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Sample records for requirement pmr review

  1. PMR polyimide composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    Fiber reinforced PMR polyimides are finding increased acceptance as engineering materials for high performance structural applications. Prepreg materials based on this novel class of highly processable, high temperature resistant polyimides, are commercially available and the PMR concept was incorporated in several industrial applications. The status of PMR polyimides is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the chemistry, processing, and applications of the first generation PMR polyimides known as PMR-15.

  2. Novel improved PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A series of N-phenylnadimide (PN) modified PMR polyimide composites reinforced with graphite fibers was investigated. The improved flow matrix resins consist of N-phenylnadimide (PN), monomenthyl ester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid (NE), dimethyl ester of 3,3, 4,4-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acide (BTDE), and 4,4 methylenedianiline (MDA). Five modified PMR resin systems were formulated by the addition of 4 to 20 mole percent N-phenylnadimide to the standard PMR-15 composition. These formulations and the control PMR resin were evaluated for rheological characteristics. The initial thermal and mechanical properties of the PN modified PMR and the control PMR/Celion 6000 composites were determined. The results show that the addition of N-phenylnadimide to PMR-15 significantly improved the resin flow characteristics without sacrificing the composites properties. Concentrations of 4 and 9 mole percent PN appear to improve the thermoxidative stability of PMR composites.

  3. PMR polyimides from solutions containing mixed endcaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that partial substitution of p-aminostyrene (PAS) for the monomethylester of endo-5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid (NE) lowered the cure temperature of PMR polyimides from 316 to 260 C, but the modified PMR polyimides required higher compression-molding pressures than state-of-the-art PMR-15. In this study PMR polyimides are prepared employing three encaps: NE, PAS, and endo-N-phenyl-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide (PN). The effect of PN addition on the processing characteristics and glass transition temperatures of graphite fiber-reinforced PMR composites is studied. The room temperature and short-time 316 C mechanical properties of the composites are determined. The weight loss and mechanical property retention characteristics of the composites after exposure in air at 316 C are also determined.

  4. High molecular weight first generation PMR polyimides for 343 C applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malarik, Diane C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on 343 C thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), mechanical properties, and processability, of the first generation PMR polyimides was studied. Graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15, PMR-30, PMR-50, and PMR-75 composites (corresponding to formulated molecular weights of 1500, 3000, 5000, and 7500, respectively) were fabricated using a simulated autoclave process. The data reveals that while alternate autoclave cure schedules are required for the high molecular weight resins, low void laminates can be fabricated which have significantly improved TOS over PMR-15, with only a small sacrifice in mechanical properties.

  5. Identification of cptA, a PmrA-Regulated Locus Required for Phosphoethanolamine Modification of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Lipopolysaccharide Core

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, R.; Choudhury, B.; Septer, A.; Merighi, M.; Carlson, R.; Gunn, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the in vivo environment, the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is modified. These modifications are controlled in part by the two-component regulatory system PmrA-PmrB, with the addition of 4-aminoarabinose (Ara4N) to the lipid A and phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) to the lipid A and core. Here we demonstrate that the PmrA-regulated STM4118 (cptA) gene is necessary for the addition of pEtN to the LPS core. pmrC, a PmrA-regulated gene necessary for the addition of pEtN to lipid A, did not affect core pEtN addition. Although imparting a similar surface charge modification as Ara4N, which greatly affects polymyxin B resistance and murine virulence, neither pmrC nor cptA plays a dramatic role in antimicrobial peptide resistance in vitro or virulence in the mouse model. Therefore, factors other than surface charge/electrostatic interaction contribute to resistance to antimicrobial peptides such as polymyxin B. PMID:15866924

  6. Low-Toxicity PMR Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Ely, Robert M.; Stanfield, Clarence E.; Dickerson, George E.; Snoha, John J.; Srinivasan, Krishna; Hou, Tan

    1994-01-01

    New low-toxicity PMR system developed and designated LaRC-RP46. Exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than does PMR-15. Polyimide inexpensive and readily processed into high-quality graphite-fiber-reinforced composite. Used as high-performance, high-temperature-resistant adhesive, molding, composite, film, and coating material where low toxicity desired characteristic. Significantly extends applications of PMR-type polyimides.

  7. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  8. Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

  9. Fiber reinforced PMR polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially obtained PMR-15 polyimide prepregs with S-glass and graphite fiber reinforcements were evaluated along with in-house prepared glass and graphite cloth PMR 2 materials. A novel autoclave approach was conceived and used to demonstrate that both the PMR systems respond to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) autoclave pressures to produce void free composites equivalent to die molded laminates. Isothermal gravimetric analysis and subsequent mechanical property tests indicated that the PMR 2 system was significantly superior in thermo-oxidative stability, and that S-glass reinforcements may contribute to the accelerated degradation of composites at 316 C (600 F) when compared to graphite fiber reinforced composites. Fully reversed bending fatigue experiments were conducted with a type of fixture unused for organic matrix composites. These studies indicated that the graphite fiber composites were clearly superior in fatigue resistance to the glass fiber reinforced material and that PMR matrix composite systems yield performance of the same order as composite materials employing other families of matrices.

  10. Low toxicity high temperature PMR polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    In-situ polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR) type polyimides constitute an important class of ultra high performance composite matrix resins. PMR-15 is the best known and most widely used PMR polyimide. An object of the present invention is to provide a substantially improved high temperature PMR-15 system that exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than PMR-15, as well as having a low toxicity. Another object is to provide new PMR polyimides that are useful as adhesives, moldings, and composite matrices. By the present invention, a new PMR polyimide comprises a mixture of the following compounds: 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), NE, and BTDE which are then treated with heat. This PMR was designated LaRC-RP46 and has a broader processing window, better reproducibility of high quality composite parts, better elevated temperature mechanical properties, and higher retention of mechanical properties at an elevated temperature, particularly, at 371 C.

  11. Second generation PMR polyimide/fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A second generation polymerization monomeric reactants (PMR) polyimdes matrix system (PMR 2) was characterized in both neat resin and composite form with two different graphite fiber reinforcements. Three different formulated molecular weight levels of laboratory prepared PMR 2 were examined, in addition to a purchased experimental fully formulated PMR 2 precurser solution. Isothermal aging of graphite fibers, neat resin samples and composite specimens in air at 316 C were investigated. Humidity exposures at 65 C and 97 percent relative humidity were conducted for both neat resin and composites for eight day periods. Anaerobic char of neat resin and fire testing of composites were conducted with PMR 15, PMR 2, and an epoxy system. Composites were fire tested on a burner rig developed for this program. Results indicate that neat PMR 2 resins exhibit excellent isothermal resistance and that PMR 2 composite properties appear to be influenced by the thermo-oxidative stability of the reinforcing fiber.

  12. Review of Transporter-Related Postmarketing Requirement or Postmarketing Commitment Studies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Sun, Bo; Agarwal, Sheetal; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this report are to summarize the content and status of transporter-related postmarketing requirement (PMR)/postmarketing commitment (PMC) studies in new drug applications (NDAs) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to discuss the reasons for requesting such studies and the impact of PMR/PMC study results on labeling to guide the optimal use of the drugs. Multiple data sources were searched to collect information on transporter-related PMR/PMC studies between January 1999 and May 2015. A total of 40 transporter-related PMR/PMC study requests were issued for 35 NDAs. Among these PMR/PMC studies, 27 requested studies related to P-glycoprotein. As of May 31, 2015, 34 transporter-related PMR/PMC studies (85%) are considered "fulfilled" (per the FDA's PMR/PMC website), and 22 (65%) resulted in labeling updates. The majority of the PMR/PMC studies are for drugs in the therapeutic areas of anti-infectives, oncology, and neurology. The results from PMR/PMC studies are important for dosing optimization and are often included in the updated labeling. Because a significant lag time is anticipated between drug approval and PMR/PMC fulfillment, NDA applicants are encouraged to include transporter-related assessments in clinical drug development programs for drug products. PMID:27385175

  13. Transfer molding of PMR-15 polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. P.; Moyer, D. W.; Nowak, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer molding is an economically viable method of producing small shapes of PMR-15 polyimide. It is shown that with regard to flexural, compressive, and tribological properties transfer-molded PMR-15 polyimide is essentially equivalent to PMR-15 polyimide produced by the more common method of compression molding. Minor variations in anisotropy are predictable effects of molding design and secondary finishing operations.

  14. PMR Composites Of Increased Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Toughness increased without sacrificing processability or hot strength. Resin composition provides best overall balance of composite toughness and retention of mechanical properties at 600 degree F (316 degree C) with processability obtained by substituting 20 mole percent of diamine used in PMR-15 resins with diamine containing twice number of flexible phenyl connecting groups.

  15. Essential Role for the Response Regulator PmrA in Coxiella burnetii Type 4B Secretion and Colonization of Mammalian Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Paul A.; Sandoz, Kelsi M.; Larson, Charles L.; Howe, Dale; Kronmiller, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Successful host cell colonization by the Q fever pathogen, Coxiella burnetii, requires translocation of effector proteins into the host cytosol by a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS). In Legionella pneumophila, the two-component system (TCS) PmrAB regulates the Dot/Icm T4BSS and several additional physiological processes associated with pathogenesis. Because PmrA consensus regulatory elements are associated with some dot/icm and substrate genes, a similar role for PmrA in regulation of the C. burnetii T4BSS has been proposed. Here, we constructed a C. burnetii pmrA deletion mutant to directly probe PmrA-mediated gene regulation. Compared to wild-type bacteria, C. burnetii ΔpmrA exhibited severe intracellular growth defects that coincided with failed secretion of effector proteins. Luciferase gene reporter assays demonstrated PmrA-dependent expression of 5 of 7 dot/icm operons and 9 of 11 effector-encoding genes with a predicted upstream PmrA regulatory element. Mutational analysis verified consensus sequence nucleotides required for PmrA-directed transcription. RNA sequencing and whole bacterial cell mass spectrometry of wild-type C. burnetii and the ΔpmrA mutant uncovered new components of the PmrA regulon, including several genes lacking PmrA motifs that encoded Dot/Icm substrates. Collectively, our results indicate that the PmrAB TCS is a critical virulence factor that regulates C. burnetii Dot/Icm secretion. The presence of PmrA-responsive genes lacking PmrA regulatory elements also suggests that the PmrAB TCS controls expression of regulatory systems associated with the production of additional C. burnetii proteins involved in host cell parasitism. PMID:24610709

  16. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  17. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Shoshani, Arie; Plata, Charity

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  18. PMR polyimide/graphite fiber composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrahigh speed fan blades, designed in accordance with the requirements of an ultrahigh tip speed blade axial flow compressor, were fabricated from a high strength graphite fiber tow and a PMR polyimide resin. The PMR matrix was prepared by combining three monomeric reactants in methyl alcohol, and the solution was applied directly to the reinforcing fiber for subsequent in situ polymerization. Some of the molded blades were completely finished by secondary bonding of root pressure pads and an electroformed nickel leading edge sheath prior to final machining. The results of the spin testing of nine PMR fan blades are given. Prior to blade fabrication, heat resin tensile properties of the PMR resin were examined at four formulated molecular weight levels. Additionally, three formulated molecular weight levels were investigated in composite form with both a high modulus and a high strength fiber, both as-molded and postcured, in room temperature and 232 C transverse tensile, flexure and short beam shear. Mixed fiber orientation panels simulating potential blade constructions were also evaluated. Flexure tests, short beam shear tests, and tensile tests were conducted on these angle-plied laminates.

  19. Identification of the lipopolysaccharide modifications controlled by the Salmonella PmrA/PmrB system mediating resistance to Fe(III) and Al(III)

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Kunihiko; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Cromie, Michael J; Wösten, Marc M S M; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2006-01-01

    Iron is an essential metal but can be toxic in excess. While several homeostatic mechanisms prevent oxygen-dependent killing promoted by Fe(II), little is known about how cells cope with Fe(III), which kills by oxygen-independent means. Several Gram-negative bacterial species harbour a regulatory system – termed PmrA/PmrB – that is activated by and required for resistance to Fe(III). We now report the identification of the PmrA-regulated determinants mediating resistance to Fe(III) and Al(III) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We establish that these determinants remodel two regions of the lipopolysaccharide, decreasing the negative charge of this major constituent of the outer membrane. Remodelling entails the covalent modification of the two phosphates in the lipid A region with phosphoethanolamine and 4-aminoarabinose, which has been previously implicated in resistance to polymyxin B, as well as dephosphorylation of the Hep(II) phosphate in the core region by the PmrG protein. A mutant lacking the PmrA-regulated Fe(III) resistance genes bound more Fe(III) than the wild-type strain and was defective for survival in soil, suggesting that these PmrA-regulated lipopolysaccharide modifications aid Salmonella's survival and spread in non-host environments. PMID:16803591

  20. In silico identification and experimental validation of PmrAB targets in Salmonella typhimurium by regulatory motif detection

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Kathleen; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid; Monsieurs, Pieter; van Boxel, Nadja; Lemmens, Karen; Thijs, Gert; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Moor, Bart

    2004-01-01

    Background The PmrAB (BasSR) two-component regulatory system is required for Salmonella typhimurium virulence. PmrAB-controlled modifications of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer confer resistance to cationic antibiotic polypeptides, which may allow bacteria to survive within macrophages. The PmrAB system also confers resistance to Fe3+-mediated killing. New targets of the system have recently been discovered that seem not to have a role in the well-described functions of PmrAB, suggesting that the PmrAB-dependent regulon might contain additional, unidentified targets. Results We performed an in silico analysis of possible targets of the PmrAB system. Using a motif model of the PmrA binding site in DNA, genome-wide screening was carried out to detect PmrAB target genes. To increase confidence in the predictions, all putative targets were subjected to a cross-species comparison (phylogenetic footprinting) using a Gibbs sampling-based motif-detection procedure. As well as the known targets, we detected additional targets with unknown functions. Four of these were experimentally validated (yibD, aroQ, mig-13 and sseJ). Site-directed mutagenesis of the PmrA-binding site (PmrA box) in yibD revealed specific sequence requirements. Conclusions We demonstrated the efficiency of our procedure by recovering most of the known PmrAB-dependent targets and by identifying unknown targets that we were able to validate experimentally. We also pinpointed directions for further research that could help elucidate the S. typhimurium virulence pathway. PMID:14759259

  1. Titania Deposition on PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary B.; Sutter, James K.; Pizem, Hillel; Gershevitz, Olga; Goffer, Yossi; Frimer, Aryeh A.; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Milhet, Xavier; McIlwain, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The formation, degree of crystallinity and adherence of dense titania (TiO2) thin film coatings on a high-temperature polyimide resin (PMR-15) can be influenced by the chemical composition of the polymer surface. Furthermore, solution deposition conditions can be adjusted to provide additional control over the morphology and crystallinity of the titania films. Recipes for solution-based titania deposition that used a slowly-hydrolyzing titanium fluoride salt in the presence of boric acid as a fluoride scavenger allowed growth of films up to 750 nm thick in 22 h. By adjusting solution pH and temperature, either amorphous titania or oriented crystalline anatase films could be formed. Surface sulfonate groups enhance the adhesion of solution-deposited oxide thin film coatings. While most sulfonation procedures severely damaged the PMR-15 surface, the use of chlorosulfonic acid followed by hydrolysis of the installed chlorosulfonyl groups provided effective surface sulfonation without significant surface damage. In some cases, the oxide deposition solution caused partial hydrolysis of the polymer surface, which itself was sufficient to allow adhesion of the titania film through chelation of titanium ions by exposed benzoic acid groups on the polymer surface.

  2. A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

  3. Molecular modeling of PMR-15 polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkada Ravindranath, Pruthul

    PMR-15 polyimide is a polymer that is used as a matrix in composites. These composites with PMR-15 matrices are called advanced polymer matrix composite that is abundantly used in the aerospace and electronics industries because of its high temperature resistivity. Apart from having high temperature sustainability, PMR-15 composites also display good thermal-oxidative stability, mechanical properties, processability and low costs, which makes it a suitable material for manufacturing aircraft structures. PMR-15 uses the reverse Diels-Alder (RDA) method for crosslinking which provides it with the groundwork for its distinctive thermal stability and a range of 280--300°C use temperature. Regardless of such desirable properties, this material has a number of limitations that compromises its application on a large scale basis. PMR-15 composites has been known to be very vulnerable to micro-cracking at inter and intra-laminar cracking. But the major factor that hinders its demand is PMR-15's carcinogenic constituent, methylene dianilineme (MDA), also a liver toxin. The necessity of providing a safe working environment during its production adds up to the cost of this material. In this study, Molecular Dynamics and Energy Minimization techniques are utilized to simulate a structure of PMR-15 at a given density of 1.324 g/cc and an attempt to recreate the polyimide to reduce the number of experimental testing and hence subdue the health hazards as well as the cost involved in its production. Even though this study does not involve in validating any mechanical properties of the model, it could be used in future for the validation of its properties and further testing for different properties like aging, microcracking, creep etc.

  4. Lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were performed to achieve a lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimide. The use of m-aminostyrene as the end-cap instead of the monoalkyl ester of 5-normbornene-2,3 dicarboxylic acid was investigated in typical PMR formulations. Model compound studies were also performed. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were performed on model compounds and neat resins to establish their melting and curing characteristics. The elevated temperature weight loss characteristics of neat resins and graphite fiber composites were determined. The room temperature and short-time 260 C (500 F) mechanical properties of the composites were also determined. The use of m-aminostyrene end-caps reduced the final cure temperature of PMR resins by about 55 C (100 F), but the composites prepared with these resins are limited to use temperatures of about 260 C (500 F).

  5. The GlnR Regulon in Streptococcus mutans Is Differentially Regulated by GlnR and PmrA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Chen, Yueh-Ying; Hung, Jui-Lung; Chen, Pei-Min; Chia, Jean-San

    2016-01-01

    GlnR-mediated repression of the GlnR regulon at acidic pH is required for optimal acid tolerance in Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agent for dental caries. Unlike most streptococci, the GlnR regulon is also regulated by newly identified PmrA (SMUGS5_RS05810) at the transcriptional level in S. mutans GS5. Results from gel mobility shift assays confirmed that both GlnR and PmrA recognized the putative GlnR box in the promoter regions of the GlnR regulon genes. By using a chemostat culture system, we found that PmrA activated the expression of the GlnR regulon at pH 7, and that this activation was enhanced by excess glucose. Deletion of pmrA (strain ΔPmrA) reduced the survival rate of S. mutans GS5 at pH 3 moderately, whereas the GlnR mutant (strain ΔGlnR) exhibited an acid-sensitive phenotype in the acid killing experiments. Elevated biofilm formation in both ΔGlnR and ΔPmrA mutant strains is likely a result of indirect regulation of the GlnR regulon since GlnR and PmrA regulate the regulon differently. Taken together, it is suggested that activation of the GlnR regulon by PmrA at pH 7 ensures adequate biosynthesis of amino acid precursor, whereas repression by GlnR at acidic pH allows greater ATP generation for acid tolerance. The tight regulation of the GlnR regulon in response to pH provides an advantage for S. mutans to better survive in its primary niche, the oral cavity. PMID:27454482

  6. The GlnR Regulon in Streptococcus mutans Is Differentially Regulated by GlnR and PmrA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Chen, Yueh-Ying; Hung, Jui-Lung; Chen, Pei-Min; Chia, Jean-San

    2016-01-01

    GlnR-mediated repression of the GlnR regulon at acidic pH is required for optimal acid tolerance in Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agent for dental caries. Unlike most streptococci, the GlnR regulon is also regulated by newly identified PmrA (SMUGS5_RS05810) at the transcriptional level in S. mutans GS5. Results from gel mobility shift assays confirmed that both GlnR and PmrA recognized the putative GlnR box in the promoter regions of the GlnR regulon genes. By using a chemostat culture system, we found that PmrA activated the expression of the GlnR regulon at pH 7, and that this activation was enhanced by excess glucose. Deletion of pmrA (strain ΔPmrA) reduced the survival rate of S. mutans GS5 at pH 3 moderately, whereas the GlnR mutant (strain ΔGlnR) exhibited an acid-sensitive phenotype in the acid killing experiments. Elevated biofilm formation in both ΔGlnR and ΔPmrA mutant strains is likely a result of indirect regulation of the GlnR regulon since GlnR and PmrA regulate the regulon differently. Taken together, it is suggested that activation of the GlnR regulon by PmrA at pH 7 ensures adequate biosynthesis of amino acid precursor, whereas repression by GlnR at acidic pH allows greater ATP generation for acid tolerance. The tight regulation of the GlnR regulon in response to pH provides an advantage for S. mutans to better survive in its primary niche, the oral cavity. PMID:27454482

  7. Rheological, processing, and 371 deg C mechanical properties of Celion 6000/N-phenylnadimide modified PMR composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The rheology, processing, and chemistry of newly developed N-phenylnadimide modified PMR (PMR-PN) polyimide resins are reviewed. The 371 C performance of their composites reinforced with Celion 6000 graphite fibers is also reviewed, along with the state of the art Celion 6000/PMR-15 composite. The effects of the 371 C exposure in air for up to 300 hr on the composite glass transition temperature, weight loss characteristics, and dimensional stability are presented. The changes in the composite 371 C interlaminar shear and flexural properties are also presented. In addition, composite interfacial degradation at a function of exposure time at 371 C was followed by scanning electron microscopy. The results suggest that the composite materials can be used at 371 C for at least 100 hr.

  8. Cyclopentadiene evolution during pyrolysis-gas chromatography of PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.; Gluyas, Richard E.; Snyder, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of formulated molecular weight (FMW), extent of cure, and cumulative aging on the amount of cyclopentadiene (CPD) evolved from Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) polyimides were investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromotography (PY-GC). The PMR polyimides are additional crosslinked resins formed from an aromatic diamine, a diester of an aromatic tetracarboxylic acid and a monoester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid. The PY-GC results were related to the degree of crosslinking and to the thermo-oxidative stability (weight loss) of PMR polyimides. Thus, PY-GC has shown to be a valid technique for the characterization of PMR polyimide resins and composites via correlation of the CPD evolved versus the thermal history of the PMR sample.

  9. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  10. 22 CFR 309.10 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Review requirements. 309.10 Section 309.10 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.10 Review requirements. (a) For purposes of this section, whenever Peace Corps is required to afford a debtor a review within the...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.105 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review requirements. 1274.105 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS General § 1274.105 Review requirements. (a) Once the decision is made by a Headquarters... Procurement Officer. These review requirements also apply where an unsolicited proposal is received from...

  12. Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuji, Luis C.; McManus, Hugh L.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    Thermo-oxidative aging produces a non-uniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed to separate the properties of the oxidized surface layer from the properties of interior material. Test specimens were aged at 316 C in either air or nitrogen, for durations of up to 800 hours. The thickness of the oxidized surface layer in air aged specimens, and the shrinkage and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of nitrogen aged specimens were measured directly. Four-point-bend tests were performed to determine modulus of both the oxidized surface layer and the interior material. Bimaterial strip specimens consisting of oxidized surface material and unoxidized interior material were constructed and used to determine surface layer shrinkage and CTE. Results confirm that the surface layer and core materials have substantially different properties.

  13. Presenting features of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and rheumatoid arthritis with PMR-like onset: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, R; Montecucco, C; Epis, O; Bobbio-Pallavicin..., F; Maio, T; Cimmino, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate in a prospective study whether patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with PMR-like onset show distinctive clinical and laboratory features.
METHODS—A cohort of 116 consecutive patients with bilateral girdle pain for at least one month and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was studied and followed up for 12 months. Laboratory tests included determination of ESR, IgM rheumatoid factor, haemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelet count, percentage of CD8 lymphocytes, serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and glutamyltransferase concentrations.
RESULTS—At first examination, RA was diagnosed in 22/116 (19%) patients and PMR in 94 (81%) patients. During the follow up period, 19 additional patients developed RA, and the diagnosis of PMR was confirmed in 65 (56%) patients at the end of the study. Of the clinical and laboratory features, only the presence of peripheral synovitis could differentiate patients who will develop RA from those with "true" PMR, but the positive predictive value of this feature was poor.
CONCLUSION—At present, there are no clinical or routine laboratory features allowing early differentiation between PMR and RA with PMR-like onset.

 PMID:11602472

  14. Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuji, Luis C.

    2000-01-01

    Thermo-oxidative aging produces a nonuniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed to separate the properties of the oxidized surface layer from the properties of interior material. Test specimens were aged at 316 C in either air or nitrogen, for durations of up to 800 hr. The thickness of the oxidized surface layer in air aged specimens, and the shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of nitrogen aged specimens were measured directly. The nitrogen-aged specimens were assumed to have the same properties as the interior material in the air-aged specimens. Four-point-bend tests were performed to determine modulus of both the oxidized surface layer and the interior material. Bimaterial strip specimens consisting of oxidized surface material and unoxidized interior material were constructed and used to determine surface layer shrinkage and CTE. Results confirm that the surface layer and core materials have substantially different properties.

  15. Quantitative analysis of PMR-15 polyimide resin by HPLC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Lauver, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of individual components and of total solids of 50 wt pct PMR-15 resin solutions was determined using reverse-phase HPLC to within + or - 8 percent accuracy. Acid impurities, the major source of impurities in 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), were eliminated by recrystallizing the BTDE prior to esterification. Triester formation was not a problem because of the high rate of esterification of the anhydride relative to that of the carboxylic acid. Aging of PMR-15 resin solutions resulted in gradual formation of the mononadimide and bisnadimide of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, with the BTDE concentration remaining constant. Similar chemical reactions occurred at a reduced rate in dried films of PMR-15 resin.

  16. Identification and functional analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PmrA-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Rita; Prouty, Angela M; Gunn, John S

    2005-02-01

    The PmrA-PmrB two-component regulatory system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is activated in vivo and plays an important role in resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Resistance is partly mediated by modifications to the lipopolysaccharide. To identify new PmrA-regulated genes, microarray analysis was undertaken comparing cDNA derived from PmrA-constitutive and PmrA-null strains. A combination of RT-PCR and transcriptional analysis confirmed the inclusion of six new loci in the PmrA-PmrB regulon: STM1253, STM1269, STM4118, STM0459, STM3968 and STM4568. These loci did not affect the ability to grow in high iron conditions, the ability to modify lipid A with aminoarabinose, or virulence. STM4118, a putative phosphoethanolamine phosphotransferase, had a minor effect on polymyxin resistance, whereas the remaining genes had no role in polymyxin resistance. Although several of the identified loci lacked the consensus PmrA binding site, PmrA was demonstrated to bind the promoter of a PmrA-activated gene lacking the consensus site. A more complete definition of the PmrA-PmrB regulon will provide a better understanding of its role in host and non-host environments.

  17. Quality control developments for graphite/PMR15 polyimide composites materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of lot-to-lot and within-lot variability of graphite/PMR-15 prepreg was investigated. The PMR-15 chemical characterization data were evaluated along with the processing conditions controlling the manufacture of PMR-15 resin and monomers. Manufacturing procedures were selected to yield a consistently reproducible graphite prepreg that could be processed into acceptable structural elements.

  18. 41 CFR 109-1.107-50 - Consultation regarding DOE-PMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation regarding DOE-PMR. 109-1.107-50 Section 109-1.107-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.107-50 Consultation regarding DOE-PMR. The DOE-PMR shall be...

  19. 41 CFR 109-1.101-50 - DOE-PMR System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DOE-PMR System. 109-1.101-50 Section 109-1.101-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Regulation System § 109-1.101-50 DOE-PMR System. The DOE-PMR system described in this subpart is...

  20. Toughening of PMR composites by semi-interpenetrating networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR-15) type polyimide and RP46 prepregs were drum wound using IM-7 fibers. Prepregging and processing conditions were optimized to yield good quality laminates with fiber volume fractions of 60 percent (+/- 2 percent). Samples were fabricated and tested to determine comprehensive engineering properties of both systems. These included 0 deg flexure, short beam shear, transverse flexure and tension, 0 deg tension and compression, intralaminar shear, short block compression, mode 1 and 2 fracture toughness, and compression after impact properties. Semi-2-IPN (interpenetrating polymer networks) toughened PMR-15 and RP46 laminates were also fabricated and tested for the same properties.

  1. Toughening of PMR composites by gradient semi-interpenetrating networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. J.; Srinivasan, K.; Peter, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The toughening of the PMR-15 and LARC RP-46 high temperature thermosetting polyimides is presently attempted through the construction of a semiinterpenetrating network at ply interfaces through the use of the Matrimid 5218 thermoplastic polyimide powder, whose 315-320 glass transition temperature is compatible with the PMR matrices. The 60 vol pct fiber composites thus prepared for the two resins, with and without toughening, were comprehensively characterized in flexure, tension, intralaminar and short beam shear, compression and quasi-isotropic short-block compression, as well as modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness and compression after impact.

  2. FDEMS Sensing for Automated Intelligent Processing of PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, David E.; Hood, D. K.; Rogozinski, J.; Barksdale, R.; Loos, Alfred C.; McRae, Doug

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to develop frequency dependent dielectric measurements, often called FDEMS (frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing), to monitor and intelligently control the cure process in PMR-15, a stoichiometric mixture of a nadic ester, dimethyl ester, and methylendianiline in a monomor ratio.

  3. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  4. Transverse microcracking in Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite-polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, J. S.; Herakovich, C. T.; Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of room temperature tensile loading and five thermal loadings, in the range -320 F (-196C) to 625F (330CC), upon the development of transverse microcracks (TVM) in Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminates were investigated. Microcracks were observed using a replicating technique, microscopy and X-ray. The mechanical or thermal load at which microcracking initiates and the ply residual stresses were predicted using laminate analysis with stress- and temperature-dependent material properties.

  5. Effects of graphite fiber stability on the properties of PMR polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Alston, W. B.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the stability of graphite fibers on composite properties after exposure in air at 600 F was investigated. Composites were fabricated from PMR-15 and PMR-2 monomer solutions, using HTS-2 and Celion 6000 graphite fibers as the reinforcement. The effect of long-term exposure in air at 600 F on composite weight loss and mechanical properties was determined. These composites exhibited a significantly increased lifetime at that temperature compared to composites fabricated from HTS fiber sold prior to 1975. The effect of the PMR-15 and PMR-II resin compositions on long-term composite performance at 600 F is also discussed.

  6. Effect of ester impurities in PMR-polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral and chomatographic studies were conducted which established the presence of tri- and tetraester impurities in aged monomer solutions employed in fabrication of PMR-polyimide resin composites. The equilibrium constant and apparent rate of the esterification were determined. It was demonstrated, using differential scanning calorimetry, that the ortho-ester moiety of these impurities does not completely react at typical cure conditions. It is concluded that voids formed in composites fabricated with aged monomer solution are due to gaseous decomposition products evolved by ester impurities and/or unreacted amine during elevated temperature post-cure treatment.

  7. Management of government property in the possession of off-site contractors (DOE-PMR 109-60)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This handbook contains Part 109-60 of the DOE Property Management Regulations (DOE-PMR) (41 CFR Chapter 109). This Part 109-60 sets forth the minimum requirements to be observed by off-site contractors in establishing and maintaining control over Government property provided pursuant to a contract with DOE. The contract clauses of the DOE Procurement Regulations incorporate Part 109-60 by reference in all off-site contracts in which Government property is provided. Individual Subparts of this Part deal with contractor's responsibility; records and financial reports; identification; physical inventories; care and maintenance; utilization, disposal, and retirement; motor vehicle and aircraft management; and required reports. (RWR)

  8. Analyzing pmrA and pmrB genes in Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to colistin in Shahid Rajai Shiraz, Iran Hospital by PCR: First report in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Shahriar; Doudi, Monir; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bahador, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mehranoosh

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumanni is known as a worldwide emerging nosocomial infections and it is classified as one of the six dangerous microorganisms by Diseases Society of America. Multi drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii have been reported in recent decades, which may be a result of the high use of antimicrobial agents. Colistin is the last form of treatment against this organism. The presence of pmrA and pmrB genes in A. baumannii causes the resistance of this organism against Colistin. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 samples of A. baumannii isolated from ulcer, urinary, respiratory, blood of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Shahid Rajai Shiraz hospital within a 12-month period. The diagnosis was performed by microscopic and biochemical testing using microgen kits. Determining Colistin resistance was carried out by Diffusion Disc, Colistin antibiotic disc of MAST- England and E-test. The analysis of genes pmrA and pmrB genes was done by PCR. 100 A. baumannii samples were diagnosed out of which using diffusion disk 94 cases were sensitive to Colistin and 6 cases were resistant to it. The E-test results in resistant samples presented an MIC equal to 64 micrograms per milliliter. The PCR results in sensitive and resistant to Colistin samples presented the existence of pmrA and pmrB genes. The results indicated the presence of pmrA and pmrB genes that are the main reason of A. baumannii resistance against the last line of treatment of this organism to Colistin. PMID:27592491

  9. Design Allowables Test Program, Celion 3000/PMR-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15, Graphite/Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.

    1982-01-01

    A design allowables test program was conducted on Celion 3000/PRM-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite to establish material performance over a 116 K (-250 F) to 589 K (600 F) temperature range. Effects of aging, thermal cycling and moisture were also evaluated. Tension, compression and in plane shear properties were determined for uniaxial, pseudoisotropic and +45 laminates. Test results show sufficient strength and stiffness to substantiate graphite/polyimide composites as an acceptable structural material for high temperature structural applications.

  10. Thermal stability relationships between PMR-15 resin and its composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.; Bors, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 matrix resin and the stability of graphite-fiber-reinforced composites that contain this resin as the matrix material. Three areas were investigated. The first was the effect of fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength on the isothermal aging weight loss of composites. By using type-A graphite fibers produced by Hercules, it was possible to study composites reinforced with fibers that were processed to receive different surface treatments. One of the fibers was untreated, a second fiber was treated by oxidation to enhance fiber/matrix bonding, and the third type of fiber was coated with an epoxy sizing. These treatments produced three significantly different interfacial bond strengths. The epoxy sizing on the third fiber was quickly oxidized from the bare fiber surfaces at 288, 316, and 343 C. The weight loss due to the removal of the sizing was constant at 1.5 percent. This initial weight loss was not observed in thermo-oxidative stability studies of composites. The PMR-15 matrix satisfactorily protected the reinforcemnt at all three temperatures.

  11. An investigation into the injection molding of PMR-15 polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaluca, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The chemorheological behavior of the PRM-15 molding compounds were characterized, the range of suitable processing parameters for injection molding in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine was determined, and the effects of the injection molding processing parameters on the mechanical properties of molded PMR-15 parts were studied. The apparatus and procedures for measuring viscosity and for determining the physical response of the material during heating are described. Results show that capillary rheometry can be effectively used with thermosets if the equipment is designed to overcome some of the inherent problems of these materials. A uniform temperature was provided in the barrel by using a circulating hot oil system. Standard capillary rheometry methods can provide the dependence of thermoset apparent viscosity on shear rate, temperature, and time. Process conditions resulting in complete imidization should be carefully defined. Specification of controlled oven temperature is inadequate and can result in incomplete imidization. For completely imidized PMR-15 heat at 15 C/min melt flow without gas evolution occurs in the temperature range of 325 C to 400 C.

  12. 14 CFR § 1274.105 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review requirements. § 1274.105 Section Â... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS General § 1274.105 Review requirements. (a) Once the decision is made by a... Procurement Officer. These review requirements also apply where an unsolicited proposal is received from...

  13. 48 CFR 849.111-70 - Required review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required review. 849.111... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.111-70 Required review. (a) FAR 49.111 requires each agency to establish procedures, when necessary, for the administrative review of...

  14. Feasibility of Kevlar 49/PMR-15 Polyimide for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Kevlar 49 aramid organic fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide laminates were characterized to determine the applicability of the material to high temperature aerospace structures. Kevlar 49/3501-6 epoxy laminates were fabricated and characterized for comparison with the Kevlar 49/PMR-15 polyimide material. Flexural strengths and moduli and interlaminar shear strengths were determined from 75 F to 600 F for the PMR-15 and from 75 F to 450 F for the Kevlar/3501-6 epoxy material. The effects of hydrothermal and long-term elevated temperature exposures on the flexural strengths and moduli and the interlaminar shear strengths were also studied.

  15. Feasibility of Kevlar 49/PMR-15 polyimide for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Kevlar 49 aramid organic fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide laminates were characterized to determine the applicability of the material to high temperature aerospace structures. Kevlar 49/3501-6 epoxy laminates were fabricated and characterized for comparison with the Kevlar 49/PMR-15 polyimide material. Flexural strengths and moduli and interlaminar shear strengths were determined from 75 to 600 F for the PMR-15 and from 75 to 450 F for the Kevlar 49/3501-6 epoxy material. The study also included the effects of hydrothermal and long-term elevated temperature exposures on the flexural strengths and moduli and the interlaminar shear strengths.

  16. PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites For Improved Thermal Stability And Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel; Faile, Michael; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay was organically modified by co-exchange of an aromatic diamine and a primary alkyl amine. The clay was dispersed into a PMR (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants)-15 matrix and the glass transition temperature and thermal oxidative stability of the resulting nanocomposites were evaluated. PMR-15/ silicate nanocomposites were also investigated as a matrix material for carbon fabric reinforced composites. Dispersion of the organically modified silicate into the PMR-15 matrix enhanced the thermal oxidative stability, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and interlaminar shear strength of the polymer matrix composite.

  17. DMBZ Polyimides Provide an Alternative to PMR-15 for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    PMR-15, a high-temperature polyimide developed in the mid-1970's at the NASA Lewis Research Center, offers the combination of ease of processing, low cost, and good stability and performance at temperatures up to 288 C (500 F). This material is widely regarded as one of the leading high-temperature matrix resins for polymer-matrix-composite aircraft engine components. PMR-15 is widely used in both military and civilian aircraft engines. The current worldwide market for PMR-15 is on the order of 50,000 lb, with a total sales of around $5 to $10 million. However, PMR-15 is made from methylene dianiline (MDA), a known animal mutagen and a suspected human mutagen. Recent concerns about the safety of workers involved in the manufacture and repair of PMR-15 components have led to the implementation of costly protective measures to limit worker exposure and ensure workplace safety. In some cases, because of safety and economic concerns, airlines have eliminated PMR-15 components from engines in their fleets. Current efforts at Lewis are focused on developing suitable replacements for PMR-15 that do not contain mutagenic constituents and have processability, stability, and mechanical properties comparable to that of PMR-15. A recent development from these efforts is a new class of thermosetting polyimides based on 2,2'-dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ). Autoclave processing developed for PMR-15 composites was used to prepare low-void-content T650-35 carbon-fiber-reinforced laminates from DMBZ-15 polyimides. The glass transition temperatures of these laminates were about 50 C higher than those of the T650- 35/PMR-15 composites (400 versus 348 C). In addition, DMBZ-15 polyimide composites aged for 1000 hr in air at 288 C (500 F) had weight losses close to those of comparable PMR-15 laminates (0.9 versus 0.7 percent). The elevated (288 C) and room temperature mechanical properties of T650-35-reinforced DMBZ-15 polyimide and PMR-15 laminates were comparable. Standard Ames tests are

  18. PMR-15 polyimide modifications for improved prepreg tack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    The use of mixed solvents and of modified monomeric ester reactants was investigated as a means of improving the tack and drape retention characteristics of PMR-15 polyimide prepreg. Methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol were used to prepare the esters, prepreg solutions, and T-300 graphite fabric and Celion 6000 unidirectional fiber prepregs. The tack retention characteristics of the T-300 fabric prepreg after exposure to simulated use conditions were determined using a simple lap shear test. Drape was qualitatively assessed by visually monitoring the deformability of the prepreg. Thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties retention of the Celion 6000 grahite fiber composites were determined as a function of exposure time in air at 600 F.

  19. Kinetics of imidization and crosslinking in PMR-polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study the imidization and crosslinking kinetics of norbornenyl-capped, addition-type polyimide resins (designated PMR for polymerization of monomer reactants). The spectral and thermal analyses were performed on resin specimens which had been isothermally aged at temperatures appropriate for imidization (120 to 204 C) and crosslinking (275 to 325 C). Imidization occurs rapidly (approximately 0.01/min) at short times, while at times longer than approximately 0.5 hour, the rate decreases significantly (approximately 0.0001/min). The crosslinking reaction exhibits first order kinetics during the initial portion of the reaction and its rate appears to be limited by the reversion of the norbornenyl Diels-Alder adduct. The total heat evolved per mole of endcap during crosslinking shows an inverse dependence on the molecular weight of the imide prepolymers. This reflects the effect of endcap dilution and decreased mobility of the larger oligomers.

  20. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review. A..., the following: (1) The medical necessity, reasonableness, and appropriateness of hospital...

  1. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review. A..., the following: (1) The medical necessity, reasonableness, and appropriateness of hospital...

  2. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review. A..., the following: (1) The medical necessity, reasonableness, and appropriateness of hospital...

  3. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review. A..., the following: (1) The medical necessity, reasonableness, and appropriateness of hospital...

  4. Graphite Sheet Coating for Improved Thermal Oxidative Stability of Carbon Fiber Reinforced/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Heimann, Paula; Inghram, Linda; McCorkle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Expanded graphite was compressed into graphite sheets and used as a coating for carbon fiber reinforced PMR-15 composites. BET analysis of the graphite indicated an increase in graphite pore size on compression, however the material was proven to be an effective barrier to oxygen when prepegged with PMR-15 resin. Oxygen permeability of the PMR-15/graphite was an order of magnitude lower than the compressed graphite sheet. By providing a barrier to oxygen permeation, the rate of oxidative degradation of PMR-15 was decreased. As a result, the composite thermo-oxidative stability increased by up to 25%. The addition of a graphite sheet as a top ply on the composites yielded little change in the material's flexural strength or interlaminar shear strength.

  5. Characterization of PMR-15 polyimide composition in thermo-oxidatively exposed graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    The contributions of individual resin components to total resin weight loss in 600 F air aged Celion 6000/PMR-15 polyimide composites were determined from the overall resin weight loss in the composite by chemically separating the PMR-15 matrix resin into its monomeric components. The individual resin components were also analyzed by spectroscopic techniques in order to elucidate curing and degradation mechanisms of the PMR-15 matrix resin. The isothermal weight loss of the individual resin components during prolonged 600 F thermo-oxidative aging of the composite was correlated to the changes observed in the Fourier Transform infrared spectra and Fourier Transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the individual resin components. The correlation was used to identify the molecular site of the thermo-oxidative changes in PMR-15 polyimide matrix resin during 600 F curing the prolonged 600 F thermo-oxidative aging.

  6. Kevlar/PMR-15 reduced drag DC-9 reverser stang fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    A reduced drag fairing for the afterbody enclosing the thrust reverser actuators on the DC-9 has been developed with Kevlar-49/PMR-15 advanced composite material. The improved fairing reduces airplane drag 1% compared to the production baseline. Use of composites reduces weight 40% compared to an equivalent metal fairing. The Kevlar-49/PMR-15 advanced composite is an organic matrix material system that can be used at temperatures up to 500 F.

  7. Characterization of PMR polyimides: Correlation of ester impurities with composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The presumed relationship of chemical impurities to final composite properties was investigated for PMR-polyimide resin. Ester/acid solutions of one monomer were aged at selected temperatures and chemical changes were monitored spectroscopically. At selected intervals, graphite fiber reinforced composite panels were fabricated. Changes in resin processing characteristics and composite properties were determined. The correlation of these data are discussed as are related characterization studies of PMR-polyimide resin.

  8. Characterization of PMR polyimides - Correlation of ester impurities with composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The presumed relationship of chemical impurities to final composite properties is the rationale for most chemical characterization studies. This study examines this relationship for PMR-polyimide resin. Ester/acid solutions of one monomer were aged at selected temperatures and chemical changes were monitored spectroscopically. At selected intervals, graphite fiber reinforced composite panels were fabricated. Changes in resin processing characteristics and composite properties were determined. The correlation of these data are discussed as are related characterization studies of PMR-polyimide resin.

  9. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  10. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  11. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  12. 48 CFR 749.111-71 - Required review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required review and approval. 749.111-71 Section 749.111-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 749.111-71 Required review...

  13. 48 CFR 801.602-71 - Basic review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic review requirements. 801.602-71 Section 801.602-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-71 Basic review requirements. Contracting officers must...

  14. 10 CFR 1040.4 - Assurances required and preaward review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assurances required and preaward review. 1040.4 Section... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES General Provisions § 1040.4 Assurances required and preaward review. (a) Assurances. An applicant for Federal financial assistance to which this part applies shall submit an assurance...

  15. 43 CFR 10010.36 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.36 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) The Commission will maintain a list of applicable environmental review and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental review and...

  16. 43 CFR 10010.36 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.36 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) The Commission will maintain a list of applicable environmental review and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental review and...

  17. 43 CFR 10010.36 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.36 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) The Commission will maintain a list of applicable environmental review and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental review and...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.36 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.36 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) The Commission will maintain a list of applicable environmental review and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental review and...

  19. Resistance to Colistin Associated with a Single Amino Acid Change in Protein PmrB among Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates of Worldwide Origin

    PubMed Central

    Jayol, Aurélie; Poirel, Laurent; Brink, Adrian; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Yilmaz, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    A series of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recovered from different countries was investigated in order to evaluate the involvement of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system in this resistance. Six isolates possessed a mutated PmrB protein, which is encoded by the pmrB gene, part of the pmrCAB operon involved in lipopolysaccharide modification. The same amino acid substitution (Thr157Pro) in PmrB was identified in the six isolates. The six isolates belonged to four distinct clonal groups, recovered in South Africa (sequence type 14 [ST14]), Turkey (ST101), and Colombia (ST258 and ST15). Three out of the four clones produced a carbapenemase, OXA-181, OXA-48, or KPC-3, while a single isolate did not produce any carbapenemase. Expression assays revealed an overexpression of the pmrA (70-fold), pmrB (70-fold), pmrC (170-fold), and pmrK (40-fold) genes in the pmrB-mutated isolate compared to expression of the pmrB wild-type isogenic K. pneumoniae isolate, confirming that the PmrB substitution was responsible for increased expression levels of those genes. Complementation assays leading to the expression of a wild-type PmrB protein restored the susceptibility to colistin in all isolates, confirming that the substitution in PmrB was responsible for the resistance phenotype. This study identified a key amino acid located in the PmrB protein as being responsible for the overexpression of pmrCAB and pmrHFIJKLM operons, leading to resistance to colistin. PMID:24914122

  20. The human PMR1 endonuclease stimulates cell motility by down regulating miR-200 family microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shan-Qing; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; McClory, Sean P; Shi, Junfeng; Han, Joonhee; Lee, L James; Schoenberg, Daniel R

    2016-07-01

    The motility of MCF-7 cells increases following expression of a human PMR1 transgene and the current study sought to identify the molecular basis for this phenotypic change. Ensemble and single cell analyses show increased motility is dependent on the endonuclease activity of hPMR1, and cells expressing active but not inactive hPMR1 invade extracellular matrix. Nanostring profiling identified 14 microRNAs that are downregulated by hPMR1, including all five members of the miR-200 family and others that also regulate invasive growth. miR-200 levels increase following hPMR1 knockdown, and changes in miR-200 family microRNAs were matched by corresponding changes in miR-200 targets and reporter expression. PMR1 preferentially cleaves between UG dinucleotides within a consensus YUGR element when present in the unpaired loop of a stem-loop structure. This motif is present in the apical loop of precursors to most of the downregulated microRNAs, and hPMR1 targeting of pre-miRs was confirmed by their loss following induced expression and increase following hPMR1 knockdown. Introduction of miR-200c into hPMR1-expressing cells reduced motility and miR-200 target gene expression, confirming hPMR1 acts upstream of Dicer processing. These findings identify a new role for hPMR1 in the post-transcriptional regulation of microRNAs in breast cancer cells. PMID:27257068

  1. 78 FR 28010 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business Administration... Clearance Officer, Curtis Rich, Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 5th Floor, Washington,...

  2. 14 CFR 431.25 - Application requirements for policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements for policy review. 431.25 Section 431.25 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... their estimated orbital life times....

  3. 75 FR 23310 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    .... Description of Respondents: Small Business Lending Companies. Responses: 243. Annual Burden: 122. Title: SBA... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  4. 78 FR 55769 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...: On Occasion. SBA Form Number's: 2181, 2182, 2183. Description of Respondents: Small Business Owners... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  5. 75 FR 16204 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...: Small business owners and farmers. Responses: 350. Annual Burden: 263. Title: Federal Cash Transaction... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  6. 76 FR 30748 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...: Small Business owners and potential small business owners from throughout the U.S. and the territories... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  7. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning...

  8. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning...

  9. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning...

  10. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning...

  11. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning...

  12. Effect of solution concentration and aging conditions on PMR-15 resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography is utilized to evaluate the effect of temperature, solution concentration, and aging time on PMR-15 resin solutions. Fifty- and 70-wt percent PMR-15 resin solutions were prepared from the mixture of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic ester (NE) acid, 4.4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), methanol, and 3,3',4.4.-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dimethyl ester (BTDE) acid solution. It is observed that in PMR-15 resin solution aged for 35 days at room temperature NE and MDA react to form amide and imide intermediates. The precipitation data reveal that in the 70-wt percent solution precipitation occurs after 12 days and in the 50-wt percent solution after 20 days; however, at lower temperatures (-11 C, and 2 C) no precipitation is detected. It is concluded that storage of resin solutions and powders at reduced temperatures extends shelf life by reducing the rate of imide formation.

  13. 78 FR 76886 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), agencies are required to submit proposed reporting and recordkeeping requirements to OMB for review and approval, and to publish a notice in the Federal Register notifying the public that the agency has made such a...

  14. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  15. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  16. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  17. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  18. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program § 493.555... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements....

  19. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consultation requirements. See 40 CFR 1502.25. (a) For Federal projects, NEPA documents shall be prepared... Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies. Reviews and..., 1979, 32 CFR part 197. Procedural requirements for Civil Works studies and projects are discussed...

  20. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consultation requirements. See 40 CFR 1502.25. (a) For Federal projects, NEPA documents shall be prepared... Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies. Reviews and..., 1979, 32 CFR part 197. Procedural requirements for Civil Works studies and projects are discussed...

  1. Manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR 15 polyimide structural elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to obtain commercially available graphite/PMR-15 polyimide prepreg, develop an autoclave manufacturing process, and demonstrate the process by manufacturing structural elements. Controls were established on polymer, prepreg, composite fabrication, and quality assurance, Successful material quality control and processes were demonstrated by fabricating major structural elements including flat laminates, hat sections, I beam sections, honeycomb sandwich structures, and molded graphite reinforced fittings. Successful fabrication of structural elements and simulated section of the space shuttle aft body flap shows that the graphite/PMR-15 polyimide system and the developed processes are ready for further evaluation in flight test hardware.

  2. The synthesis, characterization and thermal chemistry of modified norbornenyl PMR endcaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukenik, C. N.; Ritchey, W. M.; Malhotra, V.; Varde, U.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a program to further the understanding of the polymerization of Nadic-Endcapped PMR systems, a series of model Norbornenyl-Imides has been synthesized and their thermal behavior explored. Their syntheses and characterizations as well as their rearrangement and polymerization chemistry are described. Monomer isomerization at temperatures as low as 125 C and oligomer formation at somewhat higher temperatures are observed. Approximate relative rates for competing isomerization pathways are established and some information is obtained about the details of oligomer formation. The relationship of this data to current PMR systems is briefly discussed.

  3. Replacement of MDA with more oxidatively stable diamines in PMR-polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are performed to investigate the effect of substituting 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1,1-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1-phenyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane for the 4,4'-methylenedianiline in PMR polyimide matrix resin. Graphite fiber reinforced composites are fabricated from unsized Celion 6000 and PMR-polyimide matrix resins having formulated molecular weights in the range of 1500 to 2400. The composite processing characteristics are investigated and the initial room temperature and 316 C (600 F) composite mechanical properties are determined. Comparative 316 C composite weight losses and 316 C mechanical properties retention after prolonged 316 C air exposure are also determined.

  4. High-Flow PMR-Polymide Composites Developed With Mechanical Properties Comparable to Other High-Temperature Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    PMR polyimides, in particular PMR-15, are well known for their excellent high-temperature stability and performance, and solvent resistance. However, the processing of these materials is limited, for the most part, to prepreg-based methods, such as compression or autoclave processing. These methods involve substantial amounts of hand labor, and as a result, manufacturing costs for components made from PMR polyimides can be high. In cost-sensitive applications, these high manufacturing costs can make the use of PMR polyimide-based components cost prohibitive. Lower cost manufacturing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM) and resin film infusion, have been demonstrated to reduce manufacturing costs by as much as 50 percent over prepreg-based methods. However, these processes are only amenable to materials with melt viscosities below 30 poise. Most PMR polyimides have melt viscosities on the order of 100 poise or higher. Recent efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have focused on chemical modifications to PMR polyimides to reduce their melt viscosity to the point where they could be processed by these low-cost manufacturing methods without adversely affecting their high-temperature properties and performance. These efforts have led to a new family of PMR polyimides that have melt viscosities significantly lower than that of PMR-15. Reductions in melt viscosity are brought about through the introduction of molecular twists in the polymer backbone. Carbon fiber (T650- 35) composites were prepared from one of these polyimides, designated PMR-Flex, by compression molding. The properties of these composites are presented below and compared with comparable composites made from PMR-15 and PETI-RTM, a new low-melt-viscosity polyimide.

  5. Absence of PmrAB-Mediated Phosphoethanolamine Modifications of Citrobacter rodentium Lipopolysaccharide Affects Outer Membrane Integrity▿†

    PubMed Central

    Viau, Charles; Le Sage, Valerie; Ting, Daniel K.; Gross, Jeremy; Le Moual, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The PmrAB two-component system of enterobacteria regulates a number of genes whose protein products modify lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS is modified during transport to the bacterial outer membrane (OM). A subset of PmrAB-mediated LPS modifications consists of the addition of phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) to lipid A by PmrC and to the core by CptA. In Salmonella enterica, pEtN modifications have been associated with resistance to polymyxin B and to excess iron. To investigate putative functions of pEtN modifications in Citrobacter rodentium, ΔpmrAB, ΔpmrC, ΔcptA, and ΔpmrC ΔcptA deletion mutants were constructed. Compared to the wild type, most mutant strains were found to be more susceptible to antibiotics that must diffuse across the LPS layer of the OM. All mutant strains also showed increased influx rates of ethidium dye across their OM, suggesting that PmrAB-regulated pEtN modifications affect OM permeability. This was confirmed by increased partitioning of the fluorescent dye 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) into the OM phospholipid layer of the mutant strains. In addition, substantial release of periplasmic β-lactamase was observed for the ΔpmrAB and ΔpmrC ΔcptA strains, indicating a loss of OM integrity. This study attributes a new role for PmrAB-mediated pEtN LPS modifications in the maintenance of C. rodentium OM integrity. PMID:21378194

  6. 41 CFR 109-1.104-50 - Publication and distribution of DOE-PMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Publication and distribution of DOE-PMR. 109-1.104-50 Section 109-1.104-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT...

  7. 41 CFR 109-1.107-50 - Consultation regarding DOE-PMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation regarding DOE-PMR. 109-1.107-50 Section 109-1.107-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  8. 41 CFR 109-1.103-50 - DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins 109-1.103-50 Section 109-1.103-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT...

  9. 41 CFR 109-1.101-50 - DOE-PMR System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DOE-PMR System. 109-1.101-50 Section 109-1.101-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION...

  10. 41 CFR 109-1.101-50 - DOE-PMR System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE-PMR System. 109-1.101-50 Section 109-1.101-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION...

  11. 41 CFR 109-1.103-50 - DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins 109-1.103-50 Section 109-1.103-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT...

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.106-50 - Applicability of FPMR and DOE-PMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation (DEAR), 48 CFR part 945. (g) Regulations for the management of personal property held by financial assistance recipients are contained in the DOE Financial Assistance Rules (10 CFR part 600) and DOE Order 534... GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.106-50 Applicability of FPMR and DOE-PMR. (a)...

  13. Structural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi (Technical Monitor); Dean, Derrick; Abdalla, Mohamed; Green, Keith; Small, Sharee

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, we successfully synthesized and characterized Polymer/ Layered Silicate nanocomposite using the polyimide PMR-15 as the polymer and several layered silicate nanoparticles. We have scaled up the process to allow fabrication of monoliths using these nanocomposites. The morphology of these systems was found to evolve during processing to an exfoliated structure for one system and intercalated for the rest. Correlation with Transmission Electron Microscopy studies is underway. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a significant increase in the thermomechanical properties (E' and E'') of 2.5 wt.% clay loaded nanocomposites in comparison to the neat polyimide. Increasing the clay loading to 5 wt.% decreased these properties. Higher glass transition temperatures were observed for 2.5 wt.% nanocomposites compared to the neat polyimide. A lower coefficient of thermal expansion was observed only for the PGV/PMR-15 nanocomposite. An improvement in the flexural properties (modulus, strength and elongation) was observed for the 2.5 wt.% nanocomposite but not for the 5 wt.% nanocomposites. The improved barrier properties polymer/ silicate nanocomposites suggest that moisture uptake should be decreased for PMR-15 nanocomposites. The results of some recent experiments to examine delineate the ability of the silicate nanoparticles in improving the hydrolytic degradation of PMR-15 will be discussed.

  14. Determination and proof of structure of monosubstituted dihydrosilaazanthrones on the basis of PMR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Prostakov, N.S.; Fomichev, A.A.; Golovtsov, N.I.; Varlamov, A.V.; Nazrul, I.; Polosin, V.M.

    1986-05-01

    PMR spectra have been used in establishing the structure of ten bromo-, nitro-, and amino-substituted 10,10-dimethyl-10-sila-2-azaanthrones. Anomalous effects of NO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 2/ groups adjacent to the carbonyl carbon have been observed and explained; these effects are related to the specific geometry of these molecules.

  15. Development of DMBZ-15 High-Glass-Transition-Temperature Polyimides as PMR-15 Replacements Given R&D 100 Award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    PMR-15, a high-temperature polyimide developed in the mid-1970s at the NASA Lewis Research Center,1 offers the combination of low cost, easy processing, and good high-temperature performance and stability. It has been recognized as the leading polymer matrix resin for carbon-fiber-reinforced composites used in aircraft engine components. The state-of-the-art PMR-15 polyimide composite has a glass-transition temperature (Tg) of 348 C (658 F). Since composite materials must be used at temperatures well below their glass-transition temperature, the long-term use temperatures of PMR-15 composites can be no higher than 288 C (550 F). In addition, PMR-15 is made from methylene dianiline (MDA), a known liver toxin. Concerns about the safety of workers exposed to MDA during the fabrication of PMR-15 components and about the environmental impact of PMR-15 waste disposal have led to the industry-wide implementation of special handling procedures to minimize the health risks associated with this material. These procedures have increased manufacturing and maintenance costs significantly and have limited the use of PMR-15 in commercial aircraft engine components.

  16. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur.

  17. 14 CFR 415.59 - Information requirements for payload review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information requirements for payload review. 415.59 Section 415.59 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... payload operations during the life of the payload; and (8) Delivery point in flight at which the...

  18. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.46 Section 412.46... Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical... performed, as evidenced by the physician's entries in the patient's medical record, physicians must...

  19. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consequences on the existing environment, the future environment, and individual sensitive environmental issues... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  20. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consequences on the existing environment, the future environment, and individual sensitive environmental issues... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  1. 48 CFR 801.602-70 - General review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General review requirements. 801.602-70 Section 801.602-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  2. 48 CFR 801.602-75 - Review requirements-OGC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review requirements-OGC. 801.602-75 Section 801.602-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  3. 48 CFR 801.602-71 - Basic review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic review requirements. 801.602-71 Section 801.602-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5 - Preconstruction review and notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General... preconstruction review requirements in this section apply to the owner or operator of new affected sources and reconstructed affected sources that are major-emitting as specified in this section. New and...

  5. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requiring review and approval as set forth in this section, § 806.5, or 18 CFR part 801. The taking or... § 806.5 or 18 CFR part 801. Such project sponsors shall be notified in writing by the Executive Director... forage crops, trees, flowers, shrubs, turf products, livestock, or poultry, or for aquaculture, to...

  6. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requiring review and approval as set forth in this section, § 806.5, or 18 CFR part 801. The taking or... § 806.5 or 18 CFR part 801. Such project sponsors shall be notified in writing by the Executive Director... forage crops, trees, flowers, shrubs, turf products, livestock, or poultry, or for aquaculture, to...

  7. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requiring review and approval as set forth in this section, § 806.5, or 18 CFR part 801. The taking or... § 806.5 or 18 CFR part 801. Such project sponsors shall be notified in writing by the Executive Director... forage crops, trees, flowers, shrubs, turf products, livestock, or poultry, or for aquaculture, to...

  8. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Deferments of RUS Loan Payments for Rural Development Projects § 1703.312 RUS review requirements. Borrowers shall ensure that funds are invested in the rural development project as... receiving loan payment deferments as necessary to ensure that the investments in the rural...

  9. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Deferments of RUS Loan Payments for Rural Development Projects § 1703.312 RUS review requirements. Borrowers shall ensure that funds are invested in the rural development project as... receiving loan payment deferments as necessary to ensure that the investments in the rural...

  10. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Deferments of RUS Loan Payments for Rural Development Projects § 1703.312 RUS review requirements. Borrowers shall ensure that funds are invested in the rural development project as... receiving loan payment deferments as necessary to ensure that the investments in the rural...

  11. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continued stay review required. 456.231 Section 456.231 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur...

  12. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued stay review required. 456.231 Section 456.231 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur...

  13. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Continued stay review required. 456.231 Section 456.231 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur...

  14. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Continued stay review required. 456.231 Section 456.231 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur...

  15. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Continued stay review required. 456.231 Section 456.231 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur...

  16. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Institutional Review Board requirements. 814.124 Section 814.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... facility or by a similarly constituted IRB that has agreed to oversee such use and to which the local...

  17. 48 CFR 232.072-1 - Required financial reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required financial reviews. 232.072-1 Section 232.072-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... does not otherwise have sufficient information to make a positive determination of...

  18. 49 CFR 37.215 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.215 Review of requirements. (a) Beginning October 28, 2005... including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (i) The percentage of accessible buses in the... accessible buses in a timely manner. (iii) The ridership of small and large operators'...

  19. 49 CFR 37.215 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.215 Review of requirements. (a) Beginning October 28, 2005... including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (i) The percentage of accessible buses in the... accessible buses in a timely manner. (iii) The ridership of small and large operators'...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.355 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.355 Review of requirements. Upon the... the conditional commitment and the options listed on the back of the form, the Lender may proceed with loan closing. If the conditions cannot be met, the Lender and borrower may propose alternate...

  1. 14 CFR 1216.320 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., assessments, and any impact statement preparation concurrently with environmental reviews required by the laws... Executive Order 11990 (Wetlands), as amended, and implemented by 14 CFR subpart 1216.2—Floodplains and... proposed for location in or which may affect a floodplain or wetland. A comparative evaluation of...

  2. 14 CFR 1216.320 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., assessments, and any impact statement preparation concurrently with environmental reviews required by the laws... Executive Order 11990 (Wetlands), as amended, and implemented by 14 CFR subpart 1216.2—Floodplains and... proposed for location in or which may affect a floodplain or wetland. A comparative evaluation of...

  3. 48 CFR 801.602-75 - Review requirements-OGC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review requirements-OGC. 801.602-75 Section 801.602-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  4. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.46 Section 412.46 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.46...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.453 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of requirements. 1980.453 Section 1980.453 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 1980.453 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of requirements. 1980.453 Section 1980.453 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.453 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Review of requirements. 1980.453 Section 1980.453 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.453 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of requirements. 1980.453 Section 1980.453 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.453 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of requirements. 1980.453 Section 1980.453 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requiring review and approval as set forth in this section, § 806.5, or 18 CFR part 801. The taking or... determined by the commissioners or Executive Director pursuant to § 806.5 or 18 CFR part 801. Such project... groundwater or surface water, shall also be subject to the standards set forth in § 806.23. Except to...

  11. 43 CFR 46.430 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.430 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) Any environmental impact statement that also addresses.... The environmental impact statement must include these associated analyses, studies, or surveys,......

  12. 43 CFR 46.430 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.430 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) Any environmental impact statement that also addresses.... The environmental impact statement must include these associated analyses, studies, or surveys,......

  13. 43 CFR 46.430 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.430 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) Any environmental impact statement that also addresses.... The environmental impact statement must include these associated analyses, studies, or surveys,......

  14. 43 CFR 46.430 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.430 Environmental review and consultation requirements. (a) Any environmental impact statement that also addresses.... The environmental impact statement must include these associated analyses, studies, or surveys,......

  15. 48 CFR 801.602-71 - Basic review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic review requirements. 801.602-71 Section 801.602-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  16. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requiring review and approval as set forth in this section, § 806.5, or 18 CFR part 801. (i) Any project... determined by the commissioners or Executive Director pursuant to § 806.5 or 18 CFR part 801. Such project..., turf products, livestock, or poultry, or for aquaculture, to the extent that, and for so long as,...

  17. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Deferments of RUS Loan Payments for Rural Development Projects § 1703.312 RUS review requirements. Borrowers shall ensure that funds are invested in the rural development project as... project are in accordance with this subpart and the representations and purposes stated in the...

  18. Guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packaging: Review of quality assurance requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, D.W.

    1988-10-01

    This review section describes quality assurance requirements applying to design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging which are important to safety. The design effort, operation's plans, and quality assurance requirements should be integrated to achieve a system in which the independent QA program is not overly stringent and the application of QA requirements is commensurate with safety significance. The reviewer must verify that the applicant's QA section in the SARP contains package-specific QA information required by DOE Orders and federal regulations that demonstrate compliance. 8 refs.

  19. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  20. Dam Methylation Participates in the Regulation of PmrA/PmrB and RcsC/RcsD/RcsB Two Component Regulatory Systems in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán; Castañeda, María del Rosario Aya; Llana, Mariángeles Noto; Giacomodonato, Mónica Nancy; Valvano, Miguel Ángel; Cerquetti, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The absence of Dam in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a defect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pattern associated to a reduced expression of wzz gene. Wzz is the chain length regulator of the LPS O-antigen. Here we investigated whether Dam regulates wzz gene expression through its two known regulators, PmrA and RcsB. Thus, the expression of rcsB and pmrA was monitored by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting using fusions with 3×FLAG tag in wild type (wt) and dam strains of S. Enteritidis. Dam regulated the expression of both rcsB and pmrA genes; nevertheless, the defect in LPS pattern was only related to a diminished expression of RcsB. Interestingly, regulation of wzz in serovar Enteritidis differed from that reported earlier for serovar Typhimurium; RcsB induces wzz expression in both serovars, whereas PmrA induces wzz in S. Typhimurium but represses it in serovar Enteritidis. Moreover, we found that in S. Enteritidis there is an interaction between both wzz regulators: RcsB stimulates the expression of pmrA and PmrA represses the expression of rcsB. Our results would be an example of differential regulation of orthologous genes expression, providing differences in phenotypic traits between closely related bacterial serovars. PMID:23418573

  1. Dam methylation participates in the regulation of PmrA/PmrB and RcsC/RcsD/RcsB two component regulatory systems in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Sarnacki, Sebastián Hernán; Castañeda, María del Rosario Aya; Noto Llana, Mariángeles; Giacomodonato, Mónica Nancy; Valvano, Miguel Ángel; Cerquetti, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The absence of Dam in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causes a defect in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pattern associated to a reduced expression of wzz gene. Wzz is the chain length regulator of the LPS O-antigen. Here we investigated whether Dam regulates wzz gene expression through its two known regulators, PmrA and RcsB. Thus, the expression of rcsB and pmrA was monitored by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting using fusions with 3×FLAG tag in wild type (wt) and dam strains of S. Enteritidis. Dam regulated the expression of both rcsB and pmrA genes; nevertheless, the defect in LPS pattern was only related to a diminished expression of RcsB. Interestingly, regulation of wzz in serovar Enteritidis differed from that reported earlier for serovar Typhimurium; RcsB induces wzz expression in both serovars, whereas PmrA induces wzz in S. Typhimurium but represses it in serovar Enteritidis. Moreover, we found that in S. Enteritidis there is an interaction between both wzz regulators: RcsB stimulates the expression of pmrA and PmrA represses the expression of rcsB. Our results would be an example of differential regulation of orthologous genes expression, providing differences in phenotypic traits between closely related bacterial serovars. PMID:23418573

  2. Analysis of. gamma. -radiolysis products of aqueous solutions of esters of aliphatic amino acids by the PMR method

    SciTech Connect

    Panin, V.I.; Sidorov, P.S.; Usatyi, A.F.

    1987-09-01

    The ..gamma..-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methyl esters of aliphatic amino acids and peptides was investigated by the method of nuclear (proton) magnetic resonance (PMR). The resonance lines appearing in the PMR spectra of the irradiated systems were identified, and a conclusion was drawn about the molecular structure of the radiolysis products. The kinetics of the accumulation of radiolysis products was studied, and the values of their radiation yields were estimated.

  3. The Pmr1 protein, the major yeast Ca2+-ATPase in the Golgi, regulates intracellular levels of the cadmium ion.

    PubMed

    Lauer Júnior, Cláudio Marcos; Bonatto, Diego; Mielniczki-Pereira, Albanin Aparecida; Schuch, Ana Zilles; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria-Lúcia; Pêgas Henriques, João Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Cadmium is a nonessential, highly toxic heavy metal that shows ionic properties similar to calcium. These ionic similarities imply that the cadmium ion, Cd2+, is a calcium ion, Ca2+, receptor-agonist, affecting the same biochemical pathways involved in Ca2+ homeostasis. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PMC1 and PMR1 genes encode vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+-ATPases, respectively. The PMR1 protein product Pmr1p is involved in both Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. This study investigated the importance of Pmc1p and Pmr1p for Cd2+ cellular detoxification. Using the standard techniques of yeast molecular research and a multielemental procedure named particle-induced X-ray emission, Pmr1p was identified as a protein that directly participates in the detoxification of Cd2+, possibly through the secretory pathway. The results allow us to posit a model of Cd2+ detoxification where Pmr1p has a central role in cell survival in a Cd2+-rich environment.

  4. Studies on Hot-Melt Prepregging of PMR-II-50 Polyimide Resin with Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.; Juhas, John; Veverka, Adrienne; Klans, Ojars; Inghram, Linda; Scheiman, Dan; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Zoha, John; Bubnick, Jim

    2003-01-01

    A Second generation PMR (in situ Polymerization of Monomer Reactants) polyimide resin, PMR-II-50, has been considered for high temperature and high stiffness space propulsion composites applications for its improved high temperature performance. As part of composite processing optimization, two commercial prepregging methods: solution vs. hot-melt processes were investigated with M40J fabrics from Toray. In a previous study a systematic chemical, physical, thermal and mechanical characterization of these composites indicated that poor resin-fiber interfacial wetting, especially for the hot-melt process, resulted in poor composite quality. In order to improve the interfacial wetting, optimization of the resin viscosity and process variables were attempted in a commercial hot-melt prepregging line. In addition to presenting the results from the prepreg quality optimization trials, the combined effects of the prepregging method and two different composite cure methods, i.e., hot press vs. autoclave on composite quality and properties are discussed.

  5. Development of Processable PMR-Type Polymides with Star-Branched Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Eby, R. K.; Meador, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    In the last two decades, high temperature polyimide matrix composites have found broad applications in aerospace structural components, due to their high specific modulus and high specific strength. As matrix resins, aromatic polyimides exhibit exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties. However, their rodlike structures often result in poor solubility in most common organic solvents, as well as high melt temperature and melt viscosity, making them difficult to process. To overcome this difficulty, flexible linkages including O, SO2 or CH2 non coplanar biphenyl moieties, bulky lateral substituents, and crankshaft structures are often incorporated into the polymer backbones. Addition-curing of low molecular weight polyimides (resins) is another approach to improve processability. One of the most successfully developed materials has been PMR-15 (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants, molecular weight of 1500 g/mol), because of its good combination of thermal and mechanical properties and ease of processability. However, due to the high melt viscosity of PMR-type resins, use of more economical processing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), is not possible. Recent research has focused on the incorporation of trifunctional monomers into addition-curing polyimides in an attempt to improve the processability of these polymers. The objective of this research is to use an aromatic triamine, 1,3,5 tris (4-aminophenoxy) benzene, to prepare new resin systems with starbranched structures. The glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and thermal oxidative stability TOS) of these polymers are compared to their linear counterparts and PMR-15.

  6. Ethics Review of Survey Research: A Mandatory Requirement for Publication?

    PubMed

    Whicher, Danielle; Wu, Albert W

    2015-12-01

    National regulations governing human subjects research differ with regard to whether they require survey research to be overseen by institutional ethics boards or committees. In cases where ethical review has been waived, or was provided by an individual or group other than an institutional ethics board, journals may question the appropriateness of the waiver or alternative review when making determinations about whether to accept the manuscript for publication. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance for journals to consider when making determinations about the necessity of ethical review for survey research projects. We review the functions of ethics oversight and consider the importance of those functions within the context of survey research. In survey research, no intervention is delivered to research participants. As a result, there is no risk of physical harm to individuals who participate. However, there can be a risk of informational or psychological harms. In situations where there is greater than minimal risk of informational or psychological harms, the survey research should have received institutional ethics oversight. Additionally, survey research projects that enroll vulnerable individuals with diminished autonomy should receive institutional ethics oversight. We hope that this article leads to further guidance on this subject by authoritative group such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

  7. Differentiation between Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) and Elderly-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Is Enthesitis a New Pathological Lesion in PMR?

    PubMed Central

    Wakura, Daisuke; Kotani, Takuya; Takeuchi, Tohru; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shuzo; Makino, Shigeki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background It is difficult to differentiate polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) from elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) in clinical practice. We compared FDG-PET/CT findings between patients with PMR and those with EORA and extracted factors useful for differentiating the two disorders. Methods We compared abnormal FDG accumulation sites and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) between 15 patients with PMR and 7 with EORA in whom FDG-PET/CT was performed. Results The proportion of patients in the PMR group with abnormal FDG accumulation at the following 9 sites on FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that in the EORA group: periarticular region of the scapulohumeral joint, enthesis of the pectineus muscle, vicinity of the enthesis of the rectus femoris muscle, lateral side of the greater trochanter, ischial tuberosity, hip joint, spinous process of the lower cervical vertebra, intervertebral joint of the lumbar vertebra, and spinous process of the lumbar vertebra. The PET/CT score was evaluated at 9 sites consisting of the abovementioned sites. The median score in the PMR group was 8, which was significantly higher than that of 0 in the EORA group (P = 0.0003). ROC curve analysis was performed with the PET/CT scores, and a score of 5 was shown to maximize the area under the ROC curve (sensitivity: 86.7%, specificity: 86.7%). Conclusions FDG-PET/CT is useful for differentiating PMR from EORA. In patients with PMR, abnormal FDG accumulation was observed at the entheses, suggesting the presence of enthesitis in addition to bursitis and synovitis. PMID:27384410

  8. Rotorcraft aviation icing research requirements: Research review and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A. A.; Dadone, L.; Bevan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of rotorcraft icing evaluation techniques and ice protection technology was assessed. Recommendations are made for near and long term icing programs that describe the needs of industry. These recommended programs are based on a consensus of the major U.S. helicopter companies. Specific activities currently planned or underway by NASA, FAA and DOD are reviewed to determine relevance to the overall research requirements. New programs, taking advantage of current activities, are recommended to meet the long term needs for rotorcraft icing certification.

  9. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, E.; Cunningham, R.; Michael, D.

    1996-09-01

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE`s Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled {open_quotes}Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Making{close_quotes}. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments.

  10. The evolution of Medicare financing policy for graduate medical education and implications for PM&R: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Verville, R; DeLisa, J A

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the only explicit payers for graduate medical education (GME) in the United States are the federal and state governments. Of these, Medicare is by far the largest and most predictable payer. Through the prospective payment system, Medicare reimburses teaching institutions for both their direct and indirect costs associated with their GME programs. Because a well-educated workforce benefits patients covered by private, as well as public insurance, various proposals have been advanced to establish an all-payer pool to distribute the financial burden more equitably. Furthermore, Medicare policy affects physician supply. There is increasing recognition of potential physician oversupply, raising policy questions about the government's longstanding support of GME. In comparison with other specialties, physical medical and rehabilitation (PM&R) may receive more favorable treatment under future GME funding plans, for 2 reasons. First, under the formulas used by Medicare, PM&R training slots typically bring in more indirect revenue to teaching hospitals than is consumed in indirect expenses. This makes PM&R a relatively more attractive program to retain in the face of mandated reductions in training slots. Second, in many parts of the country, PM&R is not threatened by oversupply, making cuts less likely. Nevertheless, the high percentage of non-US medical graduates entering PM&R training may make the specialty vulnerable to future reductions in funded training slots.

  11. The evolution of Medicare financing policy for graduate medical education and implications for PM&R: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Verville, R; DeLisa, J A

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the only explicit payers for graduate medical education (GME) in the United States are the federal and state governments. Of these, Medicare is by far the largest and most predictable payer. Through the prospective payment system, Medicare reimburses teaching institutions for both their direct and indirect costs associated with their GME programs. Because a well-educated workforce benefits patients covered by private, as well as public insurance, various proposals have been advanced to establish an all-payer pool to distribute the financial burden more equitably. Furthermore, Medicare policy affects physician supply. There is increasing recognition of potential physician oversupply, raising policy questions about the government's longstanding support of GME. In comparison with other specialties, physical medical and rehabilitation (PM&R) may receive more favorable treatment under future GME funding plans, for 2 reasons. First, under the formulas used by Medicare, PM&R training slots typically bring in more indirect revenue to teaching hospitals than is consumed in indirect expenses. This makes PM&R a relatively more attractive program to retain in the face of mandated reductions in training slots. Second, in many parts of the country, PM&R is not threatened by oversupply, making cuts less likely. Nevertheless, the high percentage of non-US medical graduates entering PM&R training may make the specialty vulnerable to future reductions in funded training slots. PMID:11295022

  12. 48 CFR 749.111-71 - Required review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... activity concerned determines that a review of a specific case or class of cases is desirable; or (4) The contracting officer, in his/her discretion, desires review by the board. (b) Level of review....

  13. Longtime Durability of PMR-15 Matrix Polymer at 204, 260, 288, and 316 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.; Inghram, Linda L.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Klan, Ojars V.

    2001-01-01

    Isothermal weight loss studies at the Glenn (Lewis) Research Center were conducted at four temperatures (204, 260, 288, and 316 C) with specimens of varied geometric shapes to investigate the mechanisms involved in the thermal degradation of PMR-15. Both neat resin behavior and composite behaviors were studied. Two points of interest in these studies are the role(s) of oxygen in the mechanisms involved in the thermo-oxidative degradation of these composite materials and the dimensional changes that occur during their useable lifetime. Specimen dimensional changes and surface layer growth were measured and recorded. It was shown that physical and chemical changes take place as a function of time and location in PMR-15 neat resin and composites as aging takes place in air at elevated temperatures. These changes initiate at the outer surfaces of both materials and progress inward following the oxygen as it proceeds by diffusion into the central core of each material. Microstructural changes cause changes in density, material shrinkage (strains), glass transition temperature, dimension, dynamic shear modulus, and compression properties. These changes also occur slowly dividing the polymer material into two distinct parts: a visibly undamaged core section between two visibly damaged surface layers. The surface layer has a significant effect on compression properties of thinner specimens, but the visibly undamaged core material controls these properties for specimens having eight or more plies. It was demonstrated that there are three different mechanisms involved in the degradation of PMR-15 during aging at elevated temperatures. These are a weight gain, a small weight fraction bulk material weight loss, and a large mass fraction weight loss concentrated at the surface of the polymer or composite. At the higher temperatures (260 C and above), the surface loss predominates. Below 260 C, the surface loss and the bulk core loss become more equivalent. Between 175 and 260 C

  14. A review of medical image watermarking requirements for teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Nyeem, Hussain; Boles, Wageeh; Boyd, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Teleradiology allows medical images to be transmitted over electronic networks for clinical interpretation and for improved healthcare access, delivery, and standards. Although such remote transmission of the images is raising various new and complex legal and ethical issues, including image retention and fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc., considerations of the security measures used in teleradiology remain unchanged. Addressing this problem naturally warrants investigations on the security measures for their relative functional limitations and for the scope of considering them further. In this paper, starting with various security and privacy standards, the security requirements of medical images as well as expected threats in teleradiology are reviewed. This will make it possible to determine the limitations of the conventional measures used against the expected threats. Furthermore, we thoroughly study the utilization of digital watermarking for teleradiology. Following the key attributes and roles of various watermarking parameters, justification for watermarking over conventional security measures is made in terms of their various objectives, properties, and requirements. We also outline the main objectives of medical image watermarking for teleradiology and provide recommendations on suitable watermarking techniques and their characterization. Finally, concluding remarks and directions for future research are presented.

  15. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl; O'Connell, Stella

    2015-08-01

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations. PMID:26287239

  16. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl; O’Connell, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations. PMID:26287239

  17. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl; O'Connell, Stella

    2015-08-14

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations.

  18. Kevlar/PMR-15 polyimide matrix composite for a complex shaped DC-9 drag reduction fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.; Mccarthy, R. F.; Willer, M. S.; Hrach, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program was established by NASA to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft and thereby to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the air transportation industry. One of the final items developed by the program is an improved fairing which is the aft closure for the thrust reverser actuators on the JT8D nacelles on DC-9 aircraft. The reduced-drag fairing uses, in the interest of weight savings, an advanced composite construction. The composite material contains Kevlar 49 fibers in a PMR-15 matrix. Attention is given to the aerodynamic configuration, the material system, and aspects of fabrication development.

  19. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers that were studied included graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber-sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  20. 42 CFR 476.71 - QIO review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) General Provisions § 476... member, or (with respect to pneumococcal vaccine) for prevention of illness or (in the case of...

  1. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spatial Distribution of Free Radicals in PMR-15 Polyimide Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Myong K.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1997-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that free radicals generated by heating polyimides above 300 C are stable at room temperature and are involved in thermo-oxidative degradation in the presence of oxygen gas. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI) is a technique to determine the spatial distribution of free radicals. X-band (9.5 GHz) EPR images of PMR-15 polyimide were obtained with a spatial resolution of about 0.18 mm along a 2 mm dimension of the sample. In a polyimide sample that was not thermocycled, the radical distribution was uniform along the 2 mm dimension of the sample. For a polyimide sample that was exposed to thermocycling in air for 300 one-hour cycles at 335 C, one-dimensional EPRI showed a higher concentration of free radicals in the surface layers than in the bulk sample. A spectral-spatial two-dimensional image showed that the EPR lineshape of the surface layer remained the same as that of the bulk. These EPRI results suggest that the thermo-oxidative degradation of PMR-15 resin involves free radicals present in the oxygen-rich surface layer.

  2. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spatial Distribution of Free Radicals in PMR-15 Polyimide Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Myong K.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1997-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that free radicals generated by heating polyimides above 300 C are stable at room temperature and are involved in thermo-oxidative degradation in the presence of oxygen gas. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a technique to determine the spatial distribution of free radicals. X-band (9.5 GHz) EPR images of PMR-15 polyimide were obtained with a spatial resolution of approximately 0.18 mm along a 2-mm dimension of the sample. In a polyimide sample that was not thermocycled, the radical distribution was uniform along the 2-mm dimension of the sample. For a polyimide sample that was exposed to thermocycling in air for 300 1-h cycles at 335 C, one-dimensional EPRI showed a higher concentration of free radicals in the surface layers than in the bulk sample. A spectral-spatial two-dimensional image showed that the EPR lineshape of the surface layer remained the same as that of the bulk. These EPRI results suggest that the thermo-oxidative degradation of PMR-15 resin involves free radicals present in the oxygen-rich surface layer.

  3. Viscoelastic and Mechanical Properties of Thermoset PMR-type Polyimide-Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalla, Mohamed O.; Dean, Derrick; Campbell, Sandi

    2002-01-01

    High temperature thermoset polyimide-clay nanocomposites were prepared by blending 2.5 and 5 wt% of an unmodified Na(+-) montmorillonite (PGV) and two organically modified FGV (PGVCl0COOH, PGVC12) with a methanol solution of PMR-15 precursor. The methanol facilitated the dispersal of the unmodified clay. Dynamic mechanical analysis results showed a significant increase in the thermomechanical properties (E' and E") of 2.5 wt% clay loaded nanocomposites in comparison with the neat polyimide. Higher glass transition temperatures were observed for 2.5 wt% nanocomposites compared to the neat polyimide. Flexural properties measurements for the 2.5 wt% nanocomposites showed a significant improvement in the modulus and strength, with no loss in elongation. This trend was not observed for the 5 wt% nanocomposites. An improvement in the CTE was observed for the PGV/PMR-15 nanocomposites, while a decrease was observed for the organically modified samples. This was attributed to potential variations in the interface caused by modifier degradation.

  4. Thermo-elastic nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in PMR-15 resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, J. T.; Sathish, S.; Tandon, G. P.; Schehl, N.; Cherry, M.; Nalladega, V.; Lindgren, E. A.; Hall, R.

    2012-05-01

    Thermoset polyimide resins are used as the polymer matrix in high temperature composites for aerospace applications such as engine shrouds. At these locations the components have to withstand high temperatures and significant vibration. A number of studies have investigated the effects of thermal exposure on mechanical properties of polyimide resins, and the effects of fatigue on thermoplastics have been discussed at length. However, the effects of fatigue on thermosets, in particular polyimides, have largely been overlooked. In this paper we present studies of nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in a thermoset polyimide resin, PMR-15, performed by measuring the changes in the evolution of heat in the samples during cyclic loading. The temperature changes are measured using a high sensitivity IR camera as a function of number of fatigue cycles. Interrupted fatigue tests were performed on four samples. The temperature rise during an increment of fatigue cycling shows two linear regions each with a different slope (region 1 and region 2). Region 1 remains constant for every increment of fatigue, while region 2 increases. The onset of region 2 occurs at the same increase in temperature due to hysteretic heating for all samples. Experimental observations are explained using a phenomenological two phase model based on crosslinking density variations in observed in other thermoset resins at microscopic scales. The results of these experiments are discussed in reference to utilizing this technique for detection and evaluation of fatigue in PMR-15 resin and composites.

  5. Forced torsional properties of PMR composites with varying nadic ester concentrations and processing histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1982-01-01

    PMR polyimide resin was prepared from 4,4'-methylenedianiline, the dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid and the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (NE). The NE group serves as a chain terminator and crosslinking site. PMR/Celion 6000 composites were fabricated from resins having varying NE concentrations using two molding processes, and the laminates characterized in forced torsion. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of 360-390 C were observed in the crosslinked resins, as compared with the literature value of 284 C reported for the uncrosslinked system. T(g) did not decrease with decreasing NE concentrations over the range from 2.0 to 1.25 moles. Stoichiometry, within the range studied, showed little influence on shear properties; however, a 25% variation in matrix shear modulus with processing was observed. The G(12) values determined in forced torsion were in excellent agreement with those reported from tensile tests of + or - 45 deg laminates. A branching and possible secondary crosslink mechanism is proposed based on dynamic mechanical behavior and infrared spectra of the composites.

  6. 14 CFR 435.33 - Safety review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.33 Safety review... to the safety review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  7. 14 CFR 435.23 - Policy review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.23 Policy review... apply to the policy review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  8. 14 CFR 435.33 - Safety review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.33 Safety review... to the safety review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  9. 14 CFR 435.23 - Policy review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.23 Policy review... apply to the policy review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  10. 14 CFR 435.23 - Policy review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.23 Policy review... apply to the policy review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  11. 14 CFR 435.23 - Policy review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.23 Policy review... apply to the policy review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  12. 14 CFR 435.33 - Safety review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.33 Safety review... to the safety review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  13. 14 CFR 435.33 - Safety review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval for Reentry of a Reentry Vehicle § 435.33 Safety review... to the safety review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle under this part....

  14. 42 CFR 475.102 - Requirements for performing case reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... national clinical guidelines and professionally recognized standards of care; and (5) The organization's... the case review will act with complete objectivity and independence from the Medicaid program....

  15. Structure and dynamics of polymyxin-resistance-associated response regulator PmrA in complex with promoter DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yuan-Chao; Weng, Tsai-Hsuan; Li, Yi-Chuan; Kao, Yi-Fen; Lin, Wei-Feng; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chou, Shan-Ho; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Chen, Chinpan

    2015-01-01

    PmrA, an OmpR/PhoB family response regulator, manages genes for antibiotic resistance. Phosphorylation of OmpR/PhoB response regulator induces the formation of a symmetric dimer in the N-terminal receiver domain (REC), promoting two C-terminal DNA-binding domains (DBDs) to recognize promoter DNA to elicit adaptive responses. Recently, determination of the KdpE–DNA complex structure revealed an REC–DBD interface in the upstream protomer that may be necessary for transcription activation. Here, we report the 3.2-Å-resolution crystal structure of the PmrA–DNA complex, which reveals a similar yet different REC–DBD interface. However, NMR studies show that in the DNA-bound state, two domains tumble separately and an REC–DBD interaction is transiently populated in solution. Reporter gene analyses of PmrA variants with altered interface residues suggest that the interface is not crucial for supporting gene expression. We propose that REC–DBD interdomain dynamics and the DBD–DBD interface help PmrA interact with RNA polymerase holoenzyme to activate downstream gene transcription. PMID:26564787

  16. Differential Role of Two-Component Regulatory Systems (phoPQ and pmrAB) in Polymyxin B Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Anim, Daniel; Kwon, Dong H.

    2013-01-01

    Polymyxins are often considered as a last resort to treat multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa but polymyxin resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide in clinical isolates. Polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa is known to be associated with alterations in either PhoQ or PmrB. In this study, mutant strains of P. aeruginosa carrying amino acid substitution, a single and/or dual inactivation of PhoQ and PmrB were constructed to further understand the roles of PhoQ and PmrB in polymyxin susceptibility. Polymyxin B resistance was caused by both inactivation and/or amino acid substitutions in PhoQ but by only amino acid substitutions of PmrB. Alterations of both PhoQ and PmrB resulted in higher levels of polymyxin B resistance than alteration of either PhoQ or PmrB alone. These results were confirmed by time-killing assays suggesting that high-level polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa is caused by alterations of both PhoQ and PmrB. PMID:24349887

  17. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3580 Environmental review... environmental reviews of source water protection activities under § 35.3535, unless the activities solely... procedures at 40 CFR part 6 and related subparts or apply its own “NEPA-like” SERP for...

  18. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws and executive orders. (b) The draft environmental impact statement shall list all Federal permits, licenses,...

  19. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws and executive orders. (b) The draft environmental impact statement shall list all Federal permits, licenses,...

  20. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws and executive orders. (b) The draft environmental impact statement shall list all Federal permits, licenses,...

  1. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws and executive orders. (b) The draft environmental impact statement shall list all Federal permits, licenses,...

  2. 76 FR 45642 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Management Information System (EDMIS) Counseling Information Form & Management Training Report.'' Frequency... OMB Reviewer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jacqueline White,...

  3. 75 FR 47034 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Development Management Information System (EDMIS) Counseling Information. Frequency: On occasion. SBA Form... OMB Reviewer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New... Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7044. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: SBIC Management...

  4. 78 FR 44185 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...: Entrepreneurial Development Management Information System (EDMIS) Customer Intake Form & Management Training..., DC 20416; and OMB Reviewer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Curtis...

  5. Thermo-oxidative stability of graphite fiber/PMR-15 polyimide composites at 350 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A series of graphite fiber/PMR-15 polyimide composites were subjected to isothermal aging at 350 C in flowing air (100 cc/min and 1000 cc/min) over a 520 hr time period. The graphite fibers were analyzed by ISS/SIMS techniques before composite fabrication. Fibers exposed at the surface of the composite due to the isothermal aging process were also analyzed by the ISS/SIMS method. Component and composite weight less studies were also conducted for similarly exposed materials. Optical micrograph investigations of composites to follow the progress of the thermo-oxidative process were also conducted. Flexural and interlaminar shear strengths of the imaged and aged composites were measured. The relationship of component and composite properties as they relate to the thermo-oxidative behavior of the materials was discussed.

  6. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  7. Resin/fiber thermo-oxidative interactions in PMR polymide/graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The amounts of resin weight loss and fiber weight loss in four PMR-polyimide graphite fiber composites were calculated from the composite weight losses and the fiber/resin ratios of the composites after long term thermo-oxidative aging in 600 F air. The accelerating effect of graphite fiber on resin weight loss, compared to neat resin weight loss, indicated the presence of a deleterious resin/fiber thermo-oxidative interaction, presumably due to fiber impurities. Similarly, the decelerating effect of the protective matrix resin on fiber weight loss, compared to bare fiber weight loss, was also demonstrated. The amount of hydrazine-indigestible resin and the amount of loose surface graphite fiber that formed during 600 deg F exposure of the composites were quantitatively determined. The indigestible residual resin was also qualitatively studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  9. 76 FR 76359 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the...

  10. 14 CFR 431.57 - Information requirements for payload reentry review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 431.57 Information requirements for...

  11. 14 CFR 431.57 - Information requirements for payload reentry review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 431.57 Information requirements for...

  12. 14 CFR 431.57 - Information requirements for payload reentry review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 431.57 Information requirements for...

  13. 14 CFR 431.57 - Information requirements for payload reentry review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 431.57 Information requirements for...

  14. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation requirements. See 40 CFR 1502.25. (a) For Federal projects, NEPA documents shall be prepared..., 1979, 32 CFR part 197. Procedural requirements for Civil Works studies and projects are discussed below. (1) The district commander through the division commander will notify CECW-PE, PN, PS or PW...

  15. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals.

  16. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  17. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  18. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  19. 24 CFR 970.13 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 970.27) are subject to HUD environmental regulations in 24 CFR part 58. However, HUD may make a finding in accordance with 24 CFR 58.11(d) of this title and may itself perform the environmental review under the provisions of 24 CFR part 50 if a PHA objects in writing to the responsible entity...

  20. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supporting material is available at the borrower's premises for review by the RUS field accountant, borrower's certified public accountant, the Office of Inspector General, the General Accounting Office and any other accountant conducting an audit of the borrower's financial statements for this...

  1. 14 CFR 431.25 - Application requirements for policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.25 Application... model, type, and configuration of any RLV proposed for launch and reentry, or otherwise landing on...

  2. 14 CFR 431.25 - Application requirements for policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.25 Application... model, type, and configuration of any RLV proposed for launch and reentry, or otherwise landing on...

  3. 14 CFR 431.25 - Application requirements for policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Policy Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.25 Application... model, type, and configuration of any RLV proposed for launch and reentry, or otherwise landing on...

  4. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  5. 24 CFR 970.13 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 970.27) are subject to HUD environmental regulations in 24 CFR part 58. However, HUD may make a finding in accordance with 24 CFR 58.11(d) of this title and may itself perform the environmental review under the provisions of 24 CFR part 50 if a PHA objects in writing to the responsible entity...

  6. Review of the mechanical design requirements for offshore pedestal cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, P.E.; Wong, W.

    1984-02-01

    Modern design philosophies for offshore cranes require the structural components to be designed for the dynamic loadings experienced in the offshore environment. If these predicted impact loads are applied to the relevant winch load-paths, then the components in those load-paths can be appropriately designed. Specifications do not at present, require the operator to predict at the enquiry stage, the service duty and load spectrums for the crane. When these are specified by the operator, the designer is able to apply appropriate stress levels to the components to attain the required crane life.

  7. Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography: Water Requirements of Desert Ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Rosenstock, Steven S.; Turner, Jack C.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Ungulates adapted to desert areas are able to survive extreme temperatures and limited water availability. This ability is largely due to behavioral, morphological, and physiological adaptations that allow these animals to avoid or tolerate extreme environmental conditions. The physiological adaptations possessed by ungulates for thermoregulation and maintenance of water balance have been the subject of numerous studies involving a wide range of species. In this report we review the behavioral, morphological, and physiological mechanisms used by ungulates and other desert mammals to maintain water and temperature balance in arid environments. We also review some of the more commonly used methods for studying the physiological mechanisms involved in water balance and thermoregulation, and the influence of dehydration on these mechanisms.

  8. 25 CFR 1000.365 - What are the requirements of the review team report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements of the review team report? 1000.365 Section 1000.365 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... requirements of the review team report? A report summarizing the results of the trust evaluation will...

  9. A Public Review in Federal Region VI of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development (DHEW), Dallas, TX. Region 6.

    The basic objective of this investigation was to conduct an input-review of the 1968, 1972 and Title XX Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR) and to make inferences gleaned from the results as these relate to appropriate revisions. Respondents from a number of states were asked to review and comment on each requirement. The document…

  10. 40 CFR 51.1011 - Requirements for mid-course review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for mid-course review. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1011 Requirements for mid-course review. (a)...

  11. Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi; Liu, Yongjian; Mai, Kangsen; Tian, Lixia

    2005-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  12. 14 CFR 435.43 - Payload reentry review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 435.43 Payload reentry review requirements and... shall apply to the payload reentry review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle...

  13. 14 CFR 435.43 - Payload reentry review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 435.43 Payload reentry review requirements and... shall apply to the payload reentry review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle...

  14. 14 CFR 435.43 - Payload reentry review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 435.43 Payload reentry review requirements and... shall apply to the payload reentry review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle...

  15. 14 CFR 435.43 - Payload reentry review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Payload Reentry Review and Determination § 435.43 Payload reentry review requirements and... shall apply to the payload reentry review conducted for a license to reenter a reentry vehicle...

  16. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and environmental impact statements. The principal additional requirements affecting the Department of... in draft environmental impact statements and transmitted to the Advisory Council on Historic... discussed in draft environmental impact statements and transmitted to the U.S. Water Resources Council...

  17. 78 FR 65744 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Clearance Officer, Curtis Rich, Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC..., New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Curtis Rich, Agency Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7030 curtis.rich@sba.gov . Abstract: Government wide requirements...

  18. Free and Compulsory School Age Requirements. ECS 50-State Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation continue to push for expanded free and compulsory school age requirements. More states are considering granting students earlier access to a free education so that they can begin their academic pursuits earlier in life. Similarly, every year a number of states consider extending the upper limit for compulsory school…

  19. Characterization of and sensor-model verification and control of the properties of PMR-13 during processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Prettyman, T.; Robillard, K.; Smith, J.; Nicoletti, A.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Koury, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This study presents an in situ sensor and a process-simulation model developed for monitoring and controlling the cure process of PMR-15. The time-temperature dependence of the buildup in the molecular network structure, extent of reaction, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during the cure of PMR-15 are discussed. The relationship of the time-temperature cycle used during imidization to the length of the endcapped chains formed is examined. The relationship of the time-temperature cure-processing cycle to the reaction kinetics, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during crosslinking is analyzed using frequency-dependent electromagnetic sensors and the Loos processing model. Application of the FDEMS sensing technique and the process-simulation model for quality assurance processing and automated on-line control of cure is discussed.

  20. Review of United States requirements for residual moisture in drugs.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, E B

    1976-10-01

    Officially recognized procedures for residual moisture determinations on biological products are described. These include gravimetric at ambient temperature and thermogravimetric analysis at specified temperatures for specific products. The bases for selecting the optimum residual moisture for a new product are discussed and values established for currently licensed products are listed. Comparisons are made between the procedures and requirements for biological products and the water determinations specificed in U.S. Pharmacopeia XIX.

  1. Spacecraft occupant protection requirements: a review of the recent changes.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Gohmert, Dustin M; Brinkley, James W

    2014-09-01

    NASA has recently updated spacecraft design requirements for protecting crewmembers during dynamic spaceflight phases. The details of the update are available in a NASA publication (NASA TM-2013-217380) and are summarized here. Previously, NASA's occupant protection requirements relied primarily on the multiaxial dynamic response criterion, which NASA refers to as the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria (BDRC). Although simple to implement, there are several important ground rules that must be met for the injury predictions to be applicable. These include proper restraint, flail controls, proper seating support, pressure suit considerations, head protection including consideration of helmet mass, and spaceflight deconditioning. Even if these ground rules are met, there are limitations to the model that must be addressed, including: model validation, sex differences, age effects, anthropometry effects, and differences between the physical fitness of military test subjects and future crewmembers. To address these limitations, new injury assessment reference values (IARV) have been prescribed for the 5(th) percentile female and 95(th) percentile male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). These metrics are head-injury criterion, head-rotational acceleration, neck injury criterion, neck-axial-force limits, flail prevention, and lumbar-axial compression force. Using these new ATD IARVs, NASA can have increased confidence that vehicle designs mitigate the risk of injury during dynamic phases of flight.

  2. Spacecraft occupant protection requirements: a review of the recent changes.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Gohmert, Dustin M; Brinkley, James W

    2014-09-01

    NASA has recently updated spacecraft design requirements for protecting crewmembers during dynamic spaceflight phases. The details of the update are available in a NASA publication (NASA TM-2013-217380) and are summarized here. Previously, NASA's occupant protection requirements relied primarily on the multiaxial dynamic response criterion, which NASA refers to as the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria (BDRC). Although simple to implement, there are several important ground rules that must be met for the injury predictions to be applicable. These include proper restraint, flail controls, proper seating support, pressure suit considerations, head protection including consideration of helmet mass, and spaceflight deconditioning. Even if these ground rules are met, there are limitations to the model that must be addressed, including: model validation, sex differences, age effects, anthropometry effects, and differences between the physical fitness of military test subjects and future crewmembers. To address these limitations, new injury assessment reference values (IARV) have been prescribed for the 5(th) percentile female and 95(th) percentile male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). These metrics are head-injury criterion, head-rotational acceleration, neck injury criterion, neck-axial-force limits, flail prevention, and lumbar-axial compression force. Using these new ATD IARVs, NASA can have increased confidence that vehicle designs mitigate the risk of injury during dynamic phases of flight. PMID:25197893

  3. 21 CFR 56.103 - Circumstances in which IRB review is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Circumstances in which IRB review is required. 56.103 Section 56.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... meet the requirements for prior submission (as required in parts 312, 812, and 813) to the Food...

  4. 21 CFR 56.103 - Circumstances in which IRB review is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Circumstances in which IRB review is required. 56.103 Section 56.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... meet the requirements for prior submission (as required in parts 312, 812, and 813) to the Food...

  5. 21 CFR 56.103 - Circumstances in which IRB review is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Circumstances in which IRB review is required. 56.103 Section 56.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... meet the requirements for prior submission (as required in parts 312, 812, and 813) to the Food...

  6. Review of PREPA Technical Requirements for Interconnecting Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Booth, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority developed the minimum technical requirements for interconnection of wind turbine generation and photovoltaic power plants. NREL has conducted a review of these requirements based on generic technical aspects and electrical characteristics of wind and photovoltaic power plants, and on existing requirements from other utilities (both U.S. and European).

  7. Specimen geometry effects on graphite/PMR-15 composites during thermo-oxidative aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Meyers, A.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish the effects of specimen geometry on the thermo-oxidative stability and the mechanical properties retention of unidirectional Celion 12000 graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide composites. Weight loss, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength are measured at isothermal aging times as long as 1639 hr at a temperature of 316 C for three different specimen geometries. It is found that the three different types of specimen surfaces exhibit different values of weight loss/unit area. The mechanical properties retention is also found to be dependent on geometry for these composites. The interlaminar shear strength decreases significantly over the complete range of aging times. The flexural strength retention starts showing geometric dependency after about 1000 hr of aging at 316C. Weight loss fluxes, associated with the three different types of exposed surfaces, are calculated and used to develop an empirical mathematical model for predicting the weight loss behavior of unidirectional composites of arbitrary geometries. Data are presented comparing experimentally determined weight loss with weight loss values predicted using the empirical model.

  8. Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; Jae, Moosung; Park, Goon -Cherl

    2015-04-16

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connecting the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.

  9. A Limited Comparison of the Thermal Durability of Polyimide Candidate Matrix Polymers with PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Inghram, Linda L.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Klans, Ojars V.

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted with six different candidate high-temperature neat matrix resin specimens of varied geometric shapes to investigate the mechanisms involved in the thermal degradation of polyimides like PMR-15. The metrics for assessing the quality of these candidates were chosen to be glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), thermo-oxidative stability, dynamic mechanical properties, microstructural changes, and dimensional stability. The processing and mechanical properties were not investigated in the study reported herein. The dimensional changes and surface layer growth were measured and recorded. The data were in agreement with earlier published data. An initial weight increase reaction was observed to be dominating at the lower temperatures. However, at the more elevated temperatures, the weight loss reactions were prevalent and probably masked the weight gain reaction. These data confirmed the findings of the existence of an initial weight gain reaction previously reported. Surface- and core-dependent weight losses were shown to control the polymer degradation at the higher temperatures.

  10. Thermomechanical Fatigue Durability of T650-35/PMR-15 Sheet-Molding Compound Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    High-performance polymer matrix composites (PMC's) continue to be the focus of a number of research efforts aimed at developing cost-effective, lightweight material alternatives for advanced aerospace and aeropropulsion applications. These materials not only offer significant advantages in specific stiffness and strength over their current metal counterparts, but they can be designed and manufactured to eliminate joints and fasteners by combining individual components into integral subassemblies, thus making them extremely attractive for commercial applications. With much emphasis on the low-cost manufacturing aspects of advanced composite structures, there is heightened interest in high-performance sheet-molding compounds (SMC's). Researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with the Allison Advanced Development Company, completed an investigation examining the use of T650-35/PMR-15 SMC for a midstage inner-vane endwall application within a gas turbine engine compressor. This component resides in the engine flow path and is subjected not only to high airflow rates, but also to elevated temperatures and pressures. This application is unique in that it represents a very aggressive use of high-performance SMC's, raising obvious concerns related to durability and property retention in the presence of microstructural damage. Therefore, it was necessary to evaluate the fatigue behavior and damage tolerance of this material subjected to a representative thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) mission-cycle loading spectrum.

  11. Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; Jae, Moosung; Park, Goon -Cherl

    2015-04-16

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connectingmore » the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.« less

  12. Long-Term Isothermal Aging Effects on Carbon Fabric-Reinforced PMR-15 Composites: Compression Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term isothermal thermo-oxidative aging on the compressive properties of T-650-35 fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The temperatures that were studied were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different geometries were evaluated. Cut edge-to-surface ratios of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. Aging times extended to a period in excess of 15,000 hours for the lower temperature runs. The unaged and aged specimens were tested in compression in accordance with ASTM D-695. Both thin and thick (plasma) specimens were tested. Three specimens were tested at each time/temperature/geometry condition. The failure modes appeared to be initiated by fiber kinking with longitudinal, interlaminar splitting. In general, it appears that the thermo-oxidative degradation of the compression strength of the composite material may occur by both thermal (time-dependent) and oxidative (weight-loss) mechanisms. Both mechanisms appear to be specimen-thickness dependent.

  13. Thermomechanical Properties of Interface Modified M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda; Inghram, Linda; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Wheeler, Don; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high-temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high-temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. In this study, the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) and typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-11-50 were characterized. A continuous desizing system that uses an environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical process was developed for tow level fiber. Composites were fabricated with fibers containing the manufacturer's sizing, desized, and further treated with a reactive finish. Results of room temperature tests show that desizing reduces interface sensitive properties compared to the manufacturer's sizing and that subsequent surface re-treatment with reactive finish increases interface sensitive properties. Properties of thermally aged composites and composites with varying finish concentrations will also be discussed.

  14. Thermomechanical Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Shin, E. Eugene; Inghram, Linda; McCorkle, Linda; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Wheeler, Donald; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high-temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high-temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplies on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. In this study, the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) and typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50 were characterized. A continuous desizing system that uses an environmentally friendly chemical-mechanical process was developed for tow level fiber. Composites were fabricated with fibers containing the manufacturer's sizing, desized, and further treated with a reactive finish. Results of room temperature tests show that desizing reduces interface sensitive properties compared to the manufacturer's sizing and that subsequent surface re-treatment with reactive finish increases interface sensitive properties. Properties of thermally aged composites and composites with varying finish concentrations are also discussed.

  15. Compressive strength and behavior of 8H C3000/PMR15 woven composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, F.

    1988-01-01

    Center-notched and unnotched specimens cut from Celion 3000/PMR15 woven composite panels with 60% fiber volume fraction were tested under quasi-static compressive load to failure at room temperature. Micrographic evidence clearly identifies the mode of compressive failure as fiber kinking. Each fiber in the kink fractures because of a combination of compressive and shear stresses. A post-failure mechanism follows the local fiber-bundle failures, which completely deforms the material by large cracks. In center-notched specimens, fiber kinks start from the notch and propagate to some distance from the notch before the post failure takes place. The effect of bundle interactions on stresses and strains was clearly distinguished by comparing the results of the finite-element analysis of a bundle surrounded by other plies to the results of the Moire interferometry on the edge of a laminate. A model introduced incorporated the micromechanical geometry as well as the constituent properties to predict the notched and unnotched compressive strengths of the woven material. For notched-strength predictions, the Average Stress Criterion was used, and the characteristics distance was found to be a function of laminate thickness. Predicted notched and unnotched strengths correlate very well with the experimental results.

  16. 77 FR 26824 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... soliciting comments on the following collection of information was published on February 29, 2012 (77 FR... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) AGENCY: Research &...

  17. 76 FR 13699 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., companies chartering ships from MARAD, and companies having Title XI guarantee obligations. Form(s): MA-172... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  18. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify...

  19. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify...

  20. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify...

  1. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify...

  2. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify...

  3. 12 CFR 550.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are any other account reviews required? 550.220 Section 550.220 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account § 550.220...

  4. 12 CFR 150.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are any other account reviews required? 150.220 Section 150.220 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account §...

  5. 12 CFR 550.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Are any other account reviews required? 550.220 Section 550.220 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account § 550.220...

  6. 12 CFR 550.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are any other account reviews required? 550.220 Section 550.220 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account § 550.220...

  7. 12 CFR 150.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are any other account reviews required? 150.220 Section 150.220 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account §...

  8. 12 CFR 150.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are any other account reviews required? 150.220 Section 150.220 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account §...

  9. 12 CFR 550.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Are any other account reviews required? 550.220 Section 550.220 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account § 550.220...

  10. 12 CFR 550.220 - Are any other account reviews required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are any other account reviews required? 550.220 Section 550.220 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Review of A Fiduciary Account § 550.220...

  11. 10 CFR 1021.341 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of other environmental requirements early in the planning process, in consultation with other... environmental review requirements. (a) In accordance with 40 CFR 1500.4(k) and (o), 1502.25, and 1506.4, DOE shall integrate the NEPA process and coordinate NEPA compliance with other environmental...

  12. 21 CFR 320.30 - Inquiries regarding bioavailability and bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by the Food and Drug Administration. 320.30 Section 320.30... FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.30 Inquiries regarding bioavailability and...

  13. 21 CFR 320.30 - Inquiries regarding bioavailability and bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by the Food and Drug Administration. 320.30 Section 320.30... FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.30 Inquiries regarding bioavailability and...

  14. 21 CFR 320.30 - Inquiries regarding bioavailability and bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by the Food and Drug Administration. 320.30 Section 320.30... FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.30 Inquiries regarding bioavailability and...

  15. 21 CFR 320.30 - Inquiries regarding bioavailability and bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by the Food and Drug Administration. 320.30 Section 320.30... FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.30 Inquiries regarding bioavailability and...

  16. 75 FR 66724 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collections to OMB.... Purpose: The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) needs to require applicants...

  17. 76 FR 34287 - ITS Joint Program Office; Core System Requirements Walkthrough and Architecture Proposal Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Core System Requirements Walkthrough and Architecture Proposal Review... the Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Core System Requirements and Architecture Proposal. The first... . The V2I Core System will support applications for safety, mobility, and sustainability for...

  18. 76 FR 36954 - ITS Joint Program Office; Core System Requirements Walkthrough and Architecture Proposal Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Core System Requirements Walkthrough and Architecture Proposal Review... accompanying webinars to discuss the Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Core System Requirements and Architecture... . The V2I Core System will support applications for safety, mobility, and sustainability for...

  19. SAR compliance assessment of PMR 446 and FRS walkie-talkies.

    PubMed

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2015-10-01

    The vast amount of studies on radiofrequency dosimetry deal with exposure due to mobile devices and base station antennas for cellular communication systems. This study investigates compliance of walkie-talkies to exposure guidelines established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the Federal Communications Committee. The generic walkie-talkie consisted of a helical antenna and a ground plane and was derived by reverse engineering of a commercial walkie-talkie. Measured and simulated values of antenna characteristics and electromagnetic near fields of the generic walkie-talkie were within 2% and 8%, respectively. We also validated normalized electromagnetic near fields of the generic walkie-talkie against a commercial device and observed a very good agreement (deviation <6%). We showed that peak localized specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the oval flat phantom by the generic walkie-talkie is in agreement with four commercial devices if input power of the generic walkie-talkie is rescaled based on magnetic near field. Finally, we found that SAR of commercial devices is within current SAR limits for general public exposure for a worst-case duty cycle of 100%, that is, about 3 times and 6 times lower than the limit on the 1 g SAR (1.6 W/kg) and 10 g SAR (2 W/kg), respectively. But, an effective radiated power as specified by the Private Mobile Radio at 446 MHz (PMR 446) radio standard can cause localized SAR exceeding SAR limits for 1 g of tissue. PMID:26344699

  20. Comparison of Graphite Fabric Reinforced PMR-15 and Avimid N Composites After Long Term Isothermal Aging at Various Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; McCorkle, Linda; Ingrahm, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Extensive effort is currently being expended to demonstrate the feasibility of using high-performance, polymer-matrix composites as engine structural materials over the expected operating lifetime of the aircraft, which can extend from 18,000 to 30,000 hr. The goal is to develop light-weight, high-strength, and high-modulus materials for use in higher temperature sections of advanced 21 st century aircraft propulsion systems. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to pursue the development of thermal and mechanical durability models for graphite-fiber-reinforced, polymer-matrix composites. Numerous investigations have been reported regarding the thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) of the polyimide PMR-15 (1-5). A significant amount of this work has been directed at edge and geometry effects, reinforcement fiber influences, and empirical modeling of high-temperature weight loss behavior. It is yet to be determined if the information obtained from the PMR-15 composite tests is applicable to other polyimide-matrix composites. The condensation-curing polymer Avimid N is another advanced composite material often considered for structural applications at high temperatures. Avimid N has better thermo-oxidative stability than PMR-15 (6), but the latter is more easily processed. The most comprehensive study of the thermo-oxidative stability of Avimid N neat resin and composites at 371 (infinity)C is found in Salin and Seferis (7). The purposes of the work described herein were to compare the thermal aging behavior of these two matrix polymers and to determine the reasons for and the consequences of the difference in thermal durability. These results might be of some use in improving future polymer development through the incorporation of the desirable characteristics of both polyimides.

  1. PMR Characterization of the Water Structure in Tibetan Milk Mushroom Zooglea: Influence of Medium Hydration and Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupskaya, T. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu. I.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Tsapko, M. D.; Turov, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The state of water in Tibetan milk mushroom zooglea with different degrees of hydration (h) was investigated using low-temperature PMR spectroscopy in air and in contact with the hydrophobic media polydimethylsiloxane PDMS-1000 and CHCl3 with added trifl uoroacetic acid (TFA). The maximum hydration of the zooglea amounted to h = 32 g/g (of dry matter). Water existed as polyassociates (clusters or domains) of strongly and weakly associated water. Bound water decomposed into clusters in the presence of TFA. The NMR spectra showed six types of bound water at h = 0.3 g/g.

  2. Investigation of the steric structure of optically active 2-(x-benzylidene)-p-menthan-3-ones by dipole-moment, PMR-spectral, and IR-spectral methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kutulya, L.A.; Pivnenko, N.S.; Nemchenok, I.B.; Khandrimailova, T.V.; Semenkova, G.P.; Biba, V.I.; Tishchenko, V.G.

    1987-08-10

    On the basis of dipole-moment and PMR-spectral data the E configuration of the cinnamoyl fragment of molecules of optically active 2-benzylidene-p-menthan-3-ones was established. By means of PMR and IR spectroscopy experimental proofs were obtained of deviation from coplanarity of the separate parts of the cinnamoyl system in the molecules investigated. It was shown that the cinnamoyl fragment of the molecules of 2-benzylidene-p-menthan-3-ones is more aplanar than in the case of the model ..pi..-isoelectronic 2-benzylidenecyclo-hexanone systems. By means of PMR the preferential axial orientation of the methyl group and equatorial orientation of the isopropyl group in the cyclohexanone system of molecules of 2-benzylidene-p-methan-3-ones was established.

  3. Review of MPH practicum requirements in accredited schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Oglesby, Willie H; Alemagno, Sonia A; Zullo, Melissa D; Hartman, Olivia; Smith, Katalin; Smith, Joseph; Buzzelli, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Accreditation criteria by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) state that prior to graduation, Masters of Public Health (MPH) students must demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills through a practice experience, commonly called the "Practicum." The purpose of this research was to review those MPH Practicum requirements. Practicum guidelines from US-based schools of public health that were accredited as of October 2011 were reviewed. Data on each Practicum's level of coordination, timing, and credit and contact hours as well as information about written agreements, preceptors, and how the Practicum was graded were collected. Seventy-four Practicums in 46 accredited schools of public health were reviewed. The majority (85 %) of accredited schools controlled the Practicum at the school-level. Among the Practicums reviewed, most did not require completion of any credit hours or the MPH core courses (57 and 74 %, respectively) prior to starting the Practicum; 82 % required written agreements; 60 % had stated criteria for the approval of preceptors; and 76 % required students to submit a product for grading at the conclusion of the Practicum. The results of this research demonstrate that the majority of accredited schools of public health designed Practicum requirements that reflect some of the criteria established by CEPH; however, issues related to timing, credit and contact hours, and preceptor qualifications vary considerably. We propose that a national dialogue begin among public health faculty and administrators to address these and other findings to standardize the Practicum experience for MPH students. PMID:23334673

  4. Review of MPH practicum requirements in accredited schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Oglesby, Willie H; Alemagno, Sonia A; Zullo, Melissa D; Hartman, Olivia; Smith, Katalin; Smith, Joseph; Buzzelli, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Accreditation criteria by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) state that prior to graduation, Masters of Public Health (MPH) students must demonstrate the application of knowledge and skills through a practice experience, commonly called the "Practicum." The purpose of this research was to review those MPH Practicum requirements. Practicum guidelines from US-based schools of public health that were accredited as of October 2011 were reviewed. Data on each Practicum's level of coordination, timing, and credit and contact hours as well as information about written agreements, preceptors, and how the Practicum was graded were collected. Seventy-four Practicums in 46 accredited schools of public health were reviewed. The majority (85 %) of accredited schools controlled the Practicum at the school-level. Among the Practicums reviewed, most did not require completion of any credit hours or the MPH core courses (57 and 74 %, respectively) prior to starting the Practicum; 82 % required written agreements; 60 % had stated criteria for the approval of preceptors; and 76 % required students to submit a product for grading at the conclusion of the Practicum. The results of this research demonstrate that the majority of accredited schools of public health designed Practicum requirements that reflect some of the criteria established by CEPH; however, issues related to timing, credit and contact hours, and preceptor qualifications vary considerably. We propose that a national dialogue begin among public health faculty and administrators to address these and other findings to standardize the Practicum experience for MPH students.

  5. Thermomechanical Fatigue Durability of T650-35/PMR-15 Sheet Molding Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.; Sutter, James K.; Benson, Dianne

    1998-01-01

    Although polyimide based composites have been used for many years in a wide variety of elevated temperature applications, very little work has been done to examine the durability and damage behavior under more prototypical thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) loadings. Synergistic effects resulting from simultaneous temperature and load cycling can potentially lead to enhanced, if not unique, damage modes and contribute to a number of nonlinear deformation responses. The goal of this research was to examine the effects of a TMF loading spectrum, representative of a gas turbine engine compressor application, on a polyimide sheet molding compound (SMC). High performance SMCs present alternatives to prepreg forms with great potential for low cost component production through less labor intensive, more easily automated manufacturing. To examine the issues involved with TMF, a detailed experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the durability of a T650-35/PMR-15 SMC subjected to TMF mission cycle loadings. Fatigue damage progression was tracked through macroscopic deformation and elastic stiffness. Additional properties, such as the glass transition temperature (T(sub g) and dynamic mechanical properties were examined. The fiber distribution orientation was also characterized through a detailed quantitative image analysis. Damage tolerance was quantified on the basis of residual static tensile properties after a prescribed number of TMF missions. Detailed microstructural examinations were conducted using optical and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the local damage. The imposed baseline TMF missions had only a modest impact on inducing fatigue damage with no statistically significant degradation occurring in the measured macroscopic properties. Microstructural damage was, however, observed subsequent to 100 h of TMF cycling which consisted primarily of fiber debonding and transverse cracking local to predominantly transverse fiber bundles. The TMF

  6. Comparison of SMR, PMR, and PCMR in a cohort of union members potentially exposed to diesel exhaust emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Morgan, R W; Kheifets, L; Larson, S R

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of cause specific standarised mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) or proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMRs) was made based on the mortality experience of a cohort of 34 156 members of a heavy equipment operators union. Two types of PMRs or PCMRs were used in the comparison: those based on all deaths and those based on deaths known to the union only. The comparison indicated that, for the entire cohort, both types of PMRs were poor indicators for cancer risk and produced a large number of false positives. On the other hand, PCMRs appeared to be better than PMRs for assessing the direction of site specific cancer risk, but they tended to overstate the magnitude of risk. Analysis by duration of union membership or latency indicated that PMRs or PCMRs based on deaths known to the union tended to overestimate the risk of lung cancer by disproportionately larger amounts in groups with shorter time than in groups with longer time. This differential bias had the net effect of reducing the gradient of any trend or eliminating the trend entirely. In conclusion, PMR or PCMR, based on reasonably sufficient death ascertainment, has a certain usefulness in generating hypotheses, but they are not useful or reliable in measuring the magnitude of risk or in detecting trends in dose response analysis. No conclusion should be drawn from either PMR or PCMR. PMID:2410011

  7. A review of methods for compliance with planetary protection requirements by recent NASA planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack

    The approaches taken by recent NASA planetary missions to comply with specific NASA planetary protection (PP) requirements and specifications are reviewed to illuminate their pragmatic consequences to the missions. The requirements discussed include probability of impact, microbial burden, and recontamination requirements. The related specifications relate to surface and encapsulated burden density, dry heat, time-temperature for sterility, and hardy organisms. Missions have had to negotiate the precise interpretation for some of the requirements. Later missions have chosen to have these precedence interpretations approved via their PP Plans. Some methods, especially analysis methods, have, of necessity, been developed to demonstrate compliance with the requirements. Finally, some of the requirements have affected the design of the flight hardware and of the mission design.

  8. 34 CFR 461.46 - What requirements for program reviews and evaluations must be met by a State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What requirements for program reviews and evaluations... requirements for program reviews and evaluations must be met by a State? (a) An SEA shall provide for program reviews and evaluations of all State-administered adult education programs, services, and activities...

  9. 34 CFR 461.46 - What requirements for program reviews and evaluations must be met by a State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What requirements for program reviews and evaluations... requirements for program reviews and evaluations must be met by a State? (a) An SEA shall provide for program reviews and evaluations of all State-administered adult education programs, services, and activities...

  10. 34 CFR 461.46 - What requirements for program reviews and evaluations must be met by a State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What requirements for program reviews and evaluations... requirements for program reviews and evaluations must be met by a State? (a) An SEA shall provide for program reviews and evaluations of all State-administered adult education programs, services, and activities...

  11. 49 CFR 1013.3 - Review and reporting requirements for regulated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exchange Board (17 CFR 240.13d-1) which reports the purchase of 5 percent or more of the registered... THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.3 Review and reporting requirements for regulated carriers. (a) Any carrier choosing to utilize a voting trust may voluntarily submit a copy of the voting trust...

  12. 49 CFR 1013.3 - Review and reporting requirements for regulated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exchange Board (17 CFR 240.13d-1) which reports the purchase of 5 percent or more of the registered... THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.3 Review and reporting requirements for regulated carriers. (a) Any carrier choosing to utilize a voting trust may voluntarily submit a copy of the voting trust...

  13. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review requirements for an interagency agreement. 801.602-74 Section 801.602-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  14. 48 CFR 801.602-72 - Exceptions and additional review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions and additional review requirements. 801.602-72 Section 801.602-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  15. 75 FR 75451 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following... Submission: Renewal of Information Collections. Purpose: The U.S. Agency for International Development...

  16. 42 CFR 475.104 - Requirements for demonstrating ability to perform review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system is adequate; and (2) The organization has available sufficient resources (including access to... Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations § 475.104 Requirements for demonstrating ability to perform review. (a) A physician-sponsored or physician-access organization will be...

  17. 44 CFR 10.8 - Determination of requirement for environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of requirement for environmental review. 10.8 Section 10.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency...

  18. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Projects that may require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... Director: (1) Projects that may affect interstate water quality. (2) Projects within a member state...

  19. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Projects that may require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... Director: (1) Projects that may affect interstate water quality. (2) Projects within a member state...

  20. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Projects that may require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA... Director: (1) Projects that may affect interstate water quality. (2) Projects within a member state...

  1. 75 FR 81204 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collection to OMB... Collection. Purpose: The U.S. Agency for International Development, under the Foreign Assistance Act of...

  2. 17 CFR 39.5 - Review of swaps for Commission determination on clearing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions Applicable to Derivatives Clearing Organizations § 39.5 Review of swaps for Commission determination on clearing requirement. (a) Eligibility to clear swaps. (1) A derivatives clearing organization shall be presumed eligible to accept...

  3. 17 CFR 39.5 - Review of swaps for Commission determination on clearing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions Applicable to Derivatives Clearing Organizations § 39.5 Review of swaps for Commission determination on clearing requirement. (a) Eligibility to clear swaps. (1) A derivatives clearing organization shall be presumed eligible to accept...

  4. 78 FR 62638 - Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Title: Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) Grantee Needs...

  5. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... characteristics of water resources of interstate streams designated by the Commission under separate resolution... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Projects that may require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  6. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... characteristics of water resources of interstate streams designated by the Commission under separate resolution... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Projects that may require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  7. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review.

  8. Interaction of the Arabidopsis GTPase RabA4c with Its Effector PMR4 Results in Complete Penetration Resistance to Powdery Mildew[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Glöckner, Annemarie; Koch, Jasmin; Naumann, Marcel; Stürtz, Vanessa; Schütt, Kevin; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C.; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The (1,3)-β-glucan callose is a major component of cell wall thickenings in response to pathogen attack in plants. GTPases have been suggested to regulate pathogen-induced callose biosynthesis. To elucidate the regulation of callose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we screened microarray data and identified transcriptional upregulation of the GTPase RabA4c after biotic stress. We studied the function of RabA4c in its native and dominant negative (dn) isoform in RabA4c overexpression lines. RabA4c overexpression caused complete penetration resistance to the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum due to enhanced callose deposition at early time points of infection, which prevented fungal ingress into epidermal cells. By contrast, RabA4c(dn) overexpression did not increase callose deposition or penetration resistance. A cross of the resistant line with the pmr4 disruption mutant lacking the stress-induced callose synthase PMR4 revealed that enhanced callose deposition and penetration resistance were PMR4-dependent. In live-cell imaging, tagged RabA4c was shown to localize at the plasma membrane prior to infection, which was broken in the pmr4 disruption mutant background, with callose deposits at the site of attempted fungal penetration. Together with our interactions studies including yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and in planta fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays, we concluded that RabA4c directly interacts with PMR4, which can be seen as an effector of this GTPase. PMID:25056861

  9. Interaction of the Arabidopsis GTPase RabA4c with its effector PMR4 results in complete penetration resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Glöckner, Annemarie; Koch, Jasmin; Naumann, Marcel; Stürtz, Vanessa; Schütt, Kevin; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-07-01

    The (1,3)-β-glucan callose is a major component of cell wall thickenings in response to pathogen attack in plants. GTPases have been suggested to regulate pathogen-induced callose biosynthesis. To elucidate the regulation of callose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we screened microarray data and identified transcriptional upregulation of the GTPase RabA4c after biotic stress. We studied the function of RabA4c in its native and dominant negative (dn) isoform in RabA4c overexpression lines. RabA4c overexpression caused complete penetration resistance to the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum due to enhanced callose deposition at early time points of infection, which prevented fungal ingress into epidermal cells. By contrast, RabA4c(dn) overexpression did not increase callose deposition or penetration resistance. A cross of the resistant line with the pmr4 disruption mutant lacking the stress-induced callose synthase PMR4 revealed that enhanced callose deposition and penetration resistance were PMR4-dependent. In live-cell imaging, tagged RabA4c was shown to localize at the plasma membrane prior to infection, which was broken in the pmr4 disruption mutant background, with callose deposits at the site of attempted fungal penetration. Together with our interactions studies including yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and in planta fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays, we concluded that RabA4c directly interacts with PMR4, which can be seen as an effector of this GTPase.

  10. Putative PmrA and PmcA are important for normal growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity, but not for viability in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hechun; Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPases are Ca(2+) pumps, extruding cytosolic Ca(2+) to the extracellular environment or the intracellular Ca(2+) store lumens. In budding yeast, Pmr1 (plasma membrane ATPase related), and Pmc1 (plasma membrane calcium-ATPase) cannot be deleted simultaneously for it to survive in standard medium. Here, we deleted two putative Ca(2+) pumps, designated AnPmrA and AnPmcA, from Aspergillus nidulans, and obtained the mutants ΔanpmrA and ΔanpmcA, respectively. Then, using ΔanpmrA as the starting strain, the promoter of its anpmcA was replaced with the alcA promoter to secure the mutant ΔanpmrAalcApmcA or its anpmcA was deleted completely to produce the mutant ΔanpmrAΔpmcA. Different from the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double deletion of anpmrA and anpmcA was not lethal in A. nidulans. In addition, deletion of anpmrA and/or anpmcA had produced growth defects, although overexpression of AnPmc1 in ΔanpmrAalcApmcA could not restore the growth defects that resulted from the loss of AnPmrA. Moreover, we found AnPmrA was indispensable for maintenance of normal morphogenesis, especially in low-Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) environments. Thus, our findings suggest AnPmrA and AnPmcA might play important roles in growth, morphogenesis and cell wall integrity in A. nidulans in a different way from that in yeasts.

  11. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  12. A review of helicopter control-display requirements for decelarating instrument approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews research and operational test programs that have dealt with control and display requirements for helicopters performing decelerating approaches in the terminal area under instrument flight conditions. A survey of literature concentrating on flight programs resulted in approximately 50 applicable references which were summarized and classified according to the type of stability/control augmentation that was emphasized. On this basis, display information requirements for each control system type were hypothesized consistent with documented results of these programs. Nine control-display combinations that appear to warrant further ground simulation and flight testing are defined and discussed.

  13. Round Table Part 1: Review of future manned missions and Identification key ECLSS requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Wheeler, Raymond; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Joshi, Jitendra; Dussap, Gilles; Godia, Francesc

    2016-07-01

    All forecast an end of ISS in 2024. What so ever will be the exact date date the main part of the space agencies are currently elaborating plans for future manned missions. So far mainly 3 destination are considered :" Moon, Mars and Lagrange point L2. Depending of the missions duration, crew size, safety .. the ECLSS will have major difference . In this first part of the round table it is proposed to review the main missions scenario and elaborate top level requirements.

  14. Radioactive waste management: review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards.

    PubMed

    Maringer, F J; Suráň, J; Kovář, P; Chauvenet, B; Peyres, V; García-Toraño, E; Cozzella, M L; De Felice, P; Vodenik, B; Hult, M; Rosengård, U; Merimaa, M; Szücs, L; Jeffery, C; Dean, J C J; Tymiński, Z; Arnold, D; Hinca, R; Mirescu, G

    2013-11-01

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM)(1) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste.

  15. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  16. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  17. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts. 2937.103-70 Section 2937.103-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 2937.103-70 Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review...

  18. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....

  19. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....

  20. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....

  1. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....

  2. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....

  3. 21 CFR 111.560 - What requirements apply to the review and investigation of a product complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Complaints § 111.560 What requirements apply to the review and investigation of a product complaint? (a) A qualified person must: (1) Review all product complaints to determine whether the product complaint involves... product complaint and review and approve the findings and followup action of any investigation...

  4. Optimal Time to Surgery for Patients Requiring Laparoscopic Appendectomy: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Therese M; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2016-02-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common condition requiring emergency surgery worldwide. Although current guidelines recommend prompt appendectomy as the preferred treatment, no time interval for surgery has been indicated. We used an integrative review methodology to critically evaluate evidence on the relationship between time to surgery and hospital length of stay and to identify the ideal time to surgery for patients undergoing appendectomy. We included 14 studies in our synthesis, most of which (n = 9/14, 64%) indicated that longer time delays to surgical intervention increased hospital length of stay for patients presenting with appendicitis. Researchers report that the optimal time for surgery is 24 to 36 hours after symptom onset, or 10 to 24 hours from admission. The results of our review indicate that patient symptoms on presentation may signify advancing pathology and may be more important than the time delay interval in defining surgical priority. PMID:26849985

  5. A Review of Tools to Assist Hospitals in Meeting Community Health Assessment and Implementation Strategy Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Karen E.; Bazos, Dorothy A.; Sutherland, Kaleb A.; LaFave, Lea R. Ayers; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Recent changes in U.S. national policies and regulations have created an opportunity for meaningful collaborations to take place between health systems, public health departments, and social service organizations. For medical systems, and particularly tax-exempt hospitals, new requirements include community health assessments (CHAs) and implementation strategies to address identified health needs. Individuals and groups responsible for meeting the new CHA and implementation strategy requirements may be unsure about the best ways to achieve specific aspects of the CHA process. In this report, we provide an in-depth review and rating of tools developed by public health and community experts that cover the steps necessary to meet the new requirements. A team of three community and public health experts and the authors developed a rating sheet based on a well-known community health improvement process model and on the steps in the new requirements to identify and systematically rate nine comprehensive tools. The ratings and recommendations provide a guide for hospitals in choosing tools that will best assist them in meeting the new requirements. PMID:26904778

  6. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  7. Review of current practices and requirements for the inspection of prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    Code requirements for pre- and in-service inspection of prestressed concrete pressure vessels as utilized in gas-cooled reactors are reviewed and compared with practices and experiences during construction, commissioning, and operation of such reactors. The pre-service inspection relies heavily on embedded instrumentation for measurements of stresses, temperatures, and displacements. The same instrumentation is later used for in-service surveillance, which additionally includes visual examination of exposed surfaces, monitoring of tendon conditions, and measurement of tendon loads. Improvement of present monitoring instrumentation and/or techniques, rather than development of new in-service inspection methods, is recommended.

  8. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?...

  9. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?...

  10. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.

    1983-05-01

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program.

  11. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl‐Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to “telecoupling” between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass‐based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land‐use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor‐based and environmentally extended input‐output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass‐based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints. PMID:27547028

  12. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an...

  13. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an...

  14. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an...

  15. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  16. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  17. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  18. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  19. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  20. NESC Review of the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel (HTT) Oxygen Storage Pressure Vessel Inspection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael; Raju, Ivatury; Piascik, Robert; Cameron, Kenneth; Kirsch, Michael; Hoffman, Eric; Murthy, Pappu; Hopson, George; Greulich, Owen; Frazier, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The 8-Foot HTT (refer to Figure 4.0-1) is used to conduct tests of air-breathing hypersonic propulsion systems at Mach numbers 4, 5, and 7. Methane, Air, and LOX are mixed and burned in a combustor to produce test gas stream containing 21 percent by volume oxygen. The NESC was requested by the NASA LaRC Executive Safety Council to review the rationale for a proposed change to the recertification requirements, specifically the internal inspection requirements, of the 8-Foot HTT LOX Run Tank and LOX Storage Tank. The Run Tank is an 8,000 gallon cryogenic tank used to provide LOX to the tunnel during operations, and is pressured during the tunnel run to 2,250 pounds per square inch gage (psig). The Storage Tank is a 25,000 gallon cryogenic tank used to store LOX at slightly above atmospheric pressure as a external shell, with space between the shells maintained under vacuum conditions.

  1. The European Union's REACH regulation: a review of its history and requirements.

    PubMed

    Williams, E Spencer; Panko, Julie; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Union (EU) promulgated a monumental regulatory initiative for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). To date, several thousand pages of text have been needed to describe the expectations of this regulation. There were numerous reasons for the promulgation of REACH, but, by and large, it is an extension of the global desire to produce fewer industrial chemicals, to understand the possible human and ecological hazards of those that are produced, and to insure that any major threat is anticipated, as well as prevented. Most industry-related groups consider it the most wide-ranging and costly regulatory initiatives related to health risk assessment ever to be promulgated. This review presents a description of REACH that should inform scientists, managers, and others about its objectives and the means to satisfy them. Registration is required for all chemicals manufactured or imported into the EU, unless specifically exempted. Registration is expected to be a collaborative process among companies, which will generate a dossier containing data on physicochemical characteristics, as well as toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. Though the magnitude of the gaps in the data required for registration is uncertain at this point, it is clear that basic toxicology testing will have to be conducted for many chemical substances that have not undergone formal review up to this point. For many chemicals, an examination of hazards and risks arising from the use of these substances will also be required in the form of a chemical safety report (CSR). Beginning with the dual processes of dossier and substance evaluation, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the Member States of the EU, and the European Commission will identify chemicals that may pose unacceptable hazards to human health and/or the environment, and will curtail or restrict their usage. The implementation of REACH will expand and deepen the

  2. Review of chamber design requirements for testing of personal protective clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; King, William P; Shaffer, Ronald

    2007-08-01

    This review focuses on the physical requirements for conducting ensemble testing and describes the salient issues that organizations involved in the design, test, or certification of personal protective equipment (PPE) and protective clothing ensembles need to consider for strategic planning. Several current and proposed PPE ensemble test practices and standards were identified. The man-in-simulant test (MIST) is the primary procedure used by the military to evaluate clothing ensembles for protection against chemical and biological warfare agents. MIST has been incorporated into the current editions of protective clothing and equipment standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). ASTM has recently developed a new test method (ASTM F 2588-06) for MIST evaluation of protective ensembles. Other relevant test methods include those described in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. The primary differences among the test methods were the choice of test challenge material (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride, methyl salicylate, sodium chloride particles, corn oil, fluorophore-impregnated silica) and the exercise protocol for the subject(s). Although ensemble test methods and standards provide detailed descriptions of the test procedures, none give specific requirements for chamber design. A literature survey identified 28 whole-body exposure chambers that have been or could potentially be used for testing protective clothing ensembles using human test subjects. Median chamber size, median floor space, and median volume per subject were calculated from 15 chambers (involving human test subjects), where size information is available. Based on the literature survey of existing chambers and the review of the current and proposed standards and test methods, chamber design requirements will be dictated by the test methods selected. Due to widely different test conditions for aerosol/particulate and vapor ensemble testing, it is

  3. Thermo-Oxidative Stability of Graphite/PMR-15 Composites: Effect of Fiber Surface Modification on Composite Shear Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhukar, Madhu S.; Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadopolous, Demetrios S.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish a correlation between the weight loss of a polyimide (PMR- 15) matrix and graphite fibers and the in-plane shear properties of their unidirectional composites subjected to different isothermal aging times up to 1000 hr at 316 C. The role of fiber surface treatment on the composite degradation during the thermo-oxidative aging was investigated by using A4 graphite fibers with three surface modifications: untreated (AU-4), surface treated (AS-4), and surface treated and sized with an epoxy-compatible sizing (AS-4G). The weight loss of the matrix fibers, and composites was determined during the aging. The effect of thermal aging was seen in all the fiber samples in terms of weight loss and reduction in fiber diameter. Calculated values of weight loss fluxes for different surfaces of rectangular unidirectional composite plates showed that the largest weight loss occurred at those cut surfaces where fibers were perpendicular to the surface. Consequently, the largest amount of damage was also noted on these cut surfaces. Optical observation of the neat matrix and composite plates subjected to different aging times revealed that the degradation (such as matrix microcracking and void growth) occurred in a thin surface layer near the specimen edges. The in-plane shear modulus of the composites was unaffected by the fiber surface treatment and the thermal aging. The shear strength of the composites with the untreated fibers was the lowest and it decreased with aging. A fracture surface examination of the composites with untreated fibers suggested that the weak interface allowed the oxidation reaction to proceed along the interface and thus expose the inner material to further oxidation. The results indicated that the fiber-matrix interface affected the composite degradation process during its thermal aging and that the the weak interface accelerated the composite degradation.

  4. The Female Post-Mating Response Requires Genes Expressed in the Secondary Cells of the Male Accessory Gland in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Jessica L; Gligorov, Dragan; Maeda, Robert K; Karch, François; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-03-01

    Seminal proteins from the Drosophila male accessory gland induce post-mating responses (PMR) in females. The PMR comprise behavioral and physiological changes that include increased egg laying, decreased receptivity to courting males, and changes in the storage and use of sperm. Many of these changes are induced by a "sex peptide" (SP) and are maintained by SP's binding to, and slow release from, sperm. The accessory gland contains two secretory cell types with distinct morphological and developmental characteristics. Products of these "main" and "secondary" cells work interdependently to induce and maintain the PMR. To identify individual genes needed for the morphology and function of secondary cells, we studied iab-6(cocu) males, whose secondary cells have abnormal morphology and fail to provide products to maintain the PMR. By RNA-seq, we identified 77 genes that are downregulated by a factor of >5× in iab-6(cocu) males. By functional assays and microscopy, we tested 20 candidate genes and found that at least 9 are required for normal storage and release of SP in mated females. Knockdown of each of these 9 genes consequently leads to a reduction in egg laying and an increase in receptivity over time, confirming a role for the secondary cells in maintaining the long-term PMR. Interestingly, only 1 of the 9 genes, CG3349, encodes a previously reported seminal fluid protein (Sfp), suggesting that secondary cells may perform essential functions beyond the production and modification of known Sfps. At least 3 of the 9 genes also regulate the size and/or abundance of secondary cell vacuoles, suggesting that the vacuoles' contents may be important for the machinery used to maintain the PMR. PMID:26746709

  5. Transfusion interventions in critical bleeding requiring massive transfusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McQuilten, Zoe K; Crighton, Gemma; Engelbrecht, Sunelle; Gotmaker, Robert; Brunskill, Susan J; Murphy, Michael F; Wood, Erica M

    2015-04-01

    Critical bleeding (CB) requiring massive transfusion (MT) can occur in a variety of clinical contexts and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. In 2011, the Australian National Blood Authority (NBA) published patient blood management guidelines for CB and MT, which found limited high-quality evidence from which only 2 recommendations could be made. The aim of this systematic review (SR) was to update these guidelines and identify evidence gaps still to be addressed. A comprehensive search was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and SRs using MeSH index and free text terms in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2012), EMBASE, CINHAL, PUBMED, and the Transfusion Evidence Library up to July 15, 2014. The evidence was grouped according to 4 questions based on the original guideline relating to transfusion interventions: (1) effect of dose, timing, and ratio of red blood cells (RBCs) to component therapy on patient outcomes; (2) effect of RBC transfusion on patient outcomes; (3) effect of fresh frozen plasma, platelet, cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, and prothrombin complex concentrate on patient outcomes; and (4) effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) on patient outcomes. From this search, 19 studies were identified: 6 RCTs and 13 SRs. Two of the RCTs were pilot/feasibility studies, 3 were investigating rFVIIa, and 1 compared restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Overall, limited new evidence was identified and substantial evidence gaps remain, particularly with regard to the effect of component therapies, including ratio of RBC to component therapies, on patient outcomes. Clinical trials to address these questions are required. PMID:25716645

  6. Transfusion interventions in critical bleeding requiring massive transfusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McQuilten, Zoe K; Crighton, Gemma; Engelbrecht, Sunelle; Gotmaker, Robert; Brunskill, Susan J; Murphy, Michael F; Wood, Erica M

    2015-04-01

    Critical bleeding (CB) requiring massive transfusion (MT) can occur in a variety of clinical contexts and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. In 2011, the Australian National Blood Authority (NBA) published patient blood management guidelines for CB and MT, which found limited high-quality evidence from which only 2 recommendations could be made. The aim of this systematic review (SR) was to update these guidelines and identify evidence gaps still to be addressed. A comprehensive search was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and SRs using MeSH index and free text terms in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2012), EMBASE, CINHAL, PUBMED, and the Transfusion Evidence Library up to July 15, 2014. The evidence was grouped according to 4 questions based on the original guideline relating to transfusion interventions: (1) effect of dose, timing, and ratio of red blood cells (RBCs) to component therapy on patient outcomes; (2) effect of RBC transfusion on patient outcomes; (3) effect of fresh frozen plasma, platelet, cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, and prothrombin complex concentrate on patient outcomes; and (4) effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) on patient outcomes. From this search, 19 studies were identified: 6 RCTs and 13 SRs. Two of the RCTs were pilot/feasibility studies, 3 were investigating rFVIIa, and 1 compared restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Overall, limited new evidence was identified and substantial evidence gaps remain, particularly with regard to the effect of component therapies, including ratio of RBC to component therapies, on patient outcomes. Clinical trials to address these questions are required.

  7. A review method for UML requirements analysis model employing system-side prototyping.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    User interface prototyping is an effective method for users to validate the requirements defined by analysts at an early stage of a software development. However, a user interface prototype system offers weak support for the analysts to verify the consistency of the specifications about internal aspects of a system such as business logic. As the result, the inconsistency causes a lot of rework costs because the inconsistency often makes the developers impossible to actualize the system based on the specifications. For verifying such consistency, functional prototyping is an effective method for the analysts, but it needs a lot of costs and more detailed specifications. In this paper, we propose a review method so that analysts can verify the consistency among several different kinds of diagrams in UML efficiently by employing system-side prototyping without the detailed model. The system-side prototype system does not have any functions to achieve business logic, but visualizes the results of the integration among the diagrams in UML as Web pages. The usefulness of our proposal was evaluated by applying our proposal into a development of Library Management System (LMS) for a laboratory. This development was conducted by a group. As the result, our proposal was useful for discovering the serious inconsistency caused by the misunderstanding among the members of the group.

  8. 42 CFR 476.74 - General requirements for the assumption of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs... inspection at its principal business office— (1) A copy of each agreement with Medicare fiscal...

  9. 77 FR 73611 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... delivery, by which we mean systematic review of the operation of a program compared to a set of explicit or... OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collection to OMB for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public...

  10. 75 FR 22540 - Review of Arbitration Awards; Miscellaneous and General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...; ] FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY 5 CFR Parts 2425 and 2429 Review of Arbitration Awards; Miscellaneous... public comment on proposed revisions to its regulations concerning review of arbitration awards and the... apply to the review of arbitration awards. The purpose of the proposed revisions is to improve...

  11. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two computer programs: "Molecular Graphics," which allows molecule manipulation in three-dimensional space (requiring IBM PC with 512K, EGA monitor, and math coprocessor); and "Periodic Law," a database which contains up to 20 items of information on each of the first 103 elements (Apple II or IBM PC). (MVL)

  12. An atypical PMR2 locus is responsible for hypersensitivity to sodium and lithium cations in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D.

    PubMed

    Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Daran, Jean-Marc; Luttik, Marijke A H; Almering, Marinka J H; Pronk, Jack T; Kötter, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains belonging to the CEN.PK family are widely used in fundamental and applied yeast research. These strains have been reported to be hypersensitive to sodium ions and a previous microarray-based genotyping study indicated an atypical organization of the PMR2 locus. In other S. cerevisiae strains, this locus harbours one to five ENA genes that encode plasma membrane sodium-pumping ATPases. Sequence analysis of the PMR2 locus in S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D revealed the presence of a new ENA gene that showed substantial sequence differences, both at the nucleotide level and at the predicted amino acid sequence level, with previously described ENA genes. The presence of this single and atypical ENA gene correlated with hypersensitivity to sodium and, in particular, to lithium ions. The native ENA6 gene was transcriptionally induced by sodium and lithium ions, but, apparently, the capacity for sodium export upon full induction was insufficient to achieve the levels of sodium and lithium ion tolerance observed in other S. cerevisiae strains. The sodium and lithium hypersensitivity of CEN.PK strains, which is potentially detrimental during cultivation in sodium-rich media, could, however, be suppressed by overexpression of ENA6.

  13. Transverse flexural tests as a tool for assessing damage to PMR-15 composites from isothermal aging in air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    To date, the effect of thermo-oxidative aging on unidirectional composite mechanical properties has been monitored by the measurement of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and either three or four point longitudinal flexural strength (LFS) of the composites being tested. Both results are affected by the fiber-to-matrix bonding, the former being dependent on the shear resistance of the interface and the latter on the degree of load sharing by the fibers through the fiber/matrix interface. Recently, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strengths have been monitored using a transverse flexural strength (TFS) test method. This test method was used to evaluate the effect of fiber surface treatment on the fiber/matrix bond. The interface bonding was varied in these tests using Hercules A-fibers with three-types of surfaces that produce bonds of poor, better, and good quality. The TFS was found not only to be sensitive to the bonding, but also to the aging time of unidirectional A-fiber/PMR-15 composites. This relationship reflects the mechanism by which the PMR-15 degrades during thermal aging.

  14. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. For contracts to be awarded under the authority of either 38 U.S.C. 7409 or 38...

  15. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. For contracts to be awarded under the authority of either 38 U.S.C. 7409 or 38...

  16. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. For contracts to be awarded under the authority of either 38 U.S.C. 7409 or 38...

  17. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. For contracts to be awarded under the authority of either 38 U.S.C. 7409 or 38...

  18. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. For contracts to be awarded under the authority of either 38 U.S.C. 7409 or 38...

  19. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  20. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  1. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  2. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  3. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  4. Graduation Requirements Review. A Brief to the Ministry of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Public schools are places where all students are welcomed and supported in their learning. Making changes to the Graduation Program should reinforce and support students' opportunities to learn and grow. In reviewing the current graduation requirements for the province of British Columbia (BC), the British Columbia Teachers' Federation…

  5. A Review of Realizing the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Goals by 2030: Part 1- Status quo, Requirements, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a review of how to realize the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) goals by 2030. The objective of this review is to investigate the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, focusing on four aspects: 1) identifying the importance of UHC and highlighting how UHC is influenced by health systems and eHealth, 2) investigating the current status of UHC worldwide and indicating the current challenges facing the realization of UHC, 3) reviewing the current research activities in the UHC domain and emphasizing the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, and 4) discussing the results of the review to identify the current gaps in UHC implantation and the corresponding research lines for future investigation.This part covers the first two aspects through: providing the required background on UHC, highlighting the potential benefits of eHealth utilization in UHC, addressing the current status quo of UHC implementation worldwide, and finally concluding the lessons learned in terms of the UHC challenges and requirements.This part also described the used search methodology and selection criteria to synthesize this review. It also indicates the limitations of conducting a systematic review in this early stage of deploying UHC-oriented eHealth solutions.

  6. Early Physical Rehabilitation in the ICU: A Review for the Neurohospitalist

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Nusr, Rasha; Feldman, Dorianne; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in critical care have resulted in improved intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. However, improved ICU survival has resulted in a growing number of ICU survivors living with long-term sequelae of critical illness, such as impaired physical function and quality of life (QOL). In addition to critical illness, prolonged bed rest and immobility may lead to severe physical deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness. ICU-acquired weakness is associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation and weaning, longer ICU and hospital stay, and increased mortality. These physical impairments may last for years after ICU discharge. Early Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) interventions in the ICU may attenuate or prevent the weakness and physical impairments occurring during critical illness. This article reviews the evidence regarding safety, feasibility, barriers, and benefits of early PM&R interventions in ICU patients and discusses the limited existing data on early PM&R in the neurological ICU and future directions for early PM&R in the ICU. PMID:23983871

  7. Practical and Theoretical Requirements for Controlling Rater Stringency in Peer Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cason, Gerald J.; Cason, Carolyn L.

    This study describes a computer based, performance rating information processing system, performance rating theory, and programs for the application of the theory to obtain ratings free from the effects of reviewer stringency in reviewing abstracts of conference papers. Originally, the Performance Rating (PR) System was used to evaluate the…

  8. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  9. 48 CFR 801.602-72 - Exceptions and additional review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... review of all proposed contracts with hotels or similar facilities for conferences or similar functions... conference at a particular hotel is a procurement and procurement laws and regulations must be followed....

  10. 48 CFR 801.602-81 - Documents required for business clearance reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-81 Documents required for business...

  11. 76 FR 78662 - Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... training and data grants are governed by the ``new grant'' PI and the basic grant is governed by the ``basic grant'' PI. Current PIs require separate applications and program assessment reports for each... by consolidating the PIs into one single PI and requiring one single, consolidated application...

  12. Submittal Requirements for Review of Planning, Bidding and Construction Documents for Georgia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Facilities Services Unit.

    This document presents the Georgia Department of Education's submittal requirements for documents addressing the planning and construction of educational facilities. Requirements cover such areas as project funding sources, copies and format, site plan, floor plans, elevations and sections, construction delivery method, and heating, air…

  13. Review of surface-equipment requirements for geothermal-well stimulation. Geothermal-reservoir well-stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    A summary of stimulation equipment available to geothermal industry is presented and some modifications from which it could benefit are discussed. Equipment requirements for hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, acidizing, and other chemical treatments are included. Designs for the following are reviewed: equipment for premixing and storing treatment fluids, proppant handling equipment, pump trucks, special equipment for foam fracturing, intensifier pumps, manifolding, and monitoring and control devices.

  14. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... responsibilities, HUD will perform the environmental review in accordance with 24 CFR part 50. The timing of HUD.... (c) Where an environmental assessment (EA) is appropriate under 24 CFR part 50, instead of an Indian... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA...

  15. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... responsibilities, HUD will perform the environmental review in accordance with 24 CFR part 50. The timing of HUD.... (c) Where an environmental assessment (EA) is appropriate under 24 CFR part 50, instead of an Indian... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsibilities, HUD will perform the environmental review in accordance with 24 CFR part 50. The timing of HUD.... (c) Where an environmental assessment (EA) is appropriate under 24 CFR part 50, instead of an Indian... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... responsibilities, HUD will perform the environmental review in accordance with 24 CFR part 50. The timing of HUD.... (c) Where an environmental assessment (EA) is appropriate under 24 CFR part 50, instead of an Indian... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... responsibilities, HUD will perform the environmental review in accordance with 24 CFR part 50. The timing of HUD.... (c) Where an environmental assessment (EA) is appropriate under 24 CFR part 50, instead of an Indian... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA...

  19. 78 FR 16268 - Submission for OMB Review; Service Contracts Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Federal Register at 76 FR 22070, on April 20, 2011, as part of a proposed rule under FAR Case 2010-0010... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Submission for OMB Review... Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of request...

  20. 75 FR 81204 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collection to OMB for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Public Law 104-13. Comments regarding this information collection are best assured of having their full effect if received within 30 days of this notification. Comments should be addressed to: Desk Officer for USAID,......

  1. 75 FR 81204 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collection to ONE for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 10413. Comments regarding this information collection are best assured of having their full effect if received within 30 days of this notification. Comments should be addressed to: Desk Officer for USAID,......

  2. 75 FR 81273 - Public Information Collection Requirement Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval, Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Commission...(d), Daily Newspaper Cross-Ownership. Form Number: FCC Form 303-S. Type of Review: Revision of a... certification for licensees to certify that their advertising sales agreements do not discriminate on the...

  3. Long-term Isothermal Aging Effects on Weight Loss, Compression Properties, and Dimensions of T650-35 Fabric-reinforced PMR-15 Composites-data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Tsuji, Luis; Kamvouris, John; Roberts, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    A cooperative program was conducted with the General Electric Aircraft Engines plant in Evendale, Ohio, to study the effects of long-term isothermal aging at elevated temperatures on compression and thermal durability properties of T650 35 fabric-reinforced PMR 15 composites. This degradation study was conducted over an approximate time period of 3 1/2 yr. The aging temperatures were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different dimensions were evaluated. Specimens with ratios of the cut edge to total surface area of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. The aged and unaged specimens were tested in compression as specified in Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics (ASTM D695M). Thickness changes, degraded surface layer growth, weight loss, and failure modes were monitored and recorded. All property changes were thickness dependent.

  4. The effect of immunization against GnRF on nutrient requirements of male pigs: a review.

    PubMed

    Dunshea, F R; Allison, J R D; Bertram, M; Boler, D D; Brossard, L; Campbell, R; Crane, J P; Hennessy, D P; Huber, L; de Lange, C; Ferguson, N; Matzat, P; McKeith, F; Moraes, P J U; Mullan, B P; Noblet, J; Quiniou, N; Tokach, M

    2013-11-01

    In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked

  5. Tax-exempt hospitals and community benefits: a review of state reporting requirements.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Fred Joseph

    2009-02-01

    In June 2007 the Internal Revenue Service proposed a major overhaul of its reporting requirements for tax-exempt hospitals and released draft Form 990 (the IRS form filed by tax-exempt organizations each year). In December 2007 the IRS promulgated the final Form 990 after incorporating some of the recommendations made in the almost seven hundred public comments on the discussion draft. One recommendation adopted in the final Form 990 is the postponement until tax year 2009 (returns filed in 2010) of the requirement for hospitals to submit detailed information on the percentage of total expenses attributable to charity care, unreimbursed Medicaid costs, and community-health improvement programs (the discussion draft required this information for tax year 2007). Although the IRS will not require tax-exempt hospitals to provide detailed information about community benefits until the 2009 tax year, sixteen states have laws requiring tax-exempt hospitals to enumerate the benefits that they provide to the community. Information about the impact of these laws on the provision of community benefits (e.g., charity and uncompensated care) is examined in this study whose primary purpose is to highlight information policy makers may glean from states that have adopted community-benefit reporting laws. PMID:19234293

  6. Literature search strategies to comply with institutional animal care and use committee review requirements.

    PubMed

    Nesdill, Daureen; Adams, Kristina M

    2011-01-01

    Under the US Animal Welfare Act, principal investigators who propose to use animals in their research must demonstrate that they have considered alternatives to potentially painful or distressful procedures when submitting applications to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs). IACUCs requires that applicants conduct a current literature search to determine if alternatives are available to substitute the proposed animal use and, if the proposed study involves pain or distress, that more humane procedures, as they are described in the literature, be considered. This paper suggests literature search strategies that can be considered for use in order to comply with this IACUC requirement.

  7. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    BOOK REVIEW Search for Life BOOK REVIEW Health Physics BOOK REVIEW Language and Literacy in Science Education BOOK REVIEW Science Web Reader—Physics Correction GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics for Higher Tier GCSE BOOK REVIEW Modular Science GCSE BOOK REVIEW Modular Science for AQA: Foundation level and Higher level GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics for OCR A GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics Matters, 3rd edition GCSE BOOK REVIEW Physics GCSE BOOK REVIEW Science Foundations: Physics (new edition) GCSE BOOK REVIEW Target Science: Physics Foundation Tier GCSE BOOK REVIEW Target Science: Physics Foundation Tier: AQA WEB WATCH Medical physics organizations

  8. 78 FR 40443 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Recordkeeping Requirements Under the Safety Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... for Infant Walkers AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In the Federal Register of April 19, 2013 (76 FR 23544), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission... the recordkeeping requirements in the safety standard for infant walkers, 16 CFR part 1216....

  9. 75 FR 52753 - Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ..., and tribal agencies administering the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program that have... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements... families. The Emergency Fund is intended to build upon and renew the principles of work and...

  10. 78 FR 14095 - Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Administration for Children and Families' (ACF) 196 form for periodic financial reporting under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. States participating in the TANF program are required by... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting...

  11. 77 FR 66464 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Value Engineering Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43076, on July 23, 2012. No comments were received. Public... Register at 77 FR 43076, on July 23, 2012. Respondents: 1,934. Responses per Respondent: 2. Annual...., Washington, DC 20417. ATTN: Hada Flowers/IC 9000-0027, Value Engineering Requirements. Instructions:...

  12. 21 CFR 320.30 - Inquiries regarding bioavailability and bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs strongly recommends that, to avoid the conduct of an improper study and unnecessary human research... inquiries relating to in vivo bioavailability requirements and methodology shall be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Clinical...

  13. 77 FR 38843 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Post-Award Reporting Requirements Including New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Public: Universities and other research ] institutions; Business or other for-profit; Not-for-profit... Reporting Requirements Including New Research Performance Progress Report Collection; Revision Summary... Institutes of Health (NIH) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for...

  14. 76 FR 15364 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... collection. Affected Public: U.S. Merchant Marine Seamen, both officers and unlicensed personnel, and other U... preparing for a career in the merchant marine of the United States. Also, the U.S. Coast Guard requires a firefighting certificate for U.S. merchant marine officers. This collection provides the information...

  15. A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Shane H; Arnold, Nicole D; Biggs, Lesley; Colloca, Christopher J; Mierau, Dale R; Symons, Bruce P; Triano, John J

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, mechanical adjusting devices (MADs) were a major source of debate within the Chiropractors’ Association of Saskatchewan (CAS). Since Saskatchewan was the only jurisdiction in North America to prohibit the use of MADs, the CAS established a committee in 2001 to review the literature on MADs. The committee evaluated the literature on the efficacy, safety, and uses of moving stylus instruments within chiropractic practice, and the educational requirements for chiropractic practice. Following the rating criteria for the evaluation of evidence, as outlined in the Clinical Guidelines for Chiropractic Practice in Canada (1994), the committee reviewed 55 articles – all of which pertained to the Activator. Of the 55 articles, 13 were eliminated from the final study. Of the 42 remaining articles, 6 were rated as class 1 evidence; 11 were rated as class 2 evidence and 25 were rated as class 3 evidence. In this article – the second in a series of two – we review the results of uses and usage, safety and educational requirements. Of the 30 articles designated under the category of usage, 3 were rated as Class 1 evidence; 9 studies were classified as Class 2 evidence and 18 were rated as Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that in clinical practice, there is broad application of these procedures. A minority report was written arguing that the reviewer was unable to reach a conclusion about the use of the Activator Instrument other than it is used as a clinical and research tool. Of the 16 studies that dealt either explicitly or implicitly with safety, 4 were Class 1 evidence; 3 were Class 2 evidence and 9 were Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that the evidence supports that the Activator instrument is safe and has no more relative risk than do manual HVLA procedures. A minority report was written arguing that there is no evidence either to support or refute the view that MAD is safe. Of the 5 studies

  16. Panel results of the solar thermal program research requirement assessment review. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-11-01

    The objectives of the assessment were to identify: research needs by topic and activity, relative priority of research needs, options for performing needed research, potential performers, costs and duration of R and D activities, gaps and duplications within the R and D program, and activities underway that appear to be of low priority. To achieve these objectives, research programs of the Division of Solar Thermal Technologies within the Office of Renewable Energy and Conservation and the Materials and Advanced Energy Programs of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences were reviewed. Several recent assessments of solar thermal research needs made within the past two years by various groups were also reviewed, and the key research issues and needs were extracted. The primary results from the assessment are a set of prioritized activities to meet the most important research needs for solar thermal technologies. These activities belong to four disciplines: materials science, thermal science, thermochemistry, and engineering. Further, priorities associated with the needs for research result from the various activities allow the recommended activities to be grouped into two categories; a core group which should be at the heart of any future program developed by the department, and a set of important needs that should, at least, find their way into a program at some time during its existence. The recommended research program is outlined, and the complete set of ranked research needs is listed.

  17. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  18. Review of photochemical reaction constants of organic micropollutants required for UV advanced oxidation processes in water.

    PubMed

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M

    2012-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, pesticides, hormones, surfactants, fire retardants, fuel additives etc.) are increasingly found in water sources and therefore need to be controlled by water treatment technology. UV advanced oxidation technologies are often used as an effective barrier against organic contaminants. The combined operation of direct photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals ensures good results for a wide range of contaminants. In this review, an overview is provided of the photochemical reaction parameters (quantum yield, molar absorption, OH radical reaction rate constant) of more than 100 organic micropollutants. These parameters allow for a prediction of organic contaminant removal by UV advanced oxidation systems. An example of contaminant degradation is elaborated for a simplified UV/H(2)O(2) system. PMID:22483836

  19. Review of photochemical reaction constants of organic micropollutants required for UV advanced oxidation processes in water.

    PubMed

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M

    2012-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, pesticides, hormones, surfactants, fire retardants, fuel additives etc.) are increasingly found in water sources and therefore need to be controlled by water treatment technology. UV advanced oxidation technologies are often used as an effective barrier against organic contaminants. The combined operation of direct photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals ensures good results for a wide range of contaminants. In this review, an overview is provided of the photochemical reaction parameters (quantum yield, molar absorption, OH radical reaction rate constant) of more than 100 organic micropollutants. These parameters allow for a prediction of organic contaminant removal by UV advanced oxidation systems. An example of contaminant degradation is elaborated for a simplified UV/H(2)O(2) system.

  20. Getting published well requires fulfilling editors' and reviewers' needs and desires.

    PubMed

    Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2013-12-01

    Publication in international scientific journals provides an unparalleled opportunity for authors to showcase their work. Where authors publish affects how the community values the work. This value directly determines the impact of the work on the field-papers must be read and cited to advance the field, and because the scientific literature is vast, only a subset of the literature is widely read and cited. Moreover, the value placed on the work also affects the authors' scientific reputation and career advancement. Consequently, it is essential that manuscripts receive the recognition they deserve by being published in one of the "best" journals that the scientific findings allow. Several factors determine where a paper is published: how well the topic of the paper fits the scope of the journal, the quality of the study and the manuscript describing it, the advance the paper makes in its field, the importance of the advance, and the extent to which the paper impacts the broader community of science. As scientists, we assume that our papers will be assessed objectively using only well defined scientific standards, but editors and reviewers also view papers subjectively, having biases of what defines a high-quality publication based on Western standards. Therefore, scientists trained in other parts of the world can be significantly disadvantaged in getting their papers published in the best journals. Here, I present concrete suggestions for improving the perception of a paper in the reader's minds, increasing the likelihood that it will get published well.

  1. Getting published well requires fulfilling editors' and reviewers' needs and desires.

    PubMed

    Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2013-12-01

    Publication in international scientific journals provides an unparalleled opportunity for authors to showcase their work. Where authors publish affects how the community values the work. This value directly determines the impact of the work on the field-papers must be read and cited to advance the field, and because the scientific literature is vast, only a subset of the literature is widely read and cited. Moreover, the value placed on the work also affects the authors' scientific reputation and career advancement. Consequently, it is essential that manuscripts receive the recognition they deserve by being published in one of the "best" journals that the scientific findings allow. Several factors determine where a paper is published: how well the topic of the paper fits the scope of the journal, the quality of the study and the manuscript describing it, the advance the paper makes in its field, the importance of the advance, and the extent to which the paper impacts the broader community of science. As scientists, we assume that our papers will be assessed objectively using only well defined scientific standards, but editors and reviewers also view papers subjectively, having biases of what defines a high-quality publication based on Western standards. Therefore, scientists trained in other parts of the world can be significantly disadvantaged in getting their papers published in the best journals. Here, I present concrete suggestions for improving the perception of a paper in the reader's minds, increasing the likelihood that it will get published well. PMID:24131034

  2. A review of the kinetic detail required for accurate predictions of normal shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntz, E. P.; Erwin, Daniel A.; Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.

    1991-01-01

    Several aspects of the kinetic models used in the collision phase of Monte Carlo direct simulations have been studied. Accurate molecular velocity distribution function predictions require a significantly increased number of computational cells in one maximum slope shock thickness, compared to predictions of macroscopic properties. The shape of the highly repulsive portion of the interatomic potential for argon is not well modeled by conventional interatomic potentials; this portion of the potential controls high Mach number shock thickness predictions, indicating that the specification of the energetic repulsive portion of interatomic or intermolecular potentials must be chosen with care for correct modeling of nonequilibrium flows at high temperatures. It has been shown for inverse power potentials that the assumption of variable hard sphere scattering provides accurate predictions of the macroscopic properties in shock waves, by comparison with simulations in which differential scattering is employed in the collision phase. On the other hand, velocity distribution functions are not well predicted by the variable hard sphere scattering model for softer potentials at higher Mach numbers.

  3. A Review of Engine Seal Performance and Requirements for Current and Future Army Engine Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Proctor, Margaret P.

    2008-01-01

    Sand ingestion continues to impact combat ground and air vehicles in military operations in the Middle East. The T-700 engine used in Apache and Blackhawk helicopters has been subjected to increased overhauls due to sand and dust ingestion during desert operations. Engine component wear includes compressor and turbine blades/vanes resulting in decreased engine power and efficiency. Engine labyrinth seals have also been subjected to sand and dust erosion resulting in tooth tip wear, increased clearances, and loss in efficiency. For the current investigation, a brief overview is given of the history of the T-700 engine development with respect to sand and dust ingestion requirements. The operational condition of labyrinth seals taken out of service from 4 different locations of the T-700 engine during engine overhauls are examined. Collaborative efforts between the Army and NASA to improve turbine engine seal leakage and life capability are currently focused on noncontacting, low leakage, compliant designs. These new concepts should be evaluated for their tolerance to sand laden air. Future R&D efforts to improve seal erosion resistance and operation in desert environments are recommended

  4. A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Shane H; Arnold, Nicole D; Biggs, Lesley; Colloca, Christopher J; Mierau, Dale R; Symons, Bruce P; Triano, John J

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, mechanical adjusting devices (MADs) were a major source of debate within the Chiropractors’ Association of Saskatchewan (CAS). Since Saskatchewan was the only jurisdiction in North America to prohibit the use of MADs, the CAS established a committee in 2001 to review the literature on MADs. The committee evaluated the literature on the efficacy, safety, and uses of moving stylus instruments within chiropractic practice, and the educational requirements for chiropractic practice. Following the rating criteria for the evaluation of evidence, as outlined in the Clinical Guidelines for Chiropractic Practice in Canada (1994), the committee reviewed 55 articles – all of which pertained to the Activator. Of the 55 articles, 13 were eliminated from the final study. Of the 42 remaining articles, 6 were rated as class 1 evidence; 11 were rated as class 2 evidence and 25 were rated as class 3 evidence. In this article – the first in a series of two – the background and the methods utilized by the MAD committee’s activities are described, as well as the results for the review of the literature on efficacy. Of the 21 articles related to efficacy, five were identified as Class 1 evidence; 4 were identified as Class 2 evidence; and 12 were identified as Class 3. Overall, the committee reached consensus that the MAD procedures using the Activator were as effective as manual (HVLA) procedures in producing clinical benefit and biological change. A minority report was also written, arguing that there was not enough evidence to support or refute the efficacy of MADs. PMID:17549220

  5. The effect of contact stresses in four-point bend testing of graphite/epoxy and graphite/PMR-15 composite beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.

    1992-01-01

    The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model, for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with the increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.

  6. Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites Fabricated with Desized and Surface Treated Fibers. Characterization of M40J Desized and Finished Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Gosau, Jan M.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda S.; Sutter, James K.; OMalley, Michelle; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. This study was an extension of prior work characterizing the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) with typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50. A continuous desizing system which utilizes environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical processes was developed for tow level fiber and the processes were optimized based on weight loss behavior, surface elemental composition (XPS) and morphology (FE-SEM) analyses, and residual tow strength of the fiber, and the similar approaches have been applied on carbon fabrics. Both desized and further treated with a reactive finish were investigated for the composite reinforcement. The effects of desizing and/or subsequent surface retreatment on carbon fiber on composite properties and performance including fiber-matrix interfacial mechanical properties, thermal properties and blistering onset behavior will be discussed in this presentation.

  7. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  8. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  9. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  10. REVIEW ARTICLE: Current trends and future requirements for the mass spectrometric investigation of microbial, mammalian and plant metabolomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Warwick B.

    2008-03-01

    The functional levels of biological cells or organisms can be separated into the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. Of these the metabolome offers specific advantages to the investigation of the phenotype of biological systems. The investigation of the metabolome (metabolomics) has only recently appeared as a mainstream scientific discipline and is currently developing rapidly for the study of microbial, plant and mammalian metabolomes. The metabolome pipeline or workflow encompasses the processes of sample collection and preparation, collection of analytical data, raw data pre-processing, data analysis and data storage. Of these processes the collection of analytical data will be discussed in this review with specific interest shown in the application of mass spectrometry in the metabolomics pipeline. The current developments in mass spectrometry platforms (GC-MS, LC-MS, DIMS and imaging MS) and applications of specific interest will be highlighted. The current limitations of these platforms and applications will be discussed with areas requiring further development also highlighted. These include the detectable coverage of the metabolome, the identification of metabolites and the process of converting raw data to biological knowledge.

  11. Effects of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the flexural strength of G40-600/PMR-15 cross-ply laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Ho, Barry Ping Hsiao; Wallace, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the flexural strength of G40-600/PMR-15 cross-ply laminates with ply orientation of (0(2),90(2))2S and (90(2),0(2))2S are examined. The relative importance of shear and tensile stresses is examined by varying the span-to-depth ratios of flexural test specimens from 8 to 45. Acoustic emission signals are measured during the flexural tests in order to monitor the initiation and growth of damage. Optical microscopy is used to examine specimens for resin cracking, delamination, and fiber breaks after testing. Transverse matrix cracks and delaminations occur in all specimens, regardless of ply orientation, span-to-depth ratio, or previous exposure of specimens to thermal and mechanical fatigue. A small amount of fiber tensile fracture occurs in the outer 0 deg ply of specimens with high span-to-depth ratios. Because of the complex failure modes, the flexural test results represent the 'apparent' strengths rather than the true flexural or shear strengths for these cross-ply laminates. Thermal cycling of specimens prior to flexural testing does not reduce the apparent flexural strength or change the mode of failure. However, fewer acoustic events are recorded at all strains during flexural testing of specimens exposed to prior thermal cycling. High temperature thermal cycling (32 to 260 C, 100 cycles) causes a greater reduction in acoustic events than low temperature thermal cycling (-85 to +85 C, 500 cycles). Mechanical cycling (0 to 50 percent of the flexural strength, 100 cycles) has a similar effect, except that acoustic events are reduced only at strains less than the maximum strain applied during flexural fatigue.

  12. Effects of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the flexural strength of G40-600/PMR-15 cross-ply laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.D.; Ho, B.Ping Hsiao; Wallace, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    The effects of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the flexural strength of G40-600/PMR-15 cross-ply laminates with ply orientation of (0(2),90(2))2S and (90(2),0(2))2S are examined. The relative importance of shear and tensile stresses is examined by varying the span-to-depth ratios of flexural test specimens from 8 to 45. Acoustic emission signals are measured during the flexural tests in order to monitor the initiation and growth of damage. Optical microscopy is used to examine specimens for resin cracking, delamination, and fiber breaks after testing. Transverse matrix cracks and delaminations occur in all specimens, regardless of ply orientation, span-to-depth ratio, or previous exposure of specimens to thermal and mechanical fatigue. A small amount of fiber tensile fracture occurs in the outer 0 deg ply of specimens with high span-to-depth ratios. Because of the complex failure modes, the flexural test results represent the apparent strengths rather than the true flexural or shear strengths for these cross-ply laminates. Thermal cycling of specimens prior to flexural testing does not reduce the apparent flexural strength or change the mode of failure. However, fewer acoustic events are recorded at all strains during flexural testing of specimens exposed to prior thermal cycling. High temperature thermal cycling (32 to 260 C, 100 cycles) causes a greater reduction in acoustic events than low temperature thermal cycling (-85 to +85 C, 500 cycles). Mechanical cycling (0 to 50 percent of the flexural strength, 100 cycles) has a similar effect, except that acoustic events are reduced only at strains less than the maximum strain applied during flexural fatigue.

  13. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; Bay, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  14. Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schodde, P.; Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews 17 books and curriculum materials of interest to secondary science teachers. Topics include plant science, pollution, fishes, science investigations, general zoology, neurobiology, electronics, and the environment. (MLH)

  15. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for Apple II computers. Includes "Simulation of Hemoglobin Function,""Solution Equilibrium Problems," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Contains ratings of ease of use, subject matter content, pedagogic value, and student reaction according to two separate reviewers for each program. (CW)

  16. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    CD-ROM REVIEWS (449) It's Physics Furry Elephant: Electricity Explained BOOK REVIEWS (450) What Are the Chances? Voodoo Deaths, Office Gossip and Other Adventures in Probability Dictionary of Mechanics: A handbook for teachers and students Intermediate 2 Physics PLACES TO VISIT (452) Spaceguard Centre WEB WATCH (455) Risk

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.1010 - When is a reviewing authority required to approve the determination concerning a property that is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When is a reviewing authority required to approve the determination concerning a property that is to be abandoned, destroyed, or donated? 102-75.1010 Section 102-75.1010 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.1010 - When is a reviewing authority required to approve the determination concerning a property that is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is a reviewing authority required to approve the determination concerning a property that is to be abandoned, destroyed, or donated? 102-75.1010 Section 102-75.1010 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  19. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  20. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  1. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews two chemistry software packages: (1) "Organic Reaction Chemistry" (organic chemistry, college level, Apple II); and (2) "Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions" (general chemistry, college level, IBM). (MVL)

  2. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  3. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  4. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four software packages available for IBM PC or Apple II. Includes "Graphical Analysis III"; "Space Max: Space Station Construction Simulation"; "Guesstimation"; and "Genetic Engineering Toolbox." Focuses on each packages' strengths in a high school context. (CW)

  5. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, George; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: 1) a package containing 68 programs covering general topics in chemistry; 2) a package dealing with acid-base titration curves and allows for variables to be changed; 3) a chemistry tutorial and drill package. (MVL)

  6. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science 1789-1979," and "The Rise of Urbanization and the Decline of…

  7. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents information and concerns regarding computer courseware, books, and audiovisual materials reviewed by teachers. Covers a variety of topics including dissection of common classroom specimens, medicine, acid rain projects, molecules, the water cycle, erosion, plankton, and evolution. Notes on availability, price, and needed equipment, where…

  8. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Robert J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four organic chemistry computer programs and three books. Software includes: (1) NMR Simulator 7--for IBM or Macintosh, (2) Nucleic Acid Structure and Synthesis--for IBM, (3) Molecular Design Editor--for Apple II, and (4) Synthetic Adventure--for Apple II and IBM. Book topics include physical chemistry, polymer pioneers, and the basics of…

  9. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jeanette; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software packages: Graphical Analysis III and Lewis Diagrams. Finds Graphical Analysis III to be a fast and versatile graphing program for high school science classes with access to Apple II microcomputers. Lewis Diagrams is designed to aid in determining Lewis structures of molecules and ions for IBM computers. (MVL)

  10. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repak, Arthur J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Computer software, audiovisuals, and books are reviewed. Includes topics on interfacing, ionic equilibrium, space, the classification system, Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome, evolution, human body processes, energy, pesticides, teaching school, cells, and geological aspects. Availability, price, and a description of each are provided. (RT)

  11. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for chemistry education including "Osmosis and Diffusion" and "E.M.E. Titration Lab" for Apple II and "Simplex-V: An Interactive Computer Program for Experimental Optimization" for IBM PC. Summary ratings include ease of use, content, pedagogic value, student reaction, and cost. (CW)

  12. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews seven software programs: (1) "Science Baseball: Biology" (testing a variety of topics); (2) "Wildways: Understanding Wildlife Conservation"; (3) "Earth Science Computer Test Bank"; (4) "Biology Computer Test Bank"; (5) "Computer Play & Learn Series" (a series of drill and test programs); (6) "ENLIST Micros" (resources on computing for…

  13. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    DISTANCE-LEARNING COURSES (263) Planetary Science and Astronomy BOOK REVIEWS (263) A New Kind of Science Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars EQUIPMENT (265) The Science Enhancement Program (SEP) Geiger Counter WEB WATCH (265) Revision sites SOFTWARE (267) Exploration of Physics Volume 1

  14. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that contractor? (2) If the requirement is for support services (such as system engineering or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Labor... Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 48 CFR 2937.103-70 - Department of Labor checklist to aid analysis and review of requirements for service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Cost effectiveness. If the response to any of the following questions is negative, the agency may not have a valid requirement or not be obtaining the requirement in the most cost effective manner. (1) Is... statement of work written so that it permits adequate evaluation of contractor versus in-house cost...

  16. 77 FR 38842 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: PHS Applications and Pre-Award Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... research institutions; Business or other for- profit; Not-for-profit institutions; Federal Government; and...), Office of Extramural Research (OER), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for review and approval of the information collection...

  17. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  18. The correlation between the imaging characteristics of hamstring injury and time required before returning to sports: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports. PMID:27419106

  19. Assessment of Soil Moisture Data Requirements by the Potential SMAP Data User Community: Review of SMAP Mission User Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is planned for launch in October 2014 and will provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze thaw state. The project is driven by both basic research and applied science goals. Understanding how application driven end-users will apply SMAP data, prior to the satellite's launch, is an important goal of NASA's applied science program and SMAP mission success. Because SMAP data are unique, there are no direct proxy data sets that can be used in research and operational studies to determine how the data will interact with existing processes. The objective of this study is to solicit data requirements, accuracy needs, and current understanding of the SMAP mission from the potential user community. This study showed that the data to be provided by the SMAP mission did substantially meet the user community needs. Although there was a broad distribution of requirements stated, the SMAP mission fit within these requirements.

  20. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND When Physics Became King This book delves into the history of science since the 18th century. The History of the Laser An interesting read that will teach you far more than its title suggests. History of Physics Selected Reprints A fascinating collection of physics papers spanning four decades. Datalogging set-ups Five great products from Leybold Didactic’s CASSY range. Videocom Measure motion and convert it to graphs with this great device. Basic Raybox This simple piece of equipment offers great performance. WORTH A LOOK Virtual Physics Lab John Nunn’s software demystifies science using clear illustrations. HANDLE WITH CARE Microchem Electricity Kit This box of equipment for introducing electricity lacks quality. Raymond the Raybox A disappointing raybox. The basic version reviewed on p389 is better. WEB WATCH A rough guide to e-learning.

  1. 21 CFR 111.560 - What requirements apply to the review and investigation of a product complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Product... a possible failure of a dietary supplement to meet any of its specifications, or any other... failure of a dietary supplement to meet any of its specifications, or any other requirements of this...

  2. 21 CFR 111.560 - What requirements apply to the review and investigation of a product complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Product... a possible failure of a dietary supplement to meet any of its specifications, or any other... failure of a dietary supplement to meet any of its specifications, or any other requirements of this...

  3. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  4. A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices: Part 2 of 2.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shane H; Arnold, Nicole D; Biggs, Lesley; Colloca, Christopher J; Mierau, Dale R; Symons, Bruce P; Triano, John J

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade, mechanical adjusting devices (MADs) were a major source of debate within the Chiropractors' Association of Saskatchewan (CAS). Since Saskatchewan was the only jurisdiction in North America to prohibit the use of MADs, the CAS established a committee in 2001 to review the literature on MADs. The committee evaluated the literature on the efficacy, safety, and uses of moving stylus instruments within chiropractic practice, and the educational requirements for chiropractic practice. Following the rating criteria for the evaluation of evidence, as outlined in the Clinical Guidelines for Chiropractic Practice in Canada (1994), the committee reviewed 55 articles - all of which pertained to the Activator. Of the 55 articles, 13 were eliminated from the final study. Of the 42 remaining articles, 6 were rated as class 1 evidence; 11 were rated as class 2 evidence and 25 were rated as class 3 evidence. In this article - the second in a series of two - we review the results of uses and usage, safety and educational requirements. Of the 30 articles designated under the category of usage, 3 were rated as Class 1 evidence; 9 studies were classified as Class 2 evidence and 18 were rated as Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that in clinical practice, there is broad application of these procedures. A minority report was written arguing that the reviewer was unable to reach a conclusion about the use of the Activator Instrument other than it is used as a clinical and research tool. Of the 16 studies that dealt either explicitly or implicitly with safety, 4 were Class 1 evidence; 3 were Class 2 evidence and 9 were Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that the evidence supports that the Activator instrument is safe and has no more relative risk than do manual HVLA procedures. A minority report was written arguing that there is no evidence either to support or refute the view that MAD is safe. Of the 5 studies that dealt

  5. Moving the worksite health promotion profession forward: is the time right for requiring standards? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Cecilia; English, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Standards in any profession are adopted to assure that the individuals hired are adequately trained and the programs that they oversee are of the highest quality. Worksite health promotion should be no different from any other field. A review of the research conducted by experts in worksite health promotion is examined, along with an assessment of skills needed to ensure that wellness programs are effective and employees, their families, and even their communities are educated on the ways to best prevent chronic diseases and occupational incidences through healthy and safe behaviors. This article is consistent with Health Promotion Practice's mission and focuses on the exploration of the processes used to plan effective worksite health promotion programs, and it suggests initial discussions on whether these processes should become standards for professionals in the worksite health promotion field.

  6. Should eligibility for heart transplantation be a requirement for left ventricular assist device use? Recommendations based on a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, Lucy J; Lambert, Laurie J; Sas, Georgeta; Guertin, Jason R; Ducharme, Anique; Charbonneau, Éric; Carrier, Michel; Cecere, Renzo; Morin, Jean E; Bogaty, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used in chronic end-stage heart failure as "bridge to transplantation" (BTT) and, more recently, for transplant-ineligible patients as "destination therapy" (DT). We reviewed the evidence on clinical effects and cost-effectiveness of 2 types of continuous-flow LVADs (HeartMate II [HM II] and HeartWare), for BTT and DT patients. We systematically searched the scientific literature (January 2008-June 2012) and identified 14 clinical studies (approximately 2900 HM II and approximately 200 HeartWare patients), and 3 economic evaluations (HM II) using simulation models. Data were, however, limited to 2-3 studies per outcome. We made policy recommendations on the basis of our systematic review. Although complications after implantation are frequent, LVAD therapy is often highly effective across transplantation eligibility status and device, with 1-year survival reaching 86% for BTT and 78% for DT (compared with 25% for medical therapy). Neither BTT nor DT currently meet traditional cost-effectiveness limits in models using historical data, although BTT is standard practice for a limited number of patients in many regions. We found that BTT and DT as implantation strategies tend to be no longer mutually exclusive. We conclude that evidence is sufficient to support LVAD use, regardless of transplantation eligibility status, as long as patients are carefully selected and program infrastructure and budget are adequate. However, evidence gaps, limitations in economic models, and the lack of Canadian data point to the importance of mandatory, systematic monitoring of LVAD use and outcomes. PMID:23978595

  7. A Critical Review of Biosimilars in IBD: The Confluence of Biologic Drug Development, Regulatory Requirements, Clinical Outcomes, and Big Business.

    PubMed

    Ha, Christina Y; Kornbluth, Asher

    2016-10-01

    On February 9, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration Arthritis Advisory Committee recommended by a vote of 21 to 3, that the biosimilar to infliximab, CT-P13, be approved for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis and, by extrapolation, for all the indications for which infliximab is currently approved, including adult and pediatric ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. On April 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration concurred with this recommendation and approved CT-P13 (Inflectra; Pfizer Inc.) for all diseases for which infliximab had previously been approved, including adult and pediatric moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and pediatric and adult moderate to severe and fistulizing Crohn's disease. This was despite the absence of any randomized controlled trials studying the infliximab biosimilar in any inflammatory bowel disease. This highly controversial approach has been criticized by various rheumatology and gastroenterology professional societies around the world. This review will cover the stepwise approach to biosimilar development, issues of extrapolation and interchangeability, and conclude with a discussion of the regulatory, intellectual property issues, and financial implications, which will all intersect in the decision and ability to prescribe a biosimilar or reference anti-tumor necrosis factor drug.

  8. A Critical Review of Biosimilars in IBD: The Confluence of Biologic Drug Development, Regulatory Requirements, Clinical Outcomes, and Big Business.

    PubMed

    Ha, Christina Y; Kornbluth, Asher

    2016-10-01

    On February 9, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration Arthritis Advisory Committee recommended by a vote of 21 to 3, that the biosimilar to infliximab, CT-P13, be approved for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis and, by extrapolation, for all the indications for which infliximab is currently approved, including adult and pediatric ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. On April 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration concurred with this recommendation and approved CT-P13 (Inflectra; Pfizer Inc.) for all diseases for which infliximab had previously been approved, including adult and pediatric moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and pediatric and adult moderate to severe and fistulizing Crohn's disease. This was despite the absence of any randomized controlled trials studying the infliximab biosimilar in any inflammatory bowel disease. This highly controversial approach has been criticized by various rheumatology and gastroenterology professional societies around the world. This review will cover the stepwise approach to biosimilar development, issues of extrapolation and interchangeability, and conclude with a discussion of the regulatory, intellectual property issues, and financial implications, which will all intersect in the decision and ability to prescribe a biosimilar or reference anti-tumor necrosis factor drug. PMID:27564646

  9. Severe acute respiratory failure secondary to acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    López-Cuenca, Sonia; Morales-García, Silvia; Martín-Hita, Ana; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fernández-Segoviano, Pilar; Esteban, Andrés

    2012-08-01

    A 27-year-old woman was admitted to our ICU with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and criteria for ARDS. Despite an F(IO(2)) of 1.0 and a lung protective strategy, the patient died on day 15 without any improvement. The relatives gave consent for post-mortem analysis. The histopathologic study of the lung showed findings typical of an acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. Apropos of this case we performed a PubMed search. We found 13 articles, including a total of 29 patients. Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia is an unusual cause of acute lung injury. The diagnostic criterion is histopathologic. There is little information regarding the pathophysiology of this illness. Important questions remain regarding this disease, including predisposing factors and management. Patients who require mechanical ventilation have poor outcomes.

  10. A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices: Part 1 of 2.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shane H; Arnold, Nicole D; Biggs, Lesley; Colloca, Christopher J; Mierau, Dale R; Symons, Bruce P; Triano, John J

    2004-03-01

    Over the past decade, mechanical adjusting devices (MADs) were a major source of debate within the Chiropractors' Association of Saskatchewan (CAS). Since Saskatchewan was the only jurisdiction in North America to prohibit the use of MADs, the CAS established a committee in 2001 to review the literature on MADs. The committee evaluated the literature on the efficacy, safety, and uses of moving stylus instruments within chiropractic practice, and the educational requirements for chiropractic practice. Following the rating criteria for the evaluation of evidence, as outlined in the Clinical Guidelines for Chiropractic Practice in Canada (1994), the committee reviewed 55 articles - all of which pertained to the Activator. Of the 55 articles, 13 were eliminated from the final study. Of the 42 remaining articles, 6 were rated as class 1 evidence; 11 were rated as class 2 evidence and 25 were rated as class 3 evidence. In this article - the first in a series of two - the background and the methods utilized by the MAD committee's activities are described, as well as the results for the review of the literature on efficacy. Of the 21 articles related to efficacy, five were identified as Class 1 evidence; 4 were identified as Class 2 evidence; and 12 were identified as Class 3. Overall, the committee reached consensus that the MAD procedures using the Activator were as effective as manual (HVLA) procedures in producing clinical benefit and biological change. A minority report was also written, arguing that there was not enough evidence to support or refute the efficacy of MADs.

  11. Potency assay development for cellular therapy products: an ISCT review of the requirements and experiences in the industry.

    PubMed

    Bravery, Christopher A; Carmen, Jessica; Fong, Timothy; Oprea, Wanda; Hoogendoorn, Karin H; Woda, Juliana; Burger, Scott R; Rowley, Jon A; Bonyhadi, Mark L; Van't Hof, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of potency plays a key role in defining the quality of cellular therapy products (CTPs). Potency can be defined as a quantitative measure of relevant biologic function based on the attributes that are linked to relevant biologic properties. To achieve an adequate assessment of CTP potency, appropriate in vitro or in vivo laboratory assays and properly controlled clinical data need to be created. The primary objective of a potency assay is to provide a mechanism by which the manufacturing process and the final product for batch release are scrutinized for quality, consistency and stability. A potency assay also provides the basis for comparability assessment after process changes, such as scale-up, site transfer and new starting materials (e.g., a new donor). Potency assays should be in place for early clinical development, and validated assays are required for pivotal clinical trials. Potency is based on the individual characteristics of each individual CTP, and the adequacy of potency assays will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis by regulatory agencies. We provide an overview of the expectations and challenges in development of potency assays specific for CTPs; several real-life experiences from the cellular therapy industry are presented as illustrations. The key observation and message is that aggressive early investment in a solid potency evaluation strategy can greatly enhance eventual CTP deployment because it can mitigate the risk of costly product failure in late-stage development.

  12. Extraordinary Claims Require Extraordinary Evidence: The Case of Non-Local Perception, a Classical and Bayesian Review of Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the famous phrase “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence,” we will present the evidence supporting the concept that human visual perception may have non-local properties, in other words, that it may operate beyond the space and time constraints of sensory organs, in order to discuss which criteria can be used to define evidence as extraordinary. This evidence has been obtained from seven databases which are related to six different protocols used to test the reality and the functioning of non-local perception, analyzed using both a frequentist and a new Bayesian meta-analysis statistical procedure. According to a frequentist meta-analysis, the null hypothesis can be rejected for all six protocols even if the effect sizes range from 0.007 to 0.28. According to Bayesian meta-analysis, the Bayes factors provides strong evidence to support the alternative hypothesis (H1) over the null hypothesis (H0), but only for three out of the six protocols. We will discuss whether quantitative psychology can contribute to defining the criteria for the acceptance of new scientific ideas in order to avoid the inconclusive controversies between supporters and opponents. PMID:21713069

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the elderly: a review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, Priya; Wei, Jeanne Y; Gomez, Alberto; Podrazik, Paula; Riggs, Ann T; Rycus, Peter; Gossett, Jeffrey; Prodhan, Parthak

    2013-01-01

    The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) among the elderly is not clearly defined. We sought to query the international Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry database to investigate the use of ECMO support among the elderly. The objective of this study was to investigate survival to hospital discharge among the elderly supported on ECMO. The ELSO registry database was queried, identifying all elderly patients (>65 years of age) supported on ECMO for ECPR from 1998 to 2009. The primary outcome variable was survival to hospital discharge. Clinical characteristics between survivors and nonsurvivors were compared using univariate analysis. Ninety-nine elderly patients requiring ECPR were identified from the ELSO registry for the study period. The median age of the cohort was 70 years (range 65-86 years). The median admission to time on ECMO was 32 hours (range 1-998 hours), median time on ECMO was 69 hours (range 1-459 hours), and median time off to discharge for survivors was 587 hours (range 3-2,166 hours). Overall, survival at hospital discharge was 22.2% (22/99). No significant differences were noted between survivors and nonsurvivors for demographics, secondary diagnoses, pre-ECMO variables, complications on ECMO, as well as the type and duration of ECMO support. Among listed comorbidities, only the presence of pre-ECMO acute renal failure was significantly more frequent in nonsurvivors compared with survivors (14 vs. 0; p = 0.04). Survival to hospital discharge among the elderly supported on ECMO is lower than that for younger adult patients (28.7% vs. 40.0%). However, it is higher than that after conventional CPR (17%), suggesting that age should not be a bar against consideration for the use of ECMO in older patients but should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  14. Current evidence for therapeutic interventions and prognostic factors in polymyalgia rheumatica: a systematic literature review informing the 2015 European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology recommendations for the management of polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed

    Dejaco, Christian; Singh, Yogesh P; Perel, Pablo; Hutchings, Andrew; Camellino, Dario; Mackie, Sarah; Matteson, Eric L; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2015-10-01

    To summarise evidence on therapeutic interventions and prognostic factors in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). A systematic literature review was conducted using Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library (1970 through April 2014). Quality of evidence (QoE) of identified studies was appraised by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) (interventions) and the Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) methodologies (prognostic factors). Out of 10 931 titles identified, 52 articles were finally selected. A single study indicated that an initial prednisone dose of 20 mg/day is associated with a lower short-term relapse rate than 10 mg/day but at the cost of a higher rate of adverse events. Another study suggested a comparable efficacy of intramuscular methylprednisolone and oral glucocorticoids (GCs) with lower cumulative GC doses and less weight gain in the former group. Moderate to high QoE (1-2 studies) indicated a benefit of methotrexate in remission rates and cumulative GC doses in early PMR. Anti-tumour necrosis factor α agents are ineffective for PMR treatment. Among prognostic factors, female sex, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and peripheral arthritis were associated in some studies with a higher relapse risk. Women and patients with high ESR also appeared to have a longer duration of treatment. Several studies of varying quality, however, failed to prove these associations. In PMR, evidence for initial GC doses and subsequent tapering regimens is limited. Intramuscular methylprednisolone and methotrexate may be effective GC sparing agents. Female sex, high ESR and peripheral arthritis at disease outset are potential risk factors for a worse prognosis. PMID:26359489

  15. Risk of wound infection and safety profile of amoxicillin in healthy patients which required third molar surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, M A; Aragon-Martinez, O H; Martínez-Morales, J F; Zapata-Morales, J R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the risk of surgical wound infection and the adverse effects of amoxicillin in healthy patients who required excision of third molars. We identified eligible reports from searches of PubMed, Medline®, the Cochrane Library, Imbiomed, LILACS, and Google Scholar. Studies that met our minimum requirements were evaluated using inclusion and exclusion criteria and the Oxford Quality Scale. Those with a score of 3 or more on this Scale were included and their data were extracted and analysed. For evaluation of the risk of infection the absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and 95% CI were calculated. For evaluation of the risk of an adverse effect the absolute risk increase, number needed to harm, and 95% CI were calculated using the Risk Reduction Calculator. Each meta-analysis was made with the help of the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model, and estimates of risk (OR) and 95% CI were calculated using the Review Manager 5.3, from the Cochrane Library. A significant risk was assumed when the lower limit of the 95% CI was greater than 1. Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. The results showed that there was no reduction in the risk of infection when amoxicillin was given before or after operation compared with an untreated group or placebo. In conclusion, this study suggests that amoxicillin given prophylactically or postoperatively does not reduce the risk of infection in healthy patients having their third molars extracted.

  16. Requirements and Waivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Good requirements are the first step for good communications, and good communications are central to insure an understanding between the customer and contractor. Failure to generate good requirements is unfortunately commonplace and repeated. Waivers to requirements are discussed from a risk based point of view. The assumption that every requirement will eventually be waived is used to establish a critical review of a draft safety requirement. Validation methods of requirements are addressed. Value added that safety requirements contribute to the Project is estimated to further our critical review of draft requirements.

  17. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Martin C.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews TIGERS IN THE SNOW: THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE (Strategic Simulations),and the BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG (Softwride). Each narrative review describes the hardware required and provides complete ordering information. (JDH)

  18. Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) assessment in epilepsy: a review of epilepsy-specific PROs according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory requirements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite collection of patient reported outcome (PRO) data in clinical trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), PRO results are not being routinely reported on European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) product labels. This review aimed to evaluate epilepsy-specific PRO instruments against FDA regulatory standards for supporting label claims. Structured literature searches were conducted in Embase and Medline databases to identify epilepsy-specific PRO instruments. Only instruments that could potentially be impacted by pharmacological treatment, were completed by adults and had evidence of some validation work were selected for review. A total of 26 PROs were reviewed based on criteria developed from the FDA regulatory standards. The ability to meet these criteria was classified as either full, partial or no evidence, whereby partial reflected some evidence but not enough to comprehensively address the FDA regulatory standards. Most instruments provided partial evidence of content validity. Input from clinicians and literature was common although few involved patients in both item generation and cognitive debriefing. Construct validity was predominantly compromised by no evidence of a-priori hypotheses of expected relationships. Evidence for test-retest reliability and internal consistency was available for most PROs although few included complete results regarding all subscales and some failed to reach recommended thresholds. The ability to detect change and interpretation of change were not investigated in most instruments and no PROs had published evidence of a conceptual framework. The study concludes that none of the 26 have the full evidence required by the FDA to support a label claim, and all require further research to support their use as an endpoint. The Subjective Handicap of Epilepsy (SHE) and the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) have the fewest gaps that would need to be addressed through

  19. Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) assessment in epilepsy: a review of epilepsy-specific PROs according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Annabel; Kerr, Cicely; Breheny, Katie; Wild, Diane

    2013-03-11

    Despite collection of patient reported outcome (PRO) data in clinical trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), PRO results are not being routinely reported on European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) product labels. This review aimed to evaluate epilepsy-specific PRO instruments against FDA regulatory standards for supporting label claims. Structured literature searches were conducted in Embase and Medline databases to identify epilepsy-specific PRO instruments. Only instruments that could potentially be impacted by pharmacological treatment, were completed by adults and had evidence of some validation work were selected for review. A total of 26 PROs were reviewed based on criteria developed from the FDA regulatory standards. The ability to meet these criteria was classified as either full, partial or no evidence, whereby partial reflected some evidence but not enough to comprehensively address the FDA regulatory standards. Most instruments provided partial evidence of content validity. Input from clinicians and literature was common although few involved patients in both item generation and cognitive debriefing. Construct validity was predominantly compromised by no evidence of a-priori hypotheses of expected relationships. Evidence for test-retest reliability and internal consistency was available for most PROs although few included complete results regarding all subscales and some failed to reach recommended thresholds. The ability to detect change and interpretation of change were not investigated in most instruments and no PROs had published evidence of a conceptual framework. The study concludes that none of the 26 have the full evidence required by the FDA to support a label claim, and all require further research to support their use as an endpoint. The Subjective Handicap of Epilepsy (SHE) and the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) have the fewest gaps that would need to be addressed through

  20. The use of remote sensing in light use efficiency based models of gross primary production: a review of current status and future requirements.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Thomas; Coops, Nicholas C; Wulder, Michael A; Black, T Andrew; Guy, Robert D

    2008-10-15

    Global estimation and monitoring of plant photosynthesis (known as Gross Primary Production--GPP) is a critical component of climate change research. Modeling of carbon cycling requires parameterization of the land surface, which, in a spatially continuous mode, is only possible using remote sensing. The increasing availability of high spectral resolution satellite observations with global coverage and high temporal frequency has allowed the scientific community to revisit a number of existing approaches for modeling GPP, and reassess the potential for using remotely sensed inputs. In this paper we examine the current status and future requirements of modeling global GPP thereby focusing on the light use efficiency approach which expresses GPP as product of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the fraction of PAR being absorbed by the plant canopy (f(PAR)) and the efficiency epsilon with which this absorbed PAR can be converted into biomass. The capacity of remote sensing to provide the critical input variables for this approach is reviewed and key issues are identified and discussed for future research.

  1. Design Requirements for Annulus Fibrosus Repair: Review of Forces, Displacements, and Material Properties of the Intervertebral Disk and a Summary of Candidate Hydrogels for Repair.

    PubMed

    Long, Rose G; Torre, Olivia M; Hom, Warren W; Assael, Dylan J; Iatridis, James C

    2016-02-01

    There is currently a lack of clinically available solutions to restore functionality to the intervertebral disk (IVD) following herniation injury to the annulus fibrosus (AF). Microdiscectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure to alleviate pain caused by herniation; however, AF defects remain and can lead to accelerated degeneration and painful conditions. Currently available AF closure techniques do not restore mechanical functionality or promote tissue regeneration, and have risk of reherniation. This review determined quantitative design requirements for AF repair materials and summarized currently available hydrogels capable of meeting these design requirements by using a series of systematic PubMed database searches to yield 1500+ papers that were screened and analyzed for relevance to human lumbar in vivo measurements, motion segment behaviors, and tissue level properties. We propose a testing paradigm involving screening tests as well as more involved in situ and in vivo validation tests to efficiently identify promising biomaterials for AF repair. We suggest that successful materials must have high adhesion strength (∼0.2 MPa), match as many AF material properties as possible (e.g., approximately 1 MPa, 0. 3 MPa, and 30 MPa for compressive, shear, and tensile moduli, respectively), and have high tensile failure strain (∼65%) to advance to in situ and in vivo validation tests. While many biomaterials exist for AF repair, few undergo extensive mechanical characterization. A few hydrogels show promise for AF repair since they can match at least one material property of the AF while also adhering to AF tissue and are capable of easy implantation during surgical procedures to warrant additional optimization and validation.

  2. State-of-the-science review of the occupational health hazards of crystalline silica in abrasive blasting operations and related requirements for respiratory protection.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Donovan, Ellen P; Gaffney, Shannon H; McKinley, Meg A; Moody, Emily C; Henshaw, John L; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2008-08-01

    Excessive exposures to airborne crystalline silica have been known for over 100 years to pose a serious health hazard. Work practices and regulatory standards advanced as the knowledge of the hazards of crystalline silica evolved. This article presents a comprehensive historical examination of the literature on exposure, health effects, and personal protective equipment related to silica and abrasive blasting operations over the last century. In the early 1900s, increased death rates and prevalence of pulmonary disease were observed in industries that involved dusty operations. Studies of these occupational cohorts served as the basis for the first occupational exposure limits in the 1930s. Early exposure studies in foundries revealed that abrasive blasting operations were particularly hazardous and provided the basis for many of the engineering control and respiratory protection requirements that are still in place today. Studies involving abrasive blasters over the years revealed that engineering controls were often not completely effective at reducing airborne silica concentrations to a safe level; consequently, respiratory protection has always been an important component of protecting workers. During the last 15-20 yr, quantitative exposure-response modeling, experimental animal studies, and in vitro methods were used to better understand the relationship between exposure to silica and disease in the workplace. In light of Occupational Safety and Health Administration efforts to reexamine the protectiveness of the current permissible exposure limit (PEL) for crystalline silica and its focus on protecting workers who are known to still be exposed to silica in the workplace (including abrasive blasters), this state-of-the-science review of one of the most hazardous operations involving crystalline silica should provide useful background to employers, researchers, and regulators interested in the historical evolution of the recognized occupational health hazards

  3. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  4. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer software packages including "Lunar Greenhouse,""Dyno-Quest,""How Weather Works,""Animal Trackers,""Personal Science Laboratory," and "The Skeletal and Muscular Systems." Availability, functional, and hardware requirements are discussed. (CW)

  5. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  6. A review of nuclear data needs and their status for fusion reactor technology with some suggestions on a strategy to satisfy the requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Cheng, E.T.

    1991-09-01

    A review was performed on the needs and status of nuclear data for fusion-reactor technology. Generally, the status of nuclear data for fusion has been improved during the past two decades due to the dedicated effort of the nuclear data developers. However, there are still deficiencies in the nuclear data base, particularly in the areas of activation and neutron scattering cross sections. Activation cross sections were found to be unsatisfactory in 83 of the 153 reactions reviewed. The scattering cross sections for fluorine and boron will need to be improved at energies above 1 MeV. Suggestions concerning a strategy to address the specific fusion nuclear data needs for dosimetry and activation are also provided.

  7. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  8. Penises not required: a systematic review of the potential for human papillomavirus horizontal transmission that is non-sexual or does not include penile penetration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyue; Rashid, Tasnuva; Nyitray, Alan G

    2016-02-01

    The primary mode of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission is through penetrative sex; however, there is evidence of other modes of transmission. No systematic review was found that focussed on HPV horizontal transmission that is not penocentric. A systematic review of the literature by searching Medline (Ovid), PubMed (NLM) and Embase (Ovid) was conducted to retrieve articles published from 1946 to March 2014. Studies that suggested evidence of non-sexual or non-penetrative sexual transmission of α-HPV genotypes were included. After review of 2061 titles and abstracts, 51 studies were abstracted. Fifteen studies examined HPV fomites from medical settings or public environments, and 36 examined HPV in humans. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in the genital tract of female virgins, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 51.1%. HPV transmission from hands to genitals or genitals to hands was reported for both sexes and heterosexual couples. Other studies commonly found HPV on surfaces in medical settings and public environments. Further studies on non-sexual and non-penetrative sexual transmission are needed to understand the complexity of HPV transmission. Health-care policies may need to be reassessed/established to ensure the safety of medical instruments and to reduce the risk of HPV nosocomial infection.

  9. Eligibility Requirements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Eligibility Requirements Printable Version Eligibility Requirements This page uses Javascript. Your browser either doesn' ... donors » Weigh at least 110 lbs. Additional weight requirements apply for donors 18-years-old and younger ...

  10. Research and Development in the Computer and Information Sciences. Volume 2, Processing, Storage, and Output Requirements in Information Processing Systems: A Selective Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mary Elizabeth

    Areas of concern with respect to processing, storage, and output requirements of a generalized information processing system are considered. Special emphasis is placed on multiple-access systems. Problems of system management and control are discussed, including hierarchies of storage levels. Facsimile, digital, and mass random access storage…

  11. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Undavalli, Chaitanya; Das, Piyush; Dutt, Taru; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA) can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED) immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term 'PTSD or post-traumatic stress' and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  12. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  13. An evaluation of the documented requirements of the SSP UIL and a review of commercial software packages for the development and testing of UIL prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Esther Naomi

    1986-01-01

    A review was conducted of software packages currently on the market which might be integrated with the interface language and aid in reaching the objectives of customization, standardization, transparency, reliability, maintainability, language substitutions, expandability, portability, and flexibility. Recommendations are given for best choices in hardware and software acquisition for inhouse testing of these possible integrations. Software acquisition in the line of tools to aid expert-system development and/or novice program development, artificial intelligent voice technology and touch screen or joystick or mouse utilization as well as networking were recommended. Other recommendations concerned using the language Ada for the user interface language shell because of its high level of standardization, structure, and ability to accept and execute programs written in other programming languages, its DOD ownership and control, and keeping the user interface language simple so that multiples of users will find the commercialization of space within their realm of possibility which is, after all, the purpose of the Space Station.

  14. Processable high temperature resistant polymer matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1975-01-01

    Studies conducted with addition-type polyimides are reviewed with emphasis on the development of the Polymerization of Monomer Reactants (PMR) approach, in which PMR occurs on the surface of the reinforcing fibers.

  15. Power System Concepts for the Lunar Outpost: A Review of the Power Generation, Energy Storage, Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System Requirements and Potential Technologies for Development of the Lunar Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Z.; Vranis, A.; Zavoico, A.; Freid, S.; Manners, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will review potential power system concepts for the development of the lunar outpost including power generation, energy storage, and power management and distribution (PMAD). In particular, the requirements of the initial robotic missions will be discussed and the technologies considered will include cryogenics and regenerative fuel cells (RFC), AC and DC transmission line technology, high voltage and low voltage power transmission, conductor materials of construction and power beaming concepts for transmitting power to difficult to access locations such as at the bottom of craters. Operating conditions, component characteristics, reliability, maintainability, constructability, system safety, technology gaps/risk and adaptability for future lunar missions will be discussed for the technologies considered.

  16. Mobile Applications for Diabetics: A Systematic Review and Expert-Based Usability Evaluation Considering the Special Requirements of Diabetes Patients Age 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Quade, Mandy; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Background A multitude of mhealth (mobile health) apps have been developed in recent years to support effective self-management of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2. Objective We carried out a systematic review of all currently available diabetes apps for the operating systems iOS and Android. We considered the number of newly released diabetes apps, range of functions, target user groups, languages, acquisition costs, user ratings, available interfaces, and the connection between acquisition costs and user ratings. Additionally, we examined whether the available applications serve the special needs of diabetes patients aged 50 or older by performing an expert-based usability evaluation. Methods We identified relevant keywords, comparative categories, and their specifications. Subsequently, we performed the app review based on the information given in the Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, and the apps themselves. In addition, we carried out an expert-based usability evaluation based on a representative 10% sample of diabetes apps. Results In total, we analyzed 656 apps finding that 355 (54.1%) offered just one function and 348 (53.0%) provided a documentation function. The dominating app language was English (85.4%, 560/656), patients represented the main user group (96.0%, 630/656), and the analysis of the costs revealed a trend toward free apps (53.7%, 352/656). The median price of paid apps was €1.90. The average user rating was 3.6 stars (maximum 5). Our analyses indicated no clear differences in the user rating between free and paid apps. Only 30 (4.6%) of the 656 available diabetes apps offered an interface to a measurement device. We evaluated 66 apps within the usability evaluation. On average, apps were rated best regarding the criterion “comprehensibility” (4.0 out of 5.0), while showing a lack of “fault tolerance” (2.8 out of 5.0). Of the 66 apps, 48 (72.7%) offered the ability to read the screen content aloud. The number of

  17. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  18. Required High School Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kate; Morrow, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Through a literature review, and in the words of internees, this article describes the value of required internship for career growth. It notes that an internship experience ensures that students have a mentor who can be a professional reference, having actually witnessed what Mojkowski and Washor call the students' "non-academic"…

  19. NASA Orbital Debris Requirements and Best Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Limitation of orbital debris accumulation is an international and national concern, reflectedin NASA debris limitation requirements. These requirements will be reviewed, along with some practices that can be employed to achieve the requirements.

  20. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six software packages for Apple and/or IBM computers. Included are "Autograph,""The New Game Show,""Science Probe-Earth Science,""Pollution Patrol,""Investigating Plant Growth," and "AIDS: The Investigation." Discussed are the grade level, function, availability, cost, and hardware requirements of each. (CW)

  1. Courseware Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, John S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews courseware (Apple II) providing laboratory simulations in atomic physics. Although material is not user-friendly and requires some background, the animations are good representations of electron mass, Thompson e/m, Millikan oil-drop, and mass spectrometer. Recommended for classroom demonstration purposes at high school or introductory…

  2. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Six software packages are described in this review. Included are "Molecules and Atoms: Exploring the Essence of Matter"; "Heart Probe"; "GM Sunraycer"; "Six Puzzles"; "Information Laboratory--Life Science"; and "Science Test Builder." Hardware requirements, prices, and a summary of the abilities of each program are presented. (CW)

  3. Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game management. (CW)

  4. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer software packages including "Invisible Bugs,""Chaos Plus...,""The Botanist's Apprentice,""A Baby is Born," Storyboard Plus-Version 2.0," and "Weather." Hardware requirements, functions, performance, and use in the classroom are discussed. (CW)

  5. On-line adaptive battery impedance parameter and state estimation considering physical principles in reduced order equivalent circuit battery models. Part 1. Requirements, critical review of methods and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Christian; Waag, Wladislaw; Heyn, Hans-Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems employed in high power demanding systems such as electric vehicles require a sophisticated monitoring system to ensure safe and reliable operation. Three major states of the battery are of special interest and need to be constantly monitored, these include: battery state of charge (SoC), battery state of health (capcity fade determination, SoH), and state of function (power fade determination, SoF). In a series of two papers, we propose a system of algorithms based on a weighted recursive least quadratic squares parameter estimator, that is able to determine the battery impedance and diffusion parameters for accurate state estimation. The functionality was proven on different battery chemistries with different aging conditions. The first paper investigates the general requirements on BMS for HEV/EV applications. In parallel, the commonly used methods for battery monitoring are reviewed to elaborate their strength and weaknesses in terms of the identified requirements for on-line applications. Special emphasis will be placed on real-time capability and memory optimized code for cost-sensitive industrial or automotive applications in which low-cost microcontrollers must be used. Therefore, a battery model is presented which includes the influence of the Butler-Volmer kinetics on the charge-transfer process. Lastly, the mass transport process inside the battery is modeled in a novel state-space representation.

  6. Composition and Process for Retarding the Premature Aging of PMR Monomer Solutions and PMR Prepegs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gahn, Gloria S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Polyimides are derived from solutions of at least one low-boiling organic solvent, e.g. isopropanol containing a mixture of polyimide-forming monomers. The monomeric solutions have an extended shelf life at ambient (room) temperatures as high as 80 C, and consist essentially of a mixture of monoalkyl ester-acids, alkyl diester-diacids and aromatic polyamines wherein the alkyl radicals of the esteracids are derived from lower molecular weight aliphatic secondary alcohols having 3 to 5 carbon atoms per molecule such as isopropanol, secondary butanol, 2-methyl-3-butanol, 2 pentanol or 3-pentanol. The solutions of the polyimide-forming monomers have a substantially improved shelf-life and are particularly useful in the aerospace and aeronautical industry for the preparation of polyimide reinforced fiber composites such as the polyimide cured carbon composites used in jet engines, missiles, and for other high temperature applications.

  7. Snubber qualification and test requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Onesto, A.T.; Larson, D.A.

    1983-05-02

    The use of snubbers for safety related piping systems has increased significantly during the last decade. A corresponding increase in snubber requirements (criteria) has also occurred. A review of these criteria indicates inconsistencies and contradictions, and reflects how rapidly knowledge and experience has been gained and applied. This study reviews and summarizes existing criteria, illustrates inconsistencies and recommends research to resolve conflicts.

  8. [Sweat testing: review of technical requirements].

    PubMed

    Rota, M; Nguyen-Khoa, T; Marchand, M; Feldmann, D; Dumont, J; Khalfon, D; Vassault, A; Borgard, J-P

    2008-01-01

    The sweat test, a quantitative measurement of chloride in sweat, remains a key laboratory test to support the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. However, because of its delicate execution, sweat test result should be interpreted with biological, clinical and genetic arguments. The following guidelines which we propose, were established in order to harmonize the practices of the sweat test. They are elaborated in a consensual way by biologists from cystic fibrosis reference centers and/or from the working group "Sweat Testing" of the National College of Biochemistry Hospital praticiens, according to the current state of knowledge on the subject, the experiment of the biologists and the recommendations established in the United States and in the United Kingdom.

  9. 14 CFR 1274.105 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., for which the total NASA resources to be expended equal or exceed $10 million (cash plus non-cash... Center procurement office (as applicable). For any CAN where NASA's cash contributions are expected to... an electronic mail (e-mail) message to the following address at NASA Headquarters:...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.105 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., for which the total NASA resources to be expended equal or exceed $10 million (cash plus non-cash... Center procurement office (as applicable). For any CAN where NASA's cash contributions are expected to... an electronic mail (e-mail) message to the following address at NASA Headquarters:...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.105 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., for which the total NASA resources to be expended equal or exceed $10 million (cash plus non-cash... Center procurement office (as applicable). For any CAN where NASA's cash contributions are expected to... an electronic mail (e-mail) message to the following address at NASA Headquarters:...

  12. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa High-Level Resistance to Polymyxins and Other Antimicrobial Peptides Requires cprA, a Gene That Is Disrupted in the PAO1 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gutu, Alina D.; Rodgers, Nicole S.; Park, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    The arn locus, found in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, mediates resistance to polymyxins and other cationic antimicrobial peptides through 4-amino-l-arabinose modification of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) control the arn locus, which is necessary but not sufficient for these resistance phenotypes. A previous transposon mutagenesis screen to identify additional polymyxin resistance genes that these systems regulate implicated an open reading frame designated PA1559 in the genome of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Resequencing of this chromosomal region and bioinformatics analysis for a variety of P. aeruginosa strains revealed that in the sequenced PAO1 strain, a guanine deletion at the end of PA1559 results in a frameshift and truncation of a full-length open reading frame that also encompasses PA1560 in non-PAO1 strains, such as P. aeruginosa PAK. Deletion analysis in the PAK strain showed that this full-length open reading frame, designated cprA, is necessary for polymyxin resistance conferred by activating mutations in the PhoPQ, PmrAB, and CprRS TCSs. The cprA gene was also required for PmrAB-mediated resistance to other cationic antimicrobial peptides in the PAK strain. Repair of the mutated cprA allele in the PAO1 strain restored polymyxin resistance conferred by an activating TCS mutation. The deletion of cprA did not affect the arn-mediated lipid A modification, indicating that the CprA protein is necessary for a different aspect of polymyxin resistance. This protein has a domain structure with a strong similarity to the extended short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family that comprises isomerases, lyases, and oxidoreductases. These results suggest a new avenue through which to pursue targeted inhibition of polymyxin resistance. PMID:26100714

  14. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  15. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the theory of vibrations has carried an aesthetic appeal to generations of engineering students for its richness of ideas, and for the intellectual challenges it offers. Also, the diverse range of its applications (covering civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures) has provided obvious motivations for its study. For most students, the subject provides, perhaps, the first encounter in substantial application of mathematical tools (differential equations, calculus of variations, Fourier/Laplace transforms, and matrix algebra) to engineering problems. The intimate relationship that the subject of mechanics has with mathematics strikes home probably for the first time. While teaching this subject, the instructor is spoilt for choice in selecting a text book and so are the students who wish to pursue a self-study of the subject. Many luminaries in the field have offered their own exposition of the subject: starting from the classics of Rayleigh, Timoshenko, Den Hartog, Bishop and Johnson, and the works of more recent vintage (e.g., the books by Meirovich, Clough, and Penzien, and works with computational flavour, such as, those by Bathe and Petyt), several works easily come to one's mind. Given this milieu, it requires a distinctive conviction to write a new book on this subject. And, here we have a book, written by a practitioner, which aims to deal with fundamental aspects of vibrations of engineering systems. The scepticism that this reviewer had on the need for having one more such book vanished as he browsed through the book and read selectively a few sections. The author's gift for elegant explanations is immediately noticeable even in such a preliminary reading. After a more careful reading, the reviewer has found this book to be insightful and he considers the book to be a welcome addition to the family of books on vibration engineering. The author has struck a fine balance between physical explanations, mathematical niceties

  16. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  17. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, < 0.001 for intercept, slope ≠ 0). Analysis of residuals from this simple linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME

  18. Requirements for color technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ronald B., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The requirements for color technology in the general office are reviewed. The two most salient factors driving the requirements for color are the information explosion and the virtually negligible growth in white collar productivity in the recent past. Accordingly, the business requirement upon color technology is that it be utilized in an effective and efficient manner to increase office productivity. Recent research on productivity and growth has moved beyond the classical two factor productivity model of labor and capital to explicitly include knowledge as a third and vital factor. Documents are agents of knowledge in the general office. Documents articulate, express, disseminate, and communicate knowledge. The central question addressed here is how can color, in conjunction with other techniques such as graphics and document design, improve the growth of knowledge? The central thesis is that the effective use of color to convert information into knowledge is one of the most powerful ways to increase office productivity. Material on the value of color is reviewed. This material is related to the role of documents. Document services are the way in which users access and utilize color technology. The requirements for color technology are then defined against the services taxonomy.

  19. Relevance of in vitro tests of adhesive and composite dental materials, a review in 3 parts. Part 1: Approval requirements and standardized testing of composite materials according to ISO specifications.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Siegward D; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this three-part review on the relevance of laboratory testing of composites and adhesives deals with approval requirements for composite materials. We compare the in vivo and in vitro literature data and discuss the relevance of in vitro analyses. The standardized ISO protocols are presented, with a focus on the evaluation of physical parameters. These tests all have a standardized protocol that describes the entire test set-up. The tests analyse flexural strength, depth of cure, susceptibility to ambient light, color stability, water sorption and solubility, and radiopacity. Some tests have a clinical correlation. A high flexural strength, for instance, decreases the risk of fractures of the marginal ridge in posterior restorations and incisal edge build-ups of restored anterior teeth. Other tests do not have a clinical correlation or the threshold values are too low, which results in an approval of materials that show inferior clinical properties (e.g., radiopacity). It is advantageous to know the test set-ups and the ideal threshold values to correctly interpret the material data. Overall, however, laboratory assessment alone cannot ensure the clinical success of a product.

  20. 78 FR 47016 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review process that would be available to... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External Review AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Request for External Review. As required...