Science.gov

Sample records for required log reduction

  1. Prediction of a Required Log Reduction with Probability for Enterobacter sakazakii during High-Pressure Processing, Using a Survival/Death Interface Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Koseki, Shige; Matsubara, Maki; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic model for predicting Enterobacter sakazakii inactivation in trypticase soy broth (TSB) and infant formula (IF) by high-pressure processing was developed. The modeling procedure is based on a previous model (S. Koseki and K. Yamamoto, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 116:136-143, 2007) that describes the probability of death of bacteria. The model developed in this study consists of a total of 300 combinations of pressure (400, 450, 500, 550, or 600 MPa), pressure-holding time (1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 min), temperature (25 or 40°C), inoculum level (3, 5, or 7 log10 CFU/ml), and medium (TSB or IF), with each combination tested in triplicate. For each replicate response of E. sakazakii, survival and death were scored with values of 0 and 1, respectively. Data were fitted to a logistic regression model in which the medium was treated as a dummy variable. The model predicted that the required pressure-holding times at 500 MPa for a 5-log reduction in IF with 90% achievement probability were 26.3 and 7.9 min at 25 and 40°C, respectively. The probabilities of achieving 5-log reductions in TSB and IF by treatment with 400 MPa at 25°C for 10 min were 92 and 3%, respectively. The model enabled the identification of a minimum processing condition for a required log reduction, regardless of the underlying inactivation kinetics pattern. Simultaneously, the probability of an inactivation effect under the predicted processing condition was also provided by taking into account the environmental factors mentioned above. PMID:19201951

  2. Prediction of a required log reduction with probability for Enterobacter sakazakii during high-pressure processing, using a survival/death interface model.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shige; Matsubara, Maki; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2009-04-01

    A probabilistic model for predicting Enterobacter sakazakii inactivation in trypticase soy broth (TSB) and infant formula (IF) by high-pressure processing was developed. The modeling procedure is based on a previous model (S. Koseki and K. Yamamoto, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 116:136-143, 2007) that describes the probability of death of bacteria. The model developed in this study consists of a total of 300 combinations of pressure (400, 450, 500, 550, or 600 MPa), pressure-holding time (1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 min), temperature (25 or 40 degrees C), inoculum level (3, 5, or 7 log(10) CFU/ml), and medium (TSB or IF), with each combination tested in triplicate. For each replicate response of E. sakazakii, survival and death were scored with values of 0 and 1, respectively. Data were fitted to a logistic regression model in which the medium was treated as a dummy variable. The model predicted that the required pressure-holding times at 500 MPa for a 5-log reduction in IF with 90% achievement probability were 26.3 and 7.9 min at 25 and 40 degrees C, respectively. The probabilities of achieving 5-log reductions in TSB and IF by treatment with 400 MPa at 25 degrees C for 10 min were 92 and 3%, respectively. The model enabled the identification of a minimum processing condition for a required log reduction, regardless of the underlying inactivation kinetics pattern. Simultaneously, the probability of an inactivation effect under the predicted processing condition was also provided by taking into account the environmental factors mentioned above.

  3. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  4. 47 CFR 73.1800 - General requirements related to the station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements related to the station log... requirements related to the station log. (a) The licensee of each station must maintain a station log as required by § 73.1820. This log shall be kept by station employees competent to do so, having...

  5. 26 CFR 41.4483-6 - Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging. 41... Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4483-6 Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging. (a) In general. The tax imposed by section 4481 shall be reduced by 25 percent in the case of a truck used in...

  6. 26 CFR 41.4483-6 - Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging. 41... Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4483-6 Reduction in tax for trucks used in logging. (a) In general. The tax imposed by section 4481 shall be reduced by 25 percent in the case of a truck used in...

  7. 46 CFR 78.37-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 78.37-5 Section 78.37-5... Entries § 78.37-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which are not made...

  8. 46 CFR 97.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 97.35-5 Section 97.35-5... OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 97.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the official log book. This section contains no requirements which...

  9. In-home demonstration of the reduction of woodstove emissions from the use of densified logs

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.G.; Bighouse, R.D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  10. In-Home Demonstration of the Reduction of Woodstove Emissions from the Use of Densified Logs.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stockton G.; Bidhouse, Roger D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  11. 46 CFR 196.35-5 - Actions required to be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged. 196.35-5 Section 196.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 196.35-5 Actions required to be logged. The actions and observations noted in...

  12. 46 CFR 35.07-10 - Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required to be logged-TB/ALL. 35.07-10 Section... Entries § 35.07-10 Actions required to be logged—TB/ALL. (a) General—TB/ALL. The actions and observations noted in this section shall be entered in the Official Logbook or in logs or records considered to...

  13. Letter Requirement (LR) for directional log periodic antenna (OE-314)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    A need exists for directional broadband VHF antenna for use within the 30-88 MHz frequency band during the 1981-1991 time frame with an IOC of May 1982. These antennas will provide an extended range capability for radio nets throughout the entire Army while reducing the radio frequency (RF) output power requirements and providing a degree of Electronic Counter-Counter Measure (ECCM) protection to the tactical radio system. This directional antenna is intended for use with both current VHF-FM tactical net radios (VRC-12/PRC-77/PRC-25 series) and subsequently with the Single Channel Ground Airborne Radio Subsystems-VHF (SINCGARS-V) radios.

  14. Determination of 5-log pathogen reduction times for heat-processed, acidified vegetable brines.

    PubMed

    Breidt, F; Hayes, J S; Osborne, J A; McFeeters, R F

    2005-02-01

    Recent outbreaks of acid-resistant food pathogens in acid foods, including apple cider and orange juice, have raised concerns about the safety of acidified vegetable products. We determined pasteurization times and temperatures needed to assure a 5-log reduction in the numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella strains in acidified cucumber pickle brines. Cocktails of five strains of each pathogen were (separately) used for heat-inactivation studies between 50 and 60 degrees C in brines that had an equilibrated pH value of 4.1. Salmonella strains were found to be less heat resistant than E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes strains. The nonlinear killing curves generated during these studies were modeled using a Weibull function. We found no significant difference in the heat-killing data for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes (P = 0.9709). The predicted 5-log reduction times for E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were found to fit an exponential decay function. These data were used to estimate minimum pasteurization times and temperatures needed to ensure safe processing of acidified pickle products and show that current industry pasteurization practices offer a significant margin of safety.

  15. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas ("concessions") for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17-127%, 44-129%, or 3.1-11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia's moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241-615 MtCO2e (2.8-7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213-545 MtCO2e (2.5-6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30-7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95-19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed.

  16. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas ("concessions") for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17-127%, 44-129%, or 3.1-11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia's moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241-615 MtCO2e (2.8-7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213-545 MtCO2e (2.5-6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30-7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95-19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed. PMID:25605880

  17. Requirement of copper for 1st-log growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Como, S.A.; Valerio, V.; Nickless, S.; Connelly, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    Routine evaluation of the role of copper (Cu) in the growth of various mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae disclosed an unexpected effect of Cu on the fermentative first-log growth. The authors subsequent studies are attempting to ascertain the nature and significance of this observation. Cells are grown on glucose in a supplemented minimal media at 29/sup 0/C for 48-72 hrs. using New Brunswick incubator shaking at 200 rpm. Cu concentration was varied by addition of Cu salts or bathocuproine disulfonate (BC), a highly specific Cu chelator. Samples were removed periodically from flasks and dry weights were determined. Growth curve plots of normal yeasts grown in the presence of 1mM to 38mM Cu showed little variation in the expected 1st log; diauxi; 2nd log; stationary phase picture. However, in the presence of BC growth rate in the 1st log was significantly slowed and as expected 2nd log growth was essentially stopped. The low 1st log growth rate could be titrated to normal (+Cu) levels by increments of added Cu but not by added iron. The effect was not seen when Rho-minus strains were used nor when growth was followed under anaerobic conditions. Results to date implicate a mitochondrial protein, oxygen and copper in the 1st log growth of S Cerevisiae. The character of the protein agent and the possible contribution of cytochrome oxidase activity to the lst log growth are being evaluated.

  18. Reprint of: Nitric oxide-releasing polysaccharide derivative exhibits 8-log reduction against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Wold, Kathryn A; Joslin, Jessica M; Neufeld, Bella H; Arabea, Kristin A; Suazo, Lucas A; McDaniel, Stephen L; Bowen, Richard A; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2015-12-28

    Health-care associated infections (HAIs) and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains remain significant public health threats worldwide. Although the number of HAIs has decreased by using improved sterilization protocols, the cost related to HAIs is still quantified in billions of dollars. Furthermore, the development of multi-drug resistant strains is increasing exponentially, demonstrating that current treatments are inefficient. Thus, the quest for new methods to eradicate bacterial infection is increasingly important in antimicrobial, drug delivery and biomaterials research. Herein, the bactericidal activity of a water-soluble NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative was evaluated in nutrient broth media against three bacteria strains that are commonly responsible for HAIs. Data confirmed that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative induced an 8-log reduction in bacterial growth after 24h for Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the absence of bacteria after 72 h of exposure to NO illustrates the inability of the bacteria to recover and the prevention of biofilm formation. The presented 8-log reduction in bacterial survival after 24h is among the highest reduction reported for NO delivery systems to date, and reaches the desired standard for industrially-relevant reduction. More specifically, this system represents the only water-soluble antimicrobial to reach such a significant bacterial reduction in nutrient rich media, wherein experimental conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment than those in previous reports. Furthermore, the absence of bacterial activity after 72 h and the versatility of using a water-soluble compound suggest that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative is a promising route for treating HAIs.

  19. Reprint of: Nitric oxide-releasing polysaccharide derivative exhibits 8-log reduction against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Wold, Kathryn A; Joslin, Jessica M; Neufeld, Bella H; Arabea, Kristin A; Suazo, Lucas A; McDaniel, Stephen L; Bowen, Richard A; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2015-12-28

    Health-care associated infections (HAIs) and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains remain significant public health threats worldwide. Although the number of HAIs has decreased by using improved sterilization protocols, the cost related to HAIs is still quantified in billions of dollars. Furthermore, the development of multi-drug resistant strains is increasing exponentially, demonstrating that current treatments are inefficient. Thus, the quest for new methods to eradicate bacterial infection is increasingly important in antimicrobial, drug delivery and biomaterials research. Herein, the bactericidal activity of a water-soluble NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative was evaluated in nutrient broth media against three bacteria strains that are commonly responsible for HAIs. Data confirmed that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative induced an 8-log reduction in bacterial growth after 24h for Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the absence of bacteria after 72 h of exposure to NO illustrates the inability of the bacteria to recover and the prevention of biofilm formation. The presented 8-log reduction in bacterial survival after 24h is among the highest reduction reported for NO delivery systems to date, and reaches the desired standard for industrially-relevant reduction. More specifically, this system represents the only water-soluble antimicrobial to reach such a significant bacterial reduction in nutrient rich media, wherein experimental conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment than those in previous reports. Furthermore, the absence of bacterial activity after 72 h and the versatility of using a water-soluble compound suggest that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative is a promising route for treating HAIs. PMID:26686492

  20. Nitric oxide-releasing polysaccharide derivative exhibits 8-log reduction against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Wold, Kathryn A; Joslin, Jessica M; Neufeld, Bella H; Arabea, Kristin A; Suazo, Lucas A; McDaniel, Stephen L; Bowen, Richard A; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2015-11-10

    Health-care associated infections (HAIs) and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains remain significant public health threats worldwide. Although the number of HAIs has decreased by using improved sterilization protocols, the cost related to HAIs is still quantified in billions of dollars. Furthermore, the development of multi-drug resistant strains is increasing exponentially, demonstrating that current treatments are inefficient. Thus, the quest for new methods to eradicate bacterial infection is increasingly important in antimicrobial, drug delivery and biomaterials research. Herein, the bactericidal activity of a water-soluble NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative was evaluated in nutrient broth media against three bacteria strains that are commonly responsible for HAIs. Data confirmed that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative induced an 8-log reduction in bacterial growth after 24h for Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the absence of bacteria after 72h of exposure to NO illustrates the inability of the bacteria to recover and the prevention of biofilm formation. The presented 8-log reduction in bacterial survival after 24h is among the highest reduction reported for NO delivery systems to date, and reaches the desired standard for industrially-relevant reduction. More specifically, this system represents the only water-soluble antimicrobial to reach such a significant bacterial reduction in nutrient rich media, wherein experimental conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment than those in previous reports. Furthermore, the absence of bacterial activity after 72h and the versatility of using a water-soluble compound suggest that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative is a promising route for treating HAIs. PMID:26374942

  1. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  2. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Verschoof, Ruben A; van der Veen, Roeland C A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  3. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Verschoof, Ruben A; van der Veen, Roeland C A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process. PMID:27636479

  4. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia’s moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G.; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V.; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C.; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas (“concessions”) for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17–127%, 44–129%, or 3.1–11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia’s moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241–615 MtCO2e (2.8–7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213–545 MtCO2e (2.5–6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30–7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95–19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed. PMID:25605880

  5. Plasma-modified nitric oxide-releasing polymer films exhibit time-delayed 8-log reduction in growth of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michelle N; Neufeld, Bella H; Hawker, Morgan J; Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Paricio, Lindsey N; Reynolds, Melissa M; Fisher, Ellen R

    2016-01-01

    Tygon(®) and other poly(vinyl chloride)-derived polymers are frequently used for tubing in blood transfusions, hemodialysis, and other extracorporeal circuit applications. These materials, however, tend to promote bacterial proliferation which contributes to the high risk of infection associated with device use. Antibacterial agents, such as nitric oxide donors, can be incorporated into these materials to eliminate bacteria before they can proliferate. The release of the antimicrobial agent from the device, however, is challenging to control and sustain on timescales relevant to blood transport procedures. Surface modification techniques can be employed to address challenges with controlled drug release. Here, surface modification using H2O (v) plasma is explored as a potential method to improve the biocompatibility of biomedical polymers, namely, to tune the nitric oxide-releasing capabilities from Tygon films. Film properties are evaluated pre- and post-treatment by contact angle goniometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical profilometry. H2O (v) plasma treatment significantly enhances the wettability of the nitric-oxide releasing films, doubles film oxygen content, and maintains surface roughness. Using the kill rate method, the authors determine both treated and untreated films cause an 8 log reduction in the population of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Notably, however, H2O (v) plasma treatment delays the kill rate of treated films by 24 h, yet antibacterial efficacy is not diminished. Results of nitric oxide release, measured via chemiluminescent detection, are also reported and correlated to the observed kill rate behavior. Overall, the observed delay in biocidal agent release caused by our treatment indicates that plasma surface modification is an important route toward achieving controlled drug release from polymeric biomedical devices. PMID:27440395

  6. 50 CFR 622.53 - Bycatch reduction device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.53 Bycatch reduction device (BRD) requirements. (a) BRD requirement for Gulf shrimp. On a shrimp trawler in the Gulf EEZ, each net that is rigged... certified or provisionally certified for the area in which the shrimp trawler is located, unless exempted...

  7. 50 CFR 622.207 - Bycatch Reduction Device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.207 Bycatch Reduction Device (BRD) requirements. (a) BRD requirement for South Atlantic shrimp. On a shrimp trawler in the South Atlantic EEZ... this section and is certified or provisionally certified for the area in which the shrimp trawler...

  8. 50 CFR 622.207 - Bycatch Reduction Device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.207 Bycatch Reduction Device (BRD) requirements. (a) BRD requirement for South Atlantic shrimp. On a shrimp trawler in the South Atlantic EEZ... this section and is certified or provisionally certified for the area in which the shrimp trawler...

  9. 50 CFR 622.53 - Bycatch reduction device (BRD) requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.53 Bycatch reduction device (BRD) requirements. (a) BRD requirement for Gulf shrimp. On a shrimp trawler in the Gulf EEZ, each net that is rigged... certified or provisionally certified for the area in which the shrimp trawler is located, unless exempted...

  10. Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Comes, Justin E; Beelman, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preservative treatment capable of the Food and Drug Administration-mandated 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider. Unpreserved apple cider was treated with generally recognized as safe acidulants and preservatives before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 in test tubes and subjected to mild heat treatments (25, 35, and 45 degrees C) followed by refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). Fumaric acid had significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal effect when added to cider at 0.10% (wt/vol) and adjusted to pH 3.3, but citric and malic acid had no effect. Strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.96) between increasing undissociated fumaric acid concentrations and increasing log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider indicated the undissociated acid to be the bactericidal form. The treatment that achieved the 5-log reduction in three commercial ciders was the addition of fumaric acid (0.15%, wt/vol) and sodium benzoate (0.05%, wt/vol) followed by holding at 25 degrees C for 6 h before 24 h of refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Subsequent experiments revealed that the same preservatives added to cider in flasks resulted in a more than 5-log reduction in less than 5 and 2 h when held at 25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced total aerobic counts in commercial ciders to populations less than those of pasteurized and raw ciders from the same source (after 5 and 21 days of refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C, respectively). Sensory evaluation of the same ciders revealed that consumers found the preservative-treated cider to be acceptable. PMID:11899046

  11. 7 CFR 1485.25 - Paperwork reduction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Paperwork reduction requirements. 1485.25 Section 1485.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN MARKETS FOR...

  12. Reductions in primate abundance and diversity in a multiuse protected area: synergistic impacts of hunting and logging in a congo basin forest.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2012-07-01

    This article explores spatial and temporal changes in diurnal primate abundance and behavior in response to hunting, logging, and conservation at the Dzanga Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic over time. We use a combination of line-transect surveys in 2002 and 2009 (N = 540 km) and ethnographic interviews (N = 210) to investigate changes in the status of cercopithecines and colobines at RDS, with additional comparisons to earlier work. This protected area was lightly logged in the 1970s and the park was gazetted in 1990, with multiple-use reserve sectors allocated. Since the park's inception, hunting and the trade of primates have increased, along with human migration, greater accessibility of arms, and reduction of preferred ungulate prey. Primates have declined in both the park and reserve sectors. Our data further suggest that at RDS hunting has had a greater impact on primate diversity and abundance than logging. We have identified changes in species-specific vulnerability to hunting over time, with Cercopithecus nictitans and Lophocebus albigena initially having appeared to be relatively resistant to hunting pressure in 2002. However, subsequently as gun hunting has increased at RDS, these species have become vulnerable. Although monkeys at RDS have been responding behaviorally to increased gun hunting, they are not able to keep pace with changing hunting practices. This study allows us to begin to understand synergistic impacts of hunting and logging, necessary if we are to recommend strategies to better secure the future of primates in multiuse protected areas. PMID:22644576

  13. Combinations of Intervention Treatments Resulting in 5-Log10-Unit Reductions in Numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 Organisms in Apple Cider

    PubMed Central

    Uljas, Heidi E.; Ingham, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently mandated a warning statement on packaged fruit juices not treated to reduce target pathogen populations by 5 log10 units. This study describes combinations of intervention treatments that reduced concentrations of mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strains ATCC 43895, C7927, and USDA-FSIS-380-94) or Salmonella typhimurium DT104 (DT104b, U302, and DT104) by 5 log10 units in apple cider with a pH of 3.3, 3.7, and 4.1. Treatments used were short-term storage at 4, 25, or 35°C and/or freeze-thawing (48 h at −20°C; 4 h at 4°C) of cider with or without added organic acids (0.1% lactic acid, sorbic acid [SA], or propionic acid). Treatments more severe than those for S. typhimurium DT104 were always required to destroy E. coli O157:H7. In pH 3.3 apple cider, a 5-log10-unit reduction in E. coli O157:H7 cell numbers was achieved by freeze-thawing or 6-h 35°C treatments. In pH 3.7 cider the 5-log10-unit reduction followed freeze-thawing combined with either 6 h at 4°C, 2 h at 25°C, or 1 h at 35°C or 6 h at 35°C alone. A 5-log10-unit reduction occurred in pH 4.1 cider after the following treatments: 6 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 12 h at 25°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 6 h at 35°C, and SA plus 4 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing. Yeast and mold counts did not increase significantly (P < 0.05) during the 6-h storage at 35°C. Cider with no added organic acids treated with either 6 h at 35°C, freeze-thawing or their combination was always preferred by consumers over pasteurized cider (P < 0.05). The simple, inexpensive intervention treatments described in the present work could produce safe apple cider without pasteurization and would not require the FDA-mandated warning statement. PMID:10223981

  14. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  15. Research requirements for the reduction of helicopter vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doman, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    All prospective approaches to the reduction of helicopter vibrations were searched to establish insight for the planning of a corrective research program. The state of the art as revealed in the literature is summed up and followed by a discussion of state-of-the-art solutions and of identified technological gaps. It is applicable to all helicopters without regard to size. Extending the historic trend toward lower vibration levels will require the successful application of principles which isolate the fuselage from the rotor systems. Simplicity of the necessary isolation systems should be facilitated by providing other refinements of the dynamic design of the system.

  16. Realtime logging

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.; Kashuba, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) logging services have become an important new source of drilling and geological information on wildcats and some development wells. Sensors located within the bottomhole assembly, barely a few feet above the bit, make measurements on the formation, the borehole and the drill string itself. The MWD measurements are electronically processed and stored in the logging tool downhole. Simple MWD logging systems must wait until after tripping out of the hole for the MWD data to be downloaded from the logging tool to a surface computer in order for logs to be produced. This method is acceptable for some formation evaluation problems. But when well control, directional or completion decisions must be made, the benefit of MWD logging data is obtained only if the downhole measurements are available to the engineer in realtime.

  17. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

  18. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required.

  19. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/day) and received ongoing nutritional support while undertaking a low sodium diet for four weeks. At the end of the four-week period, participants completed a semi-structured interview that elicited participants' opinions on barriers and facilitators to following a low sodium diet and explored changes in participants' dietary habits and behaviours. Thematic analysis revealed that adherence to a low sodium diet required substantial changes to participants' usual food purchasing and preparation habits. Participants reported that lack of control over the sodium content of meals eaten away from the home, the complex and time-consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  20. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  1. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm.

  2. Modelling pathogen log10 reduction values achieved by activated sludge treatment using naïve and semi naïve Bayes network models.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Roser, David J; Sisson, Scott A; Keegan, Alexandra; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-11-15

    Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Naïve Bayes and semi-naïve Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efficiencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and five native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we defined the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and ≥ 1 LRV) using two different learning algorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of fit. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented naïve models predicted removal efficiency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efficiency in water treatment

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction.... OOOO, Table 1 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60—Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc... required sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission reduction efficiency, expressed as percent carried to one...

  4. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409... MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs. (a) General requirements. Logs must be established and properly maintained as follows: (1) The log must be kept in an orderly manner. The log may...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction.... OOOO, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60—Required Minimum SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zc... sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission reduction efficiency, expressed as percent carried to one decimal place....

  6. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  7. Which method better evaluates the molecular response in newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with imatinib treatment, BCR-ABL(IS) or log reduction from the baseline level?

    PubMed

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jin-Lan; Li, Ling-Di; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Lai, Yue-Yun; Lu, Xi-Jing; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-09-01

    The molecular response of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment can be evaluated either by BCR-ABL mRNA levels on international scale (IS) or by log reduction from the baseline level of the laboratory. Both methods were compared in 248 newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib. The major molecular responses (MMR) obtained by both methods predict progression-free survival (PFS, all P<0.0001). Thirty-six patients, who were identified as MMR patients by the IS method but as non-MMR patients by the log reduction method, had the same PFS as MMR patients identified by both methods. The molecular responses of patients at 3 and 6 months, as evaluated by the two methods, have similar predictive values on their cytogenetic responses at 12 months and on their molecular responses at 18 months. Both ≤ 10%(IS) and ≥ 1 log reduction at 3 months and ≤ 1%(IS) at 6 months were significantly associated with PFS (P=0.0011, 0.0090, and 0.0064). The percentages of patients with BCR-ABL(IS) of ≤ 1%, >1-10%, and of >10% at 3 months and 6 months in the German CML Study IV were similar with those with corresponding BCR-ABL(IS) in our center, but was significantly different with those evaluated by the log reduction method. Therefore, the molecular response evaluated by BCR-ABL(IS) has similar trends in PFS and in response prediction, but can better differentiate patients than that by the log reduction method. Furthermore, the IS method allows comparison among molecular response results from different laboratories.

  8. Microcomputer log analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, C.

    1984-04-01

    A comprehensive friendly log analysis system for use on a microcomputer requires only average log analysis skills. Most systems require both log analysis and computer professional for operation. This one has many capabilities: (1) data entry is handled by office personnel after minimal training; (2) entered data is filed and cataloged for future retrieval and analysis; (3) the system can handle more than 9,000,000 ft (2700 km) of log data in over 60,000 files; (4) all data can be edited; (5) searches and listings can be made using factors such as formation names; (6) facsimile reproductions can be made of any log on file; (7) a screening program turns the system into a sophisticated hand calculator to quickly determine zones of interest; and (8) up to 1100 ft (335 m) of contiguous data from a well can be analyzed in one run. Innovative features include: (1) a discriminating factor to separate reservoirs for individual attention concerning rock type, fluid content and potential reserves; and (2) a written report of each reservoir using artificial intelligence. The report discusses, among other things, the rock type and its consistency, comparing the system finding with the geologist's opinion. Differences between the two will elicit alternative analyses.

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  13. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  14. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  15. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  16. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  17. 10 CFR 1303.111 - Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. 1303.111 Section 1303.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.111 Requirements for waiver or reduction of fees. (a) Records shall be furnished without charge or at a...

  18. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  19. Oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate is required for reductive carboxylation in cancer cells with mitochondrial defects

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Andrew R.; Hu, Zeping; Shi, Xiaolei; Jiang, Lei; Boroughs, Lindsey K.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Boriack, Richard; Rakheja, Dinesh; Sullivan, Lucas B.; Linehan, W. Marston; Chandel, Navdeep S.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian cells generate citrate by decarboxylating pyruvate in the mitochondria to supply the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In contrast, hypoxia and other impairments of mitochondrial function induce an alternative pathway that produces citrate by reductively carboxylating α-ketoglutarate (AKG) via NADPH-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). It is unknown how cells generate reducing equivalents necessary to supply reductive carboxylation in the setting of mitochondrial impairment. Here we identified shared metabolic features in cells using reductive carboxylation. Paradoxically, reductive carboxylation was accompanied by concomitant AKG oxidation in the TCA cycle. Inhibiting AKG oxidation decreased reducing equivalent availability and suppressed reductive carboxylation. Interrupting transfer of reducing equivalents from NADH to NADPH by nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase increased NADH abundance and decreased NADPH abundance while suppressing reductive carboxylation. The data demonstrate that reductive carboxylation requires bidirectional AKG metabolism along oxidative and reductive pathways, with the oxidative pathway producing reducing equivalents used to operate IDH in reverse. PMID:24857658

  20. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8 3.

    PubMed

    Breidt, F; Kay, K; Cook, J; Osborne, J; Ingham, B; Arritt, F

    2013-07-01

    A critical factor in ensuring the safety of acidified foods is the establishment of a thermal process that assures the destruction of acid-resistant vegetative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. For acidified foods such as dressings and mayonnaises with pH values of 3.5 or higher, the high water phase acidity (acetic acid of 1.5 to 2.5% or higher) can contribute to lethality, but there is a lack of data showing how the use of common ingredients such as acetic acid and preservatives, alone or in combination, can result in a 5-log reduction for strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in the absence of a postpackaging pasteurization step. In this study, we determined the times needed at 10° C to achieve a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7, S. enterica, and L. monocytogenes in pickling brines with a variety of acetic and benzoic acid combinations at pH 3.5 and 3.8. Evaluation of 15 different acid-pH combinations confirmed that strains of E. coli O157:H7 were significantly more acid resistant than strains of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Among the acid conditions tested, holding times of 4 days or less could achieve a 5-log reduction for vegetative pathogens at pH 3.5 with 2.5% acetic acid or at pH 3.8 with 2.5% acetic acid containing 0.1% benzoic acid. These data indicate the efficacy of benzoic acid for reducing the time necessary to achieve a 5-log reduction in target pathogens and may be useful for supporting process filings and the determination of critical controls for the manufacture of acidified foods. PMID:23834800

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream from equipment in target HAP service Route the process vent stream to a PM control device with:a. A PM... Area Sources: Chemical Preparations Industry Other Requirements and Information What definitions...

  2. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  3. Reduction of lunar landing fuel requirements by utilizing lunar ballistic capture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael D; Belbruno, Edward A

    2005-12-01

    Ballistic lunar capture trajectories have been successfully utilized for lunar orbital missions since 1991. Recent interest in lunar landing trajectories has occurred due to a directive from President Bush to return humans to the Moon by 2015. NASA requirements for humans to return to the lunar surface include separation of crew and cargo missions, all lunar surface access, and anytime-abort to return to Earth. Such requirements are very demanding from a propellant standpoint. The subject of this paper is the application of lunar ballistic capture for the reduction of lunar landing propellant requirements. Preliminary studies of the application of weak stability boundary (WSB) trajectories and ballistic capture have shown that considerable savings in low Earth orbit (LEO) mission mass may be realized, on the order of 36% less than conventional Hohmann transfer orbit missions. Other advantages, such as reduction in launch window constraints and reduction of lunar orbit maintenance propellant requirements, have also surfaced from this study.

  4. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  5. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  6. Tracking algorithms using log-polar mapped image coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The use of log-polar image sampling coordinates rather than conventional Cartesian coordinates offers a number of advantages for visual tracking and docking of space vehicles. Pixel count is reduced without decreasing the field of view, with commensurate reduction in peripheral resolution. Smaller memory requirements and reduced processing loads are the benefits in working environments where bulk and energy are at a premium. Rotational and zoom symmetries of log-polar coordinates accommodate range and orientation extremes without computational penalties. Separation of radial and rotational coordinates reduces the complexity of several target centering algorithms, described below.

  7. Log-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, J.R.

    1982-11-23

    A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

  8. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  9. Log N-log S is inconclusive

    SciTech Connect

    Klebesadel, R.W.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  10. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall...

  11. Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices.

  12. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern.

  13. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern. PMID:26252876

  14. Statistical log analysis made practical

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

  15. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.1840 Section 73.1840... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1840 Retention of logs. (a) Any log required to be kept by station licensees shall be retained by them for a period of 2 years. However, logs...

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF LOG POND AND BOOM FOR UNLOADING CEDAR LOGS FROM TRUCKS AT LOG DUMP, ADJACENT TO MILL; TRUCKS FORMERLY USED TRIP STAKES, THOUGH FOR SAFER HANDLING OF LOGS WELDED STAKES ARE NOW REQUIRED; AS A RESULT LOADING IS NOW DONE WITH A CRANE - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  17. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  18. FAD requirement for the reduction of coenzyme F420 by formate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium formicicum.

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, N L; Ferry, J G

    1983-01-01

    The partial purification of the formate dehydrogenase from cell-free extracts of Methanobacterium formicicum decreased the rate of coenzyme F420 reduction 175-fold relative to the rate of methyl viologen reduction. FAD, isolated from this organism, reactivated the coenzyme F420-dependent activity of purified formate dehydrogenase and restored the activity ratio (coenzyme F420/methyl viologen) to near that in cell-free extracts. Neither flavin mononucleotide nor FADH2 replaced FAD. The reduced form of FAD inhibited the reactivation of coenzyme F420-dependent formate dehydrogenase activity by the oxidized form. The results suggest that native formate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium formicicum contains noncovalently bound FAD that is required for coenzyme F420-dependent activity. PMID:6874636

  19. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  20. Arabidopsis lonely guy (LOG) multiple mutants reveal a central role of the LOG-dependent pathway in cytokinin activation.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Hiroki; Kojima, Mikiko; Kuroha, Takeshi; Ishida, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play key roles in the maintenance of stem cell activity in plants. Although alternative single-step and two-step activation pathways for cytokinin have been proposed, the significance of the single-step pathway which is catalyzed by LONELY GUY (LOG), is not fully understood. We analyzed the metabolic flow of cytokinin activation in Arabidopsis log multiple mutants using stable isotope-labeled tracers and characterized the mutants' morphological and developmental phenotypes. In tracer experiments, cytokinin activation was inhibited most pronouncedly by log7, while the other log mutations had cumulative effects. Although sextuple or lower-order mutants did not show drastic phenotypes in vegetative growth, the log1log2log3log4log5log7log8 septuple T-DNA insertion mutant in which the LOG-dependent pathway is impaired, displayed severe retardation of shoot and root growth with defects in the maintenance of the apical meristems. Detailed observation of the mutants showed that LOG7 was required for the maintenance of shoot apical meristem size. LOG7 was also suggested to play a role for normal primary root growth together with LOG3 and LOG4. These results suggest a dominant role of the single-step activation pathway mediated by LOGs for cytokinin production, and overlapping but differentiated functions of the members of the LOG gene family in growth and development.

  1. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  2. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  3. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  4. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  5. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  6. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  7. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  8. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  9. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  10. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  11. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  12. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  13. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

    2006-08-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious.

  14. Log-Tool

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the logmore » file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.« less

  15. 10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific licenses for well logging. 39.13 Section 39.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Specific Licensing Requirements § 39.13 Specific licenses for well logging. The Commission will approve...

  16. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  17. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  18. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  19. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  20. 47 CFR 63.62 - Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph service requiring formal application. 63.62 Section 63.62... Impairment § 63.62 Type of discontinuance, reduction, or impairment of telephone or telegraph...

  1. Exceedance of critical loads for lakes in Finland, Norway, and Sweden: Reduction requirements for acidifying nitrogen and sulfur deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, M.; Kaemaeri, J.; Forsius, M.

    1997-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify the regions in Fennoscandia where the critical loads of sulfur (S) and acidifying nitrogen (N) for lakes are exceeded and to investigate the consequences for deposition reductions, with special emphasis on the possible trade-offs between S and N deposition in order to achieve nonexceedance. In the steady-state model for calculating critical loads and their exceedances, all relevant processes acting as sinks for N and S are considered. The critical loads of N and S are interrelated (defining the so-called critical load function), and therefore a single critical load for one pollutant cannot be defined without making assumptions about the other. Comparing the present N and S deposition with the critical function for each lake allows determination of the percentage of lakes in the different regions of Fennoscandia where: (1) S reductions alone can achieve nonexceedance. (2) N reductions alone are sufficient, and (3) both N and S reductions are required but to a certain degree interchangeable. Secondly, deposition reduction requirements were assessed by fixing the N deposition to the present level, in this way analyzing the reductions required for S, and by computing the percentage of lakes exceeded in Finland, Norway and Sweden for every possible percent deposition reduction in S and N, in this way showing the (relative) effectiveness of reducing S and/or N deposition. The results showed clear regional patterns in the S and N reduction requirements. In practically the whole of Finland and the northern parts of Scandinavia man-made acidification of surface waters could be avoided by reducing S deposition alone. In the southern parts of Sweden some reductions in N deposition are clearly needed in addition to those for S. In southern Norway strong reductions are required for both N and S deposition. 55 refs., 5 figs.

  2. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlock, Steve

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  3. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  5. Reduction of wafer-edge overlay errors using advanced correction models, optimized for minimal metrology requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Won, Hwa-Yeon; Jeong, Jong-Mun; Böcker, Paul; Vergaij-Huizer, Lydia; Kupers, Michiel; Jovanović, Milenko; Sochal, Inez; Ryan, Kevin; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Byun, Jin-Moo; Kim, Gwang-Gon; Suh, Jung-Joon

    2016-03-01

    In order to optimize yield in DRAM semiconductor manufacturing for 2x nodes and beyond, the (processing induced) overlay fingerprint towards the edge of the wafer needs to be reduced. Traditionally, this is achieved by acquiring denser overlay metrology at the edge of the wafer, to feed field-by-field corrections. Although field-by-field corrections can be effective in reducing localized overlay errors, the requirement for dense metrology to determine the corrections can become a limiting factor due to a significant increase of metrology time and cost. In this study, a more cost-effective solution has been found in extending the regular correction model with an edge-specific component. This new overlay correction model can be driven by an optimized, sparser sampling especially at the wafer edge area, and also allows for a reduction of noise propagation. Lithography correction potential has been maximized, with significantly less metrology needs. Evaluations have been performed, demonstrating the benefit of edge models in terms of on-product overlay performance, as well as cell based overlay performance based on metrology-to-cell matching improvements. Performance can be increased compared to POR modeling and sampling, which can contribute to (overlay based) yield improvement. Based on advanced modeling including edge components, metrology requirements have been optimized, enabling integrated metrology which drives down overall metrology fab footprint and lithography cycle time.

  6. Evaluation of waste mushroom logs as a potential biomass resource for the production of bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Choi, Joon-Weon; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu

    2008-05-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of using waste mushroom logs as a biomass resource for alternative energy production, the chemical and physical characteristics of normal wood and waste mushroom logs were examined. Size reduction of normal wood (145 kW h/tone) required significantly higher energy consumption than waste mushroom logs (70 kW h/tone). The crystallinity value of waste mushroom logs was dramatically lower (33%) than normal wood (49%) after cultivation by Lentinus edodes as spawn. Lignin, an enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitor in sugar production, decreased from 21.07% to 18.78% after inoculation of L. edodes. Total sugar yields obtained by enzyme and acid hydrolysis were higher in waste mushroom logs than in normal wood. After 24h fermentation, 12 g/L ethanol was produced on waste mushroom logs, while normal wood produced 8 g/L ethanol. These results indicate that waste mushroom logs are economically suitable lignocellulosic material for the production of fermentable sugars related to bioethanol production.

  7. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zi)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zi) 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. OOOO, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60—Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zi)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission Reduction Efficiency (Zi) 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. OOOO, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart OOOO of Part 60—Required Minimum Initial SO2 Emission...

  10. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  11. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs....

  12. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder...

  13. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  15. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  16. Logs Perl Module

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  17. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  18. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  19. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, Wei

    1998-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction the necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content. For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication.

  20. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  1. Energy saving and endurance log for a log building

    SciTech Connect

    Dolata, G.

    1987-03-17

    A log is described for construction of a log building which comprises: an elongated peeled log of substantially uniform diameter along its length with parallel end faces, a bottom surface of the log having a concave surface configuration centered on a diametrical line of the log, a rounded top surface directly opposite from the concave bottom surface which mates with a concave surface of another log when placed upon the rounded top surface, a vertically extending longitudinal slot in the top surface of the log that extends the length of the log, a vertically extending longitudinal slot along at least one side of the log with the slot extending vertically substantially parallel with the diametrical line with the slot being formed outwardly of the concave surface, the log including at least one butt end, the butt end including an end slot along the diametrical line which extends from a top of the log down through the butt end to the concave surface; and the butt includes at least one short, longitudinally extending arcuate groove near an outer surface of the log which extends from a line juxtaposed the end slot down to at least one longitudinal slot in the log.

  2. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. My Journey with Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Learning logs, or reading response logs, have long been established as an effective reading strategy that helps students learn from text (Atwell, 1987; Blough & Berman, 1991; Calkins, 1986; Commander & Smith, 1996; Kuhrt & Farris, 1990; Reed, 1988; Sanders, 1985). In this paper, the author describes her experiences using learning logs as a…

  4. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  6. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  7. 47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... suits upon such claims. (b) Logs may be retained on microfilm, microfiche or other data-storage systems... of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size copies, is required of licensees if requested... converting to a data-storage system pursuant to the requirements of § 73.1800 (c) and (d), (§...

  8. Understanding MWD data acquisition can improve log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Fagin, R.A. )

    1994-02-14

    By understanding how measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tools acquire data and how the data are processed, engineers and geologists can better interpret MWD logs. Wire line and MWD log data sometimes do not precisely match. If a discrepancy occurs between MWD and wire line logs run across the same interval, many log interpreters will condemn the MWD data. Recognizing the differences and the correct data requires a better understanding of the MWD tool operational principles. Because MWD logs are becoming more widely accepted as quantitative replacements for equivalent wire line logs, the differences between logs should be analyzed logically. This paper discusses these differences by describing the following: time-based acquisition, filtering, depth control, environmental variables, and quality control.

  9. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. For computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.

  10. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. Formore » computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.« less

  11. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  12. Memory logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P. )

    1993-01-01

    A suite of memory logging tools is being developed for slim-hole, high-temperature applications. The first tool will measure pressure and temperature, and it is especially designed to be a low-cost, but very precise, device. This tool will be smart in the sense that it can make [open quotes]decisions[close quotes] downhole. A second tool will measure the gamma-ray emissions from formation material, and it will be an indicator of lithology. A fluid sampling tool will complement the spectral gamma tool in that is will further constrain the lithology by identifying dissolved formation materials. Plans are being made to integrate the tool responses into formation parameters of interest through cooperative efforts between geothermal operators and scientific drilling programs.

  13. 14 CFR 121.709 - Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry... Airworthiness release or aircraft log entry. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft after maintenance... appropriate entry in the aircraft log. (b) The airworthiness release or log entry required by paragraph (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing logs? 393.116... Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.116 What are the rules for securing logs? (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under this subpart only if they have NOX emissions equivalent to or less than baseline NOX levels and PM... certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR part 1033 may be deemed to also meet the requirements of this... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards and...

  16. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets (77 FR 14,482 (Mar. 12... Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets. With this Request for Information (RFI),...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, as defined in § 1042.101(e). (e) The duty-cycle emission standards in this subpart apply to all testing... certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR part 1033 may be deemed to also meet the requirements of...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Your engines must meet the exhaust emission standards of this section over their full useful life, as defined in § 1042.101(e). (e) The duty-cycle emission standards in this subpart apply to all testing... certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR part 1033 may be deemed to also meet the requirements of...

  19. Additional reductions in Medicare spending growth will likely require shifting costs to beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Chernew, Michael E

    2013-05-01

    Policy makers have considerable interest in reducing Medicare spending growth. Clarity in the debate on reducing Medicare spending growth requires recognition of three important distinctions: the difference between public and total spending on health, the difference between the level of health spending and rate of health spending growth, and the difference between growth per beneficiary and growth in the number of beneficiaries in Medicare. The primary policy issue facing the US health care system is the rate of spending growth in public programs, and solving that problem will probably require reforms to the entire health care sector. The Affordable Care Act created a projected trajectory for Medicare spending per beneficiary that is lower than historical growth rates. Although opportunities for one-time savings exist, any long-term savings from Medicare, beyond those already forecast, will probably require a shift in spending from taxpayers to beneficiaries via higher beneficiary premium contributions (overall or via means testing), changes in eligibility, or greater cost sharing at the point of service.

  20. Environmental justice implications of reduced reporting requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H; Edwards, Sharon E

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1, 3, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales.

  1. Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales. PMID:18754453

  2. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  3. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  4. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  6. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Federal Reserve Board, 12 CFR part 203) indicates a pattern of significant variation in the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank...

  7. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs. (b... watches must be maintained in accordance with §§ 80.147 and 80.310. Voluntary Telegraphy...

  9. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  10. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. PMID:20176067

  11. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  12. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  13. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  14. Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, Adelaine Michela E. S.; Miller, Scott D.; de Sousa, Cleilim Albert D.; Menton, Mary C.; Maia, Augusto R.; Da Rocha, Humberto R.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2008-03-01

    We combined measurements of tree growth and carbon dioxide exchange to investigate the effects of selective logging on the Aboveground Live Biomass (AGLB) of a tropical rain forest in the Amazon. Most of the measurements began at least 10 months before logging and continued at least 36 months after logging. The logging removed ˜15% of the trees with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) greater than 35 cm, which resulted in an instantaneous 10% reduction in AGLB. Both wood production and mortality increased following logging, while Gross Primary Production (GPP) was unchanged. The ratio of wood production to GPP (the wood Carbon Use Efficiency or wood CUE) more than doubled following logging. Small trees (10 cm < DBH < 35 cm) accounted for most of the enhanced wood production. Medium trees (35 cm < DBH < 55 cm) that were within 30 m of canopy gaps created by the logging also showed increased growth. The patterns of enhanced growth are most consistent with logging-induced increases in light availability. The AGLB continued to decline over the study, as mortality outpaced wood production. Wood CUE and mortality remained elevated throughout the 3 years of postlogging measurements. The future trajectory of AGLB and the forest's carbon balance are uncertain, and will depend on how long it takes for heterotrophic respiration, mortality, and CUE to return to prelogging levels.

  15. Enhanced carbon-oxygen log interpretations using supplemental log curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Jacobson, L.A.; Fox, P.

    1994-12-31

    Supplemental measurements from induced nuclear spectrometry tools are examined to demonstrate what additional information they provide about the well and reservoir conditions. Logs in shut-in wells from Indonesia provide examples of oxygen activation measurements showing cross-flow from one reservoir to another via open perforations. Leaking squeezed perforations were also observed. An example from Alaska shows radioactive scale build-up in the casing which spectral analysis identifies as a mixture of uranium and thorium salts. Another log, where the casing fluid was replaced with crude oil, demonstrates a technique for identifying cement channels. Logs from Nigeria comparing oil saturation estimates before and after a squeeze operation illustrate the effect of casing fluid flushing of the formation through open perforations. Understanding the diagnostic character of these curves leads to higher confidence in the overall log interpretation process.

  16. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, W.

    1998-07-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction time necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content (Gunnink and Yang, 1997). For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication. The authors hypothesize that an alternative to drying coal exists. If the coal logs are to be made at mix moisture contents that are above the optimum value, then coal log quality can be maintained if the compaction time is increased. In fact, the authors believe that if compaction time is increased such that the bulk density and moisture content of the compacted coal logs are the same, then

  17. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Zacharoff, Lori; Chan, Chi Ho; Bond, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    The respiration of metals by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires electrons generated by metabolism to pass from the interior of the cell to electron acceptors beyond the cell membranes. The G. sulfurreducens inner membrane multiheme c-type cytochrome ImcH is required for respiration to extracellular electron acceptors with redox potentials greater than -0.1 V vs. SHE, but ImcH is not essential for electron transfer to lower potential acceptors. In contrast, deletion of cbcL, encoding an inner membrane protein consisting of b-type and multiheme c-type cytochrome domains, severely affected reduction of low potential electron acceptors such as Fe(III)-oxides and electrodes poised at -0.1 V vs. SHE. Catalytic cyclic voltammetry of a ΔcbcL strain growing on poised electrodes revealed a 50 mV positive shift in driving force required for electron transfer out of the cell. In non-catalytic conditions, low-potential peaks present in wild type biofilms were absent in ∆cbcL mutants. Expression of cbcL in trans increased growth at low redox potential and restored features to cyclic voltammetry. This evidence supports a model where CbcL is a component of a second electron transfer pathway out of the G. sulfurreducens inner membrane that dominates when redox potential is at or below -0.1 V vs. SHE.

  18. Reduction of low potential electron acceptors requires the CbcL inner membrane cytochrome of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Zacharoff, Lori; Chan, Chi Ho; Bond, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    The respiration of metals by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires electrons generated by metabolism to pass from the interior of the cell to electron acceptors beyond the cell membranes. The G. sulfurreducens inner membrane multiheme c-type cytochrome ImcH is required for respiration to extracellular electron acceptors with redox potentials greater than -0.1 V vs. SHE, but ImcH is not essential for electron transfer to lower potential acceptors. In contrast, deletion of cbcL, encoding an inner membrane protein consisting of b-type and multiheme c-type cytochrome domains, severely affected reduction of low potential electron acceptors such as Fe(III)-oxides and electrodes poised at -0.1 V vs. SHE. Catalytic cyclic voltammetry of a ΔcbcL strain growing on poised electrodes revealed a 50 mV positive shift in driving force required for electron transfer out of the cell. In non-catalytic conditions, low-potential peaks present in wild type biofilms were absent in ∆cbcL mutants. Expression of cbcL in trans increased growth at low redox potential and restored features to cyclic voltammetry. This evidence supports a model where CbcL is a component of a second electron transfer pathway out of the G. sulfurreducens inner membrane that dominates when redox potential is at or below -0.1 V vs. SHE. PMID:26407054

  19. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  20. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  1. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  2. APS logDaemon and client library

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Kowalkowski, J.

    1995-12-13

    This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the logDaemon and client library. This package provides a general distributed message logging system. A logDaemon may be started anywhere on a subnet. A client which has linked in the client library is provided functions to open a connection to the logDaemon, log messages, and close the connection. The logDaemon maintains one or more log files (in simple ASCII or SDDS format) and an e-mail list based on specifications in a configuration file. Incoming messages are logged to the appropriate file and/or result in e-mail being sent.

  3. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  4. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  5. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  6. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  7. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  8. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  10. Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

    1996-12-01

    During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

  11. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential. PMID:26038640

  12. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  13. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  14. A model of the gastric gland ejection cycle: low ejection fractions require reduction of the glandular dead space.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, S; Kurbel, B; Dmitrović, B; Vcev, A

    2001-06-01

    This paper was inspired by the reported results of authors from Uppsala and Lund that gastric glands in rats rhythmically contract 3-7 cycles per minute and develop luminal pressures more than 10 mmHg. To ensure that pepsinogen is not retained in the acid-rich section of the gland, ejection fractions would need to be more than 50% of the gland volume. We have tried to calculate the ejection fraction of such contractions. Dimensions of human gastric glands were measured on the fresh frozen samples of macroscopically and histologically normal gastric mucosa. In total, 18 specimens (from nine persons) were measured under the microscope. The density of glands was 135 +/- 11 (mean +/- S.D.) glands per mm( 2) of gastric mucosa. A typical gastric gland is a tubular structure 1.2 +/- 0.22 mm long and 0.03-0.05 mm wide. We have used 1 mm for length and 0.03 mm for the gland diameter to calculate that each gland approximates a volume of 707 pl, suggesting that the total glandular volume for 15 million glands reaches 10.6 ml. Further calculations based on one to five contractions per minute on an average and on the total volume of gastric glands of 10 ml showed that only ejection fractions less than 10% deliver daily volumes less than 3 l. The presented model of the gastric gland activity is based on the idea that the low ejection fractions require a reduction of the glandular dead space. The reduced luminal pressure during the gland relaxation might cause backflux of hydrophobic viscoelastic mucus through the gland aperture. Repeated glandular contractions and relaxations would move the mucus all the way to the gland bottom, filling the gland cavity below the neck with an axial semisolid mucous cylinder. This filling would reduce the gland dead space. During contractions, the gland would eject mainly the peripheral, the more liquid part of its content. The decreasing luminal pressure in the relaxing gland would pull the outlet mucus inside, protecting gland apertures from

  15. Examining the Minimal Required Elements of a Computer-Tailored Intervention Aimed at Dietary Fat Reduction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the minimally required feedback elements of a computer-tailored dietary fat reduction intervention to be effective in improving fat intake. In all 588 Healthy Dutch adults were randomly allocated to one of four conditions in an randomized controlled trial: (i) feedback on dietary fat intake [personal feedback (P feedback)],…

  16. Determining Partition Coefficient (Log P), Distribution Coefficient (Log D) and Ionization Constant (pKa) in Early Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Sonali S; Kumar, Vikas; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2016-01-01

    An early prediction of physicochemical properties is highly desirable during drug discovery to find out a viable lead candidate. Although there are several methods available to determine partition coefficient (log P), distribution coefficient (log D) and ionization constant (pKa), none of them involves simple and fixed, miniaturized protocols for diverse set of compounds. Therefore, it is necessary to establish simple, uniform and medium-throughput protocols requiring small sample quantities for the determination of these physicochemical properties. Log P and log D were determined by shake flask method, wherein, the compound was partitioned between presaturated noctanol and water phase (water/PBS pH 7.4) and the concentration of compound in each phase was determined by HPLC. The pKa determination made use of UV spectrophotometric analysis in a 96-well microtiter plate containing a series of aqueous buffers ranging from pH 1.0 to 13.0. The medium-throughput miniaturized protocols described herein, for determination of log P, log D and pKa, are straightforward to set up and require very small quantities of sample (< 5 mg for all three properties). All established protocols were validated using diverse set of compounds.

  17. Determining Partition Coefficient (Log P), Distribution Coefficient (Log D) and Ionization Constant (pKa) in Early Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Sonali S; Kumar, Vikas; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2016-01-01

    An early prediction of physicochemical properties is highly desirable during drug discovery to find out a viable lead candidate. Although there are several methods available to determine partition coefficient (log P), distribution coefficient (log D) and ionization constant (pKa), none of them involves simple and fixed, miniaturized protocols for diverse set of compounds. Therefore, it is necessary to establish simple, uniform and medium-throughput protocols requiring small sample quantities for the determination of these physicochemical properties. Log P and log D were determined by shake flask method, wherein, the compound was partitioned between presaturated noctanol and water phase (water/PBS pH 7.4) and the concentration of compound in each phase was determined by HPLC. The pKa determination made use of UV spectrophotometric analysis in a 96-well microtiter plate containing a series of aqueous buffers ranging from pH 1.0 to 13.0. The medium-throughput miniaturized protocols described herein, for determination of log P, log D and pKa, are straightforward to set up and require very small quantities of sample (< 5 mg for all three properties). All established protocols were validated using diverse set of compounds. PMID:27137915

  18. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  19. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  20. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging.

  1. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  2. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  3. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  4. Interactive effects of historical logging and fire exclusion on ponderosa pine forest structure in the northern Rockies.

    PubMed

    Naficy, Cameron; Sala, Anna; Keeling, Eric G; Graham, Jon; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2010-10-01

    Increased forest density resulting from decades of fire exclusion is often perceived as the leading cause of historically aberrant, severe, contemporary wildfires and insect outbreaks documented in some fire-prone forests of the western United States. Based on this notion, current U.S. forest policy directs managers to reduce stand density and restore historical conditions in fire-excluded forests to help minimize high-severity disturbances. Historical logging, however, has also caused widespread change in forest vegetation conditions, but its long-term effects on vegetation structure and composition have never been adequately quantified. We document that fire-excluded ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains logged prior to 1960 have much higher average stand density, greater homogeneity of stand structure, more standing dead trees and increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees than paired fire-excluded, unlogged counterparts. Notably, the magnitude of the interactive effect of fire exclusion and historical logging substantially exceeds the effects of fire exclusion alone. These differences suggest that historically logged sites are more prone to severe wildfires and insect outbreaks than unlogged, fire-excluded forests and should be considered a high priority for fuels reduction treatments. Furthermore, we propose that ponderosa pine forests with these distinct management histories likely require distinct restoration approaches. We also highlight potential long-term risks of mechanical stand manipulation in unlogged forests and emphasize the need for a long-term view of fuels management.

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Information Collection Requirements... requirements for the Bureau of Industry and Security by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), pursuant...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information Collection Requirements... requirements for the Bureau of Industry and Security by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), pursuant...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Information Collection Requirements... requirements for the Bureau of Industry and Security by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), pursuant...

  8. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  9. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  10. RamA, a Protein Required for Reductive Activation of Corrinoid-dependent Methylamine Methyltransferase Reactions in Methanogenic Archaea*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Tsuneo; Soares, Jitesh A.; Lienard, Tanja; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Krzycki, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Archaeal methane formation from methylamines is initiated by distinct methyltransferases with specificity for monomethylamine, dimethylamine, or trimethylamine. Each methylamine methyltransferase methylates a cognate corrinoid protein, which is subsequently demethylated by a second methyltransferase to form methyl-coenzyme M, the direct methane precursor. Methylation of the corrinoid protein requires reduction of the central cobalt to the highly reducing and nucleophilic Co(I) state. RamA, a 60-kDa monomeric iron-sulfur protein, was isolated from Methanosarcina barkeri and is required for in vitro ATP-dependent reductive activation of methylamine:CoM methyl transfer from all three methylamines. In the absence of the methyltransferases, highly purified RamA was shown to mediate the ATP-dependent reductive activation of Co(II) corrinoid to the Co(I) state for the monomethylamine corrinoid protein, MtmC. The ramA gene is located near a cluster of genes required for monomethylamine methyltransferase activity, including MtbA, the methylamine-specific CoM methylase and the pyl operon required for co-translational insertion of pyrrolysine into the active site of methylamine methyltransferases. RamA possesses a C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain capable of binding two tetranuclear iron-sulfur proteins. Mutliple ramA homologs were identified in genomes of methanogenic Archaea, often encoded near methyltrophic methyltransferase genes. RamA homologs are also encoded in a diverse selection of bacterial genomes, often located near genes for corrinoid-dependent methyltransferases. These results suggest that RamA mediates reductive activation of corrinoid proteins and that it is the first functional archetype of COG3894, a family of redox proteins of unknown function. PMID:19043046

  11. Leak checker data logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  12. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  13. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  14. Triplane fractures of the distal tibia requiring open reduction and internal fixation. Pre-operative planning using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jones, S; Phillips, N; Ali, F; Fernandes, J A; Flowers, M J; Smith, T W D

    2003-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of triplane fractures provides useful information not available on conventional radiographs. Knowledge of the size and position of displaced fragments, the location of the intra-articular fracture and any associated articular incongruency is useful when undertaking pre-operative planning.A postal survey of surgeons revealed only 38% always requested CT scans before undertaking open reduction and internal fixation of displaced triplane fractures. Examples of the usefulness of CT scans in pre-operative planning is presented in two cases.

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION Pt. 730, Supp. 1... requirements for the Bureau of Industry and Security by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), pursuant to...-Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations § 764.8. 0694-0133 Thermal Imaging Camera Reporting § 743.3...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 730 - Information Collection Requirements Under the Paperwork Reduction Act: OMB Control Numbers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION Pt. 730, Supp. 1... requirements for the Bureau of Industry and Security by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), pursuant to... Antiboycott Violations § 764.8. 0694-0133 Thermal Imaging Camera Reporting § 743.3 0694-0134 Procedure...

  17. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  18. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  19. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  20. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  1. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  2. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allan Xi; Antolak, Arlyn J; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2012-02-01

    The viability of replacing Americium–Beryllium (Am–Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D–T or D–D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am–Be, D–D, and D–T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D–D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am–Be or D–T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D–D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  3. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

    2012-08-01

    The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  4. A rule-based system for well log correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Startzman, R.A.; Kuo, T.B.

    1987-09-01

    Computer-assisted approaches to well log correlation are of interest to engineers and geologists for two reasons. In large field studies, a computer can be used simply to reduce the time required to correlate zones of interest. It is also possible that computer-assisted correlations may suggest zonal matches of interest and originality that might not have been considered. This paper presents a new approach to the computer-assisted log correlation. Geologic horizons are correlated between wells by use of an artificial intelligence rule-based technique. Using the symbol-manipulation capabilities of a computer language called List Processing (LISP), the author developed a prototype rule-bases system that has symbolic representation of log data, recognizes log shapes from traces, identifies geologic zones from a sequence of shapes in a log, characterizes the zones, correlates zones from well to well with a set of ''if/then'' type of rules, and uses a forward-chaining inference scheme to execute the rule base. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of the LISP language and the methodology involved in the development of this system.

  5. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural versus model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty among reference ET is far more important than model parametric uncertainty introduced by crop coefficients. These crop coefficients are used to estimate irrigation water requirement following the single crop coefficient approach. Using the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  6. Reduction of predictive uncertainty in estimating irrigation water requirement through multi-model ensembles and ensemble averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, S.; Exbrayat, J.-F.; Kirby, M.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2014-11-01

    Irrigation agriculture plays an increasingly important role in food supply. Many evapotranspiration models are used today to estimate the water demand for irrigation. They consider different stages of crop growth by empirical crop coefficients to adapt evapotranspiration throughout the vegetation period. We investigate the importance of the model structural vs. model parametric uncertainty for irrigation simulations by considering six evapotranspiration models and five crop coefficient sets to estimate irrigation water requirements for growing wheat in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. The study is carried out using the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER. We find that structural model uncertainty is far more important than model parametric uncertainty to estimate irrigation water requirement. Using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) technique, we are able to reduce the overall predictive model uncertainty by more than 10%. The exceedance probability curve of irrigation water requirements shows that a certain threshold, e.g. an irrigation water limit due to water right of 400 mm, would be less frequently exceeded in case of the REA ensemble average (45%) in comparison to the equally weighted ensemble average (66%). We conclude that multi-model ensemble predictions and sophisticated model averaging techniques are helpful in predicting irrigation demand and provide relevant information for decision making.

  7. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  8. Acetate-dependent photoheterotrophic growth and the differential requirement for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle in Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Rick; Tabita, F Robert; Alber, Birgit E

    2011-02-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO)-deletion strain 16 was capable of photoheterotrophic growth with acetate, while Rhodopseudomonas palustris RubisCO-deletion strain 2040 could not grow under these conditions. The reason for this difference lies in the fact that Rba. sphaeroides and Rps. palustris use different pathways for acetate assimilation, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and glyoxylate-bypass cycle, respectively. The ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway is distinct from the glyoxylate cycle as one molecule of CO(2) and one molecule of HCO(3) (-) per three molecules of acetyl-CoA are co-assimilated to form two malate molecules. The glyoxylate cycle directly converts two acetyl-CoA molecules to malate. Each pathway, therefore, also dictates at what point, CO(2) and reductant are consumed, thereby determining the requirement for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle.

  9. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  10. Influence of electron donor on the minimum sulfate concentration required for sulfate reduction in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    Fluctuations in the availability of electron donor (petroleum hydrocarbons) affected the competition between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) for control of electron flow in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. The data suggest that abundant electron donor availability allowed MB to sequester a portion of the electron flow even when sulfate was present in sufficient concentrations to support sulfate reduction. For example, in an area of abundant electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to be unable to sequester the electron flow from MB in the presence of 1.4 mg/L sulfate. The data also suggest that when electron-donor availability was limited, SRB outcompeted MB for available substrate at a lower concentration of sulfate than when electron donor was plentiful. For example, in an area of limited electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to maintain dominance of electron flow at sulfate concentrations less than 1 mg/L. The presence of abundant electron donor and a limited amount of sulfate reduced competition for available substrate, allowing both SRB and MB to metabolize available substrates concurrently.

  11. Influence of electron donor on the minimum sulfate concentration required for sulfate reduction in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-04-01

    Fluctuations in the availability of electron donor (petroleum hydrocarbons) affected the competition between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) for control of electron flow in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. The data suggest that abundant electron donor availability allowed MB to sequester a portion of the electron flow even when sulfate was present in sufficient concentrations to support sulfate reduction. For example, in an area of abundant electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to be unable to sequester the electron flow from MB in the presence of 1.4 mg/L sulfate. The data also suggest that when electron-donor availability was limited, SRB outcompeted MB for available substrate at a lower concentration of sulfate than when electron donor was plentiful. For example, in an area of limited electron-donor availability, SRB appeared to maintain dominance of electron flow at sulfate concentrations less than 1 mg/L. The presence of abundant electron donor and a limited amount of sulfate reduced competition for available substrate, allowing both SRB and MB to metabolize available substrates concurrently. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Well log characterization of natural gas-hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 25 years there have been significant advancements in the use of well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature: whereas wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs were formerly used to identify gas-hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments, more advanced wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools are now routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas-hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Resistivity- and acoustic-logging tools are the most widely used for estimating the gas-hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical-resistivity and acoustic-velocity data can yield accurate gas-hydrate saturations in sediment grain-supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log-analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. New well-logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation-resistivity log measurements provide the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly interbedded and fracture-dominated gas-hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing (WFT) also allow for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids(i.e., free water along with clay- and capillary-bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms

  13. [Reduction in requirements of oral calcium and 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism treated with teriparatide (PTH1-34)].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cerecedo, Leticia Eugenia; Vergara-López, Alma; Rosas-Barrientos, José Vicente; Guillén-González, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily administration of recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH1-34), 20 μg, on serum calcium concentrations (Cas), and the requirements of oral calcium and calcitriol in patients with hypoparathyroidism. It is a prospective, longitudinal study, analytical, with intervention, in patients treated with high doses of calcium (> 7 g/day), with symptoms of hypocalcemia and/or intolerant to treatment. Serum levels of phosphorus (Ps) and Cas, urinary calcium excretion, oral doses of calcitriol and calcium were compared before and after administration of teriparatide, for three months on average, in patients with post-surgical hypoparathyroidism. We studied 16 patients with oral elemental calcium requirements of 22.5 ± 16 g/day of calcitriol 0.79 ± 0.4 µg/day. Cas at baseline was 7.6 ± 1.2 and Ps 5.4 ± 0.76 mg/dl. After administration of teriparatide, Cas was 9.0 ± 0.69 mg/dl (p = 0.007) and Ps of 4.5 ± 0.87 mg/dl (p = 0.003). Doses of calcium and calcitriol showed a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.0001 and 0.001, respectively). We conclude that use of recombinant parathyroid hormone can normalize Cas and Ps, with reduction in oral calcium and calcitriol requirements.

  14. Exhaling a budesonide inhaler through the nose results in a significant reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray in patients having asthma with rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, W A

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide, an inhaled corticosteroid is used routinely in the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. Although inhaled corticosteroids in therapeutic doses are unlikely to result in systemic side effects, there is as yet skepticism about their routine and prolonged use. The aim of this study was to determine whether budesonide inhalation through a metered dose inhaler, when exhaled through the nose could result in a reduction in the dose requirement of budesonide metered nasal spray in patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis. This study was an open, parallel, comparative, crossover trial in which 49 young patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis were divided into two groups and administered either a combination of budesonide metered dose inhaler with a budesonide nasal spray or a budesonide inhaler alone, which was to be exhaled through the nose. Both groups were later crossed over and weekly symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates were monitored during each phase of the study. Finally, patients who volunteered from both groups were instructed to note the reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray while using a budesonide inhaler and exhaling it through the nose. The results of this study reveal that when a budesonide inhaler is exhaled through the nose, it results in an improvement in symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates, which were significantly less than those obtained in the group using both a budesonide nasal spray and a metered dose inhaler. In addition, exhaling budesonide through the nose results in a 40.1% reduction in the dose requirement of a budesonide nasal spray, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001).

  15. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Jeffrey F.

    1992-06-23

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  16. Learning Logs in Introductory Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Matthew James

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the beneficial and sometimes unpredictable implications of a daily reflective writing exercise for introductory literature courses: the learning log. Pseudonymous samples of student writing, coupled with instructor commentary, gesture toward ways in which the learning log's continual implementation and modification foster a…

  17. Chernoff's density is log-concave.

    PubMed

    Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Wellner, Jon A

    2014-02-01

    We show that the density of Z = argmax{W (t) - t(2)}, sometimes known as Chernoff's density, is log-concave. We conjecture that Chernoff's density is strongly log-concave or "super-Gaussian", and provide evidence in support of the conjecture.

  18. Measuring Reading Instruction with Teacher Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that the criticisms of their earlier article on teacher logs ("Educational Researcher," March 2009) by Smagorinsky and Willis do not address, much less undermine, the evidence they presented as part of their validation argument about the teacher logs. Moreover, they argue that their method for studying classrooms is not nearly as…

  19. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  20. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  1. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  2. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  3. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  4. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  5. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  6. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  7. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses. PMID:26162243

  8. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses.

  9. Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Izotova, T.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

  10. log(MPl/m3/2)

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martin, Johannes; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael

    2005-12-02

    Flux compactifications of string theory seem to require the presence of a fine-tuned constant in the superpotential. We discuss a scheme where this constant is replaced by a dynamical quantity which we argue to be a 'continuous Chern-Simons term'. In such a scheme, the gaugino condensate generates the hierarchically small scale of supersymmetry breakdown rather than adjusting its size to a constant. A crucial ingredient is the appearance of the hierarchically small quantity exp(-) which corresponds to the scale of gaugino condensation. Under rather general circumstances, this leads to a scenario of moduli stabilization, which is endowed with a hierarchy between the mass of the lightest modulus, the gravitino mass and the scale of the soft terms, mmodulus {approx} m3/2 {approx} 2 msoft. The 'little hierarchy' is given by the logarithm of the ratio of the Planck scale and the gravitino mass, {approx} log(MPl/m3/2) {approx} 4{pi}2. This exhibits a new mediation scheme of supersymmetry breakdown, called mirage mediation. We highlight the special properties of the scheme, and their consequences for phenomenology and cosmology.

  11. Saving big bucks with your log sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Puskar, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    This article speaks to a common problem in a lot of industrial and institutional boilerhouses. Most boilerhouses do an excellent job at collecting information. Circular chart recorders churn out pressures, temperatures, and flows for everything from steam to natural gas to city water consumption. At most facilities, this stuff all gets chucked into a drawer or file cabinet daily. Have you ever wondered why you collect and record what you do? What were people thinking when the existing logs were set up? This article attempts to challenge the original thought process and hopes to evoke in the reader a renewed vision of what should be collected, how, and then what can be done with it. The goal of this article is not to define new and expensive data acquisition or control system projects. It is instead to show how to develop systems that only require paper, pencils, and people who are motivated and care. These people are probably already being paid to do most of this work. Experience is that if these people are treated with respect and given some simple tools they will do amazing things beyond what was thought possible. This is a low-tech humanistic approach that has a fabulous rate of return. It`s also something that can be immediately implemented.

  12. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  13. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  14. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  15. Sisyphus - An Event Log Analysis Toolset

    2004-09-01

    Event logs are a ubiquitous source of system feedback from computer systems, but have widely ranging format and can be extremely numerous, particularly from systems with many logging components. Inspection of these logs is fundamental to system debugging; increased capability to quickly extract meaningful information will impact MTTR (mean time to repair) and may impact MTBF (mean time between failure). Sisyphus is a machine-leanring analysis system whose goal is to enable content-novice analysts to efficieniiymore » understand evolving trends, identify anomalies, and investigate cause-effect hypotheses in large multiple-souce log sets. The toolkit is comprised a framework for utilizing third-party frequentitemset data mining tools Teiresias and SLCT. and software to cluster messages according to time statistics, and an interactive results viewer.« less

  16. RIAPROG: logit-log radioimmunoassay data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Faden, V.B.; Huston, J.C. Jr.; Munson, P.J.; Rodbard, D.

    1980-03-01

    This document provides the users guide and program listings for the 1980 version of RIAPROG. RIAPROG is a program for weighted least squares linear regression using the logit-log model for analysis of RIA results.

  17. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas. PMID:17556578

  18. Concepts and procedures required for successful reduction of tensor magnetic gradiometer data obtained from an unexploded ordnance detection demonstration at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bracken, Robert E.; Brown, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    On March 12, 2003, data were gathered at Yuma Proving Grounds, in Arizona, using a Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System (TMGS). This report shows how these data were processed and explains concepts required for successful TMGS data reduction. Important concepts discussed include extreme attitudinal sensitivity of vector measurements, low attitudinal sensitivity of gradient measurements, leakage of the common-mode field into gradient measurements, consequences of thermal drift, and effects of field curvature. Spatial-data collection procedures and a spin-calibration method are addressed. Discussions of data-reduction procedures include tracking of axial data by mathematically matching transfer functions among the axes, derivation and application of calibration coefficients, calculation of sensor-pair gradients, thermal-drift corrections, and gradient collocation. For presentation, the magnetic tensor at each data station is converted to a scalar quantity, the I2 tensor invariant, which is easily found by calculating the determinant of the tensor. At important processing junctures, the determinants for all stations in the mapped area are shown in shaded relief map-view. Final processed results are compared to a mathematical model to show the validity of the assumptions made during processing and the reasonableness of the ultimate answer obtained.

  19. Applying time series analysis to performance logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Marcin; Sosnowski, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary computer systems provide mechanisms for monitoring various performance parameters (e.g. processor or memory usage, disc or network transfers), which are collected and stored in performance logs. An important issue is to derive characteristic features describing normal and abnormal behavior of the systems. For this purpose we use various schemes of analyzing time series. They have been adapted to the specificity of performance logs and verified using data collected from real systems. The presented approach is useful in evaluating system dependability.

  20. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

  1. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  2. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

    2006-08-01

    We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case.

  3. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  4. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  5. Web Logs in the English Classroom: More Than Just Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2003-01-01

    Details the use and appeal of Web logs to enhance classroom discussion and allow for outside involvement in the classroom. Defines a Web log, addresses discussing literature in a Web log, and describes the author's first attempts at using Web-log technology. Presents considerations for using Web logs as part of classroom instruction. (SG)

  6. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  7. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  8. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  9. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  10. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  11. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

  12. Impacts of intensive logging on the trophic organisation of ant communities in a biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P; Newton, Rob J; Vun Khen, Chey; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging

  13. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) emergence in relation to burial depth of brood logs.

    PubMed

    Haack, R A; Petrice, T R; Poland, T M

    2000-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest of pines, Pinus spp., that was first found in the United States in 1992. A federal quarantine currently regulates movement of pine Christmas trees and pine nursery stock from infested to uninfested counties. The current national Pine Shoot Beetle Compliance Management Program requires T. piniperda-infested brood material to be disposed of by burning, chipping, or burial. The burial option requires that the infested pine material be buried at a depth of at least 30 cm. We tested this requirement by burying logs with similar levels of infestation at 0, 15, 30, 45, 61 and 76 cm and then monitoring for T. piniperda emergence. Logs were buried at two times during larval development (early and late) and in two soil types (sandy loam and loam). Emergence patterns from the two soil types were similar. Overall, 1,747 T. piniperda adults were collected from the 24 exposed control logs, but only 34 adults from the 120 buried logs, including 24 adults from logs buried at 15 cm, eight adults from 30 cm, one adult from 45 cm, and one adult from 61 cm. In comparing mean emergence density from buried logs with that of exposed logs, 98.6% mortality occurred at 15 cm, 99.5% at 30 cm, and > 99.9% at > or = 45 cm. Mean date of T. piniperda emergence to the soil surface was affected by burial depth and burial date, but not soil type.

  14. A distributed design for monitoring, logging, and replaying device readings at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.

    1991-01-01

    As control of the Los Alamos Meson Physics linear accelerator and Proton Storage Ring moves to a more distributed system, it has been necessary to redesign the software which monitors, logs, and replays device readings throughout the facility. The new design allows devices to be monitored and their readings logged locally on a network of computers. Control of the monitoring and logging process is available throughout the network from user interfaces which communicate via remote procedure calls with server processes running on each node which monitors and records device readings. Similarly, the logged data can be replayed from anywhere on the network. Two major requirements influencing the final design were the need to reduce the load on the CPU of the control machines, and the need for much faster replay of the logged device readings. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  15. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  16. A modification of the fusion model for log polar coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, N. C.; Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fusion mechanism for application in stereo analysis of range restricted the depth of field and therefore required a shift variant mechanism in the peripheral area to find disparity. Misregistration was prevented by restricting the disparity detection range to a neighborhood spanned by the directional edge detection filters. This transformation was essentially accomplished by a nonuniform resampling of the original image in a horizontal direction. While this is easily implemented for digital processing, the approach does not (in the peripheral vision area) model the log-conformal mapping which is known to occur in the human mechanism. This paper therefore modifies the original fusion concept in the peripheral area to include the polar exponential grid-to-log conformal tesselation. Examples of the fusion process resulting in accurate disparity values are given.

  17. Semantic annotation for live and posterity logging of video documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Marco; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Nunziati, W.

    2003-06-01

    Broadcasters usually envision two basic applications for video databases: Live Logging and Posterity Logging. The former aims at providing effective annotation of video in quasi-real time and supports extraction of meaningful clips from the live stream; it is usually performed by assistant producers working at the same location of the event. The latter provides annotation for later reuse of video material and is the prerequisite for retrieval by content from video digital libraries; it is performed by trained librarians. Both require that annotation is performed, at a great extent, automatically. Video information structure must encompass both low-intermediate level video organization and event relationships that define specific highlights and situations. Analysis of the visual data of the video stream permits to extract hints, identify events and detect highlights. All of this must be supported by a-priori knowledge of the video domain and effective reasoning engines capable to capture the inherent semantics of the visual events.

  18. Spotted owls and old growth logging in the pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Doak, D

    1989-12-01

    Northern Spotted Owls, Strix occidentalis caurina, require large tracts of old-growth conifer forest to survive and reproduce. Much of this forest has been or is being cut by commercial logging operations, with uncertain consequences for the owls. In this paper I present simulation models of owl population change over the next 100 years, as summing a variety of scenarios for habitat destruction and fragmentation. My analysis differs from previous models by incorporating patchy territory distribution and random environmental fluctuations. Fragmented and patchy habitat distributions are common problems for endangered organisms, but they have received little attention from modelers. My results indicate that yearly fluctuations in breeding success have little impact on owl populations, but that spatial structure is quite important and should be considered in planning forest preservation. The simulations suggest that for all reasonable parameter values the proposed US. Forest Service logging plans will lead to the demise of the owls. PMID:21129025

  19. Neutron and gamma (density) logging in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    1998-09-12

    This Technical Implementation Procedure (TIP) describes the field operation, and the management of data records pertaining to neutron logging and density logging in welded tuff. This procedure applies to all borehole surveys performed in support of Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT), including the Earge Block Tests (LBT) and Initial Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (IEBSFT) - WBS 1.2.3.12.4. The purpose of this TIP is to provide guidelines so that other equally trained and qualified personnel can understand how the work is performed or how to repeat the work if needed. The work will be documented by the use of Scientific Notebooks (SNs) as discussed in 033-YMP-QP 3.4. The TIP will provide a set of guidelines which the scientists will take into account in conducting the mea- surements. The use of this TIP does not imply that this is repetitive work that does not require profes- sional judgment.

  20. Effects of lipid-lowering therapy on reduction of cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Joel C; Saseen, Joseph J

    2010-08-01

    In the general population, dyslipidemia is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), comorbid cardiovascular disease is present at alarming rates, and those who require hemodialysis and have cardiovascular disease continue to have a high mortality rate. Lipid abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) vary depending on the stage of disease (stages 1-5), but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) has been established as the primary lipid treatment target. Guidelines support an LDL level of less than 100 mg/dl in patients with all stages of CKD, except when the triglyceride level is above 500 mg/dl. As patients progress to stage 5 CKD (ESRD with hemodialysis), the high triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased lipoprotein(a) levels of the early stages become more pronounced, with increases in small dense LDL particles; however, total cholesterol and LDL values remain normal or decrease. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, lipid abnormalities are driven by an increase in hepatic secretion and delayed catabolism of very low-density lipoproteins, as well as a reduction in lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. Epidemiologic data support the role of cholesterol lowering as a means to lower cardiovascular events in the hemodialysis population. We conducted a literature search of various databases (1966-September 2009) to identify relevant clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of multiple lipid-lowering agents for the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with ESRD requiring hemodialysis. Only those trials that used clinical primary end points of coronary heart disease (e.g., cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) were included in this review. Evidence demonstrates that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy (i.e., atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) significantly reduces surrogate

  1. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  2. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  3. Modeling sulfate reduction in methane hydrate-bearing continental margin sediments: Does a sulfate-methane transition require anaerobic oxidation of methane?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malinverno, A.; Pohlman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition (SMT), a biogeochemical zone where sulfate and methane are metabolized, is commonly observed at shallow depths (1-30 mbsf) in methane-bearing marine sediments. Two processes consume sulfate at and above the SMT, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and organoclastic sulfate reduction (OSR). Differentiating the relative contribution of each process is critical to estimate methane flux into the SMT, which, in turn, is necessary to predict deeper occurrences of gas hydrates in continental margin sediments. To evaluate the relative importance of these two sulfate reduction pathways, we developed a diagenetic model to compute the pore water concentrations of sulfate, methane, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). By separately tracking DIC containing 12C and 13C, the model also computes ??13C-DIC values. The model reproduces common observations from methane-rich sediments: a well-defined SMT with no methane above and no sulfate below and a ??13C-DIC minimum at the SMT. The model also highlights the role of upward diffusing 13C-enriched DIC in contributing to the carbon isotope mass balance of DIC. A combination of OSR and AOM, each consuming similar amounts of sulfate, matches observations from Site U1325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311, northern Cascadia margin). Without AOM, methane diffuses above the SMT, which contradicts existing field data. The modeling results are generalized with a dimensional analysis to the range of SMT depths and sedimentation rates typical of continental margins. The modeling shows that AOM must be active to establish an SMT wherein methane is quantitatively consumed and the ??13C-DIC minimum occurs. The presence of an SMT generally requires active AOM. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  5. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  6. Log-rolling block copolymers cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Youn; Kim, Ye Chan; Kim, Dong Hyup; Kwon, Na Kyung; Register, Richard A.

    Shear has been the most effective method to create long range order of micro- or nano- structures in soft materials. When shear is applied, soft particles or polymers tend to align along the shear direction to minimize the viscous dissipation, thus transverse (so-called ``log-rolling'') alignment is unfavored. In this study, for the first time we report the transverse alignment of cylinder-forming block copolymers. Poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate), PS-PMMA, can form a metastable hemicylinder structure when confined in a thin film, and this hemicylinder structure can align either along the shear direction, or transverse to the shear direction (``log-rolling''), depending on the shearing temperature. This unusual ``log-rolling'' behavior is explained by the different chain mobility of the two blocks in PS-PMMA; the rigidity of core cylinder is the critical parameter determining the direction of shear alignment.

  7. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  8. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

  9. Lithologic logs and geophysical logs from test drilling in Palm Beach County, Florida, since 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)

  10. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  11. Permeability extraction: A sonic log inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, N.; Kim, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors provide the missing important link between permeability and acoustic velocities by generating a permeability-dependent synthetic sonic log in a carbonate reservoir. The computations are based on Akbar`s theory that relates wave velocity to frequency, rock properties (e.g., lithology, permeability, and porosity), and fluid saturation and properties (viscosity, density, and compressibility). An inverted analytical expression of the theory is used to extract permeability from sonic velocity. The synthetic sonic and the computed permeability are compared with the observed sonic log and with plug permeability, respectively. The results demonstrate, as predicted by theory, that permeability can be related directly to acoustic velocities.

  12. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  13. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  14. Application of Nuclear Well Logging Techniques to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albats, P.; Groves, J.; Schweitzer, J.; Tombrello, T.

    1992-01-01

    The use of neutron and gamma ray measurements for the analysis of material composition has become well established in the last 40 years. Schlumberger has pioneered the use of this technology for logging wells drilled to produce oil and gas, and for this purpose has developed neutron generators that allow measurements to be made in deep (5000 m) boreholes under adverse conditions. We also make ruggedized neutron and gamma ray detector packages that can be used to make reliable measurements on the drill collar of a rotating drill string while the well is being drilled, where the conditions are severe. Modern nuclear methods used in logging measure rock formation parameters like bulk density and porosity, fluid composition, and element abundances by weight including hydrogen concentration. The measurements are made with high precision and accuracy. These devices (well logging sondes) share many of the design criteria required for remote sensing in space; they must be small, light, rugged, and able to perform reliably under adverse conditions. We see a role for the adaptation of this technology to lunar or planetary resource assessment missions.

  15. Development of geothermal logging systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1994-04-01

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of (potassium, uranium and thorium) is in the calibration phase, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A fluid sampling tool is in the design phase. All tools are designed for operation at conditions exceeding 400 C, and for deployment in the slim holes produced by mining-coring operations. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry and scientific drilling programs to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. These cooperative efforts depend upon quality guidelines such as those under development within the international Ocean Drilling Program.

  16. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals.

  17. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

  18. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  19. Discovering the Local Landscape: Pioneer Log Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bob; And Others

    Building structures made from logs appeared in the eastern United States during the late 17th century, and immigrants from Sweden, Finland, and Germany are credited with their construction. There were two types of structures: the horizontal design introduced by the Scandinavians and the German or Pennsylvania Dutch model that was used by the…

  20. [Human development and log-periodic law].

    PubMed

    Cash, Roland; Chaline, Jean; Nottale, Laurent; Grou, Pierre

    2002-05-01

    We suggest applying the log-periodic law formerly used to describe various crisis phenomena, in biology (evolutionary leaps), inorganic systems (earthquakes), societies and economy (economic crisis, market crashes) to the various steps of human ontogeny. We find a statistically significant agreement between this model and the data.

  1. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  2. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  3. There's Life in Those Dead Logs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

    2006-01-01

    Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

  4. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... statement of any corrective action taken. (5) Entries must be made giving details of all work performed... written log signed by the operator who supervised or performed the work and, unless the operator is... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  5. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... statement of any corrective action taken. (5) Entries must be made giving details of all work performed... written log signed by the operator who supervised or performed the work and, unless the operator is... made comparing the radio station clock with standard time, including errors observed and...

  6. 47 CFR 73.782 - Retention of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of logs. 73.782 Section 73.782... International Broadcast Stations § 73.782 Retention of logs. Logs of international broadcast stations shall be retained by the licensee or permittee for a period of two years: Provided, however, That logs...

  7. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of logs. 700.846 Section 700.846 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record,...

  8. 47 CFR 73.877 - Station logs for LPFM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs for LPFM stations. 73.877 Section... BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.877 Station logs for LPFM stations. The licensee of each LPFM station must maintain a station log. Each log entry must include the time and date...

  9. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of navigation, parties engaged in handling logs upon the river shall have the right to sluice, drive, and float logs in such manner as may best suit their convenience: Provided, A sufficient channel is... force of men must accompany each log drive to prevent the formation of log jams and to maintain an...

  10. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  11. Log-cubic method for generation of soil particle size distribution curve.

    PubMed

    Shang, Songhao

    2013-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is a fundamental physical property of soils. Traditionally, the PSD curve was generated by hand from limited data of particle size analysis, which is subjective and may lead to significant uncertainty in the freehand PSD curve and graphically estimated cumulative particle percentages. To overcome these problems, a log-cubic method was proposed for the generation of PSD curve based on a monotone piecewise cubic interpolation method. The log-cubic method and commonly used log-linear and log-spline methods were evaluated by the leave-one-out cross-validation method for 394 soil samples extracted from UNSODA database. Mean error and root mean square error of the cross-validation show that the log-cubic method outperforms two other methods. What is more important, PSD curve generated by the log-cubic method meets essential requirements of a PSD curve, that is, passing through all measured data and being both smooth and monotone. The proposed log-cubic method provides an objective and reliable way to generate a PSD curve from limited soil particle analysis data. This method and the generated PSD curve can be used in the conversion of different soil texture schemes, assessment of grading pattern, and estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and erodibility factor.

  12. A risk index for multicriterial selection of a logging system with low environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Horodnic, Sergiu Andrei

    2015-02-15

    Setting up the working stages in forest operations is conditioned by environmental protection and forest health requirements. This paper exposes a method for improving the decision-making process by choosing the most environmentally effective logging systems according to terrain configuration and stand characteristics. Such a methodology for selecting machines or logging systems accounting for environment, safety as well as economics, becomes mandatory in the context of sustainable management of forest with multiple functions. Based on analytic hierarchy process analysis the following classification of the environmental performance for four considered alternatives was obtained: skyline system (42.43%), forwarder system (20.22%), skidder system (19.92%) and horse logging system (17.43%). Further, an environmental risk matrix for the most important 28 risk factors specific to any work equipment used in forest operations was produced. In the end, a multicriterial analysis generated a risk index RI ranging between 1.0 and 3.5, which could help choosing the optimal combination of logging system and logging equipment with low environmental impact. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach, a simple application in specific conditions of a harvesting site is presented. - Highlights: • We propose a decision-making algorithm to select eco-friendly logging systems. • Analytic hierarchy process was applied for ranking 4 types of logging systems. • An environmental risk matrix with 28 risk factors in forest operations was made up.

  13. Log-Cubic Method for Generation of Soil Particle Size Distribution Curve

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is a fundamental physical property of soils. Traditionally, the PSD curve was generated by hand from limited data of particle size analysis, which is subjective and may lead to significant uncertainty in the freehand PSD curve and graphically estimated cumulative particle percentages. To overcome these problems, a log-cubic method was proposed for the generation of PSD curve based on a monotone piecewise cubic interpolation method. The log-cubic method and commonly used log-linear and log-spline methods were evaluated by the leave-one-out cross-validation method for 394 soil samples extracted from UNSODA database. Mean error and root mean square error of the cross-validation show that the log-cubic method outperforms two other methods. What is more important, PSD curve generated by the log-cubic method meets essential requirements of a PSD curve, that is, passing through all measured data and being both smooth and monotone. The proposed log-cubic method provides an objective and reliable way to generate a PSD curve from limited soil particle analysis data. This method and the generated PSD curve can be used in the conversion of different soil texture schemes, assessment of grading pattern, and estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and erodibility factor. PMID:23766698

  14. Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2014-02-01

    Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted.

  15. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-08-10

    "Lonely guy" (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a "PGGXGTXXE" motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms.

  16. Structural basis for cytokinin production by LOG from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Sangwoo; Sagong, Hye-Young; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Il-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    “Lonely guy” (LOG) has been identified as a cytokinin-producing enzyme in plants and plant-interacting fungi. The gene product of Cg2612 from the soil-dwelling bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was annotated as an LDC. However, the facts that C. glutamicum lacks an LDC and Cg2612 has high amino acid similarity with LOG proteins suggest that Cg2612 is possibly an LOG protein. To investigate the function of Cg2612, we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.3 Å. Cg2612 functions as a dimer and shows an overall structure similar to other known LOGs, such as LOGs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtLOG), Claviceps purpurea (CpLOG), and Mycobacterium marinum (MmLOG). Cg2612 also contains a “PGGXGTXXE” motif that contributes to the formation of an active site similar to other LOGs. Moreover, biochemical studies on Cg2612 revealed that the protein has phosphoribohydrolase activity but not LDC activity. Based on these structural and biochemical studies, we propose that Cg2612 is not an LDC family enzyme, but instead belongs to the LOG family. In addition, the prenyl-binding site of Cg2612 (CgLOG) comprised residues identical to those seen in AtLOG and CpLOG, albeit dissimilar to those in MmLOG. The work provides structural and functional implications for LOG-like proteins from other microorganisms. PMID:27507425

  17. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation

  18. Integrated analysis of well logs and seismic data to estimate gas hydrate concentrations at Keathley Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Accurately detecting and quantifying gas hydrate or free gas in sediments from seismic data require downhole well-log data to calibrate the physical properties of the gas hydrate-/free gas-bearing sediments. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Program, a series of wells were either cored or drilled in the Gulf of Mexico to characterize the physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to calibrate geophysical estimates, and to evaluate source and transport mechanisms for gas within the gas hydrates. Downhole acoustic logs were used sparingly in this study because of degraded log quality due to adverse wellbore conditions. However, reliable logging while drilling (LWD) electrical resistivity and porosity logs were obtained. To tie the well-log information to the available 3-D seismic data in this area, a velocity log was calculated from the available resistivity log at the Keathley Canyon 151-2 well, because the acoustic log or vertical seismic data acquired at the nearby Keathley Canyon 151-3 well were either of poor quality or had limited depth coverage. Based on the gas hydrate saturations estimated from the LWD resistivity log, the modified Biot-Gassmann theory was used to generate synthetic acoustic log and a synthetic seismogram was generated with a fairly good agreement with a seismic profile crossing the well site. Based on the well-log information, a faintly defined bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) in this area is interpreted as a reflection representing gas hydrate-bearing sediments with about 15% saturation overlying partially gas-saturated sediments with 3% saturation. Gas hydrate saturations over 30-40% are estimated from the resistivity log in two distinct intervals at 220-230 and 264-300 m below the sea floor, but gas hydrate was not physically recovered in cores. It is speculated that the poor recovery of cores and gas hydrate morphology are responsible for the lack of physical gas hydrate recovery.

  19. Log polar image sensor in CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Danny; Dierickx, Bart; Pardo, Fernando; Vlummens, Jan; Meynants, Guy; Hermans, Lou

    1996-08-01

    We report on the design, design issues, fabrication and performance of a log-polar CMOS image sensor. The sensor is developed for the use in a videophone system for deaf and hearing impaired people, who are not capable of communicating through a 'normal' telephone. The system allows 15 detailed images per second to be transmitted over existing telephone lines. This framerate is sufficient for conversations by means of sign language or lip reading. The pixel array of the sensor consists of 76 concentric circles with (up to) 128 pixels per circle, in total 8013 pixels. The interior pixels have a pitch of 14 micrometers, up to 250 micrometers at the border. The 8013-pixels image is mapped (log-polar transformation) in a X-Y addressable 76 by 128 array.

  20. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  1. In-situ coal seam and overburden permeability characterization combining downhole flow meter and temperature logs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Julia; Scheuermann, Alexander; Bringemeier, Detlef; Hossack, Alex; Li, Ling

    2016-06-01

    The planning and design of any coal mine development requires among others a thorough investigation of the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological subsurface conditions. As part of a coal mine exploration program we conducted heat pulse vertical flow meter testing. The flow data were combined with absolute and differential temperature logging data to gain information about the hydraulic characteristics of two different coal seams and their over- and interburden. For the strata that were localised based on geophysical logging data including density, gamma ray and resistivity hydraulic properties were quantified. We demonstrate that the temperature log response complements the flow meter log response. A coupling of both methods is therefore recommended to get an insight into the hydraulic conditions in a coal seam and its overburden.

  2. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  3. Recording dowel pin position with plastic logs.

    PubMed

    Titus, H W; Draheim, R N

    1986-01-01

    Six readily available plastic materials were evaluated for use as a log for locating the ends of die dowel pins. Seven criteria were divided into two main categories of adherence qualities of the material and useability. Cost was the third category evaluated and compared. Color and availability were also considered. Forty-two sophomore dental students accomplished 84 evaluations. Plasticine and Weatherstrip Caulking Cord were found to meet all criteria best. PMID:3511239

  4. Flow logging applied in fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urík, J.; Lukeš, J.; Kobr, M.; Mareš, S.; Williams, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    Fractured zones are usually identified by the basic logging methods but the volume of permeable fractures intersecting boreholes is often too small for their identification. Fluid logging measurements can help to localize natural flow and determine hydraulic properties of fractures during the pumping. Borehole flowmeter measurements or fluid logging measurements are conventional methods used for the determination of quantitative parameters of the flowing fluid in boreholes with the goal to estimate hydraulic conductivity of aquifers. With the increasing interest in the research of fractured formations and their hydraulic properties, new field techniques based on the repeated measurement of the vertical velocity in an observation borehole during the short hydraulic test (hydraulic pulse) in an other borehole of the tested locality have been elaborated. There is a tendency to increase the lateral range of investigation, it means to make the cross-hole tests in boreholes with greater distance. Such cross-hole tests need to make the measurement of the induced vertical flow in the observation borehole with high resolution flowmeters able to measure vertical flow velocities in the range 10-4 m/s and the flow rates in the range 10-6 m3/s. The new photometric flowmeter was developed for this purpose. The results of the photometric flowmeter measurements were compared with the fluid logging measurements and with heat-pulse flowmeter measurements. In our contribution examples of the comparison of measurements mentioned above in two boreholes situated in granite massif in the Czech Republic are demonstrated. Boreholes were drilled in the program of Czech state institution SÚRAO (Radioactive Waste Repository Authority). The research project is financially supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the No. 208/07/0777.

  5. Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, S.

    2013-04-01

    The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

  6. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-02-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

  7. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  8. FORTE log periodic antenna. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-22

    This report summarizes the results of ABLE`s design study of the FORTE deployable log periodic antenna. The resulting Baseline Design of the antenna is the basis for ABLE`s proposal for Phase II of this program. ABLE`s approach to meeting the requirements is to use a coilable ABLE mast as the deployable structure ``backbone`` of the antenna and to use deployable tubes for. the log periodic dipole elements of the antenna. This general approach was adopted at the outset of the Phase I Design Study. The remainder of the study was devoted to detailed design and analysis to properly size these types of mast and antenna elements and to design their deployment mechanisms. Demonstration models of the mast and antenna element deployer were fabricated as part of Phase I study. The study showed that ABLE`s design approach is feasible and can meet all the specified design requirements except the mass limit of 13.5 kg. Results of the design and analysis studies are summarized in this report. The mast and dipole element deployer are to be demonstrated to LANL personnel at the conclusion of this Phase I study.

  9. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006.

  10. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables. PMID

  11. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables.

  12. Contribution of logging data to sedimentology and stratigraphy. [Electrofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, O.; Abbott, H.T.

    1982-02-01

    A technique has been developed using multivariate analysis of logging data to give a high-resolution sedimentological description of any sequence of formations. The number of different logs and their range allow determination of many of the physical characteristics of the rock. The definition of a lithofacies has been extended by introducing the concept of an electrofacies, constructed on the basis of all the logging data at any depth interval. Each logging datum is considered a descriptor for purposes of establishing electrofacies in a logged interval. Once established, electrofacies then can be correlated with actual geologic facies, if the logged interval has been cored. 23 refs.

  13. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  14. Analysis of Resident Case Logs in an Anesthesiology Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro; Madsen, Matias Vested; Macario, Alex

    2016-04-15

    Our goal in this study was to examine Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for Stanford anesthesia residents graduating in 2013 (25 residents) and 2014 (26 residents). The resident with the fewest recorded patients in 2013 had 43% the number of patients compared with the resident with the most patients, and in 2014, this equaled 48%. There were residents who had 75% more than the class average number of cases for several of the 12 case types and 3 procedure types required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Also, there were residents with fewer than half as many for some of the required cases or procedure types. Some of the variability may have been because of the hazards of self-reporting.

  15. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation.

  16. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes in raw catfish fillets by essential oils and phenolic constituent carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monil A; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, M Wes; Silva, Juan L

    2012-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of various essential oils and carvacrol was determined on fresh raw catfish fillets against a 4-strain Listeria monocytogenes mixture representing serotypes 1/2b, 3b, 4b, and 4c that were predominantly isolated from catfish processing environments. Thyme oil, oregano oil and carvacrol exhibited concentration and time dependent responses in broth against L. monocytogenes; for example 0.5% concentrations resulted in 4 log CFU/mL reduction within 30 min whereas 0.1% concentrations required more than 24 h for the same level of reduction. Lemon, orange, and tangerine oils, at 0.5% showed listeriostatic effect in which 4 log CFU/mL of the initial L. monocytogenes load was unchanged at 4 °C in 10 d whereas 1% concentrations were listericidal in a time dependent manner. Apart from carvacrol, efficacy of tested essential oils in reducing L. monocytogenes and total microbial load from catfish fillet was very limited. Dipping treatment of catfish fillets in 2% carvacrol solution for 30 min at 4 °C reduced L. monocytogenes to an undetectable level from their initial load of 5 log CFU/g and reduced total microbial load from catfish fillets by approximately 5 log CFU/g. In sensory analysis trained panelist preferred control samples over 2% carvacrol treated samples implying potential limitation in applicability of carvacrol for fillet treatments. PMID:22901012

  17. Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1984-05-01

    Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

  18. Reduction of N2 by Fe2+ via Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reactions Part 2: The Role of Metal Binding in Activating N2 for Reduction; a Requirement for Both Pre-biotic and Biological Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wander, Matthew C. F.; Kubicki, James D.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2008-06-01

    Nitrogen reduction by ferrous iron has been suggested as an important mechanism in the formation of ammonia on pre-biotic Earth. This paper examines the effects of adsorption of ferrous iron onto a goethite (α-FeOOH) substrate on the thermodynamic driving force and rate of a ferrous iron-mediated reduction of N2 as compared with the homogeneous aqueous reaction. Utilizing density functional theory and Marcus Theory of proton coupled electron transfer reactions, the following two reactions were studied: {text{Fe}}^{2 + } _{left( {{text{aq}}} right)} + {text{N}}_{2left( {{text{aq}}} right)} + {text{H}}_2 {text{O}}_{left( {{text{aq}}} right)} to {text{N}}_2 {text{H}}^ bullet + {text{FeOH}}^{2 + } _{left( {{text{aq}}} right)} and equiv {text{Fe}}^{2 + } _{left( {{text{ads}}} right)} + {text{N}}_{2left( {{text{aq}}} right)} + 2{text{H}}_2 {text{O}}_{left( {{text{aq}}} right)} to {text{N}}_2 {text{H}}^ bullet + α - {text{FeOOH}}_{left( {text{s}} right)} + 2{text{H}}^ + _{left( {{text{aq}}} right)} Although the rates of both reactions were calculated to be approximately zero at 298 K, the model results suggest that adsorption alters the thermodynamic driving force for the reaction but has no other effect on the direct electron transfer kinetics. Given that simply altering the thermodynamic driving force will not reduce dinitrogen, we can make mechanistic connections between possible prebiotic pathways and biological N2 reduction. The key to reduction in both cases is N2 adsorption to multiple transition metal centers with competitive H2 production.

  19. 2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BLOCK AND TACKLE FOR MOVING CEDAR LOGS FROM POND TO JACK LADDER--AN ENDLESS CHAIN CONVEYOR THAT MOVES LOGS INTO MILL - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  20. 4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  1. 8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG DOCK AND PARTIALLY DEMOLISHED JACKSLIP USED FOR HAULING LOGS UP TO SAWMILL. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  2. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  3. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  4. Apparatus for focused electrode induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1986-04-15

    An induced polarization logging tool is described for measuring parameters of a formation surrounding a borehole. The logging tool consists of: a non-conductive logging sonde; a plurality of electrodes disposed on the sonde, the electrodes including at least a survey current electrode and guard electrodes disposed on opposite sides of the survey current electrode, a non-polarizing voltage measuring electrode, a non-polarizing voltage reference electrode and a current return electrode, both the voltage reference and current return electrodes being located a greater distance from the survey current electrode than the guard electrodes; means connected to the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes for generating a signal representative of the potential difference in the formation between the survey current electrode and the guard electrodes; first control means directly coupled to the survey current electrode, the first control means controlling the current flow to the survey current electrode in response to the potential difference signal; a second control means directly coupled to the guard electrodes to control the current flow to the guard electrodes in response to the potential difference signal; a source of alternating current located at the surface, one end of the source being coupled to the two control means and the other to the current return electrode, the source supplying alternating current at various discrete frequencies between substantially 0.01 and 100 Hz; measurement means directly coupled to the voltage measurement and survey current electrodes to measure the amplitude and phase of the voltage induced in the formation and the amplitude and phase of the current flow to the survey electrode; and transmission means for transmitting the measurements to the surface.

  5. Quality of the log-geometric distribution extrapolation for smaller undiscovered oil and gas pool size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chenglin, L.; Charpentier, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey procedure for the estimation of the general form of the parent distribution requires that the parameters of the log-geometric distribution be calculated and analyzed for the sensitivity of these parameters to different conditions. In this study, we derive the shape factor of a log-geometric distribution from the ratio of frequencies between adjacent bins. The shape factor has a log straight-line relationship with the ratio of frequencies. Additionally, the calculation equations of a ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary are deduced. For a specific log-geometric distribution, we find that the ratio of the mean size to the lower size-class boundary is the same. We apply our analysis to simulations based on oil and gas pool distributions from four petroleum systems of Alberta, Canada and four generated distributions. Each petroleum system in Alberta has a different shape factor. Generally, the shape factors in the four petroleum systems stabilize with the increase of discovered pool numbers. For a log-geometric distribution, the shape factor becomes stable when discovered pool numbers exceed 50 and the shape factor is influenced by the exploration efficiency when the exploration efficiency is less than 1. The simulation results show that calculated shape factors increase with those of the parent distributions, and undiscovered oil and gas resources estimated through the log-geometric distribution extrapolation are smaller than the actual values. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  7. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  8. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  9. Identifying related journals through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Xie, Natalie; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: With the explosion of biomedical literature and the evolution of online and open access, scientists are reading more articles from a wider variety of journals. Thus, the list of core journals relevant to their research may be less obvious and may often change over time. To help researchers quickly identify appropriate journals to read and publish in, we developed a web application for finding related journals based on the analysis of PubMed log data. Availability: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/Journals Contact: luzh@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19734155

  10. VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

  11. Nonlinear filters with log-homotopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2007-09-01

    We derive and test a new nonlinear filter that implements Bayes' rule using an ODE rather than with a pointwise multiplication of two functions. This avoids one of the fundamental and well known problems in particle filters, namely "particle collapse" as a result of Bayes' rule. We use a log-homotopy to construct this ODE. Our new algorithm is vastly superior to the classic particle filter, and we do not use any proposal density supplied by an EKF or UKF or other outside source. This paper was written for normal engineers, who do not have homotopy for breakfast.

  12. Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Slatt, R.M.; Borer, J.M.; Horn, B.W.

    1995-10-01

    Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in Colorado provides an excellent example of the use of outcrop gamma-ray logs to better visualize spatial variability of depositional settings for improved well log correlations. Out crops from the Cretaceous Almond Formation, Niobrara Formation, and Graneros Shale in Colorado serve as examples of outcrop gamma-ray logging used to correlate outcrops with their subsurface equivalents for improved lithologic and stratigraphic interpretation of well logs. Outcrops of the Cretaceous Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale in Colorado and the Eocene Green River Formation in Wyoming provide examples of the application of outcrop-gamma ray logging to identify and characterize organic-rich shales in outcrops and on well logs. Outcrops of the Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation in Arkansas demonstrate the use of outcrop logging to yield improved interpretation of reservoir quality on well logs and for one- and two-dimensional seismic modeling. An outcrop of Precambrian and Cambro-Ordovician rocks from Algeria provides an example of outcrop logging to recognize unconformities and other major surfaces on well logs. An outcrop of the Niobrara Formation in Colorado is used as an example for improved understanding of horizontal gamma-ray log response. The example logs presented are all drived with a hand-held scintillometer. This technique is simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive, so is recommended for any outcrop work that is intended to be applied t;o subsurface well logs or seismic interpretation.

  13. Biological Processing of Pine Logs for Pulp and Paper Production with Phlebiopsis gigantea

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, C. J.; Blanchette, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Phlebiopsis gigantea (=Phanerochaete gigantea) is a white rot fungus that rapidly colonizes cut stumps, stems, and branches of pine. Two laboratory and several field studies showed that inoculation of red pine logs, Pinus resinosa, with P. gigantea reduced the pitch content of wood, facilitated bark removal, modified wood cells, and controlled detrimental sapstain. Isolations from inoculated logs revealed up to 100 and 80% colonization of the sapwood by P. gigantea after 8 weeks in the field and 32 days in the laboratory, respectively. Logs colonized by P. gigantea in both the laboratory and field showed a 9 to 71% reduction in pitch content, as well as a significant enhancement of bark removal. Examination with Simons' stain of refined wood fibers from inoculated logs revealed an increase in cell wall porosity. Blue stain fungi that cause dark discoloration of the sapwood were inhibited by inoculation with P. gigantea. These studies demonstrate that biological processing of logs with P. gigantea can result in substantial benefits to the pulp and papermaking process. PMID:16535609

  14. Geophysical well-log analysis of fractured crystalline rocks at East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various conventional geophysical borehole measurements were made in conjunction with measurements using a recently designed, low-frequency, acoustic-waveform probe and slow velocity flowmeter for characterization of a fractured mafic intrusion in southern Ontario, Canada. Conventional geophysical measurements included temperature, caliper, gamma, acoustic, single-point resistance, and acoustic televiewer logs. Hole stability problems prevented the use of neutron and gamma-gamma logs, because these logs require that a radioactive source be lowered into the borehole. Measurements were made in three boreholes as much as 850 m deep and penetrating a few tens of meters into granitic basement. All rocks within the mafic intrusion were characterized by minimal gamma radiation and acoustic velocities of about 6.9 km/sec. The uniformity of the acoustic velocities and the character of acoustic-waveform logs made with a conventional high-frequency logging source correlated with the density of fractures evident on televiewer logs. Sample intervals of high-frequency waveform logs were transformed into interpretations of effective fracture opening using a recent model for acoustic attenuation in fractured rocks. The new low-frequency sparker source did not perform as expected at depths below 250 m because of previously unsuspected problems with source firing under large hydrostatic heads. A new heat-pulse, slow velocity flowmeter was used to delineate in detail the flow regime indicated in a general way by temperature logs. The flowmeter measurements indicated that water was entering 2 of the boreholes at numerous fractures above a depth of 200 m, with flow in at least 2 of the boreholes exiting through large isolated fractures below a depth of 400 m. (Author 's abstract)

  15. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning... individual equipment logs that show the date, time, product, and lot number of each batch processed....

  16. 46 CFR 131.620 - Matters that must be logged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters that must be logged. 131.620 Section 131.620 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Logs § 131.620 Matters that must be logged. The following matters must be entered in each vessel's...

  17. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  18. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter....

  19. Learning Logs in the Science Classroom: The Literacy Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenson, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses one of the most functional forms of writing to learn, the two-column learning logs. Two-column learning logs are based on the premise that collecting information and processing information are two very different aspects of learning. Two-column logs allow students to connect the facts and theories of science to…

  20. Intensifying the Group Member's Experience Using the Group Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valine, Warren J.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the use of a group log in which members analyze the content and process of each session using a suggested format. The log promotes dialogue between the leader and each group member and involves members more fully in the group process. Feedback indicates the log is valuable. (JAC)

  1. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or timber product means any product classifiable in Chapter 44 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  2. The Learning Log as an Integrated Instructional Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topaz, Beverley

    1997-01-01

    Use of student learning logs is recommended as a means for both students and teacher to assess second-language learning. The approach encourages learners to analyze their learning difficulties and plan for overcoming them. Incorporated into portfolios, logs can be used to analyze progress. Sample log sheet and chart used as a framework for…

  3. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  4. High-temperature logging for basic development of HDR reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.; Pettitt, R.A.; Miles, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The second phase of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Development Program at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, consists of two boreholes, directionally-drilled in a northeast direction, inclined at an angle of 35/sup 0/, with a vertical separation of 365 m (1200 ft). The two boreholes will be connected by 12 to 15 vertical parallel fractures to make a geothermal reservoir calculated to produce 20 MW(e) for 20 years. Accurate temperature measurements, borehole caliper logs, and directional surveys are required for the successful development and operation of this man-made system. Obtaining these data is extremely difficult because of the bottom hole static temperature of 335/sup 0/C (635/sup 0/F) at a depth of 4660 m (15,289 ft), the 35/sup 0/ deviation, the abrasive formation, and the presence of sticky drilling residue products. The efforts during July, August, and September 1980, to obtain these data are presented as a case history. The temperature logs and borehole directional survey produced realistic results; but the borehole caliper measurements were inconsistent and unreliable, due to the developmental stage of the caliper tools.

  5. Nuclear Tools For Oilfield Logging-While-Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, Jani

    2011-06-01

    Schlumberger is an international oilfield service company with nearly 80,000 employees of 140 nationalities, operating globally in 80 countries. As a market leader in oilfield services, Schlumberger has developed a suite of technologies to assess the downhole environment, including, among others, electromagnetic, seismic, chemical, and nuclear measurements. In the past 10 years there has been a radical shift in the oilfield service industry from traditional wireline measurements to logging-while-drilling (LWD) analysis. For LWD measurements, the analysis is performed and the instruments are operated while the borehole is being drilled. The high temperature, high shock, and extreme vibration environment of LWD imposes stringent requirements for the devices used in these applications. This has a significant impact on the design of the components and subcomponents of a downhole tool. Another significant change in the past few years for nuclear-based oilwell logging tools is the desire to replace the sealed radioisotope sources with active, electronic ones. These active radiation sources provide great benefits compared to the isotopic sources, ranging from handling and safety to nonproliferation and well contamination issues. The challenge is to develop electronic generators that have a high degree of reliability for the entire lifetime of a downhole tool. LWD tool testing and operations are highlighted with particular emphasis on electronic radiation sources and nuclear detectors for the downhole environment.

  6. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  7. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  8. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  9. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  10. Ice logging with light and sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay, Ryan C.; Bramall, Nathan; Price, P. Buford

    Polar ice may well be the purest solid substance on Earth, and yet the impurities it contains—gases, dust, and micro-organisms—provide a rich record of Earth's past climate, volcanism, and one-celled life going back ˜400,000 years. Until recently detailed records had been deciphered mostly in chemical and biological laboratories from meter-long ice cores removed by drills capable of coring to bedrock thousands of meters down. Now, borehole instruments are adding a new dimension to the study of ice sheets. They can rapidly log records of past climate, volcanism, c-axis ice fabric, and soon, even microbial life and grain size. Gary Clow, a pioneer in borehole logging, has been measuring temperature profiles that provide information on climate and ice flow [Dahl-Jensen et al., 1998]. From sonic velocity profiles, Kendrick Taylor and Gregg Lamorey are able to infer c-axis fabrics, which record the history of ice flow Robert Hawley and Ed Waddington have developed a video logger that detects annual layers in firn ice.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Deborah L.

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  12. Salvage logging in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria and its potential impacts on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Ought, K

    2006-08-01

    -growth stands and places subject to only partial stand damage); (2) increased retention of biological legacies on burned areas through variations in the intensity of salvage logging; and (3) reduction in the levels of physical disturbance on salvage-logged areas, especially through limited seedbed preparation and mechanical disturbance.

  13. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B; Ahmad, Z

    2015-11-01

    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations.

  14. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B; Ahmad, Z

    2015-11-01

    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations. PMID:26275816

  15. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

  16. Self-consistent Modeling of the logN-logS in the Poisson Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourlas, E.; Kashyap, V.; Zezas, A.; van Dyk, D.

    2004-08-01

    logN-logS curves are a fundamental tool in the study of source populations, luminosity functions, and cosmological parameters. However, their determination is hampered by statistical effects such as the Eddington bias, incompleteness due to detection efficiency, faint source flux fluctuations, etc. Here we present a new and powerful method using the full Poisson machinery that allows us to model the logN-logS distribution of X-ray sources in a self-consistent manner. Because we properly account for all the above statistical effects, our modeling is valid over the full range of the data. We use a Bayesian approach, modeling the fluxes with known functional forms such as simple or broken power-laws. The expected photon counts are conditioned on the fluxes, the background contamination, effective area, detector vignetting, and detection probability. The built-in flexibility of the algorithm also allows a simultaneous analysis of multiple datasets. We demonstrate the power of our algorithm by applying it to a set of Chandra observations. This project is part of the California-Harvard/CXC AstroStatistics Collaboration. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding for this project partially provided by NSF grant DMS-01-04129 and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073, and NASA grants NCC2-1350 and NAG5-13056.

  17. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources.

  18. Artificial intelligence and mathematical modeling applied to wireline log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, K.A.

    1995-08-01

    Wireline log interpretation is a powerful tool for evaluation of formation characteristics which in turn are used for identification of reservoir and estimation of recoverable hydrocarbons. The log data is stored and plotted using computer applications but manual procedures are mostly adopted for reading the logs and interpreting their signature into the subsurface formations. Keeping in view the new trend of applying artificial intelligence and neural networks to geological applications, an artificial intelligence based approach has been developed for computerized interpretation of logs. The working of this technique involves mathematical models based on curve analyzers which take into account the changing trend of each log curve and then pool out parameters to mathematical equations or directly to the artificial intelligent logic. Such logic has been developed for interpreting all major types of logs like spontaneous potential, gamma ray, sonic, density, neuron and various types of resistivity logs. Thus each log is interpreted independently, for example sand line and shale base lines are automatically marked from spontaneous potential logs and clay percentage is mapped from gamma ray logs. Finally an integrated artificial intelligent analysis takes into account all the logs, their independent interpretations and the local geological information and interprets the subsurface geological picture comprising of various formations.

  19. Amount of organic matter required to induce sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding is affected by soil nitrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Marschner, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) with sulfuric material can be remediated through microbial sulfate reduction stimulated by adding organic matter (OM) and increasing the soil pH to >4.5, but the effectiveness of this treatment is influenced by soil properties. Two experiments were conducted using ASS with sulfuric material. In the first experiment with four ASS, OM (finely ground mature wheat straw) was added at 2-6% (w/w) and the pH adjusted to 5.5. After 36 weeks under flooded conditions, the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) and pore water pH were greater in all treatments with added OM than in the control without OM addition. The RIS concentration increased with OM addition rate. The increase in RIS concentration between 4% and 6% OM was significant but smaller than that between 2% and 4%, suggesting other factors limited sulfate reduction. In the second experiment, the effect of nitrate addition on sulfate reduction at different OM addition rates was investigated in one ASS. Organic matter was added at 2 and 4% and nitrate at 0, 100, and 200 mg nitrate-N kg(-1). After 2 weeks under flooded conditions, soil pH and the concentration of FeS measured as acid volatile sulfur (AVS) were lower with nitrate added at both OM addition rates. At a given nitrate addition rate, pH and AVS concentration were higher at 4% OM than at 2%. It can be concluded that sulfate reduction in ASS at pH 5.5 can be limited by low OM availability and high nitrate concentrations. Further, the inhibitory effect of nitrate can be overcome by high OM addition rates. PMID:25600239

  20. Amount of organic matter required to induce sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding is affected by soil nitrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Marschner, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) with sulfuric material can be remediated through microbial sulfate reduction stimulated by adding organic matter (OM) and increasing the soil pH to >4.5, but the effectiveness of this treatment is influenced by soil properties. Two experiments were conducted using ASS with sulfuric material. In the first experiment with four ASS, OM (finely ground mature wheat straw) was added at 2-6% (w/w) and the pH adjusted to 5.5. After 36 weeks under flooded conditions, the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) and pore water pH were greater in all treatments with added OM than in the control without OM addition. The RIS concentration increased with OM addition rate. The increase in RIS concentration between 4% and 6% OM was significant but smaller than that between 2% and 4%, suggesting other factors limited sulfate reduction. In the second experiment, the effect of nitrate addition on sulfate reduction at different OM addition rates was investigated in one ASS. Organic matter was added at 2 and 4% and nitrate at 0, 100, and 200 mg nitrate-N kg(-1). After 2 weeks under flooded conditions, soil pH and the concentration of FeS measured as acid volatile sulfur (AVS) were lower with nitrate added at both OM addition rates. At a given nitrate addition rate, pH and AVS concentration were higher at 4% OM than at 2%. It can be concluded that sulfate reduction in ASS at pH 5.5 can be limited by low OM availability and high nitrate concentrations. Further, the inhibitory effect of nitrate can be overcome by high OM addition rates.

  1. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering.

  2. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering. PMID:27171983

  3. Transfer Entropy as a Log-Likelihood Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Lionel; Bossomaier, Terry

    2012-09-01

    Transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between joint processes, has steadily gained popularity in the analysis of complex stochastic dynamics in diverse fields, including the neurosciences, ecology, climatology, and econometrics. We show that for a broad class of predictive models, the log-likelihood ratio test statistic for the null hypothesis of zero transfer entropy is a consistent estimator for the transfer entropy itself. For finite Markov chains, furthermore, no explicit model is required. In the general case, an asymptotic χ2 distribution is established for the transfer entropy estimator. The result generalizes the equivalence in the Gaussian case of transfer entropy and Granger causality, a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression, and establishes a fundamental connection between directed information transfer and causality in the Wiener-Granger sense.

  4. Transfer entropy as a log-likelihood ratio.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lionel; Bossomaier, Terry

    2012-09-28

    Transfer entropy, an information-theoretic measure of time-directed information transfer between joint processes, has steadily gained popularity in the analysis of complex stochastic dynamics in diverse fields, including the neurosciences, ecology, climatology, and econometrics. We show that for a broad class of predictive models, the log-likelihood ratio test statistic for the null hypothesis of zero transfer entropy is a consistent estimator for the transfer entropy itself. For finite Markov chains, furthermore, no explicit model is required. In the general case, an asymptotic χ2 distribution is established for the transfer entropy estimator. The result generalizes the equivalence in the Gaussian case of transfer entropy and Granger causality, a statistical notion of causal influence based on prediction via vector autoregression, and establishes a fundamental connection between directed information transfer and causality in the Wiener-Granger sense.

  5. Calibration Tests of a Japanese Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.

    1949-01-01

    A Japanese log rodmeter of the rotating-vane impeller type, with a co mmutator on the impeller shaft, was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1. The rotational speed of two impellers was determined for forward speeds up to 24 knots at angles of yaw up to ?10 0 . In general, the rota tional speeds of two apparently identical impellers tested in the rod meter decreased with increasing yaw angle, right yaw causing a greate r decrease than left yaw. The difference in calibration between the t wo impellers was approximately the same as that produced by a change in yaw angle from 50 left to 50 right. Evidence of cavitation within the impeller fairing appeared at speeds above 24 knots.

  6. Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

  7. Simulation Control Graphical User Interface Logging Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewling, Karl B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    One of the many tasks of my project was to revise the code of the Simulation Control Graphical User Interface (SIM GUI) to enable logging functionality to a file. I was also tasked with developing a script that directed the startup and initialization flow of the various LCS software components. This makes sure that a software component will not spin up until all the appropriate dependencies have been configured properly. Also I was able to assist hardware modelers in verifying the configuration of models after they have been upgraded to a new software version. I developed some code that analyzes the MDL files to determine if any error were generated due to the upgrade process. Another one of the projects assigned to me was supporting the End-to-End Hardware/Software Daily Tag-up meeting.

  8. Predicting Correctness of Problem Solving from Low-Level Log Data in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetintas, Suleyman; Si, Luo; Xin, Yan Ping; Hord, Casey

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a learning based method that can automatically determine how likely a student is to give a correct answer to a problem in an intelligent tutoring system. Only log files that record students' actions with the system are used to train the model, therefore the modeling process doesn't require expert knowledge for identifying…

  9. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  10. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Sekercioğlu, Cağan Hakkı; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-08-18

    Primary tropical forests are lost at an alarming rate, and much of the remaining forest is being degraded by selective logging. Yet, the impacts of logging on biodiversity remain poorly understood, in part due to the seemingly conflicting findings of case studies: about as many studies have reported increases in biodiversity after selective logging as have reported decreases. Consequently, meta-analytical studies that treat selective logging as a uniform land use tend to conclude that logging has negligible effects on biodiversity. However, selectively logged forests might not all be the same. Through a pantropical meta-analysis and using an information-theoretic approach, we compared and tested alternative hypotheses for key predictors of the richness of tropical forest fauna in logged forest. We found that the species richness of invertebrates, amphibians, and mammals decreases as logging intensity increases and that this effect varies with taxonomic group and continental location. In particular, mammals and amphibians would suffer a halving of species richness at logging intensities of 38 m(3) ha(-1) and 63 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. Birds exhibit an opposing trend as their total species richness increases with logging intensity. An analysis of forest bird species, however, suggests that this pattern is largely due to an influx of habitat generalists into heavily logged areas while forest specialist species decline. Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the nuanced responses of species along a gradient of logging intensity, which could help inform evidence-based sustainable logging practices from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. PMID:25088557

  11. Development of a log-quadratic model to describe microbial inactivation, illustrated by thermal inactivation of Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Stone, G; Chapman, B; Lovell, D

    2009-11-01

    In the commercial food industry, demonstration of microbiological safety and thermal process equivalence often involves a mathematical framework that assumes log-linear inactivation kinetics and invokes concepts of decimal reduction time (D(T)), z values, and accumulated lethality. However, many microbes, particularly spores, exhibit inactivation kinetics that are not log linear. This has led to alternative modeling approaches, such as the biphasic and Weibull models, that relax strong log-linear assumptions. Using a statistical framework, we developed a novel log-quadratic model, which approximates the biphasic and Weibull models and provides additional physiological interpretability. As a statistical linear model, the log-quadratic model is relatively simple to fit and straightforwardly provides confidence intervals for its fitted values. It allows a D(T)-like value to be derived, even from data that exhibit obvious "tailing." We also showed how existing models of non-log-linear microbial inactivation, such as the Weibull model, can fit into a statistical linear model framework that dramatically simplifies their solution. We applied the log-quadratic model to thermal inactivation data for the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and evaluated its merits compared with those of popular previously described approaches. The log-quadratic model was used as the basis of a secondary model that can capture the dependence of microbial inactivation kinetics on temperature. This model, in turn, was linked to models of spore inactivation of Sapru et al. and Rodriguez et al. that posit different physiological states for spores within a population. We believe that the log-quadratic model provides a useful framework in which to test vitalistic and mechanistic hypotheses of inactivation by thermal and other processes.

  12. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  13. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  14. Evaluation of Simple Causal Message Logging for Large-Scale Fault Tolerant HPC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Meneses, E; Kale, L V

    2011-02-25

    The era of petascale computing brought machines with hundreds of thousands of processors. The next generation of exascale supercomputers will make available clusters with millions of processors. In those machines, mean time between failures will range from a few minutes to few tens of minutes, making the crash of a processor the common case, instead of a rarity. Parallel applications running on those large machines will need to simultaneously survive crashes and maintain high productivity. To achieve that, fault tolerance techniques will have to go beyond checkpoint/restart, which requires all processors to roll back in case of a failure. Incorporating some form of message logging will provide a framework where only a subset of processors are rolled back after a crash. In this paper, we discuss why a simple causal message logging protocol seems a promising alternative to provide fault tolerance in large supercomputers. As opposed to pessimistic message logging, it has low latency overhead, especially in collective communication operations. Besides, it saves messages when more than one thread is running per processor. Finally, we demonstrate that a simple causal message logging protocol has a faster recovery and a low performance penalty when compared to checkpoint/restart. Running NAS Parallel Benchmarks (CG, MG and BT) on 1024 processors, simple causal message logging has a latency overhead below 5%.

  15. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  16. The logN-logS relationship of normal X-ray emitting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajer, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    We have selected a flux limited serendipitous sample of galaxies from the cross-correlation of the BMW (Brera Multiscale Wavelet) ROSAT HRI and the LEDA (Lyon - Meudon Extragalactic Database) Catalogues. This sample is used to study the X-ray properties of normal galaxies in the local universe. We also find that the logN-logS distribution we derived for a serendipitous subsample, optically and X-ray flux limited, is consistent with the euclidean slope in the flux range FX(0.5 - 2) ˜ 1.1 - 110 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We further show that the same law is valid over 4 decades, from the bright sample derived from the RASS data to the very faint detections in deep XMM-Newton fields.

  17. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  19. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  20. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  1. Cost reduction in space operations - Structuring a planetary program to minimize the annual funding requirement as opposed to minimizing the program runout cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, D. H.; Niehoff, J. C.; Spadoni, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach is proposed for the structuring of a planetary mission set wherein the peak annual funding is minimized to meet the annual budget restraint. One aspect of the approach is to have a transportation capability that can launch a mission in any planetary opportunity; such capability can be provided by solar electric propulsion. Another cost reduction technique is to structure a mission test in a time sequenced fashion that could utilize essentially the same spacecraft for the implementation of several missions. A third technique would be to fulfill a scientific objective in several sequential missions rather than attempt to accomplish all of the objectives with one mission. The application of the approach is illustrated by an example involving the Solar Orbiter Dual Probe mission.

  2. Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Khatchikian, A.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

  3. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  4. Optics based biometric encryption using log polar transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-01-01

    We propose an optics based biometric encryption technique using log polar transform. In this method, the key of the encryption process has been linked to the fingerprint of the enrolled person. The order of fractional Fourier transform and the seed values of the chaotic random phase masks in combination act as the key for the encryption process. In order to link the combined key to the fingerprint, a lookup table has been formed by the key and the log polar transform of the fingerprint. The linking algorithm not only encrypts the image of the enrolled person but also authenticates the input image. The main advantage of this method is its capability to retrieve the same key in the decryption process by using the live fingerprint. The key is not required to be communicated to the receiver side. The retrieval of the image is possible only when the live fingerprint of the enrolled person is presented at the decryption side. The real life fingerprints have been used to demonstrate the proposed technique. Simulations have been performed on the Matlab platform to validate the proposed technique. The signal to noise ratio and mean square error has been calculated in order to support the proposed technique. The effect of the rotation and the scaling of the fingerprints have been studied to check the key retrieval from the live fingerprint of the enrolled person. The study of the different whorl types of fingerprint of different persons has also been done to check the efficacy of the key retrieval from the whorl types of the live fingerprints of different person.

  5. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  6. 7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOG PONDS LOOKING WEST FROM POWERHOUSE ROOF. TRANSFORMER SHED IN FOREGROUND. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  7. Using a Log Analyser to Assist Research into Haptic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, Fannar Freyr; Hvannberg, Ebba Þóra

    Usability evaluations collect subjective and objective measures. Examples of the latter are time to complete a task. The paper describes use cases of a log analyser for haptic feedback. The log analyser reads a log file and extracts information such as time of each practice and assessment session, analyses whether the user goes off curve and measures the force applied. A study case using the analyser is performed using a PHANToM haptic learning environment application that is used to teach young visually impaired students the subject of polynomials. The paper answers six questions to illustrate further use cases of the log analyser.

  8. Integrated propulsion/energy transfer control systems for lift-fan V/STOL aircraft. [reduction of total propulsion system and control system installation requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Rolls, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    An integrated propulsion/control system for lift-fan transport aircraft is described. System behavior from full-scale experimental and piloted simulator investigations are reported. The lift-fan transport is a promising concept for short-to-medium haul civil transportation and for other missions. The lift-fan transport concept features high cruise airspeed, favorable ride qualities, small perceived noise footprints, high utilization, transportation system flexibility, and adaptability to VTOL, V/STOL, or STOL configurations. The lift-fan transport has high direct operating costs in comparison to conventional aircraft, primarily because of propulsion system and aircraft low-speed control system installation requirements. An integrated lift-fan propulsion system/aircraft low-speed control system that reduces total propulsion system and control system installation requirements is discussed.

  9. An evaluation of the use of drillers' logs in lithologic studies of the Ogallala Formation of the southern high plains of Texas, progress report, 1970-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.A.; Smith, Joe T.; Thompson, G.L.; Sandeen, W.M.

    1972-01-01

    Logs made by water-well drillers were analyzed in conjunction with test-hole drilling and geophysical logging to evaluate usefulness of the driller's log in delineating areas that would be suitable for artificial recharge of the Ogallala Formation. This preliminary study indicates that lack of detailed and accurate information in many drillers' logs prevents their use as a reliable source of lithologic information. For many applications, such as evaluation of potential areas for artificial recharge, the value of more complete and more accurate information will be readily apparent as these applications become more widespread. More effort will be required in collecting lithologic information as part of the drilling operations.

  10. TILT. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.F.

    1992-06-01

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  11. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  12. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to this section. Arch. An open-framed trailer or built-up framework used to suspend the leading ends... rotating work platform meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.67. (v) The employer shall assure that each... operations near overhead electric lines shall be done in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to this section. Arch. An open-framed trailer or built-up framework used to suspend the leading ends... rotating work platform meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.68. (v) The employer shall assure that each... operations near overhead electric lines shall be done in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to this section. Arch. An open-framed trailer or built-up framework used to suspend the leading ends... rotating work platform meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.68. (v) The employer shall assure that each... operations near overhead electric lines shall be done in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to this section. Arch. An open-framed trailer or built-up framework used to suspend the leading ends... rotating work platform meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.68. (v) The employer shall assure that each... operations near overhead electric lines shall be done in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to this section. Arch. An open-framed trailer or built-up framework used to suspend the leading ends... rotating work platform meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.68. (v) The employer shall assure that each... operations near overhead electric lines shall be done in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR...

  17. The key role of log jams in the influence of transport and deposition of woody debris in a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochner, Matthias; Turowski, Jens M.; Stoffel, Markus; Badoux, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Log jams in mountains streams are preferred storage sites for bedload material and woody debris. The resulting formation of steps and pools within a channel reduces flow velocities and thereby mitigates natural hazards in case of flood events. However, this requires analysing the resilience of log jams during high discharge events which in case of failure can release large amounts of stored material. In this study we investigate log jams in the Erlenbach mountain stream in the Swiss Prealps regarding their storage function of woody debris and residence times of stored logs. Nine log jams were surveyed in detail regarding their position, extent and volume. Artificially introduced wood pieces were tagged with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) transponders and tracked along a study reach for five months. These tracers confirmed the hypothesis of debris dams being a preferred storage site for dead wood in mountain streams by the calculating tracer data point densities. The average point density for obstruction free channel reaches amounts to 0.13 pieces per m2 while it increases to 0.46 pieces per m2 for channel areas covered by log jams. The size and position of the log jams are mainly determined by bank erosion and hillslope activity as log jams are situated in highly active zones. Large logs of coniferous wood within the jams were dated using tree-ring analysis and their residence times within the channel determined based on the year of tree dieback. The residence times of large logs stored within the jams show a strong connection to the last two exceptional discharge events that occurred at the Erlenbach in 2007 and 2010 (flood events with return times of 50 and 20 years, respectively). The highest number of logs died back in 2007. The year with the second largest number of introduced logs is 2010. The consecutive years after those two high discharge events showed a declining number of trees entering the stream. So both events presumably caused a reactivation

  18. A functional progesterone receptor is required for immunomodulation, reduction of reactive gliosis and survival of oligodendrocyte precursors in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Labombarda, Florencia; Jure, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Susana; Lima, Analia; Roig, Paulina; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2015-11-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone have been increasingly recognized in several neuropathological models, including spinal cord inflammation. In the present investigation, we explored the regulation of proinflammatory factors and enzymes by progesterone at several time points after spinal cord injury (SCI) in male rats. We also demonstrated the role of the progesterone receptor (PR) in inhibiting inflammation and reactive gliosis, and in enhancing the survival of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPC) in injured PR knockout (PRKO) mice receiving progesterone. First, after SCI in rats, progesterone greatly attenuated the injury-induced hyperexpression of the mRNAs of interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), all involved in oligodendrocyte damage. Second, the role of the PR was investigated in PRKO mice after SCI, in which progesterone failed to reduce the high expression of IL1β, IL6, TNFα and IκB-α mRNAs, the latter being considered an index of reduced NF-κB transactivation. These effects occurred in a time framework coincident with a reduction in the astrocyte and microglial responses. In contrast to wild-type mice, progesterone did not increase the density of OPC and did not prevent apoptotic death of these cells in PRKO mice. Our results support a role of PR in: (a) the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone; (b) the modulation of astrocyte and microglial responses and (c) the prevention of OPC apoptosis, a mechanism that would enhance the commitment of progenitors to the remyelination pathway in the injured spinal cord.

  19. 29 CFR 1910.132 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... boots. (4) The employer is not required to pay for: (i) The logging boots required by 29 CFR 1910.266(d... sunscreen. (5) The employer must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee has lost or...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.132 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... boots. (4) The employer is not required to pay for: (i) The logging boots required by 29 CFR 1910.266(d... sunscreen. (5) The employer must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee has lost or...

  1. The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase LOSS OF GDU2 Is Required for GLUTAMINE DUMPER1-Induced Amino Acid Secretion in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pratelli, Réjane; Guerra, Damian D.; Yu, Shi; Wogulis, Mark; Kraft, Edward; Frommer, Wolf B.; Callis, Judy; Pilot, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids serve as transport forms for organic nitrogen in the plant, and multiple transport steps are involved in cellular import and export. While the nature of the export mechanism is unknown, overexpression of GLUTAMINE DUMPER1 (GDU1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) led to increased amino acid export. To gain insight into GDU1’s role, we searched for ethyl-methanesulfonate suppressor mutants and performed yeast-two-hybrid screens. Both methods uncovered the same gene, LOSS OF GDU2 (LOG2), which encodes a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. The interaction between LOG2 and GDU1 was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down, in vitro ubiquitination, and in planta coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation indicated that LOG2 and GDU1 both localized to membranes and were enriched at the plasma membrane. LOG2 expression overlapped with GDU1 in the xylem and phloem tissues of Arabidopsis. The GDU1 protein encoded by the previously characterized intragenic suppressor mutant log1-1, with an arginine in place of a conserved glycine, failed to interact in the multiple assays, suggesting that the Gdu1D phenotype requires the interaction of GDU1 with LOG2. This hypothesis was supported by suppression of the Gdu1D phenotype after reduction of LOG2 expression using either artificial microRNAs or a LOG2 T-DNA insertion. Altogether, in accordance with the emerging bulk of data showing membrane protein regulation via ubiquitination, these data suggest that the interaction of GDU1 and the ubiquitin ligase LOG2 plays a significant role in the regulation of amino acid export from plant cells. PMID:22291198

  2. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  3. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source.

  4. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

  5. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  6. Design and Use of the Stratigraphic Strip Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichter, Lynn Stanton

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of a strip log as a diagrammatic representation of the information available in a sequence of sedimentary rocks. Describes the design of the strip log (both symbolically and by visual/spatial patterns) and some of the possible interpretations that can be made using them. (TW)

  7. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  8. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  9. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  10. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. 207.370 Section 207.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the...

  11. Web Log Analysis: A Study of Instructor Evaluations Done Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Kenneth J.; Smith, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a relatively simple method for analyzing web-logs. It also explores the challenges and benefits of web-log analysis. The study of student behavior on this site provides insights into website design and the effectiveness of this site in particular. Another benefit realized from the paper is the ease with which these…

  12. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  13. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source. PMID:27447306

  15. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  16. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for...

  17. Data-Logging in Practical Science: Research and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Leonard R.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys some of the benefits claimed for data-logging methods identified through research. Discusses findings from research that sought to explore the translation of these benefits into the real-world of science classrooms and identify the range of influences on science teachers adopting and developing data-logging methods. (SAH)

  18. Real-Time System Log Monitoring/Analytics Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Dillow, David A; Park, Byung H; Shipman, Galen M; Geist, Al; Gunasekaran, Raghul

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing system logs provides useful insights for identifying system/application anomalies and helps in better usage of system resources. Nevertheless, it is simply not practical to scan through the raw log messages on a regular basis for large-scale systems. First, the sheer volume of unstructured log messages affects the readability, and secondly correlating the log messages to system events is a daunting task. These factors limit large-scale system logs primarily for generating alerts on known system events, and post-mortem diagnosis for identifying previously unknown system events that impacted the systems performance. In this paper, we describe a log monitoring framework that enables prompt analysis of system events in real-time. Our web-based framework provides a summarized view of console, netwatch, consumer, and apsched logs in real- time. The logs are parsed and processed to generate views of applications, message types, individual/group of compute nodes, and in sections of the compute platform. Also from past application runs we build a statistical profile of user/application characteristics with respect to known system events, recoverable/non-recoverable error messages and resources utilized. The web-based tool is being developed for Jaguar XT5 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing facility.

  19. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section 80.1153 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log...

  2. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  3. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  4. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  5. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Knapp, David E; Silva, José N M

    2006-08-22

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest. Across 2,030,637 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2004, at least 76% of all harvest practices resulted in high levels of canopy damage sufficient to leave forests susceptible to drought and fire. We found that 16+/-1% of selectively logged areas were deforested within 1 year of logging, with a subsequent annual deforestation rate of 5.4% for 4 years after timber harvests. Nearly all logging occurred within 25 km of main roads, and within that area, the probability of deforestation for a logged forest was up to four times greater than for unlogged forests. In combination, our results show that logging in the Brazilian Amazon is dominated by highly damaging operations, often followed rapidly by deforestation decades before forests can recover sufficiently to produce timber for a second harvest. Under the management regimes in effect at the time of our study in the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging would not be sustained.

  6. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests. PMID:25092495

  7. What's new in well logging and formation evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prensky, S.

    2011-01-01

    A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

  8. Heimdal monitoring. 1: Establishing feasibility from cores and logs

    SciTech Connect

    Jizba, D.L.; Marion, D.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a method that uses core and log measurements to quantify the influence of saturation changes on elastic properties at core, log, and seismic scales in order to investigate the feasibility of using seismic measurements to monitor gas production on the Heimdal North Sea field. In the first part, laboratory measurements of P- and S-wave velocities, porosity, density, and mineralogy are used to determined the influence of partial saturation on elastic parameters. These measurement are compared with theoretical predictions using Gassmann`s model. Second, the authors invert from logs, the rock parameters that are necessary to simulate the impact of water rise on elastic properties at log scale. Third, the well logs are modelled at seismic scales of resolution and are used to identify the effect of fluid movement on the seismic response. Finally, the results are compared to repetitive seismic measurements.

  9. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests.

  10. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1992-03-01

    Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

  11. Introducing high performance distributed logging service for ACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarias, Jorge A.; López, Joao S.; Maureira, Cristián; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a software framework that provides the infrastructure for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and other projects. ACS, based on CORBA, offers basic services and common design patterns for distributed software. Every properly built system needs to be able to log status and error information. Logging in a single computer scenario can be as easy as using fprintf statements. However, in a distributed system, it must provide a way to centralize all logging data in a single place without overloading the network nor complicating the applications. ACS provides a complete logging service infrastructure in which every log has an associated priority and timestamp, allowing filtering at different levels of the system (application, service and clients). Currently the ACS logging service uses an implementation of the CORBA Telecom Log Service in a customized way, using only a minimal subset of the features provided by the standard. The most relevant feature used by ACS is the ability to treat the logs as event data that gets distributed over the network in a publisher-subscriber paradigm. For this purpose the CORBA Notification Service, which is resource intensive, is used. On the other hand, the Data Distribution Service (DDS) provides an alternative standard for publisher-subscriber communication for real-time systems, offering better performance and featuring decentralized message processing. The current document describes how the new high performance logging service of ACS has been modeled and developed using DDS, replacing the Telecom Log Service. Benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. A benchmark is presented comparing the differences between the implementations.

  12. 78 FR 44957 - Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Final Rule; FR citation: 67 FR 76908 and the CDC Interim Final Rule 42 CFR Part 73 Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins; Interim Final Rule; FR citation: 67 FR 76886, inter alia. Information... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: BioWatch Filter Holder Log, Filter Holder Log DHS...

  13. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  14. Diet reduction to requirements in obese/overfed ewes from early gestation prevents glucose/insulin dysregulation and returns fetal adiposity and organ development to control levels

    PubMed Central

    Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Odhiambo, John F.; Long, Nathan M.; Shasa, Desiree R.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity at conception and excess gestational weight gain pose significant risks for adverse health consequences in human offspring. This study evaluated the effects of reducing dietary intake of obese/overfed ewes beginning in early gestation on fetal development. Sixty days prior to conception, ewes were assigned to a control diet [CON: 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations], a diet inducing maternal obesity (MO: 150% of NRC recommendations), or a maternal obesity intervention diet (MOI: 150% of NRC recommendations to day 28 of gestation, then 100% NRC) until necropsy at midgestation (day 75) or late (day 135) gestation. Fetal size and weight, as well as fetal organ weights, were greater (P < 0.05) at midgestation in MO ewes than those of CON and MOI ewes. By late gestation, whereas fetal size and weight did not differ among dietary groups, cardiac ventricular weights and wall thicknesses as well as liver and perirenal fat weights remained elevated in fetuses from MO ewes compared with those from CON and MOI ewes. MO ewes and fetuses exhibited elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and cortisol at midgestation compared with CON and MOI ewes and fetuses. In late gestation, whereas plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, insulin, and cortisol remained elevated in MO vs. CON and MOI ewes and fetuses, glucose concentrations were elevated in both MO and MOI fetuses compared with CON fetuses, which was associated with elevated placental GLUT3 expression in both groups. These data are consistent with the concept that reducing maternal diet of obese/overfed ewes to requirements from early gestation can prevent subsequent alterations in fetal growth, adiposity, and glucose/insulin dynamics. PMID:23921140

  15. Diet reduction to requirements in obese/overfed ewes from early gestation prevents glucose/insulin dysregulation and returns fetal adiposity and organ development to control levels.

    PubMed

    Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Odhiambo, John F; Long, Nathan M; Shasa, Desiree R; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2013-10-01

    Obesity at conception and excess gestational weight gain pose significant risks for adverse health consequences in human offspring. This study evaluated the effects of reducing dietary intake of obese/overfed ewes beginning in early gestation on fetal development. Sixty days prior to conception, ewes were assigned to a control diet [CON: 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations], a diet inducing maternal obesity (MO: 150% of NRC recommendations), or a maternal obesity intervention diet (MOI: 150% of NRC recommendations to day 28 of gestation, then 100% NRC) until necropsy at midgestation (day 75) or late (day 135) gestation. Fetal size and weight, as well as fetal organ weights, were greater (P < 0.05) at midgestation in MO ewes than those of CON and MOI ewes. By late gestation, whereas fetal size and weight did not differ among dietary groups, cardiac ventricular weights and wall thicknesses as well as liver and perirenal fat weights remained elevated in fetuses from MO ewes compared with those from CON and MOI ewes. MO ewes and fetuses exhibited elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and cortisol at midgestation compared with CON and MOI ewes and fetuses. In late gestation, whereas plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, insulin, and cortisol remained elevated in MO vs. CON and MOI ewes and fetuses, glucose concentrations were elevated in both MO and MOI fetuses compared with CON fetuses, which was associated with elevated placental GLUT3 expression in both groups. These data are consistent with the concept that reducing maternal diet of obese/overfed ewes to requirements from early gestation can prevent subsequent alterations in fetal growth, adiposity, and glucose/insulin dynamics.

  16. Automated recognition of stratigraphic marker shales from geophysical logs in iron ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversides, Katherine; Melkumyan, Arman; Wyman, Derek; Hatherly, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The mining of stratiform ore deposits requires a means of determining the location of stratigraphic boundaries. A variety of geophysical logs may provide the required data but, in the case of banded iron formation hosted iron ore deposits in the Hamersley Ranges of Western Australia, only one geophysical log type (natural gamma) is collected for this purpose. The information from these logs is currently processed by slow manual interpretation. In this paper we present an alternative method of automatically identifying recurring stratigraphic markers in natural gamma logs from multiple drill holes. Our approach is demonstrated using natural gamma geophysical logs that contain features corresponding to the presence of stratigraphically important marker shales. The host stratigraphic sequence is highly consistent throughout the Hamersley and the marker shales can therefore be used to identify the stratigraphic location of the banded iron formation (BIF) or BIF hosted ore. The marker shales are identified using Gaussian Processes (GP) trained by either manual or active learning methods and the results are compared to the existing geological interpretation. The manual method involves the user selecting the signatures for improving the library, whereas the active learning method uses the measure of uncertainty provided by the GP to select specific examples for the user to consider for addition. The results demonstrate that both GP methods can identify a feature, but the active learning approach has several benefits over the manual method. These benefits include greater accuracy in the identified signatures, faster library building, and an objective approach for selecting signatures that includes the full range of signatures across a deposit in the library. When using the active learning method, it was found that the current manual interpretation could be replaced in 78.4% of the holes with an accuracy of 95.7%.

  17. Fungi and wind strongly influence the temporal availability of logs in an old-growth spruce forest.

    PubMed

    Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2007-03-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is a key habitat for many species in forest ecosystems. To ensure the long-term survival of such species, forest management regimes must include measures that promote dead wood dynamics similar to those of natural forests. Thus, information on CWD dynamics under natural conditions is required, including data pertaining to the underlying agents of disturbance. This study examines modes of mortality, decay rates, and temporal patterns in the availability of Picea abies logs in a Swedish old-growth forest affected by internal, small-scale disturbance. All 684 logs in a 6.6-ha plot were mapped and classified into one of six decay classes. Logs in the early stages of decay were examined for the presence of heart-rot fungi. Six years later all logs were re-inventoried, including newly formed logs. Matrix models based on the transition rates between decay classes showed that it took about 60 years for 90% of the logs to decay beyond class 6 (a deformed trunk with soft wood). Large logs (> 26 cm) decayed 40% more slowly than small logs (< 25 cm). The initial volume of logs was 37.6 m3/ha but increased to 44.8 m3/ha after six years. In addition, there was a large shift in the decay-class distribution. The volume of logs in early and late decay classes increased by 71% and 45%, respectively, while the volume of logs in the intermediate decay classes decreased by 32%. The fluctuations appear to result from pulses in mortality, driven by a combination of strong winds and the heart-rot fungus, Phellinus chrysoloma, which was present in more than 30% of all logs at an early stage of decay. These results show that large temporal fluctuations in dead wood also occur in the absence of large-scale disturbance, and that heart-rot fungi are important factors driving the overall dynamics of dead wood. Since many wood-inhabiting species are naturally rare and have very specific substrate demands, such temporal variability in dead wood availability may have

  18. The Search for the Manila Galleon Log Books.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Wayne V.

    1990-11-01

    Spanish merchant ships, called Manila Galleons, made the round-trip between the Philippine Islands and the ports on the west coast of what is now Mexico, almost every year for the 250-yr period between 1565 and 1815. The log books of these galleons contained weather information which was thought to be of value in the study of the historical climatology of the tropical and mid-latitude areas of the Pacific Ocean. A search was made for the log books of the Manila Galleons to determine how many are still extant and the nature of the weather data that they contained. The search was made with the assistance of expert historians and paleographers who ware experienced in searching archives where the log books wore thought to be on file. The following archives were searched: the Museo Naval in Madrid, Spain; the Archivo General do Simancas in Simancas, Spain; Archiyo De lndias in Seville, Spain; Archivo General do la Nación in Mexico City, Mexico; and the National Archives in Manila, The Philippine Islands. Only sixteen log books were on file In the archives in Madrid and Seville. All of the logs that wore found ware from the period between 1766 and 1808. The inevitable conclusions that were reached were that log books for some of the earlier voyages may never have been written and that most of the log books that were written were either physically lost or were lost due to the ravages of time, moisture, insects or war.

  19. Extracting the Textual and Temporal Structure of Supercomputing Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S; Singh, I; Chandra, A; Zhang, Z; Bronevetsky, G

    2009-05-26

    Supercomputers are prone to frequent faults that adversely affect their performance, reliability and functionality. System logs collected on these systems are a valuable resource of information about their operational status and health. However, their massive size, complexity, and lack of standard format makes it difficult to automatically extract information that can be used to improve system management. In this work we propose a novel method to succinctly represent the contents of supercomputing logs, by using textual clustering to automatically find the syntactic structures of log messages. This information is used to automatically classify messages into semantic groups via an online clustering algorithm. Further, we describe a methodology for using the temporal proximity between groups of log messages to identify correlated events in the system. We apply our proposed methods to two large, publicly available supercomputing logs and show that our technique features nearly perfect accuracy for online log-classification and extracts meaningful structural and temporal message patterns that can be used to improve the accuracy of other log analysis techniques.

  20. Design of a pressure/temperature logging system for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.; Henfling, J.

    1994-04-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools is under development at Sandia. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, use in holes to 425{degree}C (800{degree}F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. Prototype tools are available for evaluation by the geothermal industry.

  1. Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Descamps, G.E.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

  2. LogCauchy, log-sech and lognormal distributions of species abundances in forest communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Z.-Y.; Peng, S.-L.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.; Chen, Z.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Species-abundance (SA) pattern is one of the most fundamental aspects of biological community structure, providing important information regarding species richness, species-area relation and succession. To better describe the SA distribution (SAD) in a community, based on the widely used lognormal (LN) distribution model with exp(-x2) roll-off on Preston's octave scale, this study proposed two additional models, logCauchy (LC) and log-sech (LS), respectively with roll-offs of simple x-2 and e-x. The estimation of the theoretical total number of species in the whole community, S*, including very rare species not yet collected in sample, was derived from the left-truncation of each distribution. We fitted these three models by Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear regression and measured the model fit to the data using coefficient of determination of regression, parameters' t-test and distribution's Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. Examining the SA data from six forest communities (five in lower subtropics and one in tropics), we found that: (1) on a log scale, all three models that are bell-shaped and left-truncated statistically adequately fitted the observed SADs, and the LC and LS did better than the LN; (2) from each model and for each community the S* values estimated by the integral and summation methods were almost equal, allowing us to estimate S* using a simple integral formula and to estimate its asymptotic confidence internals by regression of a transformed model containing it; (3) following the order of LC, LS, and LN, the fitted distributions became lower in the peak, less concave in the side, and shorter in the tail, and overall the LC tended to overestimate, the LN tended to underestimate, while the LS was intermediate but slightly tended to underestimate, the observed SADs (particularly the number of common species in the right tail); (4) the six communities had some similar structural properties such as following similar distribution models, having a common

  3. Relevant aspects of radiation protection in oil and gas well logging.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R S; Lopes Gomes, J D R; Costa, M L L; Miranda, M V F E S

    2013-12-01

    Radiation sources have being widely used in industrial applications, but their inappropriate use presents a large potential for hazards to human health and the environment. These hazards can be minimised by development of specific radiation protection rules and adequate procedures for the handling, use and storage of radiation sources, which should be established in a national normative framework. Recently, due to discovery of new oil and gas reservoirs on the Brazilian continental shelf, especially in deep water and the pre-salt layer, there has been a large and rapid increase in the use of radiation sources for well logging. Generic radiation protection regulations have been used for licensing the use of radiation sources for well logging, but these are not comprehensive or technically suitable for this purpose. Therefore it is necessary to establish specific Brazilian safety regulations for this purpose. In this work, an assessment is presented of the relevant radiation protection aspects of nuclear well logging not covered by generic regulations, with the aim of contributing to the future development of specific safety regulations for the licensing of radioactive facilities for oil and gas well logging in Brazil. The conclusions of this work relate to four areas, which include the specific requirements to control (1) radiation sources, (2) radiation survey meters and (3) access to radiation workplaces and (4) to control and identify the workers who are occupationally exposed.

  4. Efficacy of Ultraviolet (UV-C) Light in a Thin-Film Turbulent Flow for the Reduction of Milkborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Crook, Jennifer A; Rossitto, Paul V; Parko, Jared; Koutchma, Tatiana; Cullor, James S

    2015-06-01

    Nonthermal technologies are being investigated as viable alternatives to, or supplemental utilization, with thermal pasteurization in the food-processing industry. In this study, the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-C light on the inactivation of seven milkborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated. The pathogens were suspended in ultra-high-temperature whole milk and treated at UV doses between 0 and 5000 J/L at a flow rate of 4300 L/h in a thin-film turbulent flow-through pilot system. Of the seven milkborne pathogens tested, L. monocytogenes was the most UV resistant, requiring 2000 J/L of UV-C exposure to reach a 5-log reduction. The most sensitive bacterium was S. aureus, requiring only 1450 J/L to reach a 5-log reduction. This study demonstrated that the survival curves were nonlinear. Sigmoidal inactivation curves were observed for all tested bacterial strains. Nonlinear modeling of the inactivation data was a better fit than the traditional log-linear approach. Results obtained from this study indicate that UV illumination has the potential to be used as a nonthermal method to reduce microorganism populations in milk. PMID:25884367

  5. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  6. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  7. Proceedings of the second PFN uranium logging seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) uranium logging system developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy is described in some detail in papers by the staff that was involved in the final phase of the development project, and by others associated with the project as users of the logging probe or builders of some of the probe hardware. Descriptions are provided of the probe's electronic circuits, the uphole instrumentation, the log interpretation technique, field experience, neutron detection hardware, neutron generator design, life-test results, and observations by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation personnel regarding the use of the probe and its results.

  8. Experiment 2030. EE-2 Temperature Log and Downhole Water Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, Charles O.

    1983-07-29

    A temperature log and downhole water sample run were conducted in EE-2 on July 13, 1983. The temperature log was taken to show any changes which had occurred in the fracture-to-wellbore intersections as a result of the Experiment 2020 pumping and to locate fluid entries for taking the water sample. The water sample was requested primarily to determine the arsenic concentration in EE-2 fluids (see memo from C.Grigsby, June 28, 1983 concerning arsenic in EE-3 samples.) The temperature log was run using the thermistor in the ESS-6 water samples.

  9. Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-11-01

    Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

  10. Debunking Urban Legends about Seismic Velocities in Urban Basins Using Oil Industry Sonic and Density Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.

    2004-12-01

    I use compressional-wave (sonic) and density logs from 130 oil industry boreholes to debunk several simplistic myths about velocity-depth functions commonly used in site response estimates and computer modeling of seismic waves in basins. The logs are being used to help construct a new 3-D velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay Area, and to test tomography and gravity models of the region. The logs sample strata to an average depth of 2 km, some as deep as 5.6 km, in several urban sedimentary basins, mainly in northern California. The logs sample primarily Pliocene to Upper Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks including shales, sandstones, and conglomerates: higher-velocity chemical precipitates such as carbonates, dolomites, anhydrites, and halites are notably missing. Myth #1: Velocity increases monotonically with depth. Many logs show abrupt, pronounced, and thick low velocity zones often associated with an abrupt downward reduction of the grain size of the sedimentary strata. These low velocity zones often record regional uplift in which coarse grained and higher velocity strata are deposited above finer grained strata. These regional low velocity zones, with thicknesses of several hundred m, may represent an efficient wave guide for seismic wave propagation. Myth #2: There are only small regional variations in the seismic velocities of the basin strata. In the San Francisco Bay Area, logs from wells extending from the Great Valley to offshore basins show a pronounced westward increase in sonic velocity associated with relatively high velocity Miocene strata. Myth #3: The impedance contrast at the bottom of basins is depth independent. Most wells penetrating basement at depths less than 1.5 km around basin edges exhibit a large (30%) impedance contrast. In the Bay Area, wells penetrating basement at depths greater than 3 km in the middle of basins show only a modest impedance contrast. Thus, the logs predict pronounced basin edge effects and more

  11. A Log-Scaling Fault Tolerant Agreement Algorithm for a Fault Tolerant MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Hursey, Joshua J; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Graham, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The lack of fault tolerance is becoming a limiting factor for application scalability in HPC systems. The MPI does not provide standardized fault tolerance interfaces and semantics. The MPI Forum's Fault Tolerance Working Group is proposing a collective fault tolerant agreement algorithm for the next MPI standard. Such algorithms play a central role in many fault tolerant applications. This paper combines a log-scaling two-phase commit agreement algorithm with a reduction operation to provide the necessary functionality for the new collective without any additional messages. Error handling mechanisms are described that preserve the fault tolerance properties while maintaining overall scalability.

  12. Reduced hornbill abundance associated with low seed arrival and altered recruitment in a hunted and logged tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Naniwadekar, Rohit; Shukla, Ushma; Isvaran, Kavita; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Logging and hunting are two key direct threats to the survival of wildlife in the tropics, and also disrupt important ecosystem processes. We investigated the impacts of these two factors on the different stages of the seed dispersal cycle, including abundance of plants and their dispersers and dispersal of seeds and recruitment, in a tropical forest in north-east India. We focused on hornbills, which are important seed dispersers in these forests, and their food tree species. We compared abundances of hornbill food tree species in a site with high logging and hunting pressures (heavily disturbed) with a site that had no logging and relatively low levels of hunting (less disturbed) to understand logging impacts on hornbill food tree abundance. We compared hornbill abundances across these two sites. We, then, compared the scatter-dispersed seed arrival of five large-seeded tree species and the recruitment of four of those species. Abundances of hornbill food trees that are preferentially targeted by logging were two times higher in the less disturbed site as compared to the heavily disturbed site while that of hornbills was 22 times higher. The arrival of scatter-dispersed seeds was seven times higher in the less disturbed site. Abundances of recruits of two tree species were significantly higher in the less disturbed site. For another species, abundances of younger recruits were significantly lower while that of older recruits were higher in the heavily disturbed site. Our findings suggest that logging reduces food plant abundance for an important frugivore-seed disperser group, while hunting diminishes disperser abundances, with an associated reduction in seed arrival and altered recruitment of animal-dispersed tree species in the disturbed site. Based on our results, we present a conceptual model depicting the relationships and pathways between vertebrate-dispersed trees, their dispersers, and the impacts of hunting and logging on these pathways. PMID:25781944

  13. Reduced hornbill abundance associated with low seed arrival and altered recruitment in a hunted and logged tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Naniwadekar, Rohit; Shukla, Ushma; Isvaran, Kavita; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Logging and hunting are two key direct threats to the survival of wildlife in the tropics, and also disrupt important ecosystem processes. We investigated the impacts of these two factors on the different stages of the seed dispersal cycle, including abundance of plants and their dispersers and dispersal of seeds and recruitment, in a tropical forest in north-east India. We focused on hornbills, which are important seed dispersers in these forests, and their food tree species. We compared abundances of hornbill food tree species in a site with high logging and hunting pressures (heavily disturbed) with a site that had no logging and relatively low levels of hunting (less disturbed) to understand logging impacts on hornbill food tree abundance. We compared hornbill abundances across these two sites. We, then, compared the scatter-dispersed seed arrival of five large-seeded tree species and the recruitment of four of those species. Abundances of hornbill food trees that are preferentially targeted by logging were two times higher in the less disturbed site as compared to the heavily disturbed site while that of hornbills was 22 times higher. The arrival of scatter-dispersed seeds was seven times higher in the less disturbed site. Abundances of recruits of two tree species were significantly higher in the less disturbed site. For another species, abundances of younger recruits were significantly lower while that of older recruits were higher in the heavily disturbed site. Our findings suggest that logging reduces food plant abundance for an important frugivore-seed disperser group, while hunting diminishes disperser abundances, with an associated reduction in seed arrival and altered recruitment of animal-dispersed tree species in the disturbed site. Based on our results, we present a conceptual model depicting the relationships and pathways between vertebrate-dispersed trees, their dispersers, and the impacts of hunting and logging on these pathways.

  14. Reduced Hornbill Abundance Associated with Low Seed Arrival and Altered Recruitment in a Hunted and Logged Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Naniwadekar, Rohit; Shukla, Ushma; Isvaran, Kavita; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Logging and hunting are two key direct threats to the survival of wildlife in the tropics, and also disrupt important ecosystem processes. We investigated the impacts of these two factors on the different stages of the seed dispersal cycle, including abundance of plants and their dispersers and dispersal of seeds and recruitment, in a tropical forest in north-east India. We focused on hornbills, which are important seed dispersers in these forests, and their food tree species. We compared abundances of hornbill food tree species in a site with high logging and hunting pressures (heavily disturbed) with a site that had no logging and relatively low levels of hunting (less disturbed) to understand logging impacts on hornbill food tree abundance. We compared hornbill abundances across these two sites. We, then, compared the scatter-dispersed seed arrival of five large-seeded tree species and the recruitment of four of those species. Abundances of hornbill food trees that are preferentially targeted by logging were two times higher in the less disturbed site as compared to the heavily disturbed site while that of hornbills was 22 times higher. The arrival of scatter-dispersed seeds was seven times higher in the less disturbed site. Abundances of recruits of two tree species were significantly higher in the less disturbed site. For another species, abundances of younger recruits were significantly lower while that of older recruits were higher in the heavily disturbed site. Our findings suggest that logging reduces food plant abundance for an important frugivore-seed disperser group, while hunting diminishes disperser abundances, with an associated reduction in seed arrival and altered recruitment of animal-dispersed tree species in the disturbed site. Based on our results, we present a conceptual model depicting the relationships and pathways between vertebrate-dispersed trees, their dispersers, and the impacts of hunting and logging on these pathways. PMID:25781944

  15. Solar-A reformatted data files and observing log

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. D.; Lemen, J. R.; Acton, L. W.; Bentley, R. D.; Kosugi, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Ogawara, Y.; Watanabe, T.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Solar-A telemetry data files which are to be created and the format and organization which the files are to use. The organization chosen is to be efficient in space, to facilitate access to the data, and to allow the data to be transportable to different machines. An observing log file is to be created automatically, using the reformatted data files as the input. It will be possible to perform searches with the observing log to list cases where instruments are in certain modes and/or seeing certain signal levels. A user will be able to search the observing log and obtain a list of all cases where a given set of conditions are satisfied. An event log will be created listing the times when the instrument or spacecraft modes change.

  16. 13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  17. 14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIREROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF LOG BRIDGE (LATER SUPERSEDED BY THE WIRE-ROPE SUSPENSION BRIDGE), SHOWING OVERHANG WHERE ROCK WAS BLASTED OUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. A forward modeling approach for interpreting impeller flow logs.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alison H; West, L Jared; Odling, Noelle E; Bown, Richard T

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous and practical approach for interpretation of impeller flow log data to determine vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity is presented and applied to two well logs from a Chalk aquifer in England. Impeller flow logging involves measuring vertical flow speed in a pumped well and using changes in flow with depth to infer the locations and magnitudes of inflows into the well. However, the measured flow logs are typically noisy, which leads to spurious hydraulic conductivity values where simplistic interpretation approaches are applied. In this study, a new method for interpretation is presented, which first defines a series of physical models for hydraulic conductivity variation with depth and then fits the models to the data, using a regression technique. Some of the models will be rejected as they are physically unrealistic. The best model is then selected from the remaining models using a maximum likelihood approach. This balances model complexity against fit, for example, using Akaike's Information Criterion.

  19. 16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED MEN STANDING ON LOG BRIDGE ALONG UNIDENTIFIED SECTION OF GOAT TRAIL MINING ROAD - Goat Trail Mining Road, Highway 20, 1.5 miles North of Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  20. 51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-18) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  1. 50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. View of Caroline Dormon's log house looking from the southwest (view similar to HALS no. LA-1-21) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  2. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-04-13

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests.

  3. DIY soundcard based temperature logging system. Part II: applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes.

  4. 11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of log stamp on ends of plank, near the Minnesota end of the bridge - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  5. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  6. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Boyle, Michael J W; Gleave, Rosalind A; Plowman, Nichola S; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y C; Davies, Richard G; Edwards, David P; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M; Hardwick, Stephen R; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H; March, Joshua J; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V; Sharp, Adam C; Snaddon, Jake L; Stork, Nigel E; Struebig, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Yusah, Kalsum M; Turner, Edgar C

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  7. Optimized Hypergraph Clustering-based Network Security Log Mining*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jianhua; Lin, Weimin; Yu, Yong; Yao, Wei

    With network's growth and popularization, network security experts are facing bigger and bigger network security log. Network security log is a kind of valuable and important information recording various network behaviors, and has the features of large-scale and high dimension. Therefore, how to analyze these network security log to enhance the security of network becomes the focus of many researchers. In this paper, we first design a frequent attack sequencebased hypergraph clustering algorithm to mine the network security log, and then improve this algorithm with a synthetic measure of hyperedge weight and two optimization functions of clustering result. The experimental results show that the synthetic measure and optimization functions can promote significantly the coverage and precision of clustering result. The optimized hypergraph clustering algorithm provides a data analyzing method for intrusion detecting and active forewarning of network.

  8. 15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MEREDITH AVENUE, VIEW WITH LOG RAIL AND BARN. PERHAPS THE LAST REMAINING EXAMPLE OF CCC BUILT "RUSTIC STYLE" GUARD RAIL IN PARK. VIEW NE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  9. Evaluation of Potash Grade with Gamma-ray Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Potassium is an emitter of gamma-ray radiation, consequently deposits of potash can be detected and evaluated using gamma-ray logs. A method originally designed to evaluate uranium deposits in boreholes can also be applied to potash deposits. The method equates the depth-integral of a gamma-ray log to the grade-thickness product of a potash-bearing bed or series of beds. The average grade of a bed is then determined by dividing by the overall bed thickness, which can also be obtained from the gamma-ray log. The method was tested using gamma-ray logs and potash assays from boreholes near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  10. 5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SITE, AREA B; LOG BUILDING AND BUNKHOUSE (Features 9 and 10) AT FAR LEFT AND HOUSE (Feature 13) AT CENTER (n.d.) - Gold Dust Mine, Mill & Camp Complex, Wards Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  11. 15. Detail of log cribbing on southeast side of Pentagon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail of log cribbing on southeast side of Pentagon 1 (note stone in center). View to northwest. - Pentagon Site, Pentagon 1, West of Barry's Landing off Highway 37, Fort Smith, Big Horn County, MT

  12. 11. Detail of log cribbing on north side of Pentagon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of log cribbing on north side of Pentagon 1, (note stone in left foreground). View to south. - Pentagon Site, Pentagon 1, West of Barry's Landing off Highway 37, Fort Smith, Big Horn County, MT

  13. A proven record in changing attitudes about MWD logs

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, L.; Paxson, K.B.; Keyser, W.L.; Ball, S.

    1993-07-01

    Measurement while drilling (MWD) logs for quantitative reservoir characterization were evaluated during drilling of Gulf of Mexico flexure trend projects, Kilauea (Green Canyon Blocks 6 and 50) and Tick (Garden Banks Block 189). Comparisons confirmed that MWD can be used as an accurate replacement for wireline logging when borehole size is not a limiting factor. Texaco MWD experience evolved from last resort' to primary formation evaluation logging, which resulted in rigtime and associated cost savings. Difficult wells are now drilled and evaluated with confidence, geopressure is safely monitored, conventional core interval tops are selected, and geologic interpretations and operational decisions are made before wells TD. This paper reviews the performance, accuracy, and limitations of the MWD systems and compares the results to standard geophysical well logging techniques. Four case histories are presented.

  14. 3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF TUNNEL INTAKE, WITH LOG TRASH RACK, LOOKING SOUTH - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Farmers Lake Tunnel, Ashley National Forest, 5.7 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. Logging cuts the functional importance of invertebrates in tropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Boyle, Michael J. W.; Gleave, Rosalind A.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Benedick, Suzan; Bernard, Henry; Bishop, Tom R.; Bakhtiar, Effendi Y.; Chey, Vun Khen; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Davies, Richard G.; Edwards, David P.; Eggleton, Paul; Fayle, Tom M.; Hardwick, Stephen R.; Homathevi, Rahman; Kitching, Roger L.; Khoo, Min Sheng; Luke, Sarah H.; March, Joshua J.; Nilus, Reuben; Pfeifer, Marion; Rao, Sri V.; Sharp, Adam C.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Stork, Nigel E.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Yusah, Kalsum M.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates are dominant species in primary tropical rainforests, where their abundance and diversity contributes to the functioning and resilience of these globally important ecosystems. However, more than one-third of tropical forests have been logged, with dramatic impacts on rainforest biodiversity that may disrupt key ecosystem processes. We find that the contribution of invertebrates to three ecosystem processes operating at three trophic levels (litter decomposition, seed predation and removal, and invertebrate predation) is reduced by up to one-half following logging. These changes are associated with decreased abundance of key functional groups of termites, ants, beetles and earthworms, and an increase in the abundance of small mammals, amphibians and insectivorous birds in logged relative to primary forest. Our results suggest that ecosystem processes themselves have considerable resilience to logging, but the consistent decline of invertebrate functional importance is indicative of a human-induced shift in how these ecological processes operate in tropical rainforests. PMID:25865801

  16. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  17. 13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department Log ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department - Log of test borings - Lost Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River, twenty-three miles north of Killdeer, ND, on State Highway No. 22, Killdeer, Dunn County, ND

  18. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Kingsley, David H; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Sizemore, Sara; Vaiana, Sara M; Anderson, Jeanne; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

  19. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change.

    PubMed

    Walsh, R P D; Bidin, K; Blake, W H; Chappell, N A; Clarke, M A; Douglas, I; Ghazali, R; Sayer, A M; Suhaimi, J; Tych, W; Annammala, K V

    2011-11-27

    Long-term (21-30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km(2) Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990-2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994-1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5-15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km(-2) a(-1) 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout (210)Pb and (137)Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km(2) Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7-13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992-1993 and 1999-2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale.

  20. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, R. P. D.; Bidin, K.; Blake, W. H.; Chappell, N. A.; Clarke, M. A.; Douglas, I.; Ghazali, R.; Sayer, A. M.; Suhaimi, J.; Tych, W.; Annammala, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term (21–30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km2 Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990–2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994–1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5–15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km−2 a−1 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout 210Pb and 137Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km2 Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7–13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992–1993 and 1999–2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

  1. Long-term responses of rainforest erosional systems at different spatial scales to selective logging and climatic change.

    PubMed

    Walsh, R P D; Bidin, K; Blake, W H; Chappell, N A; Clarke, M A; Douglas, I; Ghazali, R; Sayer, A M; Suhaimi, J; Tych, W; Annammala, K V

    2011-11-27

    Long-term (21-30 years) erosional responses of rainforest terrain in the Upper Segama catchment, Sabah, to selective logging are assessed at slope, small and large catchment scales. In the 0.44 km(2) Baru catchment, slope erosion measurements over 1990-2010 and sediment fingerprinting indicate that sediment sources 21 years after logging in 1989 are mainly road-linked, including fresh landslips and gullying of scars and toe deposits of 1994-1996 landslides. Analysis and modelling of 5-15 min stream-suspended sediment and discharge data demonstrate a reduction in storm-sediment response between 1996 and 2009, but not yet to pre-logging levels. An unmixing model using bed-sediment geochemical data indicates that 49 per cent of the 216 t km(-2) a(-1) 2009 sediment yield comes from 10 per cent of its area affected by road-linked landslides. Fallout (210)Pb and (137)Cs values from a lateral bench core indicate that sedimentation rates in the 721 km(2) Upper Segama catchment less than doubled with initially highly selective, low-slope logging in the 1980s, but rose 7-13 times when steep terrain was logged in 1992-1993 and 1999-2000. The need to keep steeplands under forest is emphasized if landsliding associated with current and predicted rises in extreme rainstorm magnitude-frequency is to be reduced in scale. PMID:22006973

  2. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  3. Geophysical logs of selected wells in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This report consists of geophysical well logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The geophysical logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Results of the geohydrologic study are discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  4. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  5. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  6. 49 CFR 393.116 - What are the rules for securing logs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unless the logs: (i) are transported in a crib-type log trailer (as defined in 49 CFR 393.5), and (ii...) Use of securement system. (1) Logs must be solidly packed, and the outer bottom logs must be in...: (i) There is no space between the two stacks of logs; (ii) The outside of each stack is raised...

  7. Recovery of forest structure and spectral properties after selective logging in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Eben N; Zarin, Daniel J; Asner, Gregory P; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Cooper, Amanda; Littell, Ramon

    2006-06-01

    Effective monitoring of selective logging from remotely sensed data requires an understanding of the spatial and temporal thresholds that constrain the utility of those data, as well as the structural and ecological characteristics of forest disturbances that are responsible for those constraints. Here we assess those thresholds and characteristics within the context of selective logging in the Bolivian Amazon. Our study combined field measurements of the spatial and temporal dynamics of felling gaps and skid trails ranging from <1 to 19 months following reduced-impact logging in a forest in lowland Bolivia with remote-sensing measurements from simultaneous monthly ASTER satellite overpasses. A probabilistic spectral mixture model (AutoMCU) was used to derive per-pixel fractional cover estimates of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and soil. Results were compared with the normalized difference in vegetation index (NDVI). The forest studied had considerably lower basal area and harvest volumes than logged sites in the Brazilian Amazon where similar remote-sensing analyses have been performed. Nonetheless, individual felling-gap area was positively correlated with canopy openness, percentage liana coverage, rates of vegetation regrowth, and height of remnant NPV. Both liana growth and NPV occurred primarily in the crown zone of the felling gap, whereas exposed soil was limited to the trunk zone of the gap. In felling gaps >400 m2, NDVI, and the PV and NPV fractions, were distinguishable from unlogged forest values for up to six months after logging; felling gaps <400 m2 were distinguishable for up to three months after harvest, but we were entirely unable to distinguish skid trails from our analysis of the spectral data. PMID:16827009

  8. Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.

    PubMed

    Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann

    2012-06-01

    We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature.

  9. The human factors of implementing shift work in logging operations.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D L; Gallagher, T V; Thomas, R E

    2008-10-01

    A fairly recent development in the forest industry is the use of shift work in logging in the southeastern U.S. Logging company owners are implementing shift work as an opportunity to increase production and potentially reduce the cost of producing each unit of wood, without consideration of the potential impacts on the logging crew. There are many documented physiological and psychological impacts on workers from shift work in a variety of industries, although few address forestry workers in the U.S. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information about how logging company owners were implementing shift work in seven southeastern states. Data collected during the interviews included employee turnover, shift hours, shift scheduling, safety considerations, and production impacts. Various work schedules were employed. The majority of the schedules encompassed less than 24 hours per day. Permanent and rotating shift schedules were found. None of the logging company owners used more than two crews in a 24-hour period. Additional safety precautions were implemented as a result of working after dark. No in-woods worker accidents or injuries were reported by any of those interviewed. Results indicate that a variety of work schedules can be successfully implemented in the southeastern logging industry. PMID:19044168

  10. Contrasting Patterns of Damage and Recovery in Logged Amazon Forests From Small Footprint LiDAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Keller, M.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, Maria; Sales, Marcio; Spinelli, L.; Victoria, D.; Andersen, H.-E.; Saleska, S.

    2012-01-01

    formation at these sites illustrate potential issues for separating logging damages from natural forest disturbances over longer time scales. Multi-temporal airborne LiDAR data and coincident field measurements provide complementary perspectives on disturbance and recovery processes in intact and degraded Amazon forests. Compared to forest inventory plots, the large size of each individual site permitted analyses of landscape-scale processes that would require extremely high investments to study using traditional forest inventory methods.

  11. New roles of LWD and wireline logging in scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Y.; Kido, Y. N.; Moe, K.; Aoike, K.

    2014-12-01

    D/V Chikyu implemented by CDEX/JAMSTEC joined IODP from 2007. Various LWD (Logging While Drilling) and wireline logging have been carried out in many expeditions and for various purposes. Significant features of logging in Chikyu expeditions are many use of LWD than wireline logging, and riser dirlling. riser selected specific tools for each scientific target, and 3) carried out various borehole experiments. LWD has been more popular than wireline logging in Chikyu expeditions, because its advantages match theirs science targets. The advantages are followings. 1) LWD has more opportunities for measurement in unstable borehole, such as in the series of Nankai trough drilling expeditions. 2) LWD realtime data allows us to make realtime interpretation and operational decision. Realtime interpretation was required to set obsevartory at the properposition. 3) LWD before coring allows us to make a strategy of spot coring.We can design coring intervals for our interest and core length to improve core recovery.Riser drilling brings us merits for logging. One is hole stability (good hole condition) and the other is the use of large diameter tools. Controled drilling mud in riser drilling system prevent mud invasion to formation and mitigates collapse of borehole wall. They reduce the risk of tool stack and improve data quality. Large diameter of riser pipe enhances variation of tool seizes. A couple of new tools were used for new measurement and improvement of the data quality. For example, SonicScanner (trademark of Schulumberger) successfully measured compressional and share velocity in very low velocities at the soft sediment, where it has been difficult to measure them with conventional DSI tool (Exp319). The stress and pore pressure in the borehole were measured with the wireline logging tool, (Schlumberger MDT). The single probe tool enable to measure temporal formation fluid pressure. The double packer tool enable to fracture test by sealing and pumping in the

  12. IECM calibration and data reduction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, F. D.; Davis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The induced environment contamination monitor (IECM) tape recorder format, as it relates to the ouput of meaningful data from the IECM instrument, is explained. Eight-bit words (or bytes) generate numbers that represent voltage levels of electronic detection probes for each experiment. This information is amalgamated by the IECM Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS). In some cases bits represent certain status situations concerning an experiment, such as whether a valve is opened or closed. Voltages are transformed into meaningful physical phenomena through equations of calibration. Data formats and plots are generated as requested for each IECM experimenter.

  13. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure,more » and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.« less

  14. 10 CFR 39.75 - Documents and records required at temporary jobsites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.75 Documents and records required at temporary... and records at the temporary jobsite until the well logging operation is completed: (a) Operating...

  15. 10 CFR 39.75 - Documents and records required at temporary jobsites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.75 Documents and records required at temporary... and records at the temporary jobsite until the well logging operation is completed: (a) Operating...

  16. Interpretation of well logs in a carbonate aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCary, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the log analysis of the Randolph and Sabial core holes in the Edwards aquifer in Texas, with particular attention to the principles that can be applied generally to any carbonate system. The geologic and hydrologic data were obtained during the drilling of the two holes, from extensive laboratory analysis of the cores, and from numerous geophysical logs run in the two holes. Some logging methods are inherently superiors to others for the analysis of limestone and dolomite aquifers. Three such systems are the dentistry, neutron, and acoustic-velocity (sonic) logs. Most of the log analysis described here is based on the interpretation of suites of logs from these three systems. In certain instances, deeply focused resistivity logs can be used to good advantage in carbonate rock studies; this technique is used to computer the water resistivity in the Randolph core hole. The rocks penetrated by the Randolph core hole are typical of those carbonates that have undergone very little solution by recent ground-water circulation. There are few large solutional openings; the water is saline; and the rocks are dark, dolomitic, have pore space that is interparticle or intercrystalline, and contain unoxidized organic material. The total porosity of rocks in the saline zone is higher than that of rocks in the fresh-water aquifer; however, the intrinsic permeability is much less in the saline zone because there are fewer large solutional openings. The Sabinal core hole penetrates a carbonate environment that has experienced much solution by ground water during recent geologic time. The rocks have high secondary porosities controlled by sedimentary structures within the rock; the water is fresh; and the dominant rock composition is limestone. The relative percentages of limestone and dolomite, the average matrix (grain) densities of the rock mixtures , and the porosity of the rock mass can be calculated from density, neutron, and acoustic logs. With supporting

  17. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.A.; Morganti, J.K.; White, H.J. ); Noblett, B.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also reduce the number of unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water cut. MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with conventional logs and sidewall cores are presented along with field examples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows good correlation of varying grain size in sandstones with the T2 distribution and bulk volume irreducible water determined from the MRIL measurements. Analysis of each new well drilled in the study area shows how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data were not recorded on one of the wells, predictions from the conventional logs and the MRIL data collected on the other two wells were used to estimate productive zones in the first well. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production, and predicted producibility of the shaly sands is presented. Integrated methodologies resulted in the perforation of 3 new wells for a gross initial potential of 690 BOPD and 0 BWPD.

  18. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.A.; Morganti, J.K.; White, H.J.; Noblett, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also reduce the number of unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water cut. MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with conventional logs and sidewall cores are presented along with field examples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows good correlation of varying grain size in sandstones with the T2 distribution and bulk volume irreducible water determined from the MRIL measurements. Analysis of each new well drilled in the study area shows how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data were not recorded on one of the wells, predictions from the conventional logs and the MRIL data collected on the other two wells were used to estimate productive zones in the first well. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production, and predicted producibility of the shaly sands is presented. Integrated methodologies resulted in the perforation of 3 new wells for a gross initial potential of 690 BOPD and 0 BWPD.

  19. Optimised method to estimate octanol water distribution coefficient (logD) in a high throughput format.

    PubMed

    Low, Ying Wei Ivan; Blasco, Francesca; Vachaspati, Prakash

    2016-09-20

    Lipophilicity is one of the molecular properties assessed in early drug discovery. Direct measurement of the octanol-water distribution coefficient (logD) requires an analytical method with a large dynamic range or multistep dilutions, as the analyte's concentrations span across several orders of magnitude. In addition, water/buffer and octanol phases which have very different polarity could lead to matrix effects and affect the LC-MS response, leading to erroneous logD values. Most compound libraries use DMSO stocks as it greatly reduces the sample requirement but the presence of DMSO has been shown to underestimate the lipophilicity of the analyte. The present work describes the development of an optimised shake flask logD method using deepwell 96 well plate that addresses the issues related to matrix effects, DMSO concentration and incubation conditions and is also amenable to high throughput. Our results indicate that the equilibrium can be achieved within 30min by flipping the plate on its side while even 0.5% of DMSO is not tolerated in the assay. This study uses the matched matrix concept to minimise the errors in analysing the two phases namely buffer and octanol in LC-MS. PMID:27373604

  20. Evaluation of Data-Logging Transducer to Passively Collect Pressure Vessel p/T History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P.; Le, Son; Loew, Raymond A.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels owned and operated by NASA are required to be regularly certified per agency policy. Certification requires an assessment of damage mechanisms and an estimation of vessel remaining life. Since detail service histories are not typically available for most pressure vessels, a conservative estimate of vessel pressure/temperature excursions is typically used in assessing fatigue life. This paper details trial use of a data-logging transducer to passively obtain actual pressure and temperature service histories of pressure vessels. The approach was found to have some potential for cost savings and other benefits in certain cases.