Science.gov

Sample records for requiring permanent suprapubic

  1. Acute urinary retention. Comparison of suprapubic and urethral catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Horgan, A F; Prasad, B; Waldron, D J; O'Sullivan, D C

    1992-08-01

    A total of 86 consecutive patients who presented to the accident and emergency department with acute urinary retention due to prostatomegaly required catheterisation; 56 received suprapubic catheters and 30 were catheterised urethrally. Both groups were followed up for 3 years. Of the 30 patients catheterised urethrally, 12 (40%) developed urinary tract infections compared with 10 (18%) urinary tract infections in the 56 patients catheterised suprapubically. Five patients (17%) in the urethral group developed urethral strictures with no strictures in the suprapubic group. Two patients catheterised urethrally developed epididymo-orchitis and 1 developed septicaemia. None of the patients with suprapubic catheters developed these complications. Furthermore, 16 patients catheterised suprapubically underwent successful trial clamping of their catheter, whereas 7 patients required recatheterisation following removal of their urethral catheters. We recommend that the use of suprapubic catheters should become the preferred initial treatment for acute urinary retention.

  2. Ureteral Rupture Caused by a Suprapubic Catheter in a Male Patient With Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to urinary system disturbances. Patients with SCI usually have neurogenic bladder, and treatment optionss for this condition include clean intermittent catheterization and a permanent indwelling urethral or suprapubic catheter. Complications of catheterization include urinary tract infection, calculi, urinary tract injury, bladder contraction, bladder spasm, renal dysfunction, bladder cancer, and so forth. To the best of our knowledge, ureteral rupture is an unusual complication of catheterization, and ureteral rupture has been rarely reported in SCI patients. Therefore, here we report a case of ureteral rupture caused by a suprapubic catheter used for the treatment of neurogenic bladder with vesicoureteral reflux in a male patient with SCI. Due to SCI with neurogenic bladder, ureteral size can be reduced and the suprapubic catheter tip can easily migrate to the distal ureteral orifice. Thus, careful attention is required when a catheter is inserted into the bladder in patients with SCI. PMID:28119847

  3. 29 CFR 2582.8478-3 - Permanent bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent bonding requirements. 2582.8478-3 Section 2582... AND REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Permanent Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-3 Permanent bonding... of the Fund shall be deemed to be in compliance with the bonding requirements of section 8478...

  4. 29 CFR 2582.8478-3 - Permanent bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent bonding requirements. 2582.8478-3 Section 2582... AND REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Permanent Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-3 Permanent bonding... of the Fund shall be deemed to be in compliance with the bonding requirements of section 8478...

  5. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  6. 12 CFR 615.5240 - Permanent capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital requirements. 615.5240 Section 615.5240 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Equities § 615.5240 Permanent...

  7. The Transurethral Suprapubic endo-Cystostomy (T-SPeC): A Novel Suprapubic Catheter Insertion Device

    PubMed Central

    Egerdie, R. Blair; Albala, David M.; Flynn, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Current methods of suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) catheter insertion may be difficult for patients in poor health and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. These include a highly invasive open procedure, as well as the use of the percutaneous trocar punch methods, commonly associated with short-term SPC. We present the first human experience with the Transurethral Suprapubic endo-Cystostomy (T-SPeC®) device, a novel disposable device used for introducing a suprapubic catheter via a retrourethral (inside-to-out) approach similar to the Lowsley technique. Patients and Methods Four men at St. Mary's General Hospital in Kitchener Ontario, Canada, received the T-SPeC device (model T7) under general anesthesia. Results Patients had no complications from catheterization using the T-SPeC T7 Surgical System. The mean surgical time of the four procedures was 9.7 minutes, with a range of 7.9 to 13.5 minutes, including instrument preparation and cystoscopy. All four procedures were highly accurate and rapid. There were no complications and minimal blood loss from the procedure. Conclusions We found that the T-SPeC device allows for efficient and safe insertion of a suprapubic catheter in an outpatient setting and may be a useful addition to the urologic armamentarium. The T-SPeC Surgical System facilitates rapid and precise suprapubic catheter placement. PMID:23488708

  8. Suprapubic Cystostomy for the Management of Urethral Injuries During Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Anele, Uzoma A; Le, Brian V; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urethral injury is an uncommon surgical complication of penile prosthesis (PP) surgery. Conventional dogma requires abortion of the procedure if the adjacent corporal body is involved or delayed implantation to avert device infection associated with urinary extravasation. Besides the setback of the aborted surgery, this management approach also presents the possible difficulty of encountering corporal fibrosis at the time of reoperation. Aim We report an approach using primary urethral repair and temporary suprapubic cystostomy for the management of incidental urethral injuries in a cohort of patients allowing for successful completion of unaborted PP implantation. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients receiving PPs from 1990 to 2014 in which incidental urethral injuries were repaired and PP implantation was completed with suprapubic cystostomy (suprapubic tube [SPT] insertion). After allowing for urethral healing and urinary diversion via SPT for 4–8 weeks, the PP was activated. Main Outcome Measures Successful management was determined by the absence of perioperative complications within 6 months of implantation. Results We identified four cases, all receiving inflatable PPs, managed with temporary suprapubic cystostomy. These patients sustained urethral injuries during corporal dissection (one patient), corporal dilation (one patient), and penile straightening (two patients). All patients were managed safely and successfully. Conclusion Primary urethral repair followed by temporary suprapubic cystostomy offers a surgical approach to complete PP implantation successfully in patients who sustain urethral injury complications, particularly for complex PP surgeries. Anele UA, Le BV, and Burnett AL. Suprapubic cystostomy for the management of urethral injuries during penile prosthesis implantation. PMID:25548649

  9. Using central venous catheter for suprapubic catheterization in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bilehjani, Eissa; Fakhari, Solmaz

    2017-01-01

    Suprapubic catheterization is an alternative method for urinary drainage that is used when transurethral catheterization fails. Traditionally, inserted large-bore suprapubic catheters may cause fatal complications. During the past decade, we used a small central venous catheter (CVC) suprapubicly in 16 male patients for the purpose of urinary drainage, when transurethral catheterization failed. The procedure is performed in no more than 10 minutes. Success rate was 100% and this approach did not lead to any complications. In conclusion, placing a CVC for suprapubic drainage is a safe method with a high success rate and we recommend it in patients with failed transurethral catheterization after a few attempts (2-3 attempts).

  10. Using central venous catheter for suprapubic catheterization in cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bilehjani, Eissa; Fakhari, Solmaz

    2017-01-01

    Suprapubic catheterization is an alternative method for urinary drainage that is used when transurethral catheterization fails. Traditionally, inserted large-bore suprapubic catheters may cause fatal complications. During the past decade, we used a small central venous catheter (CVC) suprapubicly in 16 male patients for the purpose of urinary drainage, when transurethral catheterization failed. The procedure is performed in no more than 10 minutes. Success rate was 100% and this approach did not lead to any complications. In conclusion, placing a CVC for suprapubic drainage is a safe method with a high success rate and we recommend it in patients with failed transurethral catheterization after a few attempts (2–3 attempts). PMID:28116283

  11. 10 CFR 503.9 - Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent... General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.9 Use of mixtures—general requirement for certain permanent... mixtures, section 213(a)(1) of the Act requires a demonstration that the use of a mixture of natural...

  12. 10 CFR 503.9 - Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent... General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.9 Use of mixtures—general requirement for certain permanent... mixtures, section 213(a)(1) of the Act requires a demonstration that the use of a mixture of natural...

  13. 10 CFR 503.9 - Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent... General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.9 Use of mixtures—general requirement for certain permanent... mixtures, section 213(a)(1) of the Act requires a demonstration that the use of a mixture of natural...

  14. 10 CFR 503.9 - Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent... General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.9 Use of mixtures—general requirement for certain permanent... mixtures, section 213(a)(1) of the Act requires a demonstration that the use of a mixture of natural...

  15. 10 CFR 503.9 - Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of mixtures-general requirement for certain permanent... General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.9 Use of mixtures—general requirement for certain permanent... mixtures, section 213(a)(1) of the Act requires a demonstration that the use of a mixture of natural...

  16. [Contribution of suprapubic ultrasound in prostatic hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Utzmann, O; Abbou, C C; Auvert, J

    1985-01-01

    After describing the technique, the authors recall the ultrasound anatomy of the prostate with the symmetrical echoes given by the seminal vesicles, the vas deferens and the ejaculatory ducts, which often allow a distinction to be made between the cranial and caudal portions of the prostate. Calculation of the volume (normally under 20 cm3) measures the enlargement (useful in determining the choice of approach), using the formula (Formula: see text) Ultrasound also often gives some idea of the nature of the lesion. The main distinction between an adenoma and a carcinoma is the fact that the adenoma is normally confined to the cranium. Carcinomas are generally asymmetrical, and their structure is non-echogenic, giving coarse echoes. Chronic prostatis, on the other hand, leads to the existence of symmetrical hyper-echogenic areas, sometimes calcified. The main contribution of suprapubic ultrasound is the information it provides concerning the repercussions on the urinary tract (residue, straining bladder, repercussions on the kidney). It can also be used to monitor developments.

  17. Update on voiding dysfunction managed with suprapubic catheterization.

    PubMed

    English, Sharon F

    2017-07-01

    As the population ages the prevalence of long-term urinary catheters, especially in the elderly, is going to increase. Urinary catheters are usually placed to manage urinary retention or incontinence that cannot be managed any other way. There is significant morbidity associated with an indwelling catheter. The commonest problems are catheter blockages, infection and bladder stones. These will occur with a similar incidence with either a suprapubic or a urethral catheter. Urethral complications such as strictures, scrotal infection and erosion are less common with suprapubic catheterization (SPC). However the benefit of having a SPC needs to be balanced against the risks involved in inserting the catheter suprapubically. Patient reported symptoms show that a SPC is more comfortable and better tolerated than a urethral catheter. However there needs to be more research into developing better catheters that reduce the frequency of urinary infections and blockages and hence catheter morbidity.

  18. 36 CFR 1238.14 - What are the microfilming requirements for permanent and unscheduled records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards § 1238.14 What are the microfilming requirements for permanent and unscheduled records? (a) Agencies must apply the standards in this section when microfilming: (1) Permanent paper records where the... accordance with ISO 18901 (incorporated by reference, see § 1238.5) and use the processing procedures in ANSI...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. 876.5090 Section 876.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. 876.5090 Section 876.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090...

  1. 76 FR 53851 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... proposed to require the filing of a premarket approval application or a notice of completion of a product development protocol for the class III preamendments device: Cardiovascular permanent pacemaker electrode....

  2. A suprapubic retroperitoneal operative approach to solitary paravaginal tumors.

    PubMed

    Cowles, T; Schwartz, P E

    1987-03-01

    Five cases of paravaginal tumors including a neurolemmoma, neurofibroma, lipoma, and desmoid tumors are presented. These tumors were approached through a modified Cherney incision. The rectus muscle was removed from the pubic symphysis and the pubococcygeus muscle was divided. This approach allowed good visualization of the paravaginal space, reasonable blood loss, and avoidance of entry into the peritoneal cavity. Although paravaginal tumors are rare, gynecologic surgeons should be aware of the suprapubic approach to the paravaginal space.

  3. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Johnson F.; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:27882057

  4. 10 CFR 503.11 - Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants. 503.11 Section 503.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... alternate fuel supply, site limitations, environmental requirements, or inadequate capital, section 212(a...

  5. 10 CFR 503.11 - Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants. 503.11 Section 503.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... alternate fuel supply, site limitations, environmental requirements, or inadequate capital, section 212(a...

  6. 10 CFR 503.11 - Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants. 503.11 Section 503.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... alternate fuel supply, site limitations, environmental requirements, or inadequate capital, section 212(a...

  7. 10 CFR 503.11 - Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants. 503.11 Section 503.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... alternate fuel supply, site limitations, environmental requirements, or inadequate capital, section 212(a...

  8. 10 CFR 503.11 - Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative sites-general requirement for permanent exemptions for new powerplants. 503.11 Section 503.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... alternate fuel supply, site limitations, environmental requirements, or inadequate capital, section 212(a...

  9. Prospective randomised trial of two devices for suprapubic catheterisation in general surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Carty, N J; Yap, J; Johnson, C D

    1994-05-01

    Compared with urethral catheterisation, suprapubic catheterisation is associated with a reduced incidence of urinary infection and urethral stricture and it facilitates a controlled trial of micturition. A prospective comparison of two types of suprapubic catheter was performed in 70 patients, using a specially designed catheter mounted on a trocar for insertion (Suprapubic Ingram Trocar), and a disposable trocar and cannula (Add-a-Cath) and standard Foley catheter. A suprapubic catheter was inserted successfully in 63 patients. Overall there was a low incidence of urinary tract infection (4.3%) and the only significant catheter-related problem was suprapubic leakage of urine, which was self-limiting in all but one patient. Although there is little objective difference between the systems tested, we prefer the Add-a-Cath system for its simplicity and economy. This trial provides further support for the more frequent use of suprapubic catheters in general surgical practice.

  10. 76 FR 48058 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for... requirement for premarket approval applications or product development protocols for cardiovascular permanent... progress reports and records of the trials conducted under the protocol on the safety and effectiveness...

  11. An abdominal wall simulator for testing suprapubic urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Coveney, V A; Gröver, D

    2001-08-01

    Urinary catheters (drainage tubes) are in widespread use. The most common type of long-term catheter is the Foley, which is made from natural or synthetic rubber. Foley catheters are passed into the bladder via the urethra or the suprapubic puncture channel (through the abdominal wall). A simulator for the abdominal wall has been developed to simulate aspects of the interaction between it and a suprapubic catheter. The simulator is based on a slab of ultrasoft elastomer with tensionable reinforcing polyamide filaments. The behaviour of the simulator has been compared with data published. A soft membrane (contact pressure) transducer (SMT) was used and novel instrumented 'tongs' for lateral indentation of the puncture track giving indentation stiffness. Slab materials were used with shear moduli of 0.1 and 0.021 MPa. Two filament-tensioning methods were used: by clamping to a winding mechanism and by weights. The combination of the softer slab material and tensioning by weights gave good conformity to physiological data; other combinations did not.

  12. Small bowel injury after suprapubic catheter insertion presenting 3 years after initial insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kevin M; Good, Daniel W; Brush, John P; Al-hasso, Ammar; Stewart, Grant D

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred to urology with blockages of her suprapubic catheter (SPC). The catheter was replaced easily in the emergency department, however, no urine was draining, only a cloudy green fluid was visible. On cystoscopy bilious material was identified in the bladder. There was no catheter visible. There seemed to be a fistulous tract entering the bladder at the left dome. The urethra was dilated, a urethral catheter was placed and the SPC was removed. A CT demonstrated that the SPC tract transfixed a loop of pelvic small bowel and entered the bladder with no intraperitoneal contrast leak. The patient recovered well and did not require laparotomy. This case emphasises that bowel perforation, although rare, must be considered as a complication of SPC placement even years after initial insertion when catheter problems arise. Unusually, we learn that this complication may not present with abdominal pain or peritonism. PMID:24326435

  13. Guillain-Barré Syndrome with asystole requiring permanent pacemaker: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehul B; Goyal, Sandeep K; Punnam, Sujeeth R; Pandya, Khyati; Khetarpal, Vipin; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2009-01-06

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nervous system that results from an aberrant immune response directed at peripheral nerves. Autonomic abnormalities in Guillain-Barré syndrome are usually transient and reversible. We present a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome requiring a permanent pacemaker in view of persistent symptomatic bradyarrhythmia. An 18-year-old Caucasian female presented with bilateral lower limb paraesthesias followed by bilateral progressive leg weakness and difficulty in walking. She reported an episode of an upper respiratory tract infection 3 weeks prior to the onset of her neurological symptoms. Diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was considered and a lumbar puncture was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed albuminocytologic dissociation (increased protein but normal white blood cell count) suggestive of Guillain-Barré syndrome and hence an intravenous immunoglobulin G infusion was started. Within 48 hours, she progressed to complete flaccid quadriparesis with involvement of respiratory muscles requiring mechanical ventilatory support. Whist in the intensive care unit, she developed multiple episodes of bradycardia and asystole requiring a temporary pacemaker. In view of the persistent requirement for the temporary pacemaker for more than 5 days, she received a permanent pacemaker. She returned for follow-up three months after discharge with an intermittent need for ventricular pacing. Guillain-Barré syndrome can result in permanent damage to the cardiac conduction system. Patients with multiple episodes of bradycardia and asystole in the setting of Guillain-Barré syndrome should be evaluated and considered as potential candidates for permanent pacemaker implantation.

  14. Is an adjustment by transurethral surgery simultaneously needed during the suprapubic open prostatectomy?

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu Seob; Zhang, Li Tao; Zhao, Chen; You, Jae Hyung; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-03-01

    To compare suprapubic open prostatectomy (SOP) and a novel SOP with transurethral adjustment of residual adenoma and bleeding (TURARAB) for large sized prostates. Between March 2010 and March 2014, 49 patients with symptomatic BPH (>100 g) were scheduled for SOP or SOP with TURARAB. The patients were subdivided into two groups. In Group I, each patient underwent SOP. In Group II, each patient underwent SOP with TURARAB. Additional transurethral resection of residual adenoma and bleeding control were done through the urethra after enucleation of the prostate adenoma by SOP. Prior to intervention, all patients were analyzed by preoperative complete blood count, blood chemistry, prostate specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Scores, and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate and uroflowmetry. SOP was performed by a suprapubic transvesical approach via a midline incision. The bladder neck mucosa was circularly incised to expose the prostate adenoma, and the plane between the adenoma and surgical capsule was developed by finger dissection. In addition, in Group II TURARAB was performed using Urosol. Postoperative outcome data were compared in the 1st month and 3rd month. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Group I required a longer operative time than Group II. Blood transfusion during the operation was unnecessary due to the short amount of time available to control arterial bleeding in the prostatic fossa leading to a marked decrease in perioperative bleeding in Group II. Postoperative voiding function improved significantly in both groups. Even for large prostate glands, our novel procedure appears to be an effective and safe operation to reduce operation time, bleeding, and complications.

  15. Loss of Permanent First Molars in the Mixed Dentition: Circumstances Resulting in Extraction and Requiring Orthodontic Management.

    PubMed

    Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Kennedy, David B

    2016-10-15

    Extraction of significantly compromised permanent first molars may be indicated during the mixed dentition stage of occlusal development. The purpose of this article was to review circumstances that can result in the loss of a permanent first molar-including dental caries, molar incisor hypomineralization, eruption disturbances of permanent teeth, and failure of restorative treatment to affirm that a complete dental arch is not necessary for the existence of a functional dental arch. The extraction of permanent first molar(s) with subsequent orthodontic treatment in a young patient can be considered a cost-effective alternative to placing complex restorations that require replacement over the lifespan. Approaches to establish a functional dental arch in the event of the loss of a permanent first molar(s) are outlined. Additionally, orthodontic diagnostic and treatment principles are reviewed. Case histories are provided to illustrate the clinical management of permanent first molar extractions to achieve a functional dental arch.

  16. A novel permanent maglev impeller TAH: most requirements on blood pumps have been satisfied.

    PubMed

    Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

    2003-07-01

    Based on the development of an impeller total artificial heart (TAH) (1987) and a permanent maglev (magnetic levitation) impeller pump (2002), as well as a patented magnetic bearing and magnetic spring (1996), a novel permanent maglev impeller TAH has been developed. The device consists of a rotor and a stator. The rotor is driven radially. Two impellers with different dimensions are fixed at both the ends of the rotor. The levitation of the rotor is achieved by using two permanent magnetic bearings, which have double function: radial bearing and axial spring. As the rotor rotates at a periodic changing speed, two pumps deliver the pulsatile flow synchronously. The volume balance between the two pumps is realized due to self-modulation property of the impeller pumps, without need for detection and control. Because the hemo-dynamic force acting on the left impeller is larger than that on the right impeller, and this force during systole is larger than that during diastole, the rotor reciprocates axially once a cycle. This is beneficial to prevent the thrombosis in the pump. Furthermore, a small flow via the gap between stator and rotor from left pump into right pump comes to a full washout in the motor and the pumps. Therefore, it seems neither mechanical wear nor thrombosis could occur. The previously developed prototype impeller TAH had demonstrated that it could operate in animal experiments indefinitely, if the bearing would not fail to work. Expectantly, this novel permanent magnetic levitation impeller TAH with simplicity, implantability, pulsatility, compatibility and durability has satisfied the most requirements on blood pumps and will have more extensive applications in experiments and clinics.

  17. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair with Suprapubic Incision

    PubMed Central

    Turingan, Isidro; Tran, Mai

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery promises truly scarless surgery, this has not progressed beyond the experimental setting and a few clinical cases in the field of ventral hernia repair. This is mainly because of the problem of sterilizing natural orifices, which prevents the use of any prosthetic material because of unacceptable risks of infection. Single-incision laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has gained more widespread acceptance by specialized hernia centers. Even so, there is a special subset of patients who are young and/or scar conscious and find any visible scar unacceptable. This study illustrates an innovative way of performing single-incision laparoscopic ventral hernia repair by a transverse suprapubic incision below the pubic hair/bikini line in 2 young male patients who had both umbilical and epigastric hernias as well as attenuated linea alba in the upper abdomen. Case Description: Both patients underwent successful laparoscopic repair, and both were highly satisfied with the procedure, which produced no visible scars on their abdomen. Discussion: Willingness to adopt new innovative procedures, such as single-incision laparoscopic surgery, has allowed modification of the incision site to produce invisible scars and hence become highly attractive to the young and scar-phobic segment of the population. PMID:23925028

  18. Electrical Injury-Induced Complete Atrioventricular Block: Is Permanent Pacemaker Required?

    PubMed Central

    Beton, Osman; Efe, Tolga Han; Kaya, Hakki; Bilgin, Murat; Dinc Asarcikli, Lale; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-01-01

    A considerable percentage of electrical injuries occur as a result of work activities. Electrical injury can lead to various cardiovascular disorders: acute myocardial necrosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, arrhythmias, hemorrhagic pericarditis, acute hypertension with peripheral vasospasm, and anomalous, nonspecific ECG alterations. Ventricular fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia resulting from electrical injury and is the leading cause of death in electrical (especially low voltage alternating current) injury cases. Asystole, premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, conduction disorders (various degrees of heart blocks, bundle-brunch blocks), supraventricular tachycardia, and atrial fibrillation are the other arrhythmic complications of electrical injury. Complete atrioventricular block has rarely been reported and permanent pacemaker was required for the treatment in some of these cases. Herein, we present a case of reversible complete atrioventricular block due to low voltage electrical injury in a young electrical technician. PMID:26839721

  19. Electrical Injury-Induced Complete Atrioventricular Block: Is Permanent Pacemaker Required?

    PubMed

    Beton, Osman; Efe, Tolga Han; Kaya, Hakki; Bilgin, Murat; Dinc Asarcikli, Lale; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-01-01

    A considerable percentage of electrical injuries occur as a result of work activities. Electrical injury can lead to various cardiovascular disorders: acute myocardial necrosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, arrhythmias, hemorrhagic pericarditis, acute hypertension with peripheral vasospasm, and anomalous, nonspecific ECG alterations. Ventricular fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia resulting from electrical injury and is the leading cause of death in electrical (especially low voltage alternating current) injury cases. Asystole, premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, conduction disorders (various degrees of heart blocks, bundle-brunch blocks), supraventricular tachycardia, and atrial fibrillation are the other arrhythmic complications of electrical injury. Complete atrioventricular block has rarely been reported and permanent pacemaker was required for the treatment in some of these cases. Herein, we present a case of reversible complete atrioventricular block due to low voltage electrical injury in a young electrical technician.

  20. A cost-effective, easily reproducible, suprapubic catheter insertion simulation training model.

    PubMed

    Hossack, Tania; Chris, Barrington-Brown; Beer, Janet; Thompson, Graeme

    2013-10-01

    Suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion is a basic skill required of surgical trainees. It is likely a trainee's first attempt at the procedure, will be undertaken without direct supervision at night and without access to aids of catheterization. Unfortunately, lack of simulation models and unpredictability of when SPCs are required, make it difficult to acquire this skill. Therefore, junior doctors frequently persist with urethral catheterization, with an increased risk of urethral injury. Improper catheterization has been cited as the causative factor for urethral strictures. The aim of this study was to develop an SPC model and assess its influence on a trainee's confidence in this procedure. An SPC model needs to fulfill a number of criteria. It should have anatomic characteristics of a bladder and provide realistic visual and sensory feedback. Cost effective copies of the model, which are able to be rapidly cycled through simulations are needed for effective clinical workshops. Finally, a trainee's understanding and confidence in performing the procedure should increase after using it. This prototype model has 3 anatomic parts: the bladder, the anterior abdominal wall, and the housing abdominal box. The most crucial component is the bladder, which is a balloon with Mefix tape that prevents leaking and "popping" on trocar insertion. This SPC model can be readily replicated by most clinical school and easily added to surgical workshops to ensure that trainees have hands on experience with this procedure before being required to perform it on patients. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 10 CFR 503.10 - Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions. 503.10 Section 503.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.10 Use of fluidized bed combustion...

  2. 10 CFR 503.10 - Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions. 503.10 Section 503.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.10 Use of fluidized bed combustion...

  3. 10 CFR 503.10 - Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions. 503.10 Section 503.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.10 Use of fluidized bed combustion...

  4. 10 CFR 503.10 - Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions. 503.10 Section 503.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.10 Use of fluidized bed combustion...

  5. 10 CFR 503.10 - Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of fluidized bed combustion not feasible-general requirement for permanent exemptions. 503.10 Section 503.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES General Requirements for Exemptions § 503.10 Use of fluidized bed combustion...

  6. Iatrogenic direct rectal injury: an unusual complication during suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) insertion and its laparoscopic management.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, Rakesh; Aguilar-Davidov, Bernardo; Tokas, Theodoros; Rassweiler, Jens; Gözen, Ali Serdar

    2013-06-24

    Suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) is commonly used, instead of indwelling urethral catheter- ization, as indicated in many pathological conditions. Although considered to be a safe procedure that can be easily performed in an outpatient basis several complications have been reported in international literature. Bowel injury can be a serious complication with the small intestine affected in the majority of cases. We present a case of an acci- dental rectal injury by a suprapubic catheter misplacement, in a 76 year old demented patient with prostatic hyperplasia and chronic urinary retention. The injury was confirmed by cystogra- phy and injection of contrast meterial through the suprapubic catheter, and successfully treated laparoscopically by an extraperitoneal approach. The patient was discharged after 10 days with- out any complications. The above method, in experienced hands, can be an effective primary treatment option for such rare but devastating complications. The case and management is unique as, to our knowledge, as no similar cases have been presented.

  7. 49 CFR 173.302a - Additional requirements for shipment of nonliquefied (permanent) compressed gases in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expansion (total less permanent) in cubic centimeters; K = factor × 10 −7 experimentally determined for the... time of test or retest shows the cylinder to be free from excessive corrosion, pitting, or...

  8. 49 CFR 173.302a - Additional requirements for shipment of nonliquefied (permanent) compressed gases in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... expansion (total less permanent) in cubic centimeters; K = factor × 10 −7 experimentally determined for the... time of test or retest shows the cylinder to be free from excessive corrosion, pitting, or...

  9. 20 CFR 219.60 - When evidence of the employee's permanent home is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... died if— (a) The claimant is applying for payments as the employee's wife, husband, widow, widower... where the employee had his or her permanent home when his or her wife or husband applied for an annuity...

  10. 20 CFR 219.60 - When evidence of the employee's permanent home is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... died if— (a) The claimant is applying for payments as the employee's wife, husband, widow, widower... where the employee had his or her permanent home when his or her wife or husband applied for an annuity...

  11. 20 CFR 219.60 - When evidence of the employee's permanent home is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... died if— (a) The claimant is applying for payments as the employee's wife, husband, widow, widower... where the employee had his or her permanent home when his or her wife or husband applied for an annuity...

  12. 20 CFR 219.60 - When evidence of the employee's permanent home is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... died if— (a) The claimant is applying for payments as the employee's wife, husband, widow, widower... where the employee had his or her permanent home when his or her wife or husband applied for an annuity...

  13. 20 CFR 219.60 - When evidence of the employee's permanent home is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... died if— (a) The claimant is applying for payments as the employee's wife, husband, widow, widower... where the employee had his or her permanent home when his or her wife or husband applied for an annuity...

  14. 49 CFR 365.511 - Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during... inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent operating authority. A Mexico... Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)-certified inspectors every three months and display a current...

  15. 49 CFR 365.511 - Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during... inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent operating authority. A Mexico... Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)-certified inspectors every three months and display a current...

  16. 49 CFR 365.511 - Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during... inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent operating authority. A Mexico... Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)-certified inspectors every three months and display a current...

  17. 49 CFR 365.511 - Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during... inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent operating authority. A Mexico... Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)-certified inspectors every three months and display a current...

  18. 49 CFR 365.511 - Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during... inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent operating authority. A Mexico... Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)-certified inspectors every three months and display a current...

  19. Long-term ureterostomy with suprapubic intravesical drainage used to bypass severe schistosomal obstructive uropathy--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Abu-Aisha, H; Reddy, J J; Hussain, S; Balbeesi, A

    1985-01-01

    Severe obstructive uropathy due to infection with S. hematobium often requires reconstructive surgery. Recent reports, have emphasized that many lesions will disappear after specific chemotherapy given the necessary time. Time for effective chemotherapy may be impossible to allow in severe obstruction. The necessary surgical procedures range from ureteric dilatation to ureteric resection with ileal loop replacement. We suggest that temporary long-term bypass of the diseased ureter using silastic tubes may offer an alternative to resection in many cases while the effect of specific chemotherapy is awaited. One case is described in which ureterostomy with suprapubic intravesical drainage adequately bypassed the diseased and obstructed lower two thirds of the left ureter. In the following six months specific chemotherapy had encouraging effects on the bypassed area.

  20. A Case of Adult-Onset Acute Rheumatic Fever With Long-Lasting Atrioventricular Block Requiring Permanent Pacemaker Implantation.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yusuke; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Ueno, Shuichi; Nagashima, Takao; Imai, Yasushi; Shimpo, Masahisa; Kario, Kazuomi

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old hypertensive Japanese woman presented with epigastric pain on inspiration, fever, complete atrioventricular block and polyarthritis. Her antistreptolysin O levels were markedly elevated. A diagnosis of rheumatic fever was made according to the modified Jones criteria. She was prescribed loxoprofen sodium, which was partially effective for her extracardiac clinical symptoms. However, she had syncope due to complete atrioventricular block with asystole longer than 10 seconds. Consequently, we implanted a permanent pacemaker. Although we prescribed prednisolone, the efficacy of which was limited for the patient's conduction disturbance, the complete atrioventricular block persisted. In our systematic review of 12 similar cases, the duration of complete heart block was always transient and there was no case requiring a permanent pacemaker. We thus encountered a very rare case of adult-onset acute rheumatic fever with persistent complete atrioventricular block necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation.

  1. Predictors of permanent pacemaker requirement after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: insights from a Brazilian registry.

    PubMed

    Gensas, Caroline S; Caixeta, Adriano; Siqueira, Dimytri; Carvalho, Luiz A; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Mangione, José A; Lemos, Pedro A; Colafranceschi, Alexandre S; Caramori, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Abizaid, Alexandre; Brito, Fábio S

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictors of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation after TAVI. Between January 2008 and February 2012, 418 patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent TAVI and were enrolled in a Brazilian multicenter registry. After excluding patients who died during the procedure and those with a previous PPM, 353 patients were included in the analysis. At 30 days, the overall incidence of PPM implantation was 25.2%. Patients requiring PPM were more likely to be older (82.73 vs. 81.10 years, p=0.07), have pre-dilation (68.42% vs. 60.07%, p=0.15), receive CoreValve (93.68% vs. 82.55%, p=0.008), and have baseline right bundle branch block (RBBB, 25.26% vs. 6.58%, p<0.001). On multivariable analysis, CoreValve vs. Sapien XT (OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.56-11.49; p=0.005), baseline RBBB (OR, 4.41; 95% CI, 2.20-8.82; p<0.001), and balloon pre-dilatation (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.02-3.02; p=0.04) were independent predictors of PPM implantation. PPM implantation occurred in approximately one-fourth of cases. Pre-existing RBBB, balloon pre-dilatation, and CoreValve use were independent predictors of PPM after TAVI. The type of prosthesis used and pre-balloon dilatation should be considered in TAVI candidates with baseline RBBB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An adverse event of suprapubic catheter SPC insertion. A call for updating the existing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Rozh; Mukundan, Chandrika; Bhatti, Tahir S

    2012-11-15

    The suprapubic catheter (SPC) is a useful and widely used tool in urological practice. However, complications can arise from its insertion or ongoing care. We add to the literature a case of an adverse event of its insertion where it has gone through a vascular graft and recommending updating the SPC insertion guidelines.

  3. The QuickWee trial: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation to hasten non-invasive urine collection from infants

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Jonathan; Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tosif, Shidan; Hopper, Sandy M; Bryant, Penelope A; Donath, Susan M; Babl, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children. Urine sample collection is required to diagnose or exclude UTI; however, current collection methods for pre-continent children all have limitations and guidelines vary. Clean catch urine (CCU) collection is a common and favoured non-invasive collection method, despite its high contamination rates and time-consuming nature. This study aims to establish whether gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold fluid-soaked gauze can improve the rate of voiding for CCU within 5 min in young pre-continent children. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised controlled trial of 354 infants (aged 1–12 months) who require urine sample collection, conducted in a single emergency department in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. After standard urogenital cleaning, patients will be randomised to either a novel technique of suprapubic cutaneous stimulation using cold saline-soaked gauze in circular motions or no stimulation. The study period is 5 min, after which care is determined by the treating clinician if a urine sample has not been collected. Primary outcome: whether the child voids within 5 min (yes/no). Secondary outcomes: parental and clinician satisfaction with the method, success in catching a urine sample if the child voids, and sample contamination rates. This trial will allow the definitive assessment of this novel technique, gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold saline-soaked gauze, and its utility to hasten non-invasive urine collection in infants. Ethics and dissemination The study has hospital ethics approval and is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry—ACTRN12615000754549. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000754549; Pre-results. PMID:27515752

  4. 77 FR 39924 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... device to meet the statute's approval requirements and the benefits to the public from the use of the... benefit to the public from the use of the device; (3) an opportunity for the submission of comments on the... premarket approval requirements of the FD&C Act, and the benefits to the public from use of the device....

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 41: Considerations for Patients with Permanently Implant Radioactive Sources Requiring Unrelated Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Basran, P. S; Beckham, WA; Baxter, P

    2014-08-15

    Permanent implant of sealed radioactive sources is an effective technique for treating cancer. Typically, the radioactive sources are implanted in and near the disease, depositing dose locally over several months. There may be instances where these patients must undergo unrelated surgical procedures when the radioactive material remains active enough to pose risks. This work explores these risks, discusses strategies to mitigate those risks, and describes a case study for a permanent I-125 prostate brachytherapy implant patient who developed colo-rectal cancer and required surgery 6 months after brachytherapy. The first consideration is identifying the risk from unwarranted radiation to the patient and staff before, during, and after the surgical procedure. The second is identifying the risk the surgical procedure may have on the efficacy of the brachytherapy implant. Finally, there are considerations for controlling for radioactive substances from a regulatory perspective. After these risks are defined, strategies to mitigate those risks are considered. These strategies may include applying the concepts of ALARA, the use of protective equipment and developing a best practice strategy with the operating room team. We summarize this experience with some guidelines: If the surgical procedure is near (ex: 5 cm) of the implant; and, the surgical intervention may dislodge radioisotopes enough to compromise treatment or introduces radiation safety risks; and, the radioisotope has not sufficiently decayed to background levels; and, the surgery cannot be postponed, then a detailed analysis of risk is advised.

  6. [Permanent identification team of the central criminal police bureau and its requirements for dentists].

    PubMed

    Solheim, T

    1977-01-01

    The Norwegian Department of Justice has by Order in Council in 1975 established an identification team under the jurisdiction of the Central Criminal Police Bureau. The team has four members: two police officers, one expert in forensic medicin and one in forensic dentistry. Deputy members of the team are also appointed and those for forensic medicine and forensic dentistry are residents of the three largest cities of Norway, viz. Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim. The responsibility of the team is to identify victims of mass disasters, and to assist in other difficult identifications both in Norway and in foreign countries when Norwegian interests are involved. Each member of the team shall sign the identification report and will thus have a veto in uncertain cases. Consquently the dentist in the team must also evaluate the entire material in each case. For identification purposes, the dentists are urged to comply with some requirements as to dental charts, radiographs and treatment. Each patient must have a clear and readable dental chart containing his name, address and date of birth. Dental characteristics should be noted. Radiographic status should be made of the teeth of regular patients and of special teeth when extensive treatment is required. The radiograms must be kept in file and identified by the name of the patient and the date of exposure. Patients wearing dental prosthesis should be offered denture marking, and the dentures should be recorded in detail on the chart. For flying personell radiographic status is regarded mandatory, and recording of all resotrations are recommended. The aviation company should be informed of the name of the dentists of their crew. Wehn a dentist is asked for assistance in an identification case, the original dental chart, all radiograms models etc. are requested to be delivered. Additions or explantations may also be valuable.

  7. [Suprapubic cystostomy catheter knotting. Presentation of the first national case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Romero Pérez, Pedro; Lapuerta Torres, F Eduardo; Amat Cecilia, Manuel; Merenciano Cortina, Francisco José; Gordo Flores, Maria Esther; Navarro Antón, Jose Antonio; Ferrero, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first Spanish case of a spontaneous knot in the catheter of a suprapubic cystostomy and review the national and international literature. The case of an 87-year-old patient who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate is presented. A suprapubic vesical puncture for urinary retention was urgently performed in this patient because of the impossibility of urethral catheterisation. A spontaneous knot in the catheter was detected upon removal; the tightened knot could be removed by gentle and sustained traction without surgery. Knotting or calcification of the catheter was suspected when the catheter remained anchored in the bladder during a removal attempt 5 days after initial catheterisation. Plain pelvis x-ray was taken, but no calcification or knots were observed because the catheter was radiolucent. An ultrasound would have offered more information, but it was not requested. Gentle and sustained traction of the catheter reduced the knot size and allowed catheter removal without complications. Worldwide cases and national publications were reviewed. The formation of spontaneous or manipulation-induced knots in urinary cystostomy catheters is an extremely rare complication. The presented case is the first Spanish case of catheter knotting; it is only the 17th reported case worldwide.

  8. Incidence and predictors of late atrioventricular conduction recovery among patients requiring permanent pacemaker for complete heart block after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiehl, Erich L; Makki, Tarek; Matar, Ralph M; Johnston, Douglas R; Rickard, John W; Tarakji, Khaldoun G; Kanj, Mohamed; Wazni, Oussama M; Saliba, Walid I; Varma, Niraj; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Cantillon, Daniel J

    2017-08-12

    New-onset complete heart block (CHB) commonly complicates cardiac surgery, for which some patients require a permanent pacemaker (PPM). Little is known regarding late atrioventricular (AV) conduction recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence and predictors of late AV conduction recovery among patients requiring PPM after cardiac surgery. Consecutive patients receiving PPM for CHB after cardiac surgery at a high-volume U.S. center from 2000 to 2014 were evaluated. The primary outcome was late AV conduction recovery, defined as a reduction in ventricular pacing requirement to <10% beyond 1 month postimplant. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictors of AV recovery. Among 301 patients evaluated over 4 ± 4 years of follow-up, the incidence of late AV conduction recovery was 12% (n = 37), for whom the median ventricular pacing requirement decreased from 96% at implant to <1% at 6 months and persisted throughout study follow-up. AV recovery was less common when preoperative conduction abnormalities were present, including no recovery among patients with preoperative PR >200 ms and QRS >120 ms (n = 42). Multivariable analysis identified only female sex and transient AV conduction postoperatively as independent predictors of recovery (odds ratio 3.5; P <.01 for each). Neither cardiac surgery subtype nor PPM implant timing postoperatively was significantly associated with recovery. Late AV conduction recovery is not uncommon after cardiac surgery, occurring in 1 of 8 patients within 6 months postoperatively. Preoperative AV conduction abnormalities were associated with decreased recovery, whereas female sex and transient postoperative AV conduction were associated with increased recovery. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Permanent Contraception for Women.

    PubMed

    Patil, Eva; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2016-05-01

    Permanent contraception is a highly desired and commonly used contraceptive option for women around the world who desire never to become pregnant. Current methods of female permanent contraception require surgery. Postpartum tubal ligation and interval surgical tubal ligation are safe and effective, do not interfere with menstrual cycles, and require no ongoing cost or medical checkups. Hysteroscopic tubal occlusion offers a less invasive surgical approach, but requires an imaging study for verification of correct placement. However, not all women have access to a surgeon trained to provide permanent contraception, or they may face other prohibitive logistic or financial burdens. The development of novel permanent contraception methods that are immediately effective and/or nonsurgical could help improve access to and acceptability of permanent contraception. The expansion of permanent contraception options could help women achieve their family planning goals and reduce unintended pregnancies.

  10. Suprapubic catheter insertion using an ultrasound-guided technique and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Preman; Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Todd, Alistair W

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The conventional 'blind' technique for suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion relies on adequate filling of the bladder to displace bowel away from the site of needle puncture. However, in a small percentage of patients this fails to happen, which can occasionally lead to life-threatening bowel injury. Recently published British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) guidelines have recommended that ultrasonography (US) may be helpful to identify bowel loops and recommends its usage whenever possible. This paper describes the technique of US-guided needle puncture and SPC insertion to reduce the likelihood of bowel injury. The paper addresses training, equipment and logistical issues associated with this advice. We have reviewed the available publications on the outcomes from this technique and also present our experience. Suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion is a common method of bladder drainage in contemporary urological practice. The procedure involves insertion of a sharp trocar into the bladder percutaneously, usually by palpation, percussion or cystoscopy for guidance. Although generally considered a safe procedure, the risk of bowel injury is estimated at up to 2.4% with a mortality rate of 1.8%. Recently published British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) guidelines have recommended that ultrasonography (US) may be helpful to identify bowel loops and recommends its usage whenever possible. The present paper describes the use of US for SPC insertion and discusses the implications of this advice. This paper is designed to support and supplement practical techniques learnt on a course and in clinical practice. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Sonography for Detection of a Fistula on the Birth Day in Neonates With an Imperforate Anus: Comparison of Diagnostic Performance Between Suprapubic and Perineal Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Yoshitake; Tanami, Yutaka; Hattori, Shinya; Sato, Yumiko; Tanaka, Yujiro; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Mayumi; Oguma, Eiji

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonography for detection of an internal fistula on the birth day in neonates with an imperforate anus and to compare the diagnostic performance between the suprapubic and perineal approaches. We included 46 neonates with an imperforate anus (29 low type and 17 intermediate/high type) who underwent sonography by both the suprapubic and perineal approaches on the birth day. Thirty-nine neonates had internal fistulas, and 12 did not, as surgically proven. Two blinded radiologists evaluated the suprapubic and perineal sonograms for the presence of the internal fistula in consensus. A final diagnosis of the internal fistula was determined on the basis of the findings of both approaches. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to compare the diagnostic performance for detection of an internal fistula between the suprapubic and perineal approaches. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the final diagnosis based on the findings of suprapubic, perineal, and both approaches were 52.9%, 79.4%, and 79.4%; 75.5%, 75.5%, and 75.5%; and 58.7%, 78.3%, and 78.3%, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the perineal approach was significantly better than that of the suprapubic approach (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of sonography for detection of an internal fistula on the birth day exceeded 75% in neonates with an imperforate anus, and sonography on the birth day is feasible. The perineal approach had superior diagnostic performance over the suprapubic approach. Thus, when evaluating an internal fistula by sonography, we recommend using the perineal approach in addition to the suprapubic approach. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. A validated low-cost training model for suprapubic catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashima; Halverson, Amy; Rooney, Deborah M; Davis, Lauren M; Kielb, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    To describe an anatomically correct simulator for use in suprapubic catheter (SPC) insertion training. A scale reproduction of an adult male pelvis with bony landmarks and a subcutaneous fluid-filled reservoir was created using platinum cured silicone rubber. This model was evaluated by 6 expert urologists for content validity with a 16-item 5-point rating scale used to evaluate domains relevant to the simulator—physical attributes, realism of experience, realism of materials, and global rating. The simulator was used by 25 general surgeons from rural practices participating in a 2-day comprehensive specialized surgical skills course. The domains were scored between 1 and 5; 1 being "not at all realistic" and 5 being "highly realistic, no changes needed." The average expert ratings of the domains were 3.9 (physical attributes), 4.3 (realism of experience), and 3.9 (realism of materials). The simulator was rated more valuable as a training tool (4.5) compared with a testing tool (3.8) with an average global rating of 4.1. Experts and trainees reported high satisfaction with their experience using this simulator. Preliminary evidence suggests this simulator is a useful tool that can be integrated into training programs to facilitate learning this necessary urologic skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suprapubic Bladder Catheterization of Male Spinal-Cord–Injured Sprague–Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mary A; Herron, Alan J; Goodwin, Bradford S; Grill, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    The rat spinal-cord–injury (SCI) model is widely used to study the pathologic mechanisms that contribute to sensory and motor dysfunction in humans. This model is thought to mimic many of the negative outcomes experienced by humans after spinal contusion injury. We theorized that manual bladder expression contributed to the kidney and bladder lesions reported in previous studies using the rat SCI model. In the present study, rats were surgically implanted with bladder catheters after spinal contusion injury to provide continuous drainage of urine. After 72 h, the rats were euthanized and their kidneys and bladders examined histologically. BUN, serum creatinine, and urine protein were compared at 0 and 72 h after surgery. Kidney and bladder lesions were similar in SCI rats with and without implanted bladder catheters. BUN at 72 h was higher than baseline values in both groups, whereas serum creatinine was higher at 72 h compared with baseline values only in the catheterized rats. These findings indicate that suprapubic bladder catheterization does not reduce hydronephrosis in SCI rats and that the standard of care for bladder evacuation should continue to be manual expression of urine. PMID:22330872

  14. Comparison of Urinary Tract Infection Rates Associated with Transurethral Catheterization, Suprapubic Tube and Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the Postoperative Setting: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Christopher S; Kim, Sinae; Radadia, Kushan D; Zhao, Philip T; Elsamra, Sammy E; Olweny, Ephrem O; Weiss, Robert E

    2017-07-20

    We performed a network meta-analysis of available randomized, controlled trials to elucidate the risks of urinary tract infection associated with transurethral catheterization, suprapubic tubes and intermittent catheterization in the postoperative setting. PubMed®, EMBASE® and Google Scholar™ searches were performed for eligible randomized, controlled trials from January 1980 to July 2015 that included patients who underwent transurethral catheterization, suprapubic tube placement or intermittent catheterization at the time of surgery and catheterization lasting up to postoperative day 30. The primary outcome of comparison was the urinary tract infection rate via a network meta-analysis with random effects model using the netmeta package in R 3.2 (www.r-project.org/). Included in analysis were 14 randomized, controlled trials in a total of 1,391 patients. Intermittent catheterization and suprapubic tubes showed no evidence of decreased urinary tract infection rates compared to transurethral catheterization. Suprapubic tubes and intermittent catheterization had comparable urinary tract infection rates (OR 0.903, 95% CI 0.479-2.555). On subgroup analysis of 10 randomized, controlled trials with available mean catheterization duration data in a total of 928 patients intermittent catheterization and suprapubic tube were associated with significantly decreased risk of urinary tract infection compared to transurethral catheterization when catheterization duration was greater than 5 days (OR 0.173, 95% CI 0.073-0.412 and OR 0.142, 95% CI 0.073-0.276, respectively). Transurethral catheterization is not associated with an increased urinary tract infection risk compared to suprapubic tubes and intermittent catheterization if catheterization duration is 5 days or less. However, a suprapubic tube or intermittent catheterization is associated with a lower rate of urinary tract infection if longer term catheterization is expected in the postoperative period. Copyright

  15. [A comparison between prostatic volume measured during suprapubic ultrasonography (TAUS) and volume of the enucleated gland after open prostatectomy].

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Wojciech; Prajsner, Andrzej; Kozina, Janusz; Login, Tomasz; Kaczorowski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    General practitioner very often uses transabdominal ultrasonograpy (TAUS) in order to measure prostatic volume. Using this method it is rather impossible to distinguish between tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic tissue which forms so called surgical capsule of BPH. The aim of this study was a comparison of prostatic volume measured during suprapubic (transabdominal) ultrasonography and volume of the enucleated gland after open prostatectomy. Regarding the results authors created a nomogram based on TAUS measurement of the prostate which helps to predict the volume of BPH. They also stated that surgical capsule of the BPH makes about 1/3 of the whole volume of the prostate measured by TAUS.

  16. Evaluation of the carbon dioxide removal assembly requirements for the Space Station Freedom in the Manned Tended Capability through Permanently Manned Capability configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J. C.; Gilley, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses have been conducted to assess the capability of the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem to control ambient CO2 levels of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The adequacy of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) performance to meet design requirements has been evaluated. Analyses considered transient effects of crew location and metabolic loading on SSF Restructure configurations. The analyses consisted of computer simulations of on-orbit conditions using both supplier-provided and adjusted CO2 removal performance approximations along with derived crew metabolic activities and locations. Results show that while the current performance of the CDRA will maintain CO2 levels within specifications for Man-Tended Operations, it cannot maintain the SSF atmosphere below specifications during Permanently Manned Operations. Potential design options are discussed and other relevant analyses are summarized.

  17. Evaluation of the carbon dioxide removal assembly requirements for the Space Station Freedom in the Manned Tended Capability through Permanently Manned Capability configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J. C.; Gilley, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses have been conducted to assess the capability of the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem to control ambient CO2 levels of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The adequacy of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) performance to meet design requirements has been evaluated. Analyses considered transient effects of crew location and metabolic loading on SSF Restructure configurations. The analyses consisted of computer simulations of on-orbit conditions using both supplier-provided and adjusted CO2 removal performance approximations along with derived crew metabolic activities and locations. Results show that while the current performance of the CDRA will maintain CO2 levels within specifications for Man-Tended Operations, it cannot maintain the SSF atmosphere below specifications during Permanently Manned Operations. Potential design options are discussed and other relevant analyses are summarized.

  18. [Efficacy analysis of suprapubic single-incision laparoscopy in the treatment of rectosigmoid cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruoyan; Wang, Yanan; Xiong, Wenjun; Zhang, Ze; Deng, Haijun; Li, Guoxin

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and cosmetic result of suprapubic single incision laparoscopic surgery(SSILS) in the treatment of rectosigmoid cancer. Clinicopathological data of 16 patients undergoing SSILS and 122 undergoing conventional laparoscopic surgery(CLS) for sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer in the Nanfang Hospital from August 2011 to July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were analyzed with propensity score matching at a ratio of 1 to 2 by logistic regression analysis. The matching covariates included age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA) score, tumor location, tumor diameter, pathologic TNM stage, previous abdominal surgery. After matching, 48 patients (16 SSILS and 32 CLS) were enrolled in the study. The SSILS group comprised of 13 (81.3%) males with mean age of (56.4±13.4) years. The CLS group comprised of 23(71.9%) males with mean age of (55.6±13.7) years. Postoperative short-term parameters, oncologic efficacy and cosmetic result were compared between the two groups. The male gender ratio, age, body mass index, ASA score, tumor location, tumor diameter, tumor differentiation, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, previous abdominal surgery were comparable between the two groups. As compared to CLS group, less incision length [(4.8±1.5) cm vs. (6.8±1.2) cm, U=63.000, P=0.000], shorter time to ambulation [(2.6±1.0) days vs. (3.9±1.5) days, U=116.500, P=0.002], shorter hospital stay [(8.4±5.3) days vs.(9.2±3.1) days, U=139.000, P=0.010] and less postopertive pain(Visual Analogue Scale: 4.3±1.4 vs. 5.2±1.1 at day 3, t=2.457, P=0.018; 3.7±1.0 vs. 4.6±1.0 at day 4, t=2.700, P=0.010; 3.3±0.8 vs. 4.0±1.0 at day 5, t=2.466, P=0.017) were observed in SSILS group. The other short-term parameters(blood loss, operative time, insertion of additional port rate, time to flatus, defecation, time to liquid and soft diet, complication morbidity, number of lymph nodes harvested, proximal and

  19. Resolution No. 2478/87-DM setting forth requirements to grant an entry permit or residency of a permanent or temporary nature, 15 September 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Resolution of Argentina sets forth the following categories of persons as those who may be granted an entry permit or residency of a permanent or temporary nature under Decree 1434/87: 1) professionals, technicians, or specialized personnel whose admission is required to undertake their specialized duties for businesses, or persons whose solvency or economic or social activity is publicly recognized; 2) business persons, artists, or athletes contracted by a person of known solvency to undertake their specialized duties; 3) scientists, professors, writers, journalists, or persons of special importance to the cultural, social, or political order; 4) students who, according to the laws of their own country, have reached the age of majority; 5) religious persons belonging to recognized religions; 6) foreigners who are of special interest to the country because of their talents or personal circumstances; 7) immigrants who have sufficient capital to undertake a commercial, industrial agricultural, mining, or fishing activity; persons who deposit US $30,000 for not less than 120 days are considered to have sufficient capital; 8) parents, unmarried children, or spouses of Argentine citizens, foreigners resident temporarily and permanently in Argentina, or persons mentioned in 1) to 7) above. Under Resolution 700/88-DNM (National Director of Migration) of 3 March 1988, foreigners of European origin are included within category 6) above. See Boletin Oficial de la Republica Argentina, No. 26.495, 27 October 1988, p. 95. Under Resolution 179/88-MI (Minister of the Interior) of 19 February 1988, Resolution No. 2479/87-DNM, which suspended temporarily the authorization of entry permits, settling, and visitation for foreigners of Taiwanese origin, is without effect and the National Directorate of Migration is instructed to establish a system of strict control of such persons. See Boletin Oficial de la Republica Argentina, No. 26.495, 27 October 1988, pp. 26-27. Resolution No

  20. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  1. 30 CFR 817.132 - Cessation of operations: Permanent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.132 Cessation of operations: Permanent. (a) The person who conducts underground mining... equipment, structures, or other facilities not required for continued underground mining activities...

  2. 30 CFR 817.132 - Cessation of operations: Permanent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.132 Cessation of operations: Permanent. (a) The person who conducts underground mining... equipment, structures, or other facilities not required for continued underground mining activities...

  3. Open suprapubic versus retropubic prostatectomy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia during resident's learning curve: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Arie; Sakuramoto, Paulo; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Forseto, Pedro Herminio; Julio, Alexandre Den; Bautzer, Carlos Ricardo Doi; Lins, Leonardo Monte Marques; Kataguiri, Andre; Yamada, Fernanda Batistini; Teixeira, Gabriel Kushiyama; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study compared the suprapubic (SP) versus retropubic (RP) prostatectomy for the treatment of large prostates and evaluated perioperative surgical morbidity and improvement of urinary symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this single centre, prospective, randomised study, 65 consecutive patients with LUTS and surgical indication with prostate volume greater than 75g underwent open prostatectomy to compare the RP (32 patients) versus SP (33 patients) technique. Results: The SP group exhibited a higher incidence of complications (p=0.002). Regarding voiding pattern analysis (IPSS and flowmetry), both were significantly effective compared to pre-treatment baseline. The RP group parameters were significantly better, with higher peak urinary flow (SP: 16.77 versus RP: 23.03mL/s, p=0.008) and a trend of lower IPSS score (SP: 6.67 versus RP 4.14, p=0.06). In a subgroup evaluation of patients with prostate volumes larger than 100g, blood loss was lower in those undergoing SP prostatectomy (p=0.003). Patients with prostates smaller than 100g in the SP group exhibited a higher incidence of low grade late complications (p=0.004). Conclusions: The SP technique was related to a higher incidence of minor complications in the late postoperative period. High volume prostates were associated with increased bleeding when the RP technique was utilized. The RP prostatectomy was associated with higher peak urinary flow and a trend of a lower IPSS Score. PMID:27256183

  4. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Essure System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  5. Permanence can be Defended.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew; Gardiner, Dale

    2017-03-01

    In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death (DCDD), the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981 (USA), a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is 'irreversible'. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule. We offer a new argument here in defence of current DCDD practice, and, in particular, of the interpretation of the requirement of 'irreversibility' as permanence.

  6. Object permanence in the food-storing coal tit (Periparus ater) and the non-storing great tit (Parus major): Is the mental representation required?

    PubMed

    Marhounová, Lucie; Frynta, Daniel; Fuchs, Roman; Landová, Eva

    2017-05-01

    Object permanence is a cognitive ability that enables animals to mentally represent the continuous existence of temporarily hidden objects. Generally, it develops gradually through six qualitative stages, the evolution of which may be connected with some specific ecological and behavioral factors. In birds, the advanced object permanence skills were reported in several storing species of the Corvidae family. In order to test the association between food-storing and achieved performance within the stages, we compared food-storing coal tits (Periparus ater) and nonstoring great tits (Parus major) using an adapted version of Uzgiris & Hunt's Scale 1 tasks. The coal tits significantly outperformed the great tits in searching for completely hidden objects. Most of the great tits could not solve the task when the object disappeared completely. However, the upper limit for both species is likely to be Stage 4. The coal tits could solve problems with simply hidden objects, but they used alternative strategies rather than mental representation when searching for completely hidden objects, especially if choosing between two locations. Our results also suggest that neophobia did not affect the overall performance in the object permanence tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Uterine Leiomyomas: Safety and Efficacy of US-guided Suprapubic Transvaginal Radiofrequency Ablation at 1-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang-Jun; Guo, Qing; Cao, Bing-Sheng; Tan, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Cai, Yu-Ru; Gao, Bu-Lang

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasonography (US)-guided suprapubic transvaginal (ST) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomas at 1-year follow-up. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this prospective study, and all patients provided informed consent. ST RFA was performed as an outpatient procedure 3 days after menstruation in 51 women (age range, 32-52 years; mean age, 42.2 years) with 62 leiomyomas. The leiomyomas were assessed with conventional and contrast material-enhanced US before and after ST RFA for leiomyoma size, location, and blood flow. All patients were evaluated for postoperative complications, including abdominal pain, injury to surrounding tissues and organs, vaginal bleeding, increased vaginal discharge, fever, dyspnea, and menorrhagia, after ST RFA and at follow-up visits. The leiomyoma volumes, improvement in leiomyoma-related symptoms, effect on quality of life (QOL), and patient satisfaction were assessed and compared before and after ST RFA and at follow-up visits by using statistical analyses. Results Sixty-two leiomyomas were successfully treated with ST RFA until 90% of the leiomyoma was echogenic. At 1-month follow-up, 46 (74%) leiomyomas had no contrast enhancement, five (8%) had peripheral enhancement, eight (13%) had focal enhancement, and three (5%) had scattered enhancement at contrast-enhanced US. At 6-month follow-up, the number of leiomyomas that had no enhancement, peripheral enhancement, focal enhancement, or scattered enhancement was 43 (69%), seven (11%), nine (15%), and three (5%), respectively. The leiomyoma volumes were significantly (P < .05) reduced at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (from 33.0 cm(3) ± 25.1 [standard deviation] before treatment to 6.8 cm(3) ± 7.7 at 12-month follow-up). The mean percentage volume reduction at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up was 28%, 57%, 63%, and 78%, respectively. The scores for symptoms and QOL

  8. Severe, Protracted Spasm of Urinary Bladder and Autonomic Dysreflexia Caused by Changing the Suprapubic Catheter in a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patient: Treatment by a Bolus Dose and Increased Total Daily Dose of Intrathecal Baclofen.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Oo, Tun; Soni, Bakul M; Hughes, Peter L; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal administration of baclofen by implanted pump reduces rigidity and muscle spasms. Its use specifically to control bladder spasms has not been reported. A tetraplegic patient developed severe, protracted, bladder spasms, abdominal muscles spasms, and high blood pressure after change of suprapubic catheter; nifedipine, diazepam, and paracetamol did not control spasms; bolus dose of baclofen intrathecally produced prompt relief via baclofen pump. Severe, protracted bladder spasms, abdominal muscles spasms, and autonomic dysreflexia, induced by change of suprapubic catheter in a spinal cord injury patient, were treated successfully by a bolus dose and increased total daily dose of intrathecal baclofen.

  9. Severe, Protracted Spasm of Urinary Bladder and Autonomic Dysreflexia Caused by Changing the Suprapubic Catheter in a Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Patient: Treatment by a Bolus Dose and Increased Total Daily Dose of Intrathecal Baclofen

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Oo, Tun; Soni, Bakul M.; Hughes, Peter L.; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intrathecal administration of baclofen by implanted pump reduces rigidity and muscle spasms. Its use specifically to control bladder spasms has not been reported. CASE REPORT A tetraplegic patient developed severe, protracted, bladder spasms, abdominal muscles spasms, and high blood pressure after change of suprapubic catheter; nifedipine, diazepam, and paracetamol did not control spasms; bolus dose of baclofen intrathecally produced prompt relief via baclofen pump. CONCLUSION Severe, protracted bladder spasms, abdominal muscles spasms, and autonomic dysreflexia, induced by change of suprapubic catheter in a spinal cord injury patient, were treated successfully by a bolus dose and increased total daily dose of intrathecal baclofen. PMID:28008298

  10. APPLICATION III: Permanent Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Satoshi

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Superconducting permanent magnet using pinned type superconductor * Magnetization process based on the critical state * Demagnetizing curve and permanent magnetic properties * Demagnetizing field of pinned type II superconductor * Samples and experiments * Sample preparation * Magnetization measurements * Permanent magnetic properties of the melt processed YBCO * QMG processed YBCO * MPMG processed YBCO * Summary * References

  11. Rare earth permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Major-Sosias, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    Permanent magnets were discovered centuries ago from what was known as {open_quotes}lodestone{close_quotes}, a rock containing large quantities of the iron-bearing mineral magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The compass was the first technological use for permanent magnetic materials; it was used extensively for navigational purposes by the fifteenth century. During the twentieth century, as new applications for permanent magnets were developed, interest and research in permanent magnetic materials soared. Four major types of permanent magnets have been developed since the turn of the century.

  12. Suprapubic catheter care

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine bag only a few times a day. Caring for Your Skin Near your Catheter Follow these ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  13. Additive manufacturing of permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Johnson, F.; McCall, S. K.

    2016-10-28

    Here, permanent magnets enable energy conversion. Motors and generators are used to convert both electrical to mechanical energy and mechanical to electrical energy, respectively. They are precharged (magnetized) prior to being used in an application and must remain magnetized during operation. In addition, they should generate sufficient magnetic flux for a given application. Nevertheless permanent magnets can be demagnetized (discharged of their magnetization) by other magnetic materials in their service vicinity, temperature changes (thermal demagnetization), microstructural degradations and the magnet’s internal demagnetizing field. Therefore a permanent magnet can be qualified based on the properties that measure its ability to withstand demagnetization and to supply sufficient magnetic flux required for a given application. Some of those properties are further discussed below. Additive manufacturing followed by exchange spring magnets will be discussed afterwards.

  14. Additive manufacturing of permanent magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Johnson, F.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, permanent magnets enable energy conversion. Motors and generators are used to convert both electrical to mechanical energy and mechanical to electrical energy, respectively. They are precharged (magnetized) prior to being used in an application and must remain magnetized during operation. In addition, they should generate sufficient magnetic flux for a given application. Nevertheless permanent magnets can be demagnetized (discharged of their magnetization) by other magnetic materials in their service vicinity, temperature changes (thermal demagnetization), microstructural degradations and the magnet’s internal demagnetizing field. Therefore a permanent magnet can be qualified based on the properties that measure its ability to withstandmore » demagnetization and to supply sufficient magnetic flux required for a given application. Some of those properties are further discussed below. Additive manufacturing followed by exchange spring magnets will be discussed afterwards.« less

  15. Oscillating Permanent Magnets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)

  16. Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material.

  17. Predictive factors for the success of McRoberts' manoeuvre and suprapubic pressure in relieving shoulder dystocia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lok, Zara Lin Zau; Cheng, Yvonne Kwun Yue; Leung, Tak Yeung

    2016-10-29

    McRoberts' and suprapubic pressure are often recommended as the initial choices of manoeuvres to manage shoulder dystocia, as they are believed to be less invasive compared to other manoeuvres. However, their success rates range from 23 to 40 %. This study aims to investigate the predictive factors for the success of McRoberts' manoeuvre with or without suprapubic pressure (M+/-S). All cases of shoulder dystocia in a tertiary hospital in South East Asia were recruited from 1995 to 2009. Subjects were analysed according to either 'success' or 'failure' of M+/-S. Maternal and fetal antenatal and intrapartum factors were compared by univariate and multivariate analysis. Among 198 cases of shoulder dystocia, M+/-S as the primary manoeuvre was successful in 25.8 %. The other 74.2 % needed either rotational or posterior arm manoeuvres or combination of manoeuvres. Instrumental delivery was the single most significant factor associated with an increased risk of failed M+/-S on logistic regression (p < 0.001, OR 4.88, 95 % CI 2.05-11.60). The success rate of M+/-S was only 15.0 % if shoulder dystocia occurred after instrumental delivery but was 47.7 % after spontaneous vaginal delivery. When shoulder dystocia occurs after instrumental vaginal delivery, the chance of failure of M+/-S is 85 %, which is 4.7 times higher than that after spontaneous vaginal delivery. Hence all operators performing instrumental delivery should be proficient in performing all manoeuvres to relieve shoulder dystocia when M+/-S cannot do so.

  18. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  19. Permanent tensions in organization.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Noora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change. This study used paradox theory and a case study. The case organization is a public university hospital in Finland involving several stakeholders. The analysis suggests that the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change is a paradox that is part of organizational reality. As an organization learns to live with its permanent tensions, the renewal paradox settles into equilibrium. When tensions are provoked, the paradox is disturbed until it finds a new balance. This flexible nature of the paradox is the force that keeps the different stakeholders simultaneously empowered to maintain their unique missions and cohesive in order to benefit from the larger synergy. This research suggests that identification and evaluation of each permanent tension within an organization is important when executing organizational change. The fact that certain tensions are permanent and cannot be solved may have an influence on how planned change initiatives are executed. The results show that permanent tensions may be harnessed for the benefit of an organizational change. This research demonstrates originality by offering an alternative view of tensions, a view which emphasizes not only their permanent and plural nature but their importance for enabling the organization to change at its own, non-disruptive pace. The research also proposes a new concept, the "renewal paradox", to enhance understanding of the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change.

  20. Role of permanent host association with the Madagascar hissing-cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, on the developmental water requirements of the mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi.

    PubMed

    Yoder, J A; Hedges, B Z; Benoit, J B; Keeney, G D

    2009-08-01

    We provide the first complete description of the water requirements for the hissing-cockroach mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi, focusing on characteristics that result from the restriction of all stages to the Madagascar hissing-cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa). Particularly, we determine how G. schaeferi spends its entire life on the same individual cockroach. This mite is not parasitic, rather they feed on cockroach saliva and other moist organic debris that accumulates between the cockroach's legs. Water balance characteristics of this mite show that it is extremely hydrophilic and that it must maintain a high percentage body water content to function properly despite being very porous (high net transpiration rate) and sensitive to water loss, tolerating only 20% loss of their water content before death. This hydrophilic trend starts with the larva and is retained into adulthood. Developmentally, a shift occurs during postlarval development from an emphasis on water gain (low critical equilibrium activity for water vapor absorption from drier air) in the protonymph to an emphasis on water retention (reduced net transpiration rate for water conservation) in the adult. The minute-sized larva is prevented from replenishing water stores by water vapor absorption or feeding because it lacks functional mouthparts, thus dries up rapidly. To avoid dehydration and survive, the larval stage utilizes a quick shoot-through molt to the protonymph that can feed and grow. Our conclusion is that the hissing-cockroach creates an ideal, stable moisture-rich microhabitat that satisfies the high water demand for G. schaeferi during all stages, fixing this mite to a single cockroach as an ecological niche.

  1. [INSEE's permanent demographic sample].

    PubMed

    Sautory, O

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the permanent demographic sample survey developed by France's Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE), which has been in use in that country since the census of 1968. Approximately one percent of the metropolitan population of France was chosen for inclusion by birthdate. By adding data on marriage, births of children, change of residence, schooling, employment status, and death to each person's file, longitudinal studies of fertility, nuptiality, and mortality can be conducted. Two such studies are included as examples of how the permanent sample survey can be best put to use.

  2. [Incidences of erectile dysfunction and retrograde ejaculation after suprapubic prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate in Chinese men: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Wu, Bin; Gao, Shuang

    2009-08-01

    To compare suprapubic prostatectomy (SPPC) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in inducing erectile dysfunction (ED) and retrograde ejaculation (RE) in Chinese men. We retrieved all the case-controlled studies on the comparison of SPPC and TURP in inducing ED and RE by searching Medline and Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD) (up to January 2009), screened the eligible literature according to the selection and exclusion criteria, and performed meta-analyses on the included studies using the software Revman 4. 2. Eight eligible reports were identified in this study, including 515 cases of SPPC and 462 cases of TURP. The SPPC group showed a little higher incidence of ED than the TURP group (pooled OR: 1.34; 95% CI, 0.97, 1.85), with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05), while the latter exhibited a significantly higher incidence of RE than the former (pooled OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44, 0.76, P < 0.05). There is no significant difference between the incidence of ED after SPPC and that after TURP in Chinese men, but the latter may induce a much higher rate of retrograde ejaculation than the former.

  3. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and…

  4. [Permanent education in health: a review].

    PubMed

    Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and

  5. Permanent education in health: a review

    PubMed Central

    Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. METHODS A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: “public health professional education”, “permanent education”, “continuing education”, “permanent education health”. Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. RESULTS The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education, and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. CONCLUSIONS The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. PMID:24789649

  6. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kumada, M.; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

    2007-05-23

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

  7. Managing Permanent Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    sorage me hanism is the Chunk Management System ( CMS ). CMS provides a database-like interface for POMW. On first reference to a permanent object POMS...19] M.P. Atkinson, K.J. Chisholm, and W.P. Cockshott. CMS - A Chunk Management System . Technical Report CSR-110-82, Department of Computer Science...database manager . Creating and using emibedded systems is not always bad. In most large programming projets one ends up constructing and using some sort

  8. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  9. Postoperative permanent pressure alopecia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zi Yun; Ngian, Jan; Chong, Claudia; Chong, Chin Ted; Liew, Qui Yin

    2016-04-01

    A 49-year-old Chinese female underwent elective laparoscopic assisted Whipple's surgery lasting 12 h. This was complicated by postoperative pressure alopecia at the occipital area of the scalp. Pressure-induced hair loss after general anaesthesia is uncommon and typically temporary, but may be disconcerting to the patient. We report this case of postoperative permanent pressure alopecia due to its rarity in the anaesthesia/local literature, and review the risk factors for its development.

  10. A prospective randomised controlled trial of intermittent self-catheterisation vs. supra-pubic catheterisation for post-operative bladder care following radical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Naik, R; Maughan, K; Nordin, A; Lopes, A; Godfrey, K A; Hatem, M H

    2005-11-01

    To determine the potential benefits of ISC (intermittent self-catheterisation) over SPC (supra-pubic catheterisation) in the post-operative bladder care of women following radical hysterectomy. A prospective randomised controlled trial of women treated by radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer. RESULTS.: 40 women were recruited to the study, 21 to ISC and 19 to SPC. All patients randomised to ISC were able to learn the technique of ISC satisfactorily following a period of pre-operative training. The day 3 and day 5 positive CSU (catheter specimen of urine) rate was significantly higher in the ISC group (42% and 63%) compared to the SPC group (6% and 18%), P = 0.05 and P = 0.004, respectively). Eight of 17 patients randomised to SPC (47%) documented having symptoms/problems arising from the SPC site of which 4 (23%) were shown to have a positive wound swab. There was no significant difference in length of period for bladder care between the two groups, P = 0.83. However, there were significant differences in patient acceptability (P = 0.009), freedom to lead a normal life (P = 0.000), disturbance at night (P = 0.006) and patient anxiety/embarrassment (P = 0.005) between the two groups. Patients are able to learn the technique of ISC without difficulty. Despite a greater urinary tract infection rate, the high incidence of SPC site problems can be avoided by use of ISC. The technique of ISC was seen to be more acceptable to patients allowing fewer disturbances at night, greater freedom to lead a normal life during the day and less anxiety/embarrassment compared to SPC.

  11. Liquids with permanent porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Nicola; Del Pópolo, Mario G.; Melaugh, Gavin; Greenaway, Rebecca L.; Rätzke, Klaus; Koschine, Tönjes; Pison, Laure; Gomes, Margarida F. Costa; Cooper, Andrew I.; James, Stuart L.

    2015-11-01

    Porous solids such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks are useful in molecular separation and in catalysis, but their solid nature can impose limitations. For example, liquid solvents, rather than porous solids, are the most mature technology for post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide because liquid circulation systems are more easily retrofitted to existing plants. Solid porous adsorbents offer major benefits, such as lower energy penalties in adsorption-desorption cycles, but they are difficult to implement in conventional flow processes. Materials that combine the properties of fluidity and permanent porosity could therefore offer technological advantages, but permanent porosity is not associated with conventional liquids. Here we report free-flowing liquids whose bulk properties are determined by their permanent porosity. To achieve this, we designed cage molecules that provide a well-defined pore space and that are highly soluble in solvents whose molecules are too large to enter the pores. The concentration of unoccupied cages can thus be around 500 times greater than in other molecular solutions that contain cavities, resulting in a marked change in bulk properties, such as an eightfold increase in the solubility of methane gas. Our results provide the basis for development of a new class of functional porous materials for chemical processes, and we present a one-step, multigram scale-up route for highly soluble ‘scrambled’ porous cages prepared from a mixture of commercially available reagents. The unifying design principle for these materials is the avoidance of functional groups that can penetrate into the molecular cage cavities.

  12. Permanent Turbidity-Standards

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, William G.; Brewer, Carl R.

    1967-01-01

    Permanent turbidity reference standards suitable for measurement of microbial suspensions were prepared by suspending finely divided titanium dioxide in aryl sulfonamide-formaldehyde or methylstyrene resins. Turbidities of these standards, adjusted to a useful range for microbiological and immunological studies, were compared with other reference standards in use today. Tube holders for a Coleman Photonephelometer and a Nepho-Colorimeter were modified to eliminate the water well and to allow use of optically standardized 10-, 16-, or 18-mm test tubes. The standards and the tube holders have been used satisfactorily for more than 12 years. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6077410

  13. 33 CFR 117.8 - Permanent changes to drawbridge operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent changes to drawbridge operation. 117.8 Section 117.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.8 Permanent changes to...

  14. Update on Permanent Contraception Options for Women

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Eva; Jensen, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Permanent methods are the most commonly used contraceptive options worldwide. Even with the increase in popularity and accessibility of long-acting reversible methods, there remains high demand for permanent options, especially among women in developing countries. Recent findings Traditional methods of permanent contraception (PC), such as post-partum tubal ligation and interval surgical tubal occlusion or electrocautery by mini-laparotomy or laparoscopy are safe and highly effective. Bilateral total salpingectomy for ovarian cancer risk reduction is currently being investigated. Hysteroscopic tubal occlusion reduces or eliminates the need for anesthesia, but requires surgical training and specialized equipment. Alternative PC methods are being explored including immediately effective hysteroscopic methods, and non-surgical permanent contraception (NSPC) methods that have the potential to improve access and reduce cost. Summary PC methods are an important part of the contraceptive methods mix designed to meet the needs of women who have completed desired family size or wish never to become pregnant. Current surgical approaches to permanent contraception are safe and highly effective. The development of a highly effective nonsurgical approach could simplify the provision of PC. PMID:26406934

  15. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-06-23

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  16. Investigation of permanent magnets in low-cost position tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ryan; Lasso, Andras; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: Low cost portable ultrasound systems could see improved utility if similarly low cost portable trackers were developed. Permanent magnet based tracking systems potentially offer adequate tracking accuracy in a small workspace suitable for ultrasound image reconstruction. In this study the use of simple permanent magnet tracking techniques is investigated to determine feasibility for use in an ultrasound tracking system. METHODS: Permanent magnet tracking requires finding a position input into a field model which minimizes the error between the measured field, and the field expected from the model. A simulator was developed in MATLAB to determine the effect of sources of error in permanent magnet tracking systems. Insights from the simulations were used to develop a calibration and tracking experiment to determine the accuracy of a simple and low cost permanent magnet tracking system. RESULTS: Simulation and experimental results show permanent magnet based tracking to be highly sensitive to errors in sensor measurements, calibration and experimental setup. The reduction in field strength of permanent magnets lowers with the cube of distance, which leads to very poor signal-to-noise ratios at distances above 20 cm. Small errors in experimental setup also led to high tracking error. CONCLUSION: Permanent magnet tracking was found to be less accurate than is clinically useful, and highly sensitive to errors in sensors and experimental setup. Sensor and calibration limitations make simple permanent magnet tracking systems a poor choice given the present state of sensor technology.

  17. Achieving Permanency for LGBTQ Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family…

  18. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  19. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  20. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  1. The "Permanent" Patient Problem.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Majumder, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    Patients who enter the health care system for acute care may become "permanent" patients of the hospital when a lack of resources precludes discharge to the next level of post-acute care. Legal, professional, and ethical norms prohibit physician and acute care hospital "dumping" of these patients. However, limitless use of hospital resources for indefinite stays is untenable. In the absence of hospital policy addressing this specific issue, the availability of financial support will be determined by health care professionals' willingness to advocate for the patient and negotiate with hospital administrators and the ability and willingness of administrators to authorize the use of hospital resources. We propose five mid-level ethical principles to guide advocacy and administrative decision-making about provision of financial support for post-acute care for those patients who cannot afford it. We use two actual, de-identified cases to illustrate how these principles can be used to make reasoned, consistent decisions about the provision of post-acute financial support. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Care of patients with permanent tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Everitt, Erica

    The third article in our series on tracheostomy care discusses the care of patients with a permanent tracheostomy. While these patients make up a small proportion of all patients who have a tracheostomy inserted, they have complex needs. This means they require practitioners in both acute and community settings, who have time, support and competent tracheostomy-care skills, to achieve a successful discharge and ongoing management of their tracheostomy.

  3. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Wiles, Randy H; Coomer, Chester; Lowe, Kirk T

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  4. Temporary and permanent wetland macroinvertebrate communities: Phylogenetic structure through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Carly A.; Vamosi, Steven M.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    2012-02-01

    Water permanence has been previously identified as an important factor affecting macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance in wetlands. Here, we repeatedly sampled the macroinvertebrate communities in 16 permanent and 14 temporary wetlands in Alberta, Canada. Temporary wetlands were predicted to have more closely related taxa and reduced species richness due to the specialized adaptations required to survive in a temporary habitat. We analyzed the species richness (SR) and phylogenetic structure of communities, focusing on three measures of relatedness: Phylogenetic Distance (PD), Net Related Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI). We also examined the influence of taxonomic scale on resulting phylogenetic structure. Overall, taxa were more diverse and abundant in permanent wetlands. As expected, PD and SR were greatest in permanent wetlands. NTI and NRI metrics suggest permanent wetland communities are primarily structured by biotic interactions, such as competition and predation. Conversely, temporary wetland communities appear to be affected more by environmental filtering, with fewer groups being able to survive and reproduce in the relatively limited time that these environments contain water. Insect and dipteran assemblages differed from the patterns found when examining all taxa together for communities for both permanent and temporary wetlands, tending to become more phylogenetically clustered as the season progressed. Conversely, lophotrochozoan and gastropod assemblages closely matched the patterns observed for full communities in permanent wetlands, suggesting a role for biotic interactions. Given the contrasting patterns observed for permanent and temporary wetlands, macroinvertebrate diversity at the landscape level may be best conserved by maintaining both habitat types.

  5. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  6. Leadership in a (permanent) crisis.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald; Grashow, Alexander; Linsky, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions.

  7. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  8. Topology optimized permanent magnet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.

  9. Tattoos and Permanent Make-Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information by Audience For Women Tattoos and Permanent Make-up Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... your skin. Permanent tattoos last a lifetime . Permanent Make-Up : A needle inserts colored ink into your skin ...

  10. Transient performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borger, W. U.

    The performance of a permanent magnet synchronous machine is presented for transient conditions including: starting, load application and load removal. The machine studied possesses asynchronous torque for starting as well as synchronous torque for high efficiency and high power factor during normal operation. The transient performance of the synchronous machine is compared with a high efficiency induction machine of the same rating. The comparison presented is strictly analytical and is approached by developing the required equations for the idealized synchronous and induction machines. Solutions for the equations are approximated on the digital computer. Although the study is not universal in scope, it shows that the permanent magnet synchronous motor rivals the induction machine in weight and in transient performance while at the same time besting the induction machine from an efficiency and power factor standpoint.

  11. Permanent Disability Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chovil, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a review of the theory and practice of disability evaluation with emphasis on the distinction between medical impairment and disability. The requirements for making an accurate assessment of medical impairments are discussed. The author suggests three basic standards which can be used for establishing a simplified method of assessing physical impairment. PMID:20469213

  12. Permanent underwater leak detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, L.; McStay, D.; Moodie, D.; Kane, D.

    2009-07-01

    A new optoelectronic sensor for the real time monitoring of key components such as valves and connectors within the subsea production equipment for leaks of hydraulic fluid is reported. The sensor is capable of detecting low concentrations of such fluids, allowing the early detection of small leaks, and the ability to monitor the evolution of the leak-rate with time, hence providing an important new tool in complying with environmental requirements, enabling early intervention and optimising subsea production

  13. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  14. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  15. 10 CFR 34.75 - Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent radiographic installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.75 Records of alarm system and entrance control checks at permanent...

  16. Qualitative permanence of Lotka-Volterra equations.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Josef; Kon, Ryusuke; Saito, Yasuhisa

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we consider permanence of Lotka-Volterra equations. We investigate the sign structure of the interaction matrix that guarantees the permanence of a Lotka-Volterra equation whenever it has a positive equilibrium point. An interaction matrix with this property is said to be qualitatively permanent. Our results provide both necessary and sufficient conditions for qualitative permanence.

  17. Lodestone: Nature's own permanent magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis and microstructural details are presented which explain why the class of magnetic iron ores defined as proto-lodestones, can behave as permanent magnets, i.e. lodestones. Certain of these proto-lodestones which are not permanent magnets can be made into permanent magnets by charging in a field greater than 1000 oersted. This fact, other experimental observations, and field evidence from antiquity and the middle ages, which seems to indicate that lodestones are found as localized patches within massive ore bodies, suggests that lightning might be responsible for the charging of lodestones. The large remanent magnetization, high values of coercive force, and good time stability for the remanent magnetization are all characteristics of proto-lodestone iron ores which behave magnetically as fine scale ( 10 micrometer) intergrowths when subjected to magnetic hysteresis analysis. The magnetic results are easily understood by analysis of the complex proto lodestone microstructural patterns observable at the micrometer scale and less.

  18. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  19. 12 CFR 5.46 - Changes in permanent capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements. A national bank shall submit an application and obtain OCC approval to decrease its permanent..., in certain circumstances, a national bank shall be required to submit an application and obtain OCC...) Definitions. For the purposes of this section the following definitions apply: (1) Capital plan means a plan...

  20. Microfilm Permanence and Archival Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avedon, Don M.

    1972-01-01

    The facts about microfilm permanence and archival quality are presented in simple terms. The major factors, including the film base material, the film emulsion, processing, and storage conditions are reviewed. The designations on the edge of the film are explained and a list of refernces provided. (14 references) (Author)

  1. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  2. Special-Purpose High-Torque Permanent-Magnet Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet brushless motors that must provide high commanded torques and satisfy unusual heat-removal requirement are developed. Intended for use as thrust-vector-control actuators in large rocket engines. Techniques and concepts used to design improved motors for special terrestrial applications. Conceptual motor design calls for use of rotor containing latest high-energy-product rare-earth permanent magnets so that motor produces required torque while drawing smallest possible currents from power supply. Torque generated by electromagnetic interaction between stator and permanent magnets in rotor when associated electronic circuits applied appropriately temporally and spatially phased currents to stator windings. Phase relationships needed to produce commanded torque computed in response to torque command and to electronically sensed angular position of rotor relative to stator.

  3. Special-Purpose High-Torque Permanent-Magnet Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet brushless motors that must provide high commanded torques and satisfy unusual heat-removal requirement are developed. Intended for use as thrust-vector-control actuators in large rocket engines. Techniques and concepts used to design improved motors for special terrestrial applications. Conceptual motor design calls for use of rotor containing latest high-energy-product rare-earth permanent magnets so that motor produces required torque while drawing smallest possible currents from power supply. Torque generated by electromagnetic interaction between stator and permanent magnets in rotor when associated electronic circuits applied appropriately temporally and spatially phased currents to stator windings. Phase relationships needed to produce commanded torque computed in response to torque command and to electronically sensed angular position of rotor relative to stator.

  4. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  5. Dental treatment needs of permanent first molars in mashhad schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Masoumeh; Ajami, Behjat-Al-Molook; Sarraf Shirazi, Ali Reza; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar; Rashidi, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    In spite of their enormous importance, permanent first molars might be affected by caries in children in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment needs of first permanent molars in a group of schoolchildren in Mashhad. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 700, 7-9 year-old students in primary schools in Mashhad. The schools were randomly selected from each district. Treatment needs and DMFT of first perma-nent molars were calculated. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-Square and t-test. A total of 95.3% of the children required dental treatment. Fissure sealant application and filling were the treat-ments most required in all age groups. The mean DMFT of first permanent molars was 1.31±1.4. It was significantly higher in girls than boys (P=0.040). Great treatment needs and caries prevalence in permanent first molars in Mashhad schoolchildren show that dental caries is still a serious problem in the children of our society; therefore, education of parents and teachers is necessary for promoting children's oral health.

  6. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  7. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove...

  9. 21 CFR 886.4445 - Permanent magnet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove...

  10. Teaching Object Permanence: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…

  11. 22 CFR 401.3 - Permanent offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Permanent offices. 401.3 Section 401.3 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.3 Permanent offices. The permanent offices of the Commission shall be at Washington, in the District of...

  12. Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

  13. Permanent-File-Validation Utility Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derry, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Errors in files detected and corrected during operation. Permanent File Validation (PFVAL) utility computer program provides CDC CYBER NOS sites with mechanism to verify integrity of permanent file base. Locates and identifies permanent file errors in Mass Storage Table (MST) and Track Reservation Table (TRT), in permanent file catalog entries (PFC's) in permit sectors, and in disk sector linkage. All detected errors written to listing file and system and job day files. Program operates by reading system tables , catalog track, permit sectors, and disk linkage bytes to vaidate expected and actual file linkages. Used extensively to identify and locate errors in permanent files and enable online correction, reducing computer-system downtime.

  14. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    second through those molds. The facilities at Arrow Aluminum Foundry were used in the study. The results will be employed to demonstrate to the American Foundry Industry how molten aluminum flows in permanent molds of different designs and characteristics. The results of these experiments were compared with computer mold and simulation models. The Procast and Magmasoft flow and solidification simulation programs were employed to predict the flow behavior under the different conditions that can prevail in permanent mold gating. The development of a valid computer model that can correctly and accurately predict this flow is much more intricate than generally realized. To provide accurate predictions such programs require significant adjustments and verification with experimental data.

  15. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.

  16. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Dennis, Kevin W.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties.

  17. 76 FR 1 - Continuous Construction-Permanent Loan Guarantees Under the Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... and the permanent financing phase of the project (for loans that meet certain criteria) will now be... construction advances and the permanent financing phase of the project. This third option was created in... Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA), Public Law 104-4, establishes requirements...

  18. Robust discrimination of permanent scatterers using Cameron Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroupis, G.; Elias, P.; Anastassopoulos, V.

    2014-10-01

    One of the main difficulties encountered in Differential Interferometry (DInSAR) applications is temporal and spatial decorrelation over time. Single pixels, called Permanent Scatterers (PS), overcome this difficulty since they are coherent over time and over wide look-angle variations. Permanent Scatterers identification using interferographic techniques is unfeasible since they require the use of many acquisitions. Samsonov and Tiampo have presented a technique that selects Permanent Scatterers by analyzing their Polarization Phase Difference (PPD). The PPD approach would work just fine looking for single bounce scatterers because they are invariant to any initial arbitrary rotation between the scatterer and the radar Line of Sight (LOS). We propose to replace the PPD technique with Cameron's Coherent Target Decomposition (CTD) because it is more accurate in finding the single and double bounce scatterers as it eliminates the initial orientation angle of the scatterer. Additionally, Cameron's CTD is capable of recognizing more scattering mechanisms which means that more pixels, depending on their amplitude and stability over time, can be classified as Permanent Scatterers. A sample scene of fully polarimetric SAR image depicting the San Francisco bay was employed for experimentation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of the Cameron's CTD approach compared to PPD's approach for the selection of pixels classified as Permanent Scatterers.

  19. Corridor guided transport system utilizing permanent magnet levitation

    SciTech Connect

    Geraghty, J.J.; Poland, A.P.; Lombardi, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    The invention relates to a corridor guided transport system including a guided goods conveyance container utilizing permanent magnet levitation. The transport system of the invention eliminates the need for the wheel and track arrangement presently required by known and utilized conventional train systems and also required by some conventional magnetic levitation transport systems and, as a result, is safer to operate and maintain than either of these known transportation systems.

  20. High-performance permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, D.; Kronmüller, H.

    High-performance permanent magnets (pms) are based on compounds with outstanding intrinsic magnetic properties as well as on optimized microstructures and alloy compositions. The most powerful pm materials at present are RE-TM intermetallic alloys which derive their exceptional magnetic properties from the favourable combination of rare earth metals (RE=Nd, Pr, Sm) with transition metals (TM=Fe, Co), in particular magnets based on (Nd,Pr)2Fe14B and Sm2(Co,Cu,Fe,Zr)17. Their development during the last 20 years has involved a dramatic improvement in their performance by a factor of >15 compared with conventional ferrite pms therefore contributing positively to the ever-increasing demand for pms in many (including new) application fields, to the extent that RE-TM pms now account for nearly half of the worldwide market. This review article first gives a brief introduction to the basics of ferromagnetism to confer an insight into the variety of (permanent) magnets, their manufacture and application fields. We then examine the rather complex relationship between the microstructure and the magnetic properties for the two highest-performance and most promising pm materials mentioned. By using numerical micromagnetic simulations on the basis of the Finite Element technique the correlation can be quantitatively predicted, thus providing a powerful tool for the further development of optimized high-performance pms.

  1. High-performance permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Goll, D; Kronmüller, H

    2000-10-01

    High-performance permanent magnets (pms) are based on compounds with outstanding intrinsic magnetic properties as well as on optimized microstructures and alloy compositions. The most powerful pm materials at present are RE-TM intermetallic alloys which derive their exceptional magnetic properties from the favourable combination of rare earth metals (RE = Nd, Pr, Sm) with transition metals (TM = Fe, Co), in particular magnets based on (Nd.Pr)2Fe14B and Sm2(Co,Cu,Fe,Zr)17. Their development during the last 20 years has involved a dramatic improvement in their performance by a factor of > 15 compared with conventional ferrite pms therefore contributing positively to the ever-increasing demand for pms in many (including new) application fields, to the extent that RE-TM pms now account for nearly half of the worldwide market. This review article first gives a brief introduction to the basics of ferromagnetism to confer an insight into the variety of (permanent) magnets, their manufacture and application fields. We then examine the rather complex relationship between the microstructure and the magnetic properties for the two highest-performance and most promising pm materials mentioned. By using numerical micromagnetic simulations on the basis of the Finite Element technique the correlation can be quantitatively predicted, thus providing a powerful tool for the further development of optimized high-performance pms.

  2. Pericarditis following permanent pacemaker insertion.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yair; Shovman, Ora; Granit, Chava; Luria, David; Gurevitz, Osnat; Bar-Lev, David; Eldar, Michael; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Glikson, Michael

    2004-10-01

    The appearance of pericarditis following insertion of a permanent pacemaker is not widely acknowledged in the literature. To describe our experience with pericarditis following 395 permanent pacemaker implantations over 2 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 395 consecutive patients in whom new pacing systems or pacemaker leads had been implanted over a 2 year period. We searched the records for pericarditis that developed within 1 month after pacemaker implantation according to the ICD-9 code. The incidence, clinical picture, response to treatment, and relationship to lead design and location were studied. Eight cases (2%) of pericarditis following implantation were detected. Clinical manifestations in all patients were similar to those of post-pericardiotomy syndrome and included chest pain (n = 7), friction rub (n = 1), fever (n = 2), fatigue (n = 2), pleural effusion (n = 2), new atrial fibrillation (n = 2), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n = 4), and echcardiographic evidence of pericardial effusion (n = 8). All affected patients had undergone active fixation (screw-in) lead implantation in the atrial position. The incidence of pericarditis with screw-in atrial leads was 3% compared to 0% in other cases (P < 0.05). Pericarditis is not uncommon following pacemaker implantation with active fixation atrial leads. Special attention should be paid to identifying pericardial complications following pacemaker implantation, especially when anticoagulant therapy is resumed or initiated. The use of passive fixation leads is likely to reduce the incidence of pericarditis but this issue should be further investigated.

  3. Is CO2 ice permanent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    Carbon dioxide ice has been inferred to exist at the south pole in summertime, but Earth based measurements in 1969 of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggest that all CO2 ice sublined from the southern polar cap and exposed underlying water ice. This implies that the observed summertime CO2 ice is of recent origin. It appears possible to construct an energy balance model that maintains seasonal CO2 ice at the south pole year round and still reasonably simulates the polar cap regression and atmospheric pressure data. This implies that the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap could be seasonal in origin, and that minor changes in climate could cause CO2 ice to completely vanish, as would appear to have happened in 1969. However, further research remains before it is certain whether the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap is seasonal or is part of a permanent reservoir.

  4. New permanent magnets; manganese compounds.

    PubMed

    Coey, J M D

    2014-02-12

    The exponential growth of maximum energy product that prevailed in the 20th century has stalled, leaving a market dominated by two permanent magnet materials, Nd2Fe14B and Ba(Sr)Fe12O19, for which the maximum theoretical energy products differ by an order of magnitude (515 kJ m(-3) and 45 kJ m(-3), respectively). Rather than seeking to improve on optimized Nd-Fe-B, it is suggested that some research efforts should be devoted to developing appropriately priced alternatives with energy products in the range 100-300 kJ m(-3). The prospects for Mn-based hard magnetic materials are discussed, based on known Mn-based compounds with the tetragonal L10 or D022 structure or the hexagonal B81 structure.

  5. Permanent deformation of flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. F.; Broderick, B. V.; Pappin, J. W.

    1980-06-01

    Seven pairs of pavements with granular bases were tested under controlled conditions. One pavement in each pair contained fabric inclusions. An improved testing facility was developed, including: (1) servo-hydraulic system for the loading carriage; (2) amplification and read-out system for pressure cells; (3) linearizing unit for strain coils; (4) transducers for measuring vertical and resilient deflection; (5) techniques for measuring in situ strain on fabric inclusions; (6) extensive use of nuclear density meter to monitor pavement and foundation materials. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) No improvement in performance resulted from fabric inclusions. (2) No consistent reduction in in-situ stresses, resilient strains, or permanent strains was observed as a result of fabric inclusion. (3) No consistent improvement in densities resulted from fabric inclusions. (4) Some slip apparently occurred between fabric and soil on those pavements which involved large deformations. The slip occurred between fabric and crushed limestone base rather than between fabric and silty-clay subgrade.

  6. Steady-state permanent magnet MPD thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Y.; Sasoh, A.

    1987-01-01

    A steady-state MPD arc thruster with permanent magnets has been made. The effect of the permanent magnets on thruster performance and the plasma acceleration mechanism was examined through measurements of thrust, chamber pressure, current densities, and plasma properties in the exhaust plume. Experimental results show that the use of the permanent magnets is desirable in steady-state MPD thrusters of the greater than 10 kW power range. 7 references.

  7. Permanence of Stochastic Lotka-Volterra Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Fan, Meng

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes a new definition of permanence for stochastic population models, which overcomes some limitations and deficiency of the existing ones. Then, we explore the permanence of two-dimensional stochastic Lotka-Volterra systems in a general setting, which models several different interactions between two species such as cooperation, competition, and predation. Sharp sufficient criteria are established with the help of the Lyapunov direct method and some new techniques. This study reveals that the stochastic noises play an essential role in the permanence and characterize the systems being permanent or not.

  8. Augmented railgun using a permanent magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.; Eguchi, N.; Sueda, T.; Soejima, M.; Maeda, S.; Sato, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    The use of a permanent magnet instead of an electromagnet has been proposed for the augmentation of the magnetic field of a railgun driven by a current of approximately 20 kA. A permanent magnet has the following advantages in comparison with conventional augmentations using additional turns: (1) simple configuration of the system, (2) temporally and spatially constant magnetic fields, and (3) high efficiency. Here, the operation of a conventional railgun and that of an augmented railgun using a permanent magnet are compared experimentally, and the usefulness of the permanent magnet is described. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  9. 38 CFR 3.342 - Permanent and total disability ratings for pension purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the case. Active pulmonary tuberculosis not otherwise established as permanently and totally disabling.... Similarly, when active pulmonary tuberculosis is improved after 6 months' hospitalization but still... the required degree precluding more than marginal employment. Severe diseases and injuries,...

  10. 38 CFR 3.342 - Permanent and total disability ratings for pension purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the case. Active pulmonary tuberculosis not otherwise established as permanently and totally disabling.... Similarly, when active pulmonary tuberculosis is improved after 6 months' hospitalization but still... the required degree precluding more than marginal employment. Severe diseases and injuries,...

  11. 38 CFR 3.342 - Permanent and total disability ratings for pension purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applied with other types of disabilities requiring hospitalization for indefinite periods. The need for... multiple fractures or the amputation of a single extremity, should not be taken to establish permanent and...

  12. [Mechanical Shimming Method and Implementation for Permanent Magnet of MRI System].

    PubMed

    Xue, Tingqiang; Chen, Jinjun

    2015-03-01

    A mechanical shimming method and device for permanent magnet of MRI system has been developed to meet its stringent homogeneity requirement without time-consuming passive shimming on site, installation and adjustment efficiency has been increased.

  13. Results of using permanent magnets to suppress Josephson noise in the KAPPa SIS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Neric, Marko; Groppi, Christopher E.; Underhill, Matthew; Mani, Hamdi; Weinreb, Sander; Russell, Damon S.; Kooi, Jacob W.; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Walker, Christopher K.; Kulesa, Craig

    2016-07-01

    We present the results from the magnetic field generation within the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) instrument. The KAPPa instrument is a terahertz heterodyne receiver using a Superconducting-Insulating- Superconducting (SIS) mixers. To improve performance, SIS mixers require a magnetic field to suppress Josephson noise. The KAPPa test receiver can house a tunable electromagnet used to optimize the applied magnetic field. The receiver is also capable of accommodating a permanent magnet that applies a fixed field. Our permanent magnet design uses off-the-shelf neodymium permanent magnets and then reshapes the magnetic field using machined steel concentrators. These concentrators allow the use of an unmachined permanent magnet in the back of the detector block while two small posts provide the required magnetic field across the SIS junction in the detector cavity. The KAPPa test receiver is uniquely suited to compare the permanent magnet and electromagnet receiver performance. The current work includes our design of a `U' shaped permanent magnet, the testing and calibration procedure for the permanent magnet, and the overall results of the performance comparison between the electromagnet and the permanent magnet counterpart.

  14. 38 CFR 3.352 - Criteria for determining need for aid and attendance and “permanently bedridden.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... attendance and “permanently bedridden.” (a) Basic criteria for regular aid and attendance and permanently.... They must be based on the actual requirement of personal assistance from others. (b) Basic criteria for... indwelling catheters, and the changing of sterile dressings, or like functions which require professional...

  15. 38 CFR 3.352 - Criteria for determining need for aid and attendance and “permanently bedridden.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... attendance and “permanently bedridden.” (a) Basic criteria for regular aid and attendance and permanently.... They must be based on the actual requirement of personal assistance from others. (b) Basic criteria for... indwelling catheters, and the changing of sterile dressings, or like functions which require professional...

  16. 38 CFR 3.352 - Criteria for determining need for aid and attendance and “permanently bedridden.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... attendance and “permanently bedridden.” (a) Basic criteria for regular aid and attendance and permanently.... They must be based on the actual requirement of personal assistance from others. (b) Basic criteria for... indwelling catheters, and the changing of sterile dressings, or like functions which require professional...

  17. 38 CFR 3.352 - Criteria for determining need for aid and attendance and “permanently bedridden.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attendance and “permanently bedridden.” (a) Basic criteria for regular aid and attendance and permanently.... They must be based on the actual requirement of personal assistance from others. (b) Basic criteria for... indwelling catheters, and the changing of sterile dressings, or like functions which require professional...

  18. First permanent molars with molar incisor hypomineralisation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Laura; O'Connell, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common enamel defect presenting in the first permanent molars (FPM) and permanent incisors. This article presents the clinical findings and management considerations for the FPM with MIH to the general practitioner. The various treatment options are described with emphasis placed on early diagnosis as the most important prognostic factor.

  19. PREFORMED METAL CROWNS FOR THE PERMANENT DENTITION.

    PubMed

    Millar, Lynsey M; Cairns, Alison M; Fowler, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Preformed metal crowns have a range of uses in paediatric dentistry in both the primary and permanent dentition. This article provides an overview of their use in permanent teeth, including teeth that have been affected by molar incisor hypomineralisation, caries, developmental defects and tooth surface loss. The indications for use are described, along with the clinical technique for placement

  20. 22 CFR 401.3 - Permanent offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.3 Permanent offices. The permanent offices of the Commission shall be at Washington, in the District of... of the Commission shall have full charge and control of said offices, respectively....

  1. 22 CFR 401.3 - Permanent offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.3 Permanent offices. The permanent offices of the Commission shall be at Washington, in the District of... of the Commission shall have full charge and control of said offices, respectively....

  2. 22 CFR 401.3 - Permanent offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.3 Permanent offices. The permanent offices of the Commission shall be at Washington, in the District of... of the Commission shall have full charge and control of said offices, respectively....

  3. 22 CFR 401.3 - Permanent offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.3 Permanent offices. The permanent offices of the Commission shall be at Washington, in the District of... of the Commission shall have full charge and control of said offices, respectively....

  4. Rational design of the exchange-spring permanent magnet.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J S; Bader, S D

    2014-02-12

    The development of the optimal exchange-spring permanent magnet balances exchange hardening, magnetization enhancement, and the feasibility of scalable fabrication. These requirements can be met with a rational design of the microstructural characteristics. The magnetization processes in several model exchange-spring structures with different geometries have been analyzed with both micromagnetic simulations and nucleation theory. The multilayer geometry and the soft-cylinders-in-hard-matrix geometry have the highest achievable figure of merit (BH)max, while the soft-spheres-in-hard-matrix geometry has the lowest upper limit for (BH)max. The cylindrical geometry permits the soft phase to be larger and does not require strict size control. Exchange-spring permanent magnets based on the cylindrical geometry may be amenable to scaled-up fabrication.

  5. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  6. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG. PMID:25050388

  7. Design and analysis of tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator.

    PubMed

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  8. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  9. Permanent magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, Klaus

    1985-01-01

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling therebetween. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  10. Permanent-magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, K.

    1982-09-20

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling there between. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  11. Finite element modeling of permanent magnet devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, J. R.; Larkin, L. A.; Overbye, V. D.

    1984-03-01

    New techniques are presented for finite element modeling of permanent magnets in magnetic devices such as motors and generators. These techniques extend a previous sheet-current permanent magnet model that applies only for straight line B-H loops and rectangular-shaped magnets. Here Maxwell's equations are used to derive the model of a permanent magnet having a general curved B-H loop and any geometric shape. The model enables a nonlinear magnetic finite element program to use Newton-Raphson iteration to solve for saturable magnetic fields in a wide variety of devices containing permanent magnets and steels. The techniques are applied to a brushless dc motor with irregular-shaped permanent magnets. The calculated motor torque agrees well with measured torque.

  12. Permanency and the Foster Care System.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Katie K; Friedman, Susan; Christian, Cindy W

    2015-10-01

    Each year over 20,000 youth age out of the child welfare system without reaching a permanent placement in a family. Certain children, such as those spending extended time in foster care, with a diagnosed disability, or adolescents, are at the highest risk for aging out. As young adults, this population is at and increased risk of incarceration; food, housing, and income insecurity; unemployment; educational deficits; receipt of public assistance; and mental health disorders. We reviewed the literature on foster care legislation, permanency, outcomes, and interventions. The outcomes of children who age out of the child welfare system are poor. Interventions to increase permanency include training programs for youth and foster parents, age extension for foster care and insurance coverage, an adoption tax credit, and specialized services and programs that support youth preparing for their transition to adulthood. Future ideas include expanding mentoring, educational support, mental health services, and post-permanency services to foster stability in foster care placements and encourage permanency planning. Children in the child welfare system are at a high risk for physical, mental, and emotional health problems that can lead to placement instability and create barriers to achieving permanency. Failure to reach the permanency of a family leads to poor outcomes, which have negative effects on the individual and society. Supporting youth in foster care throughout transitions may mediate the negative outcomes that have historically followed placement in out-of-home care. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-01

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cm×45 cm×30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  14. A low cost MRI permanent magnet prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza-Coss, Emilio; Cole, David M.

    1998-08-28

    Here we present the proceedings in designing and constructing a low cost, friendly use, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) prototype magnet; 55 cmx45 cmx30 cm in size scaleable to full body; with a C-shaped assembly to provide open access to the 10 cm C-gap; operational at 0.22 Tesla where the low field increments the tissue contrast; structured with methodically selected and strategically positioned permanent magnets to reach the required field homogeneity as well as to be practically free of maintenance; and having iron flux return to leave an extremely low fringe field. The magnetic flux is funneled through the iron and focused by carefully designed and finely machined iron pole faces of 8.9 cm radius to create a homogeneity of less than 20 parts per million (PPM), without shimming, in a roughly 1.3 cm by 2 cm main axes oval region. An image of an okra plant was taken to test its performance.

  15. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  16. Permanent Magnetic Bearing for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Winfredo; Fusaro, Robert; Kascak, Albert

    2008-01-01

    A permanent, totally passive magnetic bearing rig was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension of the rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm using an air impeller. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  17. Permanent multipole magnets with adjustable strength

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1983-03-01

    Preceded by a short discussion of the motives for using permanent magnets in accelerators, a new type of permanent magnet for use in accelerators is presented. The basic design and most important properties of a quadrupole will be described that uses both steel and permanent magnet material. The field gradient produced by this magnet can be adjusted without changing any other aspect of the field produced by this quadrupole. The generalization of this concept to produce other multipole fields, or combination of multipole fields, will also be presented.

  18. Prospects for nanoparticle-based permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Balamurugan, B; Sellmyer, DJ; Hadjipanayis, GC; Skomski, R

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles smaller than similar to 15 nm in diameter and with high magnetocrystalline anisotropies K-1 >= 1 MJ m(-3) can be used as building blocks for next-generation permanent magnets. Advances in processing steps are discussed, such as self-assembly, alignment of the easy axes and appropriate nanostructuring that will enable the fabrication of densely packed nanopartide assemblies with improved permanent-magnet properties. This study also proposes an idealized nanocomposite structure for nanoparticle-based future permanent magnets with enhanced energy products. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with an magnetic resonance imaging conditional permanent pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Andrew J.; Artis, Nigel J.; Sivananthan, U. Mohan; Pepper, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as the optimum modality for cardiac imaging. An aging population and rising numbers of patients with permanent pacemakers means many such individuals may require cardiac MRI scanning in the future. Whilst the presence of a permanent pacemaker is historically regarded as a contra-indication to MRI scanning, pacemaker systems have been developed to limit any associated risks. No reports have been published regarding the use of such devices with cardiac MRI in a clinical setting. We present the safe, successful cardiac MRI scan of a patient with an MRI-conditional permanent pacing system. PMID:22355486

  20. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  1. The Chemistry of Paper Preservation. Part 5. Permanent Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Henry A.

    2007-12-01

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration. Many of these new papers are manufactured from mechanical pulps that contain large amounts of lignin, and are stable when a calcium carbonate buffer is present. Based on the performance involving accelerated aging of the papers, the inclusion of lignin has been accepted in the standards for permanent paper by Canada and Germany, providing that a calcium carbonate buffer is present. Other countries are still reluctant to make the change in standards to include lignin. Research needs to be done to define optical properties and their requirements for the standards. The applications of the chemistry of paper preservation to teaching are also discussed.

  2. Super Strong Permanent Magnet Quadrupole for a Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, Takanori

    2004-02-19

    The field strength generated by permanent magnets has been further extended by the introduction of saturated iron. A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) lens with such saturated iron is one of the candidates for the final focus lens for an e{sup +}e{sup -} Linear Collider accelerator, because of its compactness and low power consumption. The first prototype of the PMQ has been fabricated and demonstrated to have an integrated strength of 28.5T with an overall length of 10 cm and a 7mm bore radius. Two drawbacks should be considered: its negative temperature coefficient of field strength and its fixed strength. A thermal compensation material is being tested to cure the first problem. The other problem may be solved by rotating sectioned magnet bricks, but that may lead to movement of the magnetic center and introduction of multipoles beyond some strict requirements.

  3. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  4. Characterizing hydrologic permanence in headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will be an overview of research to inform jurisdictional determinations for the Clean Water Act, in particular research that hydrographic comparisons of the extent and hydrologic permanence of headwater streams, indicator development, and an evaluation of a rapid...

  5. Characterizing hydrologic permanence in headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will be an overview of research to inform jurisdictional determinations for the Clean Water Act, in particular research that hydrographic comparisons of the extent and hydrologic permanence of headwater streams, indicator development, and an evaluation of a rapid...

  6. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    PubMed

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  7. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  8. Permanent disability social insurance programs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Rajnes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Japan's permanent disability social insurance programs. Because there is limited information available about these programs in the literature outside Japan, this analysis helps to further international disability research. Primary public pension systems and their corresponding programs for permanently disabled workers and their families are described, including trends in the number of beneficiaries and benefit expenditures. Importantly, the article analyzes the determination and appeals processes in Japan for claiming permanent social insurance disability pensions. The study also references the Social Security Disability Insurance program operating in the United States and offers comparisons with the system in Japan, which provides insights about operational procedures to researchers and policymakers in both countries. Permanent disability programs in Japan and the United States share similar characteristics, including aspects of their benefit determination and appeals procedures. However, these country program experiences diverge markedly in several areas, making the comparison worthwhile from a policy perspective.

  9. Micromachined permanent magnets and their MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyoung Jin

    2002-01-01

    In this research, new micromachined permanent magnets have been proposed, developed and characterized for MEMS applications. In realizing micromachined permanent magnets, a new electroplating technique using external magnetic field and a bumper filling technique using a photolithographically defined mold with resin bonded magnetic particles have been developed. The newly developed micromachining techniques allow thick film-type permanent magnet components to be integrated to magnetic MEMS devices with dimensional control and alignment. Permanent magnet arrays with the dimensions ranging from 30 mum to 200 mum have been developed with an energy density up to 2.7 kJ/m3 in precisely defined forms in the micro scale. For the applications of the permanent magnets developed in this work, three novel magnetic MEMS devices such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, a magnetically driven optical scanner, and a magnetic cell separator have been successfully realized. After design and modeling, each device has been fabricated and fully characterized. The bi-directional actuator with the electroplated permanent magnet array has achieved bi-directional motion clearly and shown good agreement with the analytical and simulated models. The optical scanner has shown linear bi-directional response under static actuation and stable bi-directional scanning performance under dynamic actuation. As a potential BioMEMS application of the developed permanent magnet, the prototype magnetic cell separator using the electroplated permanent magnet strip array has been proposed and demonstrated for magnetic bead patterning. In conclusion, new thick film-type, electroplated CoNiMnP and epoxy resin bonded Sr-ferrite permanent magnets have been developed and characterized, and then, three new magnetic MEMS devices using the permanent magnets such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, an optical scanner and a magnetic cell separator have been realized in this research. The new micromachined

  10. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, Roman O.

    1997-01-01

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis.

  11. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.

    1997-01-21

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

  12. Workplace bullying a risk for permanent employees.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Dominic; Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran E; Lamontagne, Anthony D

    2012-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the risk of experiencing workplace bullying was greater for those employed on casual contracts compared to permanent or ongoing employees. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted in South Australia in 2009. Employment arrangements were classified by self-report into four categories: permanent, casual, fixed-term and self-employed. Self-report of workplace bullying was modelled using multiple logistic regression in relation to employment arrangement, controlling for sex, age, working hours, years in job, occupational skill level, marital status and a proxy for socioeconomic status. Workplace bullying was reported by 174 respondents (15.2%). Risk of workplace bullying was higher for being in a professional occupation, having a university education and being separated, divorced or widowed, but did not vary significantly by sex, age or job tenure. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression models, casual workers were significantly less likely than workers on permanent or fixed-term contracts to report bullying. Those separated, divorced or widowed had higher odds of reporting bullying than married, de facto or never-married workers. Contrary to expectation, workplace bullying was more often reported by permanent than casual employees. It may represent an exposure pathway not previously linked with the more idealised permanent employment arrangement. A finer understanding of psycho-social hazards across all employment arrangements is needed, with equal attention to the hazards associated with permanent as well as casual employment. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  14. Pulp canal obliteration in an unerupted permanent incisor following trauma to its primary predecessor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Moskovitz, Moti; Moshonov, Joshua; Holan, Gideon

    2004-06-01

    Trauma to a primary tooth may result in damage to the underlying developing permanent tooth bud because of the close proximity between the root of the primary tooth and its permanent successor. We report an unusual case where injury to the primary dentition resulted in pulp canal obliteration (PCO) of a permanent maxillary central incisor prior to its eruption. The other permanent maxillary central incisor was diagnosed as malformed because of trauma to the primary dentition at an earlier age. The occurrences of PCO or crown malformation dose not routinely disrupt the eruption of those teeth. Periodic assessment is required to determine the need for endodontic intervention. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  15. Performance characterization of a permanent-magnet helicon plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2012-10-01

    Helicon plasma thrusters operated at a few kWs of rf power is an active area of an international research. Recent experiments have clarified part of the thrust-generation mechanisms. Thrust components which have been identified include an electron pressure inside the source region and a Lorentz force due to an electron diamagnetic drift current and a radial component of the applied magnetic field. The use of permanent magnets (PMs) instead of solenoids is one of the solutions for improving the thruster efficiency because it does not require electricity for the magnetic nozzle formation. Here the thrust imparted from a permanent-magnet helicon plasma thruster is directly measured using a pendulum thrust balance. The source consists of permanent magnet (PM) arrays, a double turn rf loop antenna powered by a 13.56 MHz rf generator and a glass source tube. The PM arrays provide a magnetic nozzle near the open exit of the source and two configurations, which have maximum field strengths of about 100 and 270 G, are tested. A thrust of 15 mN, specific impulse of 2000 sec and a thrust efficiency of 8 percent are presently obtained for 2 kW of input power, 24 sccm flow rate of argon and the stronger magnetic field configuration.

  16. Compact Permanent Magnet Microwave-Driven Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Qing

    2011-06-01

    Permanent magnet microwave-driven neutron generators have been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The 2.45 GHz microwave signal is directly coupled into the plasma chamber via a microwave window. Plasma is confined in an axial magnetic field produced by the permanent magnets surrounding the plasma chamber. The source chamber is made of aluminum with a diameter of 4 cm and length of 5 cm. A stack of five alumina discs, which are 3 cm in diameter and total length of 3 cm, works as microwave window. Three permanent ring magnets are used to generate the axial magnetic field required for the microwave ion source. Both hydrogen and deuterium plasma have been successfully ignited. With 330W of microwave power, source chamber pressure of 5 mTorr, and an extraction aperture of 2 mm in diameter, the deuterium ion beam measured on the target was approximately 2.5 mA. Over 90% of the ions are atomic. With the ion source at ground potential and titanium target at -40 kV, the analysis of the activated gold foil and calibrated neutron dose monitor both indicated that roughly 10{sup 7} n/s of D-D neutrons have been produced. The D-D neutron yield can be easily scaled up to 10{sup 8} n/s when the titanium target is biased at -100 kV.

  17. Rotating permanent magnet excitation for blood flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sarath S; Vinodkumar, V; Sreedevi, V; Nagesh, D S

    2015-11-01

    A compact, portable and improved blood flow measurement system for an extracorporeal circuit having a rotating permanent magnetic excitation scheme is described in this paper. The system consists of a set of permanent magnets rotating near blood or any conductive fluid to create high-intensity alternating magnetic field in it and inducing a sinusoidal varying voltage across the column of fluid. The induced voltage signal is acquired, conditioned and processed to determine its flow rate. Performance analysis shows that a sensitivity of more than 250 mV/lpm can be obtained, which is more than five times higher than conventional flow measurement systems. Choice of rotating permanent magnet instead of an electromagnetic core generates alternate magnetic field of smooth sinusoidal nature which in turn reduces switching and interference noises. These results in reduction in complex electronic circuitry required for processing the signal to a great extent and enable the flow measuring device to be much less costlier, portable and light weight. The signal remains steady even with changes in environmental conditions and has an accuracy of greater than 95%. This paper also describes the construction details of the prototype, the factors affecting sensitivity and detailed performance analysis at various operating conditions.

  18. Cylindrical Hall thrusters with permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-11-01

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction in both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT.

  19. Cylindrical Hall Thrusters with Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Merino, Enrique; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-10-18

    The use of permanent magnets instead of electromagnet coils for low power Hall thrusters can offer a significant reduction of both the total electric power consumption and the thruster mass. Two permanent magnet versions of the miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) of different overall dimensions were operated in the power range of 50W-300 W. The discharge and plasma plume measurements revealed that the CHT thrusters with permanent magnets and electromagnet coils operate rather differently. In particular, the angular ion current density distribution from the permanent magnet thrusters has an unusual halo shape, with a majority of high energy ions flowing at large angles with respect to the thruster centerline. Differences in the magnetic field topology outside the thruster channel and in the vicinity of the channel exit are likely responsible for the differences in the plume characteristics measured for the CHTs with electromagnets and permanent magnets. It is shown that the presence of the reversing-direction or cusp-type magnetic field configuration inside the thruster channel without a strong axial magnetic field outside the thruster channel does not lead to the halo plasma plume from the CHT. __________________________________________________

  20. Permanent magnet materials and their application

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.

    1994-12-31

    Permanent magnets are of great industrial importance in industrial drives, consumer products, computers, and automobiles. Since 1970, new classes of magnet materials have been developed. This book reviews the older and newer materials and is presented as a comprehensive design text for permanent magnets and their applications. After an initial chapter on the fundamentals of magnetism, the author discusses magnetic physics considerations specific to permanent magnets and describes the fabrications and characteristics of commercial materials: alnico, samarium-cobalt, ferrite, and neodymium-iron-boron. Thermal stability, magnet design procedures, magnetic field analysis methods, and measurement methods are discussed in subsequent chapters, followed by a concluding chapter reviewing commercial and industrial products that use permanent magnets. The chapter on thermal properties of magnet materials is of particular interest, bringing together information not readily found elsewhere. The review of applications is also deserving of attention, specifically the sections on motors and actuators. Although particle accelerator applications are discussed, the use of permanent magnet sextuples in modern ECR ion sources is not mentioned.

  1. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States. ...

  2. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States. ...

  3. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States. ...

  4. Permanence and global attractivity for Lotka-Volterra difference systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Wang, W

    1999-09-01

    The permanence and global attractivity for two-species difference systems of Lotka-Volterra type are considered. It is proved that a cooperative system cannot be permanent. For a permanent competitive system, the explicit expression of the permanent set E is obtained and sufficient conditions are given to guarantee the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the system.

  5. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  6. 31 CFR 515.335 - Permanent resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent resident alien. 515.335... Definitions § 515.335 Permanent resident alien. As used in § 515.208, the term permanent resident alien means an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence into the United States....

  7. 13 CFR 120.900 - Sources of permanent financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sources of permanent financing... Development Company Loan Program (504) Permanent Financing § 120.900 Sources of permanent financing. Permanent financing for each Project must come from three sources: the Borrower's contribution, Third-Party Loans, and...

  8. 38 CFR 62.11 - Participants-occupying permanent housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... permanent housing. 62.11 Section 62.11 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... permanent housing. (a) Occupying permanent housing. A very low-income veteran family will be considered to be occupying permanent housing if the very low-income veteran family: (1) Is residing in...

  9. [Permanent education in an outsourced cleaning service at a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Inês; Chillida, Manuela de Santana Pi; Bargas, Eliete Boaventura

    2004-01-01

    Permanent education has been a source of constant reflections due to a rapid technological evolution, which brings about changes in work organization, and requires updated knowledge from workers. In the context of this new technological paradigm in production relations and work organization, we analyzed the permanent education activities involving outsourced workers in the cleaning sector of a university hospital and evaluated their knowledge about work environment contamination risks and the importance of their work for health maintenance. Six semi-structured interviews were carried out with the outsourced workers in the cleaning sector and two with the persons in charge of permanent education for these workers, besides four activity observation periods and the field diary. All workers considered permanent education essential because they had no previous experience in relation to hospital cleaning.

  10. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  11. A clip-on Zeeman slower using toroidal permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzewski, S. P.; Akin, T. G.; Dahal, Parshuram; Abraham, E. R. I.

    2014-10-15

    We present the design of a zero-crossing Zeeman slower for {sup 85}Rb using rings of flexible permanent magnets. The design is inexpensive, requires no power or cooling, and can be easily attached and removed for vacuum maintenance. We show theoretically that such a design can reproduce a magnetic field profile of a standard zero-crossing Zeeman slower. Experimental measurements of a prototype and comparisons to theoretical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the design and point toward future improvements. Simulations show an atom flux similar to other Zeeman slowers.

  12. Permanent circulatory support systems at the Pennsylvania State University.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W J; Rosenberg, G; Snyder, A J; Cleary, T J; Gaumond, R P; Geselowitz, D B; Pierce, W S

    1990-02-01

    Permanent circulatory support systems are required for patients in whom myocardial damage is irreversible and cardiac transplantation is not possible. Two systems are described which provide long term circulatory support: the left ventricular assist system and the total artificial heart. These systems are based on the design of a pusher plate actuated blood pump, driven by a small brushless dc electric motor and rollerscrew driver. An implantable motor controller maintains suitable physiologic flow rates for both systems and controls left-right balance in the total artificial heart. Other parts of the system include an intra-thoracic compliance chamber, transcutaneous energy and data transmission system, and internal and external batteries.

  13. Long-term complications associated with permanent dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Kunjur, Jayanth; Witherow, Helen

    2013-12-01

    We report a case series of patients with serious long-term complications associated with the injection of permanent dermal fillers. Although such complications are relatively rare, the consequences are potentially life-long, and the psychological and medical effects can often have a profound impact on the patient. The continued routine offering of these treatments will require doctors to communicate effectively with patients about the nature of the complications and the probability of risk compared with alternative treatments. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A clip-on Zeeman slower using toroidal permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Krzyzewski, S P; Akin, T G; Dahal, Parshuram; Abraham, E R I

    2014-10-01

    We present the design of a zero-crossing Zeeman slower for (85)Rb using rings of flexible permanent magnets. The design is inexpensive, requires no power or cooling, and can be easily attached and removed for vacuum maintenance. We show theoretically that such a design can reproduce a magnetic field profile of a standard zero-crossing Zeeman slower. Experimental measurements of a prototype and comparisons to theoretical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the design and point toward future improvements. Simulations show an atom flux similar to other Zeeman slowers.

  15. Multipole shimming of permanent magnets using harmonic corrector rings.

    PubMed

    Jachmann, R C; Trease, D R; Bouchard, L-S; Sakellariou, D; Martin, R W; Schlueter, R D; Budinger, T F; Pines, A

    2007-03-01

    Shimming systems are required to provide sufficient field homogeneity for high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In certain specialized applications, such as rotating-field NMR and mobile ex situ NMR, permanent magnet-based shimming systems can provide considerable advantages. We present a simple two-dimensional shimming method based on harmonic corrector rings which can provide arbitrary multipole order shimming corrections. Results demonstrate, for example, that quadrupolar order shimming improves the linewidth by up to an order of magnitude. An additional order of magnitude reduction is in principle achievable by utilizing this shimming method for z-gradient correction and higher order xy gradients.

  16. Schotcrete as permanent lining for the Furka base tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amberg, R.; Sala, A.

    1984-01-01

    The lining concept of the 15.4 km long one-track Furka railway tunnel is described with particular emphasis on shotcrete application as a permanent support Altogether 70000 m3 dry aggregate/ cement mix and 115000 rock bolts have been applied. The tunnel was lined at a rate of approx. 400 tunnel metres per month using up to five shotcrete machines simultaneously. Systematic quality control throughout the construction work indicated an average uniaxial compressive strength of shotcrete of 40 N/mm2. The support requirements were grouped into 16 different classes and an additional special class accounting for extreme geological conditions in some relatively short stretches.

  17. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release.

  18. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  19. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  20. Permanent Further Education: Chapter II, Section 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Science, Bonn (West Germany).

    Permanent further education means "that organized learning is extended to cover later stages in life, and that the attitude towards education changes considerably." Further education comprises further vocational training, retraining at other educational establishments, and adult education. It supplements the traditional courses of…

  1. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  2. A comparison of periodic versus permanent surveys

    Treesearch

    Michael Kohl; Charles T. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Extensive forest surveys can be periodic or permanent, regional or national, can include midcycle updates or not, or use partial replacement of plots or not. Fifty-two combinations of these and other factors were evaluated, not solely on a statistical basis, but also on their perceived ability to meet various design and customer objectives. These criteria include...

  3. Permanent field plot methodology and equipment

    Treesearch

    Thomas G. Cole

    1993-01-01

    Long-term research into the composition, phenology, yield, and growth rates of agroforests can be accomplished with the use of permanent field plots. The periodic remeasurement of these plots provides researchers a quantitative measure of what changes occur over time in indigenous agroforestry systems.

  4. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  5. Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…

  6. War Crimes Tribunals: A Permanent Criminal Court?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, James E.; Rudelius-Palmer, Kristi

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the establishment and jurisdiction of war crimes tribunals in recent years. The tribunals, established and supported by the United Nations, investigate atrocities and other crimes committed during wartime. Discusses the tribunals in Rwanda and Yugoslavia, and the political opposition to the establishment of a permanent court. (MJP)

  7. 27 CFR 18.38 - Permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent discontinuance. 18.38 Section 18.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification...

  8. 27 CFR 18.38 - Permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permanent discontinuance. 18.38 Section 18.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification...

  9. Developments in electrical machines using permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, B. J.

    1996-05-01

    The availability of high-field permanent-magnet materials has created opportunities for the development of electrical machines with advantageous properties including high efficiency, compact size, low weight and brushless operation. The paper reports the design and performance of a number of motors and generators which have recently been developed and demonstrated.

  10. [Pets as permanent excretors of zoonoses pathogens].

    PubMed

    Mayr, B

    1993-02-01

    When scrutinizing zoonoses with regard to risks for human beings, the spectrum of pathogens with dogs, cats and birds leading to persistent infections and consequently to the fact that the animals become carriers and permanent excretors is relatively small. Most of the zoonoses cause clinical symptoms and will be taken care of correspondingly. With regard to dogs there is a multitude of persistent infections that are transferred from the pet to the human being and vice versa. In reality, however, the importance of the dog as permanent excretor of zoonosis pathogens endangering human health is minimal, except for some parasitoses. As far as cats are concerned, the situation is totally different. Cats are carriers and permanent excretors of pasteurella, the pathogens of the so-called cat-scratch disease, trichophyton and microsporum species, toxoplasmosis and orthopox viruses. The new zoonosis feline pox serves as an example of the necessity of a permanent observation of persistently infected pets. Healthy, but persistently infected birds form a source of infection not to be underestimated. Through the beat of their wings they constantly stir up dried infectious excrements and dust and thus favour the airborn infection of human beings. Chlamydia psittaci, the Newcastle disease virus and Mycobacterium avium are of major importance in this context. The risk of transferring zoonosis pathogens from persistently infected pets to human beings can be minimized through prophylactic diagnosis, strict measures of hygiene, observation of the schedule of vaccinations for the respective species and regular use of anthelmintica.

  11. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  12. Considerations on the Development of Permanent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunsbiye, Ayo

    This document presents possible ways in which Permanent Education in France could develop, based on experiments and research carried out at the Centre Universitaire de Cooperation Economique et Sociale (CUCES) and at the Institut National pour la Formation des Adults (INFA). Part one includes the following: the good to be had from continuing…

  13. The history of permanent-magnet materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. D.

    1990-02-01

    From lodestones and carbon steels to today's rare-earth magnets, a steady improvement in magnetic properties has expanded the technological importance of permanent-magnet materials. These materials have progressed through several major developmental stages, with a bit of serendipity contributing to the discovery process.

  14. Dovetail spoke internal permanent magnet machine

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, James Pellegrino; EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; VanDam, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-08-23

    An internal permanent magnet (IPM) machine is provided. The IPM machine includes a stator assembly and a stator core. The stator core also includes multiple stator teeth. The stator assembly is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface defining a cavity. The IPM machine also includes a rotor assembly and a rotor core. The rotor core is disposed inside the cavity and configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rotor assembly further includes a shaft. The shaft further includes multiple protrusions alternately arranged relative to multiple bottom structures provided on the shaft. The rotor assembly also includes multiple stacks of laminations disposed on the protrusions and dovetailed circumferentially around the shaft. The rotor assembly further includes multiple pair of permanent magnets for generating a magnetic field, which magnetic field interacts with the stator magnetic field to produce a torque. The multiple pair of permanent magnets are disposed between the stacks. The rotor assembly also includes multiple middle wedges mounted between each pair of the multiple permanent magnets.

  15. Examining the role of methamphetamine in permanency: A competing risks analysis of reunification, guardianship, and adoption.

    PubMed

    Akin, Becci A; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-03-01

    Parental methamphetamine use has drawn significant attention in recent years. Despite prior research that shows that parental substance abuse is a risk factor for lengthy foster care stay, little is known about the effect of specific types of substance use on permanency. This study sought to compare the impact of parental methamphetamine use to alcohol use, other drug use, and polysubstance use on the timing of 3 types of permanency: reunification, guardianship, and adoption. Using an entry cohort of 16,620 children who had entered foster care during a 5-year period, competing risks event history models were conducted for each permanency type. Findings showed that, after controlling for several case characteristics, parent illicit drug use significantly impacted the timing of the 3 types of permanency, but alcohol use did not. Methamphetamine, other drug, and polysubstance with methamphetamine use were associated with lower rates of reunification and higher rates of adoption. Guardianship was also predicted by other drug and polysubstance use without methamphetamine; however, methamphetamine use was not associated with guardianship. Notably, the methamphetamine groups comprised the youngest children and had the shortest median time to adoption. Results suggest that type of parental substance use is predictive of permanency exits and that parental illicit drug use may require tailored strategies for improving permanency outcomes. Further implications of the findings are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Practical Aspects of Modern and Future Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, R. W.; Lewis, L.; Skomski, R.; Kramer, M. J.; Anderson, I. E.

    2014-07-01

    The mandate to reduce greenhouse gases will require highly efficient electric machines for both power generation and traction motor applications. Although permanent magnet electric machines utilizing Nd2Fe14B-based magnets provide obvious power-to-weight advantages over induction machines, the limited availability and high price of the rare earth (RE) metals make these machines less favorable. Of particular concern is the cost and supply criticality of Dy, a key RE element that is required to improve the high-temperature performance of Nd-based magnetic alloys for use in generators and traction motors. Alternatives to RE-based alloys do exist, but they currently lack the energy density necessary to replace Nd-based magnets. Many of these compounds have been known for decades, but serious interest in their development waned once compounds based on RE elements were discovered. In this review, intrinsic and extrinsic materials factors that impact the optimization of both existing and potential future permanent magnets for energy applications are examined in light of new insights gained from renewed examination.

  17. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report.

    PubMed

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S

    2017-02-01

    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  18. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  19. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  20. Counterrotating brushless DC permanent magnet motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Bailey, J. M.

    1990-07-01

    A brushless DC permanent magnet motor is provided for driving an autonomous underwater vehicle. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators disposed in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators being axially spaced and each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil; first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of embedded permanent magnets. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and the drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shafts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs, and rotors mounted on opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.

  1. Permanent female mimics in a lekking shorebird.

    PubMed

    Jukema, Joop; Piersma, Theunis

    2006-06-22

    Female mimics are known from many species, but permanent, non-conditional, alternative mating strategies are only known from an isopod, a fish, a lizard and a bird. The single bird example refers to lek-breeding ruffs Philomachus pugnax, a shorebird for which two strategies (independent and satellite) have been known for over 50 years. Ruffs also provided the single case of an animal with two, rather than three, permanent alternative mating strategies. Here, we describe a rare female-like morph of ruffs: the 'missing' third alternative mating strategy, which we have called 'faeder'. Faeders are slightly larger than females and in late April have testes 2.5 time the size of testes of normal males. On leks in aviaries and in the wild they appear to combine feminine and masculine behaviours. Faeders may represent the ancestral, care-giving, male strategy, but their relatively large testes suggest that currently they behave as sneakers.

  2. Remote temperature distribution sensing using permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi; Guba, Oksana; Brooks, Carlton F.; Roberts, Christine C.; Van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Nemer, Martin B.

    2016-10-31

    Remote temperature sensing is essential for applications in enclosed vessels where feedthroughs or optical access points are not possible. A unique sensing method for measuring the temperature of multiple closely-spaced points is proposed using permanent magnets and several three-axis magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field theory for multiple magnets is discussed and a solution technique is presented. Experimental calibration procedures, solution inversion considerations and methods for optimizing the magnet orientations are described in order to obtain low-noise temperature estimates. The experimental setup and the properties of permanent magnets are shown. Finally, experiments were conducted to determine the temperature of nine magnets in different configurations over a temperature range of 5 to 60 degrees Celsius and for a sensor-to-magnet distance of up to 35 mm. Furthermore, to show the possible applications of this sensing system for measuring temperatures through metal walls, additional experiments were conducted inside an opaque 304 stainless steel cylinder.

  3. Permanent genetic memory with >1 byte capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Nielsen, Alec A.K.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; McClune, Conor J.; Laub, Michael T.; Lu, Timothy K.; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic memory enables the recording of information in the DNA of living cells. Memory can record a transient environmental signal or cell state that is then recalled at a later time. Permanent memory is implemented using irreversible recombinases that invert the orientation of a unit of DNA, corresponding to the [0,1] state of a bit. To expand the memory capacity, we have applied bioinformatics to identify 34 phage integrases (and their cognate attB and attP recognition sites), from which we build 11 memory switches that are perfectly orthogonal to each other and the FimE and HbiF bacterial invertases. Using these switches, a memory array is constructed in Escherichia coli that can record 1.375 bytes of information. It is demonstrated that the recombinases can be layered and used to permanently record the transient state of a transcriptional logic gate. PMID:25344638

  4. Evaluation of permanently charged electrofibrous filters

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.; Bergman, W.

    1982-10-18

    These studies showed that loading the permanently charged filters with captured aerosols will lead to a neutralization of the filter charge. The transfer from the captured aerosol to the fiber surface and the subsequent neutralization of fiber charge. The increased efficiency is due to the additional mechanical capture by the particle deposits. The minimum efficiency obtained during the loading of solid aerosols is determined by the aerosol charge, with highly charged aerosols producing a lower minimum. Permanently charged filters lose their fiber charge when exposed to organic solvents or ionic water solutions. The fiber charge neutralization was minimized by coating the charged fibers with a polymer. Several different coating techniques were examined. Unfortunately, preventing the neutralization of fiber charge is not sufficient to prevent a deterioration of filter efficiency.

  5. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOEpatents

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  6. Hybrid high gradient permanent magnet quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'gotta, P.; Le Bec, G.; Chavanne, J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative compact permanent magnet quadrupole with a strong gradient for potential use in future light source lattices. Its magnetic structure includes simple mechanical parts, rectangular permanent magnet blocks and soft iron poles. It has a wide aperture in the horizontal plane to accommodate an x-ray beam port, a common constraint in storage ring-based light sources. This specificity introduces field quality deterioration because of the resulting truncation of the poles; a suitable field quality can be restored with an optimized pole shape. A 82 T /m prototype with a bore radius of 12 mm and a 10 mm vertical gap between poles has been constructed and magnetically characterized. Gradient inhomogeneities better than 10-3 in the good field region were obtained after the installation of special shims.

  7. Toroidal-Core Microinductors Biased by Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Blaes, Brent

    2003-01-01

    The designs of microscopic toroidal-core inductors in integrated circuits of DC-to-DC voltage converters would be modified, according to a proposal, by filling the gaps in the cores with permanent magnets that would apply bias fluxes (see figure). The magnitudes and polarities of the bias fluxes would be tailored to counteract the DC fluxes generated by the DC components of the currents in the inductor windings, such that it would be possible to either reduce the sizes of the cores or increase the AC components of the currents in the cores without incurring adverse effects. Reducing the sizes of the cores could save significant amounts of space on integrated circuits because relative to other integrated-circuit components, microinductors occupy large areas - of the order of a square millimeter each. An important consideration in the design of such an inductor is preventing magnetic saturation of the core at current levels up to the maximum anticipated operating current. The requirement to prevent saturation, as well as other requirements and constraints upon the design of the core are expressed by several equations based on the traditional magnetic-circuit approximation. The equations involve the core and gap dimensions and the magnetic-property parameters of the core and magnet materials. The equations show that, other things remaining equal, as the maximum current is increased, one must increase the size of the core to prevent the flux density from rising to the saturation level. By using a permanent bias flux to oppose the flux generated by the DC component of the current, one would reduce the net DC component of flux in the core, making it possible to reduce the core size needed to prevent the total flux density (sum of DC and AC components) from rising to the saturation level. Alternatively, one could take advantage of the reduction of the net DC component of flux by increasing the allowable AC component of flux and the corresponding AC component of current

  8. 30 CFR 815.13 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-COAL EXPLORATION § 815.13 Required documents. Each person who conducts coal exploration which substantially disturbs the natural land surface shall, while in the exploration area, have available a copy of the filed notice of intention to...

  9. High-field permanent-magnet structures

    SciTech Connect

    Leupoid, H.A.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a permanent magnet structure. It comprises an azimuthally circumscribed section of a hollow hemispherical magnetic flux source, the magnetic orientation in the section with respect to the polar axis being substantially equal to twice the polar angle, a superconducting planar sheet abutting one flat face of the section along a longitudinal meridian, and at least one other planar sheet of selected material abutting another flat face of the section and perpendicular to the first-mentioned sheet.

  10. "Permanence" - An Adaptationist Solution to Fermi's Paradox?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    A new solution of Fermi's paradox sketched by SF writer Karl Schroeder in his 2002. novel Permanence is investigated. It is argued that this solution is tightly connected with adaptationism - a widely discussed working hypothesis in evolutionary biology. Schroeder's hypothesis has important ramifications for astrobiology, SETI projects, and future studies. Its weaknesses should be explored without succumbing to the emotional reactions often accompanying adaptationist explanations.

  11. Physical indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent court cases have brought headwater streams and their hydrologic permanence into the forefront for regulatory agencies, so rapid field-based indicators of hydrologic permanence in streams are critically needed. Our study objectives were to 1) identify environmental charact...

  12. ARE SALAMANDERS USEFUL INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need appropriate indicators of stream permanence to aid in jurisdictional determinations for headwater streams. We evaluated salamanders as permanence indicators because they are often abundant in fishless headwaters. Salamander and habitat data were collect...

  13. ARE SALAMANDERS USEFUL INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need appropriate indicators of stream permanence to aid in jurisdictional determinations for headwater streams. We evaluated salamanders as permanence indicators because they are often abundant in fishless headwaters. Salamander and habitat data were collect...

  14. The Overheating Cause Analysis of Permanent Magnet Governor and Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiang-Ni; Zhou, San-Ping; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2016-05-01

    The problem of overheating is the main factor to limit the serviceable range of permanent magnet governor, in order to find out the reason of overheating and its influencing factors, the numerical simulation of the cylindrical permanent magnet governor is carried out by using the computational fluid dynamics method. Results show that the internal high temperature fluid in the rotor of the Permanent magnet governor cannot flow is the main factor causing the overheating of the permanent magnet governor, opened air convection holes, and equipped with cooling fins in conductor rotor and permanent magnet rotor's outer circumference direction of the permanent magnet governor. The results of the study show that the internal air flow of the optimized permanent magnet governor is effective and the air flow rate is increased, the heat transfer effect is enhanced, the maximum temperature of the permanent magnet governor is decreased from 120.2 to 72.6, so the cooling effect is obvious.

  15. Physical indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent court cases have brought headwater streams and their hydrologic permanence into the forefront for regulatory agencies, so rapid field-based indicators of hydrologic permanence in streams are critically needed. Our study objectives were to 1) identify environmental charact...

  16. 34 CFR 685.213 - Total and permanent disability discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permanently disabled as described in paragraph (1) of the definition of that term in 34 CFR 682.200(b), the...) For veterans who are totally and permanently disabled as described in paragraph (2) of the definition... totally and permanently disabled as described in paragraph (1) of the definition of that term in 34 CFR...

  17. 30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 77.602... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.602 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity; (b...

  18. 30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 75.604... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a...

  19. 30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 75.604... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a...

  20. 30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 75.604... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a...

  1. 30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 77.602... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.602 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity; (b...

  2. 30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 77.602... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.602 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity; (b...

  3. 30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 77.602... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.602 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity; (b...

  4. 30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 77.602... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.602 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity; (b...

  5. 30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 75.604... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a...

  6. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.; Abdoud, R.G.

    1996-09-10

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure is disclosed. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing. 9 figs.

  7. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Uherka, Kenneth L.; Abdoud, Robert G.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing.

  8. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  9. 6 CFR 7.29 - Documents of permanent historical value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documents of permanent historical value. 7.29... NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.29 Documents of permanent historical value. The... contained in records determined to have permanent historical value under 44 U.S.C. 2107 before they are...

  10. 27 CFR 22.68 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 22.68 Section 22.68 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Permanent Discontinuance of Use of Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.68 Notice of permanent discontinuance. A...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5206 - Permanent capital ratio computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permanent capital ratio computation. 615.5206... capital ratio computation. (a) The institution's permanent capital ratio is determined on the basis of the... average daily balances for the most recent 3 months. (c) The institution's permanent capital ratio...

  16. 75 FR 22424 - Avalotis Corp.; Grant of a Permanent Variance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Avalotis Corp.; Grant of a Permanent Variance AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of a grant of a permanent variance. SUMMARY: This notice announces the grant of a permanent variance to Avalotis Corp...

  17. 34 CFR 685.213 - Total and permanent disability discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Total and permanent disability discharge. 685.213... Borrower Provisions § 685.213 Total and permanent disability discharge. (a) General. (1) A borrower's... Loan based on a total and permanent disability, a borrower must submit a discharge application to...

  18. 34 CFR 685.213 - Total and permanent disability discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Total and permanent disability discharge. 685.213... Borrower Provisions § 685.213 Total and permanent disability discharge. (a) General. (1) A borrower's... Loan based on a total and permanent disability, a borrower must submit a discharge application to...

  19. Permanence Discounting for Land-Based Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Man-Keun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian

    2008-02-01

    One major concern regarding land-based carbon sequestration involves the issue of permanence. Sequestration may not last forever and may either be released in the future or require expenditure to maintain the practices that keep it sequestered. In this paper, we investigate the differential value of offsets in the face of impermanent characteristics by forming a price discount that equalizes the effective price per ton between a “perfect offsets” and one possessing some or all of these characteristics. We find this discount to be a function of the future needs to replace offsets (in the face of lease expiration quantity or volatilization upon activities such as timber harvest) and the magnitude of any needed maintenance costs. We investigate the magnitude of the discounts under alternative agricultural tillage and forest management cases. In those studies we find that permanence discounts in the range of 50% are not uncommon. This means that in the market place an impermanent sequestration offset may only receive payments amounting to 50% of the market carbon price. Furthermore we find that in the face of escalating carbon prices that offsets may prove to be worthless.

  20. Variable permanent mandibular first molar: Review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vemuri, Sayesh; Kumar, Pabbati Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The success of root canal therapy depends on the locations of all the canals, thourough debridement and proper sealing. At times the clinicians are challenged with variations in morphology of root canal. This review article attempts to list out all the variations of permanent mandibular first molar published so for in the literature. Materials and Methods: An exhaustive search was undertaken using PUBMED database to identify published literature from 1900 to 2010 relating to the root canal morphology of permanent first molar by using key words. The selected artcles were obtained and reviewed. Results: Total ninty seven articles were selected out of which 50 were original article and forty seven were case reports. The incidence of third canal in mesial root was 0.95% to 15%. The incidence of three rooted mandibular first molar was 3% to 33%. Only ninety cases reported with c-shape canal configuration. Incidence of Taurodintism without congenital disorder was very rare. Conclusion: The root canal treatment requires proper knowlegde of variations in root canal morphology in order to recognise, disinfect and seal all portal of exit. This can be accomplished with proper diagnosis using newer modes, modification in access preparation, use of operating microscope, enhanced methods of disinfecting and sealing of all canals. PMID:23716959

  1. [Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus in a young Ukrainian child].

    PubMed

    Furdela, Viktoriya; Pavlyshyn, Halyna; Korytskyi, Hryhorii; Filiuk, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with the manifestation possible in any period of life. The incidence of diabetes is rising around the world, and studies show that children are at an increasing risk of developing the disease. Type 1 diabetes accounts for over 90% of childhood and adolescent diabetes, although less than 10% of children suffer from type 2 diabetes. Over the last few decades, inherited monogenic forms of DM were discovered and studied. An extremely rare form of diabetes (less than 1-2% of all diabetes in young people), with neonatal diabetes as a subset, and is usually suspected if a child is diagnosed with diabetes at less than 6 months of age. We present the first case reported in Ukraine of a child diagnosed with permanent neonatal diabetes resulting from a EIF2AK3 gene missense mutation of exon 15 (WolcottRallison Syndrome). Despite low incidence of the permanent neonatal diabetes, this diagnosis should be considered in infants with persistent hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  2. Laser fluence for permanent damage of cutaneous blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Barton, J K; Vargas, G; Pfefer, T J; Welch, A J

    1999-12-01

    Treatment of vascular disorders may be improved by a more thorough understanding of laser-blood vessel interaction. In this study, the probability of permanent damage to a given type and size of blood vessel was determined as a function of fluence at the top (superficial edge) of the vessel lumen. A 532 nm wavelength, 10 ms pulse duration, 3 mm spot size laser was used to perform approximately 250 irradiations of subdermal blood vessels in the hamster dorsal skin flap preparation. The radiant exposure required for a 50% probability of permanent damage was calculated using a probit analysis of experimental results. Threshold radiant exposure increased with larger blood vessel diameters and was greater for arterioles than venules. Monte Carlo modeling of a typical blood vessel geometry revealed that fluence at the top of the blood vessel lumen was amplified by a factor of approximately 2.4 over tissue surface radiant exposure, due to light scattering in the tissue and internal reflection at the skin-air interfaces.

  3. Adjustable permanent quadrupoles for the next linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Volk et al.

    2001-06-22

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) will require over 1400 adjustable quadrupoles between the main linacs' accelerator structures. These 12.7 mm bore quadrupoles will have a range of integrated strength from 0.6 to 138 Tesla, with a maximum gradient of 141 Tesla per meter, an adjustment range of +0 to {minus}20% and effective lengths from 324 mm to 972 mm. The magnetic center must remain stable to within 1 micron during the 20% adjustment. In an effort to reduce costs and increase reliability, several designs using hybrid permanent magnets have been developed. Four different prototypes have been built. All magnets have iron poles and use Samarium Cobalt to provide the magnetic fields. Two use rotating permanent magnetic material to vary the gradient, one uses a sliding shunt to vary the gradient and the fourth uses counter rotating magnets. Preliminary data on gradient strength, temperature stability, and magnetic center position stability are presented. These data are compared to an equivalent electromagnetic prototype.

  4. Postauricular percutaneous power delivery for permanent mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Westaby, Stephen; Jarvik, Robert; Freeland, Andrew; Pigott, David; Robson, Desiree; Saito, Satoshi; Catarino, Pedro; Frazier, O H

    2002-05-01

    Percutaneous driveline infection continues to detract from both quality and length of life in patients with a left ventricular assist device. We have pursued an alternative route by using a skull-mounted percutaneous pedestal similar to cochlear implant technology. We have now used this method in patients implanted with the Jarvik 2000 heart (Jarvik Heart, Inc, New York, NY) as destination therapy for end-stage (New York Heart Association class IV) heart failure. Four men with cardiomyopathy aged 61 to 72 years received the Jarvik 2000 heart with postauricular power delivery for permanent mechanical circulatory support. The power cable was brought through the second posterior intercostal space and routed through the neck to a percutaneous titanium implant screwed to the skull. This joins with the cable to the external controller and battery. In 3 patients the pedestal healed well and remained free from infection up to 1 year. The system was user friendly, and the whole external apparatus is exchangeable. The second patient had a subdural hematoma. This caused us to improve the preparation and modify the implant procedure. For widespread use, permanent implantable circulatory support requires a reliable, user-friendly device with freedom from powerline infection. Our early experience with the Jarvik 2000 heart suggests that rigid fixation and the vascularity of scalp skin promote healing and reduce the risk of driveline infection.

  5. A mini axial and a permanent maglev radial heart pump.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun-Xi; Ru, Wei-Min; Wang, Hao; Jing, Teng

    2007-05-31

    The implantability and durability have been for decades the focus of artificial heart R&D. A mini axial and a maglev radial pump have been developed to meet with such requirements.The mini axial pump weighing 27g (incl.5g rotor) has an outer diameter of 21mm and a length of 10mm in its largest point, but can produce a maximal blood flow of 6l/min with 50mmHg pressure increase. Therefore, it is suitable for the patients of 40-60kg body weight. For other patients of 60-80kg or 80-100kg body weight, the mini axial pumps of 23mm and 25mm outer diameter had been developed before, these devices were acknowledged to be the world smallest LVADs by Guinness World Record Center in 2004.The permanent maglev radial pump weighing 150g is a shaft-less centrifugal pump with permanent magnetic bearings developed by the author. It needs no second coil for suspension of the rotor except the motor coil, different from all other maglev pumps developed in USA, Japan, European, etc. Thus no detecting and controlling systems as well as no additional power supply for maglev are necessary. The pump can produce a blood flow up to as large as 10l/min against 100mmHg pressure.An implantable and durable blood pump will be a viable alternative to natural donor heart for transplantation.

  6. Compact ECR ion source with permanent magnets for carbon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, Y.; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, H.; Drentje, A. G.; Biri, S.; Yoshida, Y.

    2004-05-01

    Ion sources for the medical facilities should have the following characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power, good stability, and long operation time without trouble (1 year or longer). For this, a 10 GHz compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets was developed. The beam intensity and stability for C4+ were 280 e μA and better than 6% during 20 h with no adjustment of any source parameters. These results were acceptable for the medical requirements. Recently, many plans were proposed to construct the next generation cancer treatment facility. For such a facility we have designed an all permanent magnet ECRIS, in which a high magnetic field is chosen for increasing the beam intensity. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The source has a diameter of 32 cm and a length of 29.5 cm. Details of the design of this source and its background are described in this article.

  7. Anatomic considerations for abdominally placed permanent left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Parnis, S M; McGee, M G; Igo, S R; Dasse, K; Frazier, O H

    1989-01-01

    To determine anatomic parameters for a permanent, electrically actuated left ventricular assist device (LVAD), the effects of abdominal placement of pneumatic LVADs used as temporary support for patients awaiting heart transplantation was studied. Understanding the anatomic constraints imposed by the abdominal viscera in LVAD placement is crucial, because improper placement can result in compression or obstruction of adjacent structures. Anatomic compatibility was assessed in four men (age 22-48 years) who were supported by the LVAD for over 1 month (range 35-132 days). The pump was intraperitoneally placed in the left upper quadrant. Radiographic techniques were employed, including CT scanning (with patients supine) and contrast imaging (patients in anatomical position), and the pump and conduits appeared to be properly positioned, with minimal compression of the body of the stomach, and no obstruction of adjacent organs. Three patients returned to a solid food diet and exercised daily by stationary cycling and walking. No signs of migration or erosion of the pump were present at the time of LVAD removal and cardiac transplantation. Successful clinical experience with short-term use of the LVAD suggests that the electrically actuated device can be well tolerated in patients requiring permanent left ventricular assistance.

  8. Pax: A permanent base for human habitation of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T.; Rebholz, Patrick J.; Fieber, Joseph P.; Huebner-Moths, Janis; Paruleski, Kerry L.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Design Program in Space Architecture at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee supported the synthesis report and two of its scenarios - 'Architecture 1' and 'Architecture 4' - and the Weaver ExPO report on near-term extraterrestrial explorations during the spring of 1992. The project investigated the implications of different mission scenarios, the Martian environment, supporting technologies, and especially human factors and environment-behavior considerations for the design of the first permanent Martian base. This paper presents the results of that investigation. The paper summarizes site selection, development of habitability design requirements based on environment-behavior research, construction sequencing, and a full concept design and design development for a first permanent Martian base and habitat. The proposed design is presented in terms of an integrative mission scenario and master plan phased through initial operational configuration, base site plan, and design development details of a complete Martian habitat for 18 crew members including all laboratory, mission control, and crew support spaces.

  9. 30 CFR 250.1715 - How must I permanently plug a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Permanent Well Plugging Requirements If you have— Then you must use— (1) Zones in open hole Cement plug(s... zones to isolate fluids in the strata. (2) Open hole below casing (i) A cement plug, set by the displacement method, at least 100 feet above and below deepest casing shoe;(ii) A cement retainer...

  10. Outbreak of Mycobacterium haemophilum infections after permanent makeup of the eyebrows.

    PubMed

    Giulieri, Stefano; Morisod, Benoit; Edney, Timothy; Odman, Micaela; Genné, Daniel; Malinverni, Raffaele; Hammann, Catherine; Musumeci, Enrico; Voide, Cathy; Greub, Gilbert; Masserey, Eric; Bille, Jacques; Cavassini, Matthias; Jaton, Katia

    2011-02-15

    We report a Mycobacterium haemophilum outbreak after permanent make-up of the eyebrows performed by the same freelance artist. Twelve patients presented an eyebrow lesion and cervical lymphadenitis. All were treated with antibiotics. Surgery was required in 10 cases. M. haemophilum DNA was identified in the make-up ink.

  11. 21 CFR 516.22 - Permanent-resident U.S. agent for foreign sponsor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.22 Permanent-resident U.S. agent..., decisions, requirements, and other communications may be made on behalf of the sponsor. Notifications...

  12. 21 CFR 516.22 - Permanent-resident U.S. agent for foreign sponsor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.22 Permanent-resident U.S. agent..., decisions, requirements, and other communications may be made on behalf of the sponsor. Notifications...

  13. 21 CFR 516.22 - Permanent-resident U.S. agent for foreign sponsor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.22 Permanent-resident U.S. agent..., decisions, requirements, and other communications may be made on behalf of the sponsor. Notifications...

  14. 21 CFR 516.22 - Permanent-resident U.S. agent for foreign sponsor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Designation of a Minor Use or Minor Species New Animal Drug § 516.22 Permanent-resident U.S. agent..., decisions, requirements, and other communications may be made on behalf of the sponsor. Notifications...

  15. An Original Behavior Modification Program for Weight Reduction: Minimal Intervention and Permanent Habit Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lublin, Irwin; Kirkish, Patricia

    This description of a weight reduction program, based on generalizations derived from eight years of work with overweight persons, discusses the clients' rationalization of overeating behaviors. In this behavior modification program, the client is required to permanently give up one high calorie food and to write down all foods eaten before actual…

  16. 27 CFR 19.645 - Notice of permanent discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Qualification, Construction, and Equipment Requirements for Vinegar Plants § 19.645 Notice of permanent discontinuance of business. If the proprietor of a vinegar plant decides...

  17. 27 CFR 19.645 - Notice of permanent discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Qualification, Construction, and Equipment Requirements for Vinegar Plants § 19.645 Notice of permanent discontinuance of business. If the proprietor of a vinegar plant decides...

  18. 27 CFR 19.645 - Notice of permanent discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Qualification, Construction, and Equipment Requirements for Vinegar Plants § 19.645 Notice of permanent discontinuance of business. If the proprietor of a vinegar plant decides...

  19. 27 CFR 19.645 - Notice of permanent discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Qualification, Construction, and Equipment Requirements for Vinegar Plants § 19.645 Notice of permanent discontinuance of business. If the proprietor of a vinegar plant decides...

  20. An Original Behavior Modification Program for Weight Reduction: Minimal Intervention and Permanent Habit Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lublin, Irwin; Kirkish, Patricia

    This description of a weight reduction program, based on generalizations derived from eight years of work with overweight persons, discusses the clients' rationalization of overeating behaviors. In this behavior modification program, the client is required to permanently give up one high calorie food and to write down all foods eaten before actual…

  1. Effect of maximum torque according to the permanent magnet configuration of a brushless dc motor with concentrated winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kab-Jae; Kim, Sol; Lee, Ju; Oh, Jae-Eung

    2003-05-01

    A brushless dc (BLDC) motor, which has a permanent magnet (PM) component, is a potential candidate for hybrid or electric vehicle applications. Minimizing the BLDC motor size is an important requirement for application. This requirement is usually satisfied by adopting a high performance permanent magnet or improved winding methods. The PM configuration is also a critical point in design. This article presents the effect of the PM configuration on motor performance, especially the maximum torque. Four representative BLDC motor types are analytically investigated under the condition that the volume of the PM and magnetic material is constant. An embedded interior permanent magnet motor has the best torque performance the maximum torque of which is more than 1.5 times larger than that of the surface mounted permanent magnet motor. The performance of back electromotive force, instantaneous torques is also investigated.

  2. Endodontic treatment of a multirooted permanent maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Galhotra, Virat; Pandit, I K; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report an unusual case of multirooted permanent maxillary canine. A 16-year-old female patient presented with pain and swelling related to the upper right permanent canine. Radiographic examination revealed a multirooted permanent maxillary canine--an unusual finding. Endodontic treatment was performed after amputation of 2 extra roots, and then the tooth was intentionally reimplanted. The prevalence of birooted permanent mandibular canines in the Japanese population has been reported, but the prevalence of this 3-rooted maxillary canine is still unknown. This report also states the potential etiological factors, effects on the developing dentition, and various treatment options for the multirooted maxillary permanent canine.

  3. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Taniuchi, Tsutomu; Takano, Shiro; Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Fukami, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  4. Postoperative Complications Leading to Death after Coagulum Pyelolithotomy in a Tetraplegic Patient: Can We Prevent Prolonged Ileus, Recurrent Intestinal Obstruction due to Adhesions Requiring Laparotomies, Chest Infection Warranting Tracheostomy, and Mechanical Ventilation?

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 22-year-old male sustained C-6 tetraplegia in 1992. In 1993, intravenous pyelography revealed normal kidneys. Suprapubic cystostomy was performed. He underwent open cystolithotomy in 2004 and 2008. In 2009, computed tomography revealed bilateral renal calculi. Coagulum pyelolithotomy of left kidney was performed. Pleura and peritoneum were opened. Peritoneum could not be closed. Following surgery, he developed pulmonary atelectasis; he required tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation. He did not tolerate nasogastric feeding. CT of abdomen revealed bilateral renal calculi and features of proximal small bowel obstruction. Laparotomy revealed small bowel obstruction due to dense inflammatory adhesions involving multiple small bowel loops which protruded through the defect in sigmoid mesocolon and fixed posteriorly over the area of previous intervention. All adhesions were divided. The wide defect in mesocolon was not closed. In 2010, this patient again developed vomiting and distension of abdomen. Laparotomy revealed multiple adhesions. He developed chest infection and required ventilatory support again. He developed pressure sores and depression. Later abdominal symptoms recurred. This patient's general condition deteriorated and he expired in 2011. Conclusion. Risk of postoperative complications could have been reduced if minimally invasive surgery had been performed instead of open surgery to remove stones from left kidney. Suprapubic cystostomy predisposed to repeated occurrence of stones in urinary bladder and kidneys. Spinal cord physicians should try to establish intermittent catheterisation regime in tetraplegic patients. PMID:23533931

  5. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    PubMed

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  6. Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.

  7. Advances in nanostructured permanent magnets research

    SciTech Connect

    Poudyal, N; Liu, JP

    2012-12-14

    This paper reviews recent developments in research in nanostructured permanent magnets ( hard magnetic materials) with emphasis on bottom-up approaches to fabrication of hard/soft nanocomposite bulk magnets. Theoretical and experimental findings on the effects of soft phase and interface conditions on interphase exchange interactions are given. Synthesis techniques for hard magnetic nanoparticles, including chemical solution methods, surfactant-assisted ball milling and other physical deposition methods are reviewed. Processing and magnetic properties of warm compacted and plastically deformed bulk magnets with nanocrystalline morphology are discussed. Prospects of producing bulk anisotropic hard/soft nanocomposite magnets are presented.

  8. Batch fabrication of precision miniature permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.; Garino, Terry J.; Venturini, Eugene L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes for fabrication of precision miniature rare earth permanent magnets is disclosed. Such magnets typically have sizes in the range 0.1 to 10 millimeters, and dimensional tolerances as small as one micron. Very large magnetic fields can be produced by such magnets, lending to their potential application in MEMS and related electromechanical applications, and in miniature millimeter-wave vacuum tubes. This abstract contains simplifications, and is supplied only for purposes of searching, not to limit or alter the scope or meaning of any claims herein.

  9. Permanent-magnet-less synchronous reluctance system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S

    2012-09-11

    A permanent magnet-less synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic revolving field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor is disposed within the magnetic revolving field and spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. The rotor includes a plurality of rotor pole stacks having an inner periphery biased by single polarity of a north-pole field and a south-pole field, respectively. The outer periphery of each of the rotor pole stacks are biased by an alternating polarity.

  10. Trends in rare earth permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Buschow, K.H.J.

    1994-03-01

    A brief description is given of trends in research and development of permanent magnet materials, these trends being dictated on the one hand by industrial needs, on the other hand by limitations of the physical and crystal chemical properties of the intermetallic phases concerned. Recent results are discussed of materials based on Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, solid solutions of interstitial N and C atoms in Sm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}, ThMn{sub 12} type compounds and alloys consisting primarily of Fe{sub 3}B.

  11. Experience with measuring magnetic moments of permanent magnet blocks at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.H.; Barale, P.J.; Green, M.I.; Van Dyke, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    Since May 1985, The Magnetic Measurements Engineering Group at LBL has measured and sorted a total of 3834 permanent magnet blocks. These magnetic blocks have been used in the construction of various successful beam-line elements including dipoles, quadrupoles, and wigglers. We report on observed variations in magnetic moments among blocks supplied by five manufacturers, describe the operational capabilities (accuracy, precision, and resolution) of the LBL Magnetic-moment Measurement and Sorting System (MMSS), cite the results of comparative calibrations by permanent-magnet manufacturers and other National Laboratories, and suggest criteria for automating the MMSS for measuring the large number of permanent-magnet blocks required for the insertion devices for the projected LBL 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Overcoming hopelessness and social isolation: the ENGAGE model for working with neglecting families toward permanence.

    PubMed

    Petras, Donna D; Massat, Carol Rippey; Essex, Elizabeth Lehr

    2002-01-01

    The Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA) mandates policies designed to increase the frequency and speed with which permanency is achieved for children in the child welfare system. ASFA's focus is on child safety, permanency, and well-being. The expectation that parents correct neglectful conditions within specified time frames places an increased ethical responsibility on child welfare staff. Carrying out this responsibility requires vigorous and innovative approaches to engaging and working with neglectful families. Drawing on a well-established conceptual framework for understanding the determinants of effective parenting, the authors derive the ENGAGE (Engagement, Needs assessment, Goal setting, Assessment of progress, Goal achievement, Ending work) model for achieving permanency within the policy structure. The model incorporates creative client engagement, assessment of family needs, mutual goal setting, the goal achievement process, termination, and aftercare.

  13. A sensorless initial rotor position's estimation for permanent magnet synchronous machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, I.; Langraf, S.; Odnolopylov, I.; Koltun, V.

    2015-10-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motors for the effective start require information about the initial position of a rotor. In this regard, most systems use position sensors, which substantially increase entirely a cost of an electrical drive [1-3]. The aim of this article is to develop a new method, allowing determining the absolute angular position of the permanent magnet synchronous motors’ rotor [4,5]. With a certain voltage pulses applied to the motor, its stator is magnetized by currents leakage in the windings. This allows using a special algorithm to calculate the absolute position of the rotor without using any motor parameters [6]. Simulation results prove the simplicity and efficiency of this method for determining an initial position of the permanent magnet synchronous motors’ rotor. Thus, this method can be widely used in the electrical industry.

  14. Morphological characteristics of primary enamel surfaces versus permanent enamel surfaces: SEM digital analysis.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, A; Storti, E

    2011-09-01

    The morphology of permanent and primary enamel surface merits further analysis. The objective of this study was to illustrate a method of SEM digital image processing able to quantify and discriminate between the morphological characteristics of primary and permanent tooth enamel. Sixteen extracted teeth, 8 primary teeth and 8 permanent teeth, kept in saline solution, were analysed. The teeth were observed under SEM. The SEM images were analysed by means of digitally processed algorithms. The two algorithms used were: Local standard deviation to measure surface roughness with the roughness index (RI); Hough's theorem to identify linear structures with the linear structure index (LSI). The SEM images of primary teeth enamel show smooth enamel with little areas of irregularity. No linear structures are apparent. The SEM images of permanent enamel show a not perfectly smooth surface; there are furrows and irregularities of variable depth and width. In the clinical practice a number of different situations require the removal of a thin layer of enamel. Only a good morphological knowledge of both permanent and primary tooth enamel gives the opportunity to identify and exploit the effects of rotary tools on enamel, thus allowing for a correct finishing technique.

  15. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  16. Permanent and separable aerospace tubing/ fitting evaluation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ursell, C. R.; Franz, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The tube fitting evaluation program was conducted to develop a standard overall test program including methods, procedures, and equipment as well as recommended test sequences for qualifying fitting/tubing assemblies. The program consisted of testing the MS flareless (separable) fitting and utilizing the results as baseline data from which all other fittings will be evaluated. Five separable designs and five permanent designs were tested in three sizes with two types of tubing materials. The basic design requirements were 4,000 psi operating pressure within the temperature range of minus 65 F to plus 450 F while also being compatible with 21-6-9 and titanium 3Al-2.5V tubing alloys.

  17. Zeeman slowers for strontium based on permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ian R.; Ovchinnikov, Yuri B.; Bridge, Elizabeth M.; Curtis, E. Anne; Gill, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We present the design, construction, and characterization of longitudinal- and transverse-field Zeeman slowers, based on arrays of permanent magnets, for slowing thermal beams of atomic Sr. The slowers are optimized for operation with deceleration related to the local laser intensity (by the parameter ɛ), which uses more effectively the available laser power, in contrast to the usual constant deceleration mode. Slowing efficiencies of up to ≈18% are realized and compared to those predicted by modelling. We highlight the transverse-field slower, which is compact, highly tunable, light-weight, and requires no electrical power, as a simple solution to slowing Sr, well-suited to space-borne application. For 88Sr we achieve a slow-atom flux of around 6 × 109 atoms s-1 at 30 ms-1, loading approximately 5 × 108 atoms in to a magneto-optical-trap, and capture all isotopes in approximate relative natural abundances.

  18. Sm-Co-Cu-Ti high-temperature permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Chen, C.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2000-09-04

    A class of promising permanent-magnet materials with an appreciable high-temperature coercivity of 8.6 kOe at 500 degree sign C is reported. The Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets are prepared by arc melting and require a suitable heat treatment. Magnetization measurements as a function of temperature and x-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the samples are two-phase mixtures of 2:17 and 1:5 structures. Depending on heat treatment and composition, some of the magnets exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of coercivity. The promising high-temperature behavior of the coercivity is ascribed to the temperature dependence of the domain-wall energy, which affects the curvature of the walls and the pinning behavior. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Initial Experiments of a New Permanent Magnet Helicon Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Longmier, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    A new design for a permanent magnet helicon thruster is presented. Its small plasma volume (~10 cm-3) and low power requirements (<100 W) make it ideal for propelling nanosatellites (<10 kg). The magnetic field reached a maximum of 500 G in the throat of a converging-diverging nozzle and decreased to 0.5 G, the strength of earth's magnetic field, within 50 cm allowing the entire exhaust plume to develop in the vacuum chamber without being affected by the chamber walls. Low gas flow rates (~4 sccm) and high pumping speeds (~10,000 l/s) were used to more closely approximate the conditions of space. A parametric study of the thruster operational parameters was performed to determine its capabilities as both a thruster and as a plasma source for magnetic nozzle experiments. The plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential were measured in the plume to characterize the ion acceleration mechanism.

  20. Sm-Co-Cu-Ti high-temperature permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Chen, C.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2000-09-01

    A class of promising permanent-magnet materials with an appreciable high-temperature coercivity of 8.6 kOe at 500 °C is reported. The Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets are prepared by arc melting and require a suitable heat treatment. Magnetization measurements as a function of temperature and x-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the samples are two-phase mixtures of 2:17 and 1:5 structures. Depending on heat treatment and composition, some of the magnets exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of coercivity. The promising high-temperature behavior of the coercivity is ascribed to the temperature dependence of the domain-wall energy, which affects the curvature of the walls and the pinning behavior.

  1. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  2. Remote temperature distribution sensing using permanent magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yi; Guba, Oksana; Brooks, Carlton F.; ...

    2016-10-31

    Remote temperature sensing is essential for applications in enclosed vessels where feedthroughs or optical access points are not possible. A unique sensing method for measuring the temperature of multiple closely-spaced points is proposed using permanent magnets and several three-axis magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field theory for multiple magnets is discussed and a solution technique is presented. Experimental calibration procedures, solution inversion considerations and methods for optimizing the magnet orientations are described in order to obtain low-noise temperature estimates. The experimental setup and the properties of permanent magnets are shown. Finally, experiments were conducted to determine the temperature of ninemore » magnets in different configurations over a temperature range of 5 to 60 degrees Celsius and for a sensor-to-magnet distance of up to 35 mm. Furthermore, to show the possible applications of this sensing system for measuring temperatures through metal walls, additional experiments were conducted inside an opaque 304 stainless steel cylinder.« less

  3. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  4. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  5. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abujbara, Mousa A; Liswi, Mohammed I; El-Khateeb, Mohammed S; Flanagan, Sarah E; Ellard, Sian; Ajlouni, Kamel M

    2014-09-01

    Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) is a rare heterogeneous form of diabetes that develops within the first 6 months of life. The objective of this study is to define the genetic etiology and incidence of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus in Jordan. This study was conducted in Jordan at the National Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, between 2006 and 2012. The study included 22 cases diagnosed with diabetes within the first year of life. The incidence of PNDM in Jordan was calculated as one case for every 203,221 live births. Mutations were found in six out of ten cases diagnosed before 6 months and included one homozygous ABCC8 p.R826W mutation, three cases with a heterozygous KCNJ11 p.R201C mutation, and two cases with a homozygous EIF2AK3 splicing mutation. The genetic etiology of PNDM in Jordan is different from that seen in European countries and more similar to other Arab countries.

  6. Current status of permanent total artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Davis, P K; Rosenberg, G; Snyder, A J; Pierce, W S

    1989-01-01

    Pneumatic total artificial heats, although demonstrating utility as temporary mechanical circulatory support devices, have not demonstrated a great deal of promise as permanent cardiac replacements. The increasing number of patients who would be candidates for total heart replacement suggests a large role for a permanent implantable total artificial heart. To that end, the Pennsylvania State University is developing an electric motor-driven total artificial heart; the results with implants in calves are encouraging. In this device, a roller-screw mechanism is used to translate the rotation of a brushless direct-current motor into rectilinear motion of a pusher-plate assembly, which in turn empties the blood sacs. The total artificial heart of the future will function under automatic control without percutaneous leads, and this should provide the patient with a nearly normal life-style. Although further experimental efforts are necessary to prepare the device for clinical trials, the technology to provide a safe and reliable electric blood-pump system is at hand.

  7. How Permanent Was Permanent Employment? Patterns of Organizational Mobility in Japan, 1916-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Mariah Mantsun; Kalleberg, Arne L.

    1997-01-01

    Work histories from three Japanese mobility surveys were used to measure the extent of permanent employment, finding that historical events and postwar economic development have affected it. Mobility differences were greatest among young workers. White-collar workers in large firms had the lowest mobility, blue-collar, small-firm workers the…

  8. The Concept of Permanent Education and Its Application in Denmark. Studies on Permanent Education, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Werner

    A report is made to the Secretariat of the Council of Europe of a case study on the introduction of the concept of permanent education in Denmark. The supplies of education, which have been limited to clients in childhhod, adolescence, and yound adulthood, should now be distributed over a lifetime. Economic growth was formerly explained by input…

  9. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.

    2015-04-01

    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  10. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  11. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  12. 49 CFR 393.26 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reflectors. (a) Mounting. Reflex reflectors shall be mounted at the locations required by § 393.11. In the... mounting height range. All permanent reflex reflectors shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the... required to be permanently mounted to a part of the vehicle. Temporary reflex reflectors on...

  13. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  14. Commande numérique de moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents de faible puissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robyns, B.; Fu, Y.; Labrique, F.; Buyse, H.

    1995-08-01

    High performance motion control with permanent magnet synchronous actuators needs complex control strategies. These control strategies lead frequently to algorithms requiring powerful microprocessors for their digital implementation. In this paper, we consider an approach of the control of small power permanent magnets synchronous actuators which allows to design and to implement control algorithms requiring only a reduced computation power, while maintaining satisfactory static and dynamic performance and a good insensitivity to perturbations and parameter uncertainties. L'actionnement électrique à hautes performances par moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents impose des stratégies de commande évoluées liées au comportement dynamique complexe de ces machines. Ces stratégies de commande conduisent fréquemment à des algorithmes dont l'implantation numérique exige des microprocesseurs ayant une puissance de calcul élevée. Dans cet article, nous développons une approche du problème de la commande des moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents de faible puissance qui permet de concevoir et d'implanter des algorithmes de commande ne nécessitant qu'une puissance de calcul réduite, tout en garantissant des performances statiques et dynamiques satisfaisantes ainsi qu'une bonne insensibilité aux perturbations agissant sur le système et aux incertitudes sur les paramètres.

  15. Vigil Network sites: A sample of data for permanent filing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Emmett, William W.

    1965-01-01

    The Vigil Network consists of places where observations are made through time to record changes in landscape features over a long period. Resurveys will usually be made once each year or every few years and the period of observation, hopefully, will extend through and beyond the International Hydrological Decade.Vigil Network sites will usually be chosen to represent some typical feature of a given landscape. In the example shown here, the feature is a small ephemeral channel in a basin of moderate relief underlain by silty sandstone typical of the surrounding area. Vigil sites are not protected from man's influence and indeed may be selected because of the possible or portending cultural influences. In this respect they differ from the Bench Mark Network whose purpose is to make precise observations of hydrologic factors in areas uninfluenced by and protected from man's use.The factors which might be observed are many and varied. A few might be mentioned here, others are explained at length elsewhere (Miller and Leopold, 1963; Leopold, 1962). Streamchannel position, form, depth, and profile; vegetation in form of transects or quadrats; soil movement on slopes; rock movement on slopes or in channels. These and many more would yield valuable information on changes with time.To assure permanence of initial field observations, including reference points, bench marks, and cross sections, brief descriptions, maps, and initial data should be filed identically in designated repositories where the data will be made available for inspection by any interested scientist. It is recommended that the designation of two such locations where records of the type here attached will be filed be taken up by the Coordinating Council of the International Hydrological Decade. In designating such repositories it should be recognized that there is no need for elaborate indexing. The main requirement is merely the maintenance of a simple file where the data are stored and can be inspected

  16. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  17. Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Roberto A; Santos, Luis F N; Perego, Manuela

    2013-09-01

    A 5-year-old male English Bulldog was presented with a 1-year history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) partially responsive to amiodarone. At admission the surface ECG showed sustained runs of a narrow QRS complex tachycardia, with a ventricular cycle length (R-R interval) of 260 ms, alternating with periods of sinus rhythm. Endocardial mapping identified the electrogenic mechanism of the SVT as a circus movement tachycardia with retrograde and decremental conduction along a concealed postero-septal atrioventricular pathway (AP) and anterograde conduction along the atrioventricular node. These characteristics were indicative of a permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT). Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the AP successfully terminated the PJRT, with no recurrence of tachycardia on Holter monitoring at 12 months follow-up.

  18. Levitation forces in bearingless permanent magnet motors

    SciTech Connect

    Amrhein, W.; Silber, S.; Nenninger, K.

    1999-09-01

    Bearingless motors combine brushless AC-motors with active magnetic bearings by the integration of two separate winding systems (torque and radial levitation force windings with different pole pairs) in one housing. This paper gives an insight into the influences of the motor design on the levitation force and torque generation. It is shown that especially for machines with small air gaps it can be very important to choose the right design parameters. Increasing the permanent magnet height in order to increase the motor torque can result in a remarkable reduction of radial forces. The interrelationships are discussed on the basis of Maxwell and Lorentz forces acting upon the stator surface. The investigations are presented for a bearingless low cost motor, suited for pump, fan or blower applications. The presented motor needs only four coils for operation.

  19. Object permanence tests on gibbons (Hylobatidae).

    PubMed

    Fedor, Anna; Skollár, Gabriella; Szerencsy, Nóra; Ujhelyi, Mária

    2008-11-01

    Ten gibbons of various species (Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar, Nomascus gabriellae, and Nomascus leucogenys) were tested on object permanence tasks. Three identical wooden boxes, presented in a linear line, were used to hide pieces of food. The authors conducted single visible, single invisible, double invisible, and control displacements, in both random and nonrandom order. During invisible displacements, the experimenter hid the object in her hand before putting it into a box. The performance of gibbons was better than expected by chance in all the tests, except for the randomly ordered double displacement. However, individual analysis of performance showed great variability across subjects, and only 1 gibbon is assumed to have solved single visible and single invisible displacements without recourse to a strategy that the control test eliminated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Pediculosis capitis, a permanent and renewed problem].

    PubMed

    Schenonel, H; Lobos, M

    1997-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is still a world-wide public health problem. Pediculus humanus capitis, the agent, is a permanent and specific human blood-sucking ectoparasite extended throughout the world. By the end of sixties and begin of seventies an important increase of prevalence of this parasitose was observed in many countries and lice infestation throughout the world was estimated to run into hundreds of millions. Decline of personal hygiene, increased promiscuity and long hairstyle, particularly in adolescents and young people seemed to mark the beginning of this new situation. At present pediculosis capitis not only affects low socio-economic groups, but middle and high level groups. Several observations have shown a clear relationship between long hair and pediculosis capitis. Prevention of pediculosis capitis is supported by community health education, stressing the personal hygiene, the use of reasonable short hair and frequent washing of head.

  1. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Manuel I.

    2017-03-01

    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r -4 at large distances, as expected.

  2. [Permanent pacemaker implantation. Indications and results].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; Iturralde, P; Gutiérrez Fuster, E; Martínez Ríos, N; Martínez Ríos, M A; Romero, L; Hernández, D; González Hermosillo, J A

    1990-01-01

    Clinical, laboratory and electrocardiographic data from 608 patients with permanent pacemakers implanted over a period of 8 years, were evaluated retrospectively. The number of implants was greater in males (56.5%) and in patients over 60 years of age (77.5%). Atherosclerosis was the most common disease found in this group (50%). Syncope occurred in 96.2% of the cases; and complete AV block was the most common electrocardiographic alteration (50.5%). Electrode displacement occurred in 32 patients (5.2%) and was the most commonly found early complication. Among the late complications, 10.3% of the patients had infections in the area of the generator. The total mortality was 7.7% due to the heart disease rather than pacemaker-related complication.

  3. Variable-field permanent magnet dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Meyer, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    A new concept for a variable-field permanent-magnet dipole (VFPMD) has been designed, fabricated, and tested at Los Alamos. The VFPMD is a C-shaped sector magnet with iron poles separated by a large block of magnet material (SmCo). The central field can be continuously varied from 0.07 T to 0.3 T by moving an iron shunt closer or further away from the back of the magnet. The shunt is specially shaped to make the dependence of the dipole field strength on the shunt position as linear as possible. The dipole has a 2.8 cm high by 8 cm wide aperture with {approximately}10 cm long poles.

  4. An unexpected recovery from permanent vegetative state.

    PubMed

    Sarà, Marco; Sacco, Simona; Cipolla, Francesco; Onorati, Paolo; Scoppetta, Ciriaco; Albertini, Giorgio; Carolei, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    To challenge the Multi-Society Task Force's ruling that a persistent vegetative state (PVS) can be judged to be permanent for non traumatic brain injury after three months. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who had recovery of consciousness with persistent severe disability 19 months after a non-traumatic brain injury at least in part triggered and maintained by intrathecal baclofen administration. This unexpected and late recovery of consciousness raises an interesting hypothesis of possible effects of partially regained spinal cord outputs on reactivation of cognition. Considering that several ethical, legal, and socio-economic issues have been raised about the opportunity of withdrawing treatment and life support in patients with PVS the report of this case might add further documentation to the ongoing debate.

  5. Experience with the SLC permanent magnet multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.; Spencer, J.

    1994-06-01

    Permanent magnets have been used in the SLC Damping Rings and their injection and extraction lines since 1985. Recent upgrades of the DR vacuum chambers provided an opportunity to check DR magnets prior to higher beam current operation. Several PM sextupoles downstream of the injection kickers in the electron ring had exceeded their thermal stabilization values of 80{degrees}C and some showed serious mechanical deformations and radiation >1 R at contact. We discuss our observations, measurements and a few inexpensive modifications that should improve these magnets under such conditions. A new, block matching algorithm allowed us to use magnet blocks that had been considered unusable because of very different remament field strengths and easy axis errors.

  6. A novel permanent maglev rotary LVAD with passive magnetic bearings.

    PubMed

    Qian, K X; Yuan, H Y; Zeng, P; Ru, W M

    2005-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that permanent maglev cannot achieve stability; however, the authors have discovered that stable permanent maglev is possible under the effect of a combination of passive magnetic and nonmagnetic forces. In addition, a rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with passive magnetic bearings has been developed. It is a radially driven impeller pump, having a rotor and a stator. The rotor consists of driven magnets and impeller; the motor coil and pump housing form the stator. Two passive magnetic bearings counteract the attractive force between motor coil iron core and rotor magnets; the rotor thereafter can be disaffiliated from the stator and become levitated under the action of passive magnetic and haemodynamic forces. Because of the pressure difference between the outlet and the inlet of the pump, there is a small flow passing through the gap of rotor and stator, and then entering the lower pressure area along the central hole of the rotor. This small flow comes to a full washout of all blood contacting surfaces in the motor. Moreover, a decreased Bernoulli force in the larger gap with faster flow produces a centring force that leads to stable levitation of the rotor. Resultantly, neither mechanical wear nor thrombosis will occur in the pump. The rotor position detection reveals that the precondition of levitation is a high rotating speed (over 3250 rpm) and a high flow rate (over 1 l min(-1)). Haemodynamic tests with porcine blood indicate that the device as a LVAD requires a rotating speed between 3500 and 4000 rpm for producing a blood flow of 4 - 6 l min(-1) against 100 mmHg mean pressure head. The egg-sized device has a weight of 200 g and an O.D. of 40 mm at its largest point.

  7. The Permanent and Inductive Magnetic Moments of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Volwerk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Data acquired by the Galileo magnetometer on five passes by Ganymede have been used to characterize Ganymede's internal magnetic moments. Three of the five passes were useful for determination of the internal moments through quadrupole order. Models representing the internal field as the sum of dipole and quadrupole terms or as the sum of a permanent dipole field upon which is superimposed an induced magnetic dipole driven by the time varying component of the externally imposed magnetic field of Jupiter's magnetosphere give equally satisfactory fits to the data. The permanent dipole moment has an equatorial field magnitude 719 nT and is tilted by 176 degrees from the spin axis with the pole in the southern hemisphere rotated by 24 degrees from the Jupiter-facing meridian plane towards the trailing hemisphere. The data are consistent with an inductive response of a good electrical conductor of radius approximately 1 Ganymede radius. Although the data do not enable us to establish the presence of an inductive response beyond doubt, we favor the inductive response model because it gives a good fit to the data using only 4 parameters to describe the internal sources of fields, whereas the equally good dipole plus quadrupole fit requires 8 parameters. An inductive response is consistent with a buried conducting shell, probably liquid water with dissolved electrolytes, somewhere in the first few hundred km below Ganymede's surface. The depth at which the ocean is buried beneath the surface is somewhat uncertain, but our favored model suggests a depth of order 150 kilometers. As both temperature and pressure increase with depth and the melting temperature of pure ice decreases to a minimum at approximately 170 kilometer depth, it seems possible that near this location, a layer of water would be sandwiched between layers of ice.

  8. High-Performance Permanent Magnets for Energy-Efficient Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjipanayis, George

    2012-02-01

    Permanent magnets (PMs) are indispensable for many commercial applications including the electric, electronic and automobile industries, communications, information technologies and automatic control engineering. In most of these applications, an increase in the magnetic energy density of the PM, usually presented via the maximum energy product (BH)max, immediately increases the efficiency of the whole device and makes it smaller and lighter. Worldwide demand for high performance permanent magnets has increased dramatically in the past few years driven by hybrid and electric cars, wind turbines and other power generation systems. New energy challenges in the world require devices with higher energy efficiency and minimum environmental impact. The potential of 3d-4f compounds which revolutionized the PM science and technology is almost fully utilized, and the supply of 4f rare earth elements does not seem to be much longer assured. This talk will address the major principles guiding the development of PMs and overview state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental research. Recent progress in the development of nanocomposite PMs, consisting of a fine (at the scale of the magnetic exchange length) mixture of phases with high magnetization and large magnetic hardness will be discussed. Fabrication of such PMs is currently the most promising way to boost the (BH)max, while simultaneously decreasing, at least partially, the reliance on the rare earth elements. Special attention will be paid to the impact which the next-generation high-(BH)max magnets is expected to have on existing and proposed energy-saving technologies.

  9. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on implantable permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M L; Walker, G B; Dormer, K J

    1995-09-01

    Implantable permanent magnets are increasingly used in devices for otolaryngologic applications. It is likely that at least some of the patients with implanted magnets will be in need of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The effect of an MRI scan on the magnetic properties of implanted permanent magnets has not been previously demonstrated. Some of the basic concepts and descriptive terminology used in industry regarding permanent magnets are reviewed. Experiments presented show that the MRI scan is capable of demagnetizing permanent magnets. A case history is also presented that demonstrates demagnetizing of an implanted Audiant magnet by an MRI scan.

  10. To Establish a National Policy on Permanent Papers. Hearing on H.J. Res 226 To Establish a National Policy on Permanent Papers, before the Government Information, Justice, and Agriculture Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Subcommittee on Government Information, Justice, and Agriculture.

    This publication contains the text of House Joint Resolution 226, which establishes a policy that Federal records, books, and publications of enduring value be produced on acid free permanent papers; recommends that federal agencies and American publishers require the use of acid free permanent papers for publications of enduring value; recommends…

  11. [Clinical application of one-stage operation of epicardial permanent pacemaker implantation and cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Ren, C L; Jiang, S L; Xiao, C S; Wang, R; Gao, C Q

    2017-04-25

    Objective: To summarize the results and clinical application experience of one-stage operation of epicardial permanent pacemaker implantation and cardiac surgery. Methods: From November 2014 to July 2016, 15 patients (9 males and 6 females) with ages ranging from 50 to 73 (63.5±6.2) years requiring cardiac surgery with bradycardia underwent one-stage operation of epicardial permanent pacemaker implantation and cardiac surgery. All operations were performed under general anesthesia with chest median incision approach. Among them, single chamber pacemaker (n=10) and dual chamber pacemaker (n=5) permanent epicardial pacing leads were implanted. Simultaneous procedures included valve replacement in 7 cases, valve replacement combined with atrial fibrillation ablation in 3 cases, coronary artery bypass grafting in 2 cases, aortic root replacement in 2 cases, and valve replacement combined with coronary artery bypass surgery in 1 case. Their parameters of pacemaker including sensitivity, pacing threshold, pacing impedance were measured during surgery and closely followed up at 1 week and 3, 6 months after surgery. Results: All 15 patients with epicardial permanent pacemaker implantation in the same period of cardiac surgery were successfully cured and discharged, without any surgical complications. A total of 20 epicardial electrodes were implanted for them including 5 right atrial electrodes and 15 right ventricular electrodes. The postoperative follow-up period ranged from 3 to 22 months. No electrode fracture and surgical wound infection occurred in those patients, and their impedance, sensing and stimulation thresholds were all in normal ranges during follow-up. Conclusions: For patients with bradycardia who required cardiac surgery, one-stage operation of epicardial permanent pacemaker implantation and cardiac surgery is safe and effective, and the results in the short-term and medium-term are satisfactory, avoiding the risk of staged surgery.

  12. Optimal current waveforms for brushless permanent magnet motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehle, Nicholas; Boyd, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we give energy-optimal current waveforms for a permanent magnet synchronous motor that result in a desired average torque. Our formulation generalises previous work by including a general back-electromotive force (EMF) wave shape, voltage and current limits, an arbitrary phase winding connection, a simple eddy current loss model, and a trade-off between power loss and torque ripple. Determining the optimal current waveforms requires solving a small convex optimisation problem. We show how to use the alternating direction method of multipliers to find the optimal current in milliseconds or hundreds of microseconds, depending on the processor used, which allows the possibility of generating optimal waveforms in real time. This allows us to adapt in real time to changes in the operating requirements or in the model, such as a change in resistance with winding temperature, or even gross changes like the failure of one winding. Suboptimal waveforms are available in tens or hundreds of microseconds, allowing for quick response after abrupt changes in the desired torque. We demonstrate our approach on a simple numerical example, in which we give the optimal waveforms for a motor with a sinusoidal back-EMF, and for a motor with a more complicated, nonsinusoidal waveform, in both the constant-torque region and constant-power region.

  13. Improved Nonambipolar Electron Source operation with permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundson, Jesse; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2008-10-01

    The Nonambipolar Electron Source (NES), is a Radio Frequency (rf) plasma-based electron source that does not rely on electron emission at a cathode surface. All electrons are extracted at an electron sheath through a biased ring and all ions are lost radially to a biased Faraday shield. The electromagnetic B field in the original NES has been replaced by a NdFeB permanent magnet array. The magnet array consists of a ring of radially aligned magnets followed by a ring of axially aligned magnets producing a peak field of approximately 850 Gauss. Measurement of the magnetic field was in good agreement with field predicted by the FEMM code. Optimization of the single turn antenna and biased ring will be discussed. Operating with argon, at least 15 A of electron current was extracted using a flow rate of 15 sccm Ar at approximately 10 mTorr and 600 W of RF power at 13.56 MHz. For comparison, the original NES required 1200 W of power to achieve 15 A of extracted current. Compared to the previous coil design, the NdFeB magnets are lighter weight, require no power, and provide a greater peak magnetic field.

  14. Improved Nonambipolar Electron Source Operation with Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundson, Jesse; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2008-11-01

    The Nonambipolar Electron Source (NES) is a Radio Frequency (rf) plasma-based electron source that does not rely on electron emission at a cathode surface. All electrons are extracted at an electron sheath through a biased ring and all ions are lost radially to a biased Faraday shield. An electromagnet in the original NES has been replaced by a NdFeB permanent magnet array. A portion of the magnet array consists of a ring of radially aligned magnets followed by a ring of axially aligned magnets that produce a peak field of approximately 800 Gauss. Axial magnetic field strength at the extraction ring was increased using an additional ring of axially aligned magnets. Measurement of the magnetic field was in good agreement with field predicted by the FEMM (Finite Element Method Magnetics) code. Optimization of the single turn antenna and biased ring position in the magnetic field will be discussed. At least 15 A of electron current was extracted using a flow rate of 15 sccm Ar at 600 W of rf power at 13.56 MHz. For comparison, the original NES required 1200 W of power to achieve 15 A of extracted current. Compared to the previous coil design, the NdFeB magnets are lighter weight and require no power.

  15. Rotatable Small Permanent Magnet Array for Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instrumentation: A Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Vegh, Viktor; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Object We studied the feasibility of generating the variable magnetic fields required for ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry with dynamically adjustable permanent magnets. Our motivation was to substitute traditional electromagnets by distributed permanent magnets, increasing system portability. Materials and Methods The finite element method (COMSOL®) was employed for the numerical study of a small permanent magnet array to calculate achievable magnetic field strength, homogeneity, switching time and magnetic forces. A manually operated prototype was simulated and constructed to validate the numerical approach and to verify the generated magnetic field. Results A concentric small permanent magnet array can be used to generate strong sample pre-polarisation and variable measurement fields for ultra-low field relaxometry via simple prescribed magnet rotations. Using the array, it is possible to achieve a pre-polarisation field strength above 100 mT and variable measurement fields ranging from 20–50 μT with 200 ppm absolute field homogeneity within a field-of-view of 5 x 5 x 5 cubic centimetres. Conclusions A dynamic small permanent magnet array can generate multiple highly homogeneous magnetic fields required in ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instruments. This design can significantly reduce the volume and energy requirements of traditional systems based on electromagnets, improving portability considerably. PMID:27271886

  16. Rotatable Small Permanent Magnet Array for Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instrumentation: A Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Michael W; Giorni, Andrea; Vegh, Viktor; Pellicer-Guridi, Ruben; Reutens, David C

    2016-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of generating the variable magnetic fields required for ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry with dynamically adjustable permanent magnets. Our motivation was to substitute traditional electromagnets by distributed permanent magnets, increasing system portability. The finite element method (COMSOL®) was employed for the numerical study of a small permanent magnet array to calculate achievable magnetic field strength, homogeneity, switching time and magnetic forces. A manually operated prototype was simulated and constructed to validate the numerical approach and to verify the generated magnetic field. A concentric small permanent magnet array can be used to generate strong sample pre-polarisation and variable measurement fields for ultra-low field relaxometry via simple prescribed magnet rotations. Using the array, it is possible to achieve a pre-polarisation field strength above 100 mT and variable measurement fields ranging from 20-50 μT with 200 ppm absolute field homogeneity within a field-of-view of 5 x 5 x 5 cubic centimetres. A dynamic small permanent magnet array can generate multiple highly homogeneous magnetic fields required in ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) instruments. This design can significantly reduce the volume and energy requirements of traditional systems based on electromagnets, improving portability considerably.

  17. Cosmic ray induced permanent damage in MNOS EAROMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, J. T., Jr.; Pickel, J. C.; Waskiewicz, A. E.

    1984-12-01

    Permanent damage to the memory cells in Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (MNOS) Electrically Alterable Read Only Memories (EAROM) has been observed after exposure to a heavy ion beam from a cyclotron under high field (Erase/Write Mode) conditions. The probability of permanent damage depends on the system application.

  18. Cosmic ray induced permanent damage in MNOS EAROMs

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.T.; Pickel, J.C.; Waskiewicz, A.E.

    1984-12-01

    Permanent damage to the memory cells in Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (MNOS) Electrically Alterable Read Only Memories (EAROM) has been observed after exposure to a heavy ion beam from a cyclotron under high field (Erase/Write Mode) conditions. The probability, of permanent damage depends on the system application.

  19. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Dawson, Richard Nils; Qu, Ronghai; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  20. A Permanency Planning Study: Implications for Child Welfare Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Alvin L.; Marlow, Christine

    The way in which findings from a statewide study on permanency planning were utilized and integrated within an accredited undergraduate social work curriculum is described. The concept of permanency planning (through the provision of in-home services to help the child remain in his/her biological home or the removal of the child and placement in…

  1. 15 CFR 1180.10 - NTIS permanent repository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false NTIS permanent repository. 1180.10... ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.10 NTIS permanent repository. A product, or category of product, will normally be accepted and maintained as part of NTIS'...

  2. 15 CFR 1180.10 - NTIS permanent repository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NTIS permanent repository. 1180.10... ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.10 NTIS permanent repository. A product, or category of product, will normally be accepted and maintained as part of NTIS'...

  3. 15 CFR 1180.10 - NTIS permanent repository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NTIS permanent repository. 1180.10... ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.10 NTIS permanent repository. A product, or category of product, will normally be accepted and maintained as part of NTIS'...

  4. 15 CFR 1180.10 - NTIS permanent repository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false NTIS permanent repository. 1180.10..., TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.10 NTIS permanent repository. A product, or category of product, will normally be accepted and maintained as part of...

  5. 15 CFR 1180.10 - NTIS permanent repository.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NTIS permanent repository. 1180.10... ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.10 NTIS permanent repository. A product, or category of product, will normally be accepted and maintained as part of NTIS'...

  6. How to Perform Permanent His Bundle Pacing: Tips and Tricks.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Dandamudi, Gopi

    2016-12-01

    Right ventricular pacing can cause ventricular dyssynchrony and result in reduced left ventricular systolic function and heart failure. Permanent His bundle pacing is a more physiologic form of pacing, but can be technically challenging. In this article, we describe our technique for permanent His bundle pacing including special considerations and limitations associated with His bundle pacing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Permanent magnet energy conversion machine with magnet mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid permanent magnet dc motor includes three sets of permanent magnets supported by the rotor and three sets of corresponding stators fastened to the surrounding frame. One set of magnets operates across a radial gap with a surrounding radial gap stator, and the other two sets of magnets operate off the respective ends of the rotor across respective axial gaps.

  8. 6 CFR 7.29 - Documents of permanent historical value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Documents of permanent historical value. 7.29 Section 7.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.29 Documents of permanent historical value....

  9. Cusp expression of protostylid in deciduous and permanent molars.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sandra; Reyes, María Paula; Moreno, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The present article is a case report on the cusp expression of protostylid in the deciduous inferior molars and in the first permanent inferior molar, in which the correspondence and bilateral symmetry of the mentioned expression can be evidenced, as well as the their relation with the foramen cecum of the mesiobuccal furrows of the deciduous and of the permanent inferior molars.

  10. Cusp expression of protostylid in deciduous and permanent molars

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Sandra; Reyes, María Paula; Moreno, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    The present article is a case report on the cusp expression of protostylid in the deciduous inferior molars and in the first permanent inferior molar, in which the correspondence and bilateral symmetry of the mentioned expression can be evidenced, as well as the their relation with the foramen cecum of the mesiobuccal furrows of the deciduous and of the permanent inferior molars. PMID:28123270

  11. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans be developed? Permanency planning must be developed for all child placements within 6 months after initial placement of the child. Every reasonable effort will be made to preserve the family and/or reunify the...

  12. 47 CFR 52.109 - Permanent cap on number reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permanent cap on number reservations. 52.109 Section 52.109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Toll Free Numbers § 52.109 Permanent cap on number reservations. (a) A Responsible...

  13. 12 CFR 5.46 - Changes in permanent capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... surplus. (f) Policy. In determining whether to approve a proposed change to a national bank's permanent capital, the OCC considers whether the change is: (1) Consistent with law, regulation, and OCC policy... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in permanent capital. 5.46 Section 5.46...

  14. 12 CFR 5.46 - Changes in permanent capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... surplus. (f) Policy. In determining whether to approve a proposed change to a national bank's permanent capital, the OCC considers whether the change is: (1) Consistent with law, regulation, and OCC policy... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in permanent capital. 5.46 Section 5.46...

  15. 12 CFR 5.46 - Changes in permanent capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... surplus. (f) Policy. In determining whether to approve a proposed change to a national bank's permanent capital, the OCC considers whether the change is: (1) Consistent with law, regulation, and OCC policy... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in permanent capital. 5.46 Section 5.46...

  16. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Should permanency plans be developed? 20.511 Section 20.511 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans...

  17. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Should permanency plans be developed? 20.511 Section 20.511 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans...

  18. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Should permanency plans be developed? 20.511 Section 20.511 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans...

  19. 25 CFR 20.511 - Should permanency plans be developed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Should permanency plans be developed? 20.511 Section 20.511 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.511 Should permanency plans...

  20. 27 CFR 20.68 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 20.68 Section 20.68 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Qualification of Dealers and Users Permanent Discontinuance of Business § 20.68 Notice of...

  1. 36 CFR 293.8 - Permanent structures and commercial services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent structures and commercial services. 293.8 Section 293.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.8 Permanent structures and commercial services. Motels,...

  2. 21 CFR 19.55 - Permanent disqualification of former employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permanent disqualification of former employees. 19.55 Section 19.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Disqualification Conditions § 19.55 Permanent...

  3. 21 CFR 19.55 - Permanent disqualification of former employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permanent disqualification of former employees. 19.55 Section 19.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Disqualification Conditions § 19.55 Permanent...

  4. 34 CFR 685.213 - Total and permanent disability discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Total and permanent disability discharge. 685.213... Borrower Provisions § 685.213 Total and permanent disability discharge. (a) General. (1) A borrower's... disability discharge application. References to a “borrower” or a “veteran” include, if applicable,...

  5. 34 CFR 685.213 - Total and permanent disability discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Total and permanent disability discharge. 685.213... Borrower Provisions § 685.213 Total and permanent disability discharge. (a) General. (1) A borrower's... disability discharge application. References to a “borrower” or a “veteran” include, if applicable,...

  6. Permanent magnet energy conversion machine with magnet mounting arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-09-14

    A hybrid permanent magnet dc motor includes three sets of permanent magnets supported by the rotor and three sets of corresponding stators fastened to the surrounding frame. One set of magnets operates across a radial gap with a surrounding radial gap stator, and the other two sets of magnets operate off the respective ends of the rotor across respective axial gaps.

  7. Modeling and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor based on neural network control strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bingyang; Chi, Shangjie; Fang, Man; Li, Mengchao

    2017-03-01

    Permanent magnet synchronous motor is used widely in industry, the performance requirements wouldn't be met by adopting traditional PID control in some of the occasions with high requirements. In this paper, a hybrid control strategy - nonlinear neural network PID and traditional PID parallel control are adopted. The high stability and reliability of traditional PID was combined with the strong adaptive ability and robustness of neural network. The permanent magnet synchronous motor will get better control performance when switch different working modes according to different controlled object conditions. As the results showed, the speed response adopting the composite control strategy in this paper was faster than the single control strategy. And in the case of sudden disturbance, the recovery time adopting the composite control strategy designed in this paper was shorter, the recovery ability and the robustness were stronger.

  8. Writing on water with permanent markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Sepideh; Boulogne, François; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-11-01

    Permanent markers create a continuous thin stain on a surface, which, after drying, can only be removed by high pressure cleaning or organic solvents. The stains of the markers are hydrophobic and thus effectively resist rinsing by water. We introduce a peeling technique based on surface tension, which benefits from this hydrophobicity, to transfer complex two-dimensional marks onto the air-water interface. As an air-water meniscus reaches the stain edge, the surface tension applies a detachment force to the thin layer. If larger than the adhesion of the stain on the substrate, the surface tension can peel off the entire layer. We examine the efficiency of this peeling method for elastic thin films in an experimental model made of thin polystyrene films of well-controlled geometrical properties adhering on clean glass substrates. We investigate the effect of film thickness and interface velocity. At low interface velocities U < 1 mm/s, films of thicknesses down to 50 nm are peeled and transferred to the air-water interface with no defects. Peeling with the meniscus can be used in a large variety of applications such as water-assisted transfer printing, peel-and-stick technologies, cleaning the water proof stains without solvent and fabrication of flexible wearable electronics. This research is supported by Grant from Swiss National Science Foundation (P2ELP2-158896).

  9. A permanent magnet system for Kibble balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Bielsa, Franck; Stock, Michael; Kiss, Adrien; Fang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    The magnet is one of the fundamental elements in Kibble balances. The Kibble balance group at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) proposed a permanent magnet with a radial field, which has been widely employed in other Kibble balance experiments. In this paper, we discuss a different method of operation for the BIPM-type magnet, i.e. only the lower half of the magnetic circuit is closed. The merit of such a magnet is its convenience for opening the air gap and adjusting the coil. A disadvantage is that it can yield a lower and sloped magnetic field profile with less shielding. In the approach described, high permeability yokes are used to flatten the magnetic profile, which has proven to be a novel and convenient approach for removing the nonuniformity of the magnetic profile due to magnet magnetization asymmetries. The performance of the half-closed BIPM magnet is evaluated using experimental measurements. The results show that the half-closed magnetic circuit retains most of the main features of the fully-closed magnet and is a good option for the early stages of Kibble balance operations. In addition, the profile change due to the coil current is predicted and experimentally verified with a bifilar coil. Related systematic effects are discussed for the Planck constant measurement.

  10. The search for permanent electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Kirch, Klaus

    2013-02-13

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of fundamental systems with spin - particles, nuclei, atoms or molecules violate parity and time reversal invariance. Invoking the CPT theorem, time reversal violation implies CP violation. Although CP-violation is implemented in the standard electro-weak theory, EDM generated this way remain undetectably small. However, this CP-violation also appears to fail explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of our universe. Extensions of the standard theory usually include new sources of CP violation and often predict sizeable EDMs. EDM searches in different systems are complementary and various efforts worldwide are underway and no finite value has been established yet. The prototype of an EDM search is the pursuit of the EDM of the neutron. It has the longest history and at the same time is at the forefront of present research. The talk aims at giving an overview of the field with emphasis on our efforts within an international collaboration at PSI, nedm.web.psi.ch.

  11. Toward mountains without permanent snow and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huss, M.; Bookhagen, B.; Huggel, C.; Jacobsen, D.; Bradley, R. S.; Clague, J. J.; Vuille, M.; Buytaert, W.; Cayan, D. R.; Greenwood, G.; Mark, B. G.; Milner, A. M.; Weingartner, R.; Winder, M.

    2017-05-01

    The cryosphere in mountain regions is rapidly declining, a trend that is expected to accelerate over the next several decades due to anthropogenic climate change. A cascade of effects will result, extending from mountains to lowlands with associated impacts on human livelihood, economy, and ecosystems. With rising air temperatures and increased radiative forcing, glaciers will become smaller and, in some cases, disappear, the area of frozen ground will diminish, the ratio of snow to rainfall will decrease, and the timing and magnitude of both maximum and minimum streamflow will change. These changes will affect erosion rates, sediment, and nutrient flux, and the biogeochemistry of rivers and proglacial lakes, all of which influence water quality, aquatic habitat, and biotic communities. Changes in the length of the growing season will allow low-elevation plants and animals to expand their ranges upward. Slope failures due to thawing alpine permafrost, and outburst floods from glacier- and moraine-dammed lakes will threaten downstream populations. Societies even well beyond the mountains depend on meltwater from glaciers and snow for drinking water supplies, irrigation, mining, hydropower, agriculture, and recreation. Here, we review and, where possible, quantify the impacts of anticipated climate change on the alpine cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and consider the implications for adaptation to a future of mountains without permanent snow and ice.

  12. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-07-03

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.

  13. 24 segment high field permanent sextupole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Koptev, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Lorentz, B.; Marik, H. J.; Mikirtytchiants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Seyfarth, H.; Steffens, E.

    2000-09-01

    We report on the design, construction, and magnetic field measurements of a system of high field sextupole magnets made from NdFeB compounds. The magnets are utilized as a focusing system for neutral hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms in a polarized atomic beam source based on Stern-Gerlach spin separation. Each magnet consists of 24 segments of permanently magnetized material differing in remanence and coercivity to reduce demagnetization. According to quadratic extrapolation to the pole tip the magnetic flux density reaches values of up to B0=1.69 T. Three-dimensional field calculations using the MAFIA code were carried out to optimize the magnet performance and to avoid demagnetization by selecting appropriate materials for the individual segments. Measurements of the radial, azimuthal, and longitudinal magnetic flux density distributions were carried out by means of a small Hall probe (100×200×15 μm3). The measurements with the small probe permitted to extract experimentally higher order multipole components very close (˜100 μm) to the inner surface. Experimental values obtained are compared to predictions based on MAFIA calculations and on the Halbach formalism.

  14. Publicity, Privacy, and Permanence of Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Charles H.

    2006-11-01

    The quantum principles of superposition and entanglement have led to a recasting of the foundations of information and computation theory, and are especially helpful in understanding the nature of privacy. The most private information, exemplified by a quantum eraser experiment, is best regarded as existing only conditionally and temporarily-after the experiment is over no trace remains. Less private is classically-secret information-quantum information that has decohered, and thus become recoverable in principle, though not in practice, from portions of the environment. Finally there is public information, which has been replicated so thoroughly throughout the environment as to be infeasible to conceal. The Internet has caused an explosion of public information, with the beneficial side effect of making it harder for despots to rewrite the history of their misdeeds, and it is tempting to hope that all macroscopic information is permanent, making such cover-ups impossible in principle if not in practice. However, by comparing entropy flows into and out of the Earth with estimates of the planet's storage capacity, we conclude that most macroscopic information-for example the pattern of sand grains on an ancient beach-is impermanent, in the sense of becoming irrecoverable in principle from the Earth though still recorded in the Universe.

  15. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  16. A Study of the Causes of Failure of Permanent Magnets from Cast Hard Magnetic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenskaya, N. I.; Sein, V. A.; Zvereva, M. I.

    2017-07-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of permanent magnets fabricated from cast hard magnetic alloys of the Fe - Ni - Al system with cobalt addition of type YuNDK are studied. The causes of failure of such magnets in operation are determined. Recommendations are given for correcting the melting process and the modes of heat treatment of magnets in order to provide the required properties without disturbing the integrity of the magnets.

  17. Traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth. Part 1. An epidemiological study of 216 intruded permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Bakland, Leif K; Matras, Rannva C; Andreasen, Francis Meriam

    2006-04-01

    An epidemiological study of traumatic intrusion of permanent teeth was performed on 216 teeth in 151 patients treated over a 50-year period at a major trauma center in Denmark (Copenhagen). This analysis showed that intrusion of permanent teeth was of rare injury only affecting 1.9% of traumatic injuries involving permanent teeth. The main etiologic factor appeared to be falling which resulted in axial impacts on maxillary or mandibular teeth. The most common injury patterns were intrusion without additional injuries (33.5%) and intrusion with crown fractures (60.5%). A few cases were combinations of intrusion and either crown/root-fractures or root fractures (6%). Most often one tooth was intruded (46.3%), followed by two teeth (32.4% ) and three or more teeth (21.3%). The majority of intruded teeth were displaced 2-8 mm. The age group of 6-12 years of age was most frequently involved and boys appeared to experience intrusion injuries more frequently than girls, and at an earlier age. Maxillary central and lateral incisors are the primary victims of intrusions and this seems to be identical to other trauma types and is possibly related to the known exposure to impacts of maxillary incisors. The reliability of clinical findings, such as lack of mobility (81.8%), metallic percussion tone (72.5%), and no pain to percussion (66%) was reasonably high, whereas a radiographic feature such as the obliteration of the periodontal ligament space appeared to be only a partly reliable diagnostic tool (52%).

  18. Rare-earth free permanent magnets and permanent magnet synchronous motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jihoon

    In this dissertation, basic and applied research programs are engaged that range from the fundamental magnetism and magnetic properties of ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials to the design and fabrication of rare earth (RE) free permanent and soft magnetic materials for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) (i.e., motor for electric vehicles and plug-in electric vehicles) and heat assisted magnetic recording media (HAMR) with 4 Tb/in 2 information storage applications. The applied research program emphasizes the design and synthesis of new RE-free permanent magnetic materials and magnetic exchange coupled core(hard)-shell(soft) particles to achieve a high maximum energy product [(BH) max], and the design of an advanced IPMSM based on RE free permanent magnets. The electronic structures of hard magnetic materials such as Mn-Al, Mn-Bi, Mn-Bi-X, Fe-Pt, Fe-Pt-X, SrFe12O19, and SrFe12 O19-X (X = transition elements) and soft magnetic materials such as nanocrystalline and Mn-B were calculated based on the density functional theory (DFT), and their exchange coupled magnetic properties with soft magnets were designed according to the size and shape of the particles. The calculated magnetic and electronic properties were used to obtain the temperature dependence of saturation magnetization Ms(T) and anisotropy constant K(T) within the mean field theory. Thereby, the temperature dependence of the maximum energy product [(BH)max(T)] is calculated using the calculated Ms(T) and K(T). The experimental approaches were based on chemical and ceramic processes to synthesize hard and soft magnetic materials. Prior to synthesis, material design parameters were optimized by first-principles calculations and micromagnetic simulations. Lastly, performance of RE-free MnAl, MnBi, SrFe12O19 , and Alnico IPMSMs, designed with the finite element method (FEM), at 23 and 200 °C were evaluated and compared to a RE Nd Fe B IPMSM. The performance parameters include torque

  19. Permanent superconducting magnets for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy

    1994-01-01

    Work has been done to develop superconducting trapped field magnets (TFM's) and to apply them to a bumper-tether device for magnetic docking of spacecraft. The quality parameters for TFM's are J(c), the critical current of the superconductor, and d, the diameter of the superconducting tile. During this year we have doubled d, for production models, from 1 cm to 2 cm. This was done by means of seeding, an improved temperature profile in processing, and the addition of 1 percent Pt to the superconductor chemistry. Using these tiles we have set increasing records for the fields' permanent magnets. Magnets fabricated from old 1 cm tiles trapped 1.52 Tesla at 77K, 4.0T at 65K and 7.0T at 55K. The second of these fields broke a 17 year old record set at Stanford. The third field broke our own record. More recently using 2 cm tiles, we have trapped 2.3T at 77K, and 5.3T at 65K. We expect to trap lOT at 55K in this magnet in the near future. We have also achieved increases in J(c) using a method we developed for seeding U-235, and subsequently bombarding with neutrons. This method doubles J(c). We have not yet fabricated magnets from these tiles. During this year we have increased production yields from 15 percent to 95 percent. We have explored the properties of a magnetic bumper-tether for spacecraft. We have measured the bumper forces, and their dependence on time, distance, and the field of the ordinary ferromagnet (used together with a TFM). We have accounted for 85 percent of the collision energy, and its transformation to magnetic energy and heat energy. We have learned to control the relative bumper and tether forces by controlling TFM and ferromagnetic field strengths.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in permanent night workers.

    PubMed

    Biggi, Nicoletta; Consonni, Dario; Galluzzo, Valeria; Sogliani, Marco; Costa, Giovanni

    2008-04-01

    Night and shift work might be risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders due to interference with diet, circadian metabolic rhythms, and lifestyle. The relationship between permanent night work and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors was explored in a retrospective longitudinal study of workers employed in a large municipal enterprise in charge of street cleaning and domestic waste collection. All subjects who had worked night shifts between 1976 and 2007 as hand sweepers, motor sweepers, and delivery tricar drivers were compared with subjects who always worked the same jobs but on day shifts. From the periodical medical surveillance files, we identified 488 male workers who had been examined on average five times (minimum 2, maximum 14) during the study period, for a total of 2,328 medical examinations; 157 always had worked day shifts, 12 always the night shift, and 319 both (initially day and subsequently night shifts). Their age ranged from 22 to 62 yrs, and work experience varied from 1 to 28 yrs. Lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol consumption), body mass index, serum glucose, total cholesterol, tryglicerides, hepatic enzymes, blood pressure, resting electrocardiogram, diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and related drugs were taken into consideration for the analysis. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) models (exchangeable correlation matrix) to analyze the relationship between night work and health effects while accounting for within-subject correlations and adjusting for study period, job, age, and lifestyle variables. As a whole, night workers smoked more and had significantly higher BMI, serum total cholesterol, and triglycerides than day workers. Both the inter-individual comparison between day and night workers and the intra-individual comparison among the workers, who were day workers at the beginning of their employment and later became night workers, showed a significant increase in BMI, total cholesterol

  1. Smoking Policy Change Within Permanent Supportive Housing.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Stewart, Holly C; Walters, Jon; Vijayaraghavan, Maya

    2017-09-07

    Smoke-free policies effectively reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smokers, and reduce consumption, encourage quit attempts, and minimize relapse to smoking among smokers. Such policies are uncommon in permanent supportive housing (PSH) for formerly homeless individuals. In this study, we collaborated with a PSH provider in San Diego, California to assess a smoke-free policy that restricted indoor smoking. Between August and November 2015, residents completed a pre-policy questionnaire on attitudes toward smoke-free policies and exposure to secondhand smoke, and then 7-9 months after policy implementation residents were re-surveyed. At follow-up, there was a 59.7% reduction in indoor smoking. The proportion of residents who identified as current smokers reduced by 13% (95% CI: -38, 10.2). The proportion of residents who reported never smelling SHS indoors (apartment 24.2%, 95% CI: 4.2, 44.1; shared areas 17.2%, 95% CI: 1.7, 32.7); in outdoor areas next to the living unit (porches or patio 56.7%, 95% CI: 40.7, 72.8); and in other outdoor areas (parking lot 28.6%, 95% CI: 8.3, 48.9) was lower post-policy compared with pre-policy. Overall, resident support increased by 18.7%; however, the greatest increase in support occurred among current smokers (from 14.8 to 37.5%). Fewer current smokers reported that the policy would enable cessation at post-policy compared to pre-policy. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing smoke-free policies in PSH for formerly homeless adults. However, policy alone appears insufficient to trigger change in smoking behavior, highlighting the need for additional cessation resources to facilitate quitting.

  2. Localized permanent epidemics: the genesis of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Verdrager, J

    1995-03-01

    Localized permanent epidemics occur when, for an indefinite period of time, there is a temporary but continuous introduction of unprotected non-immunes into the same locality of a hyperendemic area. The main epidemiological factors involved in the genesis of localized permanent epidemics were encountered in Pailin (Cambodia) the epicenter of drug resistance in Southeast Asia: a very efficient vector, Anopheles dirus, exophilic and of limited distribution with, therefore, adjacent hyperendemic and non-endemic areas; a permanent pole of attraction in the hyperendemic area: Pailin's sapphires and rubies; a temporary but continuous influx of non-immunes into the pole of attraction: continuous influx of non-immunes into the Pailin gem mining area. In the gem-mining Pailin village drug pressure was considerable: mass drug administration, a medicated salt project and permanent self-medication with very high doses, much higher doses being required to cure non-immunes with heavy infections and severe clinical attacks in epidemic situations. It appears, therefore, that the emergence of chloroquine resistance in Southeast Asia was the consequence of the localized permanent epidemics in Païlin. High level resistance was the result of continuous and intensive serial passages of P. falciparum in the non-immune subjects, large numbers of parasites being exposed to a high level of drug pressure at each passage. Similar epidemiological conditions are encountered in some parts of South America where the exophilic vector is An. nuneztovari. In Colombia, whose eastern mountains bordering Venezuela yield the most highly prized emeralds in the world, chloroquine resistance was detected at about the same time as in Southeast Asia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Primary double teeth and their effect on permanent successors.

    PubMed

    Zengin, A Z; Celenk, P; Gunduz, K; Canger, M

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the effects of primary double tooth (PDT) on permanent successors is important to ensure healthy permanent occlusion and aesthetics. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and type of PDT, their effect on permanent successors, and the accompanying dental anomalies/pathologies in a Turkish population. Study design: The records of 63 PDTs in 54 healthy Caucasian children among 10,000 patients were investigated. PDTs were classified according to Aguilo's classification. The prevalence of PDT was 0.6%. Of the 63 PDTs, 14.3% were type I, 11.1% were type II, 31.7% were type III, and 41.3% were type IV; one (1.6%) was a triple tooth. Aplasia of the permanent lateral incisor was observed most frequently in association with type I (56%) PDT. All PDTs associated with a supernumerary permanent tooth were type IV. Dental anomalies/pathologies such as odontoma, talon cusp were observed. Caries involvement was observed most frequently in type IV (58.3%) PDT. The chi-squared test was used to determine whether successor aplasia depended on PDT type, and contingency coefficients (%) were calculated to determine the degree of association between aplasia and PDT type. Clinicians should assess PDT clinically and radiographically to determine whether they are associated with aplasia of permanent lateral incisors (type I) or supernumerary permanent teeth (type IV). Type IV of PDT should be sealed with sealant or resin.

  4. Fireworks type, injury pattern, and permanent impairment following severe fireworks-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Sandvall, Brinkley K; Jacobson, Lauren; Miller, Erin A; Dodge, Ryan E; Alex Quistberg, D; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Vavilala, Monica S; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Keys, Kari A

    2017-10-01

    There is a paucity of clinical data on severe fireworks-related injuries, and the relationship between firework types, injury patterns, and magnitude of impairment is not well understood. Our objective was to describe the relationship between fireworks type, injury patterns, and impairment. Retrospective case series (2005-2015) of patients who sustained consumer fireworks-related injuries requiring hospital admission and/or an operation at a Level 1 Trauma/Burn Center. Fireworks types, injury patterns (body region, injury type), operation, and permanent impairment were examined. Data from 294 patients 1 to 61years of age (mean 24years) were examined. The majority (90%) were male. 119 (40%) patients were admitted who did not undergo surgery, 163 (55%) patients required both admission and surgery, and 12 (5%) patients underwent outpatient surgery. The greatest proportion of injuries was related to shells/mortars (39%). There were proportionally more rocket injuries in children (44%), more homemade firework injuries in teens (34%), and more shell/mortar injuries in adults (86%). Brain, face, and hand injuries were disproportionately represented in the shells/mortars group. Seventy percent of globe-injured patients experienced partial or complete permanent vision loss. Thirty-seven percent of hand-injured patients required at least one partial or whole finger/hand amputation. The greatest proportion of eye and hand injuries resulting in permanent impairment was in the shells/mortars group, followed by homemade fireworks. Two patients died. Severe fireworks-related injuries from homemade fireworks and shells/mortars have specific injury patterns. Shells/mortars disproportionately cause permanent impairment from eye and hand injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Long-Term Retrievability of IVC Filters: Should We Abandon Permanent Devices?

    SciTech Connect

    Berczi, V. Bottomley, J. R.; Thomas, S. M.; Taneja, S.; Gaines, P. A.; Cleveland, T. J.

    2007-09-15

    Thromboembolic disease produces a considerable disease burden, with death from pulmonary embolism in the UK alone estimated at 30,000-40,000 per year. Whilst it is unproven whether filters actually improve longevity, the morbidity and mortality associated with thromboembolic disease in the presence of contraindications to anticoagulation is high. Thus complications associated with filter insertion, and whilst they remain in situ, must be balanced against the alternatives. Permanent filters remain in situ for the remainder of the patient's life and any complications from the filters are of significant concern. Filters that are not permanent are therefore attractive in these circumstances. Retrievable filters, to avoid or decrease long-term filter complications, appear to be a significant advance in the prevention of pulmonary embolism. In this review, we discuss the safety and effectiveness of both permanent and retrievable filters as well as the retrievability of retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters, to explore whether the use of permanent IVC filters can be abandoned in favor of retrievable filters. Currently four types of retrievable filters are available: the Recovery filter (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ, USA), the Guenther Tulip filter (Cook, Bloomington, IN, USA), the OptEase Filter (Cordis, Roden, The Netherlands), and the ALN filter (ALN Implants Chirurgicaux, Ghisonaccia, France). Efficacy and safety data for retrievable filters are as yet based on small series, with a total number of fewer than 1,000 insertions, and follow-up is mostly short term. Current long-term data are poor and insufficient to warrant the long-term implantation of these devices into humans. The case of fractured wire from a Recovery filter that migrated to the heart causing pericardial tamponade requiring open heart surgery is a reminder that any new endovascular device remaining in situ in the long term may produce unexpected problems. We should also bear in mind that

  6. A Review of Permanent Magnet Stirring During Metal Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jie; Chen, Weiqing; Yang, Yindong; Mclean, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Rather than using conventional electromagnetic stirring (EMS) with three-phase alternating current, permanent magnet stirring (PMS), based on the use of sintered NdFeB material which has excellent magnetic characteristics, can be employed to generate a magnetic field for the stirring of liquid metal during solidification. Recent experience with steel casting indicates that PMS requires less than 20 pct of the total energy compared with EMS. Despite the excellent magnetic density properties and low power consumption, this relatively new technology has received comparatively little attention by the metal casting community. This paper reviews simulation modeling, experimental studies, and industrial trials of PMS conducted during recent years. With the development of magnetic simulation software, the magnetic field and associated flow patterns generated by PMS have been evaluated. Based on the results obtained from laboratory experiments, the effects of PMS on metal solidification structures and typical defects such as surface pinholes and center cavities are summarized. The significance of findings obtained from trials of PMS within the metals processing sector, including the continuous casting of steel, are discussed with the aim of providing an overview of the relevant parameters that are of importance for further development and industrial application of this innovative technology.

  7. Permanent grounding of a USAF pilot following photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan E; Ivan, Douglas J; Rubin, Richard M; Gooch, John M; Tredici, Thomas J; Reilly, Charles D

    2010-11-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) has been extensively studied in the literature and its potential application in aircrew has not gone unnoticed. Complication rates following corneal refractive surgery (CRS), including PRK and laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), remain low, with most patients achieving improved uncorrected visual acuity and reduced spectacle dependence. Overall, predictability, low complication rates, high rate of success, stability, and safety have all been cited as instrumental in the adoption of PRK in aviators. Consequently, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) approved PRK for aviators in August 2000. However, quality of vision outcomes following CRS remain a concern given the unique visual performance requirements in military aircrew, especially in austere operational environments. This paper will present a recent case of steroid-induced ocular hypertension that is believed to have precipitated non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) associated with reduced visual performance following PRK that resulted in the first permanent grounding of a USAF pilot following CRS. CRS has radically widened the aircrew applicant pool and has decreased spectacle dependence in war-fighters. Despite the low-risk profile of modern CRS, this case demonstrates the potential for poor outcomes from such elective surgery. Understanding these rare, but potentially devastating complications and the unique aeromedical risk factors in aircrew is paramount when considering elective vision-enhancing surgery.

  8. Fringe fields for the N channel permanent magnet array

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1996-04-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for fringe field multipoles of an N channel permanent magnet quadrupole array. It is assumed that the system of magnetic wedges starts at some transverse (x, y) plane located at z = 0, and it continues to a magnet length z = l, where it stops. The iron yoke continues to z = {+-} {infinity}, but it will be shown that only a small overhang is actually required to maintain the quadrupole and translational symmetries. Recall the 2-d solution for the magnetic potential (H = {del}{phi}): {phi}{sub 2} = A [(x-x{sub i}){sup 2} - (y-y{sub i}){sub 2}], where A = -M{sub 0}/4b, M{sub 0} is the remnant field of the wedges, and (x{sub i}, y{sub i}) are the coordinates for the center of box (i). Boxes have dimensions 2b x 2b and alternate between vacuum fill (for beams) and magnetic wedge fill. The 2-d system looks like a portion of an infinite transverse lattice with periodicity lengthy = 4b in both the x and y directions. For the magnetic potential {phi}, the periodicity length is 2b.

  9. The design of a permanent lunar research station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, James R.

    The advancement of the United States' efforts in space exploration and research requires the establishment of a permanent manned lunar research station. This paper explores the possible design of such a facility. The use of a thin hedratecture dome covering a lunar depression is used to shield three multipurpose buildings and one command and control facility. Provisions for STS shuttle landings and take-off is also explored. The multipurpose buildings are designed using steel framing and cladding. The entire facility, capable of housing a team of thirty, could be transported by one shuttle. The buildings would arrive ready for erection within the completed dome. Steel was selected due to the low cost, high strength to weight ratio, long term durability, ready availability, quality control, and in-place availability of preengineering and fabrication. With the successful installation of the first facility, standardization would lower the already attractive cost for future projects. Facilities of this type could be erected quickly and inexpensively anywhere on the lunar surface.

  10. Dysprosium-free melt-spun permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Brown, D N; Wu, Z; He, F; Miller, D J; Herchenroeder, J W

    2014-02-12

    Melt-spun NdFeB powders can be formed into a number of different types of permanent magnet for a variety of applications in electronics, automotive and clean technology industries. The melt-spinning process produces flake powder with a fine uniform array of nanoscale Nd2Fe14B grains. These powders can be net-shape formed into isotropic polymer-bonded magnets or hot formed into fully dense magnets. This paper discusses the influence of heavy rare earth elements and microstructure on the magnetic performance, thermal stability and material cost of NdFeB magnets. Evidence indicates that melt-spun nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets are less dependent on heavy rare earth elements for high-temperature performance than the alternative coarser-grained sintered NdFeB magnets. In particular, hot-pressed melt-spun magnets are an attractive low-cost solution for applications that require thermal stability up to 175-200 °C.

  11. Hybrid permanent magnet quadrupoles for the Recycler Ring at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.C.; Pruss, S.M.; Foster, G.W.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Jackson, G.R.; May, M.R.; Nicol, T.H.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Schlabach, R.; Volk, J.T.

    1997-10-01

    Hybrid Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles are used in several applications for the Fermilab Recycler Ring and associated beam transfer lines. Most of these magnets use a 0.6096 m long iron shell and provide integrated gradients up to 1.4 T-m/m with an iron pole tip radius of 41.6 mm. A 58.4 mm pole radius design is also required. Bricks of 25. 4 mm thick strontium ferrite supply the flux to the back of the pole to produce the desired gradients (0.6 to 2.75 T/m). For temperature compensation, Ni-Fe alloy strips are interspersed between ferrite bricks to subtract flux in a temperature dependent fashion. Adjustments of the permeance of each pole using iron between the pole and the flux return shell permits the matching of pole potentials. Magnetic potentials of the poles are adjusted to the desired value to achieve the prescribed strength and field uniformity based on rotating coil harmonic measurements. Procurement, fabrication, pole potential adjustment, and measured fields will be reported.

  12. 24 CFR 1006.375 - Other Federal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required to move to another dwelling unit in the same building/complex in order to carry out the project... who moves from the building/complex permanently after the submission to HUD of a housing plan that is... the building/complex permanently after execution of the agreement between the DHHL and HUD, if the...

  13. Application of permanent magnets in accelerators and electron storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, K.

    1985-04-01

    The use of permanent-magnet systems in high-energy accelerators and as sources of synchrotron radiation in electron-storage rings is discussed in a review of recent experimental investigations. Consideration is given to the generic advantages of permanent magnets over electromagnets (higher field strength per magnet size) in small-scale configurations; the magnetic properties of some charge-sheet-equivalent-permanent-magnet materials (CSEMs); and the design of pure-CSEM and CSEM-Fe-hybrid multipole magnetic lenses, dipoles, and undulator/wiggler systems for use in free-electron lasers and the production of elliptically polarized synchrotron light. Drawings and diagrams are provided.

  14. Permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback for adjustably suspending an element on a single axis. The magnetic actuator includes a pair of opposing electromagnets and provides bi-directional forces along the single axis to the suspended element. Permanent magnets in flux feedback loops from the opposing electromagnets establish a reference permanent magnet flux-bias to linearize the force characteristics of the electromagnets to extend the linear range of the actuator without the need for continuous bias currents in the electromagnets.

  15. Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four

  16. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

    1998-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters

  17. Permanent magnet system to guide superparamagnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baun, Olga; Blümler, Peter

    2017-10-01

    A new concept of using permanent magnet systems for guiding superparamagnetic nano-particles on arbitrary trajectories over a large volume is proposed. The basic idea is to use one magnet system which provides a strong, homogeneous, dipolar magnetic field to magnetize and orient the particles, and a second constantly graded, quadrupolar field, superimposed on the first, to generate a force on the oriented particles. In this configuration the motion of the particles is driven predominantly by the component of the gradient field which is parallel to the direction of the homogeneous field. As a result, particles are guided with constant force and in a single direction over the entire volume. The direction is simply adjusted by varying the angle between quadrupole and dipole. Since a single gradient is impossible due to Gauß' law, the other gradient component of the quadrupole determines the angular deviation of the force. However, the latter can be neglected if the homogeneous field is stronger than the local contribution of the quadrupole field. A possible realization of this idea is a coaxial arrangement of two Halbach cylinders. A dipole to evenly magnetize and orient the particles, and a quadrupole to generate the force. The local force was calculated analytically for this particular geometry and the directional limits were analyzed and discussed. A simple prototype was constructed to demonstrate the principle in two dimensions on several nano-particles of different size, which were moved along a rough square by manual adjustment of the force angle. The observed velocities of superparamagnetic particles in this prototype were always several orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically expected value. This discrepancy is attributed to the observed formation of long particle chains as a result of their polarization by the homogeneous field. The magnetic moment of such a chain is then the combination of that of its constituents, while its hydrodynamic radius

  18. Permanent Breast Seed Implant Dosimetry Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M.; Ravi, Ananth; Sankreacha, Raxa; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: A permanent breast seed implant is a novel method of accelerated partial breast irradiation for women with early-stage breast cancer. This article presents pre- and post-implant dosimetric data, relates these data to clinical outcomes, and makes recommendations for those interested in starting a program. Methods and Materials: A total of 95 consecutive patients were accrued into one of three clinical trials after breast-conserving surgery: a Phase I/II trial (67 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); a Phase II registry trial (25 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); or a multi-center Phase II trial for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (3 patients). Contouring of the planning target volume (PTV) was done on a Pinnacle workstation and dosimetry calculations, including dose-volume histograms, were done using a Variseed planning computer. Results: The mean pre-implant PTV coverage for the V{sub 90}, V{sub 100}, V{sub 150}, and V{sub 200} were as follows: 98.8% {+-} 1.2% (range, 94.5-100%); 97.3% {+-} 2.1% (range, 90.3-99.9%), 68.8% {+-} 14.3% (range, 32.7-91.5%); and 27.8% {+-} 8.6% (range, 15.1-62.3%). The effect of seed motion was characterized by post-implant dosimetry performed immediately after the implantation (same day) and at 2 months after the implantation. The mean V{sub 100} changed from 85.6% to 88.4% (p = 0.004) and the mean V{sub 200} changed from 36.2% to 48.3% (p < 0.001). Skin toxicity was associated with maximum skin dose (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Preplanning dosimetry should aim for a V{sub 90} of approximately 100%, a V{sub 100} between 95% and 100%, and a V{sub 200} between 20% and 30%, as these numbers are associated with no local recurrences to date and good patient tolerance. In general, the target volume coverage improved over the duration of the seed therapy. The maximum skin dose, defined as the average dose over the hottest 1 Multiplication-Sign 1-cm{sup 2} surface area, should be limited to 90% of the

  19. New findings on object permanence: A developmental difference between two types of occlusion.

    PubMed

    Moore, M Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    1999-11-01

    Manual search for totally occluded objects was investigated in 10-, 12- and 14-month-old infants. Infants responded to two types of total hiding in different ways, supporting the inference that object permanence is not a once-and-for-all attainment. Occlusion of an object by movement of a screen over it was solved at an earlier age than occlusion in which an object was carried under the screen. This dissociation was not explained by motivation, motor skill or means-ends coordination, because for both tasks the same object was hidden in the same place under the same screen and required the same uncovering response. This dissociation generalized across an experimentally manipulated change in recovery means-infants removed cloths while seated at a table in Expt 1 and were required to crawl through 3-D space to displace semi-rigid pillows in Expt 2. Further analysis revealed that emotional response varied as a function of hiding, suggesting an affective correlate of infant cognition. There are four empirical findings to account for: developmental change, task dissociation, generalization of the effects across recovery means, and emotional reactions. An identity-development theory is proposed explaining these findings in terms of infants' understanding of object identity and the developmental relationship between object identity and object permanence. Object identity is seen as a necessary precursor to the development of object permanence.

  20. 77 FR 73614 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Permanent, Privately...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...; Permanent, Privately Owned Horse Quarantine Facilities AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... with regulations for permanent, privately owned horse quarantine facilities. DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for permanent, privately owned horse quarantine facilities, contact...

  1. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    de Blois, S T; Novak, M A; Bond, M

    1998-06-01

    The authors tested orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) on object permanence tasks. In Experiment 1, orangutans solved all visible displacements and most invisible displacements except those involving movements into 2 boxes successively. In Experiment 2, performance of orangutans on double invisible displacements and control displacements (assessing simple strategies) was compared. Orangutans did not use the simple strategy of selecting the box visited last by the experimenter. Instead, poorer performance on double invisible displacements may have been related to increased memory requirements. In Experiment 3, squirrel monkeys were tested using the procedure of Experiment 1. Squirrel monkeys solved visible but did not comprehend invisible displacements. Results suggest that orangutans but not squirrel monkeys possess Stage 6 object permanence capabilities.

  2. 23 to 300{degrees}C demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Niedra, J.M.; Overton, E.

    1991-10-01

    The influence of temperature on the knee point and squareness of the M-H demagnetization characteristic of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. Composite plots of the knee field and the demagnetizing field required to produce a given magnetic induction swing below remanence were obtained for several commercial Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}-type magnet samples in the temperature range of 23 to 300{degrees}C. The knee point was used to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization, and the resulting plots are interpreted to show the temperature-induction swing limits of safe magnet operation. The observed second quadrant M-H characteristic squareness is shown, by two measures, to increase gradually with temperature and to peak in the interval 200 to 300{degrees}C.

  3. The 23 to 300 C demagnetization resistance of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Overton, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The influence of temperature on knee point and squareness of the M-H demagnetization characteristic of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperature in demagnetization resistent permanent magnet devices. Composite plots of the knee field and the demagnetizing field required to produce a given magnetic induction swing below remanence were obtained for several commercial Sm2Co17 type magnet samples in the temperature range of 23 to 300 C. Using the knee point to define the limits of operation safe against irreversible demagnetization, such plots are shown to provide an effective overview of the useable regions in the space of temperature-induction swing parameters. The observed second quadrant M-H characteristic squareness is shown, by two measures, to increase gradually with temperature, reaching a peak in the interval 200 to 300 C.

  4. Electric dipole transition moments and permanent dipole moments for spin-orbit configuration interaction wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roostaei, B.; Ermler, W. C.

    2012-03-01

    A procedure for calculating electric dipole transition moments and permanent dipole moments from spin-orbit configuration interaction (SOCI) wave functions has been developed in the context of the COLUMBUS ab initio electronic structure programs. The SOCI procedure requires relativistic effective core potentials and their corresponding spin-orbit coupling operators to define the molecular Hamiltonian, electric dipole transition moment and permanent dipole moment matrices. The procedure can be used for any molecular system for which the COLUMBUS SOCI circuits are applicable. Example applications are reported for transition moments and dipole moments for a series of electronic states of LiBe and LiSr defined in diatomic relativistic ωω-coupling.

  5. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly (22) for assembly in large permanent magnet (PM) motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier (23, 24) that can be slid into a slot (13) in the rotor (10) and then secured in place using a set screw (37). The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device (50) with guide rails (51) that line up with the teeth (12) of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly (22) can be pushed first into a slot (13), and then down the slot (13) to its proper location. An auxiliary tool (50) is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly (22) into position in the slot (13) before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies (22) in the rotor (10) are also disclosed.

  7. 8 CFR 289.2 - Lawful admission for permanent residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.2 Lawful admission for permanent residence. Any American Indian born.... A person who does not possess 50 per centum of the blood of the American Indian race, but...

  8. 8 CFR 289.2 - Lawful admission for permanent residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.2 Lawful admission for permanent residence. Any American Indian born in Canada who at the time of entry was entitled to the exemption provided for such person by the...

  9. FACTORS CONTROLLING THE HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE OF HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams are vital linkages between upland land use/cover and downstream water bodies. They are prone to natural drying, which confounds our ability to use traditional assessment tools. Recognizing the hydrologic permanence (duration and frequency of flowing conditions...

  10. 8 CFR 289.2 - Lawful admission for permanent residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.2 Lawful admission for permanent residence. Any American Indian born.... A person who does not possess 50 per centum of the blood of the American Indian race, but who...

  11. 8 CFR 289.2 - Lawful admission for permanent residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.2 Lawful admission for permanent residence. Any American Indian born.... A person who does not possess 50 per centum of the blood of the American Indian race, but who...

  12. 8 CFR 289.2 - Lawful admission for permanent residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.2 Lawful admission for permanent residence. Any American Indian born.... A person who does not possess 50 per centum of the blood of the American Indian race, but who...

  13. Adjustable permanent magnet assembly for NMR and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, Alexander; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Bouchard, Louis S; Blumich, Bernhard

    2013-10-29

    System and methods for designing and using single-sided magnet assemblies for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are disclosed. The single-sided magnet assemblies can include an array of permanent magnets disposed at selected positions. At least one of the permanent magnets can be configured to rotate about an axis of rotation in the range of at least +/-10 degrees and can include a magnetization having a vector component perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The single-sided magnet assemblies can further include a magnet frame that is configured to hold the permanent magnets in place while allowing the at least one of the permanent magnets to rotate about the axis of rotation.

  14. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the license...

  15. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the license...

  16. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the license...

  17. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the license...

  18. 10 CFR 63.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Permanent Closure § 63.51 License amendment for... geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. The submission must consist of an update of the license...

  19. Permanency of Gains for Children's Problem Solving Processes and Subabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundsteen, Sara W.; Wilson, John A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the permanency of gains in problem solving, listening, and abstract thinking among fifth graders are reported. Findings indicate that the experimental group with listening training shows greatest gains. (MH)

  20. Permanent components of the crust, geoid and ocean depth tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenke; Sjöberg, Lars E.

    2001-04-01

    The tidal deformation caused by the luni-solar potential includes not only a periodic part, but also a time-independent part, called the permanent tide. How to deal with the tidal correction in gravimetric observations, especially the treatment of the permanent tide, has been discussed for a long time, since some practical and physical problems exist anyhow. A resolution adopted by IAG (1983) was that the permanent tidal attraction of the Moon and the Sun should be eliminated, but the permanent tidal deformation of the Earth be maintained. This is called zero gravity, and the geoid associated with it is the zero geoid. As to the crust deformation, Poutanen et al. (Poutanen, M., Vermeer, M., Mäkinen, J., 1996. The permanent tide in GPS positioning. Journal of Geodesy 70, 499-504.) suggested that co-ordinates should be reduced to the zero crust, i.e. the crust that includes the effect of the permanent tide. This research shows that horizontal components of the permanent earth tides, which are not considered in recent studies, are also important in GPS positioning and geoid determination. Since the tide-generating potential can be expanded into harmonics and divided into two parts (geodetic coefficients and the group of harmonic waves), the permanent earth tides can be easily obtained by multiplying the amplitude of the zero-frequency wavelength by the corresponding geoid geodetic coefficient. Formulas for both elastic and fluid cases are presented. Numerical results for the elastic case show that he vertical permanent crust (zero crust), geoid and ocean depth tides reach -12.0, -5.8 and 6.1 cm at the poles, and 5.9, 2.9 and -3.0 cm at the equator, respectively. The horizontal permanent crust, geoid and ocean depth tide components reach as much as 2.5, 8.7 and 6.3 cm, respectively. According to the solution of IAG (1983), the permanent vertical components are kept in GPS positioning and geoid computation. Thus, it is natural to include the horizontal components

  1. Heavy ion induced permanent damage in MNOS gate insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickel, J. C.; Blandford, J. T., Jr.; Waskiewicz, A. E.; Strahan, V. H., Jr.

    1985-12-01

    Heavy-ion-induced permanent damage in MNOS gate insulators has been investigated using a Cf252 fission source. The electric field and ion LET thresholds for onset of the damage has been characterized. The results are consistent with a thermal runaway mechanism in the silicon nitride layer initiated by a single heavy ion and leading to a permanent high conductivity path through the dielectric layers.

  2. Advanced optimization of permanent magnet wigglers using a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    1995-12-31

    In permanent magnet wigglers, magnetic imperfection of each magnet piece causes field error. This field error can be reduced or compensated by sorting magnet pieces in proper order. We showed a genetic algorithm has good property for this sorting scheme. In this paper, this optimization scheme is applied to the case of permanent magnets which have errors in the direction of field. The result shows the genetic algorithm is superior to other algorithms.

  3. Permanent pacemaker for syncope after heart transplantation with bicaval technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyong Joo; Jung, Yun Sook; Lee, Chan Joo; Wi, Jin; Shin, Sanghoon; Kim, Taehoon; Lee, Sang Hak; Kang, Seok-Min; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Park, Han Ki

    2009-08-31

    Sinus node dysfunction occurs occasionally after heart transplantation and may be caused by surgical trauma, ischemia to the sinus node, rejection, drug therapy, and increasing donor age. However, the timing and indication of permanent pacemaker insertion due to sinus node dysfunction following heart transplantation is contentious. Here, we report a case of a permanent pacemaker insertion for syncope due to sinus arrest after heart transplantation, even with a bicaval technique, which has been known to associate with few incidences of sinus node dysfunction.

  4. Lunar magnetic field - Permanent and induced dipole moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetic field observations have been used to measure both the permanent and the induced lunar dipole moments. Although only an upper limit of 1.3 x 10 to the 18th gauss-cubic centimeters has been determined for the permanent dipole moment in the orbital plane, there is a significant induced dipole moment which opposes the applied field, indicating the existence of a weak lunar ionosphere.

  5. Permanent maxillary central incisor impaction: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Sushant S; Kumar, G S; Raghunath, Vandana; Rekha, K P

    2003-01-01

    Impaction of the permanent maxillary central incisor is rare. Trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth is the most common cause. Two case reports of impacted permanent maxillary central incisors with a history of trauma to the primary maxillary anterior teeth are presented. In one case there was radiographic evidence of complete arrest of root formation, and in the other case the root was dilacerated from the cervical third and the enamel surface was rough.

  6. Pond permanence and the effects of exotic vertebrates on anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In many permanent ponds throughout western North America, the introduction of a variety of exotic fish and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) correlates with declines in native amphibians. Direct effects of exotics are suspected to be responsible for the rarity of some native amphibians and are one hypothesis to explain the prevalence of amphibian declines in western North America. However, the prediction that the permanent ponds occupied by exotics would be suitable for native amphibians if exotics were absent has not been tested. I used a series of enclosure experiments to test whether survival of northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora aurora) and Pacific treefrog (Hyla regilla) larvae is equal in permanent and temporary ponds in the Puget Lowlands, Washington State, USA. I also examined the direct effects of bullfrog larvae and sunfish. Survival of both species of native anuran larvae was generally lower in permanent ponds. Only one permanent pond out of six was an exception to this pattern and exhibited increased larval survival rates in the absence of direct effects by exotics. The presence of fish in enclosures reduced survival to near zero for both native species. An effect of bullfrog larvae on Pacific treefrog larval survival was not detected, but effects on red-legged frog larvae were mixed. A hypothesis that food limitation is responsible for the low survival of native larvae in some permanent ponds was not supported. My results confirm that direct negative effects of exotic vertebrates on native anurans occur but suggest that they may not be important to broad distribution patterns. Instead, habitat gradients or indirect effects of exotics appear to play major roles. I found support for the role of permanence as a structuring agent for pond communities in the Puget Lowlands, but neither permanence nor exotic vertebrates fully explained the observed variability in larval anuran survival.

  7. Odontoma-like malformation in a permanent maxillary central incisor subsequent to trauma to the incisor predecessor.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel A B; Faria, Gisele; Freitas, Aldevina Campos

    2005-10-01

    This report describes a case of a patient (1 year and 8 months old) with traumatic avulsion of the maxillary right primary central incisor and morphological changes in the germ of the permanent successor. One year after the trauma, an odontoma-like malformation developed. This malformation was removed 6 years after trauma and orthodontic treatment was started. Clinical follow-up and periodic radiographs are necessary after traumatic avulsion of primary teeth to monitor possible sequelae in the permanent successor. An odontoma-like malformation requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  8. Thermal stress analysis in permanent mold processing determining mold life and utilizing a combined thermomechanical finite element model

    SciTech Connect

    Fackeldey, M.; Guan, J.; Helling, V.; Sahm, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Permanent mold casting offers various advantages, but its process control requires high technical skill, especially when cast iron is utilized. Thermal stresses resulting from non-uniform cooling and hindering of shrinkage frequently cause cracks, which can lead to a destruction of the permanent mold. In this paper an in-house 3-dimensional finite element model is presented, which allows an easy and comfortable analysis of the origin of thermal and residual stresses. By varying single parameters, i.e. the initial temperature as well as the mold geometry, the process may be evaluated. This leads to an optimization of the process and allows an assessment of the mold life.

  9. Network Connectivity for Permanent, Transient, Independent, and Correlated Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.; Sicher, Courtney; henry, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a method for the quantitative analysis of network connectivity in the presence of both permanent and transient faults. Even though transient noise is considered a common occurrence in networks, a survey of the literature reveals an emphasis on permanent faults. Transient faults introduce a time element into the analysis of network reliability. With permanent faults it is sufficient to consider the faults that have accumulated by the end of the operating period. With transient faults the arrival and recovery time must be included. The number and location of faults in the system is a dynamic variable. Transient faults also introduce system recovery into the analysis. The goal is the quantitative assessment of network connectivity in the presence of both permanent and transient faults. The approach is to construct a global model that includes all classes of faults: permanent, transient, independent, and correlated. A theorem is derived about this model that give distributions for (1) the number of fault occurrences, (2) the type of fault occurrence, (3) the time of the fault occurrences, and (4) the location of the fault occurrence. These results are applied to compare and contrast the connectivity of different network architectures in the presence of permanent, transient, independent, and correlated faults. The examples below use a Monte Carlo simulation, but the theorem mentioned above could be used to guide fault-injections in a laboratory.

  10. Innovative Sensors for Pipeline Crawlers: Rotating Permanent Magnet Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bruce Nestleroth; Richard J. Davis; Stephanie Flamberg

    2006-09-30

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they may encounter. To facilitate inspection of these ''unpiggable'' pipelines, recent inspection development efforts have focused on a new generation of powered inspection platforms that are able to crawl slowly inside a pipeline and can maneuver past the physical barriers that limit internal inspection applicability, such as bore restrictions, low product flow rate, and low pressure. The first step in this research was to review existing inspection technologies for applicability and compatibility with crawler systems. Most existing inspection technologies, including magnetic flux leakage and ultrasonic methods, had significant implementation limitations including mass, physical size, inspection energy coupling requirements and technology maturity. The remote field technique was the most promising but power consumption was high and anomaly signals were low requiring sensitive detectors and electronics. After reviewing each inspection technology, it was decided to investigate the potential for a new inspection method. The new inspection method takes advantage of advances in permanent magnet strength, along with their wide availability and low cost. Called rotating permanent magnet inspection (RPMI), this patent pending technology employs pairs of permanent magnets rotating around the central axis of a cylinder to induce high current densities in the material under inspection. Anomalies and wall thickness variations are detected with an array of sensors that measure local changes in the magnetic field produced by the induced current flowing in the material. This inspection method is an alternative to the common concentric coil remote field technique that induces low-frequency eddy

  11. Magnetism of nanostructured permanent-magnet materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian

    Sm2Co17-type high-temperature permanent magnets with composition Sm(Co, Fe, Cu, Ti)z are investigated. The effects of Ti (or Zr), Cu, Fe and z value, as well as the effect of heat treatment on the magnetic properties are reported. Ti is found a necessity to form the cellular microstructure with grain size less than 100 nm. The Cu-rich Sm(Co, Cu)5 phase forms the grain-boundary which pins the magnetic domain-wall motion. Low Cu content makes the high-temperature coercivity vary in an abnormal way. A record-high high-temperature coercivity of 12.3 kOe at 500°C has been obtained. Granular SmCoz (z = 3--7.5) and Sm-Co-Cu-Ti thin films were produced by thermal processing of sputtered Sm-Co single layers and SmCo 5/(CuTi) multilayers. Inplane anisotropy was found in SmCoz for the composition range of z < 5.5, whereas for z > 5.5 the films exhibits three-dimensional random anisotropy. Sm-Co-Cu-Ti films were sputtered onto Si substrates with a Cr underlayer and coverlayer. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the hexagonal 1:5 phase forms after annealing. Electron micrographs of the processed films show that grains with diameters of 5 to 10 nm are embedded in a matrix. Both the grains and the matrix phase exhibit the CaCu5 Structure. The hysteresis loops show that these films have large coercivities of up to 50.4 kOe. FePt single layer and FePt/Fe multilayer thin films are prepared by magnetron sputtering. The single-phase behavior of the hysteresis loops of FePt/Fe multilayers indicates the existence of exchange coupling in these materials. An energy product of 19 MGOe has been obtained. Nanocrystalline Sm12(Co, Cu, Ti)88 powders are produced by mechanical alloying and are investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis and magnetization measurements. Different heat treatments are performed to investigate the influence on the magnetic properties and crystal structures. The intrinsic coercivity of the powders increases with an increasing amount of Cu. Short annealing time

  12. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  13. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  14. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  15. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  16. 47 CFR 15.203 - Antenna requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna requirement. 15.203 Section 15.203... Antenna requirement. An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. The use of a permanently attached...

  17. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus - a case report of a rare cause of diabetes mellitus in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyangabyaki-Twesigye, Catherine; Muhame, Michael Rugambwa; Bahendeka, Silver

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterised by chronically high glucose levels. Genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology following mutations in a single gene. An extremely rare form of diabetes mellitus is monogenic diabetes, a subset of which is permanent neonatal diabetes, and is usually suspected if a child is diagnosed with diabetes at less than 6 months of age. We present the first case reported from East Africa of a child diagnosed with permanent neonatal diabetes resulting from a mutation in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit. Despite the rarity of permanent neonatal diabetes, this diagnosis should be considered in infants with persistent hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy. Children with an ATP-sensitive potassium channel defect in the pancreatic beta cell have an overall good prognosis when treated with oral sulphonylurea therapy.

  18. PERMANENT MIGRANTS TO CITIES IN CHINA: HUKOU ORIGIN AND EARNINGS AMONG MEN IN AN ERA OF ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaozhou; Oropesa, R.S.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    The massive volume of internal migration in China since the late 1970s has attracted considerable research attention. However, the integration of permanent migrants in cities during a time of economic transformation is understudied. Using information on earnings from the 2003 General Social Survey of China, this research examines whether permanent migrants are economically advantaged or disadvantaged in comparison to non-migrants in cities. We find that permanent migrants in cities tend to be economically advantaged and that their advantage depends more on human capital than on political capital. Nevertheless, this does not mean that political capital can be ignored. A nuanced view requires attention to how political and human capital jointly affect earnings in specific economic sectors. PMID:25133084

  19. Prediction of permanent deformation in cast clasps for denture prostheses using a validated nonlinear finite element model.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmad Abdel Aziz; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2007-03-01

    Permanent deformation is one of the most common mechanical complications that affect denture clasps. This can lead to loss of retention and stability of the prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to apply and validate a nonlinear finite element model for permanent deformation prediction in cast denture clasps. Such a model can enhance the process of design optimization and contribute to minimizing the possibility of this problem. Cast clasps made from Ti-6Al-7Nb, Co-Cr and Type IV gold alloys were loaded in three different directions (outside, inside and outside inclined 30 degrees ), and the resulting permanent deformation values were recorded. Nonlinear finite element analysis simulations based on the maximum distortion energy criterion for yielding, were conducted for clasp models that were reproduced according to the dimensions of each experimental specimen. Linear regression analysis for the results of the experiment and simulation was performed to verify the validity of the mathematical models. Deflections required to produce specific amounts of permanent deformation were in close agreement with those recorded experimentally. The R2 value for all bending tests was 0.985 and the linear regression equation expressed in micrometers was [DeflectionFEA=0.976 (DeflectionReal)+34]. Permanent deformation behavior in the cast clasps with a relatively wide range of deflections (0-2 mm) can be predicted using the proposed model, which shall enhance the design optimization process of cast clasps for denture prostheses.

  20. Comparison of shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, S; Bahman, S; Arghavan, A B; Fatemeh, M

    2008-06-01

    Amalgam's non-adhesive characteristics necessitate cavity preparations incorporating retentive features, which often require the removal of non-carious tooth structure. Use of adhesives beneath amalgam restorations, would be helpful to overcome this disadvantage. This study was undertaken to compare the mean shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin, to evaluate the efficacy of amalgam adhesives in pediatric dentistry.27 primary and 28 permanent posterior teeth with intact buccal or lingual surfaces were grounded to expose dentin and wet-polished with 400-grit silicone carbide paper. Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus adhesive system was applied to the dentin surfaces and light cured. Amalgam was condensed onto the treated dentin through a plastic mold.shear bond strength testing was done using an Instron Universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min.The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test The difference among the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05) Bonded amalgam showed the same level of bond strength to primary and permanent dentin; so, application of amalgam bonding agents in pediatric dentistry can be recommended.

  1. Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.

  2. Design and development of permanent magnet based focusing lens for J-Band Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kumud; Itteera, Janvin; Ukarde, Priti; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K.; Bandyopadhay, Ayan; Meena, Rakesh; Rawat, Vikram; Joshi, L.M

    2014-07-01

    Applying permanent magnet technology to beam focusing in klystrons can reduce their power consumption and increase their reliability of operation. Electromagnetic design of the beam focusing elements, for high frequency travelling wave tubes, is very critical. The magnitude and profile of the magnetic field need to match the optics requirement from beam dynamics studies. The rise of the field from cathode gun region to the uniform field region (RF section) is important as the desired transition from zero to peak axial field must occur over a short axial distance. Confined flow regime is an optimum choice to minimize beam scalloping but demands an axial magnetic field greater than 2 - 3 times the Brillouin flow field. This necessitates optimization in the magnet design achieve high magnetic field within given spatial constraints. Electromagnetic design and simulations were done using 3D Finite element method (FEM) analysis software. A permanent magnet based focusing lens for a miniature J-Band klystron has been designed and developed at Control Instrumentation Division, BARC. This paper presents the design, simulation studies, beam transmission and RF tests results for J Band klystron with permanent magnet focusing lens. (author)

  3. A latest developed all permanent magnet ECRIS for atomic physics research at IMP

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.T.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Wang, H.; Ma, B.H.; Li, J.Y.; Zhang, X.Z.; Feng, Y.C.; Guo, X.H.; Li, X.X.; Ma, X.W.; Song, M.T.; Zhan, W.L.

    2006-03-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources have been used for atomic physics research for a long time. With the development of atomic physics research in the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), additional high performance experimental facilities are required. A 300 kV high voltage (HV) platform has been under construction since 2003, and an all permanent magnet ECR ion source is supposed to be put on the platform. Lanzhou all permanent magnet ECR ion source No. 2 (LAPECR2) is a latest developed all permanent magnet ECRIS. It is a 900 kg weight and null-set 650 mmx562 mm outer dimension (magnetic body) ion source. The injection magnetic field of the source is 1.28 T and the extraction magnetic field is 1.07 T. This source is designed to be running at 14.5 GHz. The high magnetic field inside the plasma chamber enables the source to give good performances at 14.5 GHz. LAPECR2 source is now under commissioning in IMP. In this article, the typical parameters of the source LAPECR2 are listed, and the typical results of the preliminary commissioning are presented.

  4. Clinical recommendations for management of mesiodens and unerupted permanent maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Ayers, E; Kennedy, D; Wiebe, C

    2014-12-01

    Un-erupted maxillary incisors may result secondary to supernumerary teeth. Despite the removal of such mesiodentes, orthodontic traction of a permanent un-erupted maxillary incisor may be required. The literature regarding the impacted maxillary central incisor(s) was reviewed and all pertinent publications on the subject assessed. The review specifically relative to mesiodentes, surgical exposure and orthodontic management was interpreted together with the clinical experience of a number of the authors' cases. From this analysis a set of recommendations was developed. (1) A sufficient arch space has to be ensured or orthodontically created for permanent maxillary central incisor(s). (2) Early surgical extraction of a mesiodens or mesiodentes (ideally before 7 years of age), with simultaneous closed surgical exposure of the permanent impacted maxillary incisor with bonding of an attachment with gold chain. (3) Re-evaluation after 2-3 months to assess for any natural eruption of the maxillary central incisor. (4) Application of orthodontic traction in the event of non-eruption. Early diagnosis of the presence of mesiodentes is imperative. Appropriate surgical and/or orthodontic traction is often indicated with regular post-surgical follow-up assessments.

  5. 19 CFR 134.11 - Country of origin marking required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... marking required. Unless excepted by law, section 304, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1304... marked in a conspicuous place as legibly, indelibly, and permanently as the nature of the article...

  6. Predicting Permanent and Transient Protein-Protein Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    La, David; Kong, Misun; Hoffman, William; Choi, Youn Im; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are involved in many diverse functions in a cell. To optimize functional roles of interactions, proteins interact with a spectrum of binding affinities. Interactions are conventionally classified into permanent and transient, where the former denotes tight binding between proteins that result in strong complexes, while the latter compose of relatively weak interactions that can dissociate after binding to regulate functional activity at specific time point. Knowing the type of interactions has significant implications for understanding the nature and function of protein-protein interactions. In this study, we constructed amino acid substitution models that capture mutation patterns at permanent and transient type of protein interfaces, which were found to be different with statistical significance. Using the substitution models, we developed a novel computational method that predicts permanent and transient protein binding interfaces in protein surfaces. Without knowledge of the interacting partner, the method employs a single query protein structure and a multiple sequence alignment of the sequence family. Using a large dataset of permanent and transient proteins, we show that our method performs very well in protein interface classification. A very high Area Under the Curve (AUC) value of 0.957 was observed when predicted protein binding sites were classified. Remarkably, near prefect accuracy was achieved with an AUC of 0.991 when actual binding sites were classified. The developed method will be also useful for protein design of permanent and transient protein binding interfaces. PMID:23239312

  7. Biodentine Pulpotomy in Mature Permanent Molar: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Irreversible pulpitis is the most common reason for endodontic treatment in primary and permanent teeth. Root canal therapy and extraction are the two viable and most documented treatment options for the same. Studies with regards to management of mature permanent teeth with carious exposure and treatment with vital pulp therapies such as adult permanent tooth pulpotomy are scarce. However, permanent tooth pulpotomy with the new calcium-silicate based cements (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Biodentine) can help preserve the tooth pulp vitality and promote healing and repair foregoing the more invasive root canal therapy procedure. A 12-year old male patient with irreversible pulpitis in right mandibular first permanent molar was treated with complete coronal pulpotomy with placement of Biodentine in the pulp chamber and a full coronal coverage using stainless steel crown. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at three, six, twelve and eighteen months. At the end of 18 months, the patient was completely asymptomatic and the tooth was free of any clinical and radiographic signs of inflammation and infection. PMID:27630966

  8. 20 CFR 404.770 - Evidence of where the insured person had a permanent home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... permanent home. 404.770 Section 404.770 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... the insured person had a permanent home. (a) When evidence of the insured's permanent home is needed. We may ask for evidence of where the insured person's permanent home was at the time you applied or...

  9. Two cylinder permanent magnet stirrer for liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevičs, A.; Baranovskis, R.; Kaldre, I.; Milgrāvis, M.; Beinerts, T.

    2017-07-01

    To achieve a uniform liquid metal composition and temperature distribution, stirring is often necessary for industrial processes. Here, a novel permanent magnet system for liquid melt stirring is proposed. It promises very low energy consumption and options for multiple different flow types compared to traditional travelling magnetic field inductors or mechanical stirrers. The proposed system has a simple design: it consists of two rotating permanent magnet cylinders, which are magnetized transversely to the axis of the cylinders. The experimental device was developed and tested under various regimes using GaInSn alloy in a cylindrical crucible. Aluminum stirring by permanent magnets in laboratory scale is tested, and stirring impact on directional solidification of metallic alloys is experimentally investigated.

  10. Design Study Of Cyclotron Magnet With Permanent Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Wook; Chai, Jong Seo

    2011-06-01

    Low energy cyclotrons for Positron emission tomography (PET) have been wanted for the production of radio-isotopes after 2002. In the low energy cyclotron magnet design, increase of magnetic field between the poles is needed to make a smaller size of magnet and decrease power consumption. The Permanent magnet can support this work without additional electric power consumption in the cyclotron. In this paper the study of cyclotron magnet design using permanent magnet is shown and also the comparison between normal magnet and the magnet which is designed with permanent magnet is shown. Maximum energy of proton is 8 MeV and RF frequency is 79.3 MHz. 3D CAD design was done by CATIA P3 V5 R18 and the All field calculations had been performed by OPERA-3D TOSCA. The self-made beam dynamics program OPTICY is used for making isochronous field and other calculations.

  11. A neural substrate for object permanence in monkey inferotemporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Puneeth, N. C.; Arun, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We take it for granted that objects continue to exist after being occluded. This knowledge – known as object permanence – is present even in childhood, but its neural basis is not fully understood. Here, we show that monkey inferior temporal (IT) neurons carry potential signals of object permanence even in animals that received no explicit behavioral training. We compared two conditions with identical visual stimulation: the same object emerged from behind an occluder as expected following its occlusion, or unexpectedly after occlusion of a different object. Some neurons produced a larger (surprise) signal when the object emerged unexpectedly, whereas other neurons produced a larger (match) signal when the object reappeared as expected. Neurons carrying match signals also reinstated selective delay period activity just before the object emerged. Thus, signals related to object permanence are present in IT neurons and may arise through an interplay of memory and match computations. PMID:27484111

  12. Globally Optimal Segmentation of Permanent-Magnet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, A. R.; Bjørk, R.; Smith, A.; Bahl, C. R. H.

    2016-06-01

    Permanent-magnet systems are widely used for generation of magnetic fields with specific properties. The reciprocity theorem, an energy-equivalence principle in magnetostatics, can be employed to calculate the optimal remanent flux density of the permanent-magnet system, given any objective functional that is linear in the magnetic field. This approach, however, yields a continuously varying remanent flux density, while in practical applications, magnetic assemblies are realized by combining uniformly magnetized segments. The problem of determining the optimal shape of each of these segments remains unsolved. We show that the problem of optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional permanent-magnet assembly with respect to a linear objective functional can be reduced to the problem of piecewise linear approximation of a plane curve by perimeter maximization. Once the problem has been cast into this form, the globally optimal solution can be easily computed employing dynamic programming.

  13. First permanent molar root development arrest associated with compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Sachin A; Patil, Anil; Varekar, Aniruddha

    2013-07-04

    Trauma or infection to the primary tooth may have deleterious effects on the underlying developing tooth buds. Anatomically the root apices of primary teeth are in close proximity to the developing permanent tooth buds; hence spread of infection originating from pulp necrosis of primary tooth may not only affect the underlying tooth bud but may also affect the adjacent tooth buds. The extent of malformation depends on the developmental stage of tooth or the age of patient. Presented here is a rare case of complete arrest of maxillary first permanent molar root growth due to spread of periapical infection originating from second primary molar leading to failure of its eruption and finally extraction. Histopathlogical analysis revealed compound odontoma associated with maxillary first permanent molar.

  14. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  15. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  16. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Dennis, Kevin W.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  17. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vidya; Sivadas, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% This report presents the case of a 10-year-old patient with a nonvital young permanent tooth which was managed by pulp revascularization. Following disinfection of the canal by irrigation with NaOCl and use of a triantibiotic paste, a scaffold was created by inducing the formation of a blood clot within the canal. At the subsequent follow-up visits, the patient was asymptomatic, with normal response to percussion, normal periodontal probing depths, and no abnormal mobility. The radiographs showed evidence of continued apical root development with increase in root length, signs of apical closure and increase in thickness of dentinal walls. Thus, this case adds to the growing evidence supporting the revascularization approach as an option for management of nonvital young permanent teeth. How to cite this article: Chandran V, Chacko V, Sivadas G. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):213-216. PMID:25709305

  18. A novel self-shielding permanent-magnet rotor assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenziani, E., II; Leupold, H. A.; Basarab, D. J.

    1988-11-01

    The use of permanent magnets in brushless motors and generators is highly desirable in that they have great potential for reducing weight and increasing efficiency. A self-shielding cylindrical permanent-magnet assembly has been designed and was found to produce high fields at the outer magnet surface and very little flux leakage into the interior rotor space. Construction of this assembly is simplified because it is composed of magnets of simple triangular cross sections, which have only four distinct orientations. The self-shielding nature of the design obviates any need for ferromagnetic material for flux shaping or shielding, thus simplifying greatly the mathematical analysis of the design and reducing its weight and bulk. Finite element methods are used to analyze a hypothetical permanent-magnet rotor assembly with regard to various design parameters.

  19. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2013-03-05

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  20. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-07

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).