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Sample records for requirement pmr review

  1. PmrD Is Required for Modifications to Escherichia coli Endotoxin That Promote Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Erica J.; Herrera, Carmen M.; Crofts, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    In Salmonella enterica, PmrD is a connector protein that links the two-component systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB. While Escherichia coli encodes a PmrD homolog, it is thought to be incapable of connecting PhoPQ and PmrAB in this organism due to functional divergence from the S. enterica protein. However, our laboratory previously observed that low concentrations of Mg2+, a PhoPQ-activating signal, leads to the induction of PmrAB-dependent lipid A modifications in wild-type E. coli (C. M. Herrera, J. V. Hankins, and M. S. Trent, Mol Microbiol 76:1444–1460, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07150.x). These modifications include phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), which promote bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) when affixed to lipid A. Here, we demonstrate that pmrD is required for modification of the lipid A domain of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under low-Mg2+ growth conditions. Further, RNA sequencing shows that E. coli pmrD influences the expression of pmrA and its downstream targets, including genes coding for the modification enzymes that transfer pEtN and l-Ara4N to the lipid A molecule. In line with these findings, a pmrD mutant is dramatically impaired in survival compared with the wild-type strain when exposed to the CAMP polymyxin B. Notably, we also reveal the presence of an unknown factor or system capable of activating pmrD to promote lipid A modification in the absence of the PhoPQ system. These results illuminate a more complex network of protein interactions surrounding activation of PhoPQ and PmrAB in E. coli than previously understood. PMID:25605366

  2. PmrD is required for modifications to escherichia coli endotoxin that promote antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Erica J; Herrera, Carmen M; Crofts, Alexander A; Trent, M Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In Salmonella enterica, PmrD is a connector protein that links the two-component systems PhoP-PhoQ and PmrA-PmrB. While Escherichia coli encodes a PmrD homolog, it is thought to be incapable of connecting PhoPQ and PmrAB in this organism due to functional divergence from the S. enterica protein. However, our laboratory previously observed that low concentrations of Mg(2+), a PhoPQ-activating signal, leads to the induction of PmrAB-dependent lipid A modifications in wild-type E. coli (C. M. Herrera, J. V. Hankins, and M. S. Trent, Mol Microbiol 76:1444-1460, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07150.x). These modifications include phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), which promote bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) when affixed to lipid A. Here, we demonstrate that pmrD is required for modification of the lipid A domain of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under low-Mg(2+) growth conditions. Further, RNA sequencing shows that E. coli pmrD influences the expression of pmrA and its downstream targets, including genes coding for the modification enzymes that transfer pEtN and l-Ara4N to the lipid A molecule. In line with these findings, a pmrD mutant is dramatically impaired in survival compared with the wild-type strain when exposed to the CAMP polymyxin B. Notably, we also reveal the presence of an unknown factor or system capable of activating pmrD to promote lipid A modification in the absence of the PhoPQ system. These results illuminate a more complex network of protein interactions surrounding activation of PhoPQ and PmrAB in E. coli than previously understood.

  3. A review of dynamic mechanical characterization of high temperature PMR polyimides and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of dynamic mechanical characterization for high-temperature PMR polyimides and their graphite-fiber-reinforced composites. This characterization technique provides insights into the processability, performance, and structure property relationships of the polyimides and composites. The dynamic mechanical properties of various molding powders, commercially obtained prepregs, neat resins, and as-fabricated as well as aged composites are presented. Some applied aspects of the dynamic mechanical data are discussed.

  4. The pmr gene, encoding a Ca2+-ATPase, is required for calcium and manganese homeostasis and normal development of hyphae and conidia in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Barry J; Abreu, Stephen; Johl, Jessica K; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2012-11-01

    The pmr gene is predicted to encode a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the secretory pathway. We examined two strains of Neurospora crassa that lacked PMR: the Δpmr strain, in which pmr was completely deleted, and pmr(RIP), in which the gene was extensively mutated. Both strains had identical, complex phenotypes. Compared to the wild type, these strains required high concentrations of calcium or manganese for optimal growth and had highly branched, slow-growing hyphae. They conidiated poorly, and the shape and size of the conidia were abnormal. Calcium accumulated in the Δpmr strains to only 20% of the wild-type level. High concentrations of MnCl(2) (1 to 5 mM) in growth medium partially suppressed the morphological defects but did not alter the defect in calcium accumulation. The Δpmr Δnca-2 double mutant (nca-2 encodes a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane) accumulated 8-fold more calcium than the wild type, and the morphology of the hyphae was more similar to that of wild-type hyphae. Previous experiments failed to show a function for nca-1, which encodes a SERCA-type Ca(2+)-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum (B. J. Bowman, S. Abreu, E. Margolles-Clark, M. Draskovic, and E. J. Bowman, Eukaryot. Cell 10:654-661, 2011). The pmr(RIP) Δnca-1 double mutant accumulated small amounts of calcium, like the Δpmr strain, but exhibited even more extreme morphological defects. Thus, PMR can apparently replace NCA-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, but NCA-1 cannot replace PMR. The morphological defects in the Δpmr strain are likely caused, in part, by insufficient concentrations of calcium and manganese in the Golgi compartment; however, PMR is also needed to accumulate normal levels of calcium in the whole cell.

  5. Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) Special Interest Group at OMERACT 11: outcomes of importance for patients with PMR.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Sarah L; Arat, Seher; da Silva, Jose; Duarte, Catia; Halliday, Sue; Hughes, Rod; Morris, Marianne; Pease, Colin T; Sherman, Jeffrey W; Simon, Lee S; Walsh, Maggie; Westhovens, René; Zakout, Samy; Kirwan, John R

    2014-04-01

    We worked toward developing a core outcome set for clinical research studies in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) by conducting (1) patient consultations using modified nominal group technique; (2) a systematic literature review of outcome measures in PMR; (3) a pilot observational study of patients presenting with untreated PMR, and further discussion with patient research partners; and (4) a qualitative focus group study of patients with PMR on the meaning of stiffness, using thematic analysis. (1) Consultations included 104 patients at 4 centers. Symptoms of PMR included pain, stiffness, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. Function, anxiety, and depression were also often mentioned. Participants expressed concerns about diagnostic delay, adverse effects of glucocorticoids, and fear of relapse. (2) In the systematic review, outcome measures previously used for PMR include pain visual analog scores (VAS), morning stiffness, blood markers, function, and quality of life; standardized effect sizes posttreatment were large. (3) Findings from the observational study indicated that asking about symptom severity at 7 AM, or "on waking," appeared more relevant to disease activity than asking about symptom severity "now" (which depended on the time of assessment). (4) Preliminary results were presented from the focus group qualitative study, encompassing broad themes of stiffness, pain, and the effect of PMR on patients' lives. It was concluded that further validation work is required before a core outcome set in PMR can be recommended. Nevertheless, the large standardized effect sizes suggest that pain VAS is likely to be satisfactory as a primary outcome measure for assessing response to initial therapy of PMR. Dissection of between-patient heterogeneity in the subsequent treatment course may require attention to comorbidity as a potential confounding factor.

  6. PMR polyimide composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    Fiber reinforced PMR polyimides are finding increased acceptance as engineering materials for high performance structural applications. Prepreg materials based on this novel class of highly processable, high temperature resistant polyimides, are commercially available and the PMR concept was incorporated in several industrial applications. The status of PMR polyimides is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the chemistry, processing, and applications of the first generation PMR polyimides known as PMR-15.

  7. The Histidine Residue of QseC Is Required for Canonical Signaling between QseB and PmrB in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Breland, Erin J; Zhang, Ellisa W; Bermudez, Tomas; Martinez, Charles R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2017-09-15

    Two-component systems are prototypically comprised of a histidine kinase (sensor) and a response regulator (responder). The sensor kinases autophosphorylate at a conserved histidine residue, acting as a phosphodonor for subsequent phosphotransfer to and activation of a cognate response regulator. In rare cases, the histidine residue is also essential for response regulator dephosphorylation via a reverse-phosphotransfer reaction. In this work, we present an example of a kinase that relies on reverse phosphotransfer to catalyze the dephosphorylation of its cognate partner. The QseC sensor kinase is conserved across several Gram-negative pathogens; its interaction with its cognate partner QseB is critical for maintaining pathogenic potential. Here, we demonstrate that QseC-mediated dephosphorylation of QseB occurs via reverse phosphotransfer. In previous studies, we demonstrated that, in uropathogenic Escherichia coli, exposure to high concentrations of ferric iron (Fe(3+)) stimulates the PmrB sensor kinase. This stimulation, in turn, activates the cognate partner, PmrA, and noncognate QseB to enhance tolerance to polymyxin B. We demonstrate that in the absence of signal, kinase-inactive QseC variants, in which the H246 residue was changed to alanine (A) aspartate (D) or leucine (L), rescued a ΔqseC deletion mutant, suggesting that QseC can control QseB activation via a mechanism that is independent of reverse phosphotransfer. However, in the presence of Fe(3+), the same QseC variants were unable to mediate a wild-type stimulus response, indicating that QseC-mediated dephosphorylation is required for maintaining proper QseB-PmrB-PmrA interactions.IMPORTANCE Two-component signaling networks constitute one of the predominant methods by which bacteria sense and respond to their changing environments. Two-component systems allow bacteria to thrive and survive in a number of different environments, including within a human host. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, the

  8. Novel improved PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A series of N-phenylnadimide (PN) modified PMR polyimide composites reinforced with graphite fibers was investigated. The improved flow matrix resins consist of N-phenylnadimide (PN), monomenthyl ester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid (NE), dimethyl ester of 3,3, 4,4-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acide (BTDE), and 4,4 methylenedianiline (MDA). Five modified PMR resin systems were formulated by the addition of 4 to 20 mole percent N-phenylnadimide to the standard PMR-15 composition. These formulations and the control PMR resin were evaluated for rheological characteristics. The initial thermal and mechanical properties of the PN modified PMR and the control PMR/Celion 6000 composites were determined. The results show that the addition of N-phenylnadimide to PMR-15 significantly improved the resin flow characteristics without sacrificing the composites properties. Concentrations of 4 and 9 mole percent PN appear to improve the thermoxidative stability of PMR composites.

  9. A PmrB-Regulated Deacetylase Required for Lipid A Modification and Polymyxin Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chui-Yoke; Gregg, Kelsey A; Napier, Brooke A; Ernst, Robert K; Weiss, David S

    2015-12-01

    Emerging resistance to "last-resort" polymyxin antibiotics in Gram-negative bacteria is a significant threat to public health. We identified the Acinetobacter baumannii NaxD deacetylase as a critical mediator of lipid A modification resulting in polymyxin resistance and demonstrated that naxD is regulated by the sensor kinase PmrB. This represents the first description of a specific PmrB-regulated gene contributing to polymyxin resistance in A. baumannii and highlights NaxD as a putative drug target to reverse polymyxin resistance.

  10. A PmrB-Regulated Deacetylase Required for Lipid A Modification and Polymyxin Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Chui-Yoke; Gregg, Kelsey A.; Napier, Brooke A.; Ernst, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging resistance to “last-resort” polymyxin antibiotics in Gram-negative bacteria is a significant threat to public health. We identified the Acinetobacter baumannii NaxD deacetylase as a critical mediator of lipid A modification resulting in polymyxin resistance and demonstrated that naxD is regulated by the sensor kinase PmrB. This represents the first description of a specific PmrB-regulated gene contributing to polymyxin resistance in A. baumannii and highlights NaxD as a putative drug target to reverse polymyxin resistance. PMID:26459891

  11. Shelf Life of PMR Polyimide Monomer Solutions and Prepregs Extended

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    PMR (Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants) technology was developed in the mid-1970's at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for fabricating high-temperature stable polyimide composites. This technology allowed a solution of polyimide monomers or prepreg (a fiber, such as glass or graphite, impregnated with PMR polyimide monomers) to be thermally cured without the release of volatiles that cause the formation of voids unlike the non-PMR technology used for polyimide condensation type resins. The initial PMR resin introduced as PMR 15 is still commercially available and is used worldwide by aerospace industries as the state-of-the-art resin for high-temperature polyimide composite applications. PMR 15 offers easy composite processing, excellent composite mechanical property retention, a long lifetime at use temperatures of 500 to 550 F, and relatively low cost. Later, second-generation PMR resin versions, such as PMR II 50 and VCAP 75, offer improvements in the upper-use temperature (to 700 F) and in the useful life at temperature without major compromises in processing and property retention but with significant increases in resin cost. Newer versions of nontoxic (non-methylene dianiline) PMR resins, such as BAX PMR 15, offer similar advantages as originally found for PMR 15 but also with significant increases in resin cost. Thus, the current scope of the entire PMR technology available meets a wide range of aeronautical requirements for polymer composite applications.

  12. High molecular weight first generation PMR polyimides for 343 C applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malarik, Diane C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on 343 C thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), mechanical properties, and processability, of the first generation PMR polyimides was studied. Graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15, PMR-30, PMR-50, and PMR-75 composites (corresponding to formulated molecular weights of 1500, 3000, 5000, and 7500, respectively) were fabricated using a simulated autoclave process. The data reveals that while alternate autoclave cure schedules are required for the high molecular weight resins, low void laminates can be fabricated which have significantly improved TOS over PMR-15, with only a small sacrifice in mechanical properties.

  13. High molecular weight first generation PMR polyimides for 343 C applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malarik, D. C.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on 343 C thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), mechanical properties, and processability, of the first generation PMR polyimides was studied. Graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15, PMR-30, PMR-50, and PMR-75 composites (corresponding to formulated molecular weights of 1500, 3000, 5000, and 7500, respectively) were fabricated using a simulated autoclave process. The data reveal that while alternate autoclave cure schedules are required for the high molecular weight resins, low void laminates can be fabricated which have significantly improved TDS over PMR-15, with only a small sacrifice in mechanical properties.

  14. The PmrA-Regulated pmrC Gene Mediates Phosphoethanolamine Modification of Lipid A and Polymyxin Resistance in Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2004-01-01

    The PmrA/PmrB regulatory system of Salmonella enterica controls the modification of lipid A with aminoarabinose and phosphoethanolamine. The aminoarabinose modification is required for resistance to the antibiotic polymyxin B, as mutations of the PmrA-activated pbg operon or ugd gene result in strains that lack aminoarabinose in their lipid A molecules and are more susceptible to polymyxin B. Additional PmrA-regulated genes appear to participate in polymyxin B resistance, as pbgP and ugd mutants are not as sensitive to polymyxin B as a pmrA mutant. Moreover, the role that the phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A plays in the resistance to polymyxin B has remained unknown. Here we address both of these questions by establishing that the PmrA-activated pmrC gene encodes an inner membrane protein that is required for the incorporation of phosphoethanolamine into lipid A and for polymyxin B resistance. The PmrC protein consists of an N-terminal region with five transmembrane domains followed by a large periplasmic region harboring the putative enzymatic domain. A pbgP pmrC double mutant resembled a pmrA mutant both in its lipid A profile and in its susceptibility to polymyxin B, indicating that the PmrA-dependent modification of lipid A with aminoarabinose and phosphoethanolamine is responsible for PmrA-regulated polymyxin B resistance. PMID:15205413

  15. Identification of cptA, a PmrA-Regulated Locus Required for Phosphoethanolamine Modification of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Lipopolysaccharide Core

    PubMed Central

    Tamayo, R.; Choudhury, B.; Septer, A.; Merighi, M.; Carlson, R.; Gunn, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the in vivo environment, the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is modified. These modifications are controlled in part by the two-component regulatory system PmrA-PmrB, with the addition of 4-aminoarabinose (Ara4N) to the lipid A and phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) to the lipid A and core. Here we demonstrate that the PmrA-regulated STM4118 (cptA) gene is necessary for the addition of pEtN to the LPS core. pmrC, a PmrA-regulated gene necessary for the addition of pEtN to lipid A, did not affect core pEtN addition. Although imparting a similar surface charge modification as Ara4N, which greatly affects polymyxin B resistance and murine virulence, neither pmrC nor cptA plays a dramatic role in antimicrobial peptide resistance in vitro or virulence in the mouse model. Therefore, factors other than surface charge/electrostatic interaction contribute to resistance to antimicrobial peptides such as polymyxin B. PMID:15866924

  16. PMR Resin Compositions For High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments to identify polymer matrix resins suitable for making graphite-fiber laminates used at 700 degree F (371 degree C) in such applications as aircraft engines to achieve higher thrust-to-weight ratios. Two particular high-molecular-weight formulations of PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) resins most promising. PMR compositions of higher FMW exhibit enhanced thermo-oxidative stability. Formation of high-quality laminates with these compositions requires use of curing pressures higher than those suitable for compositions of lower FMW.

  17. Low-Toxicity PMR Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Ely, Robert M.; Stanfield, Clarence E.; Dickerson, George E.; Snoha, John J.; Srinivasan, Krishna; Hou, Tan

    1994-01-01

    New low-toxicity PMR system developed and designated LaRC-RP46. Exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than does PMR-15. Polyimide inexpensive and readily processed into high-quality graphite-fiber-reinforced composite. Used as high-performance, high-temperature-resistant adhesive, molding, composite, film, and coating material where low toxicity desired characteristic. Significantly extends applications of PMR-type polyimides.

  18. Low-Toxicity PMR Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Ely, Robert M.; Stanfield, Clarence E.; Dickerson, George E.; Snoha, John J.; Srinivasan, Krishna; Hou, Tan

    1994-01-01

    New low-toxicity PMR system developed and designated LaRC-RP46. Exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than does PMR-15. Polyimide inexpensive and readily processed into high-quality graphite-fiber-reinforced composite. Used as high-performance, high-temperature-resistant adhesive, molding, composite, film, and coating material where low toxicity desired characteristic. Significantly extends applications of PMR-type polyimides.

  19. Quality assurance of PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Controls on the PMR-15 resin and/or prepreg were established to ensure a solid base for the subsequent process development task. The effort was divided into subtasks which included evaluation of commercially available graphite/PMR-15 polyimide prepregs, detailed evaluation of materials and selection of chemical test procedures. During the initial phase of the program a variability problem was detected in the PMR-15 resin. The manufacturing and/or storage of the PMR-15 resin/esters was identified as the chief cause for the variability.

  20. Review of Transporter-Related Postmarketing Requirement or Postmarketing Commitment Studies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Sun, Bo; Agarwal, Sheetal; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this report are to summarize the content and status of transporter-related postmarketing requirement (PMR)/postmarketing commitment (PMC) studies in new drug applications (NDAs) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to discuss the reasons for requesting such studies and the impact of PMR/PMC study results on labeling to guide the optimal use of the drugs. Multiple data sources were searched to collect information on transporter-related PMR/PMC studies between January 1999 and May 2015. A total of 40 transporter-related PMR/PMC study requests were issued for 35 NDAs. Among these PMR/PMC studies, 27 requested studies related to P-glycoprotein. As of May 31, 2015, 34 transporter-related PMR/PMC studies (85%) are considered "fulfilled" (per the FDA's PMR/PMC website), and 22 (65%) resulted in labeling updates. The majority of the PMR/PMC studies are for drugs in the therapeutic areas of anti-infectives, oncology, and neurology. The results from PMR/PMC studies are important for dosing optimization and are often included in the updated labeling. Because a significant lag time is anticipated between drug approval and PMR/PMC fulfillment, NDA applicants are encouraged to include transporter-related assessments in clinical drug development programs for drug products.

  1. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Shoshani, Arie; Plata, Charity

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  2. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  3. Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

  4. Second generation PMR polyimide/fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A second generation polymerization monomeric reactants (PMR) polyimdes matrix system (PMR 2) was characterized in both neat resin and composite form with two different graphite fiber reinforcements. Three different formulated molecular weight levels of laboratory prepared PMR 2 were examined, in addition to a purchased experimental fully formulated PMR 2 precurser solution. Isothermal aging of graphite fibers, neat resin samples and composite specimens in air at 316 C were investigated. Humidity exposures at 65 C and 97 percent relative humidity were conducted for both neat resin and composites for eight day periods. Anaerobic char of neat resin and fire testing of composites were conducted with PMR 15, PMR 2, and an epoxy system. Composites were fire tested on a burner rig developed for this program. Results indicate that neat PMR 2 resins exhibit excellent isothermal resistance and that PMR 2 composite properties appear to be influenced by the thermo-oxidative stability of the reinforcing fiber.

  5. Low toxicity high temperature PMR polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    In-situ polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR) type polyimides constitute an important class of ultra high performance composite matrix resins. PMR-15 is the best known and most widely used PMR polyimide. An object of the present invention is to provide a substantially improved high temperature PMR-15 system that exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than PMR-15, as well as having a low toxicity. Another object is to provide new PMR polyimides that are useful as adhesives, moldings, and composite matrices. By the present invention, a new PMR polyimide comprises a mixture of the following compounds: 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), NE, and BTDE which are then treated with heat. This PMR was designated LaRC-RP46 and has a broader processing window, better reproducibility of high quality composite parts, better elevated temperature mechanical properties, and higher retention of mechanical properties at an elevated temperature, particularly, at 371 C.

  6. Fiber reinforced PMR polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially obtained PMR-15 polyimide prepregs with S-glass and graphite fiber reinforcements were evaluated along with in-house prepared glass and graphite cloth PMR 2 materials. A novel autoclave approach was conceived and used to demonstrate that both the PMR systems respond to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) autoclave pressures to produce void free composites equivalent to die molded laminates. Isothermal gravimetric analysis and subsequent mechanical property tests indicated that the PMR 2 system was significantly superior in thermo-oxidative stability, and that S-glass reinforcements may contribute to the accelerated degradation of composites at 316 C (600 F) when compared to graphite fiber reinforced composites. Fully reversed bending fatigue experiments were conducted with a type of fixture unused for organic matrix composites. These studies indicated that the graphite fiber composites were clearly superior in fatigue resistance to the glass fiber reinforced material and that PMR matrix composite systems yield performance of the same order as composite materials employing other families of matrices.

  7. Transfer molding of PMR-15 polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardon, J. P.; Moyer, D. W.; Nowak, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer molding is an economically viable method of producing small shapes of PMR-15 polyimide. It is shown that with regard to flexural, compressive, and tribological properties transfer-molded PMR-15 polyimide is essentially equivalent to PMR-15 polyimide produced by the more common method of compression molding. Minor variations in anisotropy are predictable effects of molding design and secondary finishing operations.

  8. Essential role for the response regulator PmrA in Coxiella burnetii type 4B secretion and colonization of mammalian host cells.

    PubMed

    Beare, Paul A; Sandoz, Kelsi M; Larson, Charles L; Howe, Dale; Kronmiller, Brent; Heinzen, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    Successful host cell colonization by the Q fever pathogen, Coxiella burnetii, requires translocation of effector proteins into the host cytosol by a Dot/Icm type 4B secretion system (T4BSS). In Legionella pneumophila, the two-component system (TCS) PmrAB regulates the Dot/Icm T4BSS and several additional physiological processes associated with pathogenesis. Because PmrA consensus regulatory elements are associated with some dot/icm and substrate genes, a similar role for PmrA in regulation of the C. burnetii T4BSS has been proposed. Here, we constructed a C. burnetii pmrA deletion mutant to directly probe PmrA-mediated gene regulation. Compared to wild-type bacteria, C. burnetii ΔpmrA exhibited severe intracellular growth defects that coincided with failed secretion of effector proteins. Luciferase gene reporter assays demonstrated PmrA-dependent expression of 5 of 7 dot/icm operons and 9 of 11 effector-encoding genes with a predicted upstream PmrA regulatory element. Mutational analysis verified consensus sequence nucleotides required for PmrA-directed transcription. RNA sequencing and whole bacterial cell mass spectrometry of wild-type C. burnetii and the ΔpmrA mutant uncovered new components of the PmrA regulon, including several genes lacking PmrA motifs that encoded Dot/Icm substrates. Collectively, our results indicate that the PmrAB TCS is a critical virulence factor that regulates C. burnetii Dot/Icm secretion. The presence of PmrA-responsive genes lacking PmrA regulatory elements also suggests that the PmrAB TCS controls expression of regulatory systems associated with the production of additional C. burnetii proteins involved in host cell parasitism.

  9. PMR Composites Of Increased Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Toughness increased without sacrificing processability or hot strength. Resin composition provides best overall balance of composite toughness and retention of mechanical properties at 600 degree F (316 degree C) with processability obtained by substituting 20 mole percent of diamine used in PMR-15 resins with diamine containing twice number of flexible phenyl connecting groups.

  10. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  11. PMR polyimides with improved high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.; Alston, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were performed to investigate the effect of substituting a hexafluoro isopropyl idene connecting group for a carbonyl group of a PMR polyimide monomeric reactant on the thermo-mechanical properties processability of graphite fiber reinforced PMR polyimide composites. Composites were fabricated utilizing PMR methodology. Monomeric reactant solutions of various stoichiometric ratios were used to impregnate Hercules HTS graphite fiber. The processing characteristics and elevated temperature (600 F) mechanical properties of the composites are described.

  12. PMR polyimide prepreg with improved tack characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1976-01-01

    Current PMR Polyimide prepreg technology utilizes methanol or ethanol solvents for preparation of the PMR prepreg solutions. The volatility of these solvents limits the tack and drape retention characteristics of unprotected prepreg exposed to ambient conditions. Studies conducted to achieve PMR 15 Polyimide prepreg with improved tack and drape characteristics were described. Improved tack and drape retention were obtained by incorporation of an additional monomer. The effects of various levels of the added monomer on the thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties of graphite fiber reinforced PMR 15 composites exposed and tested at 316 C (600 F) were discussed.

  13. [Percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR)].

    PubMed

    Lauer, B; Stahl, F; Bratanow, S; Schuler, G

    2000-09-01

    In patients with severe angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease, who are not candidates for either percutaneous coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) often leads to improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity. One drawback of TMR is the need for surgical thoracotomy in order to gain access to the epicardial surface of the heart. Therefore, a catheter-based system has been developed, which allows creation of laser channels into the myocardium from the left ventricular cavity. Between January 1997 and November 1999, this "percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization" (PMR) has been performed in 101 patients at the Herzzentrum Leipzig. In 63 patients, only 1 region of the heart (anterior, lateral, inferior or septal) was treated with PMR, in 38 patients 2 or 3 regions were treated in 1 session. There were 12.3 +/- 4.5 (range 4 to 22) channels/region created into the myocardium. After 3 months, the majority of patients reported significant improvement of clinical symptoms (CCS class at baseline: 3.3 +/- 0.4, after 6 months: 1.6 +/- 0.8) (p < 0.001) and an increased exercise capacity (baseline: 397 +/- 125 s, after 6 months: 540 +/- 190 s) (p < 0.05). After 2 years, the majority of patients had experienced sustained clinical benefit after PMR, the CCS class after 2 years was 1.3 +/- 0.7, exercise capacity was 500 +/- 193 s. However, thallium scintigraphy failed to show increased perfusion in the PMR treated regions. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of myocardial laser revascularization is not yet understood. Most of the laser channels are found occluded after various time intervals after intervention. Other possible mechanisms include myocardial denervation or angioneogenesis after laser revascularization, however, unequivocal evidence for these theories is not yet available. In conclusion, PMR seems to be a safe and feasible new therapeutic option for patients with refractory

  14. PMR polyimide/graphite fiber composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrahigh speed fan blades, designed in accordance with the requirements of an ultrahigh tip speed blade axial flow compressor, were fabricated from a high strength graphite fiber tow and a PMR polyimide resin. The PMR matrix was prepared by combining three monomeric reactants in methyl alcohol, and the solution was applied directly to the reinforcing fiber for subsequent in situ polymerization. Some of the molded blades were completely finished by secondary bonding of root pressure pads and an electroformed nickel leading edge sheath prior to final machining. The results of the spin testing of nine PMR fan blades are given. Prior to blade fabrication, heat resin tensile properties of the PMR resin were examined at four formulated molecular weight levels. Additionally, three formulated molecular weight levels were investigated in composite form with both a high modulus and a high strength fiber, both as-molded and postcured, in room temperature and 232 C transverse tensile, flexure and short beam shear. Mixed fiber orientation panels simulating potential blade constructions were also evaluated. Flexure tests, short beam shear tests, and tensile tests were conducted on these angle-plied laminates.

  15. Phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A in colistin-resistant variants of Acinetobacter baumannii mediated by the pmrAB two-component regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Beceiro, Alejandro; Llobet, Enrique; Aranda, Jesús; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Doumith, Michel; Hornsey, Michael; Dhanji, Hiran; Chart, Henrik; Bou, Germán; Livermore, David M; Woodford, Neil

    2011-07-01

    Colistin resistance is rare in Acinetobacter baumannii, and little is known about its mechanism. We investigated the role of PmrCAB in this trait, using (i) resistant and susceptible clinical strains, (ii) laboratory-selected mutants of the type strain ATCC 19606 and of the clinical isolate ABRIM, and (iii) a susceptible/resistant pair of isogenic clinical isolates, Ab15/133 and Ab15/132, isolated from the same patient. pmrAB sequences in all the colistin-susceptible isolates were identical to reference sequences, whereas resistant clinical isolates harbored one or two amino acid replacements variously located in PmrB. Single substitutions in PmrB were also found in resistant mutants of strains ATCC 19606 and ABRIM and in the resistant clinical isolate Ab15/132. No mutations in PmrA or PmrC were found. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR identified increased expression of pmrA (4- to 13-fold), pmrB (2- to 7-fold), and pmrC (1- to 3-fold) in resistant versus susceptible organisms. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry showed the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the hepta-acylated form of lipid A in the resistant variants and in strain ATCC 19606 grown under low-Mg(2+) induction conditions. pmrB gene knockout mutants of the colistin-resistant ATCC 19606 derivative showed >100-fold increased susceptibility to colistin and 5-fold decreased expression of pmrC; they also lacked the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A. We conclude that the development of a moderate level of colistin resistance in A. baumannii requires distinct genetic events, including (i) at least one point mutation in pmrB, (ii) upregulation of pmrAB, and (iii) expression of pmrC, which lead to addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A.

  16. Phosphoethanolamine Modification of Lipid A in Colistin-Resistant Variants of Acinetobacter baumannii Mediated by the pmrAB Two-Component Regulatory System▿

    PubMed Central

    Beceiro, Alejandro; Llobet, Enrique; Aranda, Jesús; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Doumith, Michel; Hornsey, Michael; Dhanji, Hiran; Chart, Henrik; Bou, Germán; Livermore, David M.; Woodford, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Colistin resistance is rare in Acinetobacter baumannii, and little is known about its mechanism. We investigated the role of PmrCAB in this trait, using (i) resistant and susceptible clinical strains, (ii) laboratory-selected mutants of the type strain ATCC 19606 and of the clinical isolate ABRIM, and (iii) a susceptible/resistant pair of isogenic clinical isolates, Ab15/133 and Ab15/132, isolated from the same patient. pmrAB sequences in all the colistin-susceptible isolates were identical to reference sequences, whereas resistant clinical isolates harbored one or two amino acid replacements variously located in PmrB. Single substitutions in PmrB were also found in resistant mutants of strains ATCC 19606 and ABRIM and in the resistant clinical isolate Ab15/132. No mutations in PmrA or PmrC were found. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR identified increased expression of pmrA (4- to 13-fold), pmrB (2- to 7-fold), and pmrC (1- to 3-fold) in resistant versus susceptible organisms. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry showed the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the hepta-acylated form of lipid A in the resistant variants and in strain ATCC 19606 grown under low-Mg2+ induction conditions. pmrB gene knockout mutants of the colistin-resistant ATCC 19606 derivative showed >100-fold increased susceptibility to colistin and 5-fold decreased expression of pmrC; they also lacked the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A. We conclude that the development of a moderate level of colistin resistance in A. baumannii requires distinct genetic events, including (i) at least one point mutation in pmrB, (ii) upregulation of pmrAB, and (iii) expression of pmrC, which lead to addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A. PMID:21576434

  17. Engineering bacterial two-component system PmrA/PmrB to sense lanthanide ions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haihua; Deng, Xin; Bosscher, Mike; Ji, Quanjiang; Jensen, Mark P; He, Chuan

    2013-02-13

    The Salmonella PmrA/PmrB two-component system uses an iron(III)-binding motif on the cell surface to sense the environmental or host ferric level and regulate PmrA-controlled gene expression. We replaced the iron(III)-binding motif with a lanthanide-binding peptide sequence that is known to selectively recognize trivalent lanthanide ions. The newly engineered two-component system (PmrA/PmrB) can effectively sense lanthanide ion and regulate gene expression in E. coli . This work not only provides the first known lanthanide-based sensing and response in live cells but also demonstrates that the PmrA/PmrB system is a suitable template for future synthetic biology efforts to construct bacteria that can sense and respond to other metal ions in remediation or sequestration.

  18. Stability of PMR-polyimide monomer solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.; Alston, W. B.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The stability of alcohol solutions of norborneyl capped PMR-polyimide resins was monitored during storage at ambient and subambient temperatures. Chemical changes during storage were determined spectroscopically using nuclear magnetic resonance. Resin processability and cured resin quality were determined by fabrication of unidirectional, graphite fiber composites using aged solutions and testing of selected composite properties. PMR-15 solutions exhibit nominally two weeks of useful life and PMR-2 solutions exhibit nominally two days of useful life at ambient conditions. The limiting factor is precipitation of imide reaction produces from the monomer solutions. Both solutions exhibit substantially longer useful lifetimes in subambient storage. PMR-15 shows no precipitation after several months storage at subambient temperatures. PMR-2 solutions do exhibit precipitates after extended subambient storage, however, the precipitates formed under these conditions can be redissolved. The chemical implications of these observations are discussed.

  19. Titania Deposition on PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary B.; Sutter, James K.; Pizem, Hillel; Gershevitz, Olga; Goffer, Yossi; Frimer, Aryeh A.; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Milhet, Xavier; McIlwain, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The formation, degree of crystallinity and adherence of dense titania (TiO2) thin film coatings on a high-temperature polyimide resin (PMR-15) can be influenced by the chemical composition of the polymer surface. Furthermore, solution deposition conditions can be adjusted to provide additional control over the morphology and crystallinity of the titania films. Recipes for solution-based titania deposition that used a slowly-hydrolyzing titanium fluoride salt in the presence of boric acid as a fluoride scavenger allowed growth of films up to 750 nm thick in 22 h. By adjusting solution pH and temperature, either amorphous titania or oriented crystalline anatase films could be formed. Surface sulfonate groups enhance the adhesion of solution-deposited oxide thin film coatings. While most sulfonation procedures severely damaged the PMR-15 surface, the use of chlorosulfonic acid followed by hydrolysis of the installed chlorosulfonyl groups provided effective surface sulfonation without significant surface damage. In some cases, the oxide deposition solution caused partial hydrolysis of the polymer surface, which itself was sufficient to allow adhesion of the titania film through chelation of titanium ions by exposed benzoic acid groups on the polymer surface.

  20. A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

  1. Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

    1992-01-01

    Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

  2. Molecular modeling of PMR-15 polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkada Ravindranath, Pruthul

    PMR-15 polyimide is a polymer that is used as a matrix in composites. These composites with PMR-15 matrices are called advanced polymer matrix composite that is abundantly used in the aerospace and electronics industries because of its high temperature resistivity. Apart from having high temperature sustainability, PMR-15 composites also display good thermal-oxidative stability, mechanical properties, processability and low costs, which makes it a suitable material for manufacturing aircraft structures. PMR-15 uses the reverse Diels-Alder (RDA) method for crosslinking which provides it with the groundwork for its distinctive thermal stability and a range of 280--300°C use temperature. Regardless of such desirable properties, this material has a number of limitations that compromises its application on a large scale basis. PMR-15 composites has been known to be very vulnerable to micro-cracking at inter and intra-laminar cracking. But the major factor that hinders its demand is PMR-15's carcinogenic constituent, methylene dianilineme (MDA), also a liver toxin. The necessity of providing a safe working environment during its production adds up to the cost of this material. In this study, Molecular Dynamics and Energy Minimization techniques are utilized to simulate a structure of PMR-15 at a given density of 1.324 g/cc and an attempt to recreate the polyimide to reduce the number of experimental testing and hence subdue the health hazards as well as the cost involved in its production. Even though this study does not involve in validating any mechanical properties of the model, it could be used in future for the validation of its properties and further testing for different properties like aging, microcracking, creep etc.

  3. Lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were performed to achieve a lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimide. The use of m-aminostyrene as the end-cap instead of the monoalkyl ester of 5-normbornene-2,3 dicarboxylic acid was investigated in typical PMR formulations. Model compound studies were also performed. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were performed on model compounds and neat resins to establish their melting and curing characteristics. The elevated temperature weight loss characteristics of neat resins and graphite fiber composites were determined. The room temperature and short-time 260 C (500 F) mechanical properties of the composites were also determined. The use of m-aminostyrene end-caps reduced the final cure temperature of PMR resins by about 55 C (100 F), but the composites prepared with these resins are limited to use temperatures of about 260 C (500 F).

  4. The GlnR Regulon in Streptococcus mutans Is Differentially Regulated by GlnR and PmrA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Chen, Yueh-Ying; Hung, Jui-Lung; Chen, Pei-Min; Chia, Jean-San

    2016-01-01

    GlnR-mediated repression of the GlnR regulon at acidic pH is required for optimal acid tolerance in Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agent for dental caries. Unlike most streptococci, the GlnR regulon is also regulated by newly identified PmrA (SMUGS5_RS05810) at the transcriptional level in S. mutans GS5. Results from gel mobility shift assays confirmed that both GlnR and PmrA recognized the putative GlnR box in the promoter regions of the GlnR regulon genes. By using a chemostat culture system, we found that PmrA activated the expression of the GlnR regulon at pH 7, and that this activation was enhanced by excess glucose. Deletion of pmrA (strain ΔPmrA) reduced the survival rate of S. mutans GS5 at pH 3 moderately, whereas the GlnR mutant (strain ΔGlnR) exhibited an acid-sensitive phenotype in the acid killing experiments. Elevated biofilm formation in both ΔGlnR and ΔPmrA mutant strains is likely a result of indirect regulation of the GlnR regulon since GlnR and PmrA regulate the regulon differently. Taken together, it is suggested that activation of the GlnR regulon by PmrA at pH 7 ensures adequate biosynthesis of amino acid precursor, whereas repression by GlnR at acidic pH allows greater ATP generation for acid tolerance. The tight regulation of the GlnR regulon in response to pH provides an advantage for S. mutans to better survive in its primary niche, the oral cavity.

  5. 22 CFR 309.10 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.10 Review requirements. (a) For purposes of this section, whenever Peace Corps is required to afford a debtor a review within the agency, Peace Corps shall provide the debtor with an opportunity for an internal review of the existence or the...

  6. 22 CFR 309.10 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.10 Review requirements. (a) For purposes of this section, whenever Peace Corps is required to afford a debtor a review within the agency, Peace Corps shall provide the debtor with an opportunity for an internal review of the existence or the...

  7. 22 CFR 309.10 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.10 Review requirements. (a) For purposes of this section, whenever Peace Corps is required to afford a debtor a review within the agency, Peace Corps shall provide the debtor with an opportunity for an internal review of the existence or...

  8. 22 CFR 309.10 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.10 Review requirements. (a) For purposes of this section, whenever Peace Corps is required to afford a debtor a review within the agency, Peace Corps shall provide the debtor with an opportunity for an internal review of the existence or...

  9. 22 CFR 309.10 - Review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.10 Review requirements. (a) For purposes of this section, whenever Peace Corps is required to afford a debtor a review within the agency, Peace Corps shall provide the debtor with an opportunity for an internal review of the existence or...

  10. Improved PMR Polyimides For Heat-Stable Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.; Malarik, D. C.; Papadapoulos, D. S.; Waters, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Second-generation PMR-type polyimides (PMR-II polyimides) of enhanced thermo-oxidative stability prepared by substitution of para-aminostyrene (PAS) end caps for nadic-ester (NE) end caps used in prior PMR-II polyimides. Laminates unidirectionally reinforced with graphite fibers and made with PAS-capped resins exhibited thermo-oxidative stabilities significantly greater than those of similar laminates made with NE-capped PMR-II resins. One new laminate exhibited high retention of weight and strength after 1,000 h of exposure to air at 371 degrees C.

  11. Process For Autoclaving HMW PMR-II Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Cifani, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Parts made of graphite-reinforced, high-molecular-weight (HMW) PMR-II polyimide easy to fabricate by autoclaving. Study showed autoclaved HMW PMR-II parts equal in quality to those made by compression molding. Well suited to use at temperatures up to 700 degrees F (371 degrees C). In aircraft engines, they offer advantages of strength and light weight.

  12. Cyclopentadiene evolution during pyrolysis-gas chromatography of PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.; Gluyas, Richard E.; Snyder, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of formulated molecular weight (FMW), extent of cure, and cumulative aging on the amount of cyclopentadiene (CPD) evolved from Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) polyimides were investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromotography (PY-GC). The PMR polyimides are additional crosslinked resins formed from an aromatic diamine, a diester of an aromatic tetracarboxylic acid and a monoester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid. The PY-GC results were related to the degree of crosslinking and to the thermo-oxidative stability (weight loss) of PMR polyimides. Thus, PY-GC has shown to be a valid technique for the characterization of PMR polyimide resins and composites via correlation of the CPD evolved versus the thermal history of the PMR sample.

  13. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  14. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  15. Lower-curing-temperature PMR polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.

    1982-01-01

    Partial substitution of a p-aminostyrene end-cap for the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid lowered the final cure temperature of typical PMR resins from 600 F to 500 F. The weight loss characteristics of neat resins and graphite fiber composites prepared by using the mixed end-cap approach were determined at 600 F. The room temperature and short-time elevated temperature mechanical properties of the composites at 550 F and 600 F were determined. The mechanical property retention characteristics of the composites at 550 F and 600 F are discussed.

  16. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  17. 41 CFR 109-1.106-50 - Applicability of FPMR and DOE-PMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and DOE-PMR. 109-1.106-50 Section 109-1.106-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.106-50 Applicability of FPMR and DOE-PMR. (a) The FPMR and DOE-PMR apply to all direct operations. (b) The DOE-PMR does not apply to facilities...

  18. Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuji, Luis C.; McManus, Hugh L.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    Thermo-oxidative aging produces a non-uniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed to separate the properties of the oxidized surface layer from the properties of interior material. Test specimens were aged at 316 C in either air or nitrogen, for durations of up to 800 hours. The thickness of the oxidized surface layer in air aged specimens, and the shrinkage and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of nitrogen aged specimens were measured directly. Four-point-bend tests were performed to determine modulus of both the oxidized surface layer and the interior material. Bimaterial strip specimens consisting of oxidized surface material and unoxidized interior material were constructed and used to determine surface layer shrinkage and CTE. Results confirm that the surface layer and core materials have substantially different properties.

  19. PMR polyimide compositions for improved performance at 371 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to identify matrix resins which have potential for use at 371 C (700 F). Utilizing PMR methodology, neat resin moldings were prepared with various monomer reactants and screened for thermo-oxidative stability at 371 C (700 F) under both ambient and a four-atmosphere air pressure. The results of the resin screening studies indicate that high molecular weight (HMW) formulated resins of first (PMR-15) and second (PMR-II) generation PMR materials exhibit lower levels of weight loss at 371 C (700 F) than PMR-15 and PMR-II resins. The resin systems which exhibited the best overall balance of processability, Tg and thermo-oxidative stability at 371 C were used to prepare unidirectional Celion 6000 and T-40R graphite fiber laminates. Laminates were evaluated for thermo-oxidative stability and 371 C mechanical properties. Results of the laminate evaluation studies indicate that two of the resin compositions have potential for use in 371 C applications. The most promising resin composition provided laminates which exhibited no drop in 371 C mechanical properties and only 11 percent weight loss after 200 hr exposure to 4 atmospheres of air at 371 C.

  20. PMR polyimide compositions for improved performance at 371 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to identify matrix resins which have potential for use at 371 C (700 F). Utilizing PMR methodology, neat resin moldings were prepared with various monomer reactants and screened for thermo-oxidative stability at 371 C (700 F) under both ambient and a four-atmosphere air pressure. The results of the resin screening studies indicate that high molecular weight (HMW) formulated resins of first (PMR-15) and second (PMR-II) generation PMR materials exhibit lower levels of weight loss at 371 C (700) than PMR-15 and PMR-II resins. The resin systems which exhibited the best overall balance of processability, Tg and thermo-oxidative stability at 371 C were used to prepare unidirectional Celion 6000 and T-40R graphite fiber laminates. Laminates were evaluated for thermo-oxidative stability and 371 C mechanical properties. Results of the laminate evaluation studies indicate that two of the resin compositions have potential for use in 371 C applications. The most promising resin composition provided laminates which exhibited no drop in 371 C mechanical properties and only 11 percent weight loss after 200 hr exposure to atmospheres of air at 371 C.

  1. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  2. REVIEW GT-7 MISSION REQUIREMENTS (PRIME CREW)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-02

    S65-56313 (2 Dec. 1965) --- Gemini-7 astronauts James Lovell Jr. (center) and Frank Borman (right) review mission requirements for their Gemini-7 flight. The two astronauts are scheduled for a 14-day mission. On the fifth day, they will attempt a rendezvous with the Gemini-6 spacecraft to be launched nine days later and piloted by astronaut Walter Schirra Jr. and Thomas Stafford. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuji, Luis C.

    2000-01-01

    Thermo-oxidative aging produces a nonuniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed to separate the properties of the oxidized surface layer from the properties of interior material. Test specimens were aged at 316 C in either air or nitrogen, for durations of up to 800 hr. The thickness of the oxidized surface layer in air aged specimens, and the shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of nitrogen aged specimens were measured directly. The nitrogen-aged specimens were assumed to have the same properties as the interior material in the air-aged specimens. Four-point-bend tests were performed to determine modulus of both the oxidized surface layer and the interior material. Bimaterial strip specimens consisting of oxidized surface material and unoxidized interior material were constructed and used to determine surface layer shrinkage and CTE. Results confirm that the surface layer and core materials have substantially different properties.

  4. Phosphoethanolamine substitution in the lipid A of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and its association with PmrC.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hyun; Jia, Wenyi; Parreira, Valeria R; Bishop, Russell E; Gyles, Carlton L

    2006-03-01

    This study shows that lipid A of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 differs from that of E. coli K-12 in that it has a phosphoform at the C-1 position, which is distinctively modified by a phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) moiety, in addition to the diphosphoryl form. The pmrC gene responsible for the addition of PEtN to the lipid A of E. coli O157 : H7 was inactivated and the changes in lipid A profiles were assessed. The pmrC null mutant still produced PEtN-modified lipid A species, albeit in a reduced amount, indicating that PmrC was not the only enzyme that could be used to add PEtN to lipid A. Natural PEtN substitution was shown to be present in the lipid A of other serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli and absent from the lipid A of E. coli K-12. However, the cloned pmrC(O157) gene in a high-copy-number plasmid generated a large amount of PEtN-substituted lipid A species in E. coli K-12. The occurrence of PEtN-substituted lipid A species was associated with a slight increase in the MICs of cationic peptide antibiotics, suggesting that the lipid A modification with PEtN would be beneficial for survival of E. coli O157 : H7 in certain environmental niches. However, PEtN substitution in the lipid A profiles was not detected when putative inner-membrane proteins (YhbX/YbiP/YijP/Ecf3) that show significant similarity with PmrC in amino acid sequence were expressed from high-copy-number plasmids in E. coli K-12. This suggests that these potential homologues are not responsible for the addition of PEtN to lipid A in the pmrC mutant of E. coli O157 : H7. When cells were treated with EDTA, the amount of palmitoylated lipid A from the cells carrying a high-copy-number plasmid clone of pmrC(O157) that resulted in significant increase of PEtN substitution was unchanged compared with cells without PEtN substitution, suggesting that the PEtN moiety substituted in lipid A does not compensate for the loss of divalent cations required for bridging neighbouring lipid A molecules.

  5. The Secretory Pathway Calcium ATPase PMR-1/SPCA1 Has Essential Roles in Cell Migration during Caenorhabditis elegans Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Praitis, Vida; Simske, Jeffrey; Kniss, Sarah; Mandt, Rebecca; Imlay, Leah; Feddersen, Charlotte; Miller, Michael B.; Mushi, Juliet; Liszewski, Walter; Weinstein, Rachel; Chakravorty, Adityarup; Ha, Dae-Gon; Schacht Farrell, Angela; Sullivan-Wilson, Alexander; Stock, Tyson

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining levels of calcium in the cytosol is important for many cellular events, including cell migration, where localized regions of high calcium are required to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics, contractility, and adhesion. Studies show inositol-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR), which release calcium into the cytosol, are important regulators of cell migration. Similarly, proteins that return calcium to secretory stores are likely to be important for cell migration. The secretory protein calcium ATPase (SPCA) is a Golgi-localized protein that transports calcium from the cytosol into secretory stores. SPCA has established roles in protein processing, metal homeostasis, and inositol-trisphosphate signaling. Defects in the human SPCA1/ATP2C1 gene cause Hailey-Hailey disease (MIM# 169600), a genodermatosis characterized by cutaneous blisters and fissures as well as keratinocyte cell adhesion defects. We have determined that PMR-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of SPCA1, plays an essential role in embryogenesis. Pmr-1 strains isolated from genetic screens show terminal phenotypes, such as ventral and anterior enclosure failures, body morphogenesis defects, and an unattached pharynx, which are caused by earlier defects during gastrulation. In Pmr-1 embryos, migration rates are significantly reduced for cells moving along the embryo surface, such as ventral neuroblasts, C-derived, and anterior-most blastomeres. Gene interaction experiments show changing the activity of itr-1/IP3R and unc-68/RyR modulates levels of embryonic lethality in Pmr-1 strains, indicating pmr-1 acts with these calcium channels to regulate cell migration. This analysis reveals novel genes involved in C. elegans cell migration, as well as a new role in cell migration for the highly conserved SPCA gene family. PMID:23696750

  6. The secretory pathway calcium ATPase PMR-1/SPCA1 has essential roles in cell migration during Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Praitis, Vida; Simske, Jeffrey; Kniss, Sarah; Mandt, Rebecca; Imlay, Leah; Feddersen, Charlotte; Miller, Michael B; Mushi, Juliet; Liszewski, Walter; Weinstein, Rachel; Chakravorty, Adityarup; Ha, Dae-Gon; Schacht Farrell, Angela; Sullivan-Wilson, Alexander; Stock, Tyson

    2013-05-01

    Maintaining levels of calcium in the cytosol is important for many cellular events, including cell migration, where localized regions of high calcium are required to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics, contractility, and adhesion. Studies show inositol-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR), which release calcium into the cytosol, are important regulators of cell migration. Similarly, proteins that return calcium to secretory stores are likely to be important for cell migration. The secretory protein calcium ATPase (SPCA) is a Golgi-localized protein that transports calcium from the cytosol into secretory stores. SPCA has established roles in protein processing, metal homeostasis, and inositol-trisphosphate signaling. Defects in the human SPCA1/ATP2C1 gene cause Hailey-Hailey disease (MIM# 169600), a genodermatosis characterized by cutaneous blisters and fissures as well as keratinocyte cell adhesion defects. We have determined that PMR-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of SPCA1, plays an essential role in embryogenesis. Pmr-1 strains isolated from genetic screens show terminal phenotypes, such as ventral and anterior enclosure failures, body morphogenesis defects, and an unattached pharynx, which are caused by earlier defects during gastrulation. In Pmr-1 embryos, migration rates are significantly reduced for cells moving along the embryo surface, such as ventral neuroblasts, C-derived, and anterior-most blastomeres. Gene interaction experiments show changing the activity of itr-1/IP3R and unc-68/RyR modulates levels of embryonic lethality in Pmr-1 strains, indicating pmr-1 acts with these calcium channels to regulate cell migration. This analysis reveals novel genes involved in C. elegans cell migration, as well as a new role in cell migration for the highly conserved SPCA gene family.

  7. PSD Review Requirements for Modified Petroleum Refineries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. Identification and functional analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PmrA-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Rita; Prouty, Angela M; Gunn, John S

    2005-02-01

    The PmrA-PmrB two-component regulatory system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is activated in vivo and plays an important role in resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Resistance is partly mediated by modifications to the lipopolysaccharide. To identify new PmrA-regulated genes, microarray analysis was undertaken comparing cDNA derived from PmrA-constitutive and PmrA-null strains. A combination of RT-PCR and transcriptional analysis confirmed the inclusion of six new loci in the PmrA-PmrB regulon: STM1253, STM1269, STM4118, STM0459, STM3968 and STM4568. These loci did not affect the ability to grow in high iron conditions, the ability to modify lipid A with aminoarabinose, or virulence. STM4118, a putative phosphoethanolamine phosphotransferase, had a minor effect on polymyxin resistance, whereas the remaining genes had no role in polymyxin resistance. Although several of the identified loci lacked the consensus PmrA binding site, PmrA was demonstrated to bind the promoter of a PmrA-activated gene lacking the consensus site. A more complete definition of the PmrA-PmrB regulon will provide a better understanding of its role in host and non-host environments.

  9. Quality control developments for graphite/PMR15 polyimide composites materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of lot-to-lot and within-lot variability of graphite/PMR-15 prepreg was investigated. The PMR-15 chemical characterization data were evaluated along with the processing conditions controlling the manufacture of PMR-15 resin and monomers. Manufacturing procedures were selected to yield a consistently reproducible graphite prepreg that could be processed into acceptable structural elements.

  10. 41 CFR 109-1.104-50 - Publication and distribution of DOE-PMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of DOE-PMR. 109-1.104-50 Section 109-1.104-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.104-50 Publication and distribution of DOE-PMR. The DOE-PMR will be published in the Federal Register and will appear in the CFR as Chapter 109 of...

  11. 41 CFR 109-1.101-50 - DOE-PMR System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DOE-PMR System. 109-1.101-50 Section 109-1.101-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Regulation System § 109-1.101-50 DOE-PMR System. The DOE-PMR system described in this subpart is...

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.103-50 - DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DOE-PMR temporary... GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.103-50 DOE-PMR temporary policies and bulletins (a... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). (b) DOE-PMR Bulletins are used to disseminate information...

  13. 41 CFR 109-1.107-50 - Consultation regarding DOE-PMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation regarding DOE-PMR. 109-1.107-50 Section 109-1.107-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 109-1.107-50 Consultation regarding DOE-PMR. The DOE-PMR shall be...

  14. Development of Design Data for Propulsion PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postlewaite, J.; Mclaren, D.

    1985-01-01

    The continuing development of PMR-15 composite materials and their associated design properties is pacing the implementation of this technology on commercial aircraft. The guidelines that the FAA has issued regarding the certification of advanced composite structures are very significant with respect to future PMR-15 research and development activities. The FAA has issued an advisory circular dated 1-5-83 concerning guidelines for composite aircraft structures. Of particular significance to PMR-15 technology development is the reliance on combined environmental exposure and component testing, coupled with the stipulation that reliance on previous experience be limited to where common structures and materials have been used for a similar function. Critical environmental exposures for commercial propulsion structures include 50,000 cycle service life, exposure to skydrol, moisture and other fluids, and nacelle fire conditions.

  15. Management guidelines and outcome measures in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, B; Matteson, E L; Maradit-Kremers, H

    2007-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease of the elderly that is subject to wide variations in clinical practice and is managed both in the primary and secondary care settings by general practitioners, rheumatologists and non-rheumatologists. Considerable uncertainty exists relating to diagnosis, management and outcome in patients with PMR. The guidelines presented here seek to improve outcomes for PMR patients by outlining a process to ensure more accurate diagnosis and timely specialist referral. The guidelines are directed to promote more conservative treatment and to ensure early bone protection in order to reduce the common morbidity of osteoporotic fractures. Furthermore, these guidelines specify the goals of treatment, including clinical and patient-based outcomes, and provide advice concerning monitoring for disease activity and complications.

  16. Quantitative analysis of PMR-15 polyimide resin by HPLC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Lauver, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of individual components and of total solids of 50 wt pct PMR-15 resin solutions was determined using reverse-phase HPLC to within + or - 8 percent accuracy. Acid impurities, the major source of impurities in 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), were eliminated by recrystallizing the BTDE prior to esterification. Triester formation was not a problem because of the high rate of esterification of the anhydride relative to that of the carboxylic acid. Aging of PMR-15 resin solutions resulted in gradual formation of the mononadimide and bisnadimide of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, with the BTDE concentration remaining constant. Similar chemical reactions occurred at a reduced rate in dried films of PMR-15 resin.

  17. Environmental effects on graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Hanson, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish the effects of thermo-oxidative and hydrothermal exposure on the mechanical properties of T300 graphite fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The effects of hydrothermal exposure on the mechanical properties of HTS-2 continuous graphite fiber composites were also investigated. The thermo-oxidative stability characteristics of T300 fabric and T300 fabric/PMR-15 composites were determined. Flexural strengths of specimens were determined. The useful lifetime of T300 fabric/PMR-15 composites in air at 316 C was found to be about 100 hours. The useful lifetimes in air at 228 and 260 C were determined to be 500 and 1000 hours, respectively. Absorbed moisture was found to reduce the elevated temperature properties of both the T300 fabricate and HTS-2 continuous fiber composites. The moisture effect was found to be reversible. Previously announced in STAR as N81-32194

  18. Environmental effects on graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Hanson, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish the effects of thermo-oxidative and hydrothermal exposure on the mechanical properties of T300 graphite fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The effects of hydrothermal exposure on the mechanical properties of HTS-2 continuous graphite fiber composites were also investigated. The thermo-oxidative stability characteristics of T300 fabric and T300 fabric/PMR-15 composites were determined. Flexural strengths of specimens were determined. The useful lifetime of T300 fabric/PMR-15 composites in air at 316 C was found to be about 100 hours. The useful lifetimes in air at 228 and 260 C were determined to be 500 and 1000 hours, respectively. Absorbed moisture was found to reduce the elevated temperature properties of both the T300 fabricate and HTS-2 continuous fiber composites. The moisture effect was found to be reversible.

  19. Quantitative analysis of PMR-15 polyimide resin by HPLC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Lauver, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of individual components and of total solids of 50 wt pct PMR-15 resin solutions was determined using reverse-phase HPLC to within + or - 8 percent accuracy. Acid impurities, the major source of impurities in 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), were eliminated by recrystallizing the BTDE prior to esterification. Triester formation was not a problem because of the high rate of esterification of the anhydride relative to that of the carboxylic acid. Aging of PMR-15 resin solutions resulted in gradual formation of the mononadimide and bisnadimide of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, with the BTDE concentration remaining constant. Similar chemical reactions occurred at a reduced rate in dried films of PMR-15 resin.

  20. Toughening of PMR composites by semi-interpenetrating networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR-15) type polyimide and RP46 prepregs were drum wound using IM-7 fibers. Prepregging and processing conditions were optimized to yield good quality laminates with fiber volume fractions of 60 percent (+/- 2 percent). Samples were fabricated and tested to determine comprehensive engineering properties of both systems. These included 0 deg flexure, short beam shear, transverse flexure and tension, 0 deg tension and compression, intralaminar shear, short block compression, mode 1 and 2 fracture toughness, and compression after impact properties. Semi-2-IPN (interpenetrating polymer networks) toughened PMR-15 and RP46 laminates were also fabricated and tested for the same properties.

  1. Toughening of PMR composites by gradient semi-interpenetrating networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. J.; Srinivasan, K.; Peter, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The toughening of the PMR-15 and LARC RP-46 high temperature thermosetting polyimides is presently attempted through the construction of a semiinterpenetrating network at ply interfaces through the use of the Matrimid 5218 thermoplastic polyimide powder, whose 315-320 glass transition temperature is compatible with the PMR matrices. The 60 vol pct fiber composites thus prepared for the two resins, with and without toughening, were comprehensively characterized in flexure, tension, intralaminar and short beam shear, compression and quasi-isotropic short-block compression, as well as modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness and compression after impact.

  2. Graphite/PMR polyimide composites with improved toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.; Bowles, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    The toughness of composites made with modified PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimides and Celion 6000 graphite fibers was studied. Various types/levels of monomer reactants containing flexible links were incorporated into PMR resin compositions used to prepare composites. The composites were evaluated for toughness using instrumented drop weight and 10 deg off axis tensile tests at room temperature, and for strength using flexure and short beam shear tests at room temperature and at elevated temperature. The effect of resin composition on composite processability, thermo-oxidative stability, toughness and mechanical properties are discussed.

  3. Ocular inflammatory disease in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica: A case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Faez, Sepideh; Lobo, Ann-Marie; Unizony, Sebastian H; Stone, John H; Papaliodis, George N; Sobrin, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Scleritis and uveitis are potentially blinding conditions that can be associated with systemic inflammatory diseases. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common rheumatic disorder of the elderly of uncertain etiology. Although there are a few published reports of scleritis and uveitis in PMR patients, the association of PMR to ocular inflammation has not been well established. The aim of this study is to report a series of PMR patients with scleritis and/or uveitis and review the prior published reports of this potential association. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with PMR and scleritis or uveitis who were examined in the Ocular Immunology Service of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. We also performed a systematic literature search (PubMed; January 1990 until January 2014) to identify earlier published reports. Seven PMR patients with ocular inflammatory disease (OID) were included in our study: two with scleritis, three with anterior uveitis, and two with panuveitis. The onset of PMR preceded the occurrence of OID in six patients, and in one patient uveitis developed 2 months prior to PMR. Five patients demonstrated a temporal association between flares of PMR and OID. In four patients, OID flares developed during tapering of systemic prednisone prescribed for PMR. Four of the five patients who had relapsing PMR had recurrent or persistent uveitis over the course of follow-up. PMR may be associated with both scleritis and uveitis and should be considered as a possible underlying cause of OID.

  4. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of N-Phenylnadimide Modified PMR Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The rheological behavior of newly developd Celion 6000/N-phenylnadimide modified PMR polyimide and PMR-15 composites was investigated. The dynamic mechanical properties were correlated with the structure of N-phenylnadimide modified PMR polyimides. The storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and loss tangent (tan delta) of four composite systems were measured over a temperature range from -150 to 400 C. Three well defined peaks were seen in the regions of 360, 100, and -120 C, corresponding to the alpha, beta, and gamma relaxations, respectively, of the matrix resins. The activation energies of the alpha, beta, and gamma relaxations were estimated to be 232, 60, and 14 kcal/mole, respectively, for PMR-15. Addition of N-phenylnadimide to the PMR-15 composition lowered the glass transition temperature and the activation energies of PMR-15 polyimide. The dynamic mechanical data appear to be consistent with the formation of a copolymer from N-phenylnadimide and a PMR-15 prepolymer.

  5. Application of Gr/PMR-15 to commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postlewaite, J.; Porter, K.; Mclaren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Following from early experience with polyimides on the SST program and Shuttle aft flap studies the Boeing Company is now working on collaborative programs with its principal nacelle suppliers to pursue the development of Gr/PMR-15 nacelle components. Two programs are currently in effect. The first program is directed specifically towards the flight test and service evaluation at the earliest possible date of a 747 nacelle core cowl structure. The second program seeks to firmly establish the producibility and cost of a 757 thrust reverser C duct in a production environment. The near term objectives of these programs include: (1) the comparison of estimated cost and weight of Gr/PMR-15 versus metal structure, (2) the engine test of representative composite structure, (3) the preliminary design and analysis of the C duct structure, and (4) the preparation of cost data and time schedules for the development and producibility program. In addition to powerplant structure, the propulsion ducting system has shown to be a strong candidate for Gr/PMR-15 application. Currently, the Boeing 747 Organization is evaluating the use of PMR-15 matrix composites to replace nearly 800 lbs of titanium ducting per airplane.

  6. FDEMS Sensing for Automated Intelligent Processing of PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, David E.; Hood, D. K.; Rogozinski, J.; Barksdale, R.; Loos, Alfred C.; McRae, Doug

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to develop frequency dependent dielectric measurements, often called FDEMS (frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing), to monitor and intelligently control the cure process in PMR-15, a stoichiometric mixture of a nadic ester, dimethyl ester, and methylendianiline in a monomor ratio.

  7. 48 CFR 849.111-70 - Required review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required review. 849.111... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.111-70 Required review. (a) FAR 49.111 requires each agency to establish procedures, when necessary, for the administrative review of proposed...

  8. ESCRT components regulate the expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 through the Rim101/Nrg1 pathway in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunying; Du, Jingcai; Xiong, Bing; Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Linghuo

    2013-10-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes function to form multivesicular bodies for sorting of proteins destined for the yeast vacuole or the mammalian lysosome. ESCRT components are well conserved in eukaryotes, and their mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases and other cellular pathologies in humans. PMR1 is the orthologous gene of two human genes for calcium pumps secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1, ATP2C1) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, ATP2A2), which are mutated in Hailey-Hailey and Darier genetic diseases, respectively. Here we show that deletion mutation of ESCRT components Snf7, Snf8, Stp22, Vps20, Vps25, Vps28, or Vps36 activates the calcium/calcineurin signaling in yeast cells, but surprisingly leads to a nearly 50% reduction in expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 independent of calcium stress. These ESCRT mutants are known to have a defect in Rim101 activation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of Rim101 or further deletion of NRG1 in these mutants partially suppresses their calcium hypersensitivity. Deletion of NRG1 also completely rescues the expression of PMR1 in these mutants to the level of the wild type. Promoter mutagenesis, gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrate that Nrg1 binds to two motifs in the PMR1 promoter. In addition, expression of PMR1 under the control of its promoters with mutated Nrg1-binding motifs suppresses the calcium hypersensitivity of these ESCRT mutants. Collectively, these data have uncovered a function of ESCRT components in regulating PMR1 expression through the Nrg1/Rim101 pathway. Our findings provide important clues for understanding human diseases related to calcium homeostasis.

  9. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review....

  10. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review....

  11. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review....

  12. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review....

  13. 42 CFR 456.431 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued stay review required. 456.431 Section 456.431 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Ur Plan: Review of Need for Continued Stay § 456.431 Continued stay review required. (a) The UR plan...

  14. 42 CFR 456.131 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued stay review required. 456.131 Section 456.131 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Continued Stay § 456.131 Continued stay review required. The UR plan must provide for a review...

  15. 42 CFR 456.121 - Admission review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Admission review required. 456.121 Section 456.121 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Need for Admission 1 § 456.121 Admission review required. The UR plan must provide for a review of each...

  16. 42 CFR 412.508 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.508 Section 412... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.508 Medical review requirements. (a) Admission and quality review. A..., the following: (1) The medical necessity, reasonableness, and appropriateness of hospital admissions...

  17. New Endcaps for Improved Oxidation Resistance in PMR Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.

    2003-01-01

    A polyimide is a polymer composed of alternating units of diamine and dianhydride, linked to each other via an imide bond. PMR polyimides, commonly used in the aerospace industry, are generally capped at each end by an endcap (such as the nadic endcap used in PMR 15) which serves a double function: (1) it limits the number of repeating units and, hence, the average molecular weight of the various polymer chains (oligomers), thereby improving processibility; (2) Upon further treatment (curing), the endcap crosslinks the various oligomer strands into a tough heat-resistant piece. It is this very endcap, so important to processing, that accounts for much of the weight loss in the polymer on aging in air at elevated temperatures. Understanding this degradation provides clues for designing new endcaps to slow down degradation, and prolong the lifetime of the material.

  18. Transverse microcracking in Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite-polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, J. S.; Herakovich, C. T.; Davis, J. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of room temperature tensile loading and five thermal loadings, in the range -320 F (-196C) to 625F (330CC), upon the development of transverse microcracks (TVM) in Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite-polyimide laminates were investigated. Microcracks were observed using a replicating technique, microscopy and X-ray. The mechanical or thermal load at which microcracking initiates and the ply residual stresses were predicted using laminate analysis with stress- and temperature-dependent material properties.

  19. Thermal analysis of PMR-polyimides by dielectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the dielectric properties of glass fabric reinforced composites as influenced by the reactions occurring during the preparation of crosslinked polyimides by the PMR process. The variables studied included: formulated molecular weight, staging temperature and time; rate of temperature increase to cure temperature; and cure temperature and time. The changes of capacitance and, particularly, of dissipation factor were found to be strongly dependent on each of the variables studied.

  20. Transverse Microcracking in Celion 6000/PMR-15 Graphite-Polyimide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    strength of a ply is exceeded by the ply’s transverse stress.) The stress- and 83 Table 4. Predicted Transverse Residual Curing Stresses for [0/90]s Gr...strongly influences TVM density. 4. Laminate analysis using stress- and temperature-dependent material properties predicts that the residual curing stresses...Temperature and Curvature of a [03/903Js Lam’ na te 70 3 Material Property Polynomials for Celion 6000/PMR- 15 80 4 Predicted Transverse Residual

  1. Thermo-Elastic Nondestructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage in PMR-15 Resin (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4365 THERMO-ELASTIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE IN PMR -15 RESIN (PREPRINT) J.T. Welter and E.A...Technical Paper 1 November 2011 – 1 November 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THERMO-ELASTIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE IN PMR -15 RESIN...largely been overlooked. In this paper we present studies of nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in a thermoset polyimide resin, PMR -15, performed

  2. Thermo-Elastic Nondestructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage in PMR-15 Resin (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    To) 25 June 2009 – 17 July 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THERMO-ELASTIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE IN PMR -15 RESIN (POSTPRINT) 5a...nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in a thermoset polyimide resin, PMR -15, performed by measuring the changes in the evolution of heat in the samples...discussed in reference to utilizing this technique for detection and evaluation of fatigue in PMR -15 resin and composites. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fatigue

  3. Effects of graphite fiber stability on the properties of PMR polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvigs, P.; Alston, W. B.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the stability of graphite fibers on composite properties after exposure in air at 600 F was investigated. Composites were fabricated from PMR-15 and PMR-2 monomer solutions, using HTS-2 and Celion 6000 graphite fibers as the reinforcement. The effect of long-term exposure in air at 600 F on composite weight loss and mechanical properties was determined. These composites exhibited a significantly increased lifetime at that temperature compared to composites fabricated from HTS fiber sold prior to 1975. The effect of the PMR-15 and PMR-II resin compositions on long-term composite performance at 600 F is also discussed.

  4. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis....

  5. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of Celion 6000/PMR-15 unidirectional composites, PMR-15, and Celion 6000 fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Nowak, Gregory

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results on the influence of the thermooxidative resistance characteristics of the fiber and matrix resin on the thermal stability of isothermally aged Celion 6000/PMR-15 matrix resin composites are presented. SEM studies reveal that extreme oxidative erosion of the graphite fiber occurs at elevated temperatures in the presence of the polyimide matrix. The activation energy of oxidation of the composite was shown to be greater than those of the fiber and the matrix resin.

  6. 48 CFR 749.111-71 - Required review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required review and approval. 749.111-71 Section 749.111-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 749.111-71 Required review...

  7. 48 CFR 849.111-70 - Required review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required review. 849.111-70 Section 849.111-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.111-70 Required review. (a) FAR 49.111...

  8. 48 CFR 749.111-71 - Required review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required review and approval. 749.111-71 Section 749.111-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 749.111-71 Required review and...

  9. Anther-preferential expressing gene PMR is essential for the mitosis of pollen development in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaqin; Xu, Ya; Ling, Sheng; Liu, Shasha; Yao, Jialing

    2017-06-01

    Phenotype identification, expression examination, and function prediction declared that the anther-preferential expressing gene PMR may participate in regulation of male gametophyte development in rice. Male germline development in flowering plants produces the pair of sperm cells for double fertilization and the pollen mitosis is a key process of it. Although the structural features of male gametophyte have been defined, the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitotic cell cycle are not well elucidated in rice. Here, we reported an anther-preferential expressing gene in rice, PMR (Pollen Mitosis Relative), playing an essential role in male gametogenesis. When PMR gene was suppressed via RNAi, the mitosis of microspore was severely damaged, and the plants formed unmatured pollens containing only one or two nucleuses at the anthesis, ultimately leading to serious reduction of pollen fertility and seed-setting. The CRISPR mutants, pmr-1 and pmr-2, both showed the similar defects as the PMR-RNAi lines. Further analysis revealed that PMR together with its co-expressing genes were liable to participate in the regulation of DNA metabolism in the nucleus, and affected the activities of some enzymes related to the cell cycle. We finally discussed that unknown protein PMR contained the PHD, SWIB and Plus-3 domains and they might have coordinating functions in regulation pathway of the pollen mitosis in rice.

  10. PMR Extended Shelf Life Technology Given 2000 R and D 100 Award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An approach developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for extending the shelf life of PMR polyimide solutions and prepregs received an R&D 100 Award this year. PMR polyimides, in particular PMR-15, have become attractive materials for a variety of aerospace applications because of their outstanding high-temperature stability and performance. PMR-15 can be used in components with exposures to temperatures as high as 290 C, which leads to substantial reductions in weight, as much as 30 percent over metal components. PMR-15 composites are used widely in aerospace applications ranging from ducts and external components in aircraft engines to an engine access door for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. A major barrier to more widespread use of these materials is high component costs. Recent efforts at Glenn have addressed the various factors that contribute to these costs in an attempt to more fully utilize these lightweight, high-temperature materials.

  11. Analyzing pmrA and pmrB genes in Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to colistin in Shahid Rajai Shiraz, Iran Hospital by PCR: First report in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Shahriar; Doudi, Monir; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bahador, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mehranoosh

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumanni is known as a worldwide emerging nosocomial infections and it is classified as one of the six dangerous microorganisms by Diseases Society of America. Multi drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii have been reported in recent decades, which may be a result of the high use of antimicrobial agents. Colistin is the last form of treatment against this organism. The presence of pmrA and pmrB genes in A. baumannii causes the resistance of this organism against Colistin. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 samples of A. baumannii isolated from ulcer, urinary, respiratory, blood of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Shahid Rajai Shiraz hospital within a 12-month period. The diagnosis was performed by microscopic and biochemical testing using microgen kits. Determining Colistin resistance was carried out by Diffusion Disc, Colistin antibiotic disc of MAST- England and E-test. The analysis of genes pmrA and pmrB genes was done by PCR. 100 A. baumannii samples were diagnosed out of which using diffusion disk 94 cases were sensitive to Colistin and 6 cases were resistant to it. The E-test results in resistant samples presented an MIC equal to 64 micrograms per milliliter. The PCR results in sensitive and resistant to Colistin samples presented the existence of pmrA and pmrB genes. The results indicated the presence of pmrA and pmrB genes that are the main reason of A. baumannii resistance against the last line of treatment of this organism to Colistin.

  12. Effect of ester impurities in PMR-polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral and chomatographic studies were conducted which established the presence of tri- and tetraester impurities in aged monomer solutions employed in fabrication of PMR-polyimide resin composites. The equilibrium constant and apparent rate of the esterification were determined. It was demonstrated, using differential scanning calorimetry, that the ortho-ester moiety of these impurities does not completely react at typical cure conditions. It is concluded that voids formed in composites fabricated with aged monomer solution are due to gaseous decomposition products evolved by ester impurities and/or unreacted amine during elevated temperature post-cure treatment.

  13. FTIR characterization of thermally cycled PMR-15 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Chang, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical characterization results are presented for a variety of PMR-15/graphite composites, differentiated according to prepreg types and cure cycles, which were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles between 0 and 450 F. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy was used in conjunction with diffuse reflectance sampling to examine whether changes in the matrix resin chemistry due to environmental exposure may have contributed to microcracking. Analysis based on compound spectra revealed behavior associated with the oxidation of methylene groups to carbonyl groups on the composite surface; evidence of crosslinking also emerged, although the two phenomena do not appear to be related.

  14. Absence of PmrAB-mediated phosphoethanolamine modifications of Citrobacter rodentium lipopolysaccharide affects outer membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Viau, Charles; Le Sage, Valerie; Ting, Daniel K; Gross, Jeremy; Le Moual, Hervé

    2011-05-01

    The PmrAB two-component system of enterobacteria regulates a number of genes whose protein products modify lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS is modified during transport to the bacterial outer membrane (OM). A subset of PmrAB-mediated LPS modifications consists of the addition of phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) to lipid A by PmrC and to the core by CptA. In Salmonella enterica, pEtN modifications have been associated with resistance to polymyxin B and to excess iron. To investigate putative functions of pEtN modifications in Citrobacter rodentium, ΔpmrAB, ΔpmrC, ΔcptA, and ΔpmrC ΔcptA deletion mutants were constructed. Compared to the wild type, most mutant strains were found to be more susceptible to antibiotics that must diffuse across the LPS layer of the OM. All mutant strains also showed increased influx rates of ethidium dye across their OM, suggesting that PmrAB-regulated pEtN modifications affect OM permeability. This was confirmed by increased partitioning of the fluorescent dye 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) into the OM phospholipid layer of the mutant strains. In addition, substantial release of periplasmic β-lactamase was observed for the ΔpmrAB and ΔpmrC ΔcptA strains, indicating a loss of OM integrity. This study attributes a new role for PmrAB-mediated pEtN LPS modifications in the maintenance of C. rodentium OM integrity.

  15. 75 FR 63215 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7044. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: SBA Direct and SBA Online Community... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business...

  16. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis. Because...

  17. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical review requirements: Physician acknowledgement. (a) Basis. Because...

  18. Design Allowables Test Program, Celion 3000/PMR-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15, Graphite/Polyimide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.

    1982-01-01

    A design allowables test program was conducted on Celion 3000/PRM-15 and Celion 6000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite to establish material performance over a 116 K (-250 F) to 589 K (600 F) temperature range. Effects of aging, thermal cycling and moisture were also evaluated. Tension, compression and in plane shear properties were determined for uniaxial, pseudoisotropic and +45 laminates. Test results show sufficient strength and stiffness to substantiate graphite/polyimide composites as an acceptable structural material for high temperature structural applications.

  19. Review of perpendicular magnetic recording research at Fujitsu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiki, Mitsumasa

    2012-02-01

    Perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) research and development (R&D) was carried out at Fujitsu for 32 years from 1978 to 2009, separated into three stages. We developed PMR for use in hard disk drives (HDDs). We sputtered Co-Cr alloy thin film onto a disk substrate and evaluated it using thin-film heads. Some interesting results were obtained at each stage. On the way we fabricated 1.8″ HDDs in 1992 and finally shipped the mass-produced PMR HDDs in 2006. Unfortunately, the HDD business at Fujitsu closed down. I would like to review the exceptional PMR research undertaken at Fujitsu.

  20. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Zurawski, Jason, W; Mace, Kathryn, P

    2016-08-11

    In August 2016 The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Colorado State University (CSU) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) located on the campus of Colorado State University. Several key findings highlighting the results from the review were discovered, with benefits to improve the overall scientific process for CIRA and CSU.

  1. 7 CFR 1980.355 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions that it desires to obtain a loan note guarantee and subsequently decides prior to loan closing...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.355 Review of requirements. Upon the Lender's review of the conditional commitment, the Lender may determine whether to accept the conditions...

  2. 40 CFR 6.403 - Environmental review and assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF EPA ACTIONS Assessing the Environmental Effects Abroad of EPA Actions § 6.403 Environmental review and assessment requirements. (a) Research and demonstration projects. The appropriate Assistant Administrator is responsible for performing the necessary degree of environmental review on research...

  3. An investigation into the injection molding of PMR-15 polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaluca, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The chemorheological behavior of the PRM-15 molding compounds were characterized, the range of suitable processing parameters for injection molding in a reciprocating screw injection molding machine was determined, and the effects of the injection molding processing parameters on the mechanical properties of molded PMR-15 parts were studied. The apparatus and procedures for measuring viscosity and for determining the physical response of the material during heating are described. Results show that capillary rheometry can be effectively used with thermosets if the equipment is designed to overcome some of the inherent problems of these materials. A uniform temperature was provided in the barrel by using a circulating hot oil system. Standard capillary rheometry methods can provide the dependence of thermoset apparent viscosity on shear rate, temperature, and time. Process conditions resulting in complete imidization should be carefully defined. Specification of controlled oven temperature is inadequate and can result in incomplete imidization. For completely imidized PMR-15 heat at 15 C/min melt flow without gas evolution occurs in the temperature range of 325 C to 400 C.

  4. 700 F properties of autoclave cured PMR-II composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cifani, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop autoclave processing parameters for graphite reinforced PMR-2 resin composite materials intended for use in applications at temperatures up to 371 degrees (700 F). The effect of resin composition on autoclaveability was investigated. The effect of various graphite fibers and resin composition on 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties was also investigated. The results of the processing studies show that PMR-2 resin composites can be easily fabricated under autoclave conditions. Autoclaved laminates exposed to 1 atm of air at 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) exhibited less than 5 percent weight loss after 750 hr exposure to 650 F air and 8 percent weight loss during exposure to 700 F air for 500 hr. After 500 hr exposure, autoclaved laminates exhibited greater than 90 percent retention of initial 650 and 700 F flexural and interlaminar shear strengths. The effect of resin formulated molecular weight and postcure conditions on laminate glass transition temperature is also discussed.

  5. The 700 F properties of autoclave cured PMR-2 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Cifani, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop autoclave processing parameters for graphite reinforced PMR-2 resin composite materials intended for use in applications at temperatures up to 371 degrees (700 F). The effect of resin composition on autoclaveability was investigated. The effect of various graphite fibers and resin composition on 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties was also investigated. The results of the processing studies show that PMR-2 resin composites can be easily fabricated under autoclave conditions. Autoclaved laminates exposed to 1 atm of air at 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) exhibited less than 5 percent weight loss after 750 hr exposure to 650 F air and 8 percent weight loss during exposure to 700 F air for 500 hr. After 500 hr exposure, autoclaved laminates exhibited greater than 90 percent retention of initial 650 and 700 F flexural and interlaminar shear strengths. The effect of resin formulated molecular weight and postcure conditions on laminate glass transition temperature is also discussed.

  6. 700 F properties of autoclave cured PMR-II composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cifani, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop autoclave processing parameters for graphite reinforced PMR-2 resin composite materials intended for use in applications at temperatures up to 371 degrees (700 F). The effect of resin composition on autoclaveability was investigated. The effect of various graphite fibers and resin composition on 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties was also investigated. The results of the processing studies show that PMR-2 resin composites can be easily fabricated under autoclave conditions. Autoclaved laminates exposed to 1 atm of air at 343 C (650 F) and 371 C (700 F) exhibited less than 5 percent weight loss after 750 hr exposure to 650 F air and 8 percent weight loss during exposure to 700 F air for 500 hr. After 500 hr exposure, autoclaved laminates exhibited greater than 90 percent retention of initial 650 and 700 F flexural and interlaminar shear strengths. The effect of resin formulated molecular weight and postcure conditions on laminate glass transition temperature is also discussed.

  7. Thermal stability relationships between PMR-15 resin and its composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.; Bors, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 matrix resin and the stability of graphite-fiber-reinforced composites that contain this resin as the matrix material. Three areas were investigated. The first was the effect of fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength on the isothermal aging weight loss of composites. By using type-A graphite fibers produced by Hercules, it was possible to study composites reinforced with fibers that were processed to receive different surface treatments. One of the fibers was untreated, a second fiber was treated by oxidation to enhance fiber/matrix bonding, and the third type of fiber was coated with an epoxy sizing. These treatments produced three significantly different interfacial bond strengths. The epoxy sizing on the third fiber was quickly oxidized from the bare fiber surfaces at 288, 316, and 343 C. The weight loss due to the removal of the sizing was constant at 1.5 percent. This initial weight loss was not observed in thermo-oxidative stability studies of composites. The PMR-15 matrix satisfactorily protected the reinforcemnt at all three temperatures.

  8. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning...

  9. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning on...

  10. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning on...

  11. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning on...

  12. 42 CFR 412.44 - Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES... Capital-Related Costs § 412.44 Medical review requirements: Admissions and quality review. Beginning on...

  13. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  14. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  15. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  16. 42 CFR 493.555 - Federal review of laboratory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal review of laboratory requirements. 493.555... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Accreditation by a Private, Nonprofit Accreditation Organization or Exemption Under an Approved State Laboratory Program §...

  17. 78 FR 76886 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), agencies are required to submit proposed reporting and recordkeeping requirements to OMB for review and approval, and to publish a notice in the Federal Register notifying the public that the agency has made such a submission.

  18. PmrA(Con) Confers pmrHFIJKL-Dependent EGTA and Polymyxin Resistance on msbB Salmonella by Decorating Lipid A with Phosphoethanolamine▿

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sean R.; Ernst, Robert K.; Bermudes, David; Miller, Samuel I.; Low, K. Brooks

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in pmrA were recombined into Salmonella strain ATCC 14028 msbB to determine if pmrA-regulated modifications of lipopolysaccharide could suppress msbB growth defects. A mutation that functions to constitutively activate pmrA [pmrA(Con)] suppresses msbB growth defects on EGTA-containing media. Lipid A structural analysis showed that Salmonella msbB pmrA(Con) strains, compared to Salmonella msbB strains, have increased amounts of palmitate and phosphoethanolamine but no aminoarabinose addition, suggesting that aminoarabinose is not incorporated into msbB lipid A. Surprisingly, loss-of-function mutations in the aminoarabinose biosynthetic genes restored EGTA and polymyxin sensitivity to Salmonella msbB pmrA(Con) strains. These blocks in aminoarabinose biosynthesis also prevented lipid A phosphoethanolamine incorporation and reduced the levels of palmitate addition, indicating previously unknown roles for the aminoarabinose biosynthetic enzymes. Lipid A structural analysis of the EGTA- and polymyxin-resistant triple mutant msbB pmrA(Con) pagP::Tn10, which contains phosphoethanolamine but no palmitoylated lipid A, suggests that phosphoethanolamine addition is sufficient to confer EGTA and polymyxin resistance on Salmonella msbB strains. Additionally, palmitoylated lipid A was observed only in wild-type Salmonella grown in the presence of salt in rich media. Thus, we correlate EGTA resistance and polymyxin resistance with phosphoethanolamine-decorated lipid A and demonstrate that the aminoarabinose biosynthetic proteins play an essential role in lipid A phosphoethanolamine addition and affect lipid A palmitate addition in Salmonella msbB strains. PMID:17449614

  19. pmrA(Con) confers pmrHFIJKL-dependent EGTA and polymyxin resistance on msbB Salmonella by decorating lipid A with phosphoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sean R; Ernst, Robert K; Bermudes, David; Miller, Samuel I; Low, K Brooks

    2007-07-01

    Mutations in pmrA were recombined into Salmonella strain ATCC 14028 msbB to determine if pmrA-regulated modifications of lipopolysaccharide could suppress msbB growth defects. A mutation that functions to constitutively activate pmrA [pmrA(Con)] suppresses msbB growth defects on EGTA-containing media. Lipid A structural analysis showed that Salmonella msbB pmrA(Con) strains, compared to Salmonella msbB strains, have increased amounts of palmitate and phosphoethanolamine but no aminoarabinose addition, suggesting that aminoarabinose is not incorporated into msbB lipid A. Surprisingly, loss-of-function mutations in the aminoarabinose biosynthetic genes restored EGTA and polymyxin sensitivity to Salmonella msbB pmrA(Con) strains. These blocks in aminoarabinose biosynthesis also prevented lipid A phosphoethanolamine incorporation and reduced the levels of palmitate addition, indicating previously unknown roles for the aminoarabinose biosynthetic enzymes. Lipid A structural analysis of the EGTA- and polymyxin-resistant triple mutant msbB pmrA(Con) pagP::Tn10, which contains phosphoethanolamine but no palmitoylated lipid A, suggests that phosphoethanolamine addition is sufficient to confer EGTA and polymyxin resistance on Salmonella msbB strains. Additionally, palmitoylated lipid A was observed only in wild-type Salmonella grown in the presence of salt in rich media. Thus, we correlate EGTA resistance and polymyxin resistance with phosphoethanolamine-decorated lipid A and demonstrate that the aminoarabinose biosynthetic proteins play an essential role in lipid A phosphoethanolamine addition and affect lipid A palmitate addition in Salmonella msbB strains.

  20. PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites For Improved Thermal Stability And Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel; Faile, Michael; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay was organically modified by co-exchange of an aromatic diamine and a primary alkyl amine. The clay was dispersed into a PMR (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants)-15 matrix and the glass transition temperature and thermal oxidative stability of the resulting nanocomposites were evaluated. PMR-15/ silicate nanocomposites were also investigated as a matrix material for carbon fabric reinforced composites. Dispersion of the organically modified silicate into the PMR-15 matrix enhanced the thermal oxidative stability, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, and interlaminar shear strength of the polymer matrix composite.

  1. Feasibility of Kevlar 49/PMR-15 polyimide for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Kevlar 49 aramid organic fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide laminates were characterized to determine the applicability of the material to high temperature aerospace structures. Kevlar 49/3501-6 epoxy laminates were fabricated and characterized for comparison with the Kevlar 49/PMR-15 polyimide material. Flexural strengths and moduli and interlaminar shear strengths were determined from 75 to 600 F for the PMR-15 and from 75 to 450 F for the Kevlar 49/3501-6 epoxy material. The study also included the effects of hydrothermal and long-term elevated temperature exposures on the flexural strengths and moduli and the interlaminar shear strengths.

  2. DMBZ Polyimides Provide an Alternative to PMR-15 for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    PMR-15, a high-temperature polyimide developed in the mid-1970's at the NASA Lewis Research Center, offers the combination of ease of processing, low cost, and good stability and performance at temperatures up to 288 C (500 F). This material is widely regarded as one of the leading high-temperature matrix resins for polymer-matrix-composite aircraft engine components. PMR-15 is widely used in both military and civilian aircraft engines. The current worldwide market for PMR-15 is on the order of 50,000 lb, with a total sales of around $5 to $10 million. However, PMR-15 is made from methylene dianiline (MDA), a known animal mutagen and a suspected human mutagen. Recent concerns about the safety of workers involved in the manufacture and repair of PMR-15 components have led to the implementation of costly protective measures to limit worker exposure and ensure workplace safety. In some cases, because of safety and economic concerns, airlines have eliminated PMR-15 components from engines in their fleets. Current efforts at Lewis are focused on developing suitable replacements for PMR-15 that do not contain mutagenic constituents and have processability, stability, and mechanical properties comparable to that of PMR-15. A recent development from these efforts is a new class of thermosetting polyimides based on 2,2'-dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ). Autoclave processing developed for PMR-15 composites was used to prepare low-void-content T650-35 carbon-fiber-reinforced laminates from DMBZ-15 polyimides. The glass transition temperatures of these laminates were about 50 C higher than those of the T650- 35/PMR-15 composites (400 versus 348 C). In addition, DMBZ-15 polyimide composites aged for 1000 hr in air at 288 C (500 F) had weight losses close to those of comparable PMR-15 laminates (0.9 versus 0.7 percent). The elevated (288 C) and room temperature mechanical properties of T650-35-reinforced DMBZ-15 polyimide and PMR-15 laminates were comparable. Standard Ames tests are

  3. Feasibility of Kevlar 49/PMR-15 Polyimide for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Kevlar 49 aramid organic fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide laminates were characterized to determine the applicability of the material to high temperature aerospace structures. Kevlar 49/3501-6 epoxy laminates were fabricated and characterized for comparison with the Kevlar 49/PMR-15 polyimide material. Flexural strengths and moduli and interlaminar shear strengths were determined from 75 F to 600 F for the PMR-15 and from 75 F to 450 F for the Kevlar/3501-6 epoxy material. The effects of hydrothermal and long-term elevated temperature exposures on the flexural strengths and moduli and the interlaminar shear strengths were also studied.

  4. Kinetics of imidization and crosslinking in PMR-polyimide resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study the imidization and crosslinking kinetics of norbornenyl-capped, addition-type polyimide resins (designated PMR for polymerization of monomer reactants). The spectral and thermal analyses were performed on resin specimens which had been isothermally aged at temperatures appropriate for imidization (120 to 204 C) and crosslinking (275 to 325 C). Imidization occurs rapidly (approximately 0.01/min) at short times, while at times longer than approximately 0.5 hour, the rate decreases significantly (approximately 0.0001/min). The crosslinking reaction exhibits first order kinetics during the initial portion of the reaction and its rate appears to be limited by the reversion of the norbornenyl Diels-Alder adduct. The total heat evolved per mole of endcap during crosslinking shows an inverse dependence on the molecular weight of the imide prepolymers. This reflects the effect of endcap dilution and decreased mobility of the larger oligomers.

  5. Crosslinking-property relationships in PMR polyimide composites. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Whitley, K.; Morgan, C.; Chang, A.

    1987-01-01

    The thermooxidatively-induced crosslinking/ physical and mechanical property relationships of graphite fiber-reinforced PMR polyimide-matrix composites were studied during isothermal exposure of the composite specimens at 288 C in air for periods of up to 5000 hr. The crosslinking densities due to this treatment were estimated on the basis of the kinetic theory of rubber elasticity and shifts in the glass transition temperature T(g). Several linear relationships are noted between crosslink density and physical and mechanical properties: T(g), initial weight loss, and elevated temperature interlaminar shear strength increase with crosslink density, while initial moisture absorption decreases. After achieving the highest crosslink density, several of the composite properties begin to decrease from their maximum values.

  6. PMR-15 polyimide modifications for improved prepreg tack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    The use of mixed solvents and of modified monomeric ester reactants was investigated as a means of improving the tack and drape retention characteristics of PMR-15 polyimide prepreg. Methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol were used to prepare the esters, prepreg solutions, and T-300 graphite fabric and Celion 6000 unidirectional fiber prepregs. The tack retention characteristics of the T-300 fabric prepreg after exposure to simulated use conditions were determined using a simple lap shear test. Drape was qualitatively assessed by visually monitoring the deformability of the prepreg. Thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties retention of the Celion 6000 grahite fiber composites were determined as a function of exposure time in air at 600 F.

  7. Mutations in PMR1 stimulate xylose isomerase activity and anaerobic growth on xylose of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae by influencing manganese homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Maarten D.; Lee, Misun; Kamoen, Lycka; van den Broek, Marcel; Janssen, Dick B.; Daran, Jean-Marc G.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2017-01-01

    Combined overexpression of xylulokinase, pentose-phosphate-pathway enzymes and a heterologous xylose isomerase (XI) is required but insufficient for anaerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on d-xylose. Single-step Cas9-assisted implementation of these modifications yielded a yeast strain expressing Piromyces XI that showed fast aerobic growth on d-xylose. However, anaerobic growth required a 12-day adaptation period. Xylose-adapted cultures carried mutations in PMR1, encoding a Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase. Deleting PMR1 in the parental XI-expressing strain enabled instantaneous anaerobic growth on d-xylose. In pmr1 strains, intracellular Mn2+ concentrations were much higher than in the parental strain. XI activity assays in cell extracts and reconstitution experiments with purified XI apoenzyme showed superior enzyme kinetics with Mn2+ relative to other divalent metal ions. This study indicates engineering of metal homeostasis as a relevant approach for optimization of metabolic pathways involving metal-dependent enzymes. Specifically, it identifies metal interactions of heterologous XIs as an underexplored aspect of engineering xylose metabolism in yeast. PMID:28401919

  8. Characterization of PMR-15 polyimide composition in thermo-oxidatively exposed graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    The contributions of individual resin components to total resin weight loss in 600 F air aged Celion 6000/PMR-15 polyimide composites were determined from the overall resin weight loss in the composite by chemically separating the PMR-15 matrix resin into its monomeric components. The individual resin components were also analyzed by spectroscopic techniques in order to elucidate curing and degradation mechanisms of the PMR-15 matrix resin. The isothermal weight loss of the individual resin components during prolonged 600 F thermo-oxidative aging of the composite was correlated to the changes observed in the Fourier Transform infrared spectra and Fourier Transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the individual resin components. The correlation was used to identify the molecular site of the thermo-oxidative changes in PMR-15 polyimide matrix resin during 600 F curing the prolonged 600 F thermo-oxidative aging.

  9. Graphite Sheet Coating for Improved Thermal Oxidative Stability of Carbon Fiber Reinforced/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Heimann, Paula; Inghram, Linda; McCorkle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Expanded graphite was compressed into graphite sheets and used as a coating for carbon fiber reinforced PMR-15 composites. BET analysis of the graphite indicated an increase in graphite pore size on compression, however the material was proven to be an effective barrier to oxygen when prepegged with PMR-15 resin. Oxygen permeability of the PMR-15/graphite was an order of magnitude lower than the compressed graphite sheet. By providing a barrier to oxygen permeation, the rate of oxidative degradation of PMR-15 was decreased. As a result, the composite thermo-oxidative stability increased by up to 25%. The addition of a graphite sheet as a top ply on the composites yielded little change in the material's flexural strength or interlaminar shear strength.

  10. A High T(sub g) PMR Polyimide Composites (DMBZ-15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadopoulos, Demitrios S.; Hardy-Green, DeNise; Mccorkle, Linda

    2000-01-01

    A high T(sub g) thermosetting PMR-type polyimide, designated as DMBZ-15, was developed by replacing methylene dianline (MDA) in PMR-15 with 2,2'-dimethylbenzidine. Polyimide/carbon fiber (T650-35) composites were fabricated from a formulation of 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester (BTDE) and 2,2'-dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ), along with nadic ester (NE) as the endcap. DMBZ-15 displays a higher glass transition temperature (T(sub g) = 414 C) than PMR-15 (T(sub g) = 345 C), and thus retains better mechanical properties for brief exposure above 400 C. The physical properties and longterm thermo-oxidative stability of the DMBZ-15 polyimide/carbon fiber composites are also compared to that of PMR-15.

  11. Kevlar/PMR-15 reduced drag DC-9 reverser stang fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    A reduced drag fairing for the afterbody enclosing the thrust reverser actuators on the DC-9 has been developed with Kevlar-49/PMR-15 advanced composite material. The improved fairing reduces airplane drag 1% compared to the production baseline. Use of composites reduces weight 40% compared to an equivalent metal fairing. The Kevlar-49/PMR-15 advanced composite is an organic matrix material system that can be used at temperatures up to 500 F.

  12. Characterization of PMR polyimides - Correlation of ester impurities with composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The presumed relationship of chemical impurities to final composite properties is the rationale for most chemical characterization studies. This study examines this relationship for PMR-polyimide resin. Ester/acid solutions of one monomer were aged at selected temperatures and chemical changes were monitored spectroscopically. At selected intervals, graphite fiber reinforced composite panels were fabricated. Changes in resin processing characteristics and composite properties were determined. The correlation of these data are discussed as are related characterization studies of PMR-polyimide resin.

  13. Characterization of PMR polyimides - Correlation of ester impurities with composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The presumed relationship of chemical impurities to final composite properties is the rationale for most chemical characterization studies. This study examines this relationship for PMR-polyimide resin. Ester/acid solutions of one monomer were aged at selected temperatures and chemical changes were monitored spectroscopically. At selected intervals, graphite fiber reinforced composite panels were fabricated. Changes in resin processing characteristics and composite properties were determined. The correlation of these data are discussed as are related characterization studies of PMR-polyimide resin.

  14. Characterization of PMR polyimides: Correlation of ester impurities with composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The presumed relationship of chemical impurities to final composite properties was investigated for PMR-polyimide resin. Ester/acid solutions of one monomer were aged at selected temperatures and chemical changes were monitored spectroscopically. At selected intervals, graphite fiber reinforced composite panels were fabricated. Changes in resin processing characteristics and composite properties were determined. The correlation of these data are discussed as are related characterization studies of PMR-polyimide resin.

  15. Speed and distance requirements for community ambulation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Salbach, Nancy M; O'Brien, Kelly; Brooks, Dina; Irvin, Emma; Martino, Rosemary; Takhar, Pam; Chan, Sylvia; Howe, Jo-Anne

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of the research literature on distance and speed requirements for adults to walk outside the home. We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, PEDro, and The Cochrane Library from 1948 to May 2012, and other sources. Search terms included communities, walk, ambulation, and neighborhood. Full-text peer-reviewed articles written in English, French, or Spanish reporting distance and/or speed requirements for individuals walking outside the home were considered eligible. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts. One author reviewed full-text articles to determine inclusion. Of the 3191 titles and abstracts screened, 15 studies (.47%) were selected for detailed review. One author appraised methodological quality. Inadequate description of the reliability of the measurement methods and the population of the town/city assessed was noted. One author extracted data from included studies. A second reviewer independently verified extracted data for accuracy. Seven studies examining 24 community sites and crosswalks in the United States, Australia, and Singapore were included. Three sites with the largest mean distance requirements for adults to walk were club warehouses (677m), superstores (183-607m), and hardware stores (566m). Three sites with the lowest mean distance requirements were walking at the front (16m) and back (19m) of the house, and at cemeteries (18m). The average speed required to cross the street in the time of a walk signal varied from .44 to 1.32m/s. Distance and speed requirements for adults to walk in the community environment vary widely. Findings are relevant to judging capacity for community ambulation to carry out essential activities of daily living, educating patients, and setting rehabilitation goals. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 48 CFR 801.602-71 - Basic review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic review requirements. 801.602-71 Section 801.602-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  17. 48 CFR 801.602-70 - General review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General review requirements. 801.602-70 Section 801.602-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  18. 48 CFR 801.602-75 - Review requirements-OGC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review requirements-OGC. 801.602-75 Section 801.602-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  19. 14 CFR 435.23 - Policy review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy review requirements and procedures. 435.23 Section 435.23 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH...

  20. 14 CFR 431.25 - Application requirements for policy review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application requirements for policy review. 431.25 Section 431.25 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV...

  1. 14 CFR 435.23 - Policy review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy review requirements and procedures. 435.23 Section 435.23 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH...

  2. 14 CFR 435.33 - Safety review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety review requirements and procedures. 435.33 Section 435.33 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH...

  3. 14 CFR 435.33 - Safety review requirements and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety review requirements and procedures. 435.33 Section 435.33 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING REENTRY OF A REENTRY VEHICLE OTHER THAN A REUSABLE LAUNCH...

  4. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.46 Section 412.46 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.46...

  5. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consequences on the existing environment, the future environment, and individual sensitive environmental issues... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  6. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consequences on the existing environment, the future environment, and individual sensitive environmental issues... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL...

  7. 10 CFR 1040.4 - Assurances required and preaward review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assurances required and preaward review. 1040.4 Section 1040.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED... conditions, as he or she deems appropriate, agree to forbear the exercise of the right to revert title for so...

  8. 10 CFR 1040.4 - Assurances required and preaward review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assurances required and preaward review. 1040.4 Section 1040.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED... conditions, as he or she deems appropriate, agree to forbear the exercise of the right to revert title for so...

  9. 10 CFR 1040.4 - Assurances required and preaward review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assurances required and preaward review. 1040.4 Section 1040.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED... conditions, as he or she deems appropriate, agree to forbear the exercise of the right to revert title for so...

  10. 10 CFR 1040.4 - Assurances required and preaward review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assurances required and preaward review. 1040.4 Section 1040.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED... conditions, as he or she deems appropriate, agree to forbear the exercise of the right to revert title for so...

  11. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concurrently with and utilize data from analyses required by other environmental laws and executive orders. A listing of environmental laws and orders is contained in table 3.4.3 of Economic and Environmental... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental review...

  12. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concurrently with and utilize data from analyses required by other environmental laws and executive orders. A listing of environmental laws and orders is contained in table 3.4.3 of Economic and Environmental... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental review...

  13. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concurrently with and utilize data from analyses required by other environmental laws and executive orders. A listing of environmental laws and orders is contained in table 3.4.3 of Economic and Environmental... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental review...

  14. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concurrently with and utilize data from analyses required by other environmental laws and executive orders. A listing of environmental laws and orders is contained in table 3.4.3 of Economic and Environmental... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental review...

  15. 49 CFR 37.215 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.215 Review of requirements. (a) Beginning October 28, 2005... including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (i) The percentage of accessible buses in the... accessible buses in a timely manner. (iii) The ridership of small and large operators'...

  16. 49 CFR 37.215 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.215 Review of requirements. (a) Beginning October 28, 2005... including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (i) The percentage of accessible buses in the... accessible buses in a timely manner. (iii) The ridership of small and large operators'...

  17. 49 CFR 37.215 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.215 Review of requirements. (a) Beginning October 28, 2005... including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (i) The percentage of accessible buses in the... accessible buses in a timely manner. (iii) The ridership of small and large operators'...

  18. 49 CFR 37.215 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.215 Review of requirements. (a) Beginning October 28, 2005... including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (i) The percentage of accessible buses in the... accessible buses in a timely manner. (iii) The ridership of small and large operators'...

  19. 49 CFR 37.215 - Review of requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.215 Review of requirements. (a) Beginning October 28, 2005... including, but not necessarily limited to, the following: (i) The percentage of accessible buses in the... accessible buses in a timely manner. (iii) The ridership of small and large operators'...

  20. 48 CFR 801.602-70 - General review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General review requirements. 801.602-70 Section 801.602-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development...

  1. 48 CFR 801.602-75 - Review requirements-OGC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review requirements-OGC. 801.602-75 Section 801.602-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting...

  2. 48 CFR 801.602-71 - Basic review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic review requirements. 801.602-71 Section 801.602-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting...

  3. 48 CFR 801.602-71 - Basic review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic review requirements. 801.602-71 Section 801.602-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  4. 78 FR 45592 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business Administration... Clearance Officer, Curtis Rich, Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC...

  5. 78 FR 39820 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business Administration... Clearance Officer, Curtis Rich, Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC...

  6. 78 FR 76378 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business Administration... Clearance Officer, Curtis Rich, Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC...

  7. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consequences on the existing environment, the future environment, and individual sensitive environmental issues... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  8. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consequences on the existing environment, the future environment, and individual sensitive environmental issues... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  9. 40 CFR 35.3580 - Environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consequences on the existing environment, the future environment, and individual sensitive environmental issues... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental review requirements. 35.3580 Section 35.3580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  10. 33 CFR 230.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 1979, 32 CFR part 197. Procedural requirements for Civil Works studies and projects are discussed below... Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies. Reviews and... of the ongoing studies are not expected to materially affect the decision on the proposed action,...

  11. 42 CFR 412.46 - Medical review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical review requirements. 412.46 Section 412.46 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Prospective Payment Systems for Inpatient Operating Costs and Inpatient Capital-Related Costs § 412.46 Medical...

  12. 77 FR 8942 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review AGENCY: Small Business Administration..., Jacqueline White, Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC 20416; and...

  13. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  14. Electronic health records. A systematic review on quality requirements.

    PubMed

    Hoerbst, A; Ammenwerth, E

    2010-01-01

    Since the first concepts for electronic health records (EHRs) in the 1990s, the content, structure, and technology of such records were frequently changed and adapted. The basic idea to support and enhance health care stayed the same over time. To reach these goals, it is crucial that EHRs themselves adhere to rigid quality requirements. The present review aims at describing the currently available, mainly non-functional, quality requirements with regard to electronic health records. A combined approach - systematic literature analysis and expert interviews - was used. The literature analysis as well as the expert interviews included sources/experts from different domains such as standards and norms, scientific literature and guidelines, and best practice. The expert interviews were performed by using problem-centric qualitative computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATIs) or face-to-face interviews. All of the data that was obtained was analyzed using qualitative content analysis techniques. In total, more than 1200 requirements were identified of which 203 requirements were also mentioned during the expert interviews. The requirements are organized according to the ISO 9126 and the eEurope 2002 criteria. Categories with the highest number of requirements found include global requirements, (general) functional requirements and data security. The number of non-functional requirements found is by contrast lower. The manuscript gives comprehensive insight into the currently available, primarily non-functional, EHR requirements. To our knowledge, there are no other publications that have holistically reported on this topic. The requirements identified can be used in different ways, e.g. the conceptual design, the development of EHR systems, as a starting point for further refinement or as a basis for the development of specific sets of requirements.

  15. Patients' views on the causes of their polymyalgia rheumatica: a content analysis of data from the PMR Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tshimologo, Maatla; Muller, Sara; Mallen, Christian D; Hider, Samantha L

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore primary care polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) patient beliefs about the causes of their PMR. Design Qualitative content analysis was conducted on patients' written responses to the question of what they thought had caused their PMR. All data were coded and emergent categories of causal beliefs identified. Setting Community patients receiving primary care at general practitioner (GP) practices across England. Participants Participants were recruited from a primary care PMR inception cohort (n=654). Between June 2012 and June 2014 GPs referred 739 people with a new PMR diagnosis in the past 3 years into the study. Patients were mailed a baseline self-completion questionnaire, which included the question, ‘What do you think caused your PMR?’. Responses to this question form the data set for the present study. Results 296 (45%) patients gave a possible cause for their PMR, while 276 (42%) respondents wrote ‘no idea’. Common attributions include ageing (45, 18%), medication (18, 5%) and personal stress (53, 14%). 24 respondents (6%) thought their PMR was as a result of another medical condition. Conclusions This is the first study to examine causation beliefs in PMR, identifying a number of possible causes such as ageing, stress and as a complication of other medical problems. Understanding these patient beliefs may impact on treatment adherence and patient outcome. PMID:28122836

  16. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Network Requirements: ASCR Network Requirements Review Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Charles; Bell, Greg; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Goodwin, Dave; Lee, Jason; Hicks, Susan; Holohan, Ed; Klasky, Scott; Lauzon, Carolyn; Rogers, Jim; Shipman, Galen; Skinner, David; Tierney, Brian

    2013-03-08

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In October 2012, ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the ASCR program office. The requirements identified at the review are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  17. Role of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Two-Component System PreA/PreB in Modulating PmrA-Regulated Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Massimo; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Septer, Alecia N.; Bhatiya, Aditi; Gunn, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The PmrA/PmrB two-component system encoded by the pmrCAB operon regulates the modification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide leading to polymyxin B resistance. PmrA and PhoP are the only known activators of pmrCAB. A transposon mutagenesis screen for additional regulators of a pmrC::MudJ fusion led to the identification of a two-component system, termed PreA/PreB (pmrCAB regulators A and B), that controls the transcription of the pmrCAB operon in response to unknown signals. The initial observations indicated that insertions in, or a deletion of, the preB sensor, but not the preA response regulator, caused upregulation of pmrCAB. Interestingly, the expression of pmrCAB was not upregulated in a preAB mutant grown in LB broth, implicating PreA in the increased expression of pmrCAB in the preB strain. This was confirmed by overexpression of preA+ in preAB or preB backgrounds, which resulted in significant upregulation or further upregulation of pmrCAB. No such effect was observed in any tested preB+ backgrounds. Additionally, an ectopic construct expressing a preA[D51A] allele also failed to upregulate pmrC in any of the pre backgrounds tested, which implies that there is a need for phosphorylation in the activation of the target genes. The observed upregulation of pmrCAB occurred independently of the response regulators PmrA and PhoP. Although a preB mutation led to increased transcription of pmrCAB, this did not result in a measurable effect on polymyxin B resistance. Our genetic data support a model of regulation whereby, in response to unknown signals, the PreB sensor activates PreA, which in turn indirectly upregulates pmrCAB transcription. PMID:16352830

  18. Dynamic mechanical properties of N-phenylnadimide modified PMR polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature-frequency dependence of alpha, beta, and gamma transitions was determined using a Rheometrics dynamic spectrometer on a series of unidirectional Celion 6000/N-phenylnadimide (PN) modified PMR polyimide composites. The objective was to see if any correlations exist between crosslinked network structure and dynamic mechanical properties. Variation in crosslinked network structures was achieved by altering the polyimide formulation through addition of various quantities of PN into the standard PMR-15 composition. As a control, PMR-15 composite system exhibited well-defined alpha, beta, and gamma transitions in the regions of 360, 100, and -120 C, respectively. Their activation energies were estimated to be 232, 60, and 14 kcal/mole, respectively. Increasing the amount of PN concentration caused lowering of the activation energies of the three relaxations, a decrease of the glass transition temperature, and increasing intensities of the three damping peaks, compared to the control PMR-15 counterpart. These dynamic mechanical responses were in agreement with formation of a more flexible copolymer from PN and PMR-15 prepolymer.

  19. Effect of polymyxin resistance (pmr) on biofilm formation of Cronobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xuerui; Jia, Xiangyin; Chen, Lequn; Peters, Brian M; Lin, Chii-Wann; Chen, Dingqiang; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Li, Yanyan; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2016-12-22

    Cronobacter sakazakii (C.sakazakii) has been identified as a wide-spread conditioned pathogen associated with series of serious illnesses, such as neonatal meningitis, enterocolitis, bacteremia or sepsis. As food safety is concerned, microbial biofilm has been considered to be a potential source of food contamination. The current study aims to investigate the ability of biofilm formation of two C. sakazakii strains (wild type BAA 894 and pmrA mutant). Crystal violet (CV), XTT (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino carbonyl)-2H-(tetrazolium hydroxide)] assays, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are performed on different time points during biofilm formation of C. sakazakii strains. Furthermore, RNA-seq strategy is utilized and the transcriptome data is analyzed to study the expression of genes related to biofilm formation along with whole genome sequencing. For biomass, in the first 24 h, pmrA mutant produced approximately 5 times than wildtype. However, the wild type exhibited more biomass than pmrA mutant during the post maturation stage (7-14 d). In addition, the wildtype showed higher viability than pmrA mutant during the whole biofilm formation. This study represents the first evidence on the biofilm formation of C. sakazakii pmrA mutant, which may further aid in the prevention and control for the food contamination caused by C. sakazakii.

  20. Ethics Review of Survey Research: A Mandatory Requirement for Publication?

    PubMed

    Whicher, Danielle; Wu, Albert W

    2015-12-01

    National regulations governing human subjects research differ with regard to whether they require survey research to be overseen by institutional ethics boards or committees. In cases where ethical review has been waived, or was provided by an individual or group other than an institutional ethics board, journals may question the appropriateness of the waiver or alternative review when making determinations about whether to accept the manuscript for publication. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance for journals to consider when making determinations about the necessity of ethical review for survey research projects. We review the functions of ethics oversight and consider the importance of those functions within the context of survey research. In survey research, no intervention is delivered to research participants. As a result, there is no risk of physical harm to individuals who participate. However, there can be a risk of informational or psychological harms. In situations where there is greater than minimal risk of informational or psychological harms, the survey research should have received institutional ethics oversight. Additionally, survey research projects that enroll vulnerable individuals with diminished autonomy should receive institutional ethics oversight. We hope that this article leads to further guidance on this subject by authoritative group such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

  1. Effects of Prior Aging on the Creep Response of Carbon Fiber Reinforced PMR-15 Neat Resin at 288 C in an Air Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    14 Figure 6: Shrinkage of T-650-35/PMR-15 composite ...used thermosetting polyimide resins for high-temperature polymer-matrix composite applications. Of the many high-temperature resins, PMR-15 has good...specifications for the use of this material, it was observed that the thermal oxidative stability of PMR-15 composites was not only influenced by the curing

  2. Rotorcraft aviation icing research requirements: Research review and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A. A.; Dadone, L.; Bevan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of rotorcraft icing evaluation techniques and ice protection technology was assessed. Recommendations are made for near and long term icing programs that describe the needs of industry. These recommended programs are based on a consensus of the major U.S. helicopter companies. Specific activities currently planned or underway by NASA, FAA and DOD are reviewed to determine relevance to the overall research requirements. New programs, taking advantage of current activities, are recommended to meet the long term needs for rotorcraft icing certification.

  3. Effect of solution concentration and aging conditions on PMR-15 resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography is utilized to evaluate the effect of temperature, solution concentration, and aging time on PMR-15 resin solutions. Fifty- and 70-wt percent PMR-15 resin solutions were prepared from the mixture of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic ester (NE) acid, 4.4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), methanol, and 3,3',4.4.-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dimethyl ester (BTDE) acid solution. It is observed that in PMR-15 resin solution aged for 35 days at room temperature NE and MDA react to form amide and imide intermediates. The precipitation data reveal that in the 70-wt percent solution precipitation occurs after 12 days and in the 50-wt percent solution after 20 days; however, at lower temperatures (-11 C, and 2 C) no precipitation is detected. It is concluded that storage of resin solutions and powders at reduced temperatures extends shelf life by reducing the rate of imide formation.

  4. Effect of solution concentration and aging conditions on PMR-15 resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography is utilized to evaluate the effect of temperature, solution concentration, and aging time on PMR-15 resin solutions. Fifty- and 70-wt percent PMR-15 resin solutions were prepared from the mixture of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic ester (NE) acid, 4.4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), methanol, and 3,3',4.4.-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dimethyl ester (BTDE) acid solution. It is observed that in PMR-15 resin solution aged for 35 days at room temperature NE and MDA react to form amide and imide intermediates. The precipitation data reveal that in the 70-wt percent solution precipitation occurs after 12 days and in the 50-wt percent solution after 20 days; however, at lower temperatures (-11 C, and 2 C) no precipitation is detected. It is concluded that storage of resin solutions and powders at reduced temperatures extends shelf life by reducing the rate of imide formation.

  5. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR): clinical, laboratory, and immunofluorescence studies in 13 patients.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Shuzo; Shiigai, Tatsuo; Matsui, Yoshiki

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen elderly patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are presented. The clinical and laboratory findings suggest that many progressive symptoms are due to the non-specific inflammatory changes in various organs of the body, especially in muscles and joints. An immunofluorescence study of muscle biopsy specimens revealed IgG, IgA, and fibrinogen deposits in the perifascicular area of the perimysium. This finding suggests that immune complexes play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition and that the pathophysiology of PMR is an interstitial inflammatory process. We think that the inflammatory findings affecting the interstitial tissue of muscles in the immunofluorescence study are relatively specific to PMR, and will be affected by steroid treatment.

  6. Thermal and mechanical interfacial properties of the DGEBA/PMR-15 blend system.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hwa-Young; Han, Mijeong; Hong, Sung-Kwon

    2004-02-15

    In this work, the blend system of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and PMR-15 polyimide is investigated in terms of thermal and dynamic mechanical interfacial properties of the casting specimens. The thermal stabilities are studied by thermogravimetric and thermomechanical analyses, and the dynamic mechanical properties are carried out by dynamic mechanical analysis. The results show that the thermal stabilities based on the initial decomposition temperature, the integral procedural decomposition temperature, and the glass transition temperature are increased with increasing PMR-15 content. The crosslinking density (rho) of the blend system is increased at 10 phr of PMR-15, compared with that of neat epoxy. Mechanical interfacial properties measured in the context of critical stress intensity factor and critical strain energy release rate show similar behaviors with E(a) and rho, probably due to the increase in intermolecular interactions or hydrogen bondings in polymer chains.

  7. Influence of excess diamine on properties of PMR polyimide resins and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1980-01-01

    By varying the stoichiometry of the reactants in the preparation of PMR polyimide resin, changes occur in molecular weight distribution which influence the rheological properties and thus the processability of the resin, as well as the mechanical properties of the composite. The influence of 1-10 percent molar excess MDA on the molecular weight distribution and rheological properties of an imidized PMR system were exposed. Molecular weight distribution is characterized by gel permeation chromatography of the imidized molding compound; shear viscosity is related to changes in average molecular weight. The thermo-oxidative stability at 600 F, glass transition temperature, flexural and interlaminar shear properties of PMR polyimide/Celion 6000 graphite fiber composites are compared as a function of the percent excess MDA in the monomer reactant mixture.

  8. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR-15 polyimide structural elements. [space shuttle aft body flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The processing requirements for graphite/PMR-15 polyimide composites developed to demonstrate the structural integrity of polyimide composite structural elements at temperatures up to 589K (600 F) are described. Major tasks included: quality assurance development; materials and process development; specification verification; flat panel fabrication; stiffened panel fabrication; honeycomb panel fabrication; chopped fiber moldings; and demonstration component fabrication. Materials, processing, and quality assurance documents were prepared from experimentally derived data. Structural elements consisting of flat panels, corrugated stiffeners, I-beams, hat stiffeners, honeycomb panels, and chopped fiber moldings were made and tested. Property data from 219K (-65 F) to 589K (600 F) were obtained. All elements were made in a production environment. The size of each element was sufficient to insure production capability and structural component applicability. Problems associated with adhesive bonding, laminate and structural element analysis, material variability, and test methods were addressed.

  9. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR-15 polyimide structural elements. [space shuttle aft body flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The processing requirements for graphite/PMR-15 polyimide composites developed to demonstrate the structural integrity of polyimide composite structural elements at temperatures up to 589K (600 F) are described. Major tasks included: quality assurance development; materials and process development; specification verification; flat panel fabrication; stiffened panel fabrication; honeycomb panel fabrication; chopped fiber moldings; and demonstration component fabrication. Materials, processing, and quality assurance documents were prepared from experimentally derived data. Structural elements consisting of flat panels, corrugated stiffeners, I-beams, hat stiffeners, honeycomb panels, and chopped fiber moldings were made and tested. Property data from 219K (-65 F) to 589K (600 F) were obtained. All elements were made in a production environment. The size of each element was sufficient to insure production capability and structural component applicability. Problems associated with adhesive bonding, laminate and structural element analysis, material variability, and test methods were addressed.

  10. Review of orders and regulations requiring environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, E.; Cunningham, R.; Michael, D.

    1996-09-01

    With the increased awareness of and interest in potential ecological risks associated with past, current, and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities, DOE`s Defense Programs (DP) Office of Technical and Environmental Support sponsored a study to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of the current compliance-driven environmental protection and assessment efforts relative to ecological concerns; (2) explore the need for a more focused, integrated approach to address ecological impacts; and (3) identify the requirements for an integrated approach. The study explored four questions. (a) Which federal regulations and DOE orders either explicitly require ecological assessments or implicitly require them through environmental protection language? (b) What currently is being done at selected DOE facilities to implement these regulations and orders? (c) What are private sector industries doing in terms of ecological risk assessments and how do industry approaches and issues compare with those of DOE? (d) What, if anything, in addition to current efforts is needed to ensure the protection of ecological resources associated with DOE facilities, to support defensible decision making, and to improve efficiency? The results of this study are presented in a report titled {open_quotes}Integrated, Comprehensive Ecological Impact Assessments In Support of Department of Energy Decision Making{close_quotes}. This report is a companion document to that report. This report provides a more detailed discussion of the document reviews of the relevant environmental protection regulations and current and pending DOE orders. The main goal of the document reviews was to understand existing requirements for ecological data collection and impact assessments.

  11. Absence of PmrAB-Mediated Phosphoethanolamine Modifications of Citrobacter rodentium Lipopolysaccharide Affects Outer Membrane Integrity▿†

    PubMed Central

    Viau, Charles; Le Sage, Valerie; Ting, Daniel K.; Gross, Jeremy; Le Moual, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The PmrAB two-component system of enterobacteria regulates a number of genes whose protein products modify lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS is modified during transport to the bacterial outer membrane (OM). A subset of PmrAB-mediated LPS modifications consists of the addition of phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) to lipid A by PmrC and to the core by CptA. In Salmonella enterica, pEtN modifications have been associated with resistance to polymyxin B and to excess iron. To investigate putative functions of pEtN modifications in Citrobacter rodentium, ΔpmrAB, ΔpmrC, ΔcptA, and ΔpmrC ΔcptA deletion mutants were constructed. Compared to the wild type, most mutant strains were found to be more susceptible to antibiotics that must diffuse across the LPS layer of the OM. All mutant strains also showed increased influx rates of ethidium dye across their OM, suggesting that PmrAB-regulated pEtN modifications affect OM permeability. This was confirmed by increased partitioning of the fluorescent dye 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) into the OM phospholipid layer of the mutant strains. In addition, substantial release of periplasmic β-lactamase was observed for the ΔpmrAB and ΔpmrC ΔcptA strains, indicating a loss of OM integrity. This study attributes a new role for PmrAB-mediated pEtN LPS modifications in the maintenance of C. rodentium OM integrity. PMID:21378194

  12. High-Flow PMR-Polymide Composites Developed With Mechanical Properties Comparable to Other High-Temperature Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    PMR polyimides, in particular PMR-15, are well known for their excellent high-temperature stability and performance, and solvent resistance. However, the processing of these materials is limited, for the most part, to prepreg-based methods, such as compression or autoclave processing. These methods involve substantial amounts of hand labor, and as a result, manufacturing costs for components made from PMR polyimides can be high. In cost-sensitive applications, these high manufacturing costs can make the use of PMR polyimide-based components cost prohibitive. Lower cost manufacturing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM) and resin film infusion, have been demonstrated to reduce manufacturing costs by as much as 50 percent over prepreg-based methods. However, these processes are only amenable to materials with melt viscosities below 30 poise. Most PMR polyimides have melt viscosities on the order of 100 poise or higher. Recent efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have focused on chemical modifications to PMR polyimides to reduce their melt viscosity to the point where they could be processed by these low-cost manufacturing methods without adversely affecting their high-temperature properties and performance. These efforts have led to a new family of PMR polyimides that have melt viscosities significantly lower than that of PMR-15. Reductions in melt viscosity are brought about through the introduction of molecular twists in the polymer backbone. Carbon fiber (T650- 35) composites were prepared from one of these polyimides, designated PMR-Flex, by compression molding. The properties of these composites are presented below and compared with comparable composites made from PMR-15 and PETI-RTM, a new low-melt-viscosity polyimide.

  13. The synthesis, characterization and thermal chemistry of modified norbornenyl PMR endcaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukenik, C. N.; Ritchey, W. M.; Malhotra, V.; Varde, U.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a program to further the understanding of the polymerization of Nadic-Endcapped PMR systems, a series of model Norbornenyl-Imides has been synthesized and their thermal behavior explored. Their syntheses and characterizations as well as their rearrangement and polymerization chemistry are described. Monomer isomerization at temperatures as low as 125 C and oligomer formation at somewhat higher temperatures are observed. Approximate relative rates for competing isomerization pathways are established and some information is obtained about the details of oligomer formation. The relationship of this data to current PMR systems is briefly discussed.

  14. Influence of excess diamine on properties of PMR polyimide resins and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1980-01-01

    This preliminary study explores the influence of 1-10 percent molar excess MDA on the molecular weight distribution and rheological properties of an imidized PMR system. Molecular weight distribution is characterized by gel permeation chromatography of the imidized molding compound; shear viscosity is related to changes in average molecular weight. The thermo-oxidative stability at 600 F glass transition temperature, flexural and interlaminar shear properties of PMR polyimide/Celion 6000 graphite fiber composites are compared as a function of the percent excess MDA in the monomer reactant mixture.

  15. Manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR 15 polyimide structural elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to obtain commercially available graphite/PMR-15 polyimide prepreg, develop an autoclave manufacturing process, and demonstrate the process by manufacturing structural elements. Controls were established on polymer, prepreg, composite fabrication, and quality assurance, Successful material quality control and processes were demonstrated by fabricating major structural elements including flat laminates, hat sections, I beam sections, honeycomb sandwich structures, and molded graphite reinforced fittings. Successful fabrication of structural elements and simulated section of the space shuttle aft body flap shows that the graphite/PMR-15 polyimide system and the developed processes are ready for further evaluation in flight test hardware.

  16. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS General Provisions § 806.5 Projects that may require review and approval. (a) The following projects, if not otherwise requiring review and approval...

  17. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS General Provisions § 806.5 Projects that may require review and approval. (a) The following projects, if not otherwise requiring review and approval...

  18. 18 CFR 806.5 - Projects that may require review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... require review and approval. 806.5 Section 806.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS General Provisions § 806.5 Projects that may require review and approval. (a) The following projects, if not otherwise requiring review and approval...

  19. Differential expression of two-component systems, pmrAB and phoPQ, with different growth phases of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the presence or absence of colistin.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Choi, Hyeon Jin; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2014-07-01

    We explored whether expression of pmrAB, pmrD, and phoPQ is dependent on growth phase with or without colistin exposure in colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. In four colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae strains, the expression of pmrAB, pmrD, and phoPQ was evaluated at mid-log, late-log, and stationary phases in the absence or presence of colistin, by qRT-PCR. The expression pattern in the presence of colistin was different from that in the absence of colistin: overall, pmrAB, pmrD, and phoPQ expressed the highest at the stationary phase in the absence of colistin, but the expression of pmrD and phoPQ decreased with the growth in the presence of colistin. Exposure to colistin might change the expression patterns of two-component regulatory systems in colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae strains.

  20. Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Older People: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl; O’Connell, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality, morbidity and reduced quality of life in older people. Recommended Dietary Allowances/Intakes have failed to adequately consider the protein requirements of the elderly with respect to function. The aim of this paper was to review definitions of optimal protein status and the evidence base for optimal dietary protein. Current recommended protein intakes for older people do not account for the compensatory loss of muscle mass that occurs on lower protein intakes. Older people have lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus (food or resistance exercise). Recommendations for the level of adequate dietary intake of protein for older people should be informed by evidence derived from functional outcomes. Randomized controlled trials report a clear benefit of increased dietary protein on lean mass gain and leg strength, particularly when combined with resistance exercise. There is good consistent evidence (level III-2 to IV) that consumption of 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein combined with twice-weekly progressive resistance exercise reduces age-related muscle mass loss. Older people appear to require 1.0 to 1.3 g/kg/day dietary protein to optimize physical function, particularly whilst undertaking resistance exercise recommendations. PMID:26287239

  1. A review of medical image watermarking requirements for teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Nyeem, Hussain; Boles, Wageeh; Boyd, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Teleradiology allows medical images to be transmitted over electronic networks for clinical interpretation and for improved healthcare access, delivery, and standards. Although such remote transmission of the images is raising various new and complex legal and ethical issues, including image retention and fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc., considerations of the security measures used in teleradiology remain unchanged. Addressing this problem naturally warrants investigations on the security measures for their relative functional limitations and for the scope of considering them further. In this paper, starting with various security and privacy standards, the security requirements of medical images as well as expected threats in teleradiology are reviewed. This will make it possible to determine the limitations of the conventional measures used against the expected threats. Furthermore, we thoroughly study the utilization of digital watermarking for teleradiology. Following the key attributes and roles of various watermarking parameters, justification for watermarking over conventional security measures is made in terms of their various objectives, properties, and requirements. We also outline the main objectives of medical image watermarking for teleradiology and provide recommendations on suitable watermarking techniques and their characterization. Finally, concluding remarks and directions for future research are presented.

  2. Development of DMBZ-15 High-Glass-Transition-Temperature Polyimides as PMR-15 Replacements Given R&D 100 Award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    PMR-15, a high-temperature polyimide developed in the mid-1970s at the NASA Lewis Research Center,1 offers the combination of low cost, easy processing, and good high-temperature performance and stability. It has been recognized as the leading polymer matrix resin for carbon-fiber-reinforced composites used in aircraft engine components. The state-of-the-art PMR-15 polyimide composite has a glass-transition temperature (Tg) of 348 C (658 F). Since composite materials must be used at temperatures well below their glass-transition temperature, the long-term use temperatures of PMR-15 composites can be no higher than 288 C (550 F). In addition, PMR-15 is made from methylene dianiline (MDA), a known liver toxin. Concerns about the safety of workers exposed to MDA during the fabrication of PMR-15 components and about the environmental impact of PMR-15 waste disposal have led to the industry-wide implementation of special handling procedures to minimize the health risks associated with this material. These procedures have increased manufacturing and maintenance costs significantly and have limited the use of PMR-15 in commercial aircraft engine components.

  3. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory simulation of tropospheric pollution sensing with a pressure modulator radiometer /PMR/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, D. E.; Odell, E. L. G.

    1979-01-01

    The optical properties of carbon monoxide gas uniformly distributed in the atmosphere have been simulated in a 20.48 cm long cell in the laboratory. The altitude of the peak of the weighting function for several concentrations was found using a Pressure Modulator Radiometer (PMR). The effect of a fluctuating background radiance and gaseous nitrous oxide on the carbon monoxide signals were examined.

  5. Effect of substituted phenylnadimides on processing and properties of PMR polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.; Lauver, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Three nitrophenylnadimide cure initiators and two phenylnadimides (without nitros) were evaluated as additives to PMR-15 resins and Celion 6000 graphite fiber composites. The results of a resin screening study eliminated all of the additives except 3-nitrophenylnadimide (NO2PN) for use as a low temperature curing additive for PMR-15. Thus, NO2PN and the two control additives were investigated in PMR-15 formulations from which Celion 6000 graphite fiber/PMR-15 composites were processed both with low temperature (274 C) and normal (316 C) cure cycles. Comparisons of the two processing cycles, the resultant glass transition temperatures (Tg), the ambient, 274 and 316 C composite mechanical properties determined before and after 316 C postcure, the 316 C thermo-oxidative weight losses and the retention of 316 C composite mechanical properties are presented. Empirical correlations of the type and amount of nadimide additives with processing parameters, Tg, composite mechanical properties, composite thermo-oxidative stability and long term retention of 316 C composite mechanical properties are also presented.

  6. Structural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of PMR-15/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi (Technical Monitor); Dean, Derrick; Abdalla, Mohamed; Green, Keith; Small, Sharee

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, we successfully synthesized and characterized Polymer/ Layered Silicate nanocomposite using the polyimide PMR-15 as the polymer and several layered silicate nanoparticles. We have scaled up the process to allow fabrication of monoliths using these nanocomposites. The morphology of these systems was found to evolve during processing to an exfoliated structure for one system and intercalated for the rest. Correlation with Transmission Electron Microscopy studies is underway. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a significant increase in the thermomechanical properties (E' and E'') of 2.5 wt.% clay loaded nanocomposites in comparison to the neat polyimide. Increasing the clay loading to 5 wt.% decreased these properties. Higher glass transition temperatures were observed for 2.5 wt.% nanocomposites compared to the neat polyimide. A lower coefficient of thermal expansion was observed only for the PGV/PMR-15 nanocomposite. An improvement in the flexural properties (modulus, strength and elongation) was observed for the 2.5 wt.% nanocomposite but not for the 5 wt.% nanocomposites. The improved barrier properties polymer/ silicate nanocomposites suggest that moisture uptake should be decreased for PMR-15 nanocomposites. The results of some recent experiments to examine delineate the ability of the silicate nanoparticles in improving the hydrolytic degradation of PMR-15 will be discussed.

  7. [Percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR), a new therapeutic procedure for patients with refractory angina pectoris].

    PubMed

    Lauer, B; Stahl, F; Bratanow, S; Schuler, G

    2000-01-01

    In patients with severe angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease, who are not candidates for either percutaneous coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) often leads to improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity. One drawback of TMR is the need for surgical thoracotomy in order to gain access to the epicardial surface of the heart. Therefore, a catheter-based system has been developed, which allows creation of laser channels into the myocardium from the left ventricular cavity. Between January 1997 and November 1999, this "percutaneous myocardial laser-revascularization" (PMR) was performed in 85 patients at the Herzzentrum Leipzig. In 43 patients, only one region of the heart (anterior, lateral, inferior or septal) was treated with PMR; in 42 patients two or three regions were treated in one session. 12.3 +/- 4.3 (range 4-22) channels/region were created into the myocardium. Six months after PMR, the majority of patients reported significant improvement of clinical symptoms (CCS class at baseline: 3.3 +/- 0.4; after 6 months: 1.6 +/- 0.9) (p < 0.001) and an increased exercise capacity (baseline: 349 +/- 138 s; after 6 months: 470 +/- 193 s) (p < 0.05); however, thallium scintigraphy failed to show increased perfusion in the PMR treated regions. PMR seems to be a safe and feasible new therapeutic option for patients with refractory angina pectoris due to end-stage coronary artery disease. The first results indicate improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity; evidence of increased perfusion in the laser-treated regions is still lacking.

  8. [Percutaneous myocardial laserrevascularization (PMR), a new therapy for patients with refractory angina pectoris].

    PubMed

    Lauer, B; Stahl, F; Bratanow, S; Schuler, G

    2000-10-01

    In patients with severe angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease, who are not candidates for either percutaneous coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) often leads to improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity. One drawback of TMR is the need for surgical thoracotomy in order to gain access to the epicardial surface of the heart. Therefore, a catheter-based system has been developed, which allows creation of laser channels into the myocardium from the left ventricular cavity.Between January 1997 and November 1999, this "percutaneous myocardial laser-revascularization" (PMR) was performed in 85 patients at the Herzzentrum Leipzig. In 43 patients, only one region of the heart (anterior, lateral, inferior or septal) was treated with PMR; in 42 patients two or three regions were treated in one session. 12.3±4.3 (range 4-22) channels/region were created into the myocardium.Six months after PMR, the majority of patients reported significant improvement of clinical symptoms (CCS class at baseline: 3.3±0.4; after 6 months: 1.6±0.9) (p < 0.001) and an increased exercise capacity (baseline: 349±138 s; after 6 months: 470±193 s) (p < 0.05); however, thallium scintigraphy failed to show increased perfusion in the PMR treated regions.PMR seems to be a safe and feasible new therapeutic option for patients with refractory angina pectoris due to end-stage coronary artery disease. The first results indicate improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity; evidence of increased perfusion in the laser-treated regions is still lacking.

  9. Accuracy of musculoskeletal imaging for the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Sarah Louise; Koduri, Gouri; Hill, Catherine L; Wakefield, Richard J; Hutchings, Andrew; Loy, Clement; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence for accuracy of imaging for diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods Searches included MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed. Evaluations of diagnostic accuracy of imaging tests for PMR were eligible, excluding reports with <10 PMR cases. Two authors independently extracted study data and three authors assessed methodological quality using modified QUADAS-2 criteria. Results 26 studies of 2370 patients were evaluated: 10 ultrasound scanning studies; 6 MRI studies; 1 USS and MRI study; 7 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) studies; 1 plain radiography and 1 technetium scintigraphy study. In four ultrasound studies, subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis had sensitivity 80% (95% CI 55% to 93%) and specificity 68% (95% CI 60% to 75%), whereas bilateral subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis had sensitivity 66% (95% CI 43% to 87%) and specificity 89% (95% CI 66% to 97%). Sensitivity for ultrasound detection of trochanteric bursitis ranged from 21% to 100%. In four ultrasound studies reporting both subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis and glenohumeral synovitis, detection of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis was more accurate than that of glenohumeral synovitis (p=0.004). MRI and PET/CT revealed additional areas of inflammation in the spine and pelvis, including focal areas between the vertebrae and anterior to the hip joint, but the number of controls with inflammatory disease was inadequate for precise specificity estimates. Conclusions Subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis appears to be the most helpful ultrasound feature for PMR diagnosis, but interpretation is limited by study heterogeneity and methodological issues, including variability in blinding and potential bias due to case–control study designs. Recent MRI and PET/CT case–control studies, with blinded readers, yielded promising data requiring validation within a diagnostic cohort study. PMID:26535139

  10. 42 CFR 476.71 - QIO review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... care) for the palliation and management of terminal illness; (2) Whether the quality of the services... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities...

  11. In Vivo Evolution to Colistin Resistance by PmrB Sensor Kinase Mutation in KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Associated with Low-Dosage Colistin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cannatelli, Antonio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Giani, Tommaso; Arena, Fabio; Ambretti, Simone; Gaibani, Paolo; D'Andrea, Marco Maria

    2014-01-01

    Colistin is a key drug for the treatment of infections caused by extensively drug-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemases. However, the emergence of colistin resistance is being increasingly reported, especially among Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing KPC-type carbapenemases (KPC-KP). In this work, we investigated colistin-susceptible (KPB-1) and colistin-resistant (KPB-2) sequential isolates obtained from a patient with a KPC-KP infection before and after low-dosage colistin treatment, respectively. By using a next-generation sequencing approach and comparative genomic analysis of the two isolates, we detected in KPB-2 a nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding the PmrB sensor kinase, resulting in a leucine-to-arginine substitution at amino acid position 82. Compared with KPB-1, KPB-2 exhibited upregulated transcription of pmrA and of pmrK, which is part of the pmrHFIJKLM operon responsible for modification of the colistin lipopolysaccharide target. Complementation with wild-type pmrB in KPB-2 restored colistin susceptibility and reduced the transcription of pmrA and pmrK to basal levels, while expression of PmrBL82R in KPB-1 did not alter colistin susceptibility or upregulate pmrA and pmrK expression, confirming the dominance of wild-type PmrB versus the PmrBL82R mutant. The present results indicated that PmrB mutations mediating colistin resistance may be selected during low-dosage colistin treatment. The colistin-resistant phenotype of KPB-2 was stable for up to 50 generations in the absence of selective pressure and was not associated with a significant fitness cost in a competition experiment. PMID:24841267

  12. [3 cases of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), in which serum amyloid A was a useful index of the disease activity].

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Yamauchi, H; Imaizumi, Y; Senba, T

    2001-08-01

    We encountered 3 cases of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), in which serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were correlated with clinical pictures after normalization of ESR and CRP levels. Therefore, it is suggested that SAA may be a useful index for evaluating the severity of intractable PMR. Case 1: The patient was a 75-year-old man. Although ESR and CRP levels were normalized after the administration of PSL (20 mg/day), myalgia persisted. When the dose of PSL was reduced, PMR recurred, which was relieved by administering 15 mg/day of PSL. However, myalgia recurred again when the dose of PSL was reduced thereafter. The elevated SAA level (33.0 micrograms/ml) was normalized by continuous administration of PSL without reducing the dose, resulting in the relief of myalgia. Case 2: The patient was a 65-year-old woman. The administration of PSL was initiated at a dose of 15 mg/day. Although myalgia was relieved, the symptom and elevated SAA levels persisted for approximately 3 months. Thereafter, PMR recurred, and SAA levels were markedly increased to 78.2 micrograms/ml. However, the symptom of PMR was eliminated by continuously administering PSL without reducing the dose. Although the dose of PSL was then reduced after the decrease in SAA levels, PMR did not recur. Case 3: The patient was an 88-year-old woman. Although the symptom of PMR was relieved by administering 15 mg/day of PSL, myalgia persisted. Since SAA levels were increased to 106 micrograms/ml, PSL was continuously administered without reducing the dose, resulting in the disappearance of the symptom and normalization of SAA levels approximately 3 months later. Although the dose of PSL was then reduced to 12.5 mg/day, PMR did not recur.

  13. Some Aspects of the Mechanical Response of PMR-15 Neat Resin at 288 deg. C: Experiment and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    commonly used types of thermosets include unsaturated polyesters , epoxies, vinylesters, and polyimides (5:33). While epoxies generally have better...SOME ASPECTS OF THE MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF PMR-15 NEAT RESIN AT 288oC: EXPERIMENT AND MODELING...or the U.S. Government. AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-S03 SOME ASPECTS OF THE MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF PMR-15 NEAT RESIN AT 288oC: EXPERIMENT AND

  14. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan... a review of each recipient's continued stay in the mental hospital to decide whether it is...

  15. Reserve Component General and Flag Officers: A Review of Requirements and Authorized Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Reserve Component General and Flag Offi cers A Review of Requirements and Authorized Strength Lisa M. Harrington, Igor Mikolic-Torreira, Geoffrey...trademark. iii Preface The Fiscal Year 2014 National Defense Authorization Act directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct a review of requirements for...26 CHAPTER FOUR Review of General and Flag Officer Positions

  16. 78 FR 74217 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... clarification of who is required to submit credit reports, and addition of a requirement to submit a Credit.... The second information collection, the CDC Annual Report Guide, SBA Form 1253 (OMB Control Number 3245-0074) relates to the annual report required from each CDC as stated in 13 CFR 120.830. Prior notice of...

  17. Surface protection of graphite fabric/PMR-15 composites subjected to thermal oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, M. P.; Serafini, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite fabric/PMR-15 laminates develop matrix cracks during long-term exposure in air at temperatures in the range of 500 to 600 F. This study was performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of incorporating graphite mat surface plies as a means of reducing the developing of matrix cracks. Celion 3000 graphite fabric/PMR-15 laminates were fabricated with graphite or graphite mat/325-mesh boron powder surface plies. Laminates without mat surface plies were also fabricated for control purposes. Composite flexural strength, flexural modulus, and interlaminar shear strength were determined at 288 C before and after long-term exposure (up to 1500 hr) in air at 316 C. The results of this study showed that the incorporation of graphite mat surface plies reduces matrix cracking and improves the elevated temperature mechanical property retention characteristics of the composites.

  18. Studies on Hot-Melt Prepregging of PMR-II-50 Polyimide Resin with Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.; Juhas, John; Veverka, Adrienne; Klans, Ojars; Inghram, Linda; Scheiman, Dan; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Zoha, John; Bubnick, Jim

    2003-01-01

    A Second generation PMR (in situ Polymerization of Monomer Reactants) polyimide resin, PMR-II-50, has been considered for high temperature and high stiffness space propulsion composites applications for its improved high temperature performance. As part of composite processing optimization, two commercial prepregging methods: solution vs. hot-melt processes were investigated with M40J fabrics from Toray. In a previous study a systematic chemical, physical, thermal and mechanical characterization of these composites indicated that poor resin-fiber interfacial wetting, especially for the hot-melt process, resulted in poor composite quality. In order to improve the interfacial wetting, optimization of the resin viscosity and process variables were attempted in a commercial hot-melt prepregging line. In addition to presenting the results from the prepreg quality optimization trials, the combined effects of the prepregging method and two different composite cure methods, i.e., hot press vs. autoclave on composite quality and properties are discussed.

  19. Studies on Hot-Melt Prepregging of PMR-II-50 Polyimide Resin with Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.; Juhas, John; Veverka, Adrienne; Klans, Ojars; Inghram, Linda; Scheiman, Dan; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Zoha, John; Bubnick, Jim

    2003-01-01

    A Second generation PMR (in situ Polymerization of Monomer Reactants) polyimide resin, PMR-II-50, has been considered for high temperature and high stiffness space propulsion composites applications for its improved high temperature performance. As part of composite processing optimization, two commercial prepregging methods: solution vs. hot-melt processes were investigated with M40J fabrics from Toray. In a previous study a systematic chemical, physical, thermal and mechanical characterization of these composites indicated that poor resin-fiber interfacial wetting, especially for the hot-melt process, resulted in poor composite quality. In order to improve the interfacial wetting, optimization of the resin viscosity and process variables were attempted in a commercial hot-melt prepregging line. In addition to presenting the results from the prepreg quality optimization trials, the combined effects of the prepregging method and two different composite cure methods, i.e., hot press vs. autoclave on composite quality and properties are discussed.

  20. Crosslinking-property relationships in PMR polyimide composites. I. [polymerization of monomer reactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Whitley, K.; Morgan, C.; Chang, A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the crosslink density of the matrix on physical and mechanical properties of a graphite-fiber-reinforced PMR (for polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide composites during isothermal aging was investigated in experiments where unidirectional composite specimens of Celion 6000/PMR-P1 were isothermally exposed at 288 C in air for various time periods up to 5000 hrs. It was found that, as the crosslink density increased, the glass transition temperature, density, and elevated-temperature interlaminar shear strength of a composite increased, while the initial moisture absorption and the coefficient of thermal expansion decreased. However, after reaching the highest possible matrix crosslink density, several of the composite properties began to deteriorate rapidly.

  1. 77 FR 66464 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Value Engineering Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Value Engineering Requirements AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Value Engineering Requirements. A notice...

  2. 42 CFR 488.64 - Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.64 Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements. (a... conduct the utilization review required by § 405.1137 of this chapter or § 482.30 of this chapter, as... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote facility variances for utilization...

  3. 42 CFR 488.64 - Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.64 Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements. (a... conduct the utilization review required by § 405.1137 of this chapter or § 482.30 of this chapter, as... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote facility variances for utilization...

  4. 42 CFR 488.64 - Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.64 Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements. (a... conduct the utilization review required by § 405.1137 of this chapter or § 482.30 of this chapter, as... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote facility variances for utilization...

  5. 42 CFR 488.64 - Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.64 Remote facility variances for utilization review requirements. (a... conduct the utilization review required by § 405.1137 of this chapter or § 482.30 of this chapter, as... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote facility variances for utilization...

  6. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for relapse in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwa; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Jin Su; Yoon, Bo Young; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Yun Sung; Song, Jung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Kim, Hae-Rim

    2013-06-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory disease of the elderly in western countries, but the prevalence is apparently different between races and countries. Until now, an epidemiologic study of PMR is limited in Korea. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical data of 78 patients with PMR who were treated in 5 tertiary hospitals, and analyzed initial laboratory data, symptoms, therapeutic responses, and prognostic factors for relapse 1 year after treatments. Sixty percent of patients had pain in both shoulder and hip girdles with 10.6 weeks of duration, 75.9 ± 32.7 mm/h of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and 6.2 ± 6.4 mg/dl of C-reactive protein. The rate of relapse and remission at 1 year was 38.4 and 2.5 %, respectively. The rate of overall relapse was 46.1 %, and the relapse occurred mostly in a year, especially between 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. There were more female in relapse group (88.9 %, p = 0.037), and cumulative steroid dose of 1 year was significantly higher in relapse group (5.5 ± 2.7 vs. 4.4 ± 2.5 g, p = 0.018). Independent risk factors for relapse were initial CRP ≥ 2.5 mg/dl (OR 6.296, p = 0.047) and the use of hydroxychloroquine (OR 6.798, p = 0.035). Initial dosage or tapering speed of steroid did not influence on prognosis. In Korean patients with PMR, baseline clinical characteristics and relapse rate were similar to previous studies, but our patients accompanied no giant cell arteritis and showed lower remission rate as well as delayed therapeutic response and later occurrence of relapse. More aggressive management would be needed according to the clinical status of patients.

  7. Spontaneous pmrA mutants of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 define a new two-component regulatory system with a possible role in virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K L; Martin, L E; Esther, C R; Spitznagel, J K

    1993-01-01

    We isolated spontaneous mutations (pmrA) in the smooth strain Salmonella typhimurium LT2 that show increased resistance to the cationic antibacterial proteins of human neutrophils and to the drug polymyxin B. The mutation in one strain, JKS5, maps to 93 min on the S. typhimurium chromosome, near the proP gene and the melAB operon. The mutation, designated pmrA505, confers a 1,000-fold increase in resistance to polymyxin B and a 2- to 4-fold increase in resistance to neutrophil proteins. We cloned both the pmrA505 and pmrA+ alleles and found that the pmrA+ gene is partially dominant over pmrA505. DNA sequence analysis of the pmrA505 clone revealed three open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that ORF1 encodes a 548-amino-acid (aa) protein with a putative membrane-spanning domain and no significant homology to any known protein. ORF2 and ORF3, which encode 222- and 356-aa proteins, respectively, show strong homology with the OmpR-EnvZ family of two-component regulatory systems. ORF2 showed homology with a number of response regulators, including OmpR and PhoP, while ORF3 showed homology to histidine kinase-sensor proteins EnvZ and PhoR. Genetic analysis of the cloned genes suggested that ORF2 contained the pmrA505 mutation. Comparison of the pmrA505 and pmrA+ ORF2 DNA sequences revealed a single G-A transition, which would result in a His-to-Arg substitution at position 81 in the ORF2 mutant protein. We therefore designate ORF2 PmrA and ORF3 PmrB. The function of ORF1 is unknown. PMID:8391535

  8. 76 FR 45642 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Management Information System (EDMIS) Counseling Information Form & Management Training Report.'' Frequency... OMB Reviewer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jacqueline White,...

  9. 78 FR 44185 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...: Entrepreneurial Development Management Information System (EDMIS) Customer Intake Form & Management Training..., DC 20416; and OMB Reviewer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Curtis...

  10. 75 FR 47034 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Development Management Information System (EDMIS) Counseling Information. Frequency: On occasion. SBA Form... OMB Reviewer, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, New... Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7044. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: SBIC Management...

  11. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by RUS. The Administrator reserves the right to review the books and copy records of borrowers... development project are properly supported with certifications, invoices, contracts, bills of sale, cancelled...

  12. 76 FR 52730 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7044. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: ``Personal Financial Statement''. Frequency: On Occasion. SBA Form Number: 413. Description of Respondents: Participating Lenders. Responses...), supporting statement, and other documents submitted to OMB for review may be obtained from the...

  13. 76 FR 408 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Review and the Agency Clearance Officer before the deadline. Copies: Request for clearance (OMB 83-1... Occasion. ] SBA Form Numbers: 2301 (Parts A, B, C, D and E) and 7. Description of Respondents: Small...

  14. 48 CFR 801.602-70 - General review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration field facility for any guidance center or vocational rehabilitation service with an anticipated... legal or technical review purposes rather than the net amount of $480,000. An Energy Savings Performance...

  15. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan... a review of each recipient's continued stay in the mental hospital to decide whether it is needed...

  16. Development of Processable PMR-Type Polymides with Star-Branched Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Eby, R. K.; Meador, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    In the last two decades, high temperature polyimide matrix composites have found broad applications in aerospace structural components, due to their high specific modulus and high specific strength. As matrix resins, aromatic polyimides exhibit exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties. However, their rodlike structures often result in poor solubility in most common organic solvents, as well as high melt temperature and melt viscosity, making them difficult to process. To overcome this difficulty, flexible linkages including O, SO2 or CH2 non coplanar biphenyl moieties, bulky lateral substituents, and crankshaft structures are often incorporated into the polymer backbones. Addition-curing of low molecular weight polyimides (resins) is another approach to improve processability. One of the most successfully developed materials has been PMR-15 (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants, molecular weight of 1500 g/mol), because of its good combination of thermal and mechanical properties and ease of processability. However, due to the high melt viscosity of PMR-type resins, use of more economical processing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), is not possible. Recent research has focused on the incorporation of trifunctional monomers into addition-curing polyimides in an attempt to improve the processability of these polymers. The objective of this research is to use an aromatic triamine, 1,3,5 tris (4-aminophenoxy) benzene, to prepare new resin systems with starbranched structures. The glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and thermal oxidative stability TOS) of these polymers are compared to their linear counterparts and PMR-15.

  17. Differentiation between Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) and Elderly-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography: Is Enthesitis a New Pathological Lesion in PMR?

    PubMed Central

    Wakura, Daisuke; Kotani, Takuya; Takeuchi, Tohru; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shuzo; Makino, Shigeki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background It is difficult to differentiate polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) from elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) in clinical practice. We compared FDG-PET/CT findings between patients with PMR and those with EORA and extracted factors useful for differentiating the two disorders. Methods We compared abnormal FDG accumulation sites and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) between 15 patients with PMR and 7 with EORA in whom FDG-PET/CT was performed. Results The proportion of patients in the PMR group with abnormal FDG accumulation at the following 9 sites on FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that in the EORA group: periarticular region of the scapulohumeral joint, enthesis of the pectineus muscle, vicinity of the enthesis of the rectus femoris muscle, lateral side of the greater trochanter, ischial tuberosity, hip joint, spinous process of the lower cervical vertebra, intervertebral joint of the lumbar vertebra, and spinous process of the lumbar vertebra. The PET/CT score was evaluated at 9 sites consisting of the abovementioned sites. The median score in the PMR group was 8, which was significantly higher than that of 0 in the EORA group (P = 0.0003). ROC curve analysis was performed with the PET/CT scores, and a score of 5 was shown to maximize the area under the ROC curve (sensitivity: 86.7%, specificity: 86.7%). Conclusions FDG-PET/CT is useful for differentiating PMR from EORA. In patients with PMR, abnormal FDG accumulation was observed at the entheses, suggesting the presence of enthesitis in addition to bursitis and synovitis. PMID:27384410

  18. 43 CFR 10010.36 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE... consultation requirements pursuant to other federal or state laws and regulations and will make this available... comply with the requirements of other federal or state laws and regulations, the associated...

  19. 76 FR 76359 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following...

  20. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals.

  1. Review of US Navy VSTOL handling qualities requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Handling qualities requirements for V/STOL operations from small ships are considered in terms of the ship operating environment. Turbulence, wind over the deck, ship motion, visibility, and severe weather and sea conditions are among the factors discussed.

  2. Review of US Navy VSTOL handling qualities requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Handling qualities requirements for V/STOL operations from small ships are considered in terms of the ship operating environment. Turbulence, wind over the deck, ship motion, visibility, and severe weather and sea conditions are among the factors discussed.

  3. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supporting material is available at the borrower's premises for review by the RUS field accountant, borrower's certified public accountant, the Office of Inspector General, the General Accounting Office and any other accountant conducting an audit of the borrower's financial statements for this...

  4. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  5. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  6. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  7. 21 CFR 814.124 - Institutional Review Board requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.124...) constituted and acting pursuant to part 56 of this chapter, including continuing review of use of the device.... In such an emergency situation, the physician shall, within 5 days after the use of the...

  8. 14 CFR 415.59 - Information requirements for payload review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 415.59 Section 415.59 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... review; (5) Orbital parameters for parking, transfer and final orbits; (6) Hazardous materials, as defined in § 401.5 of this chapter, and radioactive materials, and the amounts of each; (7) Intended...

  9. 40 CFR 6.403 - Environmental review and assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... study. EPA shall afford the affected foreign nation or international body or organization an opportunity... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental review and assessment... OF EPA ACTIONS Assessing the Environmental Effects Abroad of EPA Actions § 6.403 Environmental...

  10. 7 CFR 1703.312 - RUS review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supporting material is available at the borrower's premises for review by the RUS field accountant, borrower's certified public accountant, the Office of Inspector General, the General Accounting Office and any other accountant conducting an audit of the borrower's financial statements for this rural...

  11. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws...

  12. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws...

  13. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws...

  14. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws...

  15. 40 CFR 1502.25 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coordination Act (16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), and other environmental review laws...

  16. 42 CFR 476.71 - QIO review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pneumococcal vaccine) for prevention of illness or (in the case of hospice care) for the palliation and... standards of health care, as determined through the resolution of oral beneficiary complaints as specified... quality of care reviews as specified in § 476.160. (3) Whether those services furnished or proposed to...

  17. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Hydroelectric projects, except to the extent that such projects involve a withdrawal, shall be exempt from the... construed as exempting hydroelectric projects from review and approval under any other category of project... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Projects...

  18. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Hydroelectric projects, except to the extent that such projects involve a withdrawal, shall be exempt from the... construed as exempting hydroelectric projects from review and approval under any other category of project... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Projects...

  19. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Hydroelectric projects, except to the extent that such projects involve a withdrawal, shall be exempt from the... construed as exempting hydroelectric projects from review and approval under any other category of project... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Projects...

  20. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Hydroelectric projects, except to the extent that such projects involve a withdrawal, shall be exempt from the... construed as exempting hydroelectric projects from review and approval under any other category of project... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Projects...

  1. 18 CFR 806.4 - Projects requiring review and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Hydroelectric projects, except to the extent that such projects involve a withdrawal, shall be exempt from the... construed as exempting hydroelectric projects from review and approval under any other category of project... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Projects...

  2. Development of processable PMR-type polyimides for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Baochau Ngoc

    PMR-15 is an industrial standard polyimide for high temperature performance in aerospace applications. The objectives of this research were to develop environmentally friendly branched PMR-type polyimides with comparable thermal and mechanical properties and improved melt flow and processability compared to PMR-15. An aromatic triamine, 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenoxy)benzene was used in the development of these branched polymers. This work consisted of three parts. The first part was a screening study of four different diamine-based branched polyimides of varying formulated molecular weights. In these series, the aromatic triamine was utilized as the hub of the polymer molecules which were endcapped with a nadic ester acid. Thermal and mechanical properties of oligomers (resins), neat polymers, and selected carbon fabric reinforced polyimide composites were investigated. Results showed that branched polymers displayed higher glass transition temperatures (Tg's) than their corresponding linear systems due to a higher crosslink density, but had lower thermal oxidative stability (TOS), due to higher nadic ester content and the presence of ether linkages in the triamine, TAB. Mechanical properties including interlaminar shear, flexural strength, flexural modulus, compression strengths, and compression modulus were comparable with those of composite PMR-15 at both ambient and elevated temperatures (288°C). The second part of the project focussed on isolating the effects of the aromatic triamine from nadic endcap on resins' Tg, TOS, and relative melt viscosity, using a statistical design of experiments (DOE). A pseudo classical design based upon a Face Centered Central Composite Model was used. DOE model generated response surfaces showed that incorporation of the triamine moieties into PMR-type polyimides slightly increased the Tg's of the polymers, due to higher crosslink density, but slightly decreased their thermal oxidative stability. It was also observed that added TAB

  3. Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography: Water Requirements of Desert Ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Rosenstock, Steven S.; Turner, Jack C.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Ungulates adapted to desert areas are able to survive extreme temperatures and limited water availability. This ability is largely due to behavioral, morphological, and physiological adaptations that allow these animals to avoid or tolerate extreme environmental conditions. The physiological adaptations possessed by ungulates for thermoregulation and maintenance of water balance have been the subject of numerous studies involving a wide range of species. In this report we review the behavioral, morphological, and physiological mechanisms used by ungulates and other desert mammals to maintain water and temperature balance in arid environments. We also review some of the more commonly used methods for studying the physiological mechanisms involved in water balance and thermoregulation, and the influence of dehydration on these mechanisms.

  4. Sodium Intake Requirements for Preterm Neonates: Review and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Adrianne R; Tomlinson, Christopher; Belik, Jaques

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that sodium is an essential nutritional electrolyte and its deficiency is associated with neurological sequelae and poor growth. The provision of an adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates is hampered by the technical difficulty in clinically assessing total body sodium content. As addressed in this review, there is a lack of consensus on the definition of hyponatremia early in life, but there is no evidence that it should deviate from the widely accepted normative data for adult subjects. A low urinary sodium content is accepted by many as reflecting total body sodium deficiency, yet spot urinary sodium measurements are of questionable clinical value. The hormonal regulation of sodium homeostasis is here reviewed and the mechanism accounting for sodium deficiency-induced growth impairment in preterm infants addressed. Lastly, we provide evidence-based gestational and postnatal age-dependent recommendations for the provision of adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates.

  5. Resolvase-In Vivo Expression Technology Analysis of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium PhoP and PmrA Regulons in BALB/c Mice†

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Massimo; Ellermeier, Craig D.; Slauch, James M.; Gunn, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella enterica modulates resistance to antimicrobial peptides in part via covalent modifications of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The two-component systems PhoP/PhoQ and PmrA/PmrB are activated during infection and regulate several genes involved in LPS modifications by responding to signals such as pH, iron, magnesium, and antimicrobial peptides. A recombination-based in vivo expression technology approach was adopted to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns of in vivo expression of genes of the PhoP and PmrA regulons and to identify the in vivo signals modulating their transcription. In vitro, we showed PhoP- and/or PmrA-dependent induction of pmrH (LPS aminoarabinose modification operon) by acidic pH, low levels of magnesium, or high levels of Fe(III). Upregulation in cultured J774A.1 macrophages was shown for pmrH, pagP (LPS palmitate addition), and ssaB (pathogenicity island II secretion) but not for prgH (pathogenicity island I secretion). Increased levels of pmrH, phoP, and prgH transcription but not ssaB were observed in bacteria isolated from the lumen of the distal ileum. Bacteria isolated from spleens of orally inoculated mice showed no further induction of prgH but had the highest expression of pmrH, pagP, and ssaB. In vivo induction of pmrH was fully dependent on pmrA and phoP, and buffering stomach acidity, iron chelation, or low-iron diets did not affect the expression of pmrH in the intestinal lumen. The observation of pmrH and pagP expression in the intestine refutes the paradigm of PhoP/PhoQ and PmrA/PmrB in vivo expression as solely intracellularly induced and supports previous data demonstrating peroral virulence attenuation of pmrH mutants. PMID:16237024

  6. 40 CFR 63.5 - Preconstruction review and notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a comparable entirely new source; (iv) The estimated life of the affected source after the... sufficiently detailed to demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that the technical or economic... be required to construct a comparable entirely new source; (B) The estimated life of the source after...

  7. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amended, 33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq. (j) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq. ...) Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq. (h) Marine Protection, Research... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  8. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amended, 33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq. (j) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq. ...) Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq. (h) Marine Protection, Research... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  9. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amended, 33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq. (j) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq. ...) Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq. (h) Marine Protection, Research... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  10. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amended, 33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq. (j) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq. ...) Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq. (h) Marine Protection, Research... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  11. 22 CFR 161.11 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amended, 33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq. (j) Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq. ...) Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq. (h) Marine Protection, Research... requirements. 161.11 Section 161.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  12. 78 FR 65744 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Clearance Officer, Curtis Rich, Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., 5th Floor, Washington, DC..., New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Curtis Rich, Agency Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7030 curtis.rich@sba.gov . Abstract: Government wide requirements in...

  13. 76 FR 72019 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7044. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: ``Governor's Request for Disaster... Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), agencies are required to submit proposed reporting and... Occasion. SBA Form Number's: 5, 1368. Description of Respondents: Applicants requesting Disaster...

  14. Free and Compulsory School Age Requirements. ECS 50-State Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation continue to push for expanded free and compulsory school age requirements. More states are considering granting students earlier access to a free education so that they can begin their academic pursuits earlier in life. Similarly, every year a number of states consider extending the upper limit for compulsory school…

  15. 76 FR 70527 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), agencies are required to submit proposed reporting and... Clearance Officer, (202) 205-7044. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: ``25-Model Corp.Resol.or GP Certif.33-Model Letter to Selling Agent. 34-Bank ID, 1065-Appl.Lic.Assure of Compliance. Form No's: 23, 33,...

  16. 40 CFR 51.1011 - Requirements for mid-course review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for mid-course review. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1011 Requirements for mid-course review. (a) Any...

  17. 21 CFR 320.30 - Inquiries regarding bioavailability and bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by the Food and Drug Administration. 320.30 Section 320.30... Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.30 Inquiries regarding bioavailability and bioequivalence requirements and review of protocols by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) The Commissioner of Food...

  18. 40 CFR 147.905 - Requirements for all wells-area of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all wells-area of review. 147.905 Section 147.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Kentucky § 147.905 Requirements for all wells—area of review. Notwithstanding the alternatives presented...

  19. 40 CFR 147.2155 - Requirements for all wells-area of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all wells-area of review. 147.2155 Section 147.2155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Tennessee § 147.2155 Requirements for all wells—area of review. Notwithstanding the alternatives...

  20. 40 CFR 147.905 - Requirements for all wells-area of review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for all wells-area of review. 147.905 Section 147.905 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Kentucky § 147.905 Requirements for all wells—area of review. Notwithstanding the alternatives presented...

  1. Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi; Liu, Yongjian; Mai, Kangsen; Tian, Lixia

    2005-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  2. System requirements review for the high-resolution ozone imager (HIROIG). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.L.; Gutierrez, D.J.; Hecht, J.H.; Mabry, D.J.; Ross, M.N.

    1993-09-15

    The HIROIG System Requirements Review was held on February 17, 1993 at The Aerospace Corporation. The purpose of the review was to demonstrate the way in which the requirements for a spaceborne ozone imaging experiment are derived from the fundamental goal of the program, which is to measure how space-vehicle launches affect the ozone layer of the atmosphere. The review included, towards the end, short presentations on the experiment team's approaches to meeting the program requirements. This report is a compilation of the briefing charts that were presented at the review.

  3. The evolution of Medicare financing policy for graduate medical education and implications for PM&R: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Verville, R; DeLisa, J A

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the only explicit payers for graduate medical education (GME) in the United States are the federal and state governments. Of these, Medicare is by far the largest and most predictable payer. Through the prospective payment system, Medicare reimburses teaching institutions for both their direct and indirect costs associated with their GME programs. Because a well-educated workforce benefits patients covered by private, as well as public insurance, various proposals have been advanced to establish an all-payer pool to distribute the financial burden more equitably. Furthermore, Medicare policy affects physician supply. There is increasing recognition of potential physician oversupply, raising policy questions about the government's longstanding support of GME. In comparison with other specialties, physical medical and rehabilitation (PM&R) may receive more favorable treatment under future GME funding plans, for 2 reasons. First, under the formulas used by Medicare, PM&R training slots typically bring in more indirect revenue to teaching hospitals than is consumed in indirect expenses. This makes PM&R a relatively more attractive program to retain in the face of mandated reductions in training slots. Second, in many parts of the country, PM&R is not threatened by oversupply, making cuts less likely. Nevertheless, the high percentage of non-US medical graduates entering PM&R training may make the specialty vulnerable to future reductions in funded training slots.

  4. Helicopter Fatigue. A Review of Current Requirements and Substantiation Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Additionally , the AAH has an increased time allocation in the low speed regime reflect- ing its nap-of-the-earth mission. A final difference is seen...r15) AT THE ADDRE:SS BE- LOW PURCHASE AGENCIE-S Microfiche or Photocopy Microfiche Microfiche National Technical Space Documentastion Sers ice Technology...complexity of the designs and the cost involved, spectrum type testing was specified :or major airframe components. Life Requirements: As can be seen from

  5. Spacecraft occupant protection requirements: a review of the recent changes.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Gohmert, Dustin M; Brinkley, James W

    2014-09-01

    NASA has recently updated spacecraft design requirements for protecting crewmembers during dynamic spaceflight phases. The details of the update are available in a NASA publication (NASA TM-2013-217380) and are summarized here. Previously, NASA's occupant protection requirements relied primarily on the multiaxial dynamic response criterion, which NASA refers to as the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria (BDRC). Although simple to implement, there are several important ground rules that must be met for the injury predictions to be applicable. These include proper restraint, flail controls, proper seating support, pressure suit considerations, head protection including consideration of helmet mass, and spaceflight deconditioning. Even if these ground rules are met, there are limitations to the model that must be addressed, including: model validation, sex differences, age effects, anthropometry effects, and differences between the physical fitness of military test subjects and future crewmembers. To address these limitations, new injury assessment reference values (IARV) have been prescribed for the 5(th) percentile female and 95(th) percentile male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). These metrics are head-injury criterion, head-rotational acceleration, neck injury criterion, neck-axial-force limits, flail prevention, and lumbar-axial compression force. Using these new ATD IARVs, NASA can have increased confidence that vehicle designs mitigate the risk of injury during dynamic phases of flight.

  6. The effect of elevated temperature on the inelastic deformation behavior of PMR-15 solid polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryther, Chad E. C.

    The inelastic deformation behavior of PMR-15 neat resin, a high-temperature thermoset polymer, was investigated at temperatures in the 274--316 °C range. The experimental program was developed to explore the influence of temperature on strain-controlled tensile loading, relaxation and creep behaviors. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the mechanical behavior of PMR-15 polymer exhibits a strong dependence on temperature. During strain-controlled tensile loading, the slope of the stress-strain curve in the quasi-elastic region decreases and the slope of the stress-strain curve in the flow stress region increases with increasing temperature. At a given strain rate, the flow stress level decreases with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the transition from quasi-elastic behavior to inelastic flow becomes less pronounced with increasing temperature. During relaxation, the amount of the stress drop for a given prior strain rate decreases with increasing temperature. At a given prior strain rate and creep stress level, increasing temperature results in increased creep strain accumulation. Based on the experimental results the Viscoplasticity Based on Overstress for Polymers (VBOP) theory was augmented to account for the effects of elevated temperature. Several model parameters were determined to depend on temperature. Those parameters were developed into functions of temperature. The augmented VBOP was then employed to predict the response of the PMR-15 polymer under various test histories at temperatures in the 274--316 °C range. An enhanced procedure for determining VBOP model parameters that utilizes a McLean type dip test to assess the equilibrium stress was developed. Model predictions were considerably improved by employing an enhanced model characterization procedure. Additionally, the effects of prior isothermal aging at various temperatures in the 260--316 °C range on the inelastic deformation behavior of PMR-15 at 288 °C were evaluated. For

  7. Longtime Durability of PMR-15 Matrix Polymer at 204, 260, 288, and 316 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.; Inghram, Linda L.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Klan, Ojars V.

    2001-01-01

    Isothermal weight loss studies at the Glenn (Lewis) Research Center were conducted at four temperatures (204, 260, 288, and 316 C) with specimens of varied geometric shapes to investigate the mechanisms involved in the thermal degradation of PMR-15. Both neat resin behavior and composite behaviors were studied. Two points of interest in these studies are the role(s) of oxygen in the mechanisms involved in the thermo-oxidative degradation of these composite materials and the dimensional changes that occur during their useable lifetime. Specimen dimensional changes and surface layer growth were measured and recorded. It was shown that physical and chemical changes take place as a function of time and location in PMR-15 neat resin and composites as aging takes place in air at elevated temperatures. These changes initiate at the outer surfaces of both materials and progress inward following the oxygen as it proceeds by diffusion into the central core of each material. Microstructural changes cause changes in density, material shrinkage (strains), glass transition temperature, dimension, dynamic shear modulus, and compression properties. These changes also occur slowly dividing the polymer material into two distinct parts: a visibly undamaged core section between two visibly damaged surface layers. The surface layer has a significant effect on compression properties of thinner specimens, but the visibly undamaged core material controls these properties for specimens having eight or more plies. It was demonstrated that there are three different mechanisms involved in the degradation of PMR-15 during aging at elevated temperatures. These are a weight gain, a small weight fraction bulk material weight loss, and a large mass fraction weight loss concentrated at the surface of the polymer or composite. At the higher temperatures (260 C and above), the surface loss predominates. Below 260 C, the surface loss and the bulk core loss become more equivalent. Between 175 and 260 C

  8. Review of power requirements for satellite remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, Stanley A.

    1988-01-01

    The space environment offers a multitude of attributes and opportunities to be used to enhance human life styles and qualities of life for all future generations, worldwide. Among the prospects having immense social as well as economic benefits are earth-observing systems capable of providing near real-time data in such areas as food and fiber production, marine fisheries, ecosystem monitoring, disaster assessment, and global environmental exchanges. The era of Space Station, the Shuttle program, the planned unmanned satellites in both high and low Earth orbit will transfer to operational status what, until now, has been largely research and development proof of concept for remotely sensing Earth's natural and cultural resources. An important aspect of this operational status focuses on the orbital designs and power requirements needed to optimally sense any of these important areas.

  9. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    PubMed

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  10. Review of the SOR Development Process and the Requirement for SOR-Spec Maker Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    I DCIEM No. 98-CR- 55 REVIEW OF THE SOR DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND THE REQUIREMENT FOR SOR-SPEC MAKER SOFTWARE by Michael P. Greenley and David...I Statement of Operational Requirement I I For I SOR-Spec Maker I Requirements Management Tool I I DRAFT I by I Mike Greenley April1998 I

  11. Review of PREPA Technical Requirements for Interconnecting Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Booth, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority developed the minimum technical requirements for interconnection of wind turbine generation and photovoltaic power plants. NREL has conducted a review of these requirements based on generic technical aspects and electrical characteristics of wind and photovoltaic power plants, and on existing requirements from other utilities (both U.S. and European).

  12. 77 FR 76005 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Requirements for Electrically Operated Toys and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Requirements for Electrically Operated Toys and... electrically operated toys and children's articles. DATES: Written comments on this request for extension of... approval of the collection of information required in the Requirements for Electrically Operated Toys or...

  13. Kevlar/PMR-15 polyimide matrix composite for a complex shaped DC-9 drag reduction fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.; Mccarthy, R. F.; Willer, M. S.; Hrach, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program was established by NASA to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft and thereby to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the air transportation industry. One of the final items developed by the program is an improved fairing which is the aft closure for the thrust reverser actuators on the JT8D nacelles on DC-9 aircraft. The reduced-drag fairing uses, in the interest of weight savings, an advanced composite construction. The composite material contains Kevlar 49 fibers in a PMR-15 matrix. Attention is given to the aerodynamic configuration, the material system, and aspects of fabrication development.

  14. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers that were studied included graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber-sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  15. Kevlar/PMR-15 polyimide matrix composite for a complex shaped DC-9 drag reduction fairing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, R. T.; Mccarthy, R. F.; Willer, M. S.; Hrach, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program was established by NASA to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft and thereby to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the air transportation industry. One of the final items developed by the program is an improved fairing which is the aft closure for the thrust reverser actuators on the JT8D nacelles on DC-9 aircraft. The reduced-drag fairing uses, in the interest of weight savings, an advanced composite construction. The composite material contains Kevlar 49 fibers in a PMR-15 matrix. Attention is given to the aerodynamic configuration, the material system, and aspects of fabrication development.

  16. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR-15 polyimide structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Hunter, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    The work included establishing controls on the polymer, the prepreg, composite fabrication, and quality assurance, as well as fabrication of structural elements to demonstrate the developed materials and processes. The fabricated structures were hat sections, I-beam sections, honeycomb sandwich structures, and molded graphite-reinforced fittings. The graphite/PMR-15 polyimide system was shown to be well suited for use in the 550-600 F temperature range; the processing techniques developed were proved and found potentially useful for other commercially available systems.

  17. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various continuous fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermooxidative stability of PMR-15 composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers studied include graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight-loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  18. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various continuous fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermooxidative stability of PMR-15 composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers studied include graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight-loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  19. PmrD is Required for Modifications to Escherichia Coli Endotoxin that Promote Antimicrobial Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-20

    a silica gel TLC plate (10,000 cpm per lane) (29). Lipids were separated using a chloroform, pyridine, 88% formic acid, and water solvent system (50...typhimurium activates virulence gene transcription within acidified macrophage phagosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:10079 –10083. http

  20. The pmrCAB operon mediates polymyxin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 and clinical isolates through phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Luis A; Herrera, Carmen M; Fernandez, Lucia; Hankins, Jessica V; Trent, M Stephen; Hancock, Robert E W

    2011-08-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii is leading to an increasing dependence on the use of polymyxins as last-hope antibiotics. Here, we utilized genetic and biochemical methods to define the involvement of the pmrCAB operon in polymyxin resistance in this organism. Sequence analysis of 16 polymyxin B-resistant strains, including 6 spontaneous mutants derived from strain ATCC 17978 and 10 clinical isolates from diverse sources, revealed that they had independent mutations in the pmrB gene, encoding a sensor kinase, or in the response regulator PmrA. Knockout of the pmrB gene in two mutants and two clinical isolates led to a decrease in the polymyxin B susceptibility of these strains, which could be restored with the cloned pmrAB genes from the mutants but not from the wild type. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis also showed a correlation between the expression of pmrC and polymyxin B resistance. Characterization of lipid A species from the mutant strains, by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, indicated that the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A correlated with resistance. This addition is performed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the product of the pmrC gene, which is a homolog of the pmrC gene from Acinetobacter. Knockout of this gene in the mutant R2 [pmrB(T235I)] reversed resistance as well as phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A. These results demonstrate that specific alterations in the sequence of the pmrCAB operon are responsible for resistance to polymyxins in A. baumannii.

  1. The pmrCAB Operon Mediates Polymyxin Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 and Clinical Isolates through Phosphoethanolamine Modification of Lipid A▿

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Luis A.; Herrera, Carmen M.; Fernandez, Lucia; Hankins, Jessica V.; Trent, M. Stephen; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii is leading to an increasing dependence on the use of polymyxins as last-hope antibiotics. Here, we utilized genetic and biochemical methods to define the involvement of the pmrCAB operon in polymyxin resistance in this organism. Sequence analysis of 16 polymyxin B-resistant strains, including 6 spontaneous mutants derived from strain ATCC 17978 and 10 clinical isolates from diverse sources, revealed that they had independent mutations in the pmrB gene, encoding a sensor kinase, or in the response regulator PmrA. Knockout of the pmrB gene in two mutants and two clinical isolates led to a decrease in the polymyxin B susceptibility of these strains, which could be restored with the cloned pmrAB genes from the mutants but not from the wild type. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis also showed a correlation between the expression of pmrC and polymyxin B resistance. Characterization of lipid A species from the mutant strains, by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, indicated that the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A correlated with resistance. This addition is performed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the product of the pmrC gene, which is a homolog of the pmrC gene from Acinetobacter. Knockout of this gene in the mutant R2 [pmrB(T235I)] reversed resistance as well as phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A. These results demonstrate that specific alterations in the sequence of the pmrCAB operon are responsible for resistance to polymyxins in A. baumannii. PMID:21646482

  2. Minor New Source Review Program Public Notice Requirements under 40 CFR 51.161(b)(3)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database.

  3. 30 CFR 773.21 - Initial review and finding requirements for improvidently issued permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.21 Initial..., have reason to believe that we improvidently issued a permit to you, the permittee, we must review the...

  4. 77 FR 12364 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Reporting Required for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Research and Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Reporting Required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) AGENCY: Research and Innovative... Organization (ICAO). Comments are requested concerning whether (1) the supplemental reports are needed by BTS...

  5. 77 FR 26824 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Research & Innovative Technology Administration Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Reporting Required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) AGENCY: Research & Innovative... Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted below has been forwarded to the Office of Management and...

  6. 49 CFR 1013.3 - Review and reporting requirements for regulated carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE PROPER USE OF VOTING TRUSTS § 1013.3 Review and reporting requirements for regulated carriers. (a... applicant shows, by clear and convincing evidence, and the Board finds, that the failure to comply...

  7. 78 FR 13855 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following... Submission: New Information Collection. Purpose: United States Agency for International Development must...

  8. 78 FR 11264 - Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review; National Women's Business Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: ``Focus Group Research: Women Entrepreneurs, Self-Limiting Perceptions, and Segmentation.'' Frequency: On Occasion. SBA Form Number: N/A. Description of Respondents: Women entrepreneurs... ADMINISTRATION Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Under OMB Review; National Women's Business...

  9. Thermo-elastic nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in PMR-15 resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, J. T.; Sathish, S.; Tandon, G. P.; Schehl, N.; Cherry, M.; Nalladega, V.; Lindgren, E. A.; Hall, R.

    2012-05-01

    Thermoset polyimide resins are used as the polymer matrix in high temperature composites for aerospace applications such as engine shrouds. At these locations the components have to withstand high temperatures and significant vibration. A number of studies have investigated the effects of thermal exposure on mechanical properties of polyimide resins, and the effects of fatigue on thermoplastics have been discussed at length. However, the effects of fatigue on thermosets, in particular polyimides, have largely been overlooked. In this paper we present studies of nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in a thermoset polyimide resin, PMR-15, performed by measuring the changes in the evolution of heat in the samples during cyclic loading. The temperature changes are measured using a high sensitivity IR camera as a function of number of fatigue cycles. Interrupted fatigue tests were performed on four samples. The temperature rise during an increment of fatigue cycling shows two linear regions each with a different slope (region 1 and region 2). Region 1 remains constant for every increment of fatigue, while region 2 increases. The onset of region 2 occurs at the same increase in temperature due to hysteretic heating for all samples. Experimental observations are explained using a phenomenological two phase model based on crosslinking density variations in observed in other thermoset resins at microscopic scales. The results of these experiments are discussed in reference to utilizing this technique for detection and evaluation of fatigue in PMR-15 resin and composites.

  10. Forced torsional properties of PMR composites with varying nadic ester concentrations and processing histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1982-01-01

    PMR polyimide resin was prepared from 4,4'-methylenedianiline, the dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid and the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (NE). The NE group serves as a chain terminator and crosslinking site. PMR/Celion 6000 composites were fabricated from resins having varying NE concentrations using two molding processes, and the laminates characterized in forced torsion. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of 360-390 C were observed in the crosslinked resins, as compared with the literature value of 284 C reported for the uncrosslinked system. T(g) did not decrease with decreasing NE concentrations over the range from 2.0 to 1.25 moles. Stoichiometry, within the range studied, showed little influence on shear properties; however, a 25% variation in matrix shear modulus with processing was observed. The G(12) values determined in forced torsion were in excellent agreement with those reported from tensile tests of + or - 45 deg laminates. A branching and possible secondary crosslink mechanism is proposed based on dynamic mechanical behavior and infrared spectra of the composites.

  11. Viscoelastic and Mechanical Properties of Thermoset PMR-type Polyimide-Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalla, Mohamed O.; Dean, Derrick; Campbell, Sandi

    2002-01-01

    High temperature thermoset polyimide-clay nanocomposites were prepared by blending 2.5 and 5 wt% of an unmodified Na(+-) montmorillonite (PGV) and two organically modified FGV (PGVCl0COOH, PGVC12) with a methanol solution of PMR-15 precursor. The methanol facilitated the dispersal of the unmodified clay. Dynamic mechanical analysis results showed a significant increase in the thermomechanical properties (E' and E") of 2.5 wt% clay loaded nanocomposites in comparison with the neat polyimide. Higher glass transition temperatures were observed for 2.5 wt% nanocomposites compared to the neat polyimide. Flexural properties measurements for the 2.5 wt% nanocomposites showed a significant improvement in the modulus and strength, with no loss in elongation. This trend was not observed for the 5 wt% nanocomposites. An improvement in the CTE was observed for the PGV/PMR-15 nanocomposites, while a decrease was observed for the organically modified samples. This was attributed to potential variations in the interface caused by modifier degradation.

  12. Forced torsional properties of PMR composites with varying nadic ester concentrations and processing histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1982-01-01

    PMR polyimide resin was prepared from 4,4'-methylenedianiline, the dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid and the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (NE). The NE group serves as a chain terminator and crosslinking site. PMR/Celion 6000 composites were fabricated from resins having varying NE concentrations using two molding processes, and the laminates characterized in forced torsion. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of 360-390 C were observed in the crosslinked resins, as compared with the literature value of 284 C reported for the uncrosslinked system. T(g) did not decrease with decreasing NE concentrations over the range from 2.0 to 1.25 moles. Stoichiometry, within the range studied, showed little influence on shear properties; however, a 25% variation in matrix shear modulus with processing was observed. The G(12) values determined in forced torsion were in excellent agreement with those reported from tensile tests of + or - 45 deg laminates. A branching and possible secondary crosslink mechanism is proposed based on dynamic mechanical behavior and infrared spectra of the composites.

  13. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spatial Distribution of Free Radicals in PMR-15 Polyimide Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Myong K.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1997-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that free radicals generated by heating polyimides above 300 C are stable at room temperature and are involved in thermo-oxidative degradation in the presence of oxygen gas. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a technique to determine the spatial distribution of free radicals. X-band (9.5 GHz) EPR images of PMR-15 polyimide were obtained with a spatial resolution of approximately 0.18 mm along a 2-mm dimension of the sample. In a polyimide sample that was not thermocycled, the radical distribution was uniform along the 2-mm dimension of the sample. For a polyimide sample that was exposed to thermocycling in air for 300 1-h cycles at 335 C, one-dimensional EPRI showed a higher concentration of free radicals in the surface layers than in the bulk sample. A spectral-spatial two-dimensional image showed that the EPR lineshape of the surface layer remained the same as that of the bulk. These EPRI results suggest that the thermo-oxidative degradation of PMR-15 resin involves free radicals present in the oxygen-rich surface layer.

  14. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spatial Distribution of Free Radicals in PMR-15 Polyimide Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Myong K.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1997-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that free radicals generated by heating polyimides above 300 C are stable at room temperature and are involved in thermo-oxidative degradation in the presence of oxygen gas. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a technique to determine the spatial distribution of free radicals. X-band (9.5 GHz) EPR images of PMR-15 polyimide were obtained with a spatial resolution of approximately 0.18 mm along a 2-mm dimension of the sample. In a polyimide sample that was not thermocycled, the radical distribution was uniform along the 2-mm dimension of the sample. For a polyimide sample that was exposed to thermocycling in air for 300 1-h cycles at 335 C, one-dimensional EPRI showed a higher concentration of free radicals in the surface layers than in the bulk sample. A spectral-spatial two-dimensional image showed that the EPR lineshape of the surface layer remained the same as that of the bulk. These EPRI results suggest that the thermo-oxidative degradation of PMR-15 resin involves free radicals present in the oxygen-rich surface layer.

  15. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spatial Distribution of Free Radicals in PMR-15 Polyimide Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Myong K.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1997-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that free radicals generated by heating polyimides above 300 C are stable at room temperature and are involved in thermo-oxidative degradation in the presence of oxygen gas. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI) is a technique to determine the spatial distribution of free radicals. X-band (9.5 GHz) EPR images of PMR-15 polyimide were obtained with a spatial resolution of about 0.18 mm along a 2 mm dimension of the sample. In a polyimide sample that was not thermocycled, the radical distribution was uniform along the 2 mm dimension of the sample. For a polyimide sample that was exposed to thermocycling in air for 300 one-hour cycles at 335 C, one-dimensional EPRI showed a higher concentration of free radicals in the surface layers than in the bulk sample. A spectral-spatial two-dimensional image showed that the EPR lineshape of the surface layer remained the same as that of the bulk. These EPRI results suggest that the thermo-oxidative degradation of PMR-15 resin involves free radicals present in the oxygen-rich surface layer.

  16. 25 CFR 1000.365 - What are the requirements of the review team report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.365 What are the requirements of the review team report? A report summarizing the results of the trust evaluation will be prepared and copies provided to the Tribe/Consortium. The report must: (a) Be written...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA in... assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA in... assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  19. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA in... assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  20. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA in... assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  1. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... evaluation of the environmental issues and take responsibility for the scope and content of the EA in... assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  2. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify the...

  3. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify the...

  4. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify the...

  5. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify the...

  6. 32 CFR 310.52 - Computer matching publication and review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer matching publication and review... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Computer Matching Program Procedures § 310.52 Computer matching publication and review requirements. (a) DoD Components shall identify the...

  7. Additional considerations are required when preparing a protocol for a systematic review with multiple interventions.

    PubMed

    Chaimani, Anna; Caldwell, Deborah M; Li, Tianjing; Higgins, Julian P T; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    The number of systematic reviews that aim to compare multiple interventions using network meta-analysis is increasing. In this study, we highlight aspects of a standard systematic review protocol that may need modification when multiple interventions are to be compared. We take the protocol format suggested by Cochrane for a standard systematic review as our reference and compare the considerations for a pairwise review with those required for a valid comparison of multiple interventions. We suggest new sections for protocols of systematic reviews including network meta-analyses with a focus on how to evaluate their assumptions. We provide example text from published protocols to exemplify the considerations. Standard systematic review protocols for pairwise meta-analyses need extensions to accommodate the increased complexity of network meta-analysis. Our suggested modifications are widely applicable to both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews involving network meta-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) graphite/PMR cowl development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggles, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The PMR process development, tooling concepts, testing conducted to generate materials properties data, and the fabrication of a subscale model of the inner cowl are presented. It was concluded that the materials, processes, and tooling concepts were satisfactory for making an inner cowl with adequate structural integrity.

  9. Resistance to colistin in Acinetobacter baumannii associated with mutations in the PmrAB two-component system.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark D; Nickel, Gabrielle C; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Lavender, Heather; Murthy, A Rekha; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of colistin resistance (Col(r)) in Acinetobacter baumannii was studied by selecting in vitro Col(r) derivatives of the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate AB0057 and the drug-susceptible strain ATCC 17978, using escalating concentrations of colistin in liquid culture. DNA sequencing identified mutations in genes encoding the two-component system proteins PmrA and/or PmrB in each strain and in a Col(r) clinical isolate. A colistin-susceptible revertant of one Col(r) mutant strain, obtained following serial passage in the absence of colistin selection, carried a partial deletion of pmrB. Growth of AB0057 and ATCC 17978 at pH 5.5 increased the colistin MIC and conferred protection from killing by colistin in a 1-hour survival assay. Growth in ferric chloride [Fe(III)] conferred a small protective effect. Expression of pmrA was increased in Col(r) mutants, but not at a low pH, suggesting that additional regulatory factors remain to be discovered.

  10. Structure and dynamics of polymyxin-resistance-associated response regulator PmrA in complex with promoter DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yuan-Chao; Weng, Tsai-Hsuan; Li, Yi-Chuan; Kao, Yi-Fen; Lin, Wei-Feng; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chou, Shan-Ho; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Chen, Chinpan

    2015-01-01

    PmrA, an OmpR/PhoB family response regulator, manages genes for antibiotic resistance. Phosphorylation of OmpR/PhoB response regulator induces the formation of a symmetric dimer in the N-terminal receiver domain (REC), promoting two C-terminal DNA-binding domains (DBDs) to recognize promoter DNA to elicit adaptive responses. Recently, determination of the KdpE–DNA complex structure revealed an REC–DBD interface in the upstream protomer that may be necessary for transcription activation. Here, we report the 3.2-Å-resolution crystal structure of the PmrA–DNA complex, which reveals a similar yet different REC–DBD interface. However, NMR studies show that in the DNA-bound state, two domains tumble separately and an REC–DBD interaction is transiently populated in solution. Reporter gene analyses of PmrA variants with altered interface residues suggest that the interface is not crucial for supporting gene expression. We propose that REC–DBD interdomain dynamics and the DBD–DBD interface help PmrA interact with RNA polymerase holoenzyme to activate downstream gene transcription. PMID:26564787

  11. Fabrication and characterization of nanoclay modified PMR type polyimide composites reinforced with 3D woven basalt fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jianfei; Qiu, Yiping

    2009-07-01

    Nanoclay modified PMR type polyimide composites were prepared from 3D orthogonal woven basalt fiber performs and nanoclay modified polyimide matrix resin, which derived from methylene dianiline (MDA), dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'- oxydiphthalic acid (ODPE), monomethyl ester of cis-5-norbornene-endo-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (NE) and nanoclay. The Na+-montmorillonite was organically treated using a 1:1 molar ratio mixture of dodecylamine (C12) and MDA. The rheological properties of neat B-stage PMR polyimide and 2% clay modified B-stage PMR polyimide were investigated. Based on the results obtained from the rheological tests, a two step compression molding process can be established for the composites. In the first step, the 3D fabric preforms were impregnated with polyimide resin in a vacuum oven and heated up for degassing the volatiles and by-products. In the second step, composites were compressed. The internal structure of the composites was observed by a microscope. Incorporation of 2% clay showed an improvement in the Tg and stiffness of the PMR polyimide. The resulting composites exhibited high thermal stability and good mechanical properties.

  12. 40 CFR 51.1011 - Requirements for mid-course review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1011 Requirements for mid-course review. (a) Any State that submits to EPA an approvable attainment plan for a PM2.5 nonattainment area justifying an...

  13. 75 FR 65296 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collection to OMB... Report. Type of Submission: New Information Collection. Purpose: The required annual reports will be...

  14. 75 FR 65296 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collection to OMB.... Type of Submission: New Information Collection. Purpose: The mentors are required to report on...

  15. 14 CFR 420.27 - Launch site location review-information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch site location review-information... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining a License § 420.27 Launch site location review—information requirements....

  16. 75 FR 66724 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collections to OMB.... Purpose: The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) needs to require applicants for...

  17. The Expectations Gap: A 50-State Review of High School Graduation Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve Inc, 2004

    2004-01-01

    High school graduation requirements in states throughout the U.S. were reviewed to better understand how well they align with what students need to be successful in college or the workplace. It was found that no state requires its graduates to take the courses that reflect the real-world demands of work and postsecondary education. …

  18. Effects of Prior Aging at 274 Deg C in Argon on Inelastic Deformation Behavior of PMR-15 Polymer at 288 Deg C: Experiment and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Predicted Creep Strain vs . Time Curves Obtained at 21 MPa for PMR-15 Aged at 288 °C for 2000 h. Reproduced from McClung [27...28  Figure 2.24: A Comparison Between Experimental and Predicted Stress Drop vs . Relaxation Time Curves Obtained at 260 °C for the PMR...Experimental and Predicted Creep Strain vs Time Curves Obtained at 25 MPa and at 260 °C for PMR-15 Polymer Aged in Argon at 260 °C for 1000 h

  19. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  20. High temperature, short term tensile strength of C6000/PMR-15 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digiovanni, P. R.; Paterson, D.

    1985-01-01

    Tensile tests were conducted on 0 unidirectionally reinforced Celion 6000 graphite fibers in PMR-15 polyimide matrix. Tensile strengths for coupons subjected to short and long term uniform temperatures were obtained. Thick coupons, heated on one side to produce significant transient through thickness temperature gradients, were tested and compared to the strength of specimens with uniform temperature distributions. All coupons were radiantly heated and reached maximum test temperatures within 15 sec. Tensile loads were applied to the coupons after 15 sec of elevated temperature exposure. Loading rates were selected so that specimen failures occurred within a maximum of 45 sec after reaching the test temperature. Results indicate that significant tensile strength remains beyond the material post cure temperature.

  1. Test and analysis of Celion 3000/PMR-15, graphite/polyimide bonded composite joints: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Standard single lap, double lap and symmetric step lap bonded joints of Celion 3000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite were evaluated. Composite to composite and composite to titanium joints were tested at 116K (-250 F), 294K (70 F) and 561K (550 F). Joint parameters evaluated were lap length, adherend thickness, adherend axial stiffness, lamina stacking sequence and adherend tapering. Tests of advanced joint concepts were also conducted to establish the change in performance of preformed adherends, scalloped adherends and hybrid systems. Special tests were conducted to establish material properties of the high temperature adhesive, designated A7F, used for bonding. Most of the bonded joint tests resulted in interlaminar shear or peel failures of the composite. There were very few adhesive failures. Average test results agree with expected performance trends for the various test parameters. Results of finite element analyses and of test/analysis correlations are also presented.

  2. AB 93. Presentation of the statistical data during hospitilization of PMR patients. A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheria, Argyriou; Vasiliki, Atmatidou; Panagiota, Stefanopoulou; Nikos, Kareklas

    2012-01-01

    Background In PMR (Intensive Care Unit) of the DDA. of G.P.N.G. Pap hospitalized patients with prolonged hospitalization in ICU or a step prior to hospitalization in the ICU with very special attention clinical status. Patients and methods Specifically in 2011 admitted 158 patients, of whom 21 died people diakomisthikan 22 ICU patients in other clinics and 4 patients took part or surreptitiously leaving 38 patients. Results The main causes of hospitalization were the AAII (type II respiratory failure), respiratory acidosis and tracheostomy management. Often ACCOMPANYING clinical problems of these patients were resistant bedsores and nosocomial infections resulting in persistent and high febrile. Conclusions Nevertheless with the best efforts of medical and nursing staff and despite the poor conditions logistics and training done very important work, saved lives, which is why everyone involved is extremely proud.

  3. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  4. Test and analysis of Celion 3000/PMR-15, graphite/polyimide bonded composite joints: Data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J. B.; Mccleskey, S. F.; Ward, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Standard single lap, double lap and symmetric step lap bonded joints of Celion 3000/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide composite were evaluated. Composite to composite and composite to titanium joints were tested at 116 K (-250 F), 294 K (70 F) and 561 K (550 F). Joint parameters evaluated are lap length, adherend thickness, adherend axial stiffness, lamina stacking sequence and adherend tapering. Advanced joint concepts were examined to establish the change in performance of preformed adherends, scalloped adherends and hybrid systems. The material properties of the high temperature adhesive, designated A7F, used for bonding were established. The bonded joint tests resulted in interlaminar shear or peel failures of the composite and there were very few adhesive failures. Average test results agree with expected performance trends for the various test parameters. Results of finite element analyses and of test/analysis correlations are also presented.

  5. Assessment of documentation requirements under DOE 5481. 1, Safety Analysis and Review System (SARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    This report assesses the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations (SARS) in regard to maintaining SARS documentation. Under SARS, all pertinent details of the entire safety analysis and review process for each DOE operation are to be traceable from the initial identification of a hazard. This report is intended to provide assistance in identifying the points in the SARS cycle at which documentation is required, what type of documentation is most appropriate, and where it ultimately should be maintained.

  6. Liver and peripheral blood concentration ratio (L/P) as a marker of postmortem drug redistribution: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M

    2014-03-01

    The liver to peripheral blood (L/P) ratio, based upon review of previously published works, was evaluated as a marker of postmortem redistribution (PMR). Literature supported the proposed model that drugs exhibiting an L/P ratio of less than 5 are prone to little or no PMR, while those with an L/P ratio greater than 20-30 have propensity for significant redistribution. Many antidepressants, including both tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, were markedly differentiated from drugs previously verified to be free from, or exhibit little, PMR. The magnitude of the liver to blood concentrations also appeared to provide an advantage over the conventional central to peripheral blood ratio model of PMR by demonstrating a wide range of values (1.6-97) for interpretation of drugs' potential for, and variations in, redistribution.

  7. Polymorphism of genes encoding PmrAB in colistin-resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolated from poultry and swine.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Alberto; Porrero, M Concepción; Téllez, Sonia; Palomo, Gonzalo; García, María; Domínguez, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    To detect the occurrence of low susceptibility to colistin (polymyxin E), a last-resort antimicrobial, among enterobacteria isolated from samples of animal origin (poultry and swine) and to find out the molecular basis of colistin resistance. Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli were isolated from eggs and swine samples. Bacterial strains were screened for colistin resistance by using MIC determinations interpreted according to EUCAST recommendations. pmrAB genes were amplified by PCR from bacterial isolates and their sequences were characterized. Nine colistin-resistant strains were detected in a collection of 739 enterobacteria (S. enterica and E. coli) isolated from animal samples taken in different environments. Sequences encoding the PmrAB two-component sensor-regulator from two colistin-resistant E. coli strains isolated from swine faeces presented three non-synonymous polymorphisms, producing the variants 39S → I and 81R → S of PmrA and 161V → G of PmrB, among which the involvement of mutations in PmrA-81 and PmrB-161 in resistance to the antimicrobial had been previously shown. No variation at the protein level was detected after analysis of PmrAB sequences from seven colistin-resistant S. enterica strains. E. coli strains carrying mutations in PmrAB that confer resistance to polymyxins, which might have evolved in vivo and have been rarely detected, are described for the first time in enterobacteria isolated from animals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 10 CFR 1021.341 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 1021.341 Section 1021.341 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.341 Coordination with...

  9. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review requirements for an interagency agreement. 801.602-74 Section 801.602-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  10. 48 CFR 801.602-72 - Exceptions and additional review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions and additional review requirements. 801.602-72 Section 801.602-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  11. 77 FR 38843 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Post-Award Reporting Requirements Including New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for review... requires the maintenance of dual reporting processes for a period of time. Thus this information collection... Public: Universities and other research ] institutions; Business or other for-profit;...

  12. 75 FR 31447 - Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management and Budget Title: State Personal Responsibility... Application to include program narrative........ 59 1 40 2360 Performance Progress Reports 59 2 10 1180 Year...

  13. 75 FR 65297 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following information collection to OMB... Application. Type of Submission: New information collection. Purpose: Entities interested in participating...

  14. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determine the applicability of other environmental laws and executive orders, to the fullest extent possible... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  15. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determine the applicability of other environmental laws and executive orders, to the fullest extent possible... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine the applicability of other environmental laws and executive orders, to the fullest extent possible... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine the applicability of other environmental laws and executive orders, to the fullest extent possible... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  18. 40 CFR 6.201 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determine the applicability of other environmental laws and executive orders, to the fullest extent possible... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 6.201 Section 6.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  19. 75 FR 27561 - Agency Recordkeeping/Reporting Requirements Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Under Emergency Review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Title: LIHEAP Program Integrity... in States, Tribes or Territories is required to certify in the LIHEAP State Plan that the grantee will uphold all rules, regulations, and policies associated with the LIHEAP program. As cited above...

  20. 10 CFR 1021.341 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 1021.341 Section 1021.341 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.341 Coordination with other...

  1. 10 CFR 1021.341 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 1021.341 Section 1021.341 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.341 Coordination with other...

  2. 10 CFR 1021.341 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 1021.341 Section 1021.341 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.341 Coordination with other...

  3. 10 CFR 1021.341 - Coordination with other environmental review requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coordination with other environmental review requirements. 1021.341 Section 1021.341 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.341 Coordination with other...

  4. 78 FR 17181 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following... received within 30 days of this notification. Comments should be addressed to: Desk Officer for USAID... Information Collection. Purpose: USAID is required by Executive order that Background investigations be...

  5. 42 CFR 457.1120 - State plan requirement: Description of review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State plan requirement: Description of review process. 457.1120 Section 457.1120 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND...

  6. 48 CFR 801.602-81 - Documents required for business clearance reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documents required for business clearance reviews. 801.602-81 Section 801.602-81 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  7. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review requirements for an interagency agreement. 801.602-74 Section 801.602-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development...

  8. 48 CFR 801.602-74 - Review requirements for an interagency agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review requirements for an interagency agreement. 801.602-74 Section 801.602-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5255 - Disclosure and review requirements for other equities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equities. 615.5255 Section 615.5255 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Equities § 615.5255 Disclosure and review requirements for other equities. (a) A bank, association, or service...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5255 - Disclosure and review requirements for other equities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... equities. 615.5255 Section 615.5255 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Equities § 615.5255 Disclosure and review requirements for other equities. (a) A bank, association, or service...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5255 - Disclosure and review requirements for other equities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... equities. 615.5255 Section 615.5255 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Equities § 615.5255 Disclosure and review requirements for other equities. (a) A bank, association, or service...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5255 - Disclosure and review requirements for other equities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... equities. 615.5255 Section 615.5255 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Equities § 615.5255 Disclosure and review requirements for other equities. (a) A bank, association, or service...

  13. 75 FR 75451 - Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to OMB for Review SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has submitted the following... Submission: Renewal of Information Collections. Purpose: The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID...

  14. 78 FR 16840 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Testing and Recordkeeping Requirements Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Testing and Recordkeeping Requirements Under the... ignited by open-flame sources, such as lighters, candles, and matches. The Mattress Open-Flame...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5255 - Disclosure and review requirements for other equities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure and review requirements for other equities. 615.5255 Section 615.5255 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Equities § 615...

  16. Influence of Critical Current Density on Magnetic Force of Htsc Bulk above Pmr with 3D-MODELING Numerical Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Lu, Bingjuan; Ge, Yunwang; Chen, Wenqing

    Numerical electromagnetic field simulations of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) bulk were carried out to calculate the magnetic force between the HTSC bulk and the permanent magnet railway (PMR). A 3D-modeling numerical calculation method is proposed using the finite element method. The model is formulated with the magnetic field vector (H-method). The resulting code was written with FORTRAN language. The electric field intensity E and the current density J constitutive relation of HTSC were described with E-J power law. The Kim macro-model is used to describe critical current density Jc of HTSC bulk. Two virtual HTSC bulks were used to solve the critical current density Jc anisotropic properties of HTSC materials. A superconducting levitation system composed of one HTSC bulk and PMR is successfully investigated using the proposed method. By this method, the influence of critical current density on magnetic levitation force of the superconducting levitation system is mathematically studied.

  17. Characterization of and sensor-model verification and control of the properties of PMR-13 during processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Prettyman, T.; Robillard, K.; Smith, J.; Nicoletti, A.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Koury, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This study presents an in situ sensor and a process-simulation model developed for monitoring and controlling the cure process of PMR-15. The time-temperature dependence of the buildup in the molecular network structure, extent of reaction, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during the cure of PMR-15 are discussed. The relationship of the time-temperature cycle used during imidization to the length of the endcapped chains formed is examined. The relationship of the time-temperature cure-processing cycle to the reaction kinetics, viscosity, flow, and consolidation during crosslinking is analyzed using frequency-dependent electromagnetic sensors and the Loos processing model. Application of the FDEMS sensing technique and the process-simulation model for quality assurance processing and automated on-line control of cure is discussed.

  18. Factors determining insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy: a review

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Harold David; Callaway, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    Most women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have increased insulin requirements during pregnancy. However, a minority of women have a fall in insulin requirements. When this occurs in late gestation, it often provokes concern regarding possible compromise of the feto-placental unit. In some centres, this is considered as an indication for delivery, including premature delivery. There are, however, many other factors that affect insulin requirements in pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus and the decline in insulin requirements may represent a variant of normal pregnancy. If there is no underlying pathological process, expedited delivery in these women is not warranted and confers increased risks to the newborn. We will explore the factors affecting insulin requirements in gestation in this review. We will also discuss some novel concepts regarding beta-cell function in pregnancy. PMID:27512424

  19. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Dianiline as a Replacement for Toxic Methylenedianiline in PMR-15: Chemistry and Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-22

    the final product. Processing treatments can be slightly varied at this point depending on the final product, but heat and pressure are typically...thickness and cured under pressure in a hot press. A known cure cycle for PMR-15 has been well established, but for new oligomers an appropriate cure...Chapter 4. A piston was inserted into the mold cavity and the mold assembly was placed into a 1-ton heated press to cure. With minimal pressure applied

  20. Effects of Prior Aging at 288 deg C in Argon Environment on Creep Response of Carbon Fiber Reinforced PMR-15 Composite with + or - 45 deg Fiber Orientation at 288 deg C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    PMR-15 COMPOSITE WITH ±45° FIBER ORIENTATION AT 288 °C Tyler Gruters AFIT/GAE/ENY/09-J02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR...CREEP RESPONSE OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PMR-15 COMPOSITE WITH ±45° FIBER ORIENTATION AT 288 °C THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department...RESPONSE OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PMR-15 COMPOSITE WITH ±45° FIBER ORIENTATION AT 288 °C Tyler Gruters Approved

  1. Quality Control and Peer Review of Data Sets: Mapping Data Archiving Processes to Data Publication Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M.; Eaker, C.; Strand, G.; Williams, S. F.; Worley, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    ? What data set review can be done pre-publication, and what must be done post-publication? What components of the data sets review processes can be automated, and what components will always require human expertise and evaluation?

  2. Oligomerization and DNA-binding capacity of Pmr, a histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family protein encoded on IncP-7 carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chiho; Yun, Choong-Soo; Umeda, Takashi; Terabayashi, Tsuguno; Watanabe, Kazuya; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Pmr, a histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family protein encoded on plasmid pCAR1, is a key factor in optimizing gene transcription on both pCAR1 and the host chromosome. To clarify the mode of function of Pmr, we performed gel filtration chromatography analysis and protein-protein cross-linking, and found that Pmr forms homo-oligomers, consisting of its homodimers. We also found, by atomic force microscopy, that Pmr has DNA-bridging capacity. From these results, Pmr was deduced to have features common to H-NS family proteins. Additionally, evaluating protein-DNA affinity is important to clarify the mode of function of Pmr, and hence we performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Though Pmr formed high-order protein-DNA complexes and did not show preference for nucleic acid sequences, the C-terminal region of Pmr did, suggesting that the DNA-binding affinity of Pmr can be evaluated by using its C-terminal region.

  3. Impact of a required fourth-year medical student rotation in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Clinton E; Mali, Jimmy; Mendoza, Paola Maria; Musick, David; Sembrano, Roderick

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a 2-wk required rotation in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) on fourth-year medical students' knowledge of PM&R and attitude toward teamwork in patient care. Survey results on attitudes toward a team approach to patient care and knowledge in PM&R were compared prerotation and postrotation. One hundred thirty-eight fourth-year medical students participated in this 2-yr study. The combined response rates for the attitude and knowledge surveys were 62% and 56%, respectively. As measured by a pretest and posttest self-reported knowledge assessment, the rotation increased knowledge of PM&R (P ≤ 0.05). Four aspects of the rotation that were rated higher by students from the second year of the rotation were role and responsibility definition, incorporation of current literature, enhancement of clinical skills, and general rotation satisfaction. The rotation provides an experience for medical students to increase their knowledge of PM&R.

  4. Part D New Source Review Requirements for Areas Requesting Redesignation to Attainment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/nsr/new-source-review-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  6. Progressive muscle relaxation as a supportive intervention for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pelekasis, Panagiotis; Matsouka, Ifigeneia; Koumarianou, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Many cancer patients use a wide variety of techniques to improve their physical and mental well-being, including relaxation therapy and, specifically, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR). However, there is no strong evidence that supports the efficacy of this technique. Our aim was to review the evidence regarding the use of PMR as a supportive intervention for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment. Six databases were electronically searched: AMED, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, and the Web of Science. After removing duplicates, 700 publications were screened and 57 identified as potentially relevant. The flow of information from record identification to study inclusion was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Original articles published in peer-reviewed journals that studied the use of PMR as an intervention, were randomized or included a matched control group, and that included patients receiving chemotherapy were included. Studies that combined PMR with other interventions were excluded. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Jadad Scale and the CONSORT guidelines. A total of 5 of the 57 papers fulfilled the preset criteria and were included in our systematic review. Our findings indicate that PMR might improve comfort and reduce the anxiety levels and side effects caused by chemotherapy, with the exception of vomiting. Nonetheless, the quality of all the included studies was extremely low. There is evidence that PMR might have a few benefits for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Still, the small number of studies included and their poor quality limit the significance of our results. Despite the fact that pharmaceutical approaches for controlling side effects might be reaching their full potential and that there might be further usefulness for such integrative treatments as PMR, the need to run more high-quality trials testing the efficacy of this technique is warranted before

  7. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  8. A review of helicopter control-display requirements for decelarating instrument approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews research and operational test programs that have dealt with control and display requirements for helicopters performing decelerating approaches in the terminal area under instrument flight conditions. A survey of literature concentrating on flight programs resulted in approximately 50 applicable references which were summarized and classified according to the type of stability/control augmentation that was emphasized. On this basis, display information requirements for each control system type were hypothesized consistent with documented results of these programs. Nine control-display combinations that appear to warrant further ground simulation and flight testing are defined and discussed.

  9. Review of trace mineral requirements for preterm infants: what are the current recommendations for clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Finch, Carolyn Weiglein

    2015-02-01

    Inadequate nutrient stores at birth are an inevitable consequence of being born prematurely. Preterm infants also have high nutrient requirements, which increase with earlier gestational ages. As a result, early nutrition intervention is required to prevent further deficits that, if not corrected, can affect growth and long-term outcomes. Preterm infants often require several weeks of parenteral nutrition (PN) support, which includes trace mineral supplementation. Trace minerals are considered essential nutrients, unable to be synthesized in the human body. Deficiencies of trace minerals have been reported, yet evidence-based guidelines for assessment and supplementation have not been clearly defined. Food and Drug Administration-approved parenteral trace mineral intake guidelines are more than 30 years old. In an effort to more clearly define trace mineral supplementation and monitoring guidelines for preterm infants, a review of literature was performed with the purpose to (1) summarize trace mineral roles in preterm infants, (2) describe clinical signs of deficiency and toxicity, and (3) present intake recommendations and considerations for preterm infants based on current available literature. Review of literature was completed using PubMed and Cochrane databases to find relevant studies specific to trace mineral requirements for preterm infants, trace mineral supplementation of PN, human milk fortifiers, and preterm infant formulas. Review of literature supports that trace mineral depletion can lead to clinical compromise in preterm infants; therefore, suggesting that every effort be made to ensure adequate provision of trace minerals is given to preterm infants. Practical considerations for the clinical nutrition management of preterm infants were also identified in this review. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Round Table Part 1: Review of future manned missions and Identification key ECLSS requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Wheeler, Raymond; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Joshi, Jitendra; Dussap, Gilles; Godia, Francesc

    2016-07-01

    All forecast an end of ISS in 2024. What so ever will be the exact date date the main part of the space agencies are currently elaborating plans for future manned missions. So far mainly 3 destination are considered :" Moon, Mars and Lagrange point L2. Depending of the missions duration, crew size, safety .. the ECLSS will have major difference . In this first part of the round table it is proposed to review the main missions scenario and elaborate top level requirements.

  11. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  12. Specimen geometry effects on graphite/PMR-15 composites during thermo-oxidative aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Meyers, A.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish the effects of specimen geometry on the thermo-oxidative stability and the mechanical properties retention of unidirectional Celion 12000 graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15 polyimide composites. Weight loss, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength are measured at isothermal aging times as long as 1639 hr at a temperature of 316 C for three different specimen geometries. It is found that the three different types of specimen surfaces exhibit different values of weight loss/unit area. The mechanical properties retention is also found to be dependent on geometry for these composites. The interlaminar shear strength decreases significantly over the complete range of aging times. The flexural strength retention starts showing geometric dependency after about 1000 hr of aging at 316C. Weight loss fluxes, associated with the three different types of exposed surfaces, are calculated and used to develop an empirical mathematical model for predicting the weight loss behavior of unidirectional composites of arbitrary geometries. Data are presented comparing experimentally determined weight loss with weight loss values predicted using the empirical model.

  13. Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; ...

    2015-04-16

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connectingmore » the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.« less

  14. Thermomechanical Properties of Interface Modified M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda; Inghram, Linda; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Wheeler, Don; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high-temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high-temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. In this study, the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) and typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-11-50 were characterized. A continuous desizing system that uses an environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical process was developed for tow level fiber. Composites were fabricated with fibers containing the manufacturer's sizing, desized, and further treated with a reactive finish. Results of room temperature tests show that desizing reduces interface sensitive properties compared to the manufacturer's sizing and that subsequent surface re-treatment with reactive finish increases interface sensitive properties. Properties of thermally aged composites and composites with varying finish concentrations will also be discussed.

  15. Experimental investigation and CFD analysis on cross flow in the core of PMR200

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong -Hun; Yoon, Su -Jong; Cho, Hyoung -Kyu; Jae, Moosung; Park, Goon -Cherl

    2015-04-16

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the major Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concepts, which consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks made of nuclear gradegraphite. However, the shape of the graphite blocks could be easily changed by neutron damage duringthe reactor operation and the shape change can create gaps between the blocks inducing the bypass flow.In the VHTR core, two types of gaps, a vertical gap and a horizontal gap which are called bypass gap and cross gap, respectively, can be formed. The cross gap complicates the flow field in the reactor core by connecting the coolant channel to the bypass gap and it could lead to a loss of effective coolant flow in the fuel blocks. Thus, a cross flow experimental facility was constructed to investigate the cross flow phenomena in the core of the VHTR and a series of experiments were carried out under varying flow rates and gap sizes. The results of the experiments were compared with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis results in order to verify its prediction capability for the cross flow phenomena. Fairly good agreement was seen between experimental results and CFD predictions and the local characteristics of the cross flow was discussed in detail. Based on the calculation results, pressure loss coefficient across the cross gap was evaluated, which is necessary for the thermo-fluid analysis of the VHTR core using a lumped parameter code.

  16. Thermomechanical Fatigue Durability of T650-35/PMR-15 Sheet-Molding Compound Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    High-performance polymer matrix composites (PMC's) continue to be the focus of a number of research efforts aimed at developing cost-effective, lightweight material alternatives for advanced aerospace and aeropropulsion applications. These materials not only offer significant advantages in specific stiffness and strength over their current metal counterparts, but they can be designed and manufactured to eliminate joints and fasteners by combining individual components into integral subassemblies, thus making them extremely attractive for commercial applications. With much emphasis on the low-cost manufacturing aspects of advanced composite structures, there is heightened interest in high-performance sheet-molding compounds (SMC's). Researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with the Allison Advanced Development Company, completed an investigation examining the use of T650-35/PMR-15 SMC for a midstage inner-vane endwall application within a gas turbine engine compressor. This component resides in the engine flow path and is subjected not only to high airflow rates, but also to elevated temperatures and pressures. This application is unique in that it represents a very aggressive use of high-performance SMC's, raising obvious concerns related to durability and property retention in the presence of microstructural damage. Therefore, it was necessary to evaluate the fatigue behavior and damage tolerance of this material subjected to a representative thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) mission-cycle loading spectrum.

  17. Long-Term Isothermal Aging Effects on Carbon Fabric-Reinforced PMR-15 Composites: Compression Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Gary D.; Kamvouris, John E.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term isothermal thermo-oxidative aging on the compressive properties of T-650-35 fabric reinforced PMR-15 composites. The temperatures that were studied were 204, 260, 288, 316, and 343 C. Specimens of different geometries were evaluated. Cut edge-to-surface ratios of 0.03 to 0.89 were fabricated and aged. Aging times extended to a period in excess of 15,000 hours for the lower temperature runs. The unaged and aged specimens were tested in compression in accordance with ASTM D-695. Both thin and thick (plasma) specimens were tested. Three specimens were tested at each time/temperature/geometry condition. The failure modes appeared to be initiated by fiber kinking with longitudinal, interlaminar splitting. In general, it appears that the thermo-oxidative degradation of the compression strength of the composite material may occur by both thermal (time-dependent) and oxidative (weight-loss) mechanisms. Both mechanisms appear to be specimen-thickness dependent.

  18. Thermomechanical Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Shin, E. Eugene; Inghram, Linda; McCorkle, Linda; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Wheeler, Donald; Sutter, James K.

    2003-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high-temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high-temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplies on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. In this study, the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) and typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50 were characterized. A continuous desizing system that uses an environmentally friendly chemical-mechanical process was developed for tow level fiber. Composites were fabricated with fibers containing the manufacturer's sizing, desized, and further treated with a reactive finish. Results of room temperature tests show that desizing reduces interface sensitive properties compared to the manufacturer's sizing and that subsequent surface re-treatment with reactive finish increases interface sensitive properties. Properties of thermally aged composites and composites with varying finish concentrations are also discussed.

  19. A Limited Comparison of the Thermal Durability of Polyimide Candidate Matrix Polymers with PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Inghram, Linda L.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Klans, Ojars V.

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted with six different candidate high-temperature neat matrix resin specimens of varied geometric shapes to investigate the mechanisms involved in the thermal degradation of polyimides like PMR-15. The metrics for assessing the quality of these candidates were chosen to be glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), thermo-oxidative stability, dynamic mechanical properties, microstructural changes, and dimensional stability. The processing and mechanical properties were not investigated in the study reported herein. The dimensional changes and surface layer growth were measured and recorded. The data were in agreement with earlier published data. An initial weight increase reaction was observed to be dominating at the lower temperatures. However, at the more elevated temperatures, the weight loss reactions were prevalent and probably masked the weight gain reaction. These data confirmed the findings of the existence of an initial weight gain reaction previously reported. Surface- and core-dependent weight losses were shown to control the polymer degradation at the higher temperatures.

  20. Understanding of Essential Elements Required in Informed Consent Form among Researchers and Institutional Review Board Members.

    PubMed

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Laothavorn, Junjira; Karbwang, Juntra

    2015-06-01

    The process of informed consent remains a constant challenge in clinical research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the understanding of researchers and members of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) regarding the essential elements of an Informed Consent Form (ICF) as required by internationally recognized regulations. Using eight case studies to illustrate basic ethical elements, the study involved 107 participants, mainly from the Asia Pacific and African regions. The results showed that most of the participants had general knowledge regarding the essential elements required in an ICF. However, the issues of confidentiality of data and payment for study participation proved to be problematic for some participants, accounting for 35% and 28% of all incorrect answers respectively. This suggests that participants' understanding of the underlying concepts of the required ICF elements is limited. Ethical training of researchers and IRB members, particularly in the Asia Pacific and African regions, concerning valid informed consent is still needed.

  1. Outcomes for patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Boisanger, L

    2016-02-01

    This is a literature review of outcomes for patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) who require admission to the intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation. Respiratory distress is the leading cause of death in the acute phase, and occurs in about 25 % of patients. The aim of this review is to compile, analyse, and summarise the most relevant literature looking at outcomes for Guillain-Barré (GB) patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation. A PubMed and Google-Scholar literature search was performed using the key words 'Guillain-Barré, Outcomes, Mechanical Ventilation, Prognosis, Mortality, ICU. All 7 papers from the years 2000-2014 which assessed outcomes for GBS patients requiring mechanical ventilation were included, and critically analysed. The parameters recorded by these studies looked at mortality, disability, length of hospitalisation, and complications. The mortality of GB patients requiring mechanical ventilation varied from 8.3 to 20 %, Disability was primarily measured by the GBS disability scale. One study deemed that a score of 0-1 was a positive outcome, and found that slightly over half 53.8 % of the patients fulfilled that criteria. Over half of the mechanically ventilated patients were required to be admitted for over 3 weeks. Complications during ICU admission are common, with bed-sores (40 %), pneumonia (30.2 %) and sepsis (17.4) being the most frequently encountered in one study. Accurate data are limited by the fact that these studies are retrospective, often covering long periods in the past. Larger, more recent, prospective, multi-centre studies will be required.

  2. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602...

  3. Fe(3+)-dependent epistasis between the CpxR-activated loci and the PmrA-activated LPS modification loci in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akinori; Higashino, Nami; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2017-01-25

    Bacteria utilize varying combinations of two-component regulatory systems, many of which respond and adapt closely to stress conditions, thus expanding their niche steadily. While mechanisms of recognition and avoidance of the specific Fe(3+) signal by the PmrA/PmrB system is well understood, those of the CpxR/CpxA system are more complex because they can be induced by various stress conditions, which, in turn, expresses a variety of phenotypes. Here, we highlight another aspect of the CpxR/CpxA system; mutations in degP and yqjA genes, which are under the control of the system, exhibit an iron sensitive phenotype in the mutant background defective in the PmrA-dependent gene products that alter the pyrophosphate status of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide in Salmonella enterica. Therefore, after the PmrA/PmrB-mediated Fe(3+)-dependent control of the pyrophosphate status on the cell surface, the CpxR/CpxA system is one of the second layers of envelope stress response that allows adaptation to high Fe(3+) conditions in this bacterium.

  4. 42 CFR 456.653 - Acceptable reasons for not meeting requirements for annual on-site review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 456.652(a)(4), if— (a) The agency demonstrates that— (1) It completed reviews by the end of the quarter in at least 98 percent of all facilities requiring review by the end of the quarter; (2) It completed reviews by the end of the quarter in all facilities with 200 or more certified Medicaid beds...

  5. When is a Source Required to Undergo Review For Both Offsets and PSD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Thermal management in heavy vehicles : a review identifying issues and research requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M. W.

    1999-01-15

    Thermal management in heavy vehicles is cross-cutting because it directly or indirectly affects engine performance, fuel economy, safety and reliability, engine/component life, driver comfort, materials selection, emissions, maintenance, and aerodynamics. It follows that thermal management is critical to the design of large (class 6-8) trucks, especially in optimizing for energy efficiency and emissions reduction. Heat rejection requirements are expected to increase, and it is industry's goal to develop new, innovative, high-performance cooling systems that occupy less space and are lightweight and cost-competitive. The state of the art in heavy vehicle thermal management is reviewed, and issues and research areas are identified.

  7. Review of current practices and requirements for the inspection of prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    Code requirements for pre- and in-service inspection of prestressed concrete pressure vessels as utilized in gas-cooled reactors are reviewed and compared with practices and experiences during construction, commissioning, and operation of such reactors. The pre-service inspection relies heavily on embedded instrumentation for measurements of stresses, temperatures, and displacements. The same instrumentation is later used for in-service surveillance, which additionally includes visual examination of exposed surfaces, monitoring of tendon conditions, and measurement of tendon loads. Improvement of present monitoring instrumentation and/or techniques, rather than development of new in-service inspection methods, is recommended.

  8. Guidance on the Appropriate Injunctive Relief for Violations of Major New Source Review Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Radioactive waste management: review on clearance levels and acceptance criteria legislation, requirements and standards.

    PubMed

    Maringer, F J; Suráň, J; Kovář, P; Chauvenet, B; Peyres, V; García-Toraño, E; Cozzella, M L; De Felice, P; Vodenik, B; Hult, M; Rosengård, U; Merimaa, M; Szücs, L; Jeffery, C; Dean, J C J; Tymiński, Z; Arnold, D; Hinca, R; Mirescu, G

    2013-11-01

    In 2011 the joint research project Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management (MetroRWM)(1) of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) started with a total duration of three years. Within this project, new metrological resources for the assessment of radioactive waste, including their calibration with new reference materials traceable to national standards will be developed. This paper gives a review on national, European and international strategies as basis for science-based metrological requirements in clearance and acceptance of radioactive waste. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of New Source Review Requirements in PM2.5 Nonattainment Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. SAR compliance assessment of PMR 446 and FRS walkie-talkies.

    PubMed

    Vermeeren, Günter; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2015-10-01

    The vast amount of studies on radiofrequency dosimetry deal with exposure due to mobile devices and base station antennas for cellular communication systems. This study investigates compliance of walkie-talkies to exposure guidelines established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the Federal Communications Committee. The generic walkie-talkie consisted of a helical antenna and a ground plane and was derived by reverse engineering of a commercial walkie-talkie. Measured and simulated values of antenna characteristics and electromagnetic near fields of the generic walkie-talkie were within 2% and 8%, respectively. We also validated normalized electromagnetic near fields of the generic walkie-talkie against a commercial device and observed a very good agreement (deviation <6%). We showed that peak localized specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the oval flat phantom by the generic walkie-talkie is in agreement with four commercial devices if input power of the generic walkie-talkie is rescaled based on magnetic near field. Finally, we found that SAR of commercial devices is within current SAR limits for general public exposure for a worst-case duty cycle of 100%, that is, about 3 times and 6 times lower than the limit on the 1 g SAR (1.6 W/kg) and 10 g SAR (2 W/kg), respectively. But, an effective radiated power as specified by the Private Mobile Radio at 446 MHz (PMR 446) radio standard can cause localized SAR exceeding SAR limits for 1 g of tissue. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of Graphite Fabric Reinforced PMR-15 and Avimid N Composites After Long Term Isothermal Aging at Various Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; McCorkle, Linda; Ingrahm, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Extensive effort is currently being expended to demonstrate the feasibility of using high-performance, polymer-matrix composites as engine structural materials over the expected operating lifetime of the aircraft, which can extend from 18,000 to 30,000 hr. The goal is to develop light-weight, high-strength, and high-modulus materials for use in higher temperature sections of advanced 21 st century aircraft propulsion systems. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to pursue the development of thermal and mechanical durability models for graphite-fiber-reinforced, polymer-matrix composites. Numerous investigations have been reported regarding the thermo-oxidative stability (TOS) of the polyimide PMR-15 (1-5). A significant amount of this work has been directed at edge and geometry effects, reinforcement fiber influences, and empirical modeling of high-temperature weight loss behavior. It is yet to be determined if the information obtained from the PMR-15 composite tests is applicable to other polyimide-matrix composites. The condensation-curing polymer Avimid N is another advanced composite material often considered for structural applications at high temperatures. Avimid N has better thermo-oxidative stability than PMR-15 (6), but the latter is more easily processed. The most comprehensive study of the thermo-oxidative stability of Avimid N neat resin and composites at 371 (infinity)C is found in Salin and Seferis (7). The purposes of the work described herein were to compare the thermal aging behavior of these two matrix polymers and to determine the reasons for and the consequences of the difference in thermal durability. These results might be of some use in improving future polymer development through the incorporation of the desirable characteristics of both polyimides.

  13. Transcardiac migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt requiring open cardiac surgery: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Ashley; Johnson, Amanda; Ziemer, Gerhard; Frim, David M

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac migration of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts has been reported, with most easily removed or shortened via a cervical incision. We present a review of the literature, highlighting our unique case with significant scarring requiring open, on-pump, cardiac surgery for removal of migrated distal tubing. A 7-year-old boy underwent VP shunt insertion for hydrocephalus secondary to intracranial astrocytoma. He presented at age 17 with evidence of right heart strain, associated with the distal shunt catheter proximally migrated into his heart and pulmonary arteries. Due to his delayed presentation, the catheter was knotted and partially immobilized by scar formation, finally requiring open-heart surgery to remove the catheter. A multi-disciplinary evaluation with endovascular, neurosurgery, and cardiothoracic surgery may be the safest approach, especially in those patients with knotting on preoperative imaging.

  14. PMR Characterization of the Water Structure in Tibetan Milk Mushroom Zooglea: Influence of Medium Hydration and Hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupskaya, T. V.; Prylutskyy, Yu. I.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Tsapko, M. D.; Turov, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The state of water in Tibetan milk mushroom zooglea with different degrees of hydration (h) was investigated using low-temperature PMR spectroscopy in air and in contact with the hydrophobic media polydimethylsiloxane PDMS-1000 and CHCl3 with added trifl uoroacetic acid (TFA). The maximum hydration of the zooglea amounted to h = 32 g/g (of dry matter). Water existed as polyassociates (clusters or domains) of strongly and weakly associated water. Bound water decomposed into clusters in the presence of TFA. The NMR spectra showed six types of bound water at h = 0.3 g/g.

  15. Refractory PMR with aortitis: life-saving treatment with anti-IL6 monoclonal antibody (tocilizumab) and surgical reconstruction of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Fahd Adeeb Mohamed; Anjum, Shakeel; Hussaini, Abid; Fraser, Alexander

    2013-06-18

    Aortitis is uncommon but well described in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). While glucocorticoid remains the mainstay therapy for large-vessel vasculitis, there have been cases where tocilizumab therapy led to clinical and serological improvement in patients with relapsing or refractory disease. We report a case of life-threatening PMR with aortitis in the absence of manifestations related to giant cell arteritis, which, having failed to respond to corticosteroid therapy, was successfully treated with tocilizumab and emergency reconstruction of the ascending aorta. This case adds to the literature supporting the potential value of interleukin-6 inhibition in rare rheumatological conditions such as inflammatory aortitis.

  16. Warfarin Dosing Algorithms Underpredict Dose Requirements in Patients Requiring ≥7 mg Daily: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saffian, S M; Duffull, S B; Wright, Dfb

    2017-08-01

    There is preliminary evidence to suggest that some published warfarin dosing algorithms produce biased maintenance dose predictions in patients who require higher than average doses. We conducted a meta-analysis of warfarin dosing algorithms to determine if there exists a systematic under- or overprediction of dose requirements for patients requiring ≥7 mg/day across published algorithms. Medline and Embase databases were searched up to September 2015. We quantified the proportion of over- and underpredicted doses in patients whose observed maintenance dose was ≥7 mg/day. The meta-analysis included 47 evaluations of 22 different warfarin dosing algorithms from 16 studies. The meta-analysis included data from 1,492 patients who required warfarin doses of ≥7 mg/day. All 22 algorithms were found to underpredict warfarin dosing requirements in patients who required ≥7 mg/day by an average of 2.3 mg/day with a pooled estimate of underpredicted doses of 92.3% (95% confidence interval 90.3-94.1, I(2) = 24%). © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  17. Oligomerization mechanisms of an H-NS family protein, Pmr, encoded on the plasmid pCAR1 provide a molecular basis for functions of H-NS family members.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chiho; Kawazuma, Kohei; Horita, Shoichiro; Terada, Tohru; Tanokura, Masaru; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacterial H-NS-like proteins and Pseudomonas MvaT-like proteins share low homology at the amino acid sequence level, but both can function as xenogeneic silencers and are included in the H-NS family of proteins. H-NS family members have dimerization/oligomerization and DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible linker and form large nucleoprotein complexes using both domains. Pmr, an MvaT-like protein encoded on the IncP-7 carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1, is a key regulator of an interaction between pCAR1 and its host Pseudomonas putida KT2440. KT2440 has two transcribed genes that encode the MvaT-like proteins TurA and TurB. Our previous transcriptome analyses suggested that the functions of Pmr, TurA and TurB are non-equivalent, although the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the protein-protein interactions of Pmr, and assessed the homo-oligomerization capacity of various substituted and truncated Pmr derivatives by protein-protein cross-linking analysis. Six of the seven residues identified as important for homo-oligomerization in Pmr were located near the N-terminus, and the putative flexible linker or the region near that was not involved in homo-oligomerization, suggesting that Pmr homo-oligomerization is different from that of enterobacterial H-NS and that the functional mechanism differs between H-NS-like and MvaT-like proteins. In addition, we assessed homo- and hetero-oligomerization of Pmr by surface plasmon resonance analysis and found that the coupling ratio of TurB-Pmr oligomers is smaller than that of Pmr-Pmr or TurA-Pmr oligomers. These results raised the possibility that composition of the hetero-oligomers of Pmr, TurA, and TurB could explain why the different gene sets were affected by either pmr, turA, or turB disruption in our previous studies.

  18. Oligomerization Mechanisms of an H-NS Family Protein, Pmr, Encoded on the Plasmid pCAR1 Provide a Molecular Basis for Functions of H-NS Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Chiho; Kawazuma, Kohei; Horita, Shoichiro; Terada, Tohru; Tanokura, Masaru; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacterial H-NS-like proteins and Pseudomonas MvaT-like proteins share low homology at the amino acid sequence level, but both can function as xenogeneic silencers and are included in the H-NS family of proteins. H-NS family members have dimerization/oligomerization and DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible linker and form large nucleoprotein complexes using both domains. Pmr, an MvaT-like protein encoded on the IncP-7 carbazole-degradative plasmid pCAR1, is a key regulator of an interaction between pCAR1 and its host Pseudomonas putida KT2440. KT2440 has two transcribed genes that encode the MvaT-like proteins TurA and TurB. Our previous transcriptome analyses suggested that the functions of Pmr, TurA and TurB are non-equivalent, although the detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the protein–protein interactions of Pmr, and assessed the homo-oligomerization capacity of various substituted and truncated Pmr derivatives by protein–protein cross-linking analysis. Six of the seven residues identified as important for homo-oligomerization in Pmr were located near the N-terminus, and the putative flexible linker or the region near that was not involved in homo-oligomerization, suggesting that Pmr homo-oligomerization is different from that of enterobacterial H-NS and that the functional mechanism differs between H-NS-like and MvaT-like proteins. In addition, we assessed homo- and hetero-oligomerization of Pmr by surface plasmon resonance analysis and found that the coupling ratio of TurB-Pmr oligomers is smaller than that of Pmr-Pmr or TurA-Pmr oligomers. These results raised the possibility that composition of the hetero-oligomers of Pmr, TurA, and TurB could explain why the different gene sets were affected by either pmr, turA, or turB disruption in our previous studies. PMID:25137042

  19. The 34th Walter J. Zeiter lecture: creating the future of PM&R: building on our past.

    PubMed

    Gans, Bruce M

    2003-07-01

    The founders of the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) took advantage of a confluence of political, technical, and economic opportunities to launch our specialty. In the process, they expressed their values of belief in the importance of function, the team approach to health care, the utility of physical agents and modalities in the management of neuromuscular conditions, the impact of education for our patients and their families, the rights of persons with a disability (PWD), and the responsibility of our field to advocate for public policy issues concerned with the needs of PWD. Advances in the technology of health care delivery and biomedicine will shape our future. Specific trends and factors are addressed. Equally important will be the political dimension, including the aging of our global population, and the economic consequences of health insurance pressures. The field of PM&R should focus on activities that take advantage of emerging trends but are rooted in our traditional values. In particular, the field should look forward to the massive growth of populations in need of our services because of aging and longevity, the emerging global health community, and our increasing technical capacity to impact improvements in health and function. The field is charged to preserve awareness of our core values, to support the common good of research, to keep the use of new and emerging technology in check to serve the needs of our patients, to continue our advocacy for social justice for PWD, and to embrace the emerging global community.

  20. Comparison of SMR, PMR, and PCMR in a cohort of union members potentially exposed to diesel exhaust emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O; Morgan, R W; Kheifets, L; Larson, S R

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of cause specific standarised mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) or proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMRs) was made based on the mortality experience of a cohort of 34 156 members of a heavy equipment operators union. Two types of PMRs or PCMRs were used in the comparison: those based on all deaths and those based on deaths known to the union only. The comparison indicated that, for the entire cohort, both types of PMRs were poor indicators for cancer risk and produced a large number of false positives. On the other hand, PCMRs appeared to be better than PMRs for assessing the direction of site specific cancer risk, but they tended to overstate the magnitude of risk. Analysis by duration of union membership or latency indicated that PMRs or PCMRs based on deaths known to the union tended to overestimate the risk of lung cancer by disproportionately larger amounts in groups with shorter time than in groups with longer time. This differential bias had the net effect of reducing the gradient of any trend or eliminating the trend entirely. In conclusion, PMR or PCMR, based on reasonably sufficient death ascertainment, has a certain usefulness in generating hypotheses, but they are not useful or reliable in measuring the magnitude of risk or in detecting trends in dose response analysis. No conclusion should be drawn from either PMR or PCMR. PMID:2410011

  1. A Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation Modelling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Beattie - Bridgeman Virial expansion The above equations are suitable for moderate pressures and are usually based on either empirical constants...CR 2010-013 October 2009 A Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation...Defence R&D Canada. A Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation

  2. Thermomechanical Fatigue Durability of T650-35/PMR-15 Sheet Molding Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.; Sutter, James K.; Benson, Dianne

    1998-01-01

    Although polyimide based composites have been used for many years in a wide variety of elevated temperature applications, very little work has been done to examine the durability and damage behavior under more prototypical thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) loadings. Synergistic effects resulting from simultaneous temperature and load cycling can potentially lead to enhanced, if not unique, damage modes and contribute to a number of nonlinear deformation responses. The goal of this research was to examine the effects of a TMF loading spectrum, representative of a gas turbine engine compressor application, on a polyimide sheet molding compound (SMC). High performance SMCs present alternatives to prepreg forms with great potential for low cost component production through less labor intensive, more easily automated manufacturing. To examine the issues involved with TMF, a detailed experimental investigation was conducted to characterize the durability of a T650-35/PMR-15 SMC subjected to TMF mission cycle loadings. Fatigue damage progression was tracked through macroscopic deformation and elastic stiffness. Additional properties, such as the glass transition temperature (T(sub g) and dynamic mechanical properties were examined. The fiber distribution orientation was also characterized through a detailed quantitative image analysis. Damage tolerance was quantified on the basis of residual static tensile properties after a prescribed number of TMF missions. Detailed microstructural examinations were conducted using optical and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the local damage. The imposed baseline TMF missions had only a modest impact on inducing fatigue damage with no statistically significant degradation occurring in the measured macroscopic properties. Microstructural damage was, however, observed subsequent to 100 h of TMF cycling which consisted primarily of fiber debonding and transverse cracking local to predominantly transverse fiber bundles. The TMF

  3. Fractured rock modeling in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program: a review of requirements and status

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, C.; Krug, A.; Key, S.; Monsees, J.

    1983-05-01

    Generalized computer codes capable of forming the basis for numerical models of fractured rock masses are being used within the NWTS program. Little additional development of these codes is considered justifiable, except in the area of representation of discrete fractures. On the other hand, model preparation requires definition of medium-specific constitutive descriptions and site characteristics and is therefore legitimately conducted by each of the media-oriented projects within the National Waste Terminal Storage program. However, it is essential that a uniform approach to the role of numerical modeling be adopted, including agreement upon the contribution of modeling to the design and licensing process and the need for, and means of, model qualification for particular purposes. This report discusses the role of numerical modeling, reviews the capabilities of several computer codes that are being used to support design or performance assessment, and proposes a framework for future numerical modeling activities within the NWTS program.

  4. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products.

    PubMed

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2015-10-01

    Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to "telecoupling" between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass-based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor-based and environmentally extended input-output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass-based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints.

  5. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl‐Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to “telecoupling” between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass‐based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land‐use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor‐based and environmentally extended input‐output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass‐based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints. PMID:27547028

  6. NESC Review of the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel (HTT) Oxygen Storage Pressure Vessel Inspection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael; Raju, Ivatury; Piascik, Robert; Cameron, Kenneth; Kirsch, Michael; Hoffman, Eric; Murthy, Pappu; Hopson, George; Greulich, Owen; Frazier, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The 8-Foot HTT (refer to Figure 4.0-1) is used to conduct tests of air-breathing hypersonic propulsion systems at Mach numbers 4, 5, and 7. Methane, Air, and LOX are mixed and burned in a combustor to produce test gas stream containing 21 percent by volume oxygen. The NESC was requested by the NASA LaRC Executive Safety Council to review the rationale for a proposed change to the recertification requirements, specifically the internal inspection requirements, of the 8-Foot HTT LOX Run Tank and LOX Storage Tank. The Run Tank is an 8,000 gallon cryogenic tank used to provide LOX to the tunnel during operations, and is pressured during the tunnel run to 2,250 pounds per square inch gage (psig). The Storage Tank is a 25,000 gallon cryogenic tank used to store LOX at slightly above atmospheric pressure as a external shell, with space between the shells maintained under vacuum conditions.

  7. Tumefactive multiple sclerosis requiring emergency craniotomy: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hernandez-Lain, Aurelio; Ramos, Ana; Lagares, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by focal neurological dysfunction with a relapsing and remitting course. Tumor-like presentation of MS (or "tumefactive"/"pseudotumoral" presentation) has been described before with a certain frequency; it consists of a large single plaque (>2cm) with presence of edema and mass effect and it is hard to distinguish from a brain tumor. However, we present a very rare case of a 53-year-old woman with a right temporal mass that turned out to be a MS plaque, who deteriorated within hours (brain herniation with loss of consciousness and unilateral mydriasis) and required an emergency craniotomy. We also present a review of the literature. It appears that only 4 cases of emergency craniotomy/craniectomy required in a patient with a tumor-like MS plaque have been reported before. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review of Safety and Design Requirements of the Artificial Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Blauw, Helga; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Koops, Robin; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-11-01

    As clinical studies with artificial pancreas systems for automated blood glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes move to unsupervised real-life settings, product development will be a focus of companies over the coming years. Directions or requirements regarding safety in the design of an artificial pancreas are, however, lacking. This review aims to provide an overview and discussion of safety and design requirements of the artificial pancreas. We performed a structured literature search based on three search components-type 1 diabetes, artificial pancreas, and safety or design-and extended the discussion with our own experiences in developing artificial pancreas systems. The main hazards of the artificial pancreas are over- and under-dosing of insulin and, in case of a bi-hormonal system, of glucagon or other hormones. For each component of an artificial pancreas and for the complete system we identified safety issues related to these hazards and proposed control measures. Prerequisites that enable the control algorithms to provide safe closed-loop control are accurate and reliable input of glucose values, assured hormone delivery and an efficient user interface. In addition, the system configuration has important implications for safety, as close cooperation and data exchange between the different components is essential.

  9. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  10. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  11. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  12. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  13. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C virus...

  14. 77 FR 54567 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Requirements for Baby-Bouncers and Walker-Jumpers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request: Requirements for Baby-Bouncers and Walker-Jumpers AGENCY: Consumer... seek extension of approval of the collection of information in the requirements for baby-bouncers and...- 0038, or by mail/hand delivery/courier (for paper, disk, or CD-ROM submissions), preferably in five...

  15. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an IHE...

  16. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an IHE...

  17. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an IHE...

  18. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an IHE...

  19. 34 CFR 86.102 - What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is required of an IHE that the Secretary selects for annual review? 86.102 Section 86.102 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.102 What is required of an IHE...

  20. Review of chamber design requirements for testing of personal protective clothing ensembles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; King, William P; Shaffer, Ronald

    2007-08-01

    This review focuses on the physical requirements for conducting ensemble testing and describes the salient issues that organizations involved in the design, test, or certification of personal protective equipment (PPE) and protective clothing ensembles need to consider for strategic planning. Several current and proposed PPE ensemble test practices and standards were identified. The man-in-simulant test (MIST) is the primary procedure used by the military to evaluate clothing ensembles for protection against chemical and biological warfare agents. MIST has been incorporated into the current editions of protective clothing and equipment standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). ASTM has recently developed a new test method (ASTM F 2588-06) for MIST evaluation of protective ensembles. Other relevant test methods include those described in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. The primary differences among the test methods were the choice of test challenge material (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride, methyl salicylate, sodium chloride particles, corn oil, fluorophore-impregnated silica) and the exercise protocol for the subject(s). Although ensemble test methods and standards provide detailed descriptions of the test procedures, none give specific requirements for chamber design. A literature survey identified 28 whole-body exposure chambers that have been or could potentially be used for testing protective clothing ensembles using human test subjects. Median chamber size, median floor space, and median volume per subject were calculated from 15 chambers (involving human test subjects), where size information is available. Based on the literature survey of existing chambers and the review of the current and proposed standards and test methods, chamber design requirements will be dictated by the test methods selected. Due to widely different test conditions for aerosol/particulate and vapor ensemble testing, it is

  1. The European Union's REACH regulation: a review of its history and requirements.

    PubMed

    Williams, E Spencer; Panko, Julie; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the European Union (EU) promulgated a monumental regulatory initiative for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). To date, several thousand pages of text have been needed to describe the expectations of this regulation. There were numerous reasons for the promulgation of REACH, but, by and large, it is an extension of the global desire to produce fewer industrial chemicals, to understand the possible human and ecological hazards of those that are produced, and to insure that any major threat is anticipated, as well as prevented. Most industry-related groups consider it the most wide-ranging and costly regulatory initiatives related to health risk assessment ever to be promulgated. This review presents a description of REACH that should inform scientists, managers, and others about its objectives and the means to satisfy them. Registration is required for all chemicals manufactured or imported into the EU, unless specifically exempted. Registration is expected to be a collaborative process among companies, which will generate a dossier containing data on physicochemical characteristics, as well as toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. Though the magnitude of the gaps in the data required for registration is uncertain at this point, it is clear that basic toxicology testing will have to be conducted for many chemical substances that have not undergone formal review up to this point. For many chemicals, an examination of hazards and risks arising from the use of these substances will also be required in the form of a chemical safety report (CSR). Beginning with the dual processes of dossier and substance evaluation, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the Member States of the EU, and the European Commission will identify chemicals that may pose unacceptable hazards to human health and/or the environment, and will curtail or restrict their usage. The implementation of REACH will expand and deepen the

  2. Efficacy and safety concerns are important reasons why the FDA requires multiple reviews before approval of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joseph S; Dzara, Kristina; Downing, Nicholas S

    2015-04-01

    The regulatory approval of new drugs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a long and complex process and often requires multiple cycles of review, potentially delaying patients' access to new and effective therapeutics. We used qualitative methods to characterize the safety and efficacy reasons why applications for novel therapeutics approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2011 required multiple review cycles prior to approval. Among ninety-six applications approved between 2001 and 2011 that required multiple review cycles, safety concerns contributed to seventy-four (77.1 percent) and efficacy concerns to forty-three (44.8 percent). Our study suggests that multiple review cycles appear to play an important role in allowing the FDA to protect public health and in ensuring adequate understanding of clinical benefits and risks prior to approval.

  3. A review of documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community, Japan and the USA.

    PubMed

    Marr, A P; Scales, M D

    1993-01-01

    Standardization of the documentation requirements for preclinical sections, for marketing submissions in the European Community (EC), Japan and the USA is proposed. It is unnecessary to standardize the leading summaries of submissions as their format is predicated by the way in which the regulatory authorities review applications. Harmonization of the technical sections will reduce the duplication of effort expended by pharmaceutical companies to produce documentation specific for each regulatory authority. Elimination of requirements specific to individual authorities will further reduce the resource requirements. The proposals made in this paper are aimed to increase the 'user-friendliness' of the preclinical documentation and therefore expedite the review process.

  4. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR & CMR," and "ASYSTANT" (a mathematical and statistical analysis software tool). Discussed are the functions, strengths, weaknesses, hardware requirements, components, level, and cost for each package. (CW)

  5. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR & CMR," and "ASYSTANT" (a mathematical and statistical analysis software tool). Discussed are the functions, strengths, weaknesses, hardware requirements, components, level, and cost for each package. (CW)

  6. Pmr, a histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family protein encoded by the IncP-7 plasmid pCAR1, is a key global regulator that alters host function.

    PubMed

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Suzuki, Chiho; Naito, Kunihiko; Takeda, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Yurika; Sai, Fumiya; Terabayashi, Tsuguno; Miyakoshi, Masatoshi; Shintani, Masaki; Nishida, Hiromi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Histone-like protein H1 (H-NS) family proteins are nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) conserved among many bacterial species. The IncP-7 plasmid pCAR1 is transmissible among various Pseudomonas strains and carries a gene encoding the H-NS family protein, Pmr. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a host of pCAR1, which harbors five genes encoding the H-NS family proteins PP_1366 (TurA), PP_3765 (TurB), PP_0017 (TurC), PP_3693 (TurD), and PP_2947 (TurE). Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the presence of pCAR1 does not affect the transcription of these five genes and that only pmr, turA, and turB were primarily transcribed in KT2440(pCAR1). In vitro pull-down assays revealed that Pmr strongly interacted with itself and with TurA, TurB, and TurE. Transcriptome comparisons of the pmr disruptant, KT2440, and KT2440(pCAR1) strains indicated that pmr disruption had greater effects on the host transcriptome than did pCAR1 carriage. The transcriptional levels of some genes that increased with pCAR1 carriage, such as the mexEF-oprN efflux pump genes and parI, reverted with pmr disruption to levels in pCAR1-free KT2440. Transcriptional levels of putative horizontally acquired host genes were not altered by pCAR1 carriage but were altered by pmr disruption. Identification of genome-wide Pmr binding sites by ChAP-chip (chromatin affinity purification coupled with high-density tiling chip) analysis demonstrated that Pmr preferentially binds to horizontally acquired DNA regions. The Pmr binding sites overlapped well with the location of the genes differentially transcribed following pmr disruption on both the plasmid and the chromosome. Our findings indicate that Pmr is a key factor in optimizing gene transcription on pCAR1 and the host chromosome.

  7. Genetic Variations as Modifying Factors to Dietary Zinc Requirements-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Day, Kaitlin J; Adamski, Melissa M; Dordevic, Aimee L; Murgia, Chiara

    2017-02-17

    Due to reduced cost and accessibility, the use of genetic testing has appealed to health professionals for personalising nutrition advice. However, translation of the evidence linking polymorphisms, dietary requirements, and pathology risk proves to be challenging for nutrition and dietetic practitioners. Zinc status and polymorphisms of genes coding for zinc-transporters have been associated with chronic diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature to assess whether recommendations for zinc intake could be made according to genotype. Eighteen studies investigating 31 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to zinc intake and/or status were identified. Five studies examined type 2 diabetes; zinc intake was found to interact independently with two polymorphisms in the zinc-transporter gene SLC30A8 to affect glucose metabolism indicators. While the outcomes were statistically significant, the small size of the effect and lack of replication raises issues regarding translation into nutrition and dietetic practice. Two studies assessed the relationship of polymorphisms and cognitive performance; seven studies assessed the association between a range of outcomes linked to chronic conditions in aging population; two papers described the analysis of the genetic contribution in determining zinc concentration in human milk; and two papers assessed zinc concentration in plasma without linking to clinical outcomes. The data extracted confirmed a connection between genetics and zinc requirements, although the direction and magnitude of the dietary modification for carriers of specific genotypes could not be defined. This study highlights the need to summarise nutrigenetics studies to enable health professionals to translate scientific evidence into dietary recommendations.

  8. Nucleoside conformations. XVII. A PMR study of 2′-anhydronucleosides and comparison with X-ray data

    PubMed Central

    Guschlbauer, Wilhelm; Son, Tran-Dinh; Blandin, Michel; Catlin, Joseph C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of 2′-cyclo-nucleosides (2,2′-O-anhydro-uridine, -N3-uridine and cytidine and 8,2′-S-anhydro-guanosine) have been studied by PMR in DMSO and D2O. As expected these compounds are quite rigid, but their solution conformation is considerably different from that observed in single crystal x-ray studies. While the pyrimidine cyclonucleosides in the crystal form show a C4′-endo conformation (pseudorotational phase angle P=212° to 233°), their solution conformation is C1′-exo (P=130° to 138°) and the cyclothioguanosine shows a closely similar one (P=112°). Exocyclic rotamer distribution is different in the various compounds. PMID:10793718

  9. Off-axis tensile properties and fracture in a unidirectional graphite/polyimide composite (Celion 6000/PMR 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, J.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hurwitz, F. I.

    1984-01-01

    Tensile properties of unidirectional Celion 6000 graphite/PMR 15 polyimide composites prepared by hot molding and cold molding processes were measured at room temperature and 316 C, the upper use temperature of the polyimide resin, at both 45 and 90 deg to the fiber axis. The resulting fractures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and materialographic techniques. Variation in tensile properties with processing history occurred in the elastic modulus and strain to failure for specimens loaded at 90 deg at 316 C, and in the fracture stress, and hence the in-plane shear stress, for those loaded at 45 deg at room temperature. Significant plastic deformation was observed in the 45 deg orientation at 316 C for material produced by both processing methods. In general, fracture occurred by both failure within the matrix and at the fiber-matrix interface; the degree of interfacial failure increased with temperature. Secondary cracking below the primary fracture surface was also observed.

  10. A review method for UML requirements analysis model employing system-side prototyping.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    User interface prototyping is an effective method for users to validate the requirements defined by analysts at an early stage of a software development. However, a user interface prototype system offers weak support for the analysts to verify the consistency of the specifications about internal aspects of a system such as business logic. As the result, the inconsistency causes a lot of rework costs because the inconsistency often makes the developers impossible to actualize the system based on the specifications. For verifying such consistency, functional prototyping is an effective method for the analysts, but it needs a lot of costs and more detailed specifications. In this paper, we propose a review method so that analysts can verify the consistency among several different kinds of diagrams in UML efficiently by employing system-side prototyping without the detailed model. The system-side prototype system does not have any functions to achieve business logic, but visualizes the results of the integration among the diagrams in UML as Web pages. The usefulness of our proposal was evaluated by applying our proposal into a development of Library Management System (LMS) for a laboratory. This development was conducted by a group. As the result, our proposal was useful for discovering the serious inconsistency caused by the misunderstanding among the members of the group.

  11. Which non-technical skills do junior doctors require to prescribe safely? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Effie; Mellanby, Edward; Cameron, Helen; Harden, Jeni

    2015-12-01

    Prescribing errors are a major source of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Junior doctors write most in-hospital prescriptions and are the least experienced members of the healthcare team. This puts them at high risk of error and makes them attractive targets for interventions to improve prescription safety. Error analysis has shown a background of complex environments with multiple contributory conditions. Similar conditions in other high risk industries, such as aviation, have led to an increased understanding of so-called human factors and the use of non-technical skills (NTS) training to try to reduce error. To date no research has examined the NTS required for safe prescribing. The aim of this review was to develop a prototype NTS taxonomy for safe prescribing, by junior doctors, in hospital settings. A systematic search identified 14 studies analyzing prescribing behaviours and errors by junior doctors. Framework analysis was used to extract data from the studies and identify behaviours related to categories of NTS that might be relevant to safe and effective prescribing performance by junior doctors. Categories were derived from existing literature and inductively from the data. A prototype taxonomy of relevant categories (situational awareness, decision making, communication and team working, and task management) and elements was constructed. This prototype will form the basis of future work to create a tool that can be used for training and assessment of medical students and junior doctors to reduce prescribing error in the future. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. A review on existing OSSEs and their implications on European marine observation requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Marine observations are essential for understanding marine processes and improving the forecast quality, they are also expensive. It has always been an important issue to optimize sampling schemes of marine observational networks so that the value of marine observations can be maximized and the cost can be lowered. Ocean System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is an efficient tool in assessing impacts of proposed future sampling schemes on reconstructing and forecasting the ocean and ecosystem conditions. In this study existing OSSE research results from EU projects (such as JERICO, OPEC, SANGOMA, E-AIMS and AtlantOS), institutional studies and review papers are collected and analyzed, according to regions (Arctic, Baltic, N. Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) and instruments/variables. The preliminary results show that significant gaps for OSSEs in regions and instruments. Among the existing OSSEs, Argo (Bio-Argo and Deep See Argo), gliders and ferrybox are the most often investigated instruments. Although many of the OSSEs are dedicated for very specific monitoring strategies and not sufficiently comprehensive for making solid recommendations for optimizing the existing networks, the detailed findings for future marine observation requirements from the OSSEs will be summarized in the presentation. Recommendations for systematic OSSEs for optimizing European marine observation networks are also given.

  13. Packing interactions between transmembrane helices alter ion selectivity of the yeast Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase PMR1.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Debjani; Rulli, Samuel J; Rao, Rajini

    2003-09-12

    PMR1 is the yeast secretory pathway pump responsible for high affinity transport of Mn2+ and Ca2+ into the Golgi, where these ions are sequestered and effectively removed from the cytoplasm. Phenotypic growth assays allow for convenient screening of side chains important for Ca2+ and Mn2+ transport. Earlier we demonstrated that mutant Q783A at the cytoplasmic interface of M6 could transport Ca2+, but not Mn2+. Scanning mutagenesis of side chains proximal to residue Gln-783 in membrane helices M2, M4, M5, and M6 revealed additional residues near the cytoplasmic interface, notably Leu-341 (M5), Phe-738 (M5), and Leu-785 (M6) that are sensitive to substitution. Importantly, we obtained evidence for a packing interaction between Val-335 in M4 and Gln-783 in M6 that is critical for Mn2+ transport. Thus, mutant V335G mimics the Mn2+ transport defect of Q783A and mutant V335I can effectively suppress the Mn2+-defective phenotype of Q783A. These changes in ion selectivity were confirmed by cation-dependent ATP hydrolysis using purified enzyme. Other substitutions at these sites are tolerated individually, but not in combination. Exchange of side chains at 335 and 783 also results in ion selectivity defects, suggesting that the packing interaction may be conformation-sensitive. Homology models of M4, M5, and M6 of PMR1 have been generated, based on the structures of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. The models are supported by data from mutagenesis and reveal that Gln-783 and Val-335 show conformation-sensitive packing at the cytoplasmic interface. We suggest that this region may constitute a gate for access of Mn2+ ions.

  14. Renewable energy data requirements: A review of user opinions and data collection efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, G.G.

    1991-11-01

    Interest in the contribution of renewable energy to US energy supply is growing. This interest stems from environmental and energy security concerns and the desire to develop domestic resources. In order to plan for the use of renewable energy, data are essential to a variety of users both inside and outside the government. The purpose of this study is to identify priorities and requirements for gathering different types of renewable energy data. Results of this study are to be used by the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), in planning and evaluating its ongoing and future renewable energy information programs. The types of renewable energy addressed in this study include biomass (wood, agricultural residues, and crops grown for energy), municipal solid waste, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind. To assess the relative importance of different types of information, we reviewed existing renewable energy data collection efforts and asked the opinions of renewable energy data users. Individuals in government, private industry, research organizations, industry trade associations, and public interest research groups were contacted and questioned about particular renewable energy data items. An analysis of their responses provides the basis for the conclusions in this report. The types of information; about which we asked each respondent included resource stock and flow information; quantities of energy inputs (e.g., wood) and outputs (e.g., electricity, heat); energy input and output costs and prices; numbers, location, and production capacities of energy conversion facilities; quantities and costs of energy conversion equipment; and quantities of pollutant emissions from energy conversion. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  15. 42 CFR 475.104 - Requirements for demonstrating ability to perform review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS... acceptable. (c) CMS may consider prior similar review experience in making determinations under paragraph (b...

  16. 15 CFR 930.3 - Review of the implementation of the federal consistency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... Director of the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (Director) shall review the performance of...

  17. 15 CFR 930.3 - Review of the implementation of the federal consistency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... Director of the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (Director) shall review the performance of...

  18. 15 CFR 930.3 - Review of the implementation of the federal consistency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... Director of the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (Director) shall review the performance of...

  19. 15 CFR 930.3 - Review of the implementation of the federal consistency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... Director of the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (Director) shall review the performance of...

  20. 15 CFR 930.3 - Review of the implementation of the federal consistency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT... Director of the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (Director) shall review the performance of...

  1. 78 FR 25445 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Quality Assurance Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...), General Services Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION... of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously...

  2. 34 CFR 222.95 - How are Indian policies and procedures reviewed to ensure compliance with the requirements in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are Indian policies and procedures reviewed to ensure compliance with the requirements in section 8004(a) of the Act? 222.95 Section 222.95 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY...

  3. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?...

  4. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?...

  5. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?...

  6. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?...

  7. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?...

  8. Updated Graduation Requirements Review. A Brief to the Ministry of Education from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) is a union of professionals that represents the 41,000 teachers in BC's public-education system. The BCTF is committed to success for every student in a strong and stable public-education system. In reviewing the current BC graduation requirements and plans for the draft curriculum in the fall of…

  9. Direct Loan System Requirements: Checklist for Reviewing Systems under the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act. Financial Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

    This checklist reflects the requirements of the revised Direct Loan System of the Joint Financial Management Improvement Program to assist agencies in implementing and monitoring their direct loan system and to help managers and auditors review their direct loan systems to determine if they comply with the Federal Financial Management Improvement…

  10. 21 CFR 111.113 - What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision? 111.113 Section 111.113 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  11. 21 CFR 111.113 - What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision? 111.113 Section 111.113 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  12. 21 CFR 111.113 - What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision? 111.113 Section 111.113 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  13. Requirements for the Training and Certification of Teachers in Early Primary Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Kenneth G.

    This report reviews the literature pertaining to requirements for teacher training and certification in early primary education. The literature since 1975 from Canada, the United States, Great Britain, Europe, Australia, and elsewhere was examined in order to address questions of selection criteria, competencies, models of teacher education,…

  14. 21 CFR 111.113 - What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for a material review and disposition decision? 111.113 Section 111.113 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT...

  15. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  16. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  17. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  18. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  19. 24 CFR 570.901 - Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pertaining to loan guarantees (subpart M) and urban renewal completions (subpart N). ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review for compliance with the primary and national objectives and other program requirements. 570.901 Section 570.901 Housing and...

  20. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for...