must a State report the required data on the...

  14. 45 CFR 261.44 - When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Credit for Minimum Participation Rates? § 261.44 When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit? A State must report the necessary documentation on caseload reductions for the... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true When must a State report the required data on the...

  15. 45 CFR 261.44 - When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Credit for Minimum Participation Rates? § 261.44 When must a State report the required data on the caseload reduction credit? A State must report the necessary documentation on caseload reductions for the... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true When must a State report the required data on the...

  16. The diheme cytochrome c peroxidase from Shewanella oneidensis requires reductive activation†

    PubMed Central

    Pulcu, Gökçe Su; Frato, Katherine E.; Gupta, Rupal; Hsu, Hao-Ru; Levine, George A.; Hendrich, Michael P.; Elliott, Sean J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the characterization of the diheme cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) from Shewanella oneidensis (So) using UV/Visible absorbance, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and Michaelis-Menten kinetics. While sequence alignment with other bacterial diheme cytochrome c peroxidases suggests that So CcP may be active in the as-isolated state, we find that So CcP requires reductive activation for full activity, similar to the canonical Pseudomonas-type of bacterial CcP enzyme. Peroxide turnover initiated with oxidized So CcP shows a distinct lag-phase, which we interpret as reductive activation in situ. A simple kinetic model is sufficient to recapitulate the lag-phase behavior of the progress curves and separate the contributions of reductive activation and peroxide turnover. The rates of catalysis and activation differ between MBP-fusion and tag-free So CcP, and also depend on the identity of the electron donor. Combined with Michaelis-Menten analysis these data suggest that So CcP can accommodate electron donor binding in several possible orientations, and that the presence of the MBP tag affects the availability of certain binding sites. To further investigate the structural basis of reductive activation in So CcP we introduced mutations into two different regions of the protein that have been suggested to be important for reductive activation in homologous bacterial CcPs. Mutations in a flexible loop region neighboring the low-potential heme significantly increased the activation rate, confirming the importance of flexible loop regions of the protein in converting the inactive, as-isolated enzyme into the activated form. PMID:22239664

  17. Log sort yard economics, planning, and feasibility

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Robert Govett; Ted Bilek; Gerry L. Jackson

    2004-01-01

    This publication discusses basic marketing and economic concepts, planning approach, and feasibility methodology for assessing log sort yard operations. Special attention is given to sorting small diameter and underutilized logs from forest restoration, fuels reduction, and thinning operations. A planned programming approach of objectively determining the feasibility...

  18. Log-Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the log file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.

  19. 76 FR 15055 - Proposed Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of a currently approved collection, and allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on information needed to refinance a delinquent VA-guaranteed loan with a lower interest rate.

  20. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...On March 12, 2012, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking to implement section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which amended the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and directed the Secretary of Energy to issue implementing regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets. With this Request for Information (RFI), DOE requests public comment on whether the proposed method for calculating the fiscal year 2005 alternative fuel consumption baseline should include the alternative fuel consumed by exempt vehicles and low-speed electric vehicles.

  1. Deep carbon reductions in California require electrification and integration across economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Max; Nelson, James H.; Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Ting, Michael; Yang, Christopher; Jones, Chris; McMahon, James E.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    Meeting a greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target of 80% below 1990 levels in the year 2050 requires detailed long-term planning due to complexity, inertia, and path dependency in the energy system. A detailed investigation of supply and demand alternatives is conducted to assess requirements for future California energy systems that can meet the 2050 GHG target. Two components are developed here that build novel analytic capacity and extend previous studies: (1) detailed bottom-up projections of energy demand across the building, industry and transportation sectors; and (2) a high-resolution variable renewable resource capacity planning model (SWITCH) that minimizes the cost of electricity while meeting GHG policy goals in the 2050 timeframe. Multiple pathways exist to a low-GHG future, all involving increased efficiency, electrification, and a dramatic shift from fossil fuels to low-GHG energy. The electricity system is found to have a diverse, cost-effective set of options that meet aggressive GHG reduction targets. This conclusion holds even with increased demand from transportation and heating, but the optimal levels of wind and solar deployment depend on the temporal characteristics of the resulting load profile. Long-term policy support is found to be a key missing element for the successful attainment of the 2050 GHG target in California.

  2. Montana Logging Utilization, 2002

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Michael T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    A study of logging utilization in Montana during 2002 provided logging and product utilization data for sawlog and veneer log harvests in Montana. Results of the study indicate a shift toward greater utilization of smaller diameter material, as 78 percent of the harvested volume in Montana during 2002 came from trees less than 17 inches diameter at breast height. The...

  3. Role of preemptive tapentadol in reduction of postoperative analgesic requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ghanshyam; Jain, Gaurav; Samprathi, Abhishek; Baghel, Annavi; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Poorly managed acute postoperative pain may result in prolonged morbidity. Various pharmacotherapies have targeted this, but research on an ideal preemptive analgesic continues, taking into account drug-related side effects. Considering the better tolerability profile of tapentadol, we assessed its role as a preemptive analgesic in the reduction of postoperative analgesic requirements, after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: In a prospective-double-blinded fashion, sixty patients posted for above surgery, were randomized to receive tablet tapentadol 75 mg (Group A) or starch tablets (Group B) orally, an hour before induction of general anesthesia. Perioperative analgesic requirement, time to first analgesia, pain, and sedation score were compared for first 24 h during the postoperative period and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed. The perioperative analgesic requirement was significantly lower in Group A. Verbal numerical score was significantly lower in Group A at the time point, immediately after shifting the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Ramsay sedation scores were similar between the groups. No major side effects were observed except for nausea and vomiting in 26 cases (10 in Group A, 16 in Group B). Conclusion: Single preemptive oral dose of tapentadol (75 mg) is effective in reducing perioperative analgesic requirements and acute postoperative pain, without added side effects. It could be an appropriate preemptive analgesic, subjected to future trials concentrating upon its dose-response effects. PMID:28096581

  4. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  5. MultiLog: a tool for the control and output merging of multiple logging applications.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Jonathan; Alexander, Jason

    2016-12-01

    MultiLog is a logging tool that controls, gathers, and combines the output, on-the-fly, from existing research and commercial logging applications or "loggers." Loggers record a specific set of user actions on a computing device, helping researchers to better understand environments or interactions, guiding the design of new or improved interfaces and applications. MultiLog reduces researchers' required implementation effort by simplifying the set-up of multiple loggers and seamlessly combining their output. This in turn increases the availability of logging systems to non-technical experimenters for both short-term and longitudinal observation studies. MultiLog supports two operating modes: "researcher mode" where experimenters configure multiple logging systems, and "deployment mode" where the system is deployed to user-study participants' systems. Researcher mode allows researchers to install, configure log filtering and obfuscation, observe near real-time event streams, and save configuration files ready for deployment. Deployment mode simplifies data collection from multiple loggers by running in the system tray at user log-in, starting loggers, combining their output, and securely uploading the data to a web-server. It also supports real-time browsing of log data, pausing of logging, and removal of log lines. Performance evaluations show that MultiLog does not adversely affect system performance, even when simultaneously running several logging systems. Initial studies show the system runs reliably over a period of 10 weeks.

  6. Phycobilin biosynthesis: reductant requirements and product identification for heme oxygenase from Cyanidium caldarium.

    PubMed

    Rhie, G; Beale, S I

    1995-06-20

    Algal heme oxygenase is a soluble enzyme from Cyanidium caldarium that catalyzes the first committed step of phycobilin biosynthesis by converting protoheme to biliverdin IX alpha. Although the physiological substrate (protoheme) of algal heme oxygenase is identical to that of microsomal heme oxygenase, which catalyzes heme catabolism in animals, the two enzyme systems differ in several respects including the nature of the required reductants and solubility of the enzymes. Addition of the strong Fe3+ ion chelators, desferrioxamine and Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid), greatly increased the yield of solvent-extracted bilin product. The effect of the Fe3+ chelators was approximately equal whether they were added during or after the enzyme incubation. Postincubation treatment of the enzyme reaction mixture with strong acid also greatly increased the product yield. Addition of desferrioxamine to the reaction mixture after the incubation was terminated caused the appearance of an absorption spectrum, indicating an increase in the concentration of free bilin product. Acid and Fe3+ chelators are known to cause dissociation of Fe(III)-bilin complexes. These results indicate that the in vitro enzymic reaction product of algal heme oxygenase is a nonenzyme-bound Fe(III)-biliverdin IX alpha complex that is poorly extracted and/or quantitated unless it is first dissociated. Algal heme oxygenase required the simultaneous presence of both reduced ferredoxin and a second reductant such as ascorbate for activity. The requirement for L-ascorbate could be substituted by Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid) or D-ascorbate, but not by dehydroascorbate or dithiothreitol. Heme oxygenase was purified over 200-fold from C. caldarium by differential (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and serial column chromatography over reactive blue 2-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and ferredoxin-Sepharose.

  7. Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices.

  8. Log processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowlin, W.P.; Kneer, M.P.; Ballance, J.D.

    1989-11-07

    This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled processing system for lumber production. It comprises: a computer, a sequence of processing stations for processing a log segment including; an excess material removing station for generating opposed flat side surfaces on the log segment. The flat side surfaces determined by the computer to become sides of boards to be severed from the log segments; a profiling station for forming profiled edges above and below the flat side surfaces to become the side edges of the boards to be severed from the log segment, and a severing station for severing the boards from the log segments, a conveyance means establishing a path of conveyance and having continuous control of the log segment on conveying the log segment along the path and through the above defined sequence of processing stations.

  9. Statistical log analysis made practical

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

  10. The formula Scribner log rule.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1952-01-01

    The Scribner Decimal C is the accepted log rule in the Pacific Northwest. Usually volume, growth and yield tables are expressed by this rule to give them practical meaning. Yet in the research required for such studies, the rule is unsatisfactory because of rounded values and irregular jumps in volume from diameter to diameter and length to length.

  11. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  12. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  17. Complex dorsal subluxation of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the thumb requiring open reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Butt, Imran S; Kim, Winston Y

    2006-01-01

    The authors present an case of a thumb metacarpophalangeal joint dislocation which was made complicated by the interposition of the sesamoid bone which required open reduction. The intact volar plate prevented closed reduction. The anatomy and surgical management of this unusual case is described.

  18. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  19. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  20. Exceedance of critical loads for lakes in Finland, Norway, and Sweden: Reduction requirements for acidifying nitrogen and sulfur deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, M.; Kaemaeri, J.; Forsius, M.

    1997-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify the regions in Fennoscandia where the critical loads of sulfur (S) and acidifying nitrogen (N) for lakes are exceeded and to investigate the consequences for deposition reductions, with special emphasis on the possible trade-offs between S and N deposition in order to achieve nonexceedance. In the steady-state model for calculating critical loads and their exceedances, all relevant processes acting as sinks for N and S are considered. The critical loads of N and S are interrelated (defining the so-called critical load function), and therefore a single critical load for one pollutant cannot be defined without making assumptions about the other. Comparing the present N and S deposition with the critical function for each lake allows determination of the percentage of lakes in the different regions of Fennoscandia where: (1) S reductions alone can achieve nonexceedance. (2) N reductions alone are sufficient, and (3) both N and S reductions are required but to a certain degree interchangeable. Secondly, deposition reduction requirements were assessed by fixing the N deposition to the present level, in this way analyzing the reductions required for S, and by computing the percentage of lakes exceeded in Finland, Norway and Sweden for every possible percent deposition reduction in S and N, in this way showing the (relative) effectiveness of reducing S and/or N deposition. The results showed clear regional patterns in the S and N reduction requirements. In practically the whole of Finland and the northern parts of Scandinavia man-made acidification of surface waters could be avoided by reducing S deposition alone. In the southern parts of Sweden some reductions in N deposition are clearly needed in addition to those for S. In southern Norway strong reductions are required for both N and S deposition. 55 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Reduction of wafer-edge overlay errors using advanced correction models, optimized for minimal metrology requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Won, Hwa-Yeon; Jeong, Jong-Mun; Böcker, Paul; Vergaij-Huizer, Lydia; Kupers, Michiel; Jovanović, Milenko; Sochal, Inez; Ryan, Kevin; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Byun, Jin-Moo; Kim, Gwang-Gon; Suh, Jung-Joon

    2016-03-01

    In order to optimize yield in DRAM semiconductor manufacturing for 2x nodes and beyond, the (processing induced) overlay fingerprint towards the edge of the wafer needs to be reduced. Traditionally, this is achieved by acquiring denser overlay metrology at the edge of the wafer, to feed field-by-field corrections. Although field-by-field corrections can be effective in reducing localized overlay errors, the requirement for dense metrology to determine the corrections can become a limiting factor due to a significant increase of metrology time and cost. In this study, a more cost-effective solution has been found in extending the regular correction model with an edge-specific component. This new overlay correction model can be driven by an optimized, sparser sampling especially at the wafer edge area, and also allows for a reduction of noise propagation. Lithography correction potential has been maximized, with significantly less metrology needs. Evaluations have been performed, demonstrating the benefit of edge models in terms of on-product overlay performance, as well as cell based overlay performance based on metrology-to-cell matching improvements. Performance can be increased compared to POR modeling and sampling, which can contribute to (overlay based) yield improvement. Based on advanced modeling including edge components, metrology requirements have been optimized, enabling integrated metrology which drives down overall metrology fab footprint and lithography cycle time.

  2. Overruns - Southern Pine Logs

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Campbell

    1962-01-01

    Overrun and underrun data were collected for the four major southern pine species during a series of grade yield studies in the late 1950's in Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Each of the 1,491 logs was carefully scaled by the Doyle, Scribner Decimal C, and International ¼-inch log rule. All logs were sawed on. circle mills and the...

  3. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  4. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  5. Multiple log potash assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. G.

    1993-10-01

    A five-mineral multiple-log potash assay technique has been successfully applied to evaluate potash-rich intervals in evaporite sequences. The technique is able to distinguish economic potash minerals from non-economic potash minerals and from other non-potash radioactive minerals. It can be applied on location, using a programmable calculator or microcomputer, providing near real-time logs of potash mineral concentrations. Log assay values show good agreement with core wet chemistry analyses.

  6. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Treesearch

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  7. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity

  8. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  9. Comparison of Amount of Primary Tooth Reduction Required for Anterior and Posterior Zirconia and Stainless Steel Crowns.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larkin; Wells, Martha H; Harris, Edward F; Lou, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To determine if aggressiveness of primary tooth preparation varied among different brands of zirconia and stainless steel (SSC) crowns. One hundred primary typodont teeth were divided into five groups (10 posterior and 10 anterior) and assigned to: Cheng Crowns (CC); EZ Pedo (EZP); Kinder Krowns (KKZ); NuSmile (NSZ); and SSC. Teeth were prepared, and assigned crowns were fitted. Teeth were weighed prior to and after preparation. Weight changes served as a surrogate measure of tooth reduction. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference in tooth reduction among brand/type for both the anterior and posterior. Tukey's honest significant difference test (HSD), when applied to anterior data, revealed that SSCs required significantly less tooth removal compared to the composite of the four zirconia brands, which showed no significant difference among them. Tukey's HSD test, applied to posterior data, revealed that CC required significantly greater removal of crown structure, while EZP, KKZ, and NSZ were statistically equivalent, and SSCs required significantly less removal. Zirconia crowns required more tooth reduction than stainless steel crowns for primary anterior and posterior teeth. Tooth reduction for anterior zirconia crowns was equivalent among brands. For posterior teeth, reduction for three brands (EZ Pedo, Kinder Krowns, NuSmile) did not differ, while Cheng Crowns required more reduction.

  10. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  11. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  12. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  13. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  14. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  15. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  16. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  17. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records the...

  18. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  19. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection...

  20. Utilization and cost for animal logging operations

    Treesearch

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2001-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. Due to the development of efficient machines and high volume demands from the forest products industry, mechanization of logging developed very fast, leaving behind the traditional horse and mule logging. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically...

  1. 1962 Washington log production.

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Nielsen

    1963-01-01

    Washington's 1962 log production reached 5.05 billion board feet. This is an increase of 14 percent, or 616 million board feet, over 1961 and the highest total log production since the 1941 figure of 5.14 billion board feet.

  2. Midsouth veneer log production

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1971-01-01

    Veneer manufacturing is an important segment of the forest industries and 1s increasing in importance every year. Veneer logs are high-valued in comparison with other kinds of logs and bolts, and considerable employment is generated and much value added in their manufacture.

  3. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  4. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  5. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  6. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  7. 46 CFR 148.100 - Log book entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Log book entries. 148.100 Section 148.100 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.100 Log book entries. During... date and time of each measurement and test must be recorded in the vessel's log....

  8. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  9. Downhole memory-logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1992-01-01

    Logging technologies developed hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (i) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (ii) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions.'' Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about on year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400{degrees}C is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. 8 refs.

  10. Downhole Memory-Logging Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, Peter

    1992-03-24

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature onboard computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make ''decisions''. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about one year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400 C (752 F) is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information.

  11. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  12. Idaho-Montana Logging

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-16

    Logging operations have left a striking checkerboard pattern in the landscape along the Idaho-Montana border, sandwiched between Clearwater and Bitterroot National Forests as seen in this image acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  13. Acoustic borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, W.L.; Manzi, S.J.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes an acoustic borehole logging method. It comprises traversing a borehole with a borehole logging tool containing a transmitter of acoustic energy having a free-field frequency spectrum with at least one characteristic resonant frequency of vibration and spaced-apart receiver, repeatedly exciting the transmitter with a swept frequency tone burst of a duration sufficiently greater than the travel time of acoustic energy between the transmitter and the receiver to allow borehole cavity resonances to be established within the borehole cavity formed between the borehole logging tool and the borehole wall, detecting acoustic energy amplitude modulated by the borehole cavity resonances with the spaced-apart receiver, and recording an amplitude verses frequency output of the receiver in correlation with depth as a log of the borehole frequency spectrum representative of the subsurface formation comprising the borehole wall.

  14. 1964 Oregon log production.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall

    1965-01-01

    The production of logs in Oregon in 1964 was 9.4 billion board feet, or nearly 9 percent above 1963. This year, 1964, had the third highest level of log production in history, exceeded only in 1955 and in 1952. The proportion of total cut from private lands fell to 43 percent, even though the total private cut increased 6 percent over that in 1963. Forest industry,...

  15. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  16. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  17. Improved grading system for structural logs for log homes

    Treesearch

    D.W. Green; T.M. Gorman; J.W. Evans; J.F. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Current grading standards for logs used in log home construction use visual criteria to sort logs into either “wall logs” or structural logs (round and sawn round timbers). The conservative nature of this grading system, and the grouping of stronger and weaker species for marketing purposes, probably results in the specification of logs with larger diameter than would...

  18. Reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin requires activation of hindbrain NMDA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason; Campos, Carlos; Herzog, Thiebaut; Covasa, Mihai; Czaja, Krzysztof; Ritter, Robert C

    2011-08-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of CCK reduces food intake and triggers a behavioral pattern similar to natural satiation. Reduction of food intake by CCK is mediated by vagal afferents that innervate the stomach and small intestine. These afferents synapse in the hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) where gastrointestinal satiation signals are processed. Previously, we demonstrated that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of either competitive or noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists attenuates reduction of food intake by CCK. However, because vagal afferents themselves express NMDA receptors at both central and peripheral endings, our results did not speak to the question of whether NMDA receptors in the brain play an essential role in reduction of feeding by CCK. We hypothesized that activation of NMDA receptors in the NTS is necessary for reduction of food intake by CCK. To test this hypothesis, we measured food intake following IP CCK, subsequent to NMDA receptor antagonist injections into the fourth ventricle, directly into the NTS or subcutaneously. We found that either fourth-ventricle or NTS injection of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 was sufficient to inhibit CCK-induced reduction of feeding, while the same antagonist doses injected subcutaneously did not. Similarly fourth ventricle injection of d-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphoric acid (d-CPPene), a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, also blocked reduction of food intake following IP CCK. Finally, d-CPPene injected into the fourth ventricle attenuated CCK-induced expression of nuclear c-Fos immunoreactivity in the dorsal vagal complex. We conclude that activation of NMDA receptors in the hindbrain is necessary for the reduction of food intake by CCK. Hindbrain NMDA receptors could comprise a critical avenue for control and modulation of satiation signals to influence food intake and energy balance.

  19. Three percent weight reduction is the minimum requirement to improve health hazards in obese and overweight people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Akiko; Matsushita, Madoka; Kato, Ayako; Yamamoto, Naoki; Koike, George; Nakamura, Masakazu; Numata, Takeyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Tsushita, Kazuyo

    2014-01-01

    Adequate goal-setting is important in health counselling and treatment for obesity and overweight. We tried to determine the minimum weight reduction required for improvement of obesity-related risk factors and conditions in obese and overweight Japanese people, using a nationwide intervention programme database. Japanese men and women (n=3480; mean age±standard deviation [SD], 48.3±5.9 years; mean body mass index±SD, 27.7±2.5kgm(-2)) with "Obesity Disease" or "Metabolic Syndrome" participated in a 6-month lifestyle modification programme (specific health guidance) and underwent follow-up for 6 months thereafter. The relationship between percent weight reduction and changes in 11 parameters of obesity-related diseases were examined. Significant weight reduction was observed 6 months after the beginning of the programme, and it was maintained for 1 year. Concomitant improvements in parameters for obesity-related diseases were also observed. One-third of the subjects reduced their body weight by ≥3%. In the group exhibiting 1% to <3% weight reduction, plasma triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) decreased significantly, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly compared to the control group (±1% weight change group). In addition to the improvements of these 7 parameters (out of 11), significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and uric acid (UA) (total 11 of 11 parameters) were observed in the group with 3% to <5% weight reduction. In the group with ≥5% weight reduction, the same 11 parameters also improved as those in the group with 3% to <5% weight reduction. The 6-month lifestyle modification programme induced significant weight reduction and significant improvement of parameters of obesity

  20. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an... following requirements: (a) The applicant shall satisfy the general requirements specified in § 30.33...

  1. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an... following requirements: (a) The applicant shall satisfy the general requirements specified in § 30.33...

  2. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve an... following requirements: (a) The applicant shall satisfy the general requirements specified in § 30.33...

  3. Ultrafast CT scanning of an oak log for internal defects

    Treesearch

    Francis G. Wagner; Fred W. Taylor; Douglas S. Ladd; Charles W. McMillin; Fredrick L. Roder

    1989-01-01

    Detecting internal defects in sawlogs and veneer logs with computerized tomographic (CT) scanning is possible, but has been impractical due to the long scanning time required. This research investigated a new scanner able to acquire 34 cross-sectional log scans per second. This scanning rate translates to a linear log feed rate of 85 feet (25.91 m) per minute at one...

  4. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Treesearch

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  5. Development of regional stump-to-mill logging cost estimators

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1989-01-01

    Planning logging operations requires estimating the logging costs for the sale or tract being harvested. Decisions need to be made on equipment selection and its application to terrain. In this paper a methodology is described that has been developed and implemented to solve the problem of accurately estimating logging costs by region. The methodology blends field time...

  6. Defects in Hardwood Veneer Logs: Their Frequency and Importance

    Treesearch

    E.S. Harrar

    1954-01-01

    Most southern hardwood veneer and plywood plants have some method of classifying logs by grade to control the purchase price paid for logs bought on the open market. Such log-grading systems have been developed by experience and are dependent to a large extent upon the ability of the grader and his knowledge of veneer grades and yields required for the specific product...

  7. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  8. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  9. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  10. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  11. NMR logging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  12. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines. (c) The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which... emission reductions for remanufactured engines. 1042.820 Section 1042.820 Protection of Environment... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines...

  13. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engines. (c) The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which... emission reductions for remanufactured engines. 1042.820 Section 1042.820 Protection of Environment... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines...

  14. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines. (c) The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which... emission reductions for remanufactured engines. 1042.820 Section 1042.820 Protection of Environment... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engines. (c) The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which... emission reductions for remanufactured engines. 1042.820 Section 1042.820 Protection of Environment... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines...

  16. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  17. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Modes of log gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-05-15

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

  19. 7 CFR 1437.404 - Information collection requirements under the Paperwork Reduction Act; OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.404 Information collection requirements under the Paperwork...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.404 - Information collection requirements under the Paperwork Reduction Act; OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.404 Information collection requirements under the Paperwork...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.404 - Information collection requirements under the Paperwork Reduction Act; OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.404 Information collection requirements under the Paperwork...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.404 - Information collection requirements under the Paperwork Reduction Act; OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.404 Information collection requirements under the Paperwork...

  3. 7 CFR 1437.404 - Information collection requirements under the Paperwork Reduction Act; OMB control number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.404 Information collection requirements under the Paperwork...

  4. 76 FR 33028 - Agency Information Collection (Requirements for Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of Veterans Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and burden; it includes the actual data collection instrument.

  5. Logging slash flammability

    Treesearch

    George R. Fahnestock

    1960-01-01

    Some of the most disastrous forest fires in North American history burned in slash left from logging and land clearing. In the era before organized fire control, the names Miramichi, Peshtigo, Hinckley, and Cloquet stand for millions of acres blackened and thousands of lives snuffed out. More recently the Half Moon Fire in Montana, the Tillamook Fire in Oregon, the...

  6. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  7. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  8. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  9. Alaska's Logging Camp School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    A visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, reveals a floating, one-teacher logging-camp school that uses multiage grouping and interdisciplinary teaching. There are 10 students. The school gym and playground, bunkhouse, fuel tanks, mess hall, and students' homes bob up and down and are often moved to other sites. (MLH)

  10. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  11. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  12. Petrographic image logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, C.J.; Ulrich, M.R.; Maxwell, G.B. ); Adams, J.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The Petrographic Image Logging System (PILS) is a logging system data base for Macintosh computers that allows the merging of traditional wire-line, core, and mud log data with petrographic images. The system is flexible; it allows the user to record, manipulate, and display almost any type of character, graphic, and image information. Character and graphic data are linked and entry in either mode automatically generates the alternate mode. Character/graphic data may include such items as ROP, wire-line log data, interpreted lithologies, ditch cutting lith-percentages, porosity grade and type, grain size, core/DST information, and sample descriptions. Image data may include petrographic and SEM images of cuttings, core, and thin sections. All data are tied to depth. Data are entered quickly and easily in an interactive manner with a mouse, keyboard, and digitizing tablet or may be imported and immediately autoplotted from a variety of environments via modem, network, or removable disk. Color log displays, including petrographic images, are easily available on CRT or as hardcopy. The system consists of a petrographic microscope, video camera, Macintosh computer, video framegrabber and digitizing tablet. Hardcopy is scaleable and can be generated by a variety of color printing devices. The software is written in Supertalk, a color superset of the standard Apple Hypercard programming language, hypertalk. This system is being tested by Mobil in the lab and at the well site. Implementation has provided near 'real-time' core and cuttings images from drilling wells to the geologist back at the office.

  13. 33 CFR 151.2050 - Additional requirements-nonindigenous species reduction practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... origin. (f) Remove fouling organisms from the vessel's hull, piping, and tanks on a regular basis and... procedures; (2) Actions for implementing the mandatory BWM requirements and practices; (3) Detailed fouling...

  14. 33 CFR 151.2050 - Additional requirements-nonindigenous species reduction practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... origin. (f) Remove fouling organisms from the vessel's hull, piping, and tanks on a regular basis and... procedures; (2) Actions for implementing the mandatory BWM requirements and practices; (3) Detailed fouling...

  15. 33 CFR 151.2050 - Additional requirements-nonindigenous species reduction practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... origin. (f) Remove fouling organisms from the vessel's hull, piping, and tanks on a regular basis and... procedures; (2) Actions for implementing the mandatory BWM requirements and practices; (3) Detailed fouling...

  16. RamA, a protein required for reductive activation of corrinoid-dependent methylamine methyltransferase reactions in methanogenic archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Tsuneo; Soares, Jitesh A; Lienard, Tanja; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Krzycki, Joseph A

    2009-01-23

    Archaeal methane formation from methylamines is initiated by distinct methyltransferases with specificity for monomethylamine, dimethylamine, or trimethylamine. Each methylamine methyltransferase methylates a cognate corrinoid protein, which is subsequently demethylated by a second methyltransferase to form methyl-coenzyme M, the direct methane precursor. Methylation of the corrinoid protein requires reduction of the central cobalt to the highly reducing and nucleophilic Co(I) state. RamA, a 60-kDa monomeric iron-sulfur protein, was isolated from Methanosarcina barkeri and is required for in vitro ATP-dependent reductive activation of methylamine:CoM methyl transfer from all three methylamines. In the absence of the methyltransferases, highly purified RamA was shown to mediate the ATP-dependent reductive activation of Co(II) corrinoid to the Co(I) state for the monomethylamine corrinoid protein, MtmC. The ramA gene is located near a cluster of genes required for monomethylamine methyltransferase activity, including MtbA, the methylamine-specific CoM methylase and the pyl operon required for co-translational insertion of pyrrolysine into the active site of methylamine methyltransferases. RamA possesses a C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain capable of binding two tetranuclear iron-sulfur proteins. Mutliple ramA homologs were identified in genomes of methanogenic Archaea, often encoded near methyltrophic methyltransferase genes. RamA homologs are also encoded in a diverse selection of bacterial genomes, often located near genes for corrinoid-dependent methyltransferases. These results suggest that RamA mediates reductive activation of corrinoid proteins and that it is the first functional archetype of COG3894, a family of redox proteins of unknown function.

  17. Nuclear Weapons: DOD’s Plan for Implementing Nuclear Reductions Generally Addresses Statutory Requirements but Lacks Some Detail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-11

    on February 5, 2011.2 Section 1042 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 required the Department of Defense (DOD) to...on its plan to implement New START. Section 1042 also mandates that we submit a review of DOD’s plan.4...the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, U.S.-Russ., Apr. 8, 2010, T.I.A.S. No. 11-205. 3 Pub. L. No. 112-81, § 1042 (a

  18. Distal tibial physeal fractures in children that may require open reduction.

    PubMed

    Kling, T F; Bright, R W; Hensinger, R N

    1984-06-01

    Fractures of the distal end of the tibia in children often involve the physis. They are of particular importance because partial growth arrest can occur and result in angular deformity, limb-length discrepancy, or incongruity of the joint surface (or a combination of these). We evaluated the cases of thirty-two children who had a fracture leading to established partial growth arrest of the distal end of the tibia. Most of this group had had a Salter-Harris Type-III or Type-IV fracture. Twenty-eight of the fractures had been treated by gentle closed reduction and immobilization in a plaster cast. We also evaluated the cases of thirty-three children who were seen by us for treatment of an acute fracture; most of these were Salter-Harris Type-III or Type-IV fractures of the distal end of the tibia. Nineteen of the twenty acute Type-III or Type-IV fractures that were treated with accurate open reduction of the physis and internal fixation healed without growth disturbance, while five of the nine fractures that were treated by closed means formed a bone bridge, presaging a disturbance in growth. This study suggests that Salter-Harris Type-III and Type-IV, and perhaps Type-II, fractures of the distal end of the tibia commonly cause disturbance of growth in the tibia, and that anatomical reduction of the physis by closed or open means may decrease the incidence of these disturbances of growth, including shortening and varus angulation of the ankle.

  19. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning. PMID:27134693

  20. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review.

    PubMed

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning.

  1. Strength of log bridge stringers after several year’s use in southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Russell C. Moody; R.L. Tuomi; W.E. Eslyn; F.W. Muchmore

    1979-01-01

    Bending tests of 28 untreated log stringers from 12-year-old native timber bridges in southeast Alaska showed significant reductions in strength due to decay. Compared to results on fresh logs, strength reduction was about 25 percent, and could be predicted based on the loss in section modulus due to decay. Log stiffness was not significantly affected. Results will be...

  2. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  3. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  4. Aspen for cabin logs

    Treesearch

    A.W. Sump

    1947-01-01

    A plentiful supply of pine and cedar logs provided the early settlers of this country with a cheap and durable material for the construction of their homes and farm buildings. Only the axe and the ingenuity of the pioneer were needed to erect a shelter against the elements of nature. Early in the 19th century, the circular saw came into use resulting in a change in...

  5. Reduction of communication requirements for wide-area surveillance systems: multiscale clipping service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Ronald D.; Van Allen, Eric J.; Dudgeon, Dan E.

    1996-06-01

    Future wide-area surveillance systems mounted on unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), such as Tier II+, will be capable of collecting SAR imagery at prodigious coverage rates (greater than 1.5 km2/sec, 1 m resolution). One important consideration for making such systems economically feasible is squeezing the large amount of SAR imagery through an available communications link. When the sensor platform is beyond the line of sight from the ground processing facility, it is highly desirable to transmit the imagery via a 1.5 megabit per second T1 satellite communications data link; it would be prohibitively expensive to ensure the availability of a wider bandwidth satcom link at any point on the globe. Use of a T1 link creates an onerous burden for SAR image compression algorithms. In the Tier II+) scenario, for example, use of a T1 link implies a compression rate of less than half a bit per pixel. In the longer term, systems will have greater coverage areas and higher resolution capabilities; the compression requirement will be substantially more severe. Conventional image compression algorithms are incapable of attaining the required compression while retaining the image fidelity required for processing at the ground station. Clipping service is a system concept that reduces communication requirements by using automatic target detection and recognition (ATD/R) algorithms onboard the UAV. The ATD/R algorithms identify regions of interest in the collected imagery. In the regions of interest, the imagery is transmitted with highest fidelity. In other areas, the imagery is transmitted with less fidelity, thereby reducing the communication bandwidth required. In this paper, we describe a multiple-resolution clipping service system. In this system, regions of interest are identified by ATD/R algorithms. The regions of interest are transmitted at the finest resolution achievable by the sensor; elsewhere, imagery is transmitted with reduced resolution and reduced data rate. The

  6. Postfire logging: is it beneficial to a forest?

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Public debate on postfire logging has intensified in recent years, particularly since passage of the "salvage rider" in 1995, directing accelerated harvest of dead trees in the western United States. Supporters of postfires logging argue that it is part of a suite of restoration techniques, and that removal of timber means reduction of fuels for...

  7. Ribonucleotide reduction - horizontal transfer of a required function spans all three domains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ribonucleotide reduction is the only de novo pathway for synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The reaction is catalysed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), an ancient enzyme family comprised of three classes. Each class has distinct operational constraints, and are broadly distributed across organisms from all three domains, though few class I RNRs have been identified in archaeal genomes, and classes II and III likewise appear rare across eukaryotes. In this study, we examine whether this distribution is best explained by presence of all three classes in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), or by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of RNR genes. We also examine to what extent environmental factors may have impacted the distribution of RNR classes. Results Our phylogenies show that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) possessed a class I RNR, but that the eukaryotic class I enzymes are not directly descended from class I RNRs in Archaea. Instead, our results indicate that archaeal class I RNR genes have been independently transferred from bacteria on two occasions. While LECA possessed a class I RNR, our trees indicate that this is ultimately bacterial in origin. We also find convincing evidence that eukaryotic class I RNR has been transferred to the Bacteroidetes, providing a stunning example of HGT from eukaryotes back to Bacteria. Based on our phylogenies and available genetic and genomic evidence, class II and III RNRs in eukaryotes also appear to have been transferred from Bacteria, with subsequent within-domain transfer between distantly-related eukaryotes. Under the three-domains hypothesis the RNR present in the last common ancestor of Archaea and eukaryotes appears, through a process of elimination, to have been a dimeric class II RNR, though limited sampling of eukaryotes precludes a firm conclusion as the data may be equally well accounted for by HGT. Conclusions Horizontal gene transfer has clearly played an

  8. Ribonucleotide reduction - horizontal transfer of a required function spans all three domains.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Daniel; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Torrents, Eduard; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Poole, Anthony M

    2010-12-10

    Ribonucleotide reduction is the only de novo pathway for synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The reaction is catalysed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), an ancient enzyme family comprised of three classes. Each class has distinct operational constraints, and are broadly distributed across organisms from all three domains, though few class I RNRs have been identified in archaeal genomes, and classes II and III likewise appear rare across eukaryotes. In this study, we examine whether this distribution is best explained by presence of all three classes in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), or by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of RNR genes. We also examine to what extent environmental factors may have impacted the distribution of RNR classes. Our phylogenies show that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) possessed a class I RNR, but that the eukaryotic class I enzymes are not directly descended from class I RNRs in Archaea. Instead, our results indicate that archaeal class I RNR genes have been independently transferred from bacteria on two occasions. While LECA possessed a class I RNR, our trees indicate that this is ultimately bacterial in origin. We also find convincing evidence that eukaryotic class I RNR has been transferred to the Bacteroidetes, providing a stunning example of HGT from eukaryotes back to Bacteria. Based on our phylogenies and available genetic and genomic evidence, class II and III RNRs in eukaryotes also appear to have been transferred from Bacteria, with subsequent within-domain transfer between distantly-related eukaryotes. Under the three-domains hypothesis the RNR present in the last common ancestor of Archaea and eukaryotes appears, through a process of elimination, to have been a dimeric class II RNR, though limited sampling of eukaryotes precludes a firm conclusion as the data may be equally well accounted for by HGT. Horizontal gene transfer has clearly played an important role in the evolution

  9. CO2 Compressor Requirements for Integration of Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal and Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Lewis, John F.; Graf, John; LaFuse, Sharon; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis on integration requirements, CO2 compressor in particular, for integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) and CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) as a part of the Node 3 project previously conducted at JSC/NASA. A system analysis on the volume and operation pressure range of the CO2 accumulator was conducted. The hardware and operational configurations of the CO2 compressor were developed. The performance and interface requirements of the compressor were specified. An existing Four-Bed Molecular Sieve CO2 removal computer model was modified into a CDRA model and used in analyzing the requirements of the CDRA CO2 compressor. This CDRA model was also used in analyzing CDRA operation parameters that dictate CO2 pump sizing. Strategy for the pump activation was also analyzed.

  10. CO2 Compressor Requirements for Integration of Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal and Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Lewis, John F.; Graf, John; LaFuse, Sharon; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis on integration requirements, CO2 compressor in particular, for integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) and CO2 Reduction Assembly (CRA) as a part of the Node 3 project previously conducted at JSC/NASA. A system analysis on the volume and operation pressure range of the CO2 accumulator was conducted. The hardware and operational configurations of the CO2 compressor were developed. The performance and interface requirements of the compressor were specified. An existing Four-Bed Molecular Sieve CO2 removal computer model was modified into a CDRA model and used in analyzing the requirements of the CDRA CO2 compressor. This CDRA model was also used in analyzing CDRA operation parameters that dictate CO2 pump sizing. Strategy for the pump activation was also analyzed.

  11. The oxygen reduction pathway and heat shock stress response are both required for Entamoeba histolytica pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Olivos-García, Alfonso; Saavedra, Emma; Nequiz, Mario; Santos, Fabiola; Luis-García, Erika Rubí; Gudiño, Marco; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2016-05-01

    Several species belonging to the genus Entamoeba can colonize the mouth or the human gut; however, only Entamoeba histolytica is pathogenic to the host, causing the disease amoebiasis. This illness is responsible for one hundred thousand human deaths per year worldwide, affecting mainly underdeveloped countries. Throughout its entire life cycle and invasion of human tissues, the parasite is constantly subjected to stress conditions. Under in vitro culture, this microaerophilic parasite can tolerate up to 5 % oxygen concentrations; however, during tissue invasion the parasite has to cope with the higher oxygen content found in well-perfused tissues (4-14 %) and with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species derived from both host and parasite. In this work, the role of the amoebic oxygen reduction pathway (ORP) and heat shock response (HSP) are analyzed in relation to E. histolytica pathogenicity. The data suggest that in contrast with non-pathogenic E. dispar, the higher level of ORP and HSPs displayed by E. histolytica enables its survival in tissues by diminishing and detoxifying intracellular oxidants and repairing damaged proteins to allow metabolic fluxes, replication and immune evasion.

  12. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  13. 12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  14. Financial effect of instituting Deficit Reduction Act documentation requirements in family planning clinics in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Angus, Lisa; Elman, Emily; Darney, Philip D; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-06-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the long-term costs for implementing citizenship documentation requirements in a Medicaid expansion program for family planning services in Oregon. A decision-analytic model was developed using two perspectives: the state and society. Our primary outcome was future reproductive health care costs due to pregnancy in the next 5 years. A Markov structure was utilized to capture multiple future pregnancies. Model inputs were retrieved from the existing literature and local hospital and Medicaid data related to reimbursements. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to simultaneously incorporate uncertainty from all of the model inputs. Screening for citizenship results in a loss of $3119 over 5 years ($39,382 vs. $42,501) for the state and $4209 for society ($63,391 compared to $59,182) for adult women. Among adolescents, requiring proof of identity and citizenship results in a loss of $3123 for the state ($39,378 versus $42,501) and $4214 for society ($63,391 instead of $59,177). Screening for citizenship status in publicly funded family planning clinics leads to financial losses for the state and society. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Requirements for a Stable Long-Term Result in Surgical Reduction of Vertebral Fragility Fractures.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Sanjuán, Jesús; Ardura, Francisco; Hernández-Ramajo, Rubén; Noriega, David C

    2017-09-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are one of the major health problems in the world. Minimally invasive surgical treatment has great advantages compared with conservative treatment in treating these fractures, because it eliminates pain and functional disability. The percutaneous intravertebral expandable titanium device SpineJack (Vexim SA, Balma, France) is beneficial compared with other kyphoplasty devices, showing results that are maintained over time and a reduction in complications. However, controversy exists about the minimum amount of cement that should be used to achieve long-term restoration and which is essential to minimize complications. We reviewed publications studying the maintenance of long-term restoration using this percutaneous expandable titanium device in cadavers. In this study, we show the first long-term work with patients treated with percutaneous expandable titanium device, describing precise indications concerning the minimum amount of cement that should be used. Results were evaluated from a clinical study including 178 patient outcomes with long-term follow-up results performed by our team. The mean total quantity of cement injected was 4.4 mL (25% vertebral body filling). The leakage rate was 12.9%, and all of these occurrences were asymptomatic. The mean follow-up time was 77 months (60-96 months). All clinical scales improved significantly after the procedure. A recollapse of the treated vertebra was observed in 3 cases (1.6%), and the adjacent fracture rate was 2.2%. From the results of our study and review of the literature, cement equivalent to 25% of the vertebral body filling volume, when combined with the titanium expandable device, seems to be sufficient to prevent recollapse in osteoporotic and type A.3 fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electromagnetic wave logging dipmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, R.A.

    1983-12-20

    An improvement to dipmeter logs has very closely spaced radio frequency sensor coils mounted in pairs in each of the formation contacting pads. A transmitter mounted in a sonde emits the radio frequency energy, such as in the range of from two to one hundred megahertz. The phase difference in radio frequency signals between receiver coil pairs in each pad is measured, providing improved data resolution for computing formation dip, and making possible dip measurements in wells drilled with oil base mud or air (invert type muds).

  17. A collection of log rules

    Treesearch

    Frank Freese

    1973-01-01

    A log rule may be defined as a table or formula showing the estimated net yield for logs of a given diameter and length. Ordinarily the yield is expressed in terms of board feet of finished lumber, though a few rules give the cubic volume of the log or some fraction of it. Built into each log rule are allowances for losses due to such things as slabs, saw kerf, edgings...

  18. My Journey with Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Learning logs, or reading response logs, have long been established as an effective reading strategy that helps students learn from text (Atwell, 1987; Blough & Berman, 1991; Calkins, 1986; Commander & Smith, 1996; Kuhrt & Farris, 1990; Reed, 1988; Sanders, 1985). In this paper, the author describes her experiences using learning logs as a…

  19. Configuration of Appalachian logging roads

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    1971-01-01

    The configuration - the curvature and grade - of logging roads in southern Appalachia is seldom severe, according to a recent Forest Service study. To improve the efficiency of logging roads, we must first define the characteristics of these roads; and in this report we provide a quantitative description of the configuration of over 200 miles of logging roads.

  20. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reserpine-induced Reduction in Norepinephrine Transporter Function Requires Catecholamine Storage Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5 min decreased [3H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the Vmax of the transport of [3H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [3H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [3H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [3H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca2+/Ca2+-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [3H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, α-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [3H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [3H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca2+-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. PMID:20176067

  2. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  3. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  4. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  5. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; hide

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  6. Geophysical logs in British stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.; Holliday, D.W.; Penn, I.E.

    1985-01-01

    This Special Report outlines the stratigraphic applications of the main geophysical logging tools. It characterises the British geological succession by means of the geophysical log signatures of its principle constituent formations. A large amount of previously unpublished data is provided on a geographical area long known for its importance in the development of the science of stratigraphy. The book in units modern developments of petroleum industry geophysical techniques with long-established stratigraphical discovery/research. Contents include: Introduction; Types of logs commonly used; Some geological uses of geophysical logs; Log signatures in British Stratigraphy; References.

  7. Coal log pipeline: Development status of the first commercial system

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The coal log pipeline (CLP) is an innovative means for long-distance transportation of coal. In the CLP concept, coal is pressed into the form of cylinders--coal logs--that are propelled by water flowing through underground pipe. A coal log pipeline has many advantages when compared to coal transport by unit train, slurry pipeline and long-distance trucking: low-cost, low energy consumption, low-water consumption, simple dewatering at pipeline exit, safe, and environmentally friendly. The coal logs travel butted together, as trains. Between the coal log {open_quotes}trains,{close_quotes} some space is allowed for valve switching. The optimum diameter of a coal log is approximately 90 to 95% the inside diameter of the pipe. The coal-to-water ratio is about 4 to 1. A 200 mm diameter CLP can transport about 2 million tonnes of coal per year. The coal logs at their destination come out of the pipeline onto a moving conveyer which transports the logs to a crusher or stock pile. Coal logs are crushed to match the size of existing fuel. The water effluent is treated and reused at the power plant; there is no need for its discharge. Coal logs can be manufactured with and without the use of binder. By using less than 2 percent emulsified asphalt as binder, no heat is required to compact coal logs. Binderless coal logs can be compacted at less than 90{degrees}C. Compaction pressures, for coal logs made with or without binder, are about 70 MPa. The coal particle size distribution and moisture content must be controlled. The economics of coal log pipeline system have been studied. Results indicate that a new coal log pipeline is cost-competitive with existing railroads for distances greater than 80 km, approximately. CLP is much more economical than coal slurry pipeline of the same diameter. This paper describes the current R&D and commercialization plan for CLP. 4 refs.

  8. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.116 What are the rules for securing logs? (a) Applicability... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... load limit for tiedowns used to secure a stack of logs on a frame vehicle, or a flatbed...

  9. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.116 What are the rules for securing logs? (a) Applicability... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... load limit for tiedowns used to secure a stack of logs on a frame vehicle, or a flatbed...

  10. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.116 What are the rules for securing logs? (a) Applicability... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... load limit for tiedowns used to secure a stack of logs on a frame vehicle, or a flatbed...

  11. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.116 What are the rules for securing logs? (a) Applicability... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... load limit for tiedowns used to secure a stack of logs on a frame vehicle, or a flatbed...

  12. Lumber or chips? A comparison of small-log utilization alternatives

    Treesearch

    Barney Dowdle; Robert Bain

    1961-01-01

    A sawmill in the Northeast commonly receives a number of small low-quality logs. They may be among logs purchased from independent loggers, or timber-sale specifications may require that the sawmill take them. Some mill operators confronted with logs of this kind consider handling them as part of the cost of obtaining their log supply. Others may feel that, since the...

  13. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  18. Outer Membrane c-Type Cytochromes Required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) Oxide Reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, T.; Coppi, M. V.; Childers, S. E.; Lovley, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    for Fe(III) reduction with environmentally relevant Fe(III) oxide, rather than the more commonly utilized Fe(III) citrate, because additional electron transfer components are required for Fe(III) oxide reduction that are not required for Fe(III) citrate reduction. PMID:16332857

  19. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  20. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  1. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  2. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  3. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of...

  4. Manufacturing Hardwood Dimension Products Directly from Logs: Potential Opportunities

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Wenjie Lin; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    When a hardwood log is sawn into lumber, over 16 percent of the volume is converted to sawdust. Furthermore, 12 percent of the log is converted to slabs and 17 percent is converted to edging and trimming pieces, all of which are chipped. Hence, less than 55 percent of the log is actually converted to lumber. Lumber must meet the requirements of specific NHLA grades and...

  5. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Zacharoff, Lori; Chan, Chi Ho; Bond, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    The respiration of metals by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires electrons generated by metabolism to pass from the interior of the cell to electron acceptors beyond the cell membranes. The G. sulfurreducens inner membrane multiheme c-type cytochrome ImcH is required for respiration to extracellular electron acceptors with redox potentials greater than -0.1 V vs. SHE, but ImcH is not essential for electron transfer to lower potential acceptors. In contrast, deletion of cbcL, encoding an inner membrane protein consisting of b-type and multiheme c-type cytochrome domains, severely affected reduction of low potential electron acceptors such as Fe(III)-oxides and electrodes poised at -0.1 V vs. SHE. Catalytic cyclic voltammetry of a ΔcbcL strain growing on poised electrodes revealed a 50 mV positive shift in driving force required for electron transfer out of the cell. In non-catalytic conditions, low-potential peaks present in wild type biofilms were absent in ∆cbcL mutants. Expression of cbcL in trans increased growth at low redox potential and restored features to cyclic voltammetry. This evidence supports a model where CbcL is a component of a second electron transfer pathway out of the G. sulfurreducens inner membrane that dominates when redox potential is at or below -0.1 V vs. SHE.

  6. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  7. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. Achieving the WHO sodium target: estimation of reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Shields, Emma; Webster, Jacqui; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium intake is one of the top 2 dietary risk factors contributing to the global burden of disease. As such, many countries are now developing national sodium reduction strategies, a key component of which is a sodium reduction model that includes sodium targets for packaged foods and other sources of dietary sodium. We sought to develop a sodium reduction model to determine the reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to reduce adult population salt intake by ∼30% toward the optimal WHO target of 5 g/d. Nationally representative household food-purchasing data for New Zealand were linked with branded food composition information to determine the mean contribution of major packaged food categories to total population sodium consumption. Discretionary salt use and the contribution of sodium from fresh foods and foods consumed away from the home were estimated with the use of national nutrition survey data. Reductions required in the sodium content of packaged foods and other dietary sources of sodium to achieve a 30% reduction in dietary sodium intakes were estimated. A 36% reduction (1.6 g salt or 628 mg Na) in the sodium content of packaged foods in conjunction with a 40% reduction in discretionary salt use and the sodium content of foods consumed away from the home would reduce total population salt intake in New Zealand by 35% (from 8.4 to 5.5 g/d) and thus meet the WHO 2025 30% relative reduction target. Key reductions required include a decrease of 21% in the sodium content of white bread, 27% for hard cheese, 42% for sausages, and 54% for ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. Achieving the WHO sodium target in New Zealand will take considerable efforts by both food manufacturers and consumers and will likely require a national government-led sodium reduction strategy. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Potential impact of easing the log export restriction on the Tongass National Forest.

    Treesearch

    David R. Darr

    1978-01-01

    The potential of higher revenues in the log export market is constrained by possible reductions in prices associated with expanded supplies in the Japanese log market. Expanded log exports from the Tongass National Forest might force adjustments by existing cantmills, even under a partial easing of the export restriction.

  10. Long-term effects of eliminating illegal logging on the world forest industries, trade, and inventory

    Treesearch

    Ruhong Li; J. Buongiorno; J.A. Turner; S. Zhu; J. Prestemon

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the impact on the world forest sector of a progressive elimination of illegal logging. The analysis compared predictions from 2007 to 2020, with and without a gradual reduction of illegally logged industrial roundwood from 2007 to 2011. A large part of the curtailment of timber supply due to the stoppage of illegal logging would be compensated by increased...

  11. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  12. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  13. Robust Spatial Autoregressive Modeling for Hardwood Log Inspection

    Treesearch

    Dongping Zhu; A.A. Beex

    1994-01-01

    We explore the application of a stochastic texture modeling method toward a machine vision system for log inspection in the forest products industry. This machine vision system uses computerized tomography (CT) imaging to locate and identify internal defects in hardwood logs. The application of CT to such industrial vision problems requires efficient and robust image...

  14. Enhancing General Education Science Courses: Written Logs on Popular Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Allen B.

    1993-01-01

    Requiring students in one introductory college course on weather/climate to keep logs with articles from popular media was found to produce three types of log topics with three kinds of relationship to course content. The technique helped students think more actively and provided the teacher with new course material. (MSE)

  15. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Official log entries. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entries. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  16. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  17. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Official log entries. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entries. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  18. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  19. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  20. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  1. Effects of log defects on lumber recovery.

    Treesearch

    James M. Cahill; Vincent S. Cegelka

    1989-01-01

    The impact of log defects on lumber recovery and the accuracy of cubic log scale deductions were evaluated from log scale and product recovery data for more than 3,000 logs. Lumber tally loss was estimated by comparing the lumber yield of sound logs to that of logs containing defects. The data were collected at several product recovery studies; they represent most of...

  2. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  3. Logging slash and forest protection.

    Treesearch

    Raphael Zon; Russell N. Cunningham

    1931-01-01

    What to do with the brush after logging? This question has been debated in Wisconsin throughout the entire history of lumbering. In the popular mind, the occurrence of severe forest conflagrations has invariably been associated with the presence of logging slash on the ground. The occurrence of vast forest fires was noted by explorers and fur traders long before...

  4. Sawing SHOLO logs: three methods

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Coleman; Hugh W. Reynolds

    1973-01-01

    Three different methods of sawing the SHOLO log were compared on a board-foot yield basis. Using sawmill simulation, all three methods of sawing were performed on the same sample of logs, eliminating differences due to sapling. A statistical test was made to determine whether or not there were any real differences between the board-foot yields. Two of the sawing...

  5. Protecting log cabins from decay

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rowell; J. M. Black; L. R. Gjovik; W. C. Feist

    1977-01-01

    This report answers the questions most often asked of the Forest Service on the protection of log cabins from decay, and on practices for the exterior finishing and maintenance of existing cabins. Causes of stain and decay are discussed, as are some basic techniques for building a cabin that will minimize decay. Selection and handling of logs, their preservative...

  6. Review of log sort yards

    Treesearch

    John Rusty Dramm; Gerry L. Jackson; Jenny Wong

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a general overview of current log sort yard operations in the United States, including an extensive literature review and information collected during on-site visits to several operations throughout the nation. Log sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by concentrating, merchandising, processing, sorting, and adding value to...

  7. Sonic log prediction in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nayyer

    This work is conducted to study the complications associated with the sonic log prediction in carbonate logs and to investigate the possible solutions to accurately predict the sonic logs in Traverse Limestone. Well logs from fifty different wells were analyzed to define the mineralogy of the Traverse Limestone by using conventional 4-mineral and 3-mineral identification approaches. We modified the conventional 3-mineral identification approach (that completely neglects the gamma ray response) to correct the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log before employing the 3-mineral identification. This modification helped to get the meaningful insight of the data when a plot was made between DGA (dry grain density) and UMA (Photoelectric Volumetric Cross-section) with the characteristic ternary diagram of the quartz, calcite and dolomite. The results were then compared with the 4-mineral identification approach. Contour maps of the average mineral fractions present in the Traverse Limestone were prepared to see the basin wide mineralogy of Traverse Limestone. In the second part, sonic response of Traverse Limestone was predicted in fifty randomly distributed wells. We used the modified time average equation that accounts for the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log, and used it to predict the sonic behavior from density porosity and average porosity. To account for the secondary porosity of dolomite, we subtracted the dolomitic fraction of clean porosity from the total porosity. The pseudo-sonic logs were then compared with the measured sonic logs on the root mean square (RMS) basis. Addition of dolomite correction in modified time average equation improved the results of sonic prediction from neutron porosity and average porosity. The results demonstrated that sonic logs could be predicted in carbonate rocks with a root mean square error of about 4isec/ft. We also attempted the use of individual mineral components for sonic log prediction but the

  8. Estimating air-drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang

    2004-01-01

    One potential use for small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir timber is in log form. Many potential uses of logs require some degree of drying. Even though these small diameters may be considered small in the forestry context, their size when compared to typical lumber thickness dimensions is large. These logs, however, may require uneconomically long kiln-drying...

  9. Requirements and efficiency of agricultural nitrogen reduction measures in the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Ralf; Herrmann, Frank; Kape, Hans-Eberhard; Keller, Luise; Koch, Franka; Tetzlaff, Björn; Wendland, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is the most north-eastern of the 16 Federal States of Germany, covering an area of 23 200 km2 with a population of ca. 1.6 million inhabitants. About 62 % of the territory is used for agriculture, whose emissions have contributed to the deterioration groundwater and surface water quality. One of the essential aims of the European framework directive (EU-WFD) is the sustainable use and effective protection of all water resources including groundwater, surface waters and coastal waters. According to the status assessment of the groundwater bodies in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the achievement of the good status is unclear or rather unlikely for 35 % of all groundwater bodies, mainly due to high nitrate concentrations. Eutrophication from nutrient inputs due to agriculture and atmospheric N-deposition is still one of the most challenging ecological problems of the North and Baltic Sea. Presently, about 80 % of the nitrogen load of the North and Baltic Sea arises from anthropogenic sources. According to a status assessment, all of German water bodies failed the good ecological status in 2009. Therefore, a further reduction of the nutrient inputs into the North and Baltic Sea is required. We used an interdisciplinary model network consisting of a nutrient balance model, a water balance model (GROWA), a reactive nitrate transport model in soil (DENUZ) and reactive nitrate transport model in groundwater (WEKU) to predict the nitrogen intakes into groundwater and the nitrogen losses to surface waters by 10 different pathways. The most important pathways for diffuse nitrogen inputs into river systems include groundwater drainages, natural interflow, erosion, wash-off and direct atmospheric deposition on surface waters. As point sources the input via industrial effluents, wastewater treatment plants, small sewage treatment plant and separate sewer systems have been considered. As a first step, a status quo analysis was performed for the whole Federal State

  10. Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, Adelaine Michela E. S.; Miller, Scott D.; de Sousa, Cleilim Albert D.; Menton, Mary C.; Maia, Augusto R.; Da Rocha, Humberto R.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-03-01

    We combined measurements of tree growth and carbon dioxide exchange to investigate the effects of selective logging on the Aboveground Live Biomass (AGLB) of a tropical rain forest in the Amazon. Most of the measurements began at least 10 months before logging and continued at least 36 months after logging. The logging removed ˜15% of the trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) greater than 35 cm, which resulted in an instantaneous 10% reduction in AGLB. Both wood production and mortality increased following logging, while Gross Primary Production (GPP) was unchanged. The ratio of wood production to GPP (the wood Carbon Use Efficiency or wood CUE) more than doubled following logging. Small trees (10 cm < DBH < 35 cm) accounted for most of the enhanced wood production. Medium trees (35 cm < DBH < 55 cm) that were within 30 m of canopy gaps created by the logging also showed increased growth. The patterns of enhanced growth are most consistent with logging-induced increases in light availability. The AGLB continued to decline over the study, as mortality outpaced wood production. Wood CUE and mortality remained elevated throughout the 3 years of postlogging measurements. The future trajectory of AGLB and the forest's carbon balance are uncertain, and will depend on how long it takes for heterotrophic respiration, mortality, and CUE to return to prelogging levels.

  11. Data logging technology in ambulatory medical instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Lyons, G M

    2001-05-01

    This paper reviews the advancements made in ambulatory data logging used in the study of human subjects since the inception of the analogue tape based data logger in the 1960s. Research into the area of ambulatory monitoring has been rejuvenated due to the development of novel storage technologies during the 1990s. Data logging systems that were previously impractical due to lack of processing power, practical size and cost are now available to the practitioner. An overview of the requirements of present day ambulatory data logging is presented and analogue tape, solid-state memory and disk drive storage recording systems that have been described in the literature are investigated in detail. It is proposed that digital based technology offers the best solution to the problems encountered during human based data logging. The appearance of novel digital storage media will continue the trend of increased recording durations, signal resolution and number of parameters thus allowing the momentum gained throughout the last several decades to continue.

  12. Correcting well-log information for computer processing and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Joseph E.

    Detailed subsurface analysis is dependent on suites of good quality well logs that are similar in lithologic response and in presentation. Well-to-well variations in the logs should reflect changes in lithology, not in the recording instrument and instrument settings. Differences in the recording and play back of logged curves, even with the most modern instruments, seriously can affect geologic interpretations. Computer analysis of digitally recorded logs is more dependent on recording quality and can produce erroneous results if there are small errors in the measured input values and control parameters. Good exploration requires good data, however the geologist cannot control the log quality and must work with whatever data are available. Fortunately most digital log curves can be corrected and standardized so that they qualify as good information. In mature exploration areas, where drilling has been spread through a number of years, the well logs will range from modern digital computer presentations to old hard-copy display exhibiting a variety of depth and instrument response scales. They may seem an agglomeration of misfit logs that are impossible to work with in their original form. Photographic methods of producing standard presentations gives only marginal improvements. The most practical method of creating uniform sets of logs is to digitize the logs then correct and replay them in a form that is optimal for either geologic analysis or extended computer processing. Examples from New York State show how computer processing can be used to transform old logs so that they display uniform responses to lithology. Cross sections illustrate detailed correlations that were not practical with the original hard-copy logs and examples from individual wells display computer calculated porosities from corrected curves utilizing whole-rock compensation.

  13. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF...; AND GRANTS OF RECOGNIZED PRIVATE OPERATING AGENCY STATUS Discontinuance, Reduction, Outage and...

  14. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  15. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Motta, J Carlos; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-10-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes and drop-down lists, and data were uploaded to a central database via the internet. To evaluate the feasibility of this system, we tracked the utilization of this data collection system. Benefits and disadvantages were assessed through surveys. All 11 trainees successfully uploaded data to the central database, but only six (55%) continued to upload data on a regular basis. The most common reason cited for not using the system pertained to initial technical problems with data uploading. From 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003, a total of 914 procedures were logged. Significant variability was noted in the number of procedures logged by individual trainees (range 13-242). The database generated by regular users provided potentially useful information to the training program director regarding the scope and location of procedural training among the different rotations and hospitals. A handheld computer procedure logging system can be effectively used in a critical care training program. However, user acceptance was not uniform, and continued training and support are required to increase user acceptance. Such a procedure database may provide valuable information that may be used to optimize trainees' educational experience and to document clinical training experience for licensing and accreditation.

  16. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers

    PubMed Central

    Carlos Martinez-Motta, J; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Methods Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes and drop-down lists, and data were uploaded to a central database via the internet. To evaluate the feasibility of this system, we tracked the utilization of this data collection system. Benefits and disadvantages were assessed through surveys. Results All 11 trainees successfully uploaded data to the central database, but only six (55%) continued to upload data on a regular basis. The most common reason cited for not using the system pertained to initial technical problems with data uploading. From 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003, a total of 914 procedures were logged. Significant variability was noted in the number of procedures logged by individual trainees (range 13–242). The database generated by regular users provided potentially useful information to the training program director regarding the scope and location of procedural training among the different rotations and hospitals. Conclusion A handheld computer procedure logging system can be effectively used in a critical care training program. However, user acceptance was not uniform, and continued training and support are required to increase user acceptance. Such a procedure database may provide valuable information that may be used to optimize trainees' educational experience and to document clinical training experience for licensing and accreditation. PMID:15469577

  17. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  18. Coal log pipeline research at University of Missouri. 1. quarterly report for 1996, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This project consists of the following nine tasks: Machine design for coal log fabrication; Very rapid compaction of coal logs; Rapid compaction of coal logs; Fast-track experiments on coal log compaction; Coal log fabrication using hydrophobic binders; Drag reduction in large diameter hydraulic capsule pipeline; Automatic control of coal log pipeline system; Hydraulics of CLP (Coal Log Pipeline); and Coal heating system research. The purpose of the task, the work accomplished during this report period, and work proposed for the next quarter are described for each task.

  19. Navjot's nightmare revisited: logging, agriculture, and biodiversity in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilcove, David S; Giam, Xingli; Edwards, David P; Fisher, Brendan; Koh, Lian Pin

    2013-09-01

    In 2004, Navjot Sodhi and colleagues warned that logging and agricultural conversion of Southeast Asia's forests were leading to a biodiversity disaster. We evaluate this prediction against subsequent research and conclude that most of the fauna of the region can persist in logged forests. Conversely, conversion of primary or logged forests to plantation crops, such as oil palm, causes tremendous biodiversity loss. This loss is exacerbated by increased fire frequency. Therefore, we conclude that preventing agricultural conversion of logged forests is essential to conserving the biodiversity of this region. Our analysis also suggests that, because Southeast Asian forests are tightly tied to global commodity markets, conservation payments commensurate with combined returns from logging and subsequent agricultural production may be required to secure long-term forest protection.

  20. Raster images offer low-cost well log preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Cisco, S.L.

    1996-12-16

    Well log data saved as depth-calibrated raster images provide an economic alternative to digital formats for preserving this valuable information into the future. Although often thrown away after vectorization, raster imaged well logs may be the key for a global computer-readable format for legacy hardcopy data. Over the past several decades, oil and gas companies have acquired an enormous volume of well logs, maps, and seismic and core data. Preservation of, and access to, valuable data such as well logs is critical to the petroleum industry. These legacy data are stored on multiple media and contain information for a variety of applications in addition to resource exploration and development, such as environmental protection, water management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The paper discusses well logs, acquisition cost, storage requirements, ease of use, costs and benefits.

  1. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  2. No chiral truncation of quantum log gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2010-03-01

    At the classical level, chiral gravity may be constructed as a consistent truncation of a larger theory called log gravity by requiring that left-moving charges vanish. In turn, log gravity is the limit of topologically massive gravity (TMG) at a special value of the coupling (the chiral point). We study the situation at the level of linearized quantum fields, focussing on a unitary quantization. While the TMG Hilbert space is continuous at the chiral point, the left-moving Virasoro generators become ill-defined and cannot be used to define a chiral truncation. In a sense, the left-moving asymptotic symmetries are spontaneously broken at the chiral point. In contrast, in a non-unitary quantization of TMG, both the Hilbert space and charges are continuous at the chiral point and define a unitary theory of chiral gravity at the linearized level.

  3. A Guide to Hardwood Log Grading

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast; David L. Sonderman; Glenn L. Gammon

    1973-01-01

    A guide to hardwood log grading (revised) was developed as a teaching aid and field reference in grading hardwood logs. Outlines basic principles and gives detailed practical applications, with illustrations, in grading hardwood logs. Includes standards for various use classes.

  4. Vacuum-soaking of wood chip shiitake (Lentinula edodes) logs to reduce soak time and log weight variability and to stimulate mushroom yield.

    PubMed

    Royse, D J; Rhodes, T W; Sanchez, J E

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic logs were vacuum-soaked or regular-soaked to determine the effects of soaking on yield and mushroom size, log weight variability and water distribution within the log. Yields (g/log) from substrates vacuum-soaked were higher by 26.7%, 18.6% and 35.8% (mean = 27.2%) for crops I, II and III, respectively, when compared with regular-soaked. However, mushroom size averaged only 11.2 g for vacuum-soaked logs vs 17 g for regular-soaked logs (51.8% larger for regular-soaked). The time required for vacuum-soaking logs was generally less than 3 min, compared with regular-soaking times ranging over 3-15 h. Water tended to accumulate more in the outside zone in the vacuum-soaked logs, compared with regular-soaked logs. Mean moisture contents for crops I and II for outside, middle and interior zones of vacuum-soaked logs were 66%, 47.5% and 42.2%, respectively, while regular-soaked logs for the same zones were 62.4%, 52.1% and 50.9%, respectively. Vacuum-soaked log weights had lower standard deviations than weights for regular-soaked logs in four out of six soaks, indicating a more uniform soaking process.

  5. Comparing GPS, Log, Survey, and Accelerometry to Measure Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Weissman, Jennifer; Wolf, Jean; Mumford, Karen; Contant, Cheryl K.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Taylor, Lynne; Glanz, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Both self-report and objective measures have strengths and limitations for studying physical activity (PA) and travel. We explored how objectively measured global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data matches with travel logs and questionnaires in predicting trip duration and PA. Methods In a study of PA and travel among residents in Atlanta, GA conducted in 2008–2009, 99 participants wore GPS devices and accelerometers, and recorded all trips in a log for 5 consecutive days. Participants also completed a self-administered questionnaire on PA and travel behaviors. Results There was good agreement between GPS and log for assessment of trip duration, although log measures overestimated trip duration (concordance correlation coefficient 0.53 [0.47, 0.59]; Bland-Altman estimate 0.76 [0.16, 3.71] comparing GPS to log). Log measures underestimated light PA and overestimated moderate PA compared to accelerometry when greater than zero moderate PA was reported. Conclusions It is often not feasible to deploy accelerometry or GPS devices in population research because these devices are expensive and require technical expertise and data processing. Questionnaires and logs provide inexpensive tools to assess PA and travel with reasonable concordance with objective measures. However, they have shortcomings in evaluating the presence and amount of light and moderate PA. Future questionnaires and logs should be developed to evaluate sensitivity to light and moderate PA. PMID:26685821

  6. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-03-01

    The Cement Bond Log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal in order to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than twenty years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation, ostensibly, with Cement Bond Logs. Cement Bond Logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed upon the log measurements is needed in order to properly evaluate the log. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of Cement Bond Logs which fall into this category are presented.

  7. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-07-01

    The cement bond log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than 20 years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation with cement bond logs. Cement bond logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed on the log measurements is needed to evaluate the log properly. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of cement bond logs that fall into this category are be presented.

  8. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  9. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential.

  10. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Treesearch

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  11. Predicting internal yellow-poplar log defect features using surface indicators

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Determining the defects that are located within the log is crucial to understanding the tree/log resource for efficient processing. However, existing means of doing this non-destructively requires the use of expensive X-ray/CT, MRI, or microwave technology. These methods do not lend themselves to fast, efficient, and cost-effective analysis of logs and tree stems in...

  12. Estimating air drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs.

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Because dense stands of softwood trees are causing forest health problems in the western United States, new ways to use this material need to be found. One option is to use this material as logs rather than sawing it into lumber. For many applications, logs require some degree of drying. Even though these logs may be considered small diameter, they are large compared...

  13. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the rules for securing logs? 393.116... Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.116 What are the rules for securing logs? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section are applicable to the transportation of logs with the following...

  14. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  15. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  16. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  17. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  18. Determination of lithology from well logs using a neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.J.; Fang, J.H. ); Karr, C.L.; Stanley, D.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The authors have developed a computer program to automatically determine lithologies from well logs using a back-propagation neural network. Unlike a conventional serial computer, a neural network is a computational system composed of nodes (sometimes called neurons, neurodes, or units) and the connections between these nodes. Neural computing attempts to emulate the functions of the mammalian brain, thus mimicking thought processes. The neural network approach differs from previous pattern recognition methods in its ability to learn from examples. Unlike conventional statistical methods, this new approach does not require sophisticated mathematics and a large amount of statistical data. This paper discusses the application of neural networks to a pattern recognition problem in geology: the determination of lithology from well logs. The neural network determined the lithologies (limestone, dolomite, sandstone, shale, sandy and dolomitic limestones, sandy dolomite, and shale sandstone) from selected well logs in a fraction of the time required by an experienced human log analyst.

  19. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  20. Distributed System Fault Tolerance Using Message Logging and Checkpointing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    have been received, and Sistla and Welch [SistlaS9] require the sequence of messages received on each channel to be a prefix of those sent on it. Since...Recovery system [Strom85], and recently Sistla and Welch have proposed a new method using optimistic message logging [Sistla89], based in part on some...system. Sistla and Welch have proposed two alternative recovery algorithms based on op- timistic message logging [Sistla89]. One algorithm tags each

  1. Log exports by port, 1987.

    Treesearch

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Volumes and average values of log exports by port have been compiled by quarter for 1987. The tables show the four Northwest customs districts by ports, species, and destinations. These data were received from the U.S. Department of Commerce too late to be published in the 1987 quarterly reports, "Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest...

  2. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  3. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  4. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  5. Logging Work Injuries in Appalachia

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Wolf; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1978-01-01

    Logging accidents are costly. They may bring pain to injured workers, hardship to their families, and higher insurance premiums and lower productivity to their employers. Our analysis of 1,172 injuries in central Appalachia reveals that nearly half of all time lost-and almost all fatalities-resulted from accidents during felling and unloading. The largest proportion of...

  6. Soil Wetness Influences Log Skidding

    Treesearch

    William N. Darwin

    1960-01-01

    One of the least explored variables in timber harvesting is the effect of ground conditions on log production . The Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is studying this variable and its influence on performance of skidding vehicles in Southern bottom lands. The test reported here was designed to evaluate the effects of bark features on skidding coefficients, but it also...

  7. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves; Peter A. Bisson; Bruce E. Rieman; Lee E. Benda

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend...

  8. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  9. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Treesearch

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  10. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  11. Nondestructive evaluation for sorting red maple logs

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; David W. Green; Karl Englund; Michael Wolcott

    2000-01-01

    Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the potential quality of structural products manufactured from them, especially...

  12. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  13. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  14. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  19. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  1. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information Collection Requirements... requirements for the Bureau of Industry and Security by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), pursuant...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information Collection Requirements... requirements for the Bureau of Industry and Security by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), pursuant...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Crude Oil) § 754.2. 0694-0029 License Exception TMP: Special Requirements § 740.9(a)(2)(viii)(B). 0694... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information Collection Requirements... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Crude Oil) § 754.2. 0694-0029 License Exception TMP: Special Requirements § 740.9(a)(2)(viii)(B). 0694... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Information Collection Requirements... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zi)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution Pt. 60... Efficiency (Zi) H2S content of acid gas (Y), % Sulfur feed rate (X), LT/D 2.0≤X≤5.0 5.0 300.0 Y≥50 79.0 88... Reduction Efficiency (Zi) 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zi)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution Pt. 60... Efficiency (Zi) H2S content of acid gas (Y), % Sulfur feed rate (X), LT/D 2.0 ≤ X ≤ 5.0 5.0 300.0 Y ≥ 50 79.0... Reduction Efficiency (Zi) 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  8. In vivo requirement for glutaredoxins and thioredoxins in the reduction of the ribonucleotide reductases of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gon, Stéphanie; Faulkner, Melinda J; Beckwith, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli expresses three types of ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that utilize the redox chemistry of cysteine to catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides. Upon reduction, the cysteines form a disulfide bond and must be reduced. The authors present in vivo studies that shed light on the mechanism by which these enzymes are regenerated. The class Ia enzyme, NrdAB, can be reduced by either the thioredoxins 1 and 2 or by glutaredoxin 1. The class Ib enzyme, NrdEF, is reduced in vivo by a dedicated glutaredoxin-like protein, NrdH. Despite its similarities to glutaredoxins, this protein is itself reduced by thioredoxin reductase in vivo. However, in the absence of thioredoxin reductase and NrdH, glutaredoxin 1 can partially replace NrdH. Despite their similar structures, the NrdEF and NrdAB RNRs differ in their abilities to function under low oxygen conditions. With only traces of oxygen present, NrdAB can allow some growth in the absence of the anaerobic enzyme NrdDG. NrdEF cannot. Furthermore, in anaerobiosis, E. coli is dependent for growth on class III RNR, NrdDG, and on having at least one of the two reductive systems, thioredoxin reductase or glutathione reductase. These findings indicate a role for these enzymes either for NrdDG reactivation or some other essential anaerobic process.

  9. Report: Projected Emission Reductions Overstated and Buy American Requirements Not Met Under EPA Award to the Tennessee Department of Transportation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #13-R-0321, July 19, 2013. TDOT followed most applicable laws, regulations, and terms and conditions of the cooperative agreement - with the exception of the Buy American requirements of the Recovery Act.

  10. Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

    1996-12-01

    During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

  11. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  12. House log drying rates in southeast Alaska for covered and uncovered softwood logs

    Treesearch

    David Nicholls; Allen Brackley

    2009-01-01

    Log moisture content has an important impact on many aspects of log home construction, including log processing, transportation costs, and dimensional stability in use. Air-drying times for house logs from freshly harvested trees can depend on numerous factors including initial moisture content, log diameter, bark condition, and environmental conditions during drying....

  13. RamA, a Protein Required for Reductive Activation of Corrinoid-dependent Methylamine Methyltransferase Reactions in Methanogenic Archaea*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Tsuneo; Soares, Jitesh A.; Lienard, Tanja; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Krzycki, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Archaeal methane formation from methylamines is initiated by distinct methyltransferases with specificity for monomethylamine, dimethylamine, or trimethylamine. Each methylamine methyltransferase methylates a cognate corrinoid protein, which is subsequently demethylated by a second methyltransferase to form methyl-coenzyme M, the direct methane precursor. Methylation of the corrinoid protein requires reduction of the central cobalt to the highly reducing and nucleophilic Co(I) state. RamA, a 60-kDa monomeric iron-sulfur protein, was isolated from Methanosarcina barkeri and is required for in vitro ATP-dependent reductive activation of methylamine:CoM methyl transfer from all three methylamines. In the absence of the methyltransferases, highly purified RamA was shown to mediate the ATP-dependent reductive activation of Co(II) corrinoid to the Co(I) state for the monomethylamine corrinoid protein, MtmC. The ramA gene is located near a cluster of genes required for monomethylamine methyltransferase activity, including MtbA, the methylamine-specific CoM methylase and the pyl operon required for co-translational insertion of pyrrolysine into the active site of methylamine methyltransferases. RamA possesses a C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain capable of binding two tetranuclear iron-sulfur proteins. Mutliple ramA homologs were identified in genomes of methanogenic Archaea, often encoded near methyltrophic methyltransferase genes. RamA homologs are also encoded in a diverse selection of bacterial genomes, often located near genes for corrinoid-dependent methyltransferases. These results suggest that RamA mediates reductive activation of corrinoid proteins and that it is the first functional archetype of COG3894, a family of redox proteins of unknown function. PMID:19043046

  14. Requirement of low oxidation-reduction potential for photosynthesis in a blue-green alga (Phormidium sp.).

    PubMed

    Weller, D; Doemel, W; Brock, T D

    1975-06-20

    Photosynthesis in a Phormidium species which forms dense conical-shaped structures in thermal springs is strongly inhibited by aeration but is stimulated by sulfide and other agents (cysteine, thioglycolate, sulfite) which lower the oxidation-reduction potential. The compact structures which this alga forms in nature may restrict oxygen penetration from the enviroment so that the anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions necessary ofr photosynthesis can develop. The alga may be defective in a regulatory mechanism that controls the reoxidation of reduced pyridine nucleotides formed during photosynthesis. It is suggested that other mat-forming and benthic blue-green algae may also prefer anaerobib conditions for growth and photosynthesis.

  15. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  16. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  17. Determining Partition Coefficient (Log P), Distribution Coefficient (Log D) and Ionization Constant (pKa) in Early Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Sonali S; Kumar, Vikas; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2016-01-01

    An early prediction of physicochemical properties is highly desirable during drug discovery to find out a viable lead candidate. Although there are several methods available to determine partition coefficient (log P), distribution coefficient (log D) and ionization constant (pKa), none of them involves simple and fixed, miniaturized protocols for diverse set of compounds. Therefore, it is necessary to establish simple, uniform and medium-throughput protocols requiring small sample quantities for the determination of these physicochemical properties. Log P and log D were determined by shake flask method, wherein, the compound was partitioned between presaturated noctanol and water phase (water/PBS pH 7.4) and the concentration of compound in each phase was determined by HPLC. The pKa determination made use of UV spectrophotometric analysis in a 96-well microtiter plate containing a series of aqueous buffers ranging from pH 1.0 to 13.0. The medium-throughput miniaturized protocols described herein, for determination of log P, log D and pKa, are straightforward to set up and require very small quantities of sample (< 5 mg for all three properties). All established protocols were validated using diverse set of compounds.

  18. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance...

  19. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance...

  20. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance...

  1. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance...

  2. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., other than nuclear power reactor facilities for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance...

  3. O’ Surgery Case Log Data, Where Art Thou?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayur B; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Ott, Mickey M; Palmiter, Kimberly A; May, Addison K

    2012-01-01

    Background The American College of Surgeons Case Log (ACS Case Log) represents a data system that satisfies the American Board of Surgery (ABS) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program, yet has broad data fields for surgical subspecialties. Using the ACS Case Log, we have developed a method of data capture, categorization, and reporting of acute care surgery fellows' experiences. Study Design In July 2010, our Acute Care Surgery fellowship required our fellows to log their clinical experiences into the ACS Case Log. Cases were entered similar to billable documentation rules. Keywords were entered that specified institutional services and/or resuscitation types. This data was exported in comma separated value format, de-identified, and structured by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes relevant to acute care surgery and sub-stratified by fellow and/or fellow year. Results Fifteen report types were created consisting of operative experience by service, procedure by major category (cardiothoracic, vascular, solid organ, abdominal wall, hollow viscus, and soft tissue), total resuscitations, ultrasound, airway, Intensive Care Unit services, basic neurosurgery, and basic orthopaedics. Results are viewable via a secure web application, accessible nationally, and exportable to many formats. Conclusions Utilizing the ACS Case Log satisfies the ABS MOC program requirements and provides a method for monitoring and reporting acute care surgery fellow experiences. This system is flexible to accommodate the needs of surgical subspecialties and their training programs. As documentation requirements expand, efficient clinical documentation is a must for the busy surgeon. Although, our data entry and processing method has the immediate capacity for acute care surgery fellowships nationwide, multiple larger decisions regarding national case log systems should be encouraged. PMID:22634118

  4. Reduction of sample size requirements by bilateral versus unilateral research designs in animal models for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Orth, Patrick; Zurakowski, David; Alini, Mauro; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2013-11-01

    Advanced tissue engineering approaches for articular cartilage repair in the knee joint rely on translational animal models. In these investigations, cartilage defects may be established either in one joint (unilateral design) or in both joints of the same animal (bilateral design). We hypothesized that a lower intraindividual variability following the bilateral strategy would reduce the number of required joints. Standardized osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of 18 rabbits. In 12 animals, defects were produced unilaterally (unilateral design; n=12 defects), while defects were created bilaterally in 6 animals (bilateral design; n=12 defects). After 3 weeks, osteochondral repair was evaluated histologically applying an established grading system. Based on intra- and interindividual variabilities, required sample sizes for the detection of discrete differences in the histological score were determined for both study designs (α=0.05, β=0.20). Coefficients of variation (%CV) of the total histological score values were 1.9-fold increased following the unilateral design when compared with the bilateral approach (26 versus 14%CV). The resulting numbers of joints needed to treat were always higher for the unilateral design, resulting in an up to 3.9-fold increase in the required number of experimental animals. This effect was most pronounced for the detection of small-effect sizes and estimating large standard deviations. The data underline the possible benefit of bilateral study designs for the decrease of sample size requirements for certain investigations in articular cartilage research. These findings might also be transferred to other scoring systems, defect types, or translational animal models in the field of cartilage tissue engineering.

  5. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2014-11-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural vs. model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty is far more important than model parametric uncertainty to estimate irrigation water requirement. Using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  6. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural versus model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty among reference ET is far more important than model parametric uncertainty introduced by crop coefficients. These crop coefficients are used to estimate irrigation water requirement following the single crop coefficient approach. Using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  7. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-07

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging.

  8. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices

    PubMed Central

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S.; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  9. Two-stage recovery of amphibian assemblages following selective logging of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Adum, Gilbert Baase; Eichhorn, Markus Peter; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information on the effectiveness of selective-logging practices in ameliorating effects of logging on faunal communities. We conducted a large-scale replicated field study in 3 selectively logged moist semideciduous forests in West Africa at varying times after timber extraction to assess post logging effects on amphibian assemblages. Specifically, we assessed whether the diversity, abundance, and assemblage composition of amphibians changed over time for forest-dependent species and those tolerant of forest disturbance. In 2009, we sampled amphibians in 3 forests (total of 48 study plots, each 2 ha) in southwestern Ghana. In each forest, we established plots in undisturbed forest, recently logged forest, and forest logged 10 and 20 years previously. Logging intensity was constant across sites with 3 trees/ha removed. Recently logged forests supported substantially more species than unlogged forests. This was due to an influx of disturbance-tolerant species after logging. Simultaneously Simpson's index decreased, with increased in dominance of a few species. As time since logging increased richness of disturbance-tolerant species decreased until 10 years after logging when their composition was indistinguishable from unlogged forests. Simpson's index increased with time since logging and was indistinguishable from unlogged forest 20 years after logging. Forest specialists decreased after logging and recovered slowly. However, after 20 years amphibian assemblages had returned to a state indistinguishable from that of undisturbed forest in both abundance and composition. These results demonstrate that even with low-intensity logging (≤3 trees/ha) a minimum 20-year rotation of logging is required for effective conservation of amphibian assemblages in moist semideciduous forests. Furthermore, remnant patches of intact forests retained in the landscape and the presence of permanent brooks may aid in the effective recovery of amphibian

  10. Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, M.

    2002-05-23

    The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Buck. To cut a felled tree into logs. Butt. The bottom of the felled part of a tree. Cable yarding. The... to prevent the root wad, butt or logs from striking an employee. These precautions include, but are...

  12. Geological well log analysis. Third ed

    SciTech Connect

    Pirson, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, well logs have mainly been used for correlation, structural mapping, and quantitive evaluation of hydrocarbon bearing formations. This third edition of Geologic Well Log Analysis, however, describes how well logs can be used for geological studies and mineral exploration. This is done by analyzing well logs for numerous parameters and indices of significant mineral accumulation, primarily in sediments. Contents are: SP and Eh curves as redoxomorphic logs; sedimentalogical studies by log curve shapes; exploration for stratigraphic traps; continuous dipmeter as a structural tool; continuous dipmeter as a sedimentation tool; Paleo-facies logging and mapping; hydrogeology 1--hydrodynamics of compaction; hydrogeology 2--geostatic equilibrium; and hydrogeology 3--hydrodynamics of infiltration. Appendixes cover: Computer program for calculating the dip magnitude, azimuth, and the degree and orientation of the resistivity anisotrophy; a lithology computer program for calculating the curvature of a structure; and basic log analysis package for HP-41CV programmable calculator.

  13. Influence of electron donor on the minimum sulfate concentration required for sulfate reduction in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Fluctuations in the availability of electron donor (petroleum hydrocarbons) affected the competition between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) for control of electron flow in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. The data suggest that abundant electron donor availability allowed MB to sequester a portion of the electron flow even when sulfate was present in sufficient concentrations to support sulfate reduction. For example, in an area of abundant electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to be unable to sequester the electron flow from MB in the presence of 1.4 mg/L sulfate. The data also suggest that when electron-donor availability was limited, SRB outcompeted MB for available substrate at a lower concentration of sulfate than when electron donor was plentiful. For example, in an area of limited electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to maintain dominance of electron flow at sulfate concentrations less than 1 mg/L. The presence of abundant electron donor and a limited amount of sulfate reduced competition for available substrate, allowing both SRB and MB to metabolize available substrates concurrently.

  14. Interactive effects of historical logging and fire exclusion on ponderosa pine forest structure in the northern Rockies.

    PubMed

    Naficy, Cameron; Sala, Anna; Keeling, Eric G; Graham, Jon; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2010-10-01

    Increased forest density resulting from decades of fire exclusion is often perceived as the leading cause of historically aberrant, severe, contemporary wildfires and insect outbreaks documented in some fire-prone forests of the western United States. Based on this notion, current U.S. forest policy directs managers to reduce stand density and restore historical conditions in fire-excluded forests to help minimize high-severity disturbances. Historical logging, however, has also caused widespread change in forest vegetation conditions, but its long-term effects on vegetation structure and composition have never been adequately quantified. We document that fire-excluded ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains logged prior to 1960 have much higher average stand density, greater homogeneity of stand structure, more standing dead trees and increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees than paired fire-excluded, unlogged counterparts. Notably, the magnitude of the interactive effect of fire exclusion and historical logging substantially exceeds the effects of fire exclusion alone. These differences suggest that historically logged sites are more prone to severe wildfires and insect outbreaks than unlogged, fire-excluded forests and should be considered a high priority for fuels reduction treatments. Furthermore, we propose that ponderosa pine forests with these distinct management histories likely require distinct restoration approaches. We also highlight potential long-term risks of mechanical stand manipulation in unlogged forests and emphasize the need for a long-term view of fuels management.

  15. Acetate-dependent photoheterotrophic growth and the differential requirement for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Rick; Tabita, F Robert; Alber, Birgit E

    2011-02-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO)-deletion strain 16 was capable of photoheterotrophic growth with acetate, while Rhodopseudomonas palustris RubisCO-deletion strain 2040 could not grow under these conditions. The reason for this difference lies in the fact that Rba. sphaeroides and Rps. palustris use different pathways for acetate assimilation, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and glyoxylate-bypass cycle, respectively. The ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is distinct from the glyoxylate cycle as one molecule of CO(2) and one molecule of HCO(3) (-) per three molecules of acetyl-CoA are co-assimilated to form two malate molecules. The glyoxylate cycle directly converts two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. Each pathway, therefore, also dictates at what point, CO(2) and reductant are consumed, thereby determining the requirement for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle.

  16. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    Treesearch

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Marco Lentini; Frank Merry; Souza Jr. Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common high-impact conventional and often illegal logging...

  17. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  18. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  19. How much scarification from summer logging?

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; John C. Bjorkbom

    1960-01-01

    Scarification of the soil creates seedbeds that are favorable for the establishment of both paper birch and yellow birch. Logging in the summer often has been recommended as a method of obtaining these seedbeds. However, our observations on experimental logging jobs have shown that logging alone does not provide scarification over enough of the area to assure...

  20. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  1. Linking log quality with product performance

    Treesearch

    D. W. Green; Robert Ross

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, log grading procedures use visual assessment of defects, in relation to the log scaling diameter, to estimate the yield of lumber that maybe expected from the log. This procedure was satisfactory when structural grades were based only on defect size and location. In recent years, however, structural products have increasingly been graded using a...

  2. Challenges in converting among log scaling methods.

    Treesearch

    Henry. Spelter

    2003-01-01

    The traditional method of measuring log volume in North America is the board foot log scale, which uses simple assumptions about how much of a log's volume is recoverable. This underestimates the true recovery potential and leads to difficulties in comparing volumes measured with the traditional board foot system and those measured with the cubic scaling systems...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  7. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  13. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  14. Reduction of Neonatal Mortality Requires Strengthening of the Health System: A Situational Analysis of Neonatal Care Services in Ballabgarh.

    PubMed

    Gosain, Mudita; Goel, Akhil D; Kharya, Pradeep; Agarwal, Ramesh; Amarchand, Ritvik; Rai, Sanjay K; Kapoor, Suresh; Paul, Vinod K; Krishnan, Anand

    2017-01-25

    Planning a comprehensive program addressing neonatal mortality will require a detailed situational analysis of available neonatal-specific health infrastructure. We identified facilities providing essential and sick neonatal care (ENC, SNC) by a snowballing technique in Ballabgarh Block. These were assessed for infrastructure, human resource and equipment along with self-rated competency of the staff and compared with facility-based or population-based norms. A total of 35 facilities providing ENC and 10 facilities for SNC were identified. ENC services were largely in the public-sector domain (68.5% of births) and were well distributed in the block. SNC burden was largely being borne by the private sector (66% of admissions), which was urban-based. The private sector and nurses reported lower competency especially for SNC. Only 53.9% of government facilities and 17.5% of private facilities had a fully equipped newborn care corner. Serious efforts to reduce neonatal mortality would require major capacity strengthening of the health system, including that of the private sector. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. SV40 transformation of Swiss 3T3 cells can cause a stable reduction in the calcium requirement for growth

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A well-characterized SV40-transformed Swiss 3T3 line, SV101, and its revertants were tested for the ability to grow in reduced Ca++ (0.01 mM). Transformants and revertants did not differ from the parent 3T3 line in their Ca++ requirements. All three classes of cells grew less well in low Ca++ than in regular Ca++ (2.0 mM). SV40 transformants were then selected for the ability to grow in reduced Ca++. This new class of transformants was found to grow in 1% serum, grow in soft agarose, have a reorganized actin cytoskeleton, and express viral T antigens, as well as grow well in low Ca++. One of the selected clones was found to be T antigen-negative, yet was transformed in the serum, anchorage, actin, and Ca++ assays. It is possible that this clone was a spontaneous transformant. However, Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of integrated SV40 DNA. In addition, this analysis revealed the absence of an intact early region fragment, which codes for the viral T antigens. One explanation of this result may be that the mechanism of viral transformation for growth in low Ca++ involves viral- host DNA interactions that may not require a fully functional T antigen. In this case SV40 integration may be acting as a nonspecific cellular mutagen. PMID:6094595

  16. Parental perceptions of the learner driver log book system in two Australian states.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lyndel; Watson, Barry; King, Mark Johann

    2014-01-01

    Though many jurisdictions internationally now require learner drivers to complete a specified number of hours of supervised driving practice before being able to drive unaccompanied, very few require learner drivers to complete a log book to record this practice and then present it to the licensing authority. Learner drivers in most Australian jurisdictions must complete a log book that records their practice, thereby confirming to the licensing authority that they have met the mandated hours of practice requirement. These log books facilitate the management and enforcement of minimum supervised hours of driving requirements. Parents of learner drivers in 2 Australian states, Queensland and New South Wales, completed an online survey assessing a range of factors, including their perceptions of the accuracy of their child's learner log book and the effectiveness of the log book system. The study indicates that the large majority of parents believe that their child's learner log book is accurate. However, they generally report that the log book system is only moderately effective as a system to measure the number of hours of supervised practice a learner driver has completed. The results of this study suggest the presence of a paradox, with many parents possibly believing that others are not as diligent in the use of log books as they are or that the system is too open to misuse. Given that many parents report that their child's log book is accurate, this study has important implications for the development and ongoing monitoring of hours of practice requirements in graduated driver licensing systems.

  17. [Reduction in requirements of oral calcium and 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism treated with teriparatide (PTH1-34)].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cerecedo, Leticia Eugenia; Vergara-López, Alma; Rosas-Barrientos, José Vicente; Guillén-González, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily administration of recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH1-34), 20 μg, on serum calcium concentrations (Cas), and the requirements of oral calcium and calcitriol in patients with hypoparathyroidism. It is a prospective, longitudinal study, analytical, with intervention, in patients treated with high doses of calcium (> 7 g/day), with symptoms of hypocalcemia and/or intolerant to treatment. Serum levels of phosphorus (Ps) and Cas, urinary calcium excretion, oral doses of calcitriol and calcium were compared before and after administration of teriparatide, for three months on average, in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. We studied 16 patients with oral elemental calcium requirements of 22.5 ± 16 g/day of calcitriol 0.79 ± 0.4 µg/day. Cas at baseline was 7.6 ± 1.2 and Ps 5.4 ± 0.76 mg/dl. After administration of teriparatide, Cas was 9.0 ± 0.69 mg/dl (p = 0.007) and Ps of 4.5 ± 0.87 mg/dl (p = 0.003). Doses of calcium and calcitriol showed a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.0001 and 0.001, respectively). We conclude that use of recombinant parathyroid hormone can normalize Cas and Ps, with reduction in oral calcium and calcitriol requirements.

  18. Cosmic shear covariance: the log-normal approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, S.; Hartlap, J.; Schneider, P.

    2011-12-01

    Context. Accurate estimates of the errors on the cosmological parameters inferred from cosmic shear surveys require accurate estimates of the covariance of the cosmic shear correlation functions. Aims: We seek approximations to the cosmic shear covariance that are as easy to use as the common approximations based on normal (Gaussian) statistics, but yield more accurate covariance matrices and parameter errors. Methods: We derive expressions for the cosmic shear covariance under the assumption that the underlying convergence field follows log-normal statistics. We also derive a simplified version of this log-normal approximation by only retaining the most important terms beyond normal statistics. We use numerical simulations of weak lensing to study how well the normal, log-normal, and simplified log-normal approximations as well as empirical corrections to the normal approximation proposed in the literature reproduce shear covariances for cosmic shear surveys. We also investigate the resulting confidence regions for cosmological parameters inferred from such surveys. Results: We find that the normal approximation substantially underestimates the cosmic shear covariances and the inferred parameter confidence regions, in particular for surveys with small fields of view and large galaxy densities, but also for very wide surveys. In contrast, the log-normal approximation yields more realistic covariances and confidence regions, but also requires evaluating slightly more complicated expressions. However, the simplified log-normal approximation, although as simple as the normal approximation, yields confidence regions that are almost as accurate as those obtained from the log-normal approximation. The empirical corrections to the normal approximation do not yield more accurate covariances and confidence regions than the (simplified) log-normal approximation. Moreover, they fail to produce positive-semidefinite data covariance matrices in certain cases, rendering them

  19. Exhaling a budesonide inhaler through the nose results in a significant reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray in patients having asthma with rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, W A

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide, an inhaled corticosteroid is used routinely in the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. Although inhaled corticosteroids in therapeutic doses are unlikely to result in systemic side effects, there is as yet skepticism about their routine and prolonged use. The aim of this study was to determine whether budesonide inhalation through a metered dose inhaler, when exhaled through the nose could result in a reduction in the dose requirement of budesonide metered nasal spray in patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis. This study was an open, parallel, comparative, crossover trial in which 49 young patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis were divided into two groups and administered either a combination of budesonide metered dose inhaler with a budesonide nasal spray or a budesonide inhaler alone, which was to be exhaled through the nose. Both groups were later crossed over and weekly symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates were monitored during each phase of the study. Finally, patients who volunteered from both groups were instructed to note the reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray while using a budesonide inhaler and exhaling it through the nose. The results of this study reveal that when a budesonide inhaler is exhaled through the nose, it results in an improvement in symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates, which were significantly less than those obtained in the group using both a budesonide nasal spray and a metered dose inhaler. In addition, exhaling budesonide through the nose results in a 40.1% reduction in the dose requirement of a budesonide nasal spray, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001).

  20. The flavinyl transferase ApbE of Pseudomonas stutzeri matures the NosR protein required for nitrous oxide reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Trncik, Christian; Andrade, Susana L A; Einsle, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    The copper-containing enzyme nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) catalyzes the transformation of nitrous oxide (N2O) to dinitrogen (N2) in microbial denitrification. Several accessory factors are essential for assembling the two copper sites CuA and CuZ, and for maintaining the activity. In particular, the deletion of either the transmembrane iron-sulfur flavoprotein NosR or the periplasmic protein NosX, a member of the ApbE family, abolishes N2O respiration. Here we demonstrate through biochemical and structural studies that the ApbE protein from Pseudomonas stutzeri, where the nosX gene is absent, is a monomeric FAD-binding protein that can serve as the flavin donor for NosR maturation via covalent flavinylation of a threonine residue. The flavin transfer reaction proceeds both in vivo and in vitro to generate post-translationally modified NosR with covalently bound FMN. Only FAD can act as substrate and the reaction requires a divalent cation, preferably Mg(2+) that was also present in the crystal structure. In addition, the reaction is species-specific to a certain extent.

  1. Glycosidic Bond Cleavage is Not Required for Phytosteryl Glycoside-Induced Reduction of Cholesterol Absorption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Moreau, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytosteryl glycosides occur in natural foods but little is known about their metabolism and bioactivity. Purified acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) were compared with phytosteryl esters (PSE) in mice. Animals on a phytosterol-free diet received ASG or PSE by gavage in purified soybean oil along with tracers cholesterol-d7 and sitostanol-d4. In a three-day fecal recovery study, ASG reduced cholesterol absorption efficiency by 45 ± 6% compared with 40 ± 6% observed with PSE. Four hours after gavage, plasma and liver cholesterol-d7 levels were reduced 86% or more when ASG was present. Liver total phytosterols were unchanged after ASG administration but were significantly increased after PSE. After ASG treatment both ASG and deacylated steryl glycosides (SG) were found in the gut mucosa and lumen. ASG was quantitatively recovered from stool samples as SG. These results demonstrate that ASG reduces cholesterol absorption in mice as efficiently as PSE while having little systemic absorption itself. Cleavage of the glycosidic linkage is not required for biological activity of ASG. Phytosteryl glycosides should be included in measurements of bioactive phytosterols. PMID:21538209

  2. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  3. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  4. Logs key to solving water production problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Crook, R.J.

    1995-11-20

    Water source identification is the first and most important step in controlling unwanted water production that can severely limit the productive life of a well and, thereby, decrease hydrocarbon recovery. Water-control treatments often fail because the source of the water problem is not identified, the wrong treatment is performed, or the correct treatment is performed incorrectly. Table 1 lists typical problems, means of identification and evaluation, and chemical treatments available for correcting the problem. Well logs can help diagnose downhole situations that can lead to unwanted water production, and the effectiveness of water-control treatments can be evaluated with cased and open hole logs. The paper discusses cement bond logs and the pulse echo tool for cement evaluation. Casing evaluation is carried out by mechanical caliper logs and electro magnetic tools. Reservoir monitoring with pulsed neutron logs and pulsed neutron spectrometry are discussed. Also discussed are production logging, radioactive tracer logging, and well tests.

  5. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  6. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  7. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  8. Leak checker data logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  9. Logged In and Zoned Out.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Susan M; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2017-02-01

    Laptop computers are widely prevalent in university classrooms. Although laptops are a valuable tool, they offer access to a distracting temptation: the Internet. In the study reported here, we assessed the relationship between classroom performance and actual Internet usage for academic and nonacademic purposes. Students who were enrolled in an introductory psychology course logged into a proxy server that monitored their online activity during class. Past research relied on self-report, but the current methodology objectively measured time, frequency, and browsing history of participants' Internet usage. In addition, we assessed whether intelligence, motivation, and interest in course material could account for the relationship between Internet use and performance. Our results showed that nonacademic Internet use was common among students who brought laptops to class and was inversely related to class performance. This relationship was upheld after we accounted for motivation, interest, and intelligence. Class-related Internet use was not associated with a benefit to classroom performance.

  10. Technical evaluation of software for gamma-ray logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report contains results of a technical review of software, identified as LGCALC, that processes data collected by a high-resolution gamma-ray borehole logging system. The software presently operates within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Department of Geosciences, to process data collected by the Radionuclide Logging System. The software has been reviewed for its suitability for processing data to be collected by new high-resolution gamma-ray logging trucks scheduled to begin operational tests within Westinghouse Tank Waste Remediation Systems during 1994. Examination of the program code and hands-on operational tests have shown that this software is suitable for its intended use of processing high-resolution gamma-ray data obtained from borehole logging. Most of the code requires no changes, but in a few limited cases, suggestions have been made to correct errors or improve operation. Section 4 describes these changes. The technical review has confirmed the appropriateness, correctness, completeness, and coding accuracy of algorithms used to process spectral gamma-ray data, leading to a calculation of subsurface radionuclide contaminants. Running the program with test data from calibration models has confirmed that the program operates correctly. Comparisons with hand calculations have shown the correctness of the output from the program, based on known input data. Section 3 describes these tests. The recommended action is to make the near term programming changes suggested in Section 4.1 and then use the LGCALC analysis program with the new high-resolution logging systems once they have been properly calibrated.

  11. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.

  12. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  13. Lumber quality of Eucalyptus grandis as a function of diametrical position and log steaming.

    PubMed

    Severo, Elias Taylor Durgante; Calonego, Fred Willians; de Matos, Carlos Alberto Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of log steaming and of the diametrical position of boards on the timber quality of Eucalyptus grandis. Logs with diameters between 20 and 25 cm, between 25 and 30 cm and between 30 and 35 cm were studied. Half of logs were kept in its original condition, and the other half was steamed at 90 degrees C for 20 h. Later, the logs were cut into flat saw boards, and defects due to growth stress relief were measured. The results show that: (1) boards from control logs show different magnitudes of cracking according to the diameter of the log and the diametrical position of the board; (2) boards from logs with diameters between 30 and 35 cm and those from next to the pith develop larger cracks; and (3) boards from steamed logs show a reduction in the magnitude of cracking and a homogenous distribution of this defect relative to diametrical position within the log.

  14. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  15. Well log characterization of natural gas-hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 25 years there have been significant advancements in the use of well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature: whereas wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs were formerly used to identify gas-hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments, more advanced wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools are now routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas-hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Resistivity- and acoustic-logging tools are the most widely used for estimating the gas-hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical-resistivity and acoustic-velocity data can yield accurate gas-hydrate saturations in sediment grain-supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log-analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. New well-logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation-resistivity log measurements provide the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly interbedded and fracture-dominated gas-hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing (WFT) also allow for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids(i.e., free water along with clay- and capillary-bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms

  16. Biological legacies buffer local species extinction after logging

    PubMed Central

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Jönsson, Mari T; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Clearcutting has been identified as a main threat to forest biodiversity. In the last few decades, alternatives to clearcutting have gained much interest. Living and dead trees are often retained after harvest to serve as structural legacies to mitigate negative effects of forestry. However, this practice is widely employed without information from systematic before–after control-impact studies to assess the processes involved in species responses after clearcutting with retention. We performed a large-scale survey of the occurrence of logging-sensitive and red-listed bryophytes and lichens before and after clearcutting with the retention approach. A methodology was adopted that, for the first time in studies on retention approaches, enabled monitoring of location-specific substrates. We used uncut stands as controls to assess the variables affecting the survival of species after a major disturbance. In total, 12 bryophyte species and 27 lichen species were analysed. All were classified as sensitive to logging, and most species are also currently red-listed. We found that living and dead trees retained after final harvest acted as refugia in which logging-sensitive species were able to survive for 3 to 7 years after logging. Depending on type of retention and organism group, between 35% and 92% of the species occurrences persisted on retained structures. Most species observed outside retention trees or patches disappeared. Larger pre-harvest population sizes of bryophytes on dead wood increased the survival probability of the species and hence buffered the negative effects of logging. Synthesis and applications. Careful spatial planning of retention structures is required to fully embrace the habitats of logging-sensitive species. Bryophytes and lichens persisted to a higher degree in retention patches compared to solitary trees or in the clearcut area. Retaining groups of trees in logged areas will help to sustain populations of species over the clearcut phase

  17. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses.

  18. Concepts and procedures required for successful reduction of tensor magnetic gradiometer data obtained from an unexploded ordnance detection demonstration at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bracken, Robert E.; Brown, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    On March 12, 2003, data were gathered at Yuma Proving Grounds, in Arizona, using a Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System (TMGS). This report shows how these data were processed and explains concepts required for successful TMGS data reduction. Important concepts discussed include extreme attitudinal sensitivity of vector measurements, low attitudinal sensitivity of gradient measurements, leakage of the common-mode field into gradient measurements, consequences of thermal drift, and effects of field curvature. Spatial-data collection procedures and a spin-calibration method are addressed. Discussions of data-reduction procedures include tracking of axial data by mathematically matching transfer functions among the axes, derivation and application of calibration coefficients, calculation of sensor-pair gradients, thermal-drift corrections, and gradient collocation. For presentation, the magnetic tensor at each data station is converted to a scalar quantity, the I2 tensor invariant, which is easily found by calculating the determinant of the tensor. At important processing junctures, the determinants for all stations in the mapped area are shown in shaded relief map-view. Final processed results are compared to a mathematical model to show the validity of the assumptions made during processing and the reasonableness of the ultimate answer obtained.

  19. The interactive impact of forest site and stand attributes and logging technology on stand management

    Treesearch

    C.B. LeDoux; J.E. Baumgras

    1991-01-01

    The impact of selected site and stand attributes on stand management is demonstrated using actual forest model plot data and a complete systems simulation model called MANAGE. The influence of terrain on the type of logging technology required to log a stand and the resulting impact on stand management is also illustrated. The results can be used by managers and...

  20. Predicting internal red oak (Quercus rubra) log defect features using surface defect defect measurements

    Treesearch

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Determining the defects located within a log is crucial to understanding the tree/log resource for efficient processing. However, existing means of doing this non-destructively requires the use of expensive x-ray/CT (computerized tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), or microwave technology. These methods do not lend themselves to fast, efficient, and cost-...

  1. The catalytic requirements for reduction and acetylation of protein X and the related regulation of various forms of resolved pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, M; Roche, T E

    1987-07-25

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase consists of a catalytic subunit (Kc) and a basic subunit (Kb) which appear to be anchored to the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase core component (E2) by another subunit, referred to as protein X (Rahmatullah, M., Jilka, J. M., Radke, G. A., and Roche, T. E. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6515-6523). We determined the catalytic requirements for reduction and acetylation of the lipoyl moiety in protein X and linked those changes in protein X to regulatory effects on kinase activity. Using fractions prepared by resolution and proteolytic treatments, we evaluated which subunits are required for regulatory effects on kinase activity. With X-KcKb fraction (treated to remove the mercurial agent used in its preparation), we found that the resolved pyruvate dehydrogenase component, the isolated inner domain of E2 (lacking the lipoyl-bearing region of E2), and the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase component directly utilize protein X as a substrate. The resulting reduction and acetylation of protein X occurs in association with enhancement of kinase activity. Following tryptic cleavage of E2 and protein X into subdomains, full acetylation of the lipoyl-bearing subdomains of these proteins is retained along with the capacity of acetylating substrates to stimulate kinase activity. All kinase-containing fractions, including those in which the Kb subunit was digested, were inhibited by pyruvate or ADP, alone, and synergistically by the combination suggesting that pyruvate and ADP bind to Kc. Our results suggest that the Kb subunit of the kinase does not contribute to the observed regulatory effects. A dynamic role of protein X in attenuating kinase activity based on changes in the mitochondrial redox and acetylating potentials is considered.

  2. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Jeffrey F.

    1992-06-23

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  3. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters treated with lactic acid solutions of various temperatures.

    PubMed

    Byelashov, Oleksandr A; Daskalov, Hristo; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2010-09-01

    United States regulations require ready-to-eat meat and poultry processors to control Listeria monocytogenes using interventions which may include antimicrobials that reduce post-processing contamination by at least 1 log-cycle; if the treatment achieves > or = 2 log reductions, the plant is subject to less frequent microbial testing. Lactic acid (LA) may be useful as a post-lethality intervention and its antimicrobial properties may increase with temperature of application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LA solution concentration and temperature on L. monocytogenes counts of inoculated frankfurters and to identify parameters (concentration, temperature, and time) that achieve 1 and 2 log-unit immediate reductions. Frankfurters were surface-inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes (4.4 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm(2)) and then immersed in distilled water or LA solutions (0-3%) of 4, 25, 40, or 55 degrees C for 0-120 s. A regression equation for L. monocytogenes reduction included significant (P < 0.05) effects by the terms of concentration, time, temperature, and the interaction of concentration and temperature; other tested parameters (other interactions, quadratic and cubic terms), within the experimental range examined, did not affect (P > or = 0.05) the extent of reduction. Results indicated that the effectiveness of LA against L. monocytogenes, in addition to concentration, increased with solution temperature (in the range of 0.6-2.8 log CFU/cm(2)). The developed equation may allow processors to vary conditions of treatment with LA to achieve a 1 or 2 log-unit reduction of the pathogen and comply with United States regulations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a clinically feasible logMAR alternative to the Snellen chart: performance of the "compact reduced logMAR" visual acuity chart in amblyopic children.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, D A H; Abbott, A; Rosser, D A

    2003-10-01

    The "compact reduced logMAR" (cRLM) chart is being developed as a logMAR alternative to the Snellen chart. It is closer spaced and has fewer letters per line than conventional logMAR charts. Information regarding the performance of such a chart in amblyopes and children is therefore required. This study aimed to investigate the performance of the cRLM chart in amblyopic children. Timed test and retest measurements using two versions of each chart design were obtained on the amblyopic eye of 43 children. Using the methods of Bland and Altman the agreement, test-retest variability (95% confidence limits for agreement, TRV) and test time of the cRLM and the current clinical standard Snellen chart were compared to the gold standard ETDRS logMAR chart. No systematic bias between chart designs was found. For line assignment scoring the respective TRVs were 0.20 logMAR, 0.20 logMAR, and 0.30 logMAR. Single letter scoring TRVs were cRLM (95% CL 0.17) logMAR, ETDRS (95% CL 0.14) logMAR, and Snellen (95% CL 0.29) logMAR. Median testing times were ETDRS 60 seconds, cRLM 40 seconds, Snellen 30 seconds. The sensitivity to change of the cRLM equalled or approached that of the gold standard ETDRS and was at least 50% better than that of Snellen. This enhanced sensitivity to change was at the cost of only a 10 second time penalty compared to Snellen. The cRLM chart was approximately half the width of the ETDRS chart. The cRLM chart may represent a clinically acceptable compromise between the desire to obtain logMAR acuities of reasonable and known sensitivity to change, chart size, and testing time.

  5. A handy aid for hardwood log graders

    Treesearch

    M. D. Ostrander

    1952-01-01

    In hardwood log grading, the beginner encounters a formidable task: to memorize the specifications, exceptions to general rules, etc., as set down in the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's "Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber." He must refer to this text repeatedly until he becomes familiar with all the ins and outs of the job. This slows him down...

  6. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Treesearch

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  7. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  8. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  9. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  10. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  11. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the...

  12. Internal log scanning: Research to reality

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2000-01-01

    Improved log breakdown into lumber has been an active research topic since the 1960's. Demonstrated economic gains have driven the search for a cost-effective method to scan logs internally, from which it is assumed one can chose a better breakdown strategy. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely accepted as the most promising internal imaging technique....

  13. An analysis technique for testing log grades

    Treesearch

    Carl A. Newport; William G. O' Regan

    1963-01-01

    An analytical technique that may be used in evaluating log-grading systems is described. It also provides means of comparing two or more grading systems, or a proposed change with the system from which it was developed. The total volume and computed value of lumber from each sample log are the basic data used.

  14. Logging deck organization with a bundler

    Treesearch

    Dana. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The original John Deere 1490D Slash Bundler is mounted on a forwarder so that it can collect woody biomass scattered throughout a tract. However, typical logging operations in the southeastern United States delimb and top at the landing, so logging residues are concentrated at the landing. In a current study by researchers at Auburn...

  15. Logging methods and peeling of Aspen

    Treesearch

    T. Schantz-Hansen

    1948-01-01

    The logging of forest products is influenced by many factors, including the size of the trees, density of the stand, the soundness of the trees, size of the area logged, topography and soil, weather conditions, the degree of utilization, the skill of the logger and the equipment used, the distance from market, etc. Each of these factors influences not only the method...

  16. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging

    Treesearch

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang

    2008-01-01

    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  17. Mathematical model of a smoldering log.

    Treesearch

    Fernando de Souza Costa; David. Sandberg

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed describing the natural smoldering of logs. It is considered the steady one dimensional propagation of infinitesimally thin fronts of drying, pyrolysis, and char oxidation in a horizontal semi-infinite log. Expressions for the burn rates, distribution profiles of temperature, and positions of the drying, pyrolysis, and smoldering fronts...

  18. Logging truck noise near nesting northern goshawks

    Treesearch

    Teryl G. Grubb; Larry L. Pater; David K. Delaney

    1998-01-01

    We measured noise levels of four logging trucks as the trucks passed within approximately 500 m of two active northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) nests on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona in 1997. Neither a brooding adult female nor a lone juvenile exhibited any discernable behavioral response to logging truck noise, which peaked at 53.4 and...

  19. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  20. Reduced-impact logging: challenges and opportunities

    Treesearch

    F.E. Putz; P. Sist; T. Fredericksen; D. Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Over the past two decades, sets of timber harvesting guidelines designed to mitigate the deleterious environmental impacts of tree felling, yarding, and hauling have become known as "reduced-impact logging" (RIL) techniques. Although none of the components of RIL are new, concerns about destructive logging practices and worker safety in the tropics stimulated...

  1. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Treesearch

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  2. Measuring Reading Instruction with Teacher Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that the criticisms of their earlier article on teacher logs ("Educational Researcher," March 2009) by Smagorinsky and Willis do not address, much less undermine, the evidence they presented as part of their validation argument about the teacher logs. Moreover, they argue that their method for studying classrooms is not nearly as…

  3. Recovery from simulated sawn logs with sweep.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Dean L. Parry; Christine L. Todoroki

    2004-01-01

    A sawing simulator, AUTOSAW, was used to examine the effect of increasing sweep on lumber recovery. Sample material consisted of 51 logs from 22 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. ) trees in western Oregon, United States. All knots on the 4.9-m logs were measured, mapped, and converted into 3-dimensional digital formats. The digital...

  4. Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N.

    2005-10-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of ~0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  5. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  6. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  7. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Is Required for Berberine-Induced Reduction of Atherosclerosis in Mice: The Role of Uncoupling Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qilong; Zhang, Miao; Liang, Bin; Shirwany, Najeeb; Zhu, Yi; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Aims Berberine, a botanical alkaloid purified from Coptidis rhizoma, is reported to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Whether AMPK is required for the protective effects of berberine in cardiovascular diseases remains unknown. This study was designed to determine whether AMPK is required for berberine-induced reduction of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in vivo. Methods ApoE (ApoE-/-) mice and ApoE-/-/AMPK alpha 2-/- mice that were fed Western diets were treated with berberine for 8 weeks. Atherosclerotic aortic lesions, expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and markers of oxidative stress were evaluated in isolated aortas. Results In ApoE-/- mice, chronic administration of berberine significantly reduced aortic lesions, markedly reduced oxidative stress and expression of adhesion molecules in aorta, and significantly increased UCP2 levels. In contrast, in ApoE-/-/AMPK alpha 2-/- mice, berberine had little effect on those endpoints. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), berberine significantly increased UCP2 mRNA and protein expression in an AMPK-dependent manner. Transfection of HUVECs with nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1)-specific siRNA attenuated berberine-induced expression of UCP2, whereas transfection with control siRNA did not. Finally, berberine promoted mitochondrial biogenesis that contributed to up-regulation of UCP2 expression. Conclusion We conclude that berberine reduces oxidative stress and vascular inflammation, and suppresses atherogenesis via a mechanism that includes stimulation of AMPK-dependent UCP2 expression. PMID:21980456

  8. An {Omega}({radical}log log n) lower bound for routing in optical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.

    1993-11-06

    Optical communication is likely to significantly speed up parallel computation because the vast bandwidth of the optical medium can be divided to produce communication networks of very high degree. However, the problem of contention in high-degree networks makes the routing problem in these networks theoretically (and practically) difficult. In this paper we examine Valiant`s h-relation routing problem, which is a fundamental problem in the theory of parallel computing. The h-relation routing problem arises both in the direct implementation of specific parallel algorithms on distributed-memory machines and in the general simulation of shared memory models such as the PRAM on distributed-memory machines. In an h-relation routing problem each processor has up to h messages that it wishes to send to other processors and each processor is the destination of at most h messages. We present a lower bound for routing an h-relation (for any h > 1) on a complete optical network of size -n. Our lower bound applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task. Specifically, we show that the expected number of communication steps required to route an arbitrary h-relation is {Omega}(h + {radical}log log n). This is the first known lower bound for this problem which does not restrict the class of algorithms under consideration.

  9. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  10. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  11. Modeling sulfate reduction in methane hydrate-bearing continental margin sediments: Does a sulfate-methane transition require anaerobic oxidation of methane?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malinverno, A.; Pohlman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition (SMT), a biogeochemical zone where sulfate and methane are metabolized, is commonly observed at shallow depths (1-30 mbsf) in methane-bearing marine sediments. Two processes consume sulfate at and above the SMT, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and organoclastic sulfate reduction (OSR). Differentiating the relative contribution of each process is critical to estimate methane flux into the SMT, which, in turn, is necessary to predict deeper occurrences of gas hydrates in continental margin sediments. To evaluate the relative importance of these two sulfate reduction pathways, we developed a diagenetic model to compute the pore water concentrations of sulfate, methane, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). By separately tracking DIC containing 12C and 13C, the model also computes ??13C-DIC values. The model reproduces common observations from methane-rich sediments: a well-defined SMT with no methane above and no sulfate below and a ??13C-DIC minimum at the SMT. The model also highlights the role of upward diffusing 13C-enriched DIC in contributing to the carbon isotope mass balance of DIC. A combination of OSR and AOM, each consuming similar amounts of sulfate, matches observations from Site U1325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311, northern Cascadia margin). Without AOM, methane diffuses above the SMT, which contradicts existing field data. The modeling results are generalized with a dimensional analysis to the range of SMT depths and sedimentation rates typical of continental margins. The modeling shows that AOM must be active to establish an SMT wherein methane is quantitatively consumed and the ??13C-DIC minimum occurs. The presence of an SMT generally requires active AOM. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Infection structure-specific reductive iron assimilation is required for cell wall integrity and full virulence of the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Albarouki, Emad; Deising, Holger B

    2013-06-01

    Ferroxidases are essential components of the high-affinity reductive iron assimilation pathway in fungi. Two ferroxidase genes, FET3-1 and FET3-2, have been identified in the genome of the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. Complementation of growth defects of the ferroxidase-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Δfet3fet4 showed that both Fet3-1 and Fet3-2 of C. graminicola represent functional ferroxidases. Expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein fusions in yeast and C. graminicola indicated that both ferroxidase proteins localize to the plasma membrane. Transcript abundance of FET3-1 increased dramatically under iron-limiting conditions but those of FET3-2 were hardly detectable. Δfet3-1 and Δfet3-2 single as well as Δfet3-1/2 double-deletion strains were generated. Under iron-sufficient or deficient conditions, vegetative growth rates of these strains did not significantly differ from that of the wild type but Δfet3-1 and Δfet3-1/2 strains showed increased sensitivity to reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, under iron-limiting conditions, appressoria of Δfet3-1 and Δfet3-1/2 strains showed significantly reduced transcript abundance of a class V chitin synthase and exhibited severe cell wall defects. Infection assays on intact and wounded maize leaves, quantitative data of infection structure differentiation, and infection stage-specific expression of FET3-1 showed that reductive iron assimilation is required for appressorial penetration, biotrophic development, and full virulence.

  13. Simulating the Effect of Alternative Climate Change Scenarios on Pollutant Loading Reduction Requirements for Meeting Water Quality Standards Under USEPA's Total Maximum Daily Load Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Alameddine, I.; Anderson, R.; Wolpert, R.; Reckhow, K.

    2008-12-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) total maximum daily load (TMDL) program requires that individual states assess the condition of surface waters and identify those which fail to meet ambient water quality standards. Waters failing to meet those standards must have a TMDL assessment conducted to determine the maximum allowable pollutant load which can enter the water without violating water quality standards. While most of the nearly 30,000 TMDL assessments completed since 1995 use mechanistic or empirical water quality models to forecast water quality conditions under alternative pollutant loading reduction scenarios, few, if any, also simulate water quality conditions under alternative climate change scenarios. As a result, model-based loading reduction requirements (which serve as the cornerstone for implementing water resource management plans, and initiating environmental management infrastructure projects), believed to improve water quality in impaired waters and reinstate their designated use, may misrepresent the actual required reduction when future climate change scenarios are considered. For example, recent research indicates a potential long term future increase in both the number of days between, and the intensity of, individual precipitation events. In coastal terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, such climate conditions could lead to an increased accumulation of pollutants on the landscape between precipitation events, followed by a washoff event with a relatively high pollutant load. On the other hand, anticipated increases in average temperature and evaporation rate might not only reduce effective rainfall rates (resulting in less energy for transporting pollutants from the landscape) but also reduce the tidal exchange ratio in shallow estuaries (many of which are valuable recreational, commercial, and aesthetic natural resources). Here, we develop and apply a comprehensive watershed-scale model for simulating water quality in

  14. log(MPl/m3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martin, Johannes; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael

    2005-12-02

    Flux compactifications of string theory seem to require the presence of a fine-tuned constant in the superpotential. We discuss a scheme where this constant is replaced by a dynamical quantity which we argue to be a 'continuous Chern-Simons term'. In such a scheme, the gaugino condensate generates the hierarchically small scale of supersymmetry breakdown rather than adjusting its size to a constant. A crucial ingredient is the appearance of the hierarchically small quantity exp(-) which corresponds to the scale of gaugino condensation. Under rather general circumstances, this leads to a scenario of moduli stabilization, which is endowed with a hierarchy between the mass of the lightest modulus, the gravitino mass and the scale of the soft terms, mmodulus {approx} m3/2 {approx} 2 msoft. The 'little hierarchy' is given by the logarithm of the ratio of the Planck scale and the gravitino mass, {approx} log(MPl/m3/2) {approx} 4{pi}2. This exhibits a new mediation scheme of supersymmetry breakdown, called mirage mediation. We highlight the special properties of the scheme, and their consequences for phenomenology and cosmology.

  15. Saving big bucks with your log sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Puskar, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    This article speaks to a common problem in a lot of industrial and institutional boilerhouses. Most boilerhouses do an excellent job at collecting information. Circular chart recorders churn out pressures, temperatures, and flows for everything from steam to natural gas to city water consumption. At most facilities, this stuff all gets chucked into a drawer or file cabinet daily. Have you ever wondered why you collect and record what you do? What were people thinking when the existing logs were set up? This article attempts to challenge the original thought process and hopes to evoke in the reader a renewed vision of what should be collected, how, and then what can be done with it. The goal of this article is not to define new and expensive data acquisition or control system projects. It is instead to show how to develop systems that only require paper, pencils, and people who are motivated and care. These people are probably already being paid to do most of this work. Experience is that if these people are treated with respect and given some simple tools they will do amazing things beyond what was thought possible. This is a low-tech humanistic approach that has a fabulous rate of return. It`s also something that can be immediately implemented.

  16. The fluid-compensated cement bond log

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Leslie, H.D.; Wheelis, W.B.

    1984-09-01

    An experimental and numerical wave mechanics study of cement bond logs demonstrated that wellsite computer processing can now segregate wellbore fluid effects from the sonic signal response to changing cement strength. Traditionally, cement logs have been interpreted as if water were in the wellbore, without consideration of wellbore fluid effects. These effects were assumed to be negligible. However, with the increasing number of logs being run in completion fluids such as CaCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, and CaBr/sub 2/, large variations in cement bond logs became apparent. A Schlumberger internal paper showing that bond log amplitude is related to the acoustic impedance of the fluid in which the tool is run led to a comprehensive study of wellbore fluid effects. Numerical and experimental models were developed simulating wellbore geometry. Measurements were conducted in 5-, 7-, and 95/8-in. casings by varying the wellbore fluid densities, viscosities, and fluid types (acoustic impedance). Parallel numerical modeling was undertaken using similar parameters. The results showed that the bond log amplitude varied dramatically with the wellbore fluid's acoustic impedance; for example, there was a 70 percent increase in the signal amplitude for 11.5-lb/ gal CaCl/sub 2/ over the signal amplitude in water. This led to the development of a Fluid-Compensated Bond log that corrects the amplitude for acoustic impedance of varying wellbore fluids, thereby making the measurements more directly related to the cement quality.

  17. Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Izotova, T.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

  18. DARK ENERGY FROM THE LOG-TRANSFORMED CONVERGENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Sato, Masanori; Takada, Masahiro; Dodelson, Scott

    2012-03-20

    A logarithmic transform of the convergence field improves 'the information content', i.e., the overall precision associated with the measurement of the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum, by improving the covariance matrix properties. The translation of this improvement in the information content to that in cosmological parameters, such as those associated with dark energy, requires knowing the sensitivity of the log-transformed field to those cosmological parameters. In this paper, we use N-body simulations with ray tracing to generate convergence fields at multiple source redshifts as a function of cosmology. The gain in information associated with the log-transformed field does lead to tighter constraints on dark energy parameters, but only if shape noise is neglected. The presence of shape noise quickly diminishes the advantage of the log-mapping, more quickly than we would expect based on the information content. With or without shape noise, using a larger pixel size allows for a more efficient log-transformation.

  19. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  20. Evaluation of historical dry well surveillance logs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.K.

    1996-09-09

    Several dry well surveillance logs from 1975 through 1995 for the SX Tank Farm have been examined to identify potential subsurface zones of radioactive contaminant migration. Several dynamic conditions of the gamma-ray emitting radioactive contaminant shave been identified.

  1. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-08

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas.

  2. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  3. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  4. Changes in logging injury rates associated with use of feller-bunchers in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jennifer L

    2002-01-01

    It is well documented that logging is one of the most dangerous occupations and industries in which to work, and trees fellers are at greatest risk of injury. The objective of this study was to determine whether West Virginia (WV) logging companies experienced a reduction in injuries after beginning to use feller-bunchers (tree cutting machines, which replace some of the work done with a chainsaw) during harvesting operations. WV workers compensation claims and employment data from 1995 to 2000 were used to calculate injury rates. Injury trends in the rest of the WV logging industry, not using feller-bunchers, were also assessed. For 11 companies, the pre-feller-buncher injury claims rate was 19.4 per 100 workers and the post-feller-buncher rate was 5.2 per 100 workers. This was a significant difference, with an adjusted rate ratio of 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8-4.5) of pre to post claims. Struck by injuries also showed significant decline, with the pre-feller-buncher injury rate being 3.8 (95% CI: 1.8-8.2) times as great as post-feller-buncher rate. During the time of the study, the injury rate rose in the rest of the WV logging industry. The average cost of a workers compensation claim in the WV logging industry during the time of the study was approximately $10,400. As mechanization of logging tasks becomes more widespread, the WV logging industry as a whole may see substantial injury declines and a reduction in the total cost of injury claims. Struck by injuries, the most common and potentially fatal of logging injury types, appear to be particularly affected. However, logging operations in areas of very steep terrain where it is not possible to use these machines may need to rely on strategies other than feller-bunchers to reduce injuries.

  5. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  6. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  7. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs.

    Treesearch

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  8. Hispanic logging worker safety in the south

    Treesearch

    Brandon O' Neal; Bob Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Hispanic (Spanish-speaking) workers have entered the logging workforce in the South in significant numbers during the past ten years. According to the U.S. Labor Department, Hispanic workers in the construction and agriculture industries have significantly higher injury rates than non–Hispanics do. In view of that trend, of logging workers’ generally high exposure to...

  9. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  10. Logging legacies affect insect pollinator communities in southern Appalachian forests

    Treesearch

    Michelle M. Jackson; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson

    2014-01-01

    Many temperate deciduous forests are recovering from past logging, but the effects of logging legacies and environmental gradients on forest insect pollinators have not been well studied. In this study, we asked how pollinator abundance and community composition varied with distance from logging roads and elevation in old (logged >90 years ago) and young (logged 20–...

  11. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  12. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  13. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  14. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  15. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  16. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  17. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  18. Web Logs in the English Classroom: More Than Just Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2003-01-01

    Details the use and appeal of Web logs to enhance classroom discussion and allow for outside involvement in the classroom. Defines a Web log, addresses discussing literature in a Web log, and describes the author's first attempts at using Web-log technology. Presents considerations for using Web logs as part of classroom instruction. (SG)

  19. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  20. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  1. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

  2. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  3. Impacts of intensive logging on the trophic organisation of ant communities in a biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P; Newton, Rob J; Vun Khen, Chey; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging

  4. Impacts of Intensive Logging on the Trophic Organisation of Ant Communities in a Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Newton, Rob J.; Vun Khen, Chey; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging

  5. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) emergence in relation to burial depth of brood logs.

    PubMed

    Haack, R A; Petrice, T R; Poland, T M

    2000-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest of pines, Pinus spp., that was first found in the United States in 1992. A federal quarantine currently regulates movement of pine Christmas trees and pine nursery stock from infested to uninfested counties. The current national Pine Shoot Beetle Compliance Management Program requires T. piniperda-infested brood material to be disposed of by burning, chipping, or burial. The burial option requires that the infested pine material be buried at a depth of at least 30 cm. We tested this requirement by burying logs with similar levels of infestation at 0, 15, 30, 45, 61 and 76 cm and then monitoring for T. piniperda emergence. Logs were buried at two times during larval development (early and late) and in two soil types (sandy loam and loam). Emergence patterns from the two soil types were similar. Overall, 1,747 T. piniperda adults were collected from the 24 exposed control logs, but only 34 adults from the 120 buried logs, including 24 adults from logs buried at 15 cm, eight adults from 30 cm, one adult from 45 cm, and one adult from 61 cm. In comparing mean emergence density from buried logs with that of exposed logs, 98.6% mortality occurred at 15 cm, 99.5% at 30 cm, and > 99.9% at > or = 45 cm. Mean date of T. piniperda emergence to the soil surface was affected by burial depth and burial date, but not soil type.

  6. A distributed design for monitoring, logging, and replaying device readings at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.

    1991-01-01

    As control of the Los Alamos Meson Physics linear accelerator and Proton Storage Ring moves to a more distributed system, it has been necessary to redesign the software which monitors, logs, and replays device readings throughout the facility. The new design allows devices to be monitored and their readings logged locally on a network of computers. Control of the monitoring and logging process is available throughout the network from user interfaces which communicate via remote procedure calls with server processes running on each node which monitors and records device readings. Similarly, the logged data can be replayed from anywhere on the network. Two major requirements influencing the final design were the need to reduce the load on the CPU of the control machines, and the need for much faster replay of the logged device readings. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  7. Ontology based log content extraction engine for a posteriori security control.

    PubMed

    Azkia, Hanieh; Cuppens-Boulahia, Nora; Cuppens, Frédéric; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2012-01-01

    In a posteriori access control, users are accountable for actions they performed and must provide evidence, when required by some legal authorities for instance, to prove that these actions were legitimate. Generally, log files contain the needed data to achieve this goal. This logged data can be recorded in several formats; we consider here IHE-ATNA (Integrating the healthcare enterprise-Audit Trail and Node Authentication) as log format. The difficulty lies in extracting useful information regardless of the log format. A posteriori access control frameworks often include a log filtering engine that provides this extraction function. In this paper we define and enforce this function by building an IHE-ATNA based ontology model, which we query using SPARQL, and show how the a posteriori security controls are made effective and easier based on this function.

  8. Semantic annotation for live and posterity logging of video documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Marco; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Nunziati, W.

    2003-06-01

    Broadcasters usually envision two basic applications for video databases: Live Logging and Posterity Logging. The former aims at providing effective annotation of video in quasi-real time and supports extraction of meaningful clips from the live stream; it is usually performed by assistant producers working at the same location of the event. The latter provides annotation for later reuse of video material and is the prerequisite for retrieval by content from video digital libraries; it is performed by trained librarians. Both require that annotation is performed, at a great extent, automatically. Video information structure must encompass both low-intermediate level video organization and event relationships that define specific highlights and situations. Analysis of the visual data of the video stream permits to extract hints, identify events and detect highlights. All of this must be supported by a-priori knowledge of the video domain and effective reasoning engines capable to capture the inherent semantics of the visual events.

  9. Nonfatal logging-related injuries in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C; Derk, S J

    1999-11-01

    A survey was conducted via mail among West Virginia certified loggers to determine the number of nonfatal, logging-related injuries received during the past 12 months that required medical attention or restricted job ability. Loggers were asked to describe injuries, safety training, and protective equipment use. Thirty percent (546/1816) responded to the survey, and 9% (42/481) of those directly involved in logging operations reported injuries. Leading cause of injury was being struck by a falling tree or limb (29%); leading body parts injured were the leg/knee/hip (31%); and the most common type of injury was bruising (43%). Seventy-six percent of the injured sought medical treatment. A majority reported using some type of protective equipment including hard hats, safety shoes, and goggles. Loggers reported that training in the proper use of equipment and machinery; use of a safety plan, acting on worker suggestions, and landing talks might improve safety.

  10. Spotted owls and old growth logging in the pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Doak, D

    1989-12-01

    Northern Spotted Owls, Strix occidentalis caurina, require large tracts of old-growth conifer forest to survive and reproduce. Much of this forest has been or is being cut by commercial logging operations, with uncertain consequences for the owls. In this paper I present simulation models of owl population change over the next 100 years, as summing a variety of scenarios for habitat destruction and fragmentation. My analysis differs from previous models by incorporating patchy territory distribution and random environmental fluctuations. Fragmented and patchy habitat distributions are common problems for endangered organisms, but they have received little attention from modelers. My results indicate that yearly fluctuations in breeding success have little impact on owl populations, but that spatial structure is quite important and should be considered in planning forest preservation. The simulations suggest that for all reasonable parameter values the proposed US. Forest Service logging plans will lead to the demise of the owls.

  11. Neutron and gamma (density) logging in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    1998-09-12

    This Technical Implementation Procedure (TIP) describes the field operation, and the management of data records pertaining to neutron logging and density logging in welded tuff. This procedure applies to all borehole surveys performed in support of Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT), including the Earge Block Tests (LBT) and Initial Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (IEBSFT) - WBS 1.2.3.12.4. The purpose of this TIP is to provide guidelines so that other equally trained and qualified personnel can understand how the work is performed or how to repeat the work if needed. The work will be documented by the use of Scientific Notebooks (SNs) as discussed in 033-YMP-QP 3.4. The TIP will provide a set of guidelines which the scientists will take into account in conducting the mea- surements. The use of this TIP does not imply that this is repetitive work that does not require profes- sional judgment.

  12. A modification of the fusion model for log polar coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, N. C.; Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fusion mechanism for application in stereo analysis of range restricted the depth of field and therefore required a shift variant mechanism in the peripheral area to find disparity. Misregistration was prevented by restricting the disparity detection range to a neighborhood spanned by the directional edge detection filters. This transformation was essentially accomplished by a nonuniform resampling of the original image in a horizontal direction. While this is easily implemented for digital processing, the approach does not (in the peripheral vision area) model the log-conformal mapping which is known to occur in the human mechanism. This paper therefore modifies the original fusion concept in the peripheral area to include the polar exponential grid-to-log conformal tesselation. Examples of the fusion process resulting in accurate disparity values are given.

  13. Minnesota logging utilization factors, 1975-1976--development, use, implications.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Minnesota saw log and pulpwood logging utilization factors developed during 1975-1976 and their implications. Compares factors for several species groups and shows their use in estimating growing stock cut for pulpwood and saw logs.

  14. 5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half dovetail notching on hand-hewn logs. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  15. 55. VIEW OF STEAMOPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF STEAM-OPERATED LOG HOIST TO PUT IN COMING LOGS INTO RALPH HULL LUMBER CO. LOG POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1942. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  16. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  17. Effect of reduction of milking frequency and supplementation of vitamin E and selenium above requirements on milk yield and composition in Assaf ewes.

    PubMed

    Pulido, E; Giráldez, F J; Bodas, R; Andrés, S; Prieto, N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milking frequency and supplementation with a vitamin-mineral complex above requirements on intake, body weight (BW), and milk yield and composition in high-yielding Assaf ewes. Sixteen lactating Assaf ewes were used in this study, separated into 4 groups of 4 ewes each. Animals in 2 of the groups (control groups) did not receive any extra vitamin-mineral supplement, whereas animals in the other 2 groups (supplement groups) received daily an oral dose of 1g of vitamin E (1,000 IU, DL-α-tocopherol acetate) and 0.4 mg of selenium (sodium selenite anhydrous). The experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods of 3 wk (twice-daily milking in both mammary glands) and 8 wk (once-daily milking in one mammary gland and twice-daily milking in the other gland). Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly, and milk production was recorded 3 times a week. Administration of the vitamin-mineral supplement had no effect on dry matter intake, BW, or milk production and composition. The reduction of milking from twice to once a day caused a decrease in milk production and lactose concentration and a significant increase in protein concentration, total solids, and somatic cell count, without affecting the fat content. Administration of a vitamin E and Se supplement at the doses used in the present study does not seem to exert, in the short term, a noticeable effect on the mammary gland when milking frequency is reduced.

  18. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, C.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroume, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3-min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors which in turn provides model uncertainties. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. Particularly dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

  19. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  20. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.